Sample records for zinc sulfate znso4

  1. Raman diagnostic of the reactivity between ZnSO4 and CaCO3 particles in humid air relevant to heterogeneous zinc chemistry in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgayrac, Guillaume; Sobanska, Sophie; Brémard, Claude

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory experiments using Raman imaging demonstrated the behaviour of ZnSO4·7H2O (goslarite) microparticles in contact with a {101bar4} CaCO3 (calcite) surface under three different experimental conditions representative of remote atmosphere. Contact between the ZnSO4·7H2O particles and the CaCO3 surface in humid air (RH ?40-80%) did not induce any deliquescence and chemical phenomena. In contrast, condensation of a water drop at the ZnSO4·7H2O-CaCO3 interface caused free dissolution of the ZnSO4·7H2O particle and rapid precipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 onto the CaCO3 surface. This coating inhibited the surface reaction and subsequent drying resulted in the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, then ZnSO4·H2O (gunningite) and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) superimposed onto the Zn4SO4(OH)6 layer. The deposition of ZnSO4·7H2O particles in a water drop, previously in contact with a CaCO3 particle for a long time, resulted in the coprecipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite). Subsequent drying caused the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·H2O and CaSO4·2H2O as small particles. These results indicated the possible fates of ZnSO4 particles in a humid atmosphere, when externally mixed with CaCO3 mineral dust after atmospheric events such as aggregation, water condensation and evaporation. This study indicated the fundamental role of water that typically existed on the surface of aerosol particles in the troposphere. These heterogeneous chemical processes have substantial consequences on particle size and solubility, and thus on bioavailability and toxicity of metal-rich particles.

  2. Experimental determination and model simulation of the solid-liquid equilibria in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoya; Yin, Xia; Chen, Zifang; Yu, Xiuli; Zeng, Dewen; Tan, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    The solubility data and pH of the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system were elaborately measured at T = 291.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 323.15 K, and the solid phases were determined by XRD to be ZnSO4 · 3Zn(OH)2 · 5H2O. The Pitzer model was applied to simulate thermodynamically and predict the relationship between mass percent of ZnSO4 and pH in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system taking account of the equilibrium of ions over the temperature from 273.15 to 323.15 K. Based on the experimental data and the calculation results, a theoretical direction of avoiding base zinc sulfate forming in industrial processes was advised.

  3. Nucleation Kinetics, Growth and XRD Studies of undoped and Zinc Sulfate-doped Triglycine Sulpho-Phosphate (TGSP) Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Siva Dhas; P. Selvarajan; T. H. Freeda

    2009-01-01

    Solubility for various temperatures in the range 30–50°C and induction period measurements for various supersaturation levels were carried out for supersaturated aqueous solutions of undoped and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)-doped triglycine sulpho-phosphate (TGSP) crystals. It is observed that solubility increases with temperature and induction period decreases with supersaturation levels for all the samples of the work. When TGSP crystals are doped

  4. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, W. E.

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

  5. Protein energy-malnutrition: does the in vitro zinc sulfate supplementation improve chromosomal damage repair?

    PubMed

    Padula, Gisel; González, Horacio F; Varea, Ana; Seoane, Analía I

    2014-12-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is originated by a cellular imbalance between nutrient/energy supply and body's demand. Induction of genetic damage by PEM was reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic effect of the in vitro zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with PEM. Twenty-four samples from 12 children were analyzed. Anthropometric and biochemical diagnosis was made. For the anthropometric assessment, height-for-age index, weight-for-age index, and weight-for-height index were calculated (WHO, 2005). Micronutrient status was evaluated. A survey for assessed previous exposure to potentially genotoxic agents was applied. Results were statistically evaluated using paired sample t test and ? (2) test. Each sample was fractionated and cultured in two separate flasks to performed two treatments. One was added with 180 ?g/dl of ZnSO4 (PEMs/ZnSO4) and the other remains non-supplemented (PEMs). Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage were assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). All participants have at least one type of malnutrition and none have anemia, nor iron, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency. All PEMs/ZnSO4 samples have a significant reduction in the micronucleus (MNi) frequency compared with PEMs (t?=?6.25685; p?zinc sulfate supplementation. PMID:25262017

  6. A three-dimensional metal-organic framework with a pcu net constructed by zinc(II)/3-amino-1,2,4-triazole layer and an inorganic sulfate pillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian-Di; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Xie, Yong-Ping; Li, Qing-Lu

    2015-03-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of ZnSO4·7H2O and 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (HATRZ) led to a three-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer, Zn2(ATRZ)2SO4·3H2O (1). Compound 1 has been fully characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1 is a pcu-like network metal-organic framework which is constructed by a zinc(II)/ATRZ layer and a rarely reported inorganic sulfate pillar. Moreover, 1 shows characteristic ligand-centered fluorescence property.

  7. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: Zinc pantothenate, zinc sulfate and zinc orotate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Andermann; M. Dietz

    1982-01-01

    Summary  In this study the authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts after parenteral and oral administration to rabbits:\\u000a zinc sulfate, a soluble mineral salt; zinc pantothenate, a soluble organic salt; and zinc orotate, an insoluble organic salt.\\u000a The results obtained with the two soluble salts were not significantly different (p<0.05). Therefore they appear to be bioequivalent. The plasma concentration

  8. Long-term feeding of high zinc sulfate diets to lactating and gestating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Amos, H E; Gentry, R P; Blackmon, D M; Durrance, R M; Crowe, C T; Fielding, A S; Neathery, M W

    1989-06-01

    Thirty dairy cows, fed a control diet consisting of silage and concentrates, were given either 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm of supplemental Zn (DM basis), from zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O) for most of a lactation. Feeding 2000 ppm Zn decreased milk yield and feed intake after several weeks. Some cows were affected more severely than others. Generally, primiparous animals were more tolerant of the high Zn diet than multiparous cows. Milk Zn was materially higher for cows fed 1000 ppm added Zn than controls. With 2000 ppm Zn, milk Zn was elevated further but returned to control values when the high Zn diet was discontinued. Plasma Zn was higher in cows fed supplemental Zn with the increase from 1000 to 2000 greater than that for the first addition. Plasma Cu was lower in cows feed 2000 ppm Zn but milk Cu was not reduced. Milk fat content was not affected, but protein and SNF were reduced by the 12th wk with the 2000 ppm Zn diet. There was no apparent effect on long-term health or performance after the cows were removed from the 2000 ppm Zn diet. Except for lower calf weights with 2000 ppm Zn, reproductive performance was not measurably affected by the dietary treatments. The 1000 ppm added Zn diet had no adverse effect on the cows in any parameter measured. PMID:2760310

  9. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: zinc pantothenate, zinc sulfate and zinc orotate.

    PubMed

    Andermann, G; Dietz, M

    1982-01-01

    In this study the authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts after parenteral and oral administration to rabbits: zinc sulfate, a soluble mineral salt; zinc pantothenate, a soluble organic salt; and zinc orotate, an insoluble organic salt. The results obtained with the two soluble salts were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). Therefore they appear to be bioequivalent. The plasma concentration curve for zinc orotate shows a faster distribution (alpha) and elimination phase (beta) after parenteral administration, and a slower absorption phase (Ka) after oral administration, when compared with that of the other two salts. It was shown that the dissolution behaviour of these zinc salts in water does not correlate with the parameters found in vivo. PMID:7173277

  10. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate... (c) The additive is used in tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec. 1,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate... (c) The additive is used in tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec. 1,...

  12. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate... (c) The additive is used in tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec. 1,...

  13. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate... (c) The additive is used in tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec. 1,...

  14. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate... (c) The additive is used in tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec. 1,...

  15. Bioavailability of zinc from zinc-histidine complexes. I Comparison with zinc sulfate in healthy men1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Freudemann; Eckart K; Hubertus Wietholtz; Birgit Steiert; Erwin L; Dieter H; Wolfgang Gerok

    Zinc supplementation is beneficial in some clinical conditions. Histidine has been shown to improve zinc absorption in animals. To test its influence on zinc absorption in humans, we studied the bioavailability of zinc from zinc-histidine complexes as compared to zinc sulfate in 10 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of zinc coplexed with histidine at a ratio of 1:2 or 1:12 increased serum-zinc

  16. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

  17. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

  18. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

  19. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

  20. EFFECTS OF DEFOLIANTS (CUEDTA AND ZNSO4) AND FOLIAR UREA ON DEFOLIATION AND NITROGEN RESERVES OF ALMOND NURSERY PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-year-old field-grown ‘Nonpareil’/’Nemaguard’ and ‘Nonpareil’/‘Lovell’ almond nursery trees were used to study the effects of chemical defoliants (CuEDTA and ZnSO4) and foliar applications of urea on defoliation and nitrogen (N) reserves. Although both chemical defoliants significantly promoted e...

  1. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  2. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  3. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521); Lawson, Daniel B. (925 Putnam Dr., Lockport, IL 60441)

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  4. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Wentworth

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have

  5. Experimental study of sono-crystallisation of ZnSO4·7H2O, and interpretation by the segregation theory.

    PubMed

    Harzali, H; Baillon, F; Louisnard, O; Espitalier, F; Mgaidi, A

    2011-09-01

    Power ultrasound is known to enhance crystals nucleation, and nucleation times can be reduced by one up to three orders of magnitude for several organic or inorganic crystals. The precise physics involved in this phenomenon still remains unclear, and various mechanisms involving the action of inertial cavitation bubbles have been proposed. In this paper, two of these mechanisms, pressure and segregation effects, are examined. The first one concerns the variations of supersaturation induced by the high pressures appearing in the neighbourhood of a collapsing bubble, and the second one results from the modification of clusters distribution in the vicinity of bubble. Crystallisation experiments were performed on zinc sulphate heptahydrate ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O, which has been chosen for its pressure-independent solubility, so that pressure variations have no effect on supersaturation. As observed in past studies on other species, induction times were found lower under insonification than under silent conditions at low supersaturations, which casts some doubts on a pure pressure effect. The interfacial energy between the solid and the solution was estimated from induction times obtained in silent conditions, and, using classical nucleation theory, the steady-state distribution of the clusters was calculated. Segregation theory was then applied to calculate the over-concentrations of n-sized clusters at the end of the collapse of a 4 ?m bubble driven at 20 kHz by different acoustic pressures. The over-concentration of clusters close to the critical size near a collapsing bubble was found to reach more than one order of magnitude, which may favour the direct attachment process between such clusters, and enhance the global nucleation kinetics. PMID:21482476

  6. Effects of different sources and levels of zinc on H2O2-induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lei; Chen, Juncai; Peng, Quanhui; Zhou, Aiming; Wang, Zhisheng

    2013-10-01

    Zinc has been shown to be an inhibitor of apoptosis for many years. The present study was designed to investigate effects of three zinc chemical forms on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells via analysis of cell vitality, LDH activity, apoptosis percentage, caspase-3 activity, and Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 gene expression. Cells were divided into H2O2 and zinc sources+H2O2 groups, and there are three different zinc sources [zinc oxide nanoparticle (nano-ZnO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)] and three concentrations (normal = 25 ?M, medium = 50 ?M, and high = 100 ?M) used in this article. In the present study, we found the striking cytotoxicity of H2O2 higher than 200 ?M on cell vitality, LDH activity, and apoptosis percentage in the cells using five different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ?M) of H2O2 for 4 h. Moreover, we observed that cell vitality was increased, LDH activity and apoptotic percentage were decreased, and gene expression level of Bax and caspase-3 and -9 was markedly reduced, while gene expression level of Bcl-2 and ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased in normal concentration groups of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 compared with H2O2 group, but no significant difference was observed in caspase-8 gene expression. Furthermore, medium or, more intensely, high concentrations of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 enhanced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. Compared with nano-ZnO and ZnSO4, ZnO showed weakest protective effect on H2O2-induced apoptosis at normal concentration and was less toxic to cells at high level. Taken together, we proposed that preventive and protective effects of zinc on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis varied in IEC-6 cells with its chemical forms and concentrations, and maybe for the first time, we suggested that nano-ZnO have a protective effect on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. PMID:23912254

  7. Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous Zinc Ferrite Prepared from a Zinc-Iron(III)Sulfate Layered Double Hydroxide Precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiqing Meng; Feng Li; David G. Evans; Xue Duan

    2004-01-01

    A zinc-iron(III)-sulfate layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been prepared from zinc and iron(II) precursors. Calcination at 500°C or above affords a mixture of ZnO (zincite) and ZnFe2O4 (spinel) phases. Treatment of the calcined products with aqueous NaOH leads to dissolution of the ZnO and the formation of a pure zinc ferrite phase with high surface area and pore volume. When

  8. ZINC ENHANCES SUGAR BEET EMERGENCE AND YIELD ON A CALCAREOUS SOIL WITH MARGINAL ZINC AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc fertilization by broadcast, foliar, and seed-row application methods were evaluated as a means to enhance sugar beet (Beta vulagaris L.) production on a calcareous soil with marginal (0.5 to 1.0 ppm) Zn availability. Seed-row-applied ZnSO4 (6 lb ZnSO4/acre, 2 lb Zn/acre) resulted in the most co...

  9. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  10. Novel membrane potentiometric sulfate ion sensor based on zinc-phthalocyanine for the quick determination of trace amounts of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Poursaeri, Taherh; Rezapour, Morteza; Javanbakht, Mehran; Sharghi, Hashem

    2003-07-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based membranes of zinc-phthalocyanine (ZPC) with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) as a cation excluder, and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzyl acetate (BA) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as a SO4(2-) selective electrode. The best performance was observed with a membrane having a composition of ZPC-PVC-HTAB-BA in a ratio of 5%:32%:3%:60%, which works well over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10(-2) - 1.0 x 10(-6) M) with a Nemstian slope of -29.2 mV per decade of activity, between the pH values of 2.0 to 7.0. This sensor shows a very fast response time of 10 s, and can be used over a period of 2 months with good reproducibility. The proposed sensor displays excellent selectivity for SO4(2-) over a large number of common inorganic anions. The sensor has been successfully applied for the direct and indirect determination of sulfate and zinc in zinc sulfate tablets, respectively. It was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of sulfate ions with barium ions. PMID:12880081

  11. Zinc sulfate supplementation improves thyroid function in hypozincemic down children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Bucci; Giorgio Napolitano; Cesidio Giuliani; Serafino Lio; Anita Minnucci; Franco Di Giacomo; Giuseppe Calabrese; Giuseppe Sabatino; Giandomenico Palka; Fabrizio Monaco

    1999-01-01

    In subjects affected by trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinological deficit. Plasma zinc\\u000a levels, which are commonly detected below the normal range in Down patients, are related to some endocrinological and immunological\\u000a functions; in fact, zinc deficiency has been shown to impair immune response and growth rate. Aims of this study were to evaluate\\u000a (1) the

  12. Isopiestic determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients of ZnSO 4 (aq) at T = 298.15 K, and the standard potential of the electrochemical cell ZnHg x (two phase) | ZnSO 4 (aq) | PbSO 4 (s) | PbHg x (two phase)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Albright; Joseph A. Rard; Samuel Serna; Erin E. Summers; Michelle C. Yang

    2000-01-01

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made for ZnSO4(aq) at T= 298.15 K, both at Texas Christian University and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from molality m= 0.1004 mol · kg?1to the supersaturated m= 4.3092 mol · kg?1, and included solubility determinations. These results were combined with critically assessed e.m.f. results from m= 6.7 · 10?4to m= 3.4413 mol · kg?1to yield

  13. Chemical bath deposition growth and characterization of zinc oxide nanostructures on plain and platinum-coated glass substrates for hydrogen peroxide gas sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamasali, Y. D. J.; Alguno, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    Growth of zinc oxide on plain and Pt-coated glass substrate via chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) were studied. Aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) were used as the precursor substances in the synthesis. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) was performed to determine the energy band gap and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to examine crystallinity. Sensitivity measurements were carried out in order to examine its potential to be fabricated as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gas sensor. Experimental results in the sensitivity experiment show that in the presence of H2O2 gas, the resistance of ZnOincrease which can be used as the basis for H2O-2 detection. UV-Vis showed variation of energy band gap values but were all near the generally accepted value. XRD spectra further verify that ZnOwere indeed synthesized.

  14. Selective extraction of copper from acidic zinc sulfate leach solution using LIX 622

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Owusu

    1999-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the use of solvent extraction to remove copper from concentrated zinc sulfate leach solution. In a series of experiments using a plant leach solution containing 2 g\\/l Cu, 2 g\\/l Fe, 173 g\\/l Zn, 7.9 g\\/l H2SO4, 250 mg\\/l Cd, 15 mg\\/l Co and LIX 622 in SX-1, up to 97–98% of the

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury and Nickel in Zinc Sulfate Plant Electrolyte Using Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical and Spectrophotometric Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Bond; G. G. Wallace

    1983-01-01

    The current efficiency (cost) of electrolytic production of high purity metallic zinc from zinc sulfate plant electrolyte is critically dependent on the concentration of a number of trace elements. The matrix, containing a very large concentration excess of zinc sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid presents difficulties for determining low concentrations of other metals with many analytical methods. In this work

  16. Thermodynamics and kinetics of extracting zinc from zinc oxide ore by the ammonium sulfate roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Shen, Xiao-yi; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic analyses and kinetic studies were performed on zinc oxide ore treatment by (NH4)2SO4 roasting technology. The results show that it is theoretically feasible to realize a roasting reaction between the zinc oxide ore and (NH4)2SO4 in a temperature range of 573-723 K. The effects of reaction temperature and particle size on the extraction rate of zinc were also examined. It is found that a surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step in roasting kinetics. The calculated activation energy of this process is about 45.57 kJ/mol, and the kinetic model can be expressed as follows: 1 - (1 - ?)1/3 = 30.85 exp(-45.57/ RT)· t. An extraction ratio of zinc as high as 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions.

  17. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  18. Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)], E-mail: wallenborn.grace@epa.gov; Evansky, Paul [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Vallanat, Beena [Experimental Carcinogen Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy H.; Gottipolu, Reddy R. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. Most toxicological studies employ high levels of zinc. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation of environmentally relevant levels of zinc would cause cardiac changes in healthy rats. To address this, healthy male WKY rats (12 weeks age) were exposed via nose only inhalation to filtered air or 10, 30 or 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of aerosolized zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 5 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. Necropsies occurred 48 h after the last exposure to ensure effects were due to chronic exposure rather than the last exposure. No significant changes were observed in neutrophil or macrophage count, total lavageable cells, or enzyme activity levels (lactate dehydrogenase, n-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, indicating minimal pulmonary effect. In the heart, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity decreased, while mitochondrial ferritin levels increased and succinate dehydrogenase activity decreased, suggesting a mitochondria-specific effect. Although no cardiac pathology was seen, cardiac gene array analysis indicated small changes in genes involved in cell signaling, a pattern concordant with known zinc effects. These data indicate that inhalation of zinc at environmentally relevant levels induces cardiac effects. While changes are small in healthy rats, these may be especially relevant in individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular disease.

  19. Zinc Transformation in a Calcareous Soil as Affected by Applied Zinc Sulfate, Vermicompost, and Incubation Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kamali; A. Ronaghi; N. Karimian

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) rates and vermicompost levels on distribution of Zn forms of a calcareous soil. After incubation periods, soil samples were air dried, and a sequential extraction scheme was used to fractionate Zn into soluble and exchangeable, bound to carbonate, organically bound, bound to manganese (Mn) oxide, bound to amorphous iron

  20. Comparison of the effect of ginger and zinc sulfate on primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Alavinia, Mohammad; Asili, Javad

    2014-12-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is common among young women and results in their incapacitation; it can be accompanied by various symptoms that can disrupt their lives. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effect of ginger, zinc sulfate, and placebo on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in young women. One hundred and fifty high school students were recruited. The participants were divided into three groups. The first group received ginger capsules, the second group received zinc sulfate capsules, and the third group received placebo capsules. All participants took the medications for four days, from the day before the commencement of menstruation to the third day of their menstrual bleeding. The severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed every 24 hours by the pain visual analog scale. The severity of pain was significantly different between, before, and after the intervention in both the ginger and the zinc sulfate groups (p < .001). Compared with the placebo receiving group, participants receiving ginger and zinc sulfate reported more alleviation of pain during the intervention (p < .05). Ginger and zinc sulfate had similar positive effects on the improvement of primary dysmenorrheal pain in young women. PMID:24559600

  1. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Boric Acid on the Hormonal Status of Potato Plants in Relation to Tuberization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Puzina

    2004-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were grown in a greenhouse using zinc- and boron-deficient soil. The effects of seed-tuber treatment with 3 mM zinc sulfate and 8 mM boric acid on the content and ratio of phytohormones in the leaves and mature tubers, the indices of photosynthetic activity, the rate and NaF-sensitivity of respiration, and the tuber growth were studied.

  2. Effects of supplemental zinc concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum values in finishing beef steers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Malcolm-Callis; G. C. Duff; S. A. Gunter; E. B. Kegley; D. A. Vermeire

    Three studies were conducted to exam- ine the effects of zinc concentration or source in diets of finishing beef steers. In Exp. 1, 108 (British × Conti- nental) beef steers were supplemented with concentra- tions of added zinc (as ZnSO4) at 20, 100, or 200 mg\\/ kg of dietary DM. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted among treatments for

  3. Comparison between the efficacy of 10% zinc sulfate solution with 4% hydroquinone cream on improvement of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Tagmirriahi, Nabet; Gavidnia, Keyvan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Although 10% zinc sulfate solution has been reported to be useful for patients with melasma, controlled trials are lacking. Materials and Methods: 72 women with moderate to severe melasma were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with 10% zinc sulfate solution and group B with 4% hydroquinone cream twice-daily. The results were evaluated by photoevaluation by patients based on subjective satisfaction and a blinded dermatologist using MASI score. Assessments were obtained at baseline and at 2 and 6 months after starting treatment. Results: According to MASI score changes during treatment, there was a reduction in both groups at 2 months, however, the reduction in group B was more significant (the reduction in mean ± SD MASI was 0.7 ± 0.7 in group A vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 in group B). In addition, the patients in group B continued to decrease MASI score for the remainder of the study period at 6 months follow-up (0.3 ± 0.5) in comparison with patients in group A who did not show more reduction in MASI score. Conclusions: The study indicates that topical zinc sulfate is not as effective in treating disease as was observed in the previous open study. A comparative study with sunscreen and placebo is necessary to determine if topical zinc sulfate is truly superior to sunscreen and placebo in this respect. PMID:23326770

  4. Purification of properties of dihydroorotase, a zinc-containing metalloenzyme in Clostridium oroticum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W H; Taylor, M L; Balch, W E; Gilchrist, P S

    1976-08-01

    Dihydroorotase +4,5-L-dihydro-orotate amidohydrolase [EC 3.5.2.3]), which catalyzes the reversible cyclization of N-carbamyl-L-aspartate to L-dihydroorotate, has been purified from orotate-grown Clostridium oroticum. The enzyme is homogeneous when subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and is stable at pH 7.6 in 0.3 M NaCl containing 10 muM ZnSO4. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 110,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, using three different buffer systems, indicated the enzyme is composed of two subunits, each having a molecular weight of 55,000. Dihydroorotase is shown by atomic absorption spectroscopy to be a zinc-containing metalloenzyme with 4 g-atoms of zinc per 110,000 g of protein. The pH optima for the conversion of N-carbamyl-L-aspartate to L-dihydroorotate and for L-dihydroorotate to N-carbamyl-L-aspartate are pH 6.0 and 8.2, respectively. The Km values for N-carbamyl-L-aspartate and for L-dihydroorotate are 0.13 and 0.07 mM, respectively. Inhibitor studies indicate that zinc may be involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. PMID:8424

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Xing Wen; Yingxia Wang

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  6. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Yee Wong; Hans M. W. M Merkus; Chris M. G Thomas; Roelof Menkveld; Gerhard A Zielhuis; Régine P. M Steegers-Theunissen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate treatment on semen variables in fertile and subfertile men.Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled interventional study.Setting: Two outpatient fertility clinics and nine midwifery practices in The Netherlands.Participant(s): One hundred eight fertile and 103 subfertile men.Intervention(s): Both groups were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments for 26 weeks: folic acid and

  7. Influence of temperature on the optical properties of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahab, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Single crystal of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) was synthesized and grown by the slow evaporation technique at 315 K. The effect of temperature on the optical properties of ZTS crystal was studied in the temperature range 293-338 K. This range involves the first-order phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase (323 K). At room temperature (293 K), the optical transmittance (T) has high values in the completely visible wavelength range. The cut off wavelength equals to 278.5 nm at room temperature. By increasing temperature, the optical transmittance decreases, however the cut off shifts to higher wavelengths. These changes have different rates in the two phases (ferroelectric and paraelectric). Analysis reveals that the type of transition is the direct allowed one. The optical energy gap (Eg) has the value of 3.89 eV at room temperature. This value decreases linearly with increasing temperature by different rates in the two phases. In the region of the absorption edge, the absorption coefficient obeys Urbach's rule, and Urbach parameters were calculated. The Urbach tail energy (Ee), which equals to 1.024 eV at room temperature, increases linearly with increasing temperature. This change has different rates in the two phases. At room temperature, the steepness parameter (?) has the value of 24.697 × 10-3. It decreases linearly with increasing [1/(Temp.)2] by different rates in the two phases. For all studied parameters, the temperature dependence relations change considerably while passing through 323 K. This anomalous behavior confirms that the transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase occurs at this temperature.

  8. Influence of zinc on soluble carbohydrate and free amino acid levels in rapeseed plants regenerated in vitro in the presence of zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asma Ben Ghnaya; Annick Hourmant; Stéphane Cerantola; Nelly Kervarec; Jean Yves Cabon; Michel Branchard; Gilbert Charles

    2010-01-01

    To gain more insight into the impact of zinc on the primary metabolites in rapeseed, plants were regenerated in vitro in the\\u000a presence of zinc (0.1–1 mM), acclimatized, transferred to a greenhouse, and treated with 2 mM ZnSO4. The main metabolites, including soluble carbohydrates and free amino acids, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a spectroscopy, and further confirmed by spectrophotometry and enzymatic

  9. Effects of organic forms of zinc on growth performance, tissue zinc distribution, and immune response of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    van Heugten, E; Spears, J W; Kegley, E B; Ward, J D; Qureshi, M A

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc level and source on growth performance, tissue Zn concentrations, intracellular distribution of Zn, and immune response in weanling pigs. Ninety-six 3-wk-old crossbred weanling pigs (BW = 6.45 +/- 0.17 kg) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments (four pigs per pen, four replicates per treatment) based on weight and litter origin. Treatments consisted of the following: 1) a corn-soybean meal-whey diet (1.2% lysine) with a basal level of 80 ppm of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4 (control; contained 104 ppm total Zn); 2) control + 80 ppm added Zn from ZnSO4; 3) control + 80 ppm added Zn from Zn methionine (ZnMet); 4) control + 80 ppm added Zn from Zn lysine (ZnLys); 5) control + 40 ppm added Zn from ZnMet and 40 ppm added Zn from ZnLys (ZnML); and 6) control + 160 ppm added Zn from ZnSO4. Zinc supplementation of the control diet had no effect on ADG or ADFI. Gain efficiency was less (P < 0.05) for pigs fed 80 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4 than for control pigs and pigs fed 160 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4. Organ weights, Zn concentration, and intracellular distribution of Zn in the liver, pancreas, and spleen were not affected (P = 0.12) by Zn level or source. Skin thickness response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was not affected (P = 0.53) by dietary treatment. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed ZnLys than in pigs fed the control diet or the ZnML diet; however, when pokeweed mitogen was used, lymphocyte proliferation was greatest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the ZnMet diet than pigs fed the control, ZnLys, ZnML, or 160 ppm ZnSO4 diets. Antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not affected by dietary treatments. Supplementation of 80 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4 or ZnMet and 160 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) the antibody response to ovalbumin on d 7 compared with control pigs, but not on d 14. Phagocytic capability of peritoneal exudate cells was increased (P < 0.05) when 160 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4 was supplemented to the diet. The number of red blood cells ingested per phagocytic cell was increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the diet supplemented with a combination of ZnMet and ZnLys and the diet with 160 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4. Results suggest that the level of Zn recommended by NRC for weanling pigs was sufficient for optimal growth performance and immune responses, although macrophage function may be enhanced at greater levels of Zn. Source of Zn did not alter these measurements. PMID:12926788

  10. Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

  11. Preventive effects of zinc sulfate on taste alterations in patients under irradiation for head and neck cancers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafizade, Nadia; Hemati, Simin; Gookizade, Abbas; Berjis, Nezameddin; Hashemi, Mostafa; Vejdani, Soheil; Ghannadi, Alireza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Arbab, Nafise

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taste abnormalities are common among cancer patients after starting radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Considering the role of zinc and reports on its beneficial effects in taste perception, we evaluated the preventive effects of zinc sulfate on radiation-induced taste alterations. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with head and neck cancers who were on schedule for radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, were allocated to receive zinc sulfate (50 mg, three times a day) or placebo; started with beginning of radiotherapy and continued for one month later. Taste acuity was determined by measuring detection and recognition thresholds for four taste qualities at baseline, at the end of radiotherapy, and a month later using the Henkin method. Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age = 59.2 ± 16.5, 60% male) completed the trial. The two groups were similar at baseline. After radiotherapy, and one month later, there was a significant increase in taste perception threshold for bitter, salty, sweet, and sour tastes in the placebo group (P = 0.001). In those who received zinc, there was only slight increase in threshold for perception of the salty taste (P = 0.046). No relevant side effects due to zinc sulfate were reported. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation in head/neck cancer patients under radiotherapy can prevent radiation-induced taste alterations. Further studies with longer follow-ups and with different doses of zinc supplementation are warranted in this regard. PMID:23914214

  12. Ultrasound-assisted analyte extraction for the determination of sulfate and elemental sulfur in zinc sulfide by different liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dash, K; Thangavel, S; Krishnamurthy, N V; Rao, S V; Karunasagar, D; Arunachalam, J

    2005-04-01

    The speciation and determination of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and elemental sulfur (S degree) in zinc sulfide (ZnS) using ion-chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) respectively is described. Three sample pretreatment approaches were employed with the aim of determining sulfate: (i) conventional water extraction of the analyte; (ii) solid-liquid aqueous extraction with an ultrasonic probe; and (iii) elimination of the zinc sulfide matrix via ion-exchange dissolution (IED). The separation of sulfate was carried out by an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS17), followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Elemental sulfur was extracted ultrasonically from the acid treated sample solution into chloroform and separated on a reversed phase HPLC column equipped with a diode array detector (DAD) at 264 nm. The achievable solid detection limits for sulfate and sulfur were 35 and 10 microg g(-1) respectively. PMID:15776159

  13. Effects of copper sulfate, tri-basic copper chloride, and zinc oxide on weanling pig performance.

    PubMed

    Shelton, N W; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Hill, G M

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary Cu and Zn on weanling pig performance. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase 1 from d 0 to 14 postweaning and phase 2 from d 14 to 28 in Exp. 1 and 2 and d 14 to 42 in Exp. 3. The trace mineral premix, included in all diets, provided 165 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO(4) and 16.5 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO(4). In Exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added Cu from tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC; 0 or 150 mg/kg) and added Zn from ZnO (0, 1,500, or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 28). No Cu × Zn interactions were observed (P > 0.10). Adding TBCC or Zn increased (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during each phase. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added Zn from ZnO (0 or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0 or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 28) and Cu (control, 125 mg/kg of Cu from TBCC, or 125 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO(4)). No Cu × Zn interactions (P > 0.10) were observed for any performance data. Adding ZnO improved (P < 0.02) ADG and ADFI from d 0 to 14 and overall. From d 0 to 28, supplementing CuSO(4) increased (P < 0.02) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, and TBCC improved (P = 0.006) ADG. In Exp. 3, the 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of added Cu from CuSO(4) (0 or 125 mg/kg) and added Zn from ZnO (0 or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0 or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 42). The final 2 treatments were feeding added ZnO alone or in combination with CuSO(4) from d 0 to 14 and adding CuSO(4) from d 14 to 42. Adding ZnO increased (P < 0.04) ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 0 to 14 and ADG from d 0 to 42. Dietary CuSO(4) increased (P < 0.004) ADG and ADFI from d 14 to 42 and d 0 to 42. From d 28 to 42, a trend for a Cu × Zn interaction was observed (P = 0.06) for ADG. This interaction was reflective of the numeric decrease in ADG for pigs when Cu and Zn were used in combination compared with each used alone. Also, numerical advantages were observed when supplementing Zn from d 0 to 14 and Cu from d 14 to 42 compared with all other Cu and Zn regimens. These 3 experiments show the advantages of including both Cu and Zn in the diet for 28 d postweaning; however, as evident in Exp. 3, when 3,000 mg/kg of Zn was added early and 125 mg/kg of Cu was added late, performance was similar or numerically greater than when both were used for 42 d. PMID:21454861

  14. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  15. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-Ting; Yi, Shu-Min; Li, Xue-Peng; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

  16. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-ting; Yi, Shu-min; Li, Xue-peng; Li, Jian-rong

    2014-02-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

  17. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  18. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2NS human lymphoblastoid cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Razinah Sharif; Philip Thomas; Peter Zalewski; Robin D. Graham; Michael Fenech

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO4) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell

  19. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg?1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg?1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

  20. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Jungang; Wan, Chunmeng; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted in a 3?×?3 (Cu?×?Zn) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of dietary copper and zinc on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink on a corn-fish meal based diet. Animals were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from copper sulfate (CuSO4) and Zn from zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Supplemental Cu levels were 0, 15, and 30 mg/kg copper, respectively, while supplemental Zn levels were 0, 150, and 300 mg/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. Copper excretion, retention, and digestibility were influenced by dietary copper (P?zinc-copper interaction. Copper digestibility and retention were substantially reduced when zinc was added to the low copper diet but showed little change with zinc supplementation of the high copper diet. Both plasma Cu and plasma Zn were influenced by dietary level of the respective mineral (P?zinc; however, high Zn in the diet reduced plasma Cu concentrations. There was a zinc-copper interaction for plasma Cu (P?=?0.053). Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) activity tended to be influenced by dietary zinc (P?=?0.065) and dietary copper (P?=?0.035). Dietary copper had a significant effect on ceruloplasmin (CER) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (P?

  1. Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon

    2013-01-01

    The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

  2. A New Type of Metal-Binding Site in Cobalt- And Zinc-Containing Adenylate Kinases Isolated From Sulfate-Reducers D. Gigas And D. Desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, O.Y.; Bursakov, S.A.; Rocco, G.Di; Trincao, J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Calvete, J.J.; Brondino, C.; Pereira, A.S.; Lampreia, J.; Tavares, P.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I.

    2009-05-18

    Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterized in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the 'LID' domain. The sequence {sup 129}Cys-X{sub 5}-His-X{sub 15}-Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

  3. Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

  4. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  5. Zinc (Zn)-phosphorus (P) Interactions in Two Cultivars of Spring Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Differing in P Uptake Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-G. Zhu; S. E. Smith; F. A. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zinc-phosphorus (Zn-P) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton and Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate or CaHPO4were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate or nitrate only as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used: 0.22 and 2.2mg ZnSO4.5H2Okg?1. The results confirmed that Brookton had a higher

  6. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  7. The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  8. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems with wound healing, decreased ability to taste food, and lower alertness ... the health problems discussed below. Immune system and wound healing The body's immune system needs zinc to do ...

  9. Representation of Electrical Conductances for Polyvalent Electrolytes by the Quint-Viallard Conductivity Equation. Part 1. Symmetrical 2:2 Type Electrolytes. Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Alkaline Earth Metal Sulfates and Transition Metal Sulfates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat

    2011-01-01

    Literature values of the electrical conductivities of dilute aqueous solutions of alkaline metal sulfates (BeSO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, SrSO4) and of transition metal sulfates (MnSO4, FeSO4, CoSO4, NiSO4, CuSO4, ZnSO4, CdSO4) were reexamined within the framework of the Quint-Viallard conductivity equations in order to obtain a uniform representation\\u000a of conductivities. It was observed that the limiting conductances of electrolytes at infinite

  10. Effects of supplemental zinc concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum values in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Callis, K J; Duff, G C; Gunter, S A; Kegley, E B; Vermeire, D A

    2000-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effects of zinc concentration or source in diets of finishing beef steers. In Exp. 1, 108 (British x Continental) beef steers were supplemented with concentrations of added zinc (as ZnSO4) at 20, 100, or 200 mg/kg of dietary DM. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted among treatments for ADG or gain:feed for the 112-d finishing period. However, a linear (P < 0.10) decrease was noted in daily DMI with increasing zinc concentrations for the overall finishing period. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted in hot carcass weight; dressing percentage; longissimus muscle area; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; or marbling score. There were, however, quadratic increases in s.c. fat thickness (P < 0.05) and yield grade (P < 0.01) with added zinc. In Exp. 2, 12 beef steers were used to examine effects of added dietary zinc on serum concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acid profiles. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed in cholesterol or fatty acids among the supplemental zinc levels. In Exp. 3, 84 Brangus- and Angus-sired steers were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing 30 mg of supplemental zinc per kilogram of dietary DM from one of the following sources: 1) ZnSO4, 2) Zn amino acid complex, or 3) a zinc polysaccharide complex. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted for the overall 126-d trial for ADG, DMI, or gain:feed ratio. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was increased (P < 0.10) in steers supplemented with ZnSO4 vs the average of Zn amino acid and Zn polysaccharide complexes. However, s.c. fat thickness was greater (P < 0.10) in steers supplemented with Zn amino acid and Zn polysaccharide complexes vs ZnSO4. Serum zinc concentration did not differ (P > 0.10) among zinc sources. Supplemental zinc concentration in finishing diets did not seem to influence feedlot performance and had a minimal impact on carcass quality. Either the organic or inorganic source can be included in finishing diets without affecting feedlot performance. PMID:11063302

  11. Synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanodiscs for lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumei Tian; Yupeng Guo; Man Jiang; Ye Sheng; Bala Hari; Guangyu Zhang; Yanqiu Jiang; Bing Zhou; Yanchao Zhu; Zichen Wang

    2006-01-01

    The crystal and hydrophobic zinc borate (Zn2B6O11?3H2O) nanodiscs were successfully prepared by a wet method using Na2B4O7?10H2O and ZnSO4?7H2O as raw materials in situ aqueous solution, and oleic acid as the modifying agent. The microstructures and morphology of the as-obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer

  12. Molecular design of nanometric zinc borate-containing polyimide as a route to flame retardant materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Süleyman Köytepe; Sema Vural; Turgay Seçkin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc borate (Zn2B6O11·3H2O) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using an emulsion liquid membrane (W\\/O\\/W emulsion) to control the size of particles with Na2B4O7·10H2O, boric acid and ZnSO4·7H2O as raw materials. All materials were dispersed with the polyimide (PI) precursor, poly (amic acid). Using a combination of dissolving the poly (amic acid) and mixing fatty acid surfactant-coated zinc borate nanoparticles; we

  13. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Lemos, D; Moreira, G S

    2007-02-01

    The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and benzene (C(6)H(6)). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO(4) and C(6)H(6) and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic. PMID:17505757

  14. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulfate on growth performance of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Richert, B T

    1997-07-01

    We conducted four experiments to examine the effects of adding zinc oxide (ZnO) and(or) copper sulfate (CuSO4) to diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1 and 2, weanling pigs (initially 5.3 kg and 19 +/- 2 d of age) were fed diets containing 250 ppm of added Cu (CuSO4) and either 110 or 3,110 ppm of added. Zn (ZnO). No differences (P > .10) were observed in either experiment for ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (G:F). In Exp. 3,240 pigs (initially 4.45 kg and 15 +/- 2 d of age) were used to determine the interactive effects of added dietary ZnO and(or) CuSO4. Dietary treatments were in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; Zn (165 or 3,000 ppm) and Cu (16.5 or 250 ppm) were the main effects. Pigs were fed a high nutrient dense diet from d 0 to 14 after weaning and a less complex diet from d 14 to 28 after weaning, both containing the same mineral fortifications. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed 3,000 ppm Zn, with or without 250 ppm Cu, had improved ADG (P < .01) compared with pigs fed the control (16.5 ppm Cu and 165 ppm Zn) or diets with only added Cu. From d 14 to 28, pigs fed the diet containing 3,000 ppm added Zn, without 250 ppm Cu, had greater ADG than pigs fed the other diets (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .01). In Exp. 4, 264 pigs (initially 4.17 kg and 12 +/- 3 d of age) were fed a high nutrient dense diet supplemented with 3,000 ppm of Zn (ZnO) from d 0 to 14 after weaning. On d 14, pigs were switched to the diets containing experimental mineral levels identical to those of Exp. 3. From d 14 to 28 after weaning, added Zn improved ADG but not when the diet contained 250 ppm Cu (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .05). Feeding 3,000 ppm of Zn from ZnO is a viable means of improving nursery pig performance, but additive responses to growth-promotant levels of CuSO4 (250 ppm Cu) were not observed. PMID:9222843

  15. Combined theoretical and experimental studies on the molecular structure, spectral and Hirshfeld surface studies of NLO tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Rajasekar, M.; Aditya Prasad, A.; Meena, K.; Agilandeshwari, R.; Kanagarajan, V.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

    2015-07-01

    Transparent single crystals of tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate (ZTS) were grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature from an aqueous solution containing zinc sulfate and thiourea in the molar ratio 1:3. The experimental and theoretical studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of ZTS were investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and density functional theory (DFT). The recorded X-ray diffraction bond parameters are compared with theoretical values calculated at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. The observed vibrational patterns were compared with the computed wave numbers. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by TD-DFT results complement with the experimental findings. The first-order molecular hyperpolarizability, polarizability, dipole moment and HOMO-LUMO band gap energies were derived. The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) using the same level of basis set. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding was investigated by means of the Hirshfeld surfaces, and the role of the Nsbnd H⋯O interactions as driving force for crystal structure formation has been demonstrated. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  16. Solar Metal Sulfate-Ammonia Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Cunping (Inventor); T-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of hybrid/thermochemical water splitting processes for the production of hydrogen and oxygen have been proposed based on (1) metal sulfate-ammonia cycles (2) metal pyrosulfate-ammonia cycles. Methods and systems for a metal sulfate MSO.sub.4--NH3 cycle for producing H2 and O2 from a closed system including feeding an aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 solution into a photoctalytic reactor to oxidize the aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 into aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 and reduce water to hydrogen, mixing the resulting aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 with metal oxide (e.g. ZnO) to form a slurry, heating the slurry of aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 and ZnO(s) in the low temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of NH3 and H2O and solid ZnSO4(s), heating solid ZnSO4 at a high temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 and solid product ZnO, mixing the gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with an NH3 and H2O stream in an absorber to form aqueous (NH4)(2)SO3 solution and separate O2 for aqueous solution, recycling the resultant solution back to the photoreactor and sending ZnO to mix with aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 solution to close the water splitting cycle wherein gaseous H2 and O2 are the only products output from the closed ZnSO4--NH3 cycle.

  17. USING RESPIROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A respirometric method has been developed to measure hydrogen utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). One application of this method has been to test inhibitory metals effects on the SRB culture used in a novel acid mine drainage treatment technology. As a control param...

  18. USING RESPOROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposed novel method for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) waste uses biologically-generated hydrogen sulfide to precipitate the metals in AMD (principally zinc, iron, aluminum, copper and manganese in the Berkeley Pit). The solids are sequentially removed via settling. ...

  19. In situ and one-step synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoplatelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumei Tian; Yi He; Lianxiang Yu; Yanhui Deng; Yunhui Zheng; Fang Sun; Zhihui Liu; Zichen Wang

    2008-01-01

    The polycrystalline and hydrophobic zinc borate (Zn2B6O11·3H2O) nanoplatelets were in situ successfully synthesized via one-step precipitation reaction in aqueous solution of Na2B4O7·10H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O with oleic acid as the modifying agent. The microstructures and morphology of the as-obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  20. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 ?m ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion. PMID:25039419

  1. Synthesis of nanoflakes-like shapes of zinc sulfide grown at room temperature by electrodeposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, J. S.; Dhasade, S. S.; Babar, A. R.; Patil, Swati; Fulari, V. J.

    2015-07-01

    Zinc sulfide thin films were deposited on stainless steel and indium doped tin oxide substrates from an aqueous solution of ZnSO4, and Na2S2O3. This study reports the effect of bath conc. on the crystal structure, surface morphology, optical properties and compositional analysis of zinc sulfide nanostructured thin films. The electrodeposition time and bath concentration can be used to control the dimensions of the electrodeposited nanoflakes within nanometer range. Zinc sulfide thin films are polycrystalline with cubic crystal structure. SEM images indicate that the film surfaces are well-covered with zinc sulfide nanoflakes. The agglomeration of nanoflakes is enhanced due to the formation of large number of particles during growth process. A Raman shift of sample is detected at wave number 254 cm-1. Typical film deposited with optimized bath concentration shows optical band gap of about 3.83 eV.

  2. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO. PMID:21711491

  3. Effects of brief and intermediate exposures to sulfate submicron aerosols and sulfate injections on cardiopulmonary function of dogs and tracheal mucous velocity of sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin A. Sackner; Richard L. Dougherty; Gillete A. Chapman; John Cipley; Debbie Perez; Mark Kwoka; Michael Reinhart; Miguel Brito; Richard Schreck

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary mechanics of anesthetized dogs were not changed or were minimally altered by breathing the following compounds as submicron aerosols in concentrations up to 17.3 mg\\/m for 7.5 min: (1) sodium chloride (as a control), (2) sodium sulfate, (3) ammonium sulfate, (4) zinc sulfate, (5) zinc ammonium sulfate, (6) ammonium bisulfate, (7) aluminum sulfate, (8) manganese sulfate, (9) nickel sulfate,

  4. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil ?-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg?1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg?1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg?1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  5. Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

  6. Nitrogen utilization, enzyme activity, glucose intolerance and leukocyte chemotaxis in human experimental zinc depletion.

    PubMed

    Baer, M T; King, J C; Tamura, T; Margen, S; Bradfield, R B; Weston, W L; Daugherty, N A

    1985-06-01

    We previously reported significant decreases in plasma, whole blood, urinary, seminal and fecal zinc in six young men consuming a semipurified formula diet providing 0.28 mg zinc and 0.8/kg protein per day for 4-9 weeks. During a one-week baseline period, 15.7 mg of zinc (as ZnSO4) were fed; three of the men were repleted with 6.0, 23.2 or 46.3 mg zinc for 2-5 weeks. Biochemical and functional measures of zinc status other than tissue zinc levels were also monitored. No one parameter appeared to parallel dietary zinc status in all subjects, although significant mean changes were seen in serum and leukocyte alkaline phosphatases. Inconsistent changes were noted in erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase, plasma alkaline ribonuclease and the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. Nitrogen balance was unaffected by zinc nutritional status. However, alterations in hair root growth phase and morphology, decreases in lymphocyte counts and in transferrin levels during depletion suggest impairment in protein synthesis. Impaired leukocyte chemotaxis and clinical signs indicative of decreased resistance to infection were also noted. PMID:3890515

  7. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2- ... Beta-D-Glucopyranurosyl-4-(or 6-) Sul, Saccharide Mono-Sulfaté, Saccharide Sulfaté, Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de ...

  8. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Tavallali, H; Shokrollahi, A; Zahedi, M; Montazerozohori, M; Soylak, M

    2009-07-30

    A sensitive and simple solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of trace and toxic metals in food samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of zinc, nickel, iron and lead on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina, which is also chelated with bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine (BHAPN). The retained analyte ions on modified solid phase were eluted using 8 mL of 4 mol L(-1) HNO(3). The analyte determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some metal ions and anions on the recoveries of understudy analyte ions were investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in some traditional food samples from Iran. PMID:19200648

  9. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

    2011-08-31

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ? 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ? 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or ?-rays. PMID:21841228

  10. Dihydro-orotase from Clostridium oroticum. Purification and reversible removal of essential zinc.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, D W; Bidigare, R R; Mehta, B J; Williams, M I; Sander, E G

    1985-08-15

    A new purification procedure involving five column-chromatography steps is described for dihydro-orotase (L-5,6-dihydro-orotate amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.2.3) from Clostridium oroticum (A.T.C.C. 25750). The native purified enzyme is a dimer of Mr 102 000 and contains 4.0 +/- 0.3 g-atoms of zinc/mol of dimer. These observations agree with those reported previously [Taylor, Taylor, Balch & Gilchrist (1976) J. Bacteriol. 127, 863-873]. It is conclusively demonstrated that dihydro-orotase is a zinc metalloenzyme. Zinc is reversibly removed by treatment with chelators in phosphate buffer at pH 6.5, as demonstrated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and decrease of enzyme activity. The specific activity is linearly dependent on zinc content. Addition of ZnSO4 to the chelator-treated enzyme results in regain of the normal complement of zinc and enzyme activity. Kinetic properties of the reconstituted enzyme are indistinguishable from those of the native enzyme. The amino acid composition of the homogeneous enzyme suggests that the zinc atoms occupy different environments. PMID:2864918

  11. The Effects of Zinc Sulfate on the Levels of Some Elements and Oxidative Stress Occurring in Lenses of Rats Exposed to Total Cranium Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kandaz, Mustafa; Ertekin, Mustafa Vecdi; Erdemci, Burak; K?z?ltunç, Ahmet; Koçer, ?brahim; Özmen, Hilal K?z?ltunç; Aktan, Meryem I??k; Be?e, Ay?e Vildan

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is currently substantial clinical interest in zinc (Zn) as an antioxidant and a protective agent against radiation-related normal tissue injury. To further assess the potential antioxidative effects, the effects of Zn were studied in rat lenses, a model of radiation-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 received neither Zn nor irradiation (control group). Group 2 (RT group) and 3 (RT+Zn group) were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. In addition to irradiation, group 3 was administered 10 mg/kg/day Zn. At the end of 10 days, the rats were killed. Their eyes were enucleated to measure the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. Results Irradiation significantly increased malondialdehyde levels as an end product of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, and iron and calcium concentrations. Irradiation decreased super-oxide dismutase activities and zinc concentrations in the rat lens, indicating an increased oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction. Malondialdehyde levels and iron and calcium concentrations were significantly decreased, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and zinc concentrations were increased, in the rat lenses of the RT+Zn group. No differences were detected in any final measurement of sodium and potassium in the direct comparison among all groups. Conclusion Zinc, acting as an antioxidant agent, may protect the lens from radiation-induced injury by improving oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction. PMID:25610080

  12. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Graham, Robin D; Fenech, Michael

    2011-02-28

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell proliferation were investigated in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. DNA damage was determined by the use of both the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Zn-deficient medium (0?M) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds (i.e. ZnSO(4) and ZnC) were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0?M. Results from an MTT assay showed that cell growth and viability were decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0?M) as well as at 32?M and 100?M for both Zn compounds (P<0.0001). DNA strand-breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P<0.05). The CBMN-Cyt assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P<0.0001). Elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were induced in Zn-depleted cells (P<0.0001), whereas genome damage was reduced in supplemented cultures for both Zn compounds at 4?M and 16?M, possibly suggesting that these concentrations may be optimal for genome stability. The potential protective effect of ZnSO(4) and ZnC was also investigated following exposure to 1.0Gy ?-radiation. Culture in medium containing these compounds at 4-32?M prior to irradiation displayed significantly reduced frequencies of MNi, NPBs and NBuds compared with cells maintained in 0?M medium (P<0.0001). Expression of ?-H2AX and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase measured by western blotting was increased in Zn-depleted cells. These results suggest that Zn plays important role in genomic stability and that the optimal Zn concentration-range for prevention of DNA damage and cytotoxicity in vitro lies between 4 and 16?M. PMID:21167308

  13. Crop response to level of water-soluble zinc in granular zinc fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mortvedt

    1992-01-01

    Many industrial by-products containing Zn are being processed and sold as Zn fertilizers. Some baghouse dusts and flue dusts which contain ZnO may be used as fertilizers or may be partially acidulated with H2SO4 to form Zn oxysulfates (various mixtures of ZnO and ZnSO4). Spent H2SO4 by-products of several industries, especially the galvanizing industry, also may be processed into ZnSO4

  14. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

  15. Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid Youssef

    2003-01-01

    Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by

  16. High covalence in CuSO4 and the radicalization of sulfate: an X-ray absorption and density functional study.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Robert K; Frank, Patrick; DeBeer George, Serena; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

    2004-12-27

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of anhydrous CuSO(4) reveals a well-resolved preedge transition feature at 2478.8 eV that has no counterpart in the XAS spectra of anhydrous ZnSO(4) or copper sulfate pentahydrate. Similar but weaker preedge features occur in the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra of [Cu(itao)SO(4)] (2478.4 eV) and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)] (2477.7 eV). Preedge features in the XAS spectra of transition metal ligands are generally attributed to covalent delocalization of a metal d-orbital hole into a ligand-based orbital. Copper L-edge XAS of CuSO(4) revealed that 56% of the Cu(II) 3d hole is delocalized onto the sulfate ligand. Hybrid density functional calculations on the two most realistic models of the covalent delocalization pathways in CuSO(4) indicate about 50% electron delocalization onto the sulfate oxygen-based 2p orbitals; however, at most 14% of that can be found on sulfate sulfur. Both experimental and computational results indicated that the high covalence of anhydrous CuSO(4) has made sulfate more like the radical monoanion, inducing an extensive mixing and redistribution of sulfur 3p-based unoccupied orbitals to lower energy in comparison to sulfate in ZnSO(4). It is this redistribution, rather than a direct covalent interaction between Cu(II) and sulfur, that is the origin of the observed sulfur XAS preedge feature. From pseudo-Voigt fits to the CuSO(4) sulfur K-edge XAS spectrum, a ground-state 3p character of 6% was quantified for the orbital contributing to the preedge transition, in reasonable agreement with the DFT calculation. Similar XAS fits indicated 2% sulfur 3p character for the preedge transition orbitals in [Cu(itao)SO(4)] and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)]. The covalent radicalization of ligands similar to sulfate, with consequent energy redistribution of the virtual orbitals, represents a new mechanism for the induction of ligand preedge XAS features. The high covalence of the Cu sites in CuSO(4) was found to be similar to that of Cu sites in oxidized cupredoxins, including its anistropic nature, and can serve as the simplest inorganic examples of intramolecular electron-transfer processes. PMID:15606178

  17. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhigang; Wen, Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency. PMID:24515449

  18. Chelated zinc reduces the dietary zinc requirement of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tippawan Paripatananont; Richard T. Lovell

    1995-01-01

    The dietary zinc requirements of year-1 channel catfish were determined with an egg-white-based purified diet and with a soybean-meal-based practical diet, each supplemented with serial concentrations of zinc methionine (ZnMet) or zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnS). In the egg white diet, supplemental dietary zinc requirements, determined by broken-line regression analysis, for ZnMet and ZnS for maximum weight gain were 5.58 and

  19. Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

  20. Effect of the sulfide concentration on zinc bio-precipitation in a single stage sulfidogenic bioreactor at pH 5.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn F. M. Bijmans; Pieter-Jan van Helvoort; Cees J. N. Buisman; Piet N. L. Lens

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved zinc is present in natural waters and process streams generated by the mining and metallurgical industry. These streams usually have a low pH. By using sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfide can be produced that precipitates with zinc as zinc sulfide (sphalerite), which can be easily separated from the wastewater and even reused as zinc concentrate. In this study, a sulfate

  1. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Research from a couple ... Early evidence suggests that chondroitin, with or without glucosamine hydrochloride, can reduce pain in people with Kashin-Beck ...

  2. Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. II. Systems M1, M2//SO{4/2-}-H2O (M1, M2 = Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+, H+) at 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charykova, M. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Depmeier, W.

    2010-12-01

    High toxicity of arsenic and selenium makes it important to analyze conditions, under which sulfates, arsenates, and selenites replace sulfides, arsenides, and selenides in the oxidation zones of sulfide ore deposits and in weathered technogenic waste. Published experimental data have been summarized for solubility in ternary systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co sulfates. Due to high solubility of solid phases, the thermodynamic description of solutions was carried out using the Pitzer equations; the necessary parameters were found in the literature or calculated in this article. The applied model was preliminarily verified by experimentally obtained diagrams of solubility. A database was compiled for quantitative thermodynamic modeling of mineral equilibria in most ternary and four-component subsystems of the Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+//SO{4/2-}-H2O system. The lack of experimental data for the systems containing Fe(III) sulfate does not allow calculating necessary parameters of its interaction with other sulfates and conducting calculations in multicomponent systems without simplifications and additional assumptions. Solubility diagrams are considered for the following systems: FeSO4-H2SO4-H2O, NiSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CuSO4-H2SO4-H2O, ZnSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CoSO4-H2SO4-H2O, FeSO4-Fe2(SO4)3-H2O, CoSO4-NiSO4-H2O, ZnSO4NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CoSO4-H2O, FeSO4-NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CuSO4-H2O, CoSO4-CuSO4-H2O, NiSO4-CuSO4-H2O, and ZnSO4-CoSO4-H2O. For some of these systems, equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated in this article.

  3. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  4. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  5. Zinc deficiency or excess within the physiological range increases genome instability and cytotoxicity, respectively, in human oral keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Fenech, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential component of Zn-finger proteins and acts as a cofactor for enzymes required for cellular metabolism and in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Zn deficiency or excess in a primary human oral keratinocyte cell line and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds (Zn Sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn Carnosine (ZnC)) to minimise DNA damage. Zn-deficient medium (0 ?M) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds ZnSO(4) and ZnC were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0 ?M. Cell viability was decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0 ?M) as well as at 32 ?M and 100 ?M for both Zn compounds (P < 0.0001) as measured via the MTT assay. DNA strand breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P < 0.05). Furthermore, elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were observed at 0 and 0.4 ?M Zn, whereas these biomarkers were minimised for both Zn compounds at 4 and 16 ?M Zn (P < 0.05), suggesting these concentrations are optimal to maintain genome stability. Expression of PARP, p53 and OGG1 measured by western blotting was increased in Zn-depleted cells indicating that DNA repair mechanisms are activated. These results suggest that maintaining Zn concentrations within the range of 4-16 ?M is essential for DNA damage prevention in cultured human oral keratinocytes. PMID:21935692

  6. Effects of different levels of dietary lead on zinc metabolism in dairy calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. White; M. W. Neathery; R. P. Gentry; W. J. Miller; K. R. Logner; D. M. Blackmon

    1985-01-01

    The effects of feeding diets containing 500 or 1500 ppM added lead as lead sulfate on zinc and zinc-65 metabolism in Holstein bull calves were investigated. Zinc absorption was slightly (not significantly) reduced in the calves fed lead. Fecal zinc excretion was increased by the lead diets by day 24 of the experiment. Dietary lead had no significant effect on

  7. Zinc-binding proteins detected by protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Mazen, A.; Gradwohl, G.; de Murcia, G.

    1988-07-01

    The Western blotting technique was used for the detection of zinc-binding proteins. Proteins were separated electrophoretically on 15% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate minigels, the gels were soaked in a reduction buffer, and the proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Zinc-binding proteins were probed with radioactive zinc (/sup 65/Zn) and were detected by autoradiography. This technique allows the detection of as little as 20 to 100 pmol of zinc metalloproteins.

  8. Zinc-binding proteins detected by protein blotting.

    PubMed

    Mazen, A; Gradwohl, G; de Murcia, G

    1988-07-01

    The Western blotting technique was used for the detection of zinc-binding proteins. Proteins were separated electrophoretically on 15% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate minigels, the gels were soaked in a reduction buffer, and the proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Zinc-binding proteins were probed with radioactive zinc (65Zn) and were detected by autoradiography. This technique allows the detection of as little as 20 to 100 pmol of zinc metalloproteins. PMID:3189772

  9. Recycling spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Cui, Ming; Yang, Minjie; Pan, Linmao

    2006-05-20

    A novel process to reclaim spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries (SDBs) through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials is present. Firstly, the dismantling, watering, magnetism, baking and griddling steps were consecutively carried out to obtain iron battery shells, zinc grains and manganese compounds using the collected SDBs, and then these separated substances were dissolved with 4 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) to prepare FeSO(4), ZnSO(4) and MnSO(4) reactant solutions. Secondly, Zn-Mn ferrites with stoichiometric ratio of Mn(0.26)Zn(0.24)FeO(2) were synthesized using chemical co precipitation process with ammonium oxalate precipitator. The XRD results showed that the obtained Zn-Mn ferrites had spinel structure and high purity at the calcining temperatures of 850-1250 degrees C. With the increase of calcining temperature, the finer crystalline structure could be formed, and their intensity of saturation magnetization reached the highest value at 1150 degrees C. The magnetization performances of Zn-Mn ferrites prepared from the SDBs were similar to that of from analysis reagents, suggesting the feasibility to synthesize Zn-Mn ferrites with high properties from SDBs. PMID:16310946

  10. Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at ?20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

  11. Hydrometallurgical process for recovery of cobalt from zinc plant residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wang; Chunshan Zhou

    2002-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process has been developed for the recovery of cobalt from a zinc plant residue. The residue contains a great quantity of active carbon and zinc sulfate. In addition, it contains naphthol derivative complexes with cobalt, nickel, iron, copper, and other metals. The process consists of the following six major unit operations: (1) washing: 0.5 mol L?1 sulfuric acid,

  12. Zinc-binding proteins detected by protein blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mazen; G. Gradwohl; G. de Murcia

    1988-01-01

    The Western blotting technique was used for the detection of zinc-binding proteins. Proteins were separated electrophoretically on 15% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate minigels, the gels were soaked in a reduction buffer, and the proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Zinc-binding proteins were probed with radioactive zinc (⁶⁵Zn) and were detected by autoradiography. This technique allows the detection of as little as

  13. Sequential ultrastructural changes of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis in ducklings.

    PubMed Central

    Kazacos, E. A.; Van Vleet, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The sequential ultrastructural alterations of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis were examined in ducklings fed 2500 ppm Zn (as ZnSO4) for 56 days. From days 3 to 17, acinar cells had cytoplasmic vacuoles that contained electron-dense, zymogen-like material and increased autophagocytosis. Other changes were swollen mitochondria and dilatation, vesiculation, degranulation and intracisternal sequestration of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apoptosis was the predominant form of cell deletion. By day 10, acinar cellular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were noted. Islets appeared normal. After day 19, the pancreas consisted of ductlike structures embedded in fibrous connective tissue with a minimal inflammatory cell response. These ductlike structures were lined by attenuated to cuboidal, atrophic acinar cells. Many cells contained granular, electron-dense cytoplasmic debris that served as a marker of previous cell damage. This ultrastructural study provides support for a previously proposed theory that ductlike structures (tubular complexes) arise by atrophy and dedifferentiation of acinar cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2923185

  14. Effect of zinc-carnosine chelate compound on muscle function in mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Tameyasu, Tsukasa; Yamada, Megumi; Tanaka, Midori; Takahashi, Saeko

    2002-02-01

    The effect of antioxidant Z-103, catena-(S)-[mu-[N(alpha)-(3-aminopropinyl)histidinnato-(2-)N(1),N(2),O:N(tau)]-zinc], on muscle function in the muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse was examined by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in subjects aged 4 to 12 weeks. Z-103 administration at a dose of 150 mg/kg increased the load resistant time (LRT), during which the animal with a load holds itself upright on a wire net. The Z-103 administration reduced hypertrophy, the ratio of centronucleated myofibers, and the rate of decay for magnitude of twitch force elicited by 0.5 Hz of electricity to the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of 12-week-old mdx mice, with little effect on the magnitude of twitch force. The administration of Z-103 (100 mg/kg) had a lesser effect on LRT and the other characteristics examined for EDL muscles. The constituent of Z-103, Zn(2+) applied in the form of ZnSO(4) (5 mg/kg), carnosine (100 mg/kg), and the combination of the two had no beneficial effect on mdx mice. Z-103 (150 mg/kg) administered to normal mice increased LRT with little effect on the contractile properties of EDL muscles. These results suggest that the administration of Z-103 ameliorates muscle function in the mdx mouse. PMID:12047809

  15. Remedial actions for acidic sulfate corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, A.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Div.)

    1992-08-01

    Objectives were to identify a reference acid sulfate environment which produced accelerated intergranular corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing under typical steam generator operating conditions and to identify inhibitors capable of limiting the progression of the corrosion. A background report summarized the occurrences of corrosion in operating steam generators attributed to acid sulfate environments and reviewed the laboratory corrosion tests performed in these environments. Although the corrosion in several operating plants is thought to be caused by acid sulfate environments, and previous laboratory testing his produced corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing in the presence of acid sulfates, the testing performed in this program did not produce accelerated intergranular corrosion. In some cases, the tests produced accelerated localized wastage, but this is not representative of the most relevant plant experience. Testing with more oxidizing conditions was found to reduce the aggressiveness of the corrosion. Given the range of test conditions addressed in the testing, it is concluded that the occurrence of intergranular corrosion with acid sulfate bulk chemistries is confined to a narrower range of operating variables than is typically thought to be the case for intergranular corrosion produced in alkaline environments. Zinc oxide and homologous and substituted derivatives of ethylene-diamine and propylene-diamine were identified as candidate inhibitors for acid sulfate-induced corrosion. They may also have corrosion inhibition capabilities in other crevice environments.

  16. Induction of a 72-kDa heat-shock protein in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells and rat gastric mucosa by zinc L-carnosine.

    PubMed

    Odashima, Masaru; Otaka, Michiro; Jin, Mario; Konishi, Noriaki; Sato, Toshihiro; Kato, Sayuri; Matsuhashi, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Chieko; Watanabe, Sumio

    2002-12-01

    An antiulcer drug, zinc L-carnosine (polaprezinc), provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of zinc L-carnosine on expression of 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72, stress inducible HSP70), which is known as an endogenous cytoprotectant in a wide variety of cells, including rat gastric mucosa in vitro and in vivo. Expression of HSP72 after exposure to zinc L-carnosine, zinc sulfate, or L-carnosine (1-300 microM) in rat gastric mucosal cells (RGM1) and intragastric administration of zinc L-carnosine, zinc sulfate (30 or 100 mg/kg) and L-carnosine (76 mg/kg) was investigated by western blotting and densitometric analysis. Exposure to zinc L-carnosine and zinc sulfate increased the expression of HSP72 significantly in RGM1 cells. Intragastric administration of zinc L-carnosine and zinc sulfate showed significant increment in HSP72 in rat gastric mucosa also in vivo. The ability to induce HSP72 is significantly higher in zinc L-carnosine compared with zinc sulfate based on molecular concentration in vivo. However, L-carnosine did not increase the expression of HSP72 in vitro and in vivo. Zinc derivatives, especially zinc L-carnosine, could be a strong HSP72 (chaperon) inducer, which has been known to enhance mucosal protective ability. PMID:12498304

  17. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  18. Kinetics of zinc absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers involved in zinc transporters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Lu, L; Luo, X G; Liu, B

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the kinetics of Zn absorption and Zn transporter mRNA levels in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers to investigate the main site of Zn absorption in the small intestine, the absorption mechanisms, and whether those transporters were involved. In experiment 1, we compared Zn absorption in 3 segments and at different post-perfusion time points, and found that Zn absorption increased linearly within 30 min and was higher (P < 0.05) in the ileum than in the other 2 segments. In experiment 2, intestinal loops were perfused with solutions containing 0, 0.077, 0.154, 0.308, 0.616, 1.232, or 2.464 mmol/L of ZnSO(4) . 7H(2)O, and Zn concentrations in perfusates were determined at 30 min after perfusion. The mRNA levels of transporters in 3 intestinal loops from the control group and the 0.616 mmol of Zn/L group were analyzed. The kinetic curves showed that Zn transported to the duodenum and jejunum depended on a saturable carrier-mediated process. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) value was higher in the duodenum than in the jejunum (1.44 +/- 0.33 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.17 mM, P = 0.012). Similarly, the maximum absorption velocity (J(max)) value was greater in the duodenum than in the jejunum (5.32 +/- 1.46 vs. 2.57 +/- 0.39 nmol/min per cm, P = 0.069), whereas absorption in the ileum occurred with a nonsaturable diffusion process and had a diffusive constant (P) of 5.72 x 10(-3) +/- 1.1 x 10(-4) cm(2)/min. Moreover, the mRNA levels of metallothionein, zinc transporter 1, and Zn transporter 5 were lower in the ileum than in the duodenum or jejunum in the Zn-supplemented group, further indicating that Zn absorption in the ileum occurred mainly by a nonsaturable diffusive pathway. The Zn fluxes were significantly higher (P < 0.005) in the ileum than in the other 2 segments at different Zn concentrations. This research suggests that the ileum is the main site of Zn absorption and that the mechanism involved is nonsaturable diffusion, which is different from that in the other 2 segments, depending on the regulation of Zn transporter expression. PMID:18493004

  19. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  20. Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

  1. Crystal growth, structure, crystalline perfection and characterization of zinc magnesium ammonium sulfate hexahydrate mixed crystals ZnxMg(1-x)(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, G.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Madhurambal, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

    2012-08-01

    Mixed crystals ZnxMg(1-x)(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O of the two well-known Tutton's salts Zn(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O and Mg(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O were grown with varying molar proportions (x=0.10-0.90) by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The mixed crystal Zn0.54Mg0.46(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O is crystallizing in monoclinic system with space group P21/c and cell parameters a=6.2217(4) Å, b=12.5343(7) Å, c=9.2557(6) Å, ?=106.912(3)°. The coexistence of zinc and magnesium ions in the mixed crystal was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Compositional dependence of lattice parameters follows Vegard's relations. Slight variations are observed in FT-IR and XRD of pure and mixed crystals. Comparison of crystalline perfection as evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) for mixed crystals of various proportions reveals a reasonably good crystalline perfection for the mixed crystal with nearly equimolar ratio of Zn and Mg. The surface morphology of the mixed crystals changing with composition was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis studies reveal that the transparency of the mixed crystals was not much affected.

  2. Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin; Department of Zoology REV)

    2001-09-25

    Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

  3. Zinc and immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananda S. Prasad

    1998-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespread throughout the developing countries and a conditioned deficiency of zinc is known to occur in many diseased states. Zinc is known to play an important role in the immune system and zinc deficient subjects may experience increased susceptibility to a variety of pathogens. We have studied the effects of a mild deficiency of zinc

  4. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

  5. Preliminary study of combination therapy with interferon-alpha and zinc in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, T; Takagi, H; Takayama, H; Kojima, A; Kakizaki, S; Mori, M; Nakajima, K

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) plus zinc therapy in hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b, poor responders for IFN alone. Ten patients were injected with 10 MU of IFN-alpha every day for 4 wk, followed by three times a week for 20 wk (control group). Nine patients took 300 mg of zinc sulfate a day orally during IFN-alpha therapy (zinc sulfate group), and 15 patients took IFN-alpha and 150 mg of polaprezinc (polaprezinc group). On the d 8 of IFN therapy, circadian zinc levels in serum elevated significantly in the polaprezinc group compared to the zinc sulfate group or control group. Serum ALT levels normalized in 73.3% of the polaprezinc group, 55.6% of the zinc sulfate group, and 40.0% of the control group at 6 mo after the end of IFN therapy. Sustained eradication for the hepatitis C virus RNA judged at the end of the 6-mo follow-up period was higher in the polaprezinc group than in the zinc sulfate group (53.3% vs 11.1%, p < 0.05) or the control group (20.0%). No clinical side effects of zinc were observed at the dose used. The data suggest that polaprezinc is expected to increase the therapeutic response of IFN-alpha for chronic hepatitis C with genotype 1b. PMID:11051596

  6. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    PubMed

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 ?M) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 ?M). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 ?M of Zn/100 ?M Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 ?M) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 ?M of Zn/100 ?M Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 ?M) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn/Cd) also appears to cause enzyme inductions: CAT, APX and GST. PMID:23026089

  7. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  8. On Scaffold Hopping: Challenges in the Discovery of Sulfated Small Molecules as Mimetics of Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Mosier, Philip D.; Zhou, Qibing

    2012-01-01

    The design of sulfated, small, non-saccharide molecules as modulators of proteins is still in its infancy as standard drug discovery tools such as library of diverse sulfated molecules and in silico docking and scoring protocol have not been firmly established. Databases, such as ZINC, contain too few sulfate-containing non-saccharide molecules, which severely limits the identification of new hits. Lack of a generally applicable protocol for scaffold hopping limits the development of sulfated small molecules as synthetic mimetics of the highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans. We explored a sequential ligand-based (LBVS) and structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) approach starting from our initial discovery of monosulfated benzofurans to discover alternative scaffolds as allosteric modulators of thrombin, a key coagulation enzyme. Screening the ZINC database containing nearly 1 million non-sulfated small molecules using a pharmacophore developed from the parent sulfated benzofurans followed by a genetic algorithm-based dual-filter docking and scoring screening identified a group of 10 promising hits, of which three top-scoring hits were synthesized. Each was found to selectively inhibit human alpha-thrombin suggesting the possibility of this approach for scaffold hopping. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed allosteric inhibition mechanism for the best molecule and human plasma studies confirmed good anticoagulation potential as expected. Our simple sequential LBVS and SBVS approach is likely to be useful as a general strategy for identification of sulfated small molecules hits as modulators of glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:23164711

  9. Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Labrenz; Gregory K. Druschel; Tamara Thomsen-Ebert; Benjamin Gilbert; Susan A. Welch; Kenneth M. Kemner; Graham A. Logan; Roger E. Summons; Gelsomina De Stasio; Philip L. Bond; Barry Lai; Shelly D. Kelly; Jillian F. Banfield; Diversions Scuba

    2000-01-01

    Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product

  10. Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

    2009-01-06

    Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

  11. Zinc Concentration in Hydroponic Solution Culture Influences Zinc and Sulfur Accumulation in Brassica rapa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Coolong; William M. Randle

    2003-01-01

    A rapid cycling population of Brassica rapa L. was grown hydroponically and subjected to solution zinc (Zn) concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 200 mg L. The objectives of the study were to determine how available Zn affected plant growth, and the accumulation of Zn, total sulfur (S), sulfate (SO4 ) in B. rapa shoots. Plants exposed to Zn levels above 5 mg L exhibited

  12. Is Zinc a Neuromodulator?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan R. Kay (University of Iowa; Department of Biology REV)

    2008-05-13

    This review, with 3 figures and 57 references, describes the evidence that the cation Zn2+ acts as a modulator of synaptic activity. Beginning with a discussion of the criteria that zinc would have to meet in order to be classified as a neuromodulator and the use of chelators for intercepting zinc in the synaptic cleft, the authors then consider different models for zinc’s action at synapses, ranging from free diffusion of zinc to bound zinc in the extracellular space and a possible action within synaptic vesicles. The article wraps up with suggested experimental approaches that may help resolve the questions surrounding the role of zinc in the central nervous system.

  13. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  14. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  15. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration?20?g/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. PMID:25439135

  16. Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. John Hoffer; Ludmila N. Kaplan; Mazen J. Hamadeh; Ariadna C. Grigoriu; Murray Baron

    2001-01-01

    Glucosamine sulfate is a controversial osteoarthritis remedy that is presumed to stimulate articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis by increasing glucosamine concentrations in the joint space. However, this is not plausible because even large oral doses of the product have no effect on serum glucosamine concentrations. We propose instead that sulfate could mediate the clinical benefit attributed to this treatment. Sulfate is

  17. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  18. USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...

  19. Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Liu, Ya; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Xue; Wu, Wenjie; Gao, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn) supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ). After STZ induction, animals with fasting plasma glucose level ?16.7 mM were considered as diabetic, and randomly assigned to the group receiving physiological saline (control) or ZnSO4 for 56 days. On days 0, 7, 28 and 56 of treatment, animals were weighed, and their blood samples were analyzed. On day 56, hemodynamic assessment was performed right before the sacrifice of animals. Cardiac tissue specimens were collected and subjected to pathologic assessment, metallothionein (MT) concentration measurement and Western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), the marker of autophagy, and glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), an oxidative stress marker. High-fat diet feeding followed by STZ administration resulted in weight loss, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemodynamic anomalies and a significant increase in the myocardial content of LC3 and GRP78 proteins, but not in MT protein. Zn supplementation effectively attenuated all these aberrations induced by high-fat diet and STZ. These findings suggest that Zn might be a protective factor in diabetic cardiomyopathy, acting in two ways: at least partially, through inhibiting autophagy and by endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:25725139

  20. Effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex on gut integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanz Fernandez, M V; Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F; Wilson, M E; Socha, M T; Torrison, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ?50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P?0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P?0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P?0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P?0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P?0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P?0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P?0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P?0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS. PMID:24229744

  1. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

  2. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  3. Bioavailability of zinc in

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

  4. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

  5. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

    2003-01-01

    The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

  6. Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

  7. Effects of different levels of dietary lead on zinc metabolism in dairy calves

    SciTech Connect

    White, F.D.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Miller, W.J.; Logner, K.R.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of feeding diets containing 500 or 1500 ppM added lead as lead sulfate on zinc and zinc-65 metabolism in Holstein bull calves were investigated. Zinc absorption was slightly (not significantly) reduced in the calves fed lead. Fecal zinc excretion was increased by the lead diets by day 24 of the experiment. Dietary lead had no significant effect on zinc in blood. Except for the tibia, muscle, and brain, stable zinc decreased in all tissues of calves fed the 1500 ppM lead diets, and differences were significant in pancreas, heart, and testicle. A significant decrease was noted in pancreatic zinc in pancreas of calves fed 500 ppM lead. Tissue zinc-65 concentrations were decreased significantly by lead in the tibia and muscle. Intestinal tissue zinc was not affected materially by lead. Dietary lead had very little effect on cellular distribution of zinc in the liver and kidney. In the mucosal cells of the small intestine, lead increased zinc-65 in the cytosol while decreasing it in the crude nuclear fraction. This effect occurred in a linear fashion in all three sections of the small intestine as dietary lead increased.

  8. The effects of different levels of dietary lead on zinc metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    White, F D; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P; Miller, W J; Logner, K R; Blackmon, D M

    1985-05-01

    The effects of feeding diets containing 500 or 1500 ppm added lead as lead sulfate on zinc and zinc-65 metabolism in Holstein bull calves were investigated. Zinc absorption was slightly (not significantly) reduced in the calves fed lead. Fecal zinc excretion was increased by the lead diets by day 24 of the experiment. Dietary lead had no significant effect on zinc in blood. Except for the tibia, muscle, and brain, stable zinc decreased in all tissues of calves fed the 1500 ppm lead diets, and differences were significant in pancreas, heart, and testicle. A significant decrease was noted in pancreatic zinc in pancreas of calves fed 500 ppm lead. Tissue zinc-65 concentrations were decreased significantly by lead in the tibia and muscle. Intestinal tissue zinc was not affected materially by lead. Dietary lead had very little effect on cellular distribution of zinc in the liver and kidney. In the mucosal cells of the small intestine, lead increased zinc-65 in the cytosol while decreasing it in the crude nuclear fraction. This effect occurred in a linear fashion in all three sections of the small intestine as dietary lead increased. PMID:3842859

  9. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  10. Cardiovascular and blood coagulative effects of pulmonary zinc exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McGee, John K. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Richards, Judy H. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov

    2006-02-15

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were instilled intratracheally with saline or zinc sulfate, 131 {mu}g/kg (2 {mu}mol/kg); the alterations were determined at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h postexposure. High-dose zinc enabled us to show changes in circulating levels of zinc above normal and induce significant pulmonary inflammation/injury such that cardiac impairments were likely. At 1-24 h postexposure, plasma levels of zinc increased to nearly 20% above the base line. Significant pulmonary inflammation and injury were determined by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology in zinc-exposed rats at all time points. Starting at 4 h postexposure, pulmonary damage was accompanied by persistently increased gene expressions of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but not thrombomodulin (TM). Cardiac tissues demonstrated similar temporal increases in expressions of TF, PAI-1, and TM mRNA following pulmonary instillation of zinc. In contrast to extensive pulmonary edema and inflammation, only mild, and focal acute, myocardial lesions developed in a few zinc-exposed rats; no histological evidence showed increased deposition of fibrin or disappearance of troponin. At 24 and 48 h postexposure to zinc, increases occurred in levels of systemic fibrinogen and the activated partial thromboplastin time. These data suggest that cardiovascular blood coagulation impairments are likely following pulmonary zinc exposure and associated pulmonary injury and inflammation.

  11. Roasting of La Oroya Zinc Ferrite with Na2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Preston C.; Etsell, Thomas H.; Murland, Andrea L.

    2007-10-01

    The possibility of metals recovery from zinc ferrite residues using transformational roasting processes was examined by roasting zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru’s La Oroya plant (Peru), containing 19.5 pct Zn, 26.6 pct Fe, 750 g/t In, and 520 g/t Ga, with Na2CO3 and leaching with 200 g/L H2SO4 solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diagnostic leaching tests indicate that approximately 87 pct of the zinc in this residue is present as franklinite (ZnFe2O4), with the remaining zinc present as entrained ZnSO4 or unleached ZnO. Both preliminary and design of experiments (DOE) testing, using a 22 central composite design (CCD), were performed to test the effects of temperature and a Na2CO3 addition on metals extraction and on the formation of minerals during roasting, and the solubility of these minerals during leaching. Both methods of testing showed that zinc and iron extractions increased with increasing temperature and Na2CO3 additions over the range of conditions tested. Roasting at 950 °C and 80 pct Na2CO3 produced a roasted residue from which 99 pct of the Zn, 88 pct In, and 85 pct Ga could be recovered by leaching, but from which up to 81 pct Fe was also dissolved. Mineralogical analysis using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that, for these conditions, ZnFe2O4 decomposes in the presence of Na2CO3 to form ZnO and either ?-NaFeO2 or ?-NaFeO2. Some of the ZnO formed reacts with Na2CO3 and silicates in the residue to form Na2ZnSiO4 and some unreacted Na2CO3/Na2O/Na2SO4 was also identified after roasting using SEM/EDX. All these phases are dissolved in acid leaching, leaving unreacted ZnFe2O4 and precipitated PbSO4 as the only phases identified in the leach residues. These results indicate that NaFeO2 is formed preferentially to Fe2O3 during roasting and that the NaFeO2 formed during roasting is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The results were also compared with studies on the roasting of more ZnFe2O4-deficient electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts with Na2CO3 or NaOH and indicated that, although roasting with Na2CO3 required higher roasting temperatures to achieve high zinc extractions, much lower Na2CO3 additions are required and higher indium recoveries are possible, if the combination of Na2CO3 roasting and H2SO4 leaching is used.

  12. Performance and Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics of a Sulfate-Reducing Fluidized-Bed Reactor Treating Acidic Metal-Containing Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. Kaksonen; Peter D. Franzmann; Jaakko A. Puhakka

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of simulated acidic wastewater (pH 2.5–5)containing sulfate (1.0–2.2 g l-1), zinc (15–340 mg l -1) and iron (57 mg l -1) was studied in a sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) at 35 °C.The original lactate feed for enrichment and maintenance\\u000a of the FBRculture was replaced stepwise with ethanol over 50 days. The robustnessof the process was studied by increasing

  13. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

  14. Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Inamdar; S. H. Mujawar; V. Ganesan; P. S. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed

  15. Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K. (Univ. of Hong Kong)

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

  16. [The role of zinc in the treatment of hyperactivity disorder in children].

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curkovi?, Katarina; Dovhanj, Jasna; Curkovi?, Mario; Dodig-Radi?, Josipa; Degmeci?, Dunja

    2009-10-01

    Zinc is an essential cofactor of more than 100 enzymes, including metalloenzymes and metalloenzyme complexes, which are necessary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins and nucleic acids. It is an important factor in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, and for maintaining brain structure and function. Dopamine is one of the most important factors in the pathophysiology of hyperactivity disorder, and the hormone melatonin has an important role in the regulation of dopamine. Because zinc is necessary in the metabolism of melatonin, it can be assumed that zinc is a very important factor in the treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is known that deficit of some minerals and vitamins is connected with hyperkinetic disorder. Preliminary investigations in humans show that many children with ADHD have lower zinc concentration in relation to healthy children. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate has favorable effects in the treatment of ADHD children, pointing to the possible association of zinc deficit and ADHD pathophysiology. Zinc concentration can only point to some other factors (malnutrition) that can lead to ADHD, but is not a factor that has a causative role in ADHD. Therefore, zinc supplementation to nutrition or to ADHD therapy may be of great benefit in ADHD children with zinc deficit or low plasma zinc concentration. ADHD occurs in different cultures, mostly before seven years of age. In children younger than five years it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis because their behavior is more variable than in older children. Hyperactive disorder is mostly observed in younger age, i.e. in childhood and adolescence. The majority of the main characteristics are less pronounced or completely lost in adult age. In the 1960s, the disorder was named "minimal cerebral dysfunction" and was most often the consequence of head trauma or low birth weight. Later, the term was changed as hyperactive reaction in childhood. Recent studies estimate its prevalence to three of ten hyperactive children, and there are data that about 4% of children have the complete frame of the disorder. The condition is more common in boys than in girls. The reason probably lies in the fact that girls primarily develop attention disorder and cognitive problems (concentration, memory, thinking), and less often have symptoms of aggressive and impulsive behavior, thus boys being earlier referred for examination. There are many theories about the possible origin of hyperactive disorder, and one of the most widely studied is the theory of the role of dopamine, which is supported by the results of treatment in these children with dopamine agonists like methylphenidate and amphetamines. Recent studies do not neglect the influence of maternal intake of food and drink additives, alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy, soil contamination, and low birth weight. Zinc is a coenzyme of the enzyme delta-6 desaturase, which is important in the anabolism of polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, linolic and linolenic acids that constitute neuronal membrane. Studies point to the possible association of zinc deficiency and ADHD pathophysiology. In ADHD children with zinc deficiency or low plasma zinc concentration, zinc dietary supplementation or during therapy for ADHD may be of great benefit. A study of ADHD treatment with zinc sulfate as a supplement to methylphenidate showed beneficial effects of zinc supplementation in the treatment of children with ADHD. The dose of zinc sulfate used was 55 mg/day, which is equivalent to 15 mg zinc. The improvement achieved in ADHD children with the use of zinc sulfate appears to confirm the role of zinc deficiency in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD. Additional studies are needed to identify the real and efficient dose of zinc. PMID:20034331

  17. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  18. Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

    1984-10-01

    Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred.

  19. Intracellular Distribution of Zinc and Zinc65 in Calves Receiving High but Nontoxic Amounts of Zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; R. P. Gentry; M. W. Neathery; D. L. Hampton

    1976-01-01

    The zinc homeostatic control break- down in cattle fed a high but nontoxic amount of zinc was investigated. Liver copper was decreased by the 600 ppm added dietary zinc indicating altered cop- per metabolism. However, duodenal copper, liver and duodenal iron and man- ganese were not affected. Zinc-65 in blood was reduced 90% by the high dietary zinc 48 h

  20. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  1. The effect of zinc methionine or copper lysine on stocker calves grazing oat pastures 

    E-print Network

    Griffeth, Laura Ann

    1993-01-01

    for growth and the prevention of anemia in rats since 1928 (Hart et al. , 1928). Many 12 experiments soon followed providing evidence of copper's essentiality for growth and prevention of a wide range of clinical and pathological disorders in many... in swine when 250 ppm copper as copper sulfate was added. The high level of copper can lead to anemia, copper toxicity, or zinc deficiency unless the diets contain adequate iron and zinc as antagonists. One hundred and fifty ppm of both iron and zinc can...

  2. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  3. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

    2006-02-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

  4. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  5. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  6. Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-11

    Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

  7. The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-12-01

    A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

  8. Effect of Zinc, Zinc Oxide and Zinc Borate on the Flammability of Polycarbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramazan Benrashid; Gordon L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm; Leland W. Chew

    1995-01-01

    Polycarbonate was blended with zinc, zinc borate (2ZnO·3B2O 3·3.5H2O) and zinc oxide. Blends made of zinc\\/polycarbonate and especially zinc borate\\/polycarbonate show major improvement in oxygen index values. Ohio State University (OSU) heat release studies show reduction in heat release only for zinc borate\\/polycarbonate blends compared to virgin polycarbonate. No improvement in smoke suppression was observed from NBS Smoke Chamber studies

  9. Synthesis of Different Zinc and Zinc Included Nanostructures by High Power Copper Vapor Laser Ablation in Water- Surfactants Solutions

    E-print Network

    Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Borodina, Tatyana; Valyano, E G; Gololobova, O A

    2011-01-01

    The data of experimental studies of optical characteristics of colloidal solutions, composition and morphology of its dispersed phase, resulting from laser ablation of zinc in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants --- sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) are presented. It is shown that by studying the optical absorption spectra of the colloid, X-ray spectra and AFM-images of extracted from colloid solid phase, it is possible to trace the dynamics of ZnO nanostructures formation from zinc nanoclasters size of several nanometers to ZnO fractal aggregates (FA) size up to hundreds of nanometers. Determinants of this process are the average power and an ablation exposure, the frequency of the laser pulses, the colloid aging time, the type and concentration of surfactant in solution. In the selection of appropriate regimes, along with zinc oxide obtained other nanoproducts --- hydrozincit and organo-inorganic layered composite \\ce{[(\\beta) - Zn(OH)2 + SDS]}.

  10. Use of poly(lactic acid) amendments to promote the bacterial fixation of metals in zinc smelter tailings.

    PubMed

    Edenborn, H M

    2004-04-01

    The ability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to serve as a long-term source of lactic acid for bacterial sulfate reduction activity in zinc smelter tailings was investigated. Solid PLA polymers mixed in water hydrolyzed abiotically to release lactic acid into solution over an extended period of time. The addition of both PLA and gypsum was required for indigenous bacteria to lower redox potential, raise pH, and stimulate sulfate reduction activity in highly oxidized smelter tailings after one year of treatment. Bioavailable cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were all lowered significantly in PLA/gypsum treated soil, but PLA amendments alone increased the bioavailability of lead, nickel and zinc. Similar PLA amendments may be useful in constructed wetlands and reactive barrier walls for the passive treatment of mine drainage, where enhanced rates of bacterial sulfate reduction are desirable. PMID:14693443

  11. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

    2006-01-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

  12. Mechanism of zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Oberleas, D

    1996-06-01

    Homeostatic equilibrium of a nutrient is characteristic of a healthy body. For zinc, phytate has been shown to alter that equilibrium in several monogastric species including man. The pancreas is an important organ in the maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Elevated calcium has been shown to be a synergistic agent in affecting the rate of onset and rate of homeostatic change. In the studies described, rats were depleted of zinc to differing extents, zinc was injected intraperitoneally to label the endogenous zinc pool. Phytate- and nonphytate-containing protein diets were fed and feces were collected. Feces were counted for radioactivity. The ratios of radioactivity (phytate:nonphytate) indicated that the major effect of phytate was on the endogenous secreted pool. Evidence is included to indicate that two, pancreatic labile pools of zinc are secreted, one is stable complexes not affected by phytate and two, a labile pool of zinc readily available for complexation. A mathematical model is included that fits all nutritional models for zinc homeostasis. PMID:8676101

  13. Cleavage in zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kamdar

    1971-01-01

    It is known that cleavage cracks initiate and propagate in the same (0001) plane in zinc crystals. This suggested that if\\u000a conditions are ideal for brittle fracture then ?I, the energy to iniate a cleavage crack in the (0001) plane in zinc should be the same as ?p that to propagate the crack in the same plane. If fracture is

  14. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  15. Recovery of cadmium, zinc, and lead from lead smelter flue dusts. Report of investigations\\/1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Miller; T. L. Hebble; D. L. Paulson

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has developed a technique to separate and recover the three major components, Pb, Zn, and Cd, from lead smelter flue dust. The laboratory process utilizes sulfation roasting of the flue dust followed by water leaching to extract over 95 pct of the cadmium and zinc. Ninety-nine percent of the cadmium was recovered from solution by cementing

  16. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  17. Separation of Cadmium and Zinc by Supported Liquid Membrane Using TOPS?99 as Mobile Carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basudev Swain; Kadambini Sarangi; Radhanath Prasad Das

    2005-01-01

    The separation of cadmium and zinc from a dilute aqueous sulfate media using supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique has been studied. The microporous polypropylene film Celgard?2400 was used as the solid support for the liquid membrane and TOPS?99 was used as the mobile carrier. The effect of different parameters such as flow rate, pH of feed solution, extractant concentration in

  18. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

  19. Recovery of zinc from Cd–Ni zinc plant residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Sadegh Safarzadeh; Davood Moradkhani; Pedram Ashtari

    2009-01-01

    As the scope of the present work, zinc which is engaged in Cd–Ni zinc plant residues has been successfully recovered. While zinc contained in Cd–Ni filtercake has a considerable economic value, cadmium present in the material is one of the major sources of cadmium contamination of the environment. A novel hydrometallurgical technique was utilized for the separation of zinc from

  20. Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

    2003-01-01

    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

  1. Intracellular distribution of zinc and zinc-65 in calves receiving high but nontoxic amounts of zinc.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Hampton, D L

    1976-03-01

    The zinc homeostatic control breakdown in cattle fed a high but nontoxic amount of zinc was investigated. Liver copper was decreased by the 600 ppm added dietary zinc indicating altered copper metabolism. However, duodenal copper, liver and duodenal iron and manganese were not affected. Zinc-65 in blood was reduced 90% by the high dietary zinc 48 h following oral zinc-65 dosing. The 600 ppm supplemental zinc increased zinc by 500% in liver, 20 times in pancreas and kidney, and 100% in the duodenum. The increased liver and duodenal zinc was confined largely to the soluble cell fraction. This concentrating of excess tissue zinc in the soluble fraction may be an adaptive mechanism which detoxifies large quantities of zinc and prevents disruption of normal cellular activity. PMID:1262572

  2. Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-06-14

    The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

  3. Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.

    1990-03-01

    Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25°C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 ± 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 ± 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 ± 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 ±0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25°C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 × 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4 ·5H2...

  5. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  6. Physiological Requirements for Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    The estimates of zinc physiological requirements by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) in 2004 were conspicuously low in comparison with those estimated by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2001. The objective of this review is to explore the reasons for this gap and to reflect on lessons learned. All estimates of inevitable losses of endogenous zinc, especially intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc, were reviewed. An error in zinc menstrual losses, as well as a minor error in the linear regression of endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) vs. total daily zinc absorption (TAZ) by IOM, were corrected. The review revealed an error by IZiNCG in selecting two data points for the linear regression of EFZ on TAZ. A second major reason for the “gap” is attributable to weighting of the data in the regression analysis by number of subjects per study by IZiNCG. Adjusting for these factors, together with use of the same reference data for body weights, resulted in satisfactory agreement between the two estimates of physiological requirements. The lessons to be learned from this review are discussed together with suggestions for future action by IOM as well as a constructive role for IZiNCG. PMID:22002220

  7. Preliminary study of combination therapy with interferon-? and zinc in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeaki Nagamine; Hitoshi Takagi; Hisashi Takayama; Akira Kojima; Satoru Kakizaki; Masatomo Mori; Katuyuki Nakajima

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of interferon-? (IFN-?) plus zinc therapy in hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b, poor responders\\u000a for IFN alone. Ten patients were injected with 10 MU of IFN-? every day for 4 wk, followed by three times a week for 20 wk\\u000a (control group). Nine patients took 300 mg of zinc sulfate a day orally during

  8. Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

  9. Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

  10. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of selenium- and zinc-enriched oyster mushroom in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Chang, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Selenium and zinc are well-known essential trace elements with potent biological functions. However, the possible health benefits of the combined administration of dietary selenium and zinc have not been studied extensively. In this study, we prepared selenium- and zinc-enriched mushrooms (SZMs) containing increased levels of selenium and zinc. The effects of SZMs on antioxidant and antitumor activities were evaluated. Mice were fed with either a control diet or a diet supplemented with SZMs or sodium selenite and zinc sulfate for 6 weeks. Antioxidant capacity was investigated by measuring the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxide products. Results showed that treatment with SZMs significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin. Furthermore, using a mouse model of lung tumors, we found that SZMs significantly decreased the number of tumor nodes with an increase in the activity of GPx. SZMs had a greater effect on the increase in both antioxidant and antitumor activities than did sodium selenite and zinc sulfate. These findings suggest that SZMs may be effective for improving antioxidant capacity and preventing tumors. PMID:22639385

  11. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  12. Oral zinc therapy for zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ono, Fumitake; Ishii, Norito; Abe, Toshifumi; Ohyama, Bungo; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is crucial for maintaining human body homeostasis and is one of the major components of hormones, signal molecules, and enzymes. Zinc deficiency is caused by insufficient uptake of zinc from food, or caused by malabsorption syndromes, increased gastrointestinal and urinary losses, and administration of various medications. In order to test whether oral zinc administration can successfully improve zinc deficiency-related alopecia, we treated five patients with zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium with oral zinc administration in the form of polaprezinc (Promac®). In all patients, hair loss was cured or improved. The administration of zinc for zinc deficiency-related alopecia may recover appropriate activities of metalloenzymes, hedgehog signaling, and immunomodulation, all of which are required for normal control of hair growth cycle. PMID:22741940

  13. Clear Zinc Pyrithione Preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERRY GERSTEIN

    Synopsis--ZINC PYRITHIONE, also kn,own as zinc pyridine-2-thiol-l-oxide, has been es- tablished as an effective ANTISEBORRHEIC AGENT. Because of its limited aqueous solubility it is currently being marketed as a suspension in hair-cleansing and hair-grooming preparations. A method has been developed in which clear, aqueous (as well as nonaqueous) products can be prepared. The method is based upon the COMPLEXATION of

  14. Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Sulfate Brines and the Astrobiological Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, C. L.; Chevrier, V. F.; Ivey, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    We suggest sulfate-reducing bacteria as a model for life on Mars, as sulfate brines have been shown to be stable in martian conditions. We have performed experiments to determine the survivability of these bacteria in high sulfate concentrations.

  15. ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

    2014-04-01

    The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface. PMID:24611747

  16. Effect of polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc), a novel antiulcer agent containing zinc, on cellular proliferation: role of insulin-like growth factor I.

    PubMed

    Seto, K; Yoneta, T; Suda, H; Tamaki, H

    1999-07-15

    The effect of polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc), a novel antiulcer drug containing zinc, on cellular proliferation was studied using cultured cells. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or human foreskin fibroblast cells, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and the number of cells were increased by polaprezinc under low serum conditions, but polaprezinc had no effect on guinea pig gastric mucosal epithelial cells. In addition, L-carnosine (a component of polaprezinc) had no effect on cultured HUVEC, while zinc sulfate, a representative zinc compound, increased BrdU uptake by about 2-fold at 10(-9) M. However, the action of zinc sulfate was weaker than that of polaprezinc. The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA level was increased in HUVEC by polaprezinc at 10(-9) M approximately 3 x 10(-8) M concentrations, causing stimulation of BrdU uptake. When an anti-IGF-I antibody was added to cultures, the effects of polaprezinc on BrdU uptake was suppressed. These results suggest that although polaprezinc, a novel antiulcer agent, does not have proliferative effects on epithelial cells, it does promote the proliferation of non-parenchymal cells, and IGF-I is involved in this action. PMID:10423164

  17. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on iron absorption in asymptomatic adults consuming wheat flour fortified with iron and zinc.

    PubMed

    López de Romaña, Daniel; Pizarro, Fernando; Diazgranados, Doricela; Barba, Armando; Olivares, Manuel; Brunser, Oscar

    2011-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection could impair iron absorption from fortified products. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of H. pylori infection on iron absorption from asymptomatic adults consuming wheat flour fortified with iron and zinc. The (13)C urea breath test was used to assess H. pylori infection. Twenty-four H. pylori-positive and 26 H. pylori-negative volunteers completed the study. On day 1, the subjects were randomized to receive for breakfast bread fortified with either ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate or ferrous fumarate and zinc oxide. Bread fortified with ferrous sulfate was labeled with (59)Fe as sulfate, and bread fortified with ferrous fumarate was labeled with (55)Fe as fumarate. On day 3, they received the other type of bread, with the respective tracers. On days 18-23, a proton pump inhibitor was administered to all subjects. On day 24, all subjects received bread fortified with ferrous fumarate and zinc oxide labeled with (55)Fe as fumarate. H. pylori prevalence was 77.6%. The geometric mean (±1 SD) of iron absorption was significantly higher for ferrous sulfate than fumarate (6.9?±?2.9% vs. 0.5?±?3.5%, p?sulfate (10.5?±?3.1% vs. 4.4?±?2.2%, p?zinc-fortified wheat flour. PMID:21748303

  18. Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

    Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

  19. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  20. Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Cher V.; Garcia, Robert J.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the 3rd experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO4 treatment or VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret. ZnSO4 treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor. PMID:19800371

  1. Biosynthesis of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate: unique substrate specificity of heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinghua Chen; Michael B. Duncan; Kevin Carrick; R. Marshall Pope; Jian Liu

    2003-01-01

    Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase transfers sulfate to the 3-OH position of a glucosamine to generate 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS), which is a rare component in HS from natural sources. We previously reported that 3-O- sulfotransferase isoform 5 (3-OST-5) generates both an antithrombin-binding site to exhibit anticoagulant activity and a binding site for herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein D to serve as

  2. Imaging mobile zinc in biology

    E-print Network

    Tomat, Elisa

    Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

  3. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. McLarnon; Elton J. Cairns

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc\\/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc\\/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and

  4. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  5. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  6. Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  7. Status of copper sulfate - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. The update will include information and dates for both the initial labe...

  8. Phosphate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Amine; Giuseppe Palleschi

    2004-01-01

    Construction and assembly of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate biosensors has been reviewed to give readers up?to?date information on the state of the art in this area which is becoming more and more important for the solution of practical problems faced in the monitoring of food safety and the environment. Special attention was paid concerning the papers published during the last

  9. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  10. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  11. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  12. Sulfate reduction below the sulfate-methane transition in Black Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey, Jr.; Vogt, Christoph; Vamvakopoulos, Kyriakos; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2011-05-01

    A sudden increase in salinity about 7000 years ago caused a shift in the deposited sediments of the Black Sea from limnic to brackish-marine. Due to the development of an anoxic deep water basin and a relatively high sulfate concentration, organic matter is mineralized primarily through sulfate reduction in modern Black Sea sediments. Earlier studies showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria are abundant within the limnic sub-surface sediment in spite of extremely low concentrations of sulfate and organic carbon. A main objective of the present study was therefore to understand the depth distribution of sulfate reduction across the different sediment units, even deep below the sulfate-methane transition. Our study combined experimental measurements of sulfate reduction using 35S radiotracer with analyses of sulfur and iron geochemistry in pore water and sediment. Potential sulfate reduction rates were measured with 35S in sediment samples that were amended with sulfate and organic substrates and incubated in time-series up to 48 h. Sulfate reduction could thereby be detected and quantified at depths where concentrations of sulfate were otherwise too low to enable calculation of the rates. The results demonstrate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are active several meters below the sulfate-methane transition in Black Sea sediments. The cryptic sulfate reduction below the sulfate-methane transition may be driven by sulfate produced from re-oxidation of reduced sulfur species with oxidized iron minerals buried in the deep limnic sediment.

  13. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  14. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

  15. Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warounsak Liamleam; Ajit P. Annachhatre

    2007-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates

  16. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser

    1995-01-01

    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will determine the endproduct of the anaerobic mineralisation proces: methane or sulfide.The occurrence of the sulfate reduction proces is often considered unwanted due

  17. Zinc Supplementation with Polaprezinc Protects Mouse Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity via Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tadashi; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Nakada, Junya; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine, is clinically used as a medicine for gastric ulcers. It has been shown that induction of heat shock protein (HSP) is involved in protective effects of polaprezinc against gastric mucosal injury. In the present study, we investigated whether polaprezinc and its components could induce HSP70 and prevent acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with polaprezinc, zinc sulfate or l-carnosine at the concentration of 100 microM for 9 h, and then exposed to 10 mM APAP. Polaprezinc or zinc sulfate increased cellular HSP70 expression. However, l-carnosine had no influence on it. Pretreatment of the cells with polaprezinc or zinc sulfate significantly suppressed cell death as well as cellular lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment. In contrast, pretreatment with polaprezinc did not affect decrease in intracellular glutathione after APAP. Furthermore, treatment with KNK437, an HSP inhibitor, attenuated increase in HSP70 expression induced by polaprezinc, and abolished protective effect of polaprezinc on cell death after APAP. These results suggested that polaprezinc, in particular its zinc component, induces HSP70 expression in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes, and inhibits lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP toxicity. PMID:20104264

  18. Zinc Supplementation with Polaprezinc Protects Mouse Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity via Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Tadashi; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Nakada, Junya; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine, is clinically used as a medicine for gastric ulcers. It has been shown that induction of heat shock protein (HSP) is involved in protective effects of polaprezinc against gastric mucosal injury. In the present study, we investigated whether polaprezinc and its components could induce HSP70 and prevent acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with polaprezinc, zinc sulfate or l-carnosine at the concentration of 100 µM for 9 h, and then exposed to 10 mM APAP. Polaprezinc or zinc sulfate increased cellular HSP70 expression. However, l-carnosine had no influence on it. Pretreatment of the cells with polaprezinc or zinc sulfate significantly suppressed cell death as well as cellular lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment. In contrast, pretreatment with polaprezinc did not affect decrease in intracellular glutathione after APAP. Furthermore, treatment with KNK437, an HSP inhibitor, attenuated increase in HSP70 expression induced by polaprezinc, and abolished protective effect of polaprezinc on cell death after APAP. These results suggested that polaprezinc, in particular its zinc component, induces HSP70 expression in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes, and inhibits lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP toxicity. PMID:20104264

  19. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  20. Effect of COD\\/Sulfate Ratios on Batch Anaerobic Digestion Using Sulfate-Reduction Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng-heng Cao; Hong-guo Zhang; Ding-gui Luo; Yong-heng Chen

    2011-01-01

    A study on effects of the COD\\/sulfate ratio on characteristics of sulfate-reduction bacteria (SRB) in activated sludge of a UASB reactor was performed in batch anaerobic digestion experiment. Changes of pH in samples were 7.22~8.17 which was beneficial to the growth of SRB with high sulfate removal efficiency. Sulfate reduction efficiencies of COD\\/sulfate ratios from 0.43 to 3.03 were 18.7(R1),

  1. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  2. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  3. Long-term effects of a combination of D-penicillamine and zinc salts in the treatment of Wilson’s disease in children

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, HONG; XU, AIJING; CHEN, ZHIHONG; ZHANG, YING; TIAN, FEI; LI, TANG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a high-dose zinc sulfate and low-dose D-penicillamine combination in the treatment of pediatric Wilson’s disease (WD). A retropective chart review of 65 patients with WD was conducted. These patients received D-penicillamine (8–10 mg/kg/day) and zinc sulfate as the primary treatment. The pediatric dose of elemental zinc is 68–85 mg/day until 6 years of age, 85–136 mg/day until 8 years of age, 136–170 mg/day until 10 years of age and then 170 mg/day, in 3 divided doses 1 h before meals. After clinical and biochemical improvement or stabilization, zinc sulfate alone was administered as the maintenance therapy. Under treatment, the majority of patients (89.2%) had a favourable outcome and 3 patients succumbed due to poor therapy compliance. No penicillamine-induced neurological deterioration was noted and side-effects were observed in <11% of patients over the entire follow-up period. Benefical results on the liver and neurological symptoms were reported following extremely long-term treatment with a combination of low-dose D-penicillamine and high-dose zinc sulfate. Therefore, this regimen is an effective and safe treatment for children with WD. PMID:23599735

  4. Identification and culture of olfactory neural progenitors from GFP mice.

    PubMed

    Othman, M M; Klueber, K M; Roisen, F J

    2003-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the best sources for obtaining adult stem cells from the nervous system, because it contains neural progenitors that regenerate continuously throughout life. The OE is accessible through the nasal cavity, which facilitates stem cell harvest for examination and transplantation. The mitotic activity of OE progenitors can be stimulated by intranasal irrigation with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). In the study reported here, we focused on OE from a transgenic mouse line transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Histological examination demonstrated the site of highest yield of OE in the transgenic and wild type littermates. Cultures were established from that site four days in vitro following ZnSO4 exposure. The GFP-derived primary cultures contained a heterogeneous population of fluorescent cells. After 10-12 days, a population of round, mitotically active cells emerged that formed fluorescent neurospheres. The neurosphere forming cells (NSFCs) were collected and subcultured up to four times. The NSFCs were primarily neuronal with only a few cells of glial lineage. Furthermore, the NSFCs were nestin positive and keratin negative, suggesting that they were neural progenitors. The endogenous GFP fluorescence of these cells provides a readily identifiable label that will facilitate their identification following transplantation into nontransfected hosts. They should provide a useful model for evaluating the potential therapeutic utility of OE progenitors in neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma repair. PMID:14533842

  5. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ? 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be accelerated. PMID:23689111

  6. Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Shawky H.

    1993-01-01

    Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

  7. Effects of iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins on the activity and contents of human placental copper/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Hunaiti, A A; Saleh, M S

    1996-09-01

    One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women, ages 15-45 yr, were divided into three groups. Group A was orally given one spansule per day containing 150 mg dried ferrous sulfate, 61.8 mg zinc sulfate, and 500 micrograms folic acid, starting from the first 4 wk of pregnancy and ending at the day of delivery. Similarly, group B was given one tablet containing 625 mg calcium carbonate, 1000 mg vitamin C, 300 IU Vitamin D, 1350 mg citric acid, and 15 mg Vitamin B6. Group C was without any supplements and served as a control. Mothers who received iron/zinc supplements (group A) during pregnancy had significantly higher copper/zinc superoxide dismutase activity in their placentae than calcium/vitamin-supplemented mothers (group B) or unsupplemented mothers (group C). The enzyme activity increased with age of the mothers from 15 to 40 yr, then decreased after in both supplemented groups, whereas this increase and decrease occurred at early age in the unsupplemented group. Immunochemical quantitation of the enzyme contents showed no significant difference between the supplemented and unsupplemented groups, suggesting that the observed increase in the enzyme activity might arise from posttranslational processing of the enzyme. The placental manganese superoxide dismutase activity and contents, however, were similar in the supplemented groups, whereas they were slightly higher in the unsupplemented group; the overall superoxide dismutase-like activities in the placentae were the highest in iron-zinc supplemented group and the lowest in the unsupplemented group. PMID:8909696

  8. Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Liamleam, Warounsak; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2007-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates are more stable than metal hydroxides that are sensitive to pH change. Theoretically, conversion of 1 mol of sulfate requires 0.67 mol of chemical oxygen demand or electron donors. Sulfate rich wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require external addition of electron donors in order to achieve complete sulfate reduction. This paper reviews various electron donors employed in biological sulfate reduction. Widely used electron donors include hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, sugar, and molasses. The selection criteria for suitable electron donors are discussed. PMID:17572039

  9. Sulfate-selective PVC membrane electrode based on a strontium Schiff's base complex.

    PubMed

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Gol-Mohammadi, Mahmood; Mizani, Farhang; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Morteza; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2003-01-01

    A strontium Schiff's base complex (SS) can be used as a suitable ionophore to prepare a sulfate-selective PVC-based membrane electrode. The use of oleic acid (OA) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB), as additives, and nitrobenzen (NB), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzyl acetate (BA) as solvent mediators, were investigated. The best performance was observed with a membrane composition PVC: NB: SS: HTAB of 30%: 62%: 5%: 3% ratio. The resulting sensor works well over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10(-2)-1.0 x 10(-6) M) with a Nernstian slope of -29.2 mV per decade of sulfate activity over a pH range 4.0-7.0. The limit of detection of the electrode is 5 x 10(-7) M. The proposed sensor shows excellent discriminating ability toward SO4(2-) ions with regard to many anions. It has a fast response time of about 15 s. The membrane electrode was used to the determination of zinc in zinc sulfate tablets. The sensor was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of SO4(2-) against barium ion. PMID:12940601

  10. Effect of Zinc and Dolomite Treatments on the Chemical Composition of Acid Sandy Soil and Bean Crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Tóth

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the application of 4,500 kg ha dolomite with or without 40 kg ha ZnSO4 7H2O on the elemental composition of bean and soil as well as on agronomic properties of the crop were examined in a pot experiment. The application of dolomite increased soil ammonium lactate–extractable magnesium content threefold and that of calcium by 80%. Application of

  11. Impact of Trace Element Changes on Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Healthy and Diabetic States among MiddleAge and Elderly Egyptians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noha M. El Husseiny; Elham Sobhy Said; Naglaa El Shahat Mohamed; Azza Ismail Othman

    The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium,\\u000a copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is\\u000a the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups:

  12. [Transient zinc deficiency in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Benedix, F; Hermann, U; Brod, C; Metzler, G; Sönnichsen, C; Röcken, M; Schaller, M

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element and necessary for various cellular functions. Preterm infants may have a negative zinc balance and are therefore especially susceptible for symptomatic zinc deficiency. We report on a preterm child with distinct clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency confirmed by histology and laboratory analysis who quickly healed with oral zinc therapy. PMID:17924083

  13. Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

  14. Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2013-10-28

    The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ~235 °C. At ~360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ~800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds. PMID:23963063

  15. Effect of high amounts of dietary zinc and age upon tissue zinc in young chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; L. S. Jensen; D. L. Hampton; M. W. Neathery; R. P. Gentry

    1976-01-01

    Weight gains of young broiler chicks were not reduced by up to 2400 ppm added zinc fed to four weeks of age. Tissue zinc was not changed significantly by 600 or 1200 ppm supplement dietary zinc, but at 2400 ppm added zinc, blood, kidney, and liver zinc were significantly elevated (P < 0.05). In the heart, zinc was not affected

  16. Inhibition of soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolase by zinc and other metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison J. Draper; Bruce D. Hammock

    1999-01-01

    21 were weak inhibitors of both mEH and sEH (less than 50 % inhibition by 1 mM metal). Six anions (acetate, bromide, chloride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) were tested and found to have no effect on the inhibition of sEH or mEH by cations. The kinetics and type of inhibition for zinc inhibition of sEH and mEH were examined for

  17. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  18. Zinc oxide hexagram microrods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Xing-Yuan; Ding Zhan-Hui; Zhou Jing; Xu Da-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods were grown by the floating zone method, the as-grown ZnO microrods have uniform size. Scanning electron microscope image reveals that the ZnO microrods are grown with a hexagonal structure, well faceted ends and side surfaces. Most of ZnO microrods have diameters of about 20-30Jlm and lengths of about 1-2 mm. Polarizing microscopy image of ZnO microrods

  19. Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2012-05-01

    Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

  20. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  1. Zinc-silylene complexes.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sebastian; Köppe, Ralf; Gamer, Michael T; Roesky, Peter W

    2014-10-01

    Reactions of the chlorosilylene [PhC(N(t)Bu)2]SiCl (SiCl) and the aryl and alkyl zincorganyls Zn(C5Me5)2, ZnPh2 and ZnEt2 resulted in the first Zn-silylene complexes. In all reactions the chlorine atom of the silylene and organic groups of the zinc atom are exchanged. By using Zn(C5Me5)2 and ZnPh2 one of the newly formed silylene coordinates to the zinc atom to give [PhC(N(t)Bu)2(?(1)-C5Me5)Si-Zn(?(2)-C5Me5)Cl] and [PhC(N(t)Bu)2PhSi-ZnPh(?-Cl)]2, respectively. In contrast, the reaction of SiCl with ZnEt2 resulted due the reduced steric demand of the silylene in the disilylene complex [PhC(N(t)Bu)2SiEt]2ZnCl2, in which both ethyl-moieties are exchanged by chlorides and two newly formed ethyl-silylenes coordinate to the zinc atom. PMID:25126653

  2. Commercial zinc-air batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Cretzmeyer; H. R. Espig; R. S. Melrose

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented indicating that zinc-air cells have twice the capacity of mercury and silver cells. Discharge and decay mechanisms are considered in detail and design data presented which allow optimization of any zinc-air cell for maximum capacity and tolerance to environmental conditions. Performance details for zinc-air button cells are compared with the three most common mercury and

  3. Lead, zinc, and their alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of lead and its alloys include improved batteries for electric vehicles, and lead-containing dampers that impart earthquake resistance to buildings and highway structures. For zinc, notable accomplishments include further development of zinc-coated steels for automotive and construction applications, and development of an extrusion process for zinc over steel pipe in the oil production industry.

  4. Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet

    E-print Network

    Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

  5. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

  6. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  7. Biotechnological Treatment of Sulfate-Rich Wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. L. Lens; A. Visser; A. J. H. Janssen; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate-rich wastewaters are generated by many industrial processes that use sulfuric acid or sulfate-rich feed stocks (e.g., fermentation or sea food processing industry). Also, the use of reduced sulfur compounds in industry, that is, sulfide (tanneries, kraft pulping), sulfite (sulfite pulping), or thiosulfate (pulp bleaching, fixing of photographs), contaminates wastewaters with sulfate. A major problem for the biological treatment of

  8. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    PubMed

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

  9. Fluidized Bed Selective Oxidation-Sulfation Roasting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrate: Part II. Sulfation Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dawei; Utigard, Torstein A.; Barati, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    The fluidized bed sulfation roasting process followed by water leaching was investigated as an alternative process to treat nickel sulfide concentrate for nickel production. The effects of several roasting parameters, such as the sulfation gas flow rate, roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, and the roasting time, were studied. 79 pct Ni, 91 pct Cu, and 95 pct Co could be recovered with minimal dissolution of Fe of 4 pct by water leaching after two-stage oxidation-sulfation roasting under optimized conditions. The sulfation roasting mechanism was investigated, showing that the outermost layer of sulfate melt and the porous iron oxide layer create a favorable sulfation environment with high partial pressure of SO3. Sulfation of the sulfide core was accompanied by the conversion of the sulfide from Ni1- x S to Ni7S6 as well as inward diffusion of the sulfation gas.

  10. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A. PMID:22140285

  11. Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bambic, D.G.; Alpers, C.N.; Green, P.G.; Fanelli, E.; Silk, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage.

  12. Influence of high dietary iron as ferrous carbonate and ferrous sulfate on iron metabolism in young calves.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Ho, S Y; Blackmon, D M

    1985-10-01

    Twelve intact male Holstein calves averaging 90 kg and 12 wk of age were fed one of three dietary treatments for 28 d. The diets were A) control, B) control plus 1000 ppm iron as ferrous carbonate, and C) control plus 1000 ppm iron as ferrous sulfate monohydrate. Calves were dosed orally on d 15 of the treatment period with 1 mCi of iron-59. Neither source of added iron had a significant effect on weight gains, feed consumption, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum total iron, serum total iron-binding capacity, unbound iron-binding capacity, serum copper, tissue copper, fecal dry matter, or a consistent effect on fecal pH. The ferrous carbonate had no significant effect on stable zinc or stable iron in any tissue studied. Calves fed ferrous sulfate had higher average stable iron in most tissues and significantly more in the small intestine. Tissue zinc was lower in spleen and pancreas of ferrous sulfate-fed calves. Both sources of added iron sharply reduced iron-59 in serum, whole blood, and body tissues. The reduction was substantially greater in calves fed the ferrous sulfate iron. Iron in ferrous sulfate had a higher biological availability than that in the ferrous carbonate; however, bioavailability of the ferrous carbonate iron appeared to be substantial and considerably more than that noted in previous studies in which a different source of ferrous carbonate was used. The maximum safe level of dietary iron is materially influenced by the source of iron with a higher tolerance indicated for ferrous carbonated than ferrous sulfate monohydrate. PMID:4067037

  13. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

  14. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    E-print Network

    of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have

  15. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinan Feng; Yuch Ping Hsieh

    1998-01-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated

  16. Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

    Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

  17. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  10. 21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

  11. Laser Raman Spectrum of Triglycine Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Galustian

    1973-01-01

    The laser Raman spectrum of ferroelectric triglycine sulfate has been determined by the use of an argon ion gas laser. The observed Raman lines are compared with reported assignments in the literature by Taurel and Krishnan, Determination of depolarization ratio of the sulfate line at 980 cm shows that the Raman band is highly polarizable and the molecular vibration is

  12. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil 

    E-print Network

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

  13. ESR and optical absorption spectra of Co 2+ ions in LiF?B 2O 3 and K 2SO 4?ZnSO 4 glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sreedhar; Ch. Sumalatha; H. Yamada; K. Kojima

    1996-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the structure of Co2+ ions in xLiF-(100?x)B2O3 and xK2SO4-(100?x)ZnSO4 glasses with 10 ? x ? 50 mol% using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and optical absorption techniques are reported. The ESR spectra of Co2+ doped LiF?B2O3 glasses at 4.2 K has a broad asymmetric line at g = 4.41 ± 0.02 and a broad

  14. Experimental study of sono-crystallisation of ZnSO 4 · 7 H 2 O , and interpretation by the segregation theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Harzali; F. Baillon; O. Louisnard; F. Espitalier; A. Mgaidi

    2011-01-01

    Power ultrasound is known to enhance crystals nucleation, and nucleation times can be reduced by one up to three orders of magnitude for several organic or inorganic crystals. The precise physics involved in this phenomenon still remains unclear, and various mechanisms involving the action of inertial cavitation bubbles have been proposed. In this paper, two of these mechanisms, pressure and

  15. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  16. Zinc absorption by and removal of certain adsorbed elements from pecan leaves

    E-print Network

    Smith, Morris Wade

    1972-01-01

    trees were growing one year after soil application of Zn and S. . . . . . . 3. Zn concentration in 'Western ' pecan leaflets from Allison Farms in El Paso County as influenced by source and rate o f ground foli ar Zn appli- cation in 19 70... by the pecan leaflets. Even different sources of Zn were utilized in this study to determine if a better source than standard ZnSO4 could be found. Materials and Nethods Ground Foliar Applications ~E* ' t . 1. T ty- 'W t ' t (20 years old) at the Allison...

  17. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

    2001-01-01

    Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

  18. Effect of high dietary zinc upon zinc metabolism and intracellular distribution in cows and calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; P. R. Fowler; R. P. Gentry; D. L. Hampton; M. W. Neathery

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of zinc were investigated in mature nonlactating Holstein cows and 4-mo old calves fed high but nontoxic amounts of dietary zinc. Increasing dietary zinc of calves from 42 to 642 ppm elevated the zinc content of liver and pancreas 600% and 1400%, respectively. The elevated zinc in liver and pancreas involved a substantial increase in all

  19. ZINC HYDROLYSIS IN AN AEROSOL QUARTZ REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Burg

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This work is about the use of a two-step thermochemical cycle to convert solar energy into chemical energy and fuel. Metals act here as energy carriers, in this case zinc. The first step reduces zinc oxide into zinc and oxygen by dissociation through solar irradiation. In the present study, the second exothermic step is investigated, where zinc is evaporated

  20. Sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycans encode molecular recognition and activity

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    to access homogeneous glycosaminoglycan structures. Here, we assembled well-defined chondroitin sulfate such an approach and provide evidence that chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans encode functional

  1. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  2. Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!

    PubMed Central

    Hershfinkel, Michal; Aizenman, Elias; Andrews, Glen; Sekler, Israel

    2010-01-01

    “Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field. PMID:20606213

  3. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  4. Determination of sulfates in diesel particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetzle, D.; Skewes, L.M.; Fisher, G.E.; Levine, S.P.; Gorse, R.A. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    Analytical techniques for the determination of total sulfates in diesel particulates are described utilizing the techniques of total combustion/nondispersive infrared (NDIR) detection and modified extraction/barium perchlorate-thorin titration (BPT). The combustion technique utilizes a commercially available sulfur analyzer (LECO-IR32) that requires less than 15 min for triplicate analysis and has a precision and accuracy of better than +- 5% for filter samples containing from 100 to 10,000 ..mu..g of sulfate. The combustion technique measures soluble and insoluble sulfate such as BaSO/sub 4/ and is not affected by the presence of large quantities of carbon in the particulate sample. The extraction efficiency for sulfates in diesel particulates using standard procedures was found to average 67% for samples containing only trace quantities of anions and 59% for samples containing stoichiometric levels of barium. These procedures have been modified to include ultrasonication with 2-proponal/water in order to overcome the problem of incomplete sulfate extraction. Extracted sulfate samples are then analyzed by using the BPT method. The extraction/BPT method showed an average recovery of 1.02 +- 0.12 (1 sigma) when compared to the combustion technique. ESCA studies showed that the chemical state of the surface sulfur species for the diesel particulates average 93 +- 3% sulfate and 7 +- 3% elemental sulfur.

  5. Zinc and the prooxidant heart failure phenotype.

    PubMed

    Efeovbokhan, Nephertiti; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Ahokas, Robert A; Sun, Yao; Guntaka, Ramareddy V; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Neurohormonal activation with attendant aldosteronism contributes to the clinical appearance of congestive heart failure (CHF). Aldosteronism is intrinsically coupled to Zn and Ca dyshomeostasis, in which consequent hypozincemia compromises Zn homeostasis and Zn-based antioxidant defenses that contribute to the CHF prooxidant phenotype. Ionized hypocalcemia leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid hormone-mediated Ca overloading of diverse cells, including cardiomyocytes. When mitochondrial Ca overload exceeds a threshold, myocyte necrosis follows. The reciprocal regulation involving cytosolic free [Zn]i as antioxidant and [Ca]i as prooxidant can be uncoupled in favor of Zn-based antioxidant defenses. Increased [Zn]i acts as a multifaceted antioxidant by: (1) inhibiting Ca entry through L-type channels and hence cardioprotectant from the Ca-driven mitochondriocentric signal-transducer effector pathway to nonischemic necrosis, (2) serving as catalytic regulator of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, and (3) activating its cytosolic sensor, metal-responsive transcription factor that regulates the expression of relevant antioxidant defense genes. Albeit present in subnanomolar range, increased cytosolic free [Zn]i enhances antioxidant capacity that confers cardioprotection. It can be achieved exogenously by ZnSO4 supplementation or endogenously using a ?3-receptor agonist (eg, nebivolol) that enhances NO generation to release inactive cytosolic Zn bound to metallothionein. By recognizing the pathophysiologic relevance of Zn dyshomeostasis in the prooxidant CHF phenotype and by exploiting the pharmacophysiologic potential of [Zn]i as antioxidant, vulnerable cardiomyocytes under assault from neurohormonal activation can be protected and the myocardium spared from adverse structural remodeling. PMID:25291496

  6. Studies of Sulfate Utilization by Algae

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, Robert C.; Schiff, Jerome A.; Mather, Jennie P.

    1971-01-01

    Seven mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Emerson strain 3) impaired for sulfate utilization have been isolated after treatment of the wild-type organism with nitrosoguanidine by replica plating on media containing thiosulfate and l-methionine. These mutants fall into three classes based on their ability to grow on sulfate, accumulate compounds labeled from sulfate-35S, and reduce adenosine 3?-phosphate 5?-phosphosulfate-35S (PAPS-35S) to thiosulfate-35S. Mutant Sat2? cannot grow on sulfate, but it accumulates thiosulfate-35S and homocysteic acid-35S from sulfate-35S in vivo. In addition, extracts of mutant Sat2? reduce PAPS-35S to thiosulfate-35S, indicating the possession of enzyme fractions S and A, both of which are required for thiosulfate formation. Mutants Sat1?, Sat3?, Sat4?, Sat5?, and Sat6? cannot grow on sulfate, and their extracts lack the ability to reduce PAPS-35S to thiosulfate-35S. Mutant Sat7?R1, a probable revertant, can grow on sulfate but still lacks the ability to reduce PAPS-35S to thiosulfate-35S in vitro. Complementation experiments in vitro show that the block in formation of acid-volatile radioactivity in every case is due to the absence of activity associated with fraction S. All mutants can grow on thiosulfate and all possess the activating enzymes which convert sulfate to PAPS. Through a comparison of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, the first outlines of a branched and complicated pathway for sulfate reduction in Chlorella are beginning to emerge. PMID:16657613

  7. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  8. Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Homayoon; Abshenas, Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old) male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12) or three treatment groups each containing twelve animals. Animals in the first treatment group was gavaged with copper sulfate, the second treatment group was injected with zinc sulfate, and the third treatment group was given combined treatment of copper and zinc. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar methods. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on day 28 and 56 after treatments for sperm quality evaluations. Results: In spite of testicular weight reduction 56 days after copper consumption in comparison to the control group (p=0.002), there was not a significant difference between the control and combined treatment of copper and zinc group (31.40±0.55 vs. 28.63±0.55, p=0.151). Administration of copper caused a significant decrease in the sperm count, viability and motility after 56 days compared to the control group. However, a complete recovery in sperm count was seen in combined treatment of copper and zinc group after 56 days compared to the control group (p=0.999) and a partial improvement was seen about the percentage of viability and motility (p<0.001). Conclusion: Adverse effects of long term consumption of copper on sperm quality could be prevented by zinc therapy in rats. PMID:24639793

  9. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2003. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  10. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about zinc metal of commercial grade in 2000. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois, Indiana

  11. Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2

    E-print Network

    Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2005. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1999. Of zinc metal

  14. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  15. Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rollings, R.S. [Army Engineering Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Pavement Div.

    1995-06-01

    Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

  16. Sulfate attack on hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.G. (Shenzhen Univ. (China). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Hardened cement paste specimens made with different cement types and varying water-cement ratios (w/c) were immersed in 5% sodium sulfate solution maintained at constant pH value of 6. The distribution curves for ettringite, gypsum, and portlandite phases were obtained by using layer by layer XRD analysis and interpreted in terms of material damage due to sulfate attack. The mechanism of sulfate attack is evaluated in regard to the leaching of Ca(OH)[sub 2] and formation of gypsum and ettringite.

  17. Effectiveness of three different zinc fertilizers and two methods of application for the control of “little?leaf’ in peach trees in south texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Arce; J. Benton Storey; Calvin G. Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Fall soil treatments of ZnEDTA and ZnSO4 at three increasing rates of 32.2, 64.4, and 128.8 g Zn\\/tree, and one, two, or three spring foliar treatments of NZN (0.35 g Zn\\/tree application) replicated four times in a randomized complete block design were tested to find the most effective Zn source, method and rate of application, and economical method for controlling

  18. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis in rats fed a wide range of high dietary zinc levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Ansari; W. J. Miller; M. W. Neathery; J. W. Lassiter; R. P. Gentry; R. L. Kincaid

    1976-01-01

    Zinc metabolism and homeostasis were studied in young growing rats fed a 38 ppM zinc diet with added zinc levels ranging from 0 to 8400 ppM for 21 days. High dietary zinc did not cause toxicity symptoms. Stable zinc in feces increased linearly with dietary zinc intake but fecal ⁶⁵Zn, from a single oral dose, did not increase above the

  19. Effect of Zinc and Zinc Borate on Fire Properties of Modified Polyphenylene Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Benrashid; G. L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm

    1993-01-01

    Modified polyphenylene oxide resin (m-PPO) (virgin) and m-PPO flame retarded with triaryl phosphate (FR m-PPO) were blended with zinc borate, zinc, and zinc\\/zinc borate. Both virgin and FR m-PPO containing zinc borate showed a marked reduction in smoke production (flaming and non- flaming-NBS Smoke Chamber). In FR m-PPO a reduction in oxygen index values was seen for zinc borate, except

  20. Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

    2009-01-01

    The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

  1. Alterations in zinc binding capacity, free zinc levels and total serum zinc in a porcine model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Janine; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Doemming, Sabine; Thiele, Christoph; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Haase, Hajo

    2015-08-01

    Zinc is crucial for immune function. In addition, the redistribution of zinc and other nutrients due to infection is an integral part of the host immune response to limit availability to pathogens. However, the major zinc binding protein albumin is down regulated during the acute phase response, implicating a decrease in zinc binding capacity. A prospective animal study with eight female German landrace pigs was conducted to investigate alterations in zinc binding capacity, total serum zinc and free zinc levels in the initial phase of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by instillation of autologous feces via midline laparotomy. Total serum zinc declined significantly after 1 h (10.89 ± 0.42 µM vs. 7.67 ± 0.41 µM, p < 0.001), total serum copper and iron reached a significant reduction at 4 h. Urinary excretion of zinc declined in line with total serum zinc. In comparison to total serum zinc, free zinc levels declined to a lesser, though significant, extent. Zinc binding capacity of serum decreased over time, whereby free zinc levels after addition of zinc correlated negatively with total serum protein and albumin levels. In addition IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations were measured and increased significantly 2 h after induction of sepsis. Hence, total serum zinc was the first marker of inflammation in our experiment, and might therefore be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Furthermore the observation of a substantially different serum free zinc homeostasis during sepsis provides valuable information for a potential therapeutic zinc supplementation, which has to take buffering capacity by serum proteins into account. PMID:25940830

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticles on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, K.; Boukos, N.; Travlos, A.

    2006-01-01

    Self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles are grown by electron beam evaporation of Zn on silicon oxide and silicon substrates and subsequent annealing in oxygen. Characterization by TEM and EELS shows that the nanoparticles can be zinc oxide single crystals grown with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate; their distribution, size and crystallinity depend on the deposition parameters of zinc and the growth substrate. We discuss the effect of these parameters on the morphology of the resulting material.

  3. Kinetics of zinc release from ground tire rubber and rubber ash in a calcareous soil as alternatives to Zn fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soraya Taheri; Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Hossein Shariatmadari; Rufus L. Chaney

    2011-01-01

    Ground rubber contains 15–20 g Zn kg?1 but very low levels of Cd and could serve as an inexpensive byproduct Zn fertilizer. The aim of this investigation was to\\u000a test Zn release in a soil treated with ground tire rubber and rubber ash compared with commercial Zn fertilizer and a laboratory\\u000a grade zinc sulfate. A Zn-deficient soil was chosen from wheat

  4. Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Zahra; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Bondarianzadeh, Dolly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Methods: Rural community health centers providing maternal and child care in two areas with moderate rates of malnutrition were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups, including 393 and 445 children 6-24 months of age, respectively. Children in both groups received routine iron and multivitamin or vitamin A and D supplements through PHC services. Mothers of children in the intervention group were asked to give a single dose of 5 ml/day zinc sulfate syrup (containing 5 mg elemental zinc) to their children for 3 months while children in the control group did not receive the supplement. Results: Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and on a monthly basis in both groups. We found a 0.5 cm difference in the height increment in the intervention group as compared with the control (P < 0.001). Zinc supplementation had no effect on weight increment of children. Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation was found to be both practical and effective in increasing linear growth rate of children less than 2 years of age through PHC. PMID:24829711

  5. Hydrazine Sulfate–for health professionals (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  6. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

  7. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

  8. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  9. Effect of folic acid on zinc absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, L.; Keating, S.; King, J.C.; Stokstad, E.L.R.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of folic acid on zinc uptake was studied in the human and in the rat. The serum zinc response to a 25 mg oral dose or zinc was measured with and without a 10 mg dose of folic acid. Serum zinc levels were measured prior to the oral dose of zinc and at hourly intervals up to 4 hours after the dose. When zinc was given along, the increases in serum zinc from baseline at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 92, 118, 92 and 66 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When both zinc and folic acid were given, the increases in serum zinc at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 100, 140, 110 and 75 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When the increases in serum zinc were plotted against time, there was no significant difference between the areas under the two curves. The everted jejunal sac from the rat was used to study the effect of folate on zinc transport using 100 ..mu..M zinc in the mucosal buffer. The addition of folic acid at levels up to 10/sup -3/M had no significant effect on zinc transport to the serosal side solution or on uptake by the intestinal mucosa. This in vivo study with humans and in vitro study with rat intestine does not support a direct adverse effect of folic acid on zinc absorption.

  10. Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Penner; C. C. Chuang; K. Grant

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model is coupled to an atmospheric chemistry model to calculate the radiative forcing\\u000a by anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. The latter aerosols result from biomass burning as well as fossil fuel\\u000a burning. The black carbon associated with carbonaceous aerosols is absorbant and can decrease the amount of reflected radiation\\u000a at the top-of-the-atmosphere. In contrast, sulfate aerosols

  11. Supported sulfated zirconia catalysts and their properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary A. Prescott; Martin Wloka; Erhard Kemnitz

    2004-01-01

    Sulfated zirconia (SZ), SO4\\/ZrO2, was supported by SiO2, ?-Al2O3, and K-10. Aspects of preparation, such as ZrO2 precursor, sulfur contents, sulfating agent, and calcination conditions, were studied. The pure supports and catalysts were characterized with XRD, BET, FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy (pyridine adsorption), NH3-TPD, and tested for the benzoylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride. The support strongly affects the catalytic activity;

  12. Sulfation in lead–acid batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry A. Catherino; Fred F. Feres; Francisco Trinidad

    2004-01-01

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead–acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead–acid batteries is the word, sulfation.Sulfation is a residual

  13. Plant sulfate assimilation genes: redundancy versus specialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav Kopriva; Sarah G. Mugford; Colette Matthewman; Anna Koprivova

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, co-enzymes and vitamins. Plants and many\\u000a microorganisms are able to utilize inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into these compounds. Sulfate assimilation in plants\\u000a has been extensively studied because of the many functions of sulfur in plant metabolism and stress defense. The pathway is\\u000a highly regulated in a

  14. Renal handling of phosphate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Biber, J; Murer, H; Mohebbi, N; Wagner, C A

    2014-04-01

    In the kidney, both anions, phosphate and sulfate, are almost freely filtered and afterwards reclaimed (reabsorbed) to a large extent from tubular fluid along the proximal tubules. Under normal dietary conditions, fractional excretion of these anions is approximately 10%. Reabsorption of both anions occurs along the proximal tubules by active, saturable, and regulated transepithelial processes. Most of the transporters involved in renal handling of phosphate and sulfate have been identified and their transport functions as well as their cellular localizations have been described in detail. The role of these transporters in the renal handling of phosphate and sulfate has been investigated by the use of several mice knock out models and also by analysis of several inherited human diseases. Numerous hormonal and nonhormonal factors, have been described that alter renal excretion of phosphate or sulfate by mechanisms that alter the abundance of known phosphate/sulfate transporters and consequently renal excretion. These mechanisms contribute to the homeostasis of the extracellular concentrations of phosphate and sulfate. PMID:24715567

  15. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis in rats fed a wide range of high dietary zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Lassiter, J W; Gentry, R P; Kincaid, R L

    1976-06-01

    Zinc metabolism and homeostasis were studied in young growing rats fed a 38 ppm zinc diet with added zinc levels ranging from 0 to 8400 ppm for 21 days. High dietary zinc did not cause toxicity symptoms. Stable zinc in feces increased linearly with dietary zinc intake but fecal 65Zn, from a single oral dose, did not increase above the 1200 ppm dietary level. Stable zinc in liver, kidney, and tibia increased two to three times with 2400 ppm added zinc, but was not further elevated until 8400 ppm was fed. Stable zinc in muscle and heart was not affected appreciably by dietary zinc level. In all tissues, 65Zn retention was drastically reduced with 1200 ppm added dietary zinc. Additional dietary zinc reduced 65Zn in muscle and heart but had little effect on liver and kidney 65Zn. The data indicate that rats have fairly effective homeostatic control mechanisms for tissue zinc below about 7200 ppm dietary zinc. Whereas, with dietary zinc up to about 1200 ppm, decreasing absorption is the main route of homeostatic control, above this level, more rapid zinc turnover rates and increasing endogenous zinc excretion appear to have major importance. PMID:935183

  16. Zinc deficiency anemia and effects of zinc therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tatsuo; Horike, Hideyuki; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Kitada, Shingo; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative adjuvant zinc therapy using polaprezinc was performed to examine the correlation between zinc concentration and anemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients to propose appropriate treatment. Anemia and serum zinc concentration were measured in 117 patients with chronic renal failure receiving outpatient maintenance hemodialysis at Tsuyama Chuo Kinen Hospital. Two bags of polaprezinc (containing zinc 34 mg/day) were administered to 58 patients with lower than normal zinc levels (Zn < 80 mg/dl) as adjuvant zinc therapy to assess anemia improvement. Zinc concentration and all anemia parameters showed significant positive correlation, indicating that anemia improves in patients with high serum zinc levels. Regarding the effects of adjuvant zinc therapy for improving anemia, hemoglobin levels were found to increase significantly to the highest value at 3 weeks. During treatment, the dosage of erythropoietin was reduced significantly from baseline at all assessment points. No zinc poisoning from therapy was seen, but two patients had diarrhea (1.9%). Zinc-treated patients required iron therapy due to the development of iron deficiency. Most maintenance hemodialysis patients suffer from zinc deficiency anemia, and zinc-based polaprezinc has been confirmed to be an effective and safe adjuvant zinc treatment. Most patients diagnosed as refractory anemia with no response to erythropoietin also suffer from zinc deficiency anemia, many of whom are expected to benefit from zinc therapy to improve their anemia. Possible zinc deficiency anemia should be considered in the treatment of refractory anemia with no response to erythropoietin. PMID:19527468

  17. Effect of zinc source on performance, zinc status, immune response, and rumen fermentation of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Run L; Liang, Jian G; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Li Y; Li, Su F; Luo, Xu G

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of zinc (Zn) source on the performance, Zn status, immune response, and rumen fermentation of lactating cows to find the most available Zn source for dairy production. In Experiment 1, a total of 30 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly allocated by body weight and milk yield to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with no Zn addition (containing 37.60 mg?Zn/kg TMR by analysis), and the basal TMR supplemented with 40 mg?Zn/kg TMR from either Zn sulfate or one of three organic Zn chelates with weak (Zn-AA W), moderate (Zn-Pro M), or strong (Zn-Pro S) chelation strengths, respectively for 55 days. In Experiment 2, the in vitro rumen fermentation method was used in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The four Zn sources were the same as those used in Experiment 1, and the three supplemental Zn levels in the rumen fluid were 0, 10, and 20 ?g/mL, respectively. The feed intake, milk composition, and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P > 0.05) by treatments. However, the milk yield was increased (P < 0.05) by addition of Zn from both the Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S. Plasma Zn level at the end of the experiment was increased (P < 0.05) by addition of Zn from all three organic sources. Serum antibody titers on day 21 after vaccination with foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine were increased (P < 0.05) by both supplemental Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S. The organic Zn sources with different chelation strengths supplemented at the added Zn level of 10 ?g/mL were more effective (P < 0.05) in improving the rumen fermentation than Zn sulfate, with the most effective being Zn-AA W. In conclusion, Zn source had no influence on the feed intake, milk composition, and SCC; however, both the Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S were more effective than Zn-Pro M and Zn sulfate in enhancing the rumen fermentation, Zn status, and humoral immune response as well as improving milk yield of lactating cows. The improved milk production might be attributed to the improved rumen fermentation, Zn status, and immune function. PMID:23279942

  18. Sulfation of sialyl N-acetyllactosamine oligosaccharides and fetuin oligosaccharides by keratan sulfate Gal-6-sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Torii, T; Fukuta, M; Habuchi, O

    2000-02-01

    We have previously cloned keratan sulfate Gal-6-sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST), which transfers sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to position 6 of Gal residue of keratan sulfate. In this study, we examined whether KSGal6ST could transfer sulfate to sialyl N -acetyllactosamine oligosaccharides or fetuin oligo-saccharides. KSGal6ST expressed in COS-7 cells catalyzed transfer of sulfate to NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (3'SLN), NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Gl cNAc (SL1L1), NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(6-sulfo)GlcNAcbeta1-3(6-sulfo) Galbeta1-4(6-su lfo)GlcNAc (SL2L4), and their desialylated derivatives except for Galbeta1-4GlcNAc, but not to NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (SLex). When the sulfated product formed from 3'SLN was degraded with neuraminidase and reduced with NaBH(4), the resulting sulfated disaccharide alditol showed the same retention time in SAX-HPLC as that of [(3)H]Gal(6SO(4))beta1-4GlcNAc-ol. KSGal6ST also catalyzed sulfation of fetuin. When the sulfated oligosaccharides released from the sulfated fetuin after sequential digestion with proteinase and neuraminidase were subjected to a reaction sequence of hydrazin-olysis, deaminative cleavage and NaBH(4)reduction, the major product was co-eluted with [(3)H]Gal(6SO(4))beta1-4anhydromannitol in SAX-HPLC. These observations show that KSGal6ST is able to sulfate position 6 of Gal residue of 3'SLN and fetuin oligosaccharides. The relative rates of the sulfation of SL2L4 was much higher than the rate of the sulfation of keratan sulfate. These results suggest that KSGal6ST may function in the sulfation of sialyl N -acetyllactosamine oligosaccharide chains attached to glycoproteins. PMID:10642612

  19. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate regulates early branching events in the developing mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Bush, Kevin T; Crawford, Brett E; Garner, Omai B; Nigam, Kabir B; Esko, Jeffrey D; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2012-12-01

    Branching morphogenesis, a fundamental process in the development of epithelial organs (e.g. breast, kidney, lung, salivary gland, prostate, pancreas), is in part dependent on sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Proper sulfation is mediated by biosynthetic enzymes, including exostosin-2 (Ext2), N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases and heparan sulfate O-sulfotransferases. Recent conditional knockouts indicate that whereas primary branching is dependent on heparan sulfate, other stages are dependent upon selective addition of N-sulfate and/or 2-O sulfation (Crawford, B .E., Garner, O. B., Bishop, J. R., Zhang, D. Y., Bush, K. T., Nigam, S. K., and Esko, J. D. (2010) PLoS One 5, e10691; Garner, O .B., Bush, K. T., Nigam, S .K., Yamaguchi, Y., Xu, D., Esko, J. D., and Nigam, S. K. (2011) Dev. Biol. 355, 394-403). Here, we analyzed the effect of deleting both Ndst2 and Ndst1. Whereas deletion of Ndst1 has no major effect on primary or secondary branching, deletion of Ndst2 appears to result in a mild increase in branching. When both genes were deleted, ductal growth was variably diminished (likely due to variable Cre-recombinase activity), but an overabundance of branched structures was evident irrespective of the extent of gland growth or postnatal age. "Hyperbranching" is an unusual phenotype. The effects on N-sulfation and growth factor binding were confirmed biochemically. The results indicate that N-sulfation or a factor requiring N-sulfation regulates primary and secondary branching events in the developing mammary gland. Together with previous work, the data indicate that different stages of ductal branching and lobuloalveolar formation are regulated by distinct sets of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes in an appropriate growth factor context. PMID:23060443

  20. Dynamics of Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in a Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Ingvorsen, K.; Zeikus, J. G.; Brock, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction in the surface sediment and the water column of Lake Mendota, Madison, Wis., was studied by using radioactive sulfate (35SO42?). High rates of sulfate reduction were observed at the sediment surface, where the sulfate pool (0.2 mM SO42?) had a turnover time of 10 to 24 h. Daily sulfate reduction rates in Lake Mendota sediment varied from 50 to 600 nmol of SO42? cm?3, depending on temperature and sampling date. Rates of sulfate reduction in the water column were 103 times lower than that for the surface sediment and, on an areal basis, accounted for less than 18% of the total sulfate reduction in the hypolimnion during summer stratification. Rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment were not sulfate limited at sulfate concentrations greater than 0.1 mM in short-term experiments. Although sulfate reduction seemed to be sulfate limited below 0.1 mM, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were not observed. The optimum temperature (36 to 37°C) for sulfate reduction in the sediment was considerably higher than in situ temperatures (1 to 13°C). The response of sulfate reduction to the addition of various electron donors metabolized by sulfate-reducing bacteria in pure culture was investigated. The degree of stimulation was in this order: H2 > n-butanol > n-propanol > ethanol > glucose. Acetate and lactate caused no stimulation. PMID:16345898

  1. ENZYMATIC BASIS FOR ASSIMILATORY AND DISSIMILATORY SULFATE REDUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Peck, H. D.

    1961-01-01

    Peck, H. D., Jr. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.). Enzymatic basis for assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. J. Bacteriol. 82: 933–939. 1961.—Two pathways for the reduction of sulfate to sulfite in bacteria have been previously described. The substrate for sulfate reduction by extracts of yeast is 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and, in contrast, the substrate for sulfate reduction in extracts of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS). The enzymes catalyzing these reductions have been termed PAPS-reductase and APS-reductase, respectively. Since yeasts are “assimilatory sulfate reducers”, i.e., reduce only enough sulfate to satisfy nutritional requirements for sulfur, and D. desulfuricans is a “dissimilatory sulfate reducer”, i.e., utilizes sulfate as its terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, the pathway of sulfate reduction was determined in 25 microorganisms to ascertain whether there is a correlation between the pathway of sulfate reduction and the physiological role of sulfate in the metabolism of bacteria. Assimilatory sulfate reducers reduced sulfate in the form of PAPS, and, with one exception, APS-reductase was found only in dissimilatory sulfate reducers. APS-reductase was also found in the Thiobacilli in high specific activity and is involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to sulfate. PMID:14484818

  2. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664

  3. The use of seaweed and sugarcane bagasse for the biological treatment of metal-contaminated waters under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Oliveira Mello, Luiz Antonio; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2008-03-01

    When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests. PMID:18401756

  4. Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyuki Sugahara; Tadahisa Mikami; Toru Uyama; Souhei Mizuguchi; Kazuya Nomura; Hiroshi Kitagawa

    2003-01-01

    Recent glycobiology studies have suggested fundamental biological functions for chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and at cell surfaces. They have been implicated in the signaling functions of various heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines, and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system. They

  5. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  10. Characterisation of endogenous KRAB zinc finger proteins 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes comprise one of the largest gene families in the mammalian genome, encoding transcription factors with an N-terminal KRAB domain and C-terminal zinc ...

  11. Sulfur pollution from coal combustion: effect of the mineral components of coal on the thermal stabilities of sulfated ash and calcium sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Baker; Amir Attar

    1981-01-01

    The rate and mechanisms of the decomposition of sulfated coal ashes, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate mixed with coal and with minerals were investigated. Sulfated ashes were less stable than pure calcium sulfate\\/ however, their rate of decomposition was less sensitive to the addition of minerals. Release of sulfur oxides from calcium sulfate mixed with coal stopped after a very

  12. Effect of high amounts of dietary zinc and age upon tissue zinc in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Miller, W J; Jensen, L S; Hampton, D L; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1976-09-01

    Weight gains of younger broiler chicks were not reduced by up to 2400 p.p.m. added zinc fed to four weeks of age. Tissue zinc was not changed significantly by 600 or 1200 p.p.m. supplemental dietary zinc, but at 2400 p.p.m. added zinc, blood, kidney, and liver zinc were significantly elevated (P less than 0.05). In the heart, zinc was not affected by the added dietary zinc but increased over time with all diets. Unlike the calf and weanling pig, the metabolism of zinc in the young chick does not appear to change appreciably with increasing maturity. Thus, the homeostatic control mechanisms of the young chick are effective for up to 1200 p.p.m. dietary zinc, but are partially overcome by 2400 p.p.m. added dietary zinc. PMID:995817

  13. Zinc speciation in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Ellwood

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of zinc and zinc complexation by natural organic ligands in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean were made using cathodic stripping voltammetry with ligand competition. Total zinc concentrations ranged from 0.3 nM in surface waters to 2 nM at 2000 m for open-ocean waters, whilst nearer the English coast, zinc concentrations reached 1.5 nM in the upper water

  14. The mechanism of zinc tolerance in grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brookes; J. C. Collins; D. A. Thurman

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc tolerance in non?tolerant and tolerant clones of Deschampsia caespitosa and Anthoxanthum odoratum has been investigated. Analysis of non?tolerant and tolerant clones of these two grasses showed that the tolerant roots accumulated more zinc than the non?tolerant ones. The zinc contents of the shoots of both clones were similar and contained less zinc than the roots. Compartmental

  15. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  16. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  17. Zinc, aging, and immunosenescence: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Ángel Julio Romero

    2015-01-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in many biochemical pathways and participates in several cell functions, including the immune response. This review describes the role of zinc in human health, aging, and immunosenescence. Zinc deficiency is frequent in the elderly and leads to changes similar to those that occur in oxidative inflammatory aging (oxi-inflamm-aging) and immunosenescence. The possible benefits of zinc supplementation to enhance immune function are discussed. PMID:25661703

  18. Acetate production from oil under sulfate-reducing conditions in bioreactors injected with sulfate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-08-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  19. Artifactual Sulfation of Silver-stained Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Marlene; Marcantonio, Maria; Lehmann, Sylvia G.; Courcelles, Mathieu; Meloche, Sylvain; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Sulfation and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications imparting an isobaric 80-Da addition on the side chain of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. These two post-translational modifications are often difficult to distinguish because of their similar MS fragmentation patterns. Targeted MS identification of these modifications in specific proteins commonly relies on their prior separation using gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In the present investigation, we report a potential pitfall in the interpretation of these modifications from silver-stained gels due to artifactual sulfation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues by sodium thiosulfate, a commonly used reagent that catalyzes the formation of metallic silver deposits onto proteins. Detailed MS analyses of gel-separated protein standards and Escherichia coli cell extracts indicated that several serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues were sulfated using silver staining protocols but not following Coomassie Blue staining. Sodium thiosulfate was identified as the reagent leading to this unexpected side reaction, and the degree of sulfation was correlated with increasing concentrations of thiosulfate up to 0.02%, which is typically used for silver staining. The significance of this artifact is discussed in the broader context of sulfation and phosphorylation site identification from in vivo and in vitro experiments. PMID:18936056

  20. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  1. Performance and Milk Zinc from Low-zinc Intake in Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1973-01-01

    Following a 1-week standardization pe- riod, a high beet pulp, low-zinc diet ( 16.6 parts per million) was fed with (39.5 parts per million total zinc) and without supplemental zinc as zinc oxide to 10 first-lactation Holstein cows (linearly de- clining phase of lactation) for 6 weeks. The low-zinc diet did not adversely affect milk production, fat-corrected milk, solids- corrected

  2. Zinc recovery via the flame reactor process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Pusateri; C. O. Bounds; L. W. Lherbier

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the zinc industry for the 1990s will be to maintain high zinc recovery while eliminating the disposal of copious quantities of hazardous iron residues. The flame reactor process has demonstrated the potential of meeting this objective by either treating the residues or smelting zinc directly. The process has been proven commercially viable for treating flue dusts

  3. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of production. Two primary and 13 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  5. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  6. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal

  7. Characterization of hydrogen permeation through a corrosion-resistant zinc-nickel-phosphorus alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Durairajan, A.; Krishniyer, A.; Haran, B.S.; White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    2000-03-01

    Hydrogen permeation characteristics of a new Zn-Ni-P alloy were studied and compared with that of a Zn-Ni alloy. The Zn-Ni-P alloy was deposited from an acid sulfate both containing 0.5 M nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), 0.2 M zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), and 100 g/L sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}) at pH 3. The permeation characteristics of the alloy were studied and compared qualitatively with that of Zn-Ni alloy under cathodically polarized and corroding conditions. The Zn-Ni-P alloy had better permeation inhibition characteristics in terms of permeation efficiency through the alloy. The Lyer-Pickering-Zamanzadeh (IPZ) model was used to quantitatively estimate the various kinetic parameters associated with hydrogen permeation for Zn-Ni-P alloy under polarized conditions. The Zn-Ni-P alloy had superior permeation inhibition properties compared to the Zn-Ni alloy.

  8. Influence of Dietary Zinc Oxide and Copper Sulfate on the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem in Newly Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2005-01-01

    Dietary doses of 2,500 ppm ZnO-Zn reduced bacterial activity (ATP accumulation) in digesta from the gastrointestinal tracts of newly weaned piglets compared to that in animals receiving 100 ppm ZnO-Zn. The amounts of lactic acid bacteria (MRS counts) and lactobacilli (Rogosa counts) were reduced, whereas coliforms (MacConkey counts) and enterococci (Slanetz counts, red colonies) were more numerous in animals receiving the high ZnO dose. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the colonies on MRS were dominated by three phylotypes, tentatively identified as Lactobacillus amylovorus (OTU171), Lactobacillus reuteri (OTU173), and Streptococcus alactolyticus (OTU180). The colonies on Rogosa plates were dominated by the two Lactobacillus phylotypes only. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis supported the observations of three phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria dominating in piglets receiving the low ZnO dose and of coliforms and enterococci dominating in piglets receiving the high ZnO dose. Dietary doses of 175 ppm CuSO4-Cu also reduced MRS and Rogosa counts of stomach contents, but for these animals, the numbers of coliforms were reduced in the cecum and the colon. The influence of ZnO on the gastrointestinal microbiota resembles the working mechanism suggested for some growth-promoting antibiotics, namely, the suppression of gram-positive commensals rather than potentially pathogenic gram-negative organisms. Reduced fermentation of digestible nutrients in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract may render more energy available for the host animal and contribute to the growth-promoting effect of high dietary ZnO doses. Dietary CuSO4 inhibited the coliforms and thus potential pathogens as well, but overall the observed effect of CuSO4 was limited compared to that of ZnO. PMID:15870311

  9. Influence of dietary zinc oxide and copper sulfate on the gastrointestinal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2005-05-01

    Dietary doses of 2,500 ppm ZnO-Zn reduced bacterial activity (ATP accumulation) in digesta from the gastrointestinal tracts of newly weaned piglets compared to that in animals receiving 100 ppm ZnO-Zn. The amounts of lactic acid bacteria (MRS counts) and lactobacilli (Rogosa counts) were reduced, whereas coliforms (MacConkey counts) and enterococci (Slanetz counts, red colonies) were more numerous in animals receiving the high ZnO dose. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the colonies on MRS were dominated by three phylotypes, tentatively identified as Lactobacillus amylovorus (OTU171), Lactobacillus reuteri (OTU173), and Streptococcus alactolyticus (OTU180). The colonies on Rogosa plates were dominated by the two Lactobacillus phylotypes only. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis supported the observations of three phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria dominating in piglets receiving the low ZnO dose and of coliforms and enterococci dominating in piglets receiving the high ZnO dose. Dietary doses of 175 ppm CuSO(4)-Cu also reduced MRS and Rogosa counts of stomach contents, but for these animals, the numbers of coliforms were reduced in the cecum and the colon. The influence of ZnO on the gastrointestinal microbiota resembles the working mechanism suggested for some growth-promoting antibiotics, namely, the suppression of gram-positive commensals rather than potentially pathogenic gram-negative organisms. Reduced fermentation of digestible nutrients in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract may render more energy available for the host animal and contribute to the growth-promoting effect of high dietary ZnO doses. Dietary CuSO(4) inhibited the coliforms and thus potential pathogens as well, but overall the observed effect of CuSO(4) was limited compared to that of ZnO. PMID:15870311

  10. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  11. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A. (Chicago, IL); Turner, Clarence B. (Shorewood, IL); Johnson, Irving (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  12. Raman microscopy study of basic aluminum sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Kloprogge; R. L. Frost

    1999-01-01

    The tridecameric aluminum polymer [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ was prepared by forced hydrolysis of Al3+ up to an OH\\/Al molar ratio of 2.2. Upon addition of sulfate the tridecamer crystallised as the monoclinic basic aluminum sulfate Na0.1[AlO4Al12(OH)12(H2O)12](SO4)3.55. These crystals have been studied using FT-Raman microscopy and compared to the basic aluminum nitrate, Na2SO4·xH2O and Al2(SO4)3·xH2O. The Raman spectrum of basic aluminum sulfate is

  13. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. PMID:25499684

  14. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  15. Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on community composition. CCA of Shannon diversity data after one pore volume revealed that zinc removal, walnut shell content, and abundance of delta-Proteobacteria (sulfate reducing organisms) were all corresponding elements. However, after several pore volumes, the walnut shell column was no longer removing Zn as effectively, and community shifts were observed throughout the columns. Analysis of field and laboratory scale microbiological and geochemical shifts, in parallel, gives insight into key biogeochemical variables linked to the performance of passive remediation systems used for the treatment of contaminated MIW, while also providing further insight into metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

  16. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  17. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Phillips, E J

    1994-07-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H(2) or organic electron donors oxidized S to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S + 3 MnO(2) + 4H-->SO(4) + 3Mn(II) + 2H(2)O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S as follows: 4S + 4H(2)O-->SO(4) + 3HS + 5 H. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S. PMID:16349323

  19. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  20. Zinc recovery via the flame reactor process

    SciTech Connect

    Pusateri, J.F.; Bounds, C.O.; Lherbier, L.W.

    1988-08-01

    A major objective of the zinc industry for the 1990s will be to maintain high zinc recovery while eliminating the disposal of copious quantities of hazardous iron residues. The flame reactor process has demonstrated the potential of meeting this objective by either treating the residues or smelting zinc directly. The process has been proven commercially viable for treating flue dusts generated during electric arc furnace steelmaking. Zinc, lead and cadmium are recovered from the dust as a crude oxide for recycle while a nonhazardous slag is produced for sale. Similar products are efficiently produced from electrolytic zinc plant neutral leach and iron precipitation residues. In addition, the reactor shows promise of fulfilling its original objective of being a low-energy primary zinc smelter by fuming and condensing zinc from roasted concentrates.

  1. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  2. Aqueous phototransformation of zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Sakkas; K. Shibata; Y. Yamaguchi; S. Sugasawa; T. Albanis

    2007-01-01

    The photochemical behavior of the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) was studied in aqueous media of different composition under simulated solar irradiation using a xenon light source. The influence of important constituents of natural water (dissolved organic matter and nitrate) was also examined using a multivariate kinetic model. It was found that photodegradation proceeds via a pseudo first-order reaction. Kinetic

  3. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  4. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. (Shriners Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484...522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484...522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of...

  8. Pregnenolone sulfate: from steroid metabolite to TRP channel ligand.

    PubMed

    Harteneck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Pregnenolone sulfate is a steroid metabolite with a plethora of actions and functions. As a neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulfate modulates a variety of ion channels, transporters, and enzymes. Interestingly, as a sulfated steroid, pregnenolone sulfate is not the final- or waste-product of pregnenolone being sulfated via a phase II metabolism reaction and renally excreted, as one would presume from the pharmacology textbook knowledge. Pregnenolone sulfate is also the source and thereby the starting point for subsequent steroid synthesis pathways. Most recently, pregnenolone sulfate has been functionally "upgraded" from modulator of ion channels to an activating ion channel ligand. This review will focus on molecular aspects of the neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulfate, its metabolism, concentrations in serum and tissues and last not least will summarize the functional data. PMID:24084011

  9. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

  10. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

  12. Sulfates and Iron Oxides in Ophir Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Kneissl, T.; Sowe, M.; Combe, J.-P.; Ledeit, L.; McGuire, P. C.; Neukum, G.

    2010-03-01

    We identified sulfates, including jarosite, and iron oxides in Ophir Chasma around and within Ophir Mensa, based on OMEGA and CRISM data. This suggests sulfate formation both before or during ILD deposition and after their erosion.

  13. Zinc Transporters in the Mouse Placenta Show a Coordinated Regulatory Response to Changes in Dietary Zinc Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Helston; S. R. Phillips; J. A. McKay; K. A. Jackson; J. C. Mathers; D. Ford

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the expression of zinc transporters in the mouse placenta is regulated by dietary zinc, commensurate with regulating the supply of zinc to the fetus. Mice were fed diets differing only in the concentration of zinc (moderately zinc-restricted (ZnR) – 15mgZn\\/kg; zinc-adequate (ZnA) – 50mgZn\\/kg; zinc-supplemented (ZnS) – 150mgZn\\/kg) from the onset

  14. The Impact of Simulated Sulfate Deposition on Peatland Testate Amoebae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Payne; Vincent Gauci; Dan J. Charman

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands subjected to sulfate deposition have been shown to produce less methane, believed to be due to competitive exclusion\\u000a of methanogenic archaea by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Here, we address whether sulfate deposition produces impacts on a higher\\u000a microbial group, the testate amoebae. Sodium sulfate was applied to experimental plots on a Scottish peatland and samples\\u000a extracted after a period of more

  15. Citric acid wastewater as electron donor for biological sulfate reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfons J. M. Stams; Jacco Huisman; Pedro A. Garcia Encina; Gerard Muyzer

    2009-01-01

    Citrate-containing wastewater is used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in a biological treatment plant for the removal\\u000a of sulfate. The pathway of citrate conversion coupled to sulfate reduction and the microorganisms involved were investigated.\\u000a Citrate was not a direct electron donor for the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Instead, citrate was fermented to mainly acetate\\u000a and formate. These fermentation products served as

  16. Bioprocess Engineering of Sulfate Reduction for Environmental Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piet N. L. Lens; Roel J. W. Meulepas; Ricardo Sampaio; Marcus Vallero; Giovanni Esposito

    2007-01-01

    Sulfate reduction can be used in a large number of environmental technologies. Methanogenic bioreactors treating organic wastewater\\u000a containing sulfate can be negatively affected by the sulfide produced; however, it is possible to combine methanogenesis and\\u000a sulfate reduction when adequate measures are applied. For the treatment of inorganic wastewaters containing sulfate, organic\\u000a substrates or H2\\/CO2 are added as electron donors. Alternatively

  17. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  18. Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dawei; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Jianmin; Ye, Xingnan; Li, Ling; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Hu, Zhongyang

    2014-01-01

    The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions. PMID:24649689

  19. Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate 

    E-print Network

    Niksa, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Large amounts of sodium sulfate are produced as a by-product of many diverse industries. Some of this material is recycled internally. Some is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste in landfills, or discharged to deep...

  20. Copper sulfate. Not a harmless chemical.

    PubMed

    Lamont, D L; Duflou, J A

    1988-09-01

    We report a case of fatal copper sulfate poisoning of a 30-year-old woman following treatment by an iNyanga ("witch-doctor"). The patient died 2 days later, having lapsed into a coma. Postmortem examination revealed that the patient had died of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:3177352

  1. Effects of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulfate concentrations on mercury methylation in freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Wu, Shengchun; Wong, Ming H

    2012-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous form of mercury (Hg) and it enters the human body primarily through consumption of Hg contaminated fish. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are major producers of MeHg in anoxic sediments. The dsrAB gene was isolated from freshwater fish pond sediments. Sequence analyses showed that the SRB in sediments was mainly composed of Desulfobulbus propionicus and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The two species of SRB were cultured from freshwater sediments. The addition of inorganic Hg to these freshwater sediments caused an increase in MeHg concentrations at 30 days incubation. MeHg levels were sensitive to sulfate concentrations; a medium sulfate level (0.11 mg/g) produced higher levels than treatments lacking sulfate addition or when amended with 0.55 mg/g. Assessment of bacterial levels by PCR measurements of microbial DNA indicated that the MeHg levels were correlated with cell growth. PMID:22444059

  2. SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS?

    E-print Network

    . Ammonium sulfate coatings of different layer thicknesses are deposited on #12;metal oxide particles 02138, USA Keywords: Phase transition; Atmospheric Aerosols; Ammonium sulfate; Ammonium nitrate Observational evidence shows that mineral dusts in Asian outflows become coated by sulfates and nitrates. Layer

  3. Water absorbance and thermal properties of sulfated wheat gluten films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten films of varying thicknesses formed at 30?C to 70?C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able ...

  4. STATISTICAL METHOD FOR DETECTION OF A TREND IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily atmospheric concentrations of sulfate collected in northeastern Pennsylvania are regressed against meteorological factors, ozone, and time in order to determine if a significant trend in sulfate can be detected. he data used in this analysis were collected during the Sulfat...

  5. A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    for review December 27, 2011) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major bar- rier demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth chondroitin sulfate polysac- charides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic

  6. Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

    1995-01-01

    Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

  7. The application of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl sulfate to the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate C and D.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kenya; Nakata, Tomomi; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2015-04-10

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) have characteristic bioactivities that depend on sulfation patterns. Chemically synthesized CS oligosaccharides are valuable tools for elucidating the relationship between structures and bioactivities. 2,2,2-Trichloroethyl (TCE) sulfated sugars are highly soluble in nonpolar solvents, which is useful for the synthesis of sulfated oligosaccharides. We herein synthesized CS-C [?GalNAc6S(1-4)?GlcA] (1) and CS-D [?GalNAc6S(1-4)?GlcA2S] (2) disaccharides that possessed sulfate groups by TCE sulfation at O-6 of GalNAc and an additional sulfate group at O-2 of GlcA, respectively. We revealed the superior functionalities of TCE sulfates during the synthesis of CS-C and -D, despite the unwanted side reactions in the acetamido-containing substrate. PMID:25681997

  8. Sulfate delta 34S from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian: Implications for Marine Sulfate and a "Global" Sulfur Isotopic Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Hagadorn, J. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Lyons, T. W.

    2010-04-01

    Neoproterozoic and Cambrian carbonates record high local (~20‰ VCDT) and regional (~50‰) variability in sulfate ?34S, suggesting that oceanic sulfate concentrations were low during this evolutionarily significant time interval.

  9. Albumin is the main plasma binding protein for indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Viaene, Liesbeth; Annaert, Pieter; de Loor, Henriette; Poesen, Ruben; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2013-04-01

    Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are two uremic retention solutes implicated in the uremic syndrome. Removal during dialysis is limited, mainly due to protein binding. Binding characteristics to healthy albumin have recently been characterized. Whether uremia alters the binding characteristics of albumin is currently unknown. Moreover, protein binding values previously determined with ultrafiltration are in sharp contrast to recently reported values based on microcalorimetry. In the present study, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate binding were therefore quantified using both equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. Deming regression demonstrated good agreement between equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. Free serum concentrations of indoxyl sulfate (+26.6%) and p-cresyl sulfate (+19.7%) were slightly higher at body temperature compared with at room temperature. To investigate binding kinetics, the plasma of healthy individuals or hemodialysis patients was titrated with albumin solutions. Theoretical models of protein binding were fitted to observed titration curves. Binding coefficients of both toxins were highest in purified albumin, and were reduced from healthy to uremic plasma. In conclusion, the ultrafiltration-HPLC technique reliably measures free serum concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Albumin is the main binding protein, both in health and in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease. Modeling suggests that albumin contains two binding sites for both toxins, a single high affinity binding site and a second low affinity binding site. The high affinity binding site accounts for at least 90% of overall binding. Competition for this binding site could be used to augment free solute concentrations during dialysis, thus improving epuration. PMID:23300093

  10. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  11. The uremic toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; Schepers, Eva; Pletinck, Anneleen; Nagler, Evi V; Glorieux, Griet

    2014-09-01

    A growing number of publications supports a biologic effect of the protein-bound uremic retention solutes indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. However, the use of unrealistically high free concentrations of these compounds and/or inappropriately low albumin concentrations may blur the interpretation of these results. Here, we performed a systematic review, selecting only studies in which, depending on the albumin concentration, real or extrapolated free concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate remained in the uremic range. The 27 studies retrieved comprised in vitro and animal studies. A quality score was developed, giving 1 point for each of the following criteria: six or more experiments, confirmation by more than one experimental approach, neutralization of the biologic effect by counteractive reagents or antibodies, use of a real-life model, and use of dose-response analyses in vitro and/or animal studies. The overall average score was 3 of 5 points, with five studies scoring 5 of 5 points and six studies scoring 4 of 5 points, highlighting the superior quality of a substantial number of the retrieved studies. In the 11 highest scoring studies, most functional deteriorations were related to uremic cardiovascular disease and kidney damage. We conclude that our systematic approach allowed the retrieval of methodologically correct studies unbiased by erroneous conditions related to albumin binding. Our data seem to confirm the toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate and support their roles in vascular and renal disease progression. PMID:24812165

  12. Histidine Protects Against Zinc and Nickel Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Murphy; Janelle J. Bruinsma; Daniel L. Schneider; Sara Collier; James Guthrie; Asif Chinwalla; J. David Robertson; Elaine R. Mardis; Kerry Kornfeld

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the

  13. ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy

    E-print Network

    ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

  14. MTF-1-Mediated Repression of the Zinc Transporter Zip10 Is Alleviated by Zinc Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Lichten, Louis A.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Guo, Liang; Embury, Jennifer; Cousins, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of cellular zinc uptake is a key process in the overall mechanism governing mammalian zinc homeostasis and how zinc participates in cellular functions. We analyzed the zinc transporters of the Zip family in both the brain and liver of zinc-deficient animals and found a large, significant increase in Zip10 expression. Additionally, Zip10 expression decreased in response to zinc repletion. Moreover, isolated mouse hepatocytes, AML12 hepatocytes, and Neuro 2A cells also respond differentially to zinc availability in vitro. Measurement of Zip10 hnRNA and actinomycin D inhibition studies indicate that Zip10 was transcriptionally regulated by zinc deficiency. Through luciferase promoter constructs and ChIP analysis, binding of MTF-1 to a metal response element located 17 bp downstream of the transcription start site was shown to be necessary for zinc-induced repression of Zip10. Furthermore, zinc-activated MTF-1 causes down-regulation of Zip10 transcription by physically blocking Pol II movement through the gene. Lastly, ZIP10 is localized to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and neuro 2A cells. Collectively, these results reveal a novel repressive role for MTF-1 in the regulation of the Zip10 zinc transporter expression by pausing Pol II transcription. ZIP10 may have roles in control of zinc homeostasis in specific sites particularly those of the brain and liver. Within that context ZIP10 may act as an important survival mechanism during periods of zinc inadequacy. PMID:21738690

  15. Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

  16. In-situ zinc bioprecipitation by organic substrate injection in a high-flow, poorly reduced aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lookman, R.; Verbeeck, M.; Gemoets, J.; Van Roy, S.; Crynen, J.; Lambié, B.

    2013-07-01

    We investigated if in-situ metal bioprecipitation (ISMP) is applicable to remediate a highly permeable zinc-contaminated aquifer at a metal-processing factory in Maasmechelen, Belgium. A large (more than 200 m long and 70 m wide) groundwater contamination plume has developed, with zinc concentrations in the range of 1-100 mg/L, whereas the legal Flemish clean-up standard is 0.5 mg/L. The estimated groundwater flow velocity is in the range 0.2-1 m/d. The groundwater is relatively oxidized, naturally low in DOC (< 1 mg/L) and relatively low in sulfate (40-50 mg/L). We conducted both laboratory feasibility tests as well as a long-term field pilot test in two sections of the plume. In the laboratory microcosm tests, zinc bioprecipitation (following addition of organic substrate and sulfate) removed more than 99% of the zinc from the water phase. Lactate, glycerol and vegetable oil were equally effective as substrates. 28-day anaerobic leaching tests indicated that the metal precipitates that were formed are stable, but they also suggested that substrate addition increases the solubility (leachability) of arsenic and manganese. In the field test, Zn concentrations were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude within the 232 day testing period and stayed low for the following 6 months in both pilot zones. In the field, no mobilization of arsenic occurred but manganese groundwater concentrations increased from 0.01-0.6 mg/L to 0.4-6.5 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations also increased markedly from below detection limits to concentrations as high as 67 mg/L. Zinc concentrations in groundwater were closely correlated to pH and redox potential (Eh): plotting y = [Zn] against x = pH/log(Eh), an exponential relationship was found: y=2?10?eR?0.7.

  17. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin?

    PubMed Central

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  18. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin.

    PubMed

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-08-26

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  19. Effects of high but nontoxic dietary zinc on zinc metabolism and adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Miller, W J; Lassiter, J W; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1975-11-01

    The effects of feeding a high but nontoxic zinc level to young rats for varied time periods on zinc metabolism and adaptations were investigated. Adding 600 ppm supplemental zinc to a "corn-soy" diet for periods from 7 to 42 days did not materially affect stable zinc level in any tissue studied. However, in every tissue, 65Zn retention from a single oral dose declined sharply with duration of added zinc feeding to 21 days, indicating a continuing adaptation in zinc metabolism for at least this period of time. Likewise, fecal 65Zn excretion increased with length of feeding time on high zinc, indicating a continuing reduction in net absorption for most of the 42-day period. When the data are compared with similar previous cattle studies, it is evident that there are major qualitative differences in zinc metabolism and homeostatic control between rats and cattle. PMID:1208572

  20. Production of nano zinc, zinc sulphide and nanocomplex of magnetite zinc oxide by Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Mansoureh; Emtiazi, Giti; Roghanian, Rasoul

    2013-12-01

    ZnO (Zincite) nanoparticle has many industrial applications and is mostly produced by chemical reactions, usually prepared by decomposition of zinc acetate or hot-injection and heating-up method. Synthesis of semi-conductor nanoparticles such as ZnS (Sphalerite) by ultrasonic was previously reported. In this work, high-zinc tolerant bacteria were isolated and used for nano zinc production. Among all isolated microorganisms, a gram negative bacterium which was identified as Brevundimonas diminuta could construct nano magnetite zinc oxide on bacterial surface with 22 nm in size and nano zinc with 48.29 nm in size. A piece of zinc metal was immersed in medium containing of pure culture of B. diminuta. Subsequently, a yellow-white biofilm was formed which was collected from the surface of zinc. It was dried at room temperature. The isolated biofilm was analysed by X-ray diffractometer. Interestingly, the yield of these particles was higher in the light, with pH 7 at 23°C. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report about the production of nano zinc metal and nano zinc oxide that are stable and have anti-bacterial activities with magnetite property. Also ZnS (sized 12 nm) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied by photoluminescence and fluorescent microscope. PMID:24206770

  1. Gastrointestinal side effects in children with Wilson's disease treated with zinc sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Wiernicka, Anna; Ja?czyk, Wojciech; D?dalski, Maciej; Avsar, Yesim; Schmidt, Hartmut; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the side effects of a zinc sulphate therapy in a cohort of Polish pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 53 pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease treated at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw, Poland between the years 1996 and 2011 with zinc sulphate. Patients were diagnosed with Wilson’s disease according to the scoring system of Ferenci, with 49 cases confirmed by mutation analysis. Data about the dosage scheme of zinc sulphate, side effects and efficacy and toxicity of the treatment were collected and recorded in the patient’s medical chart at each visit to the hospital. RESULTS: Mean age of diagnosis for the entire cohort was 10 years (range, 2.5-17 years). Duration of treatment with zinc sulfate was 83.3 wk (range, 8-344 wk). Side effects, all of gastrointestinal origin, were observed in 21 patients (40% - 9 males and 12 females), irrespective of the duration of therapy. Thirteen out of 21 patients were over the age of 10 years. The most common ATP7B mutation was p.H1069Q. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, performed in 7 patients (33.3%) suffering from persistent and severe abdominal pain, revealed gastrointestinal ulcerations or erosions with negative Helicobacter pylori tests in all subjects investigated. The above mentioned 7 patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors. Three of those experienced resolution of symptoms, whereas proton-pump inhibitors failed to alleviate symptoms of the remaining four children and conversion of therapy to D-penicillamine was needed. CONCLUSION: Zinc sulphate appears to cause significant gastrointestinal side effects, which children on therapy for Wilson’s disease should be closely monitored for. PMID:23885147

  2. Surface water sulfate dynamics in the northern Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqing; Waldon, Michael G; Meselhe, Ehab A; Arceneaux, Jeanne C; Chen, Chunfang; Harwell, Matthew C

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate contamination has been identified as a serious environmental issue in the Everglades ecosystem. However, it has received less attention compared to P enrichment. Sulfate enters the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a remnant of the historic Everglades, in pumped stormwater discharges with a mean concentration of approximately 50 mg L(-1), and marsh interior concentrations at times fall below a detection limit of 0.1 mg L(-1). In this research, we developed a sulfate mass balance model to examine the response of surface water sulfate in the Refuge to changes in sulfate loading and hydrological processes. Meanwhile, sulfate removal resulting from microbial sulfate reduction in the underlying sediments of the marsh was estimated from the apparent settling coefficients incorporated in the model. The model has been calibrated and validated using long-term monitoring data (1995-2006). Statistical analysis indicated that our model is capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variations in surface water sulfate concentrations across the Refuge. This modeling work emphasizes the fact that sulfate from canal discharge is impacting even the interior portions of the Refuge, supporting work by other researchers. In addition, model simulations suggest a condition of sulfate in excess of requirement for microbial sulfate reduction in the Refuge. PMID:19244495

  3. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-? in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  4. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

  5. Heterogeneity of keratan sulfate substituted on human chondrocytic large proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Block, J A; Inerot, S E; Kimura, J H

    1992-04-15

    Newly synthesized 35S-labeled chondrocytic keratan sulfate chains were generated by chondrocytes of human chondrosarcoma cell line 105KC and were analyzed for heterogeneity of regional substitution, hydrodynamic size, and charge density. After isolation of the high density large chondrocytic proteoglycans and sequential digestions with chondroitinase ABC, L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone-treated trypsin, and alpha-chymotrypsin, followed by Superose 6 chromatography, two populations of keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan fragments were identified and pooled separately. Keratan sulfate chains from each of the regions were compared after release by Pronase digestion, and differences in substitution patterns were observed; keratan sulfate chains of greater polydispersity, as well as a population of larger hydrodynamic size, were present in only one of the two regions. Alkaline/borohydride treatment confirmed both the existence of a population of uniquely large keratan sulfate chains and its restriction to a single region of proteoglycan fragments. In addition to heterogeneity of hydrodynamic size, the keratan sulfate chains exhibited regional heterogeneity of charge density and hence, of sulfation patterns. Analysis by Mono Q chromatography identified distinct groups of keratan sulfate that segregated by charge density and whose proportionate composition differed between the proteoglycan regions. Furthermore, the most highly charged species were unique to a single region and encompassed the chains of larger hydrodynamic size. This suggests that there may be regional heterogeneity of keratan sulfate chains substituted along a single class of proteoglycans and identifies a novel population of large, highly sulfated chondrocytic keratan sulfate chains. PMID:1559968

  6. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  7. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Cooper; R Krueger

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc\\/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh\\/kg. Using a Hâ-depolarized anode, zinc was

  8. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cooper; R. Krueger

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc\\/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses

  9. Electrodeposition of zinc from a Lewis acidic zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Feng Lin; I.-Wen Sun

    1999-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc on glassy carbon and nickel substrates was investigated in the 50.0–50.0 mol% zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. The electrodeposition of zinc on both electrodes required a nucleation overpotential. Analysis of the chronoamperometric current–time transients suggested that the electrodeposition of zinc on both substrates involved instantaneous three-dimensional nucleation with mixed diffusion and kinetic controlled growth of the

  10. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: the application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology.

    PubMed

    Krebs, N E; Hambidge, K M

    2001-01-01

    Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important for zinc dependent biology. This paper presents findings from recent research linking a steady state compartmental model with non-steady state post-prandial sampling from the intestine, utilizing a combination of intestinal intubation/perfusion and stable isotope tracer kinetic techniques. The gastrointestinal tract has a central role in maintaining whole body zinc homeostasis. While the fractional absorption of zinc from a meal depends on the quantity of exogenous zinc and on such dietary factors as phytic acid, the fractional absorption does not appear to be dependent on the size of the rapidly exchanging pool of the host. In contrast, the quantity of endogenous zinc excreted via the intestine is positively correlated with both the amount of absorbed zinc and the zinc 'status' of the host, and thus this process has an equally critical role in maintaining zinc homeostasis. The observed alterations in zinc metabolism in some disease states can be understood in the context of known homeostatic processes. In other conditions, however, such alterations as inflammation-associated hyperzincuria and zinc redistribution, the links between homeostatic perturbation and cellular biology are yet to be explained. Thus the challenge remains for research at the whole body level to carefully characterize zinc distribution and exchange under diverse circumstances, while research at the cellular level must elucidate the regulatory processes and the factors to which they respond. PMID:11831468

  11. Zinc and zinc alloys as protective coatings. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the corrosion protection of materials by means of zinc and zinc coatings, exclusive of electroplating and electrodeposition. Zinc rich paints and metallization are discussed, as well as polymeric coatings based on zinc. Major applications include structural steel work, oil and gas pipes, pipe joints, and offshore structures. Conversion coatings and conversion coating processes are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Characterization of Annexin A1 Glycan Binding Reveals Binding to Highly Sulfated Glycans with Preference for Highly Sulfated Heparan Sulfate and Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Horlacher, T.; Noti, C.; dePaz, J. L.; Bindschädler, P.; Smith, D. F.; Fukuda, M. N.; Seeberger, P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Annexin A1 is a multifunctional, calcium dependent phospholipid binding protein involved in a host of processes including inflammation, regulation of neuroendocrine signaling, apoptosis and membrane trafficking. Annexin A1 binding to glycans has been implicated in cell attachment and modulation of annexin A1 function. We characterized in detail the glycan binding preferences of annexin A1 using glycan arrays and surface plasmon resonance as a starting point to understand the role of glycan binding in annexin A1 function. Glycan array analysis identified a series of sulfated oligosaccharides, demonstrating for the first time annexin A1 binding to sulfated non-glycosaminoglycan carbohydrates. Using heparin/heparan sulfate microarrays, highly sulfated heparan sulfate/heparin were identified as preferential ligands of annexin A1. Binding of annexin A1 to heparin/heparan sulfate is calcium, but not magnesium dependent. The structure-activity relationship of annexin A1-heparan sulfate interactions were established in detail using chemically defined sugars and novel methods, being the first characterization of a calcium dependent heparin binding protein with such approach. N-sulfation and 2-O-sulfation were identified as particularly important for binding. PMID:21370880

  13. Direct analysis of zinc pyrithione using LCMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Yamaguchi; Akira Kumakura; Shinobu Sugasawa; Hiroya Harino; Yasuhiro Yamada; Kiyoshi Shibata; Tetsuya Senda

    2006-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been widely used as one of the booster biocides in antifouling paints on the bottom of vessels. A direct analysis method for zinc pyrithione has been developed using LC-MS without trans-chelation and degradation. The addition of ammonium acetate in mobile water phase was effective in stabilizing zinc pyrithione in HPLC, and the optimal concentration was 20?mM. The

  14. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Machler, M. [Fisher Gauge Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Fishercast Div.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  15. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide 

    E-print Network

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    insolubility, some other zinc compounds were studied. A homogeneous catalyst, bis(ethyl fumarato)zinc, showed similar polycarbonate yield to zinc glutarate, and the method of the catalyst preparation affected its catalytic activity. Only a small amount...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10714 - Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10714 Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...chemical substance identified generically as zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  20. Microbial Links between Sulfate Reduction and Metal Retention in Uranium- and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E.; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42? radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of ?142 ± 20 nmol cm?3 day?1. Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that ?80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [13C]acetate- and [13C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined ?100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching ?1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems. PMID:20363796

  1. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Devilee; A. van Sandwijk; M. A. Reuter

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to

  2. Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn J. Buchauer

    1973-01-01

    Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

  3. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  4. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-07-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered.

  5. The leaching of chalcopyrite with ferric sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuji Hirato; Hiroshi Majima; Yasuhiro Awakura

    1987-01-01

    The leaching kinetics of natural chalcopyrite crystals with ferric sulfate was studied. The morphology of the leached chalcopyrite\\u000a and the electrochemical properties of chalcopyrite electrodes also were investigated. The leaching of chalcopyrite showed\\u000a parabolic-like kinetics initially and then showed linear kinetics. In the initial stage, a dense sulfur layer formed on the\\u000a chalcopyrite surface. The growth of the layer caused

  6. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  7. Bis(adeninium) bis­(hydrogensulfate) sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Guenifa, Fatiha; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Cherouana, Aouatef; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, 2C5H7N5 2+·2HSO4 ?·SO4 2?, was synthesized from adenine and sulfuric acid. The asymmetric unit contains two diprotonated adeninium cations, two bis­ulfate anions and one sulfate anion. The crystal structure is stabilized by classical N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and weak C—H?O and C—H?N hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:23468782

  8. Fundamental Mvssbauer Parameters of Hydrous Iron Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrous iron sulfates, which form as alteration products of sulfides, are rare on Earth. On Mars, the low temperature and pH found in the martian permafrost create ideal conditions for the formation of this group of minerals [1], which includes such phases as coquimbite (Fe2(SO4) 9H2O) and amarantite (FeSO4(OH) 3H2O). Viking, Mars Pathfinder, MER and OMEGA data [e.g., [2

  9. Age-Based Differences in Hair Zinc of Vancouver Preschoolers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziba Vaghri; Susan Barr; Hubert Wong; Gwen Chapman; Clyde Hertzman

    2008-01-01

    Marginal zinc deficiency (MZD), the subclinical stage of zinc deficiency, is common in industrialized societies. Serum zinc,\\u000a the most common biomarker of zinc status, lacks sensitivity and specificity to diagnose this deficiency. Hair zinc, however,\\u000a is sensitive and specific enough to detect MZD in children. Differences in hair zinc associated with age and sex have been\\u000a reported. These differences have

  10. Heparan Sulfate Containing Unsubstituted Glucosamine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nadanaka, Satomi; Purunomo, Eko; Takeda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) in the extracellular matrix by heparanase is linked to the processes of tumor invasion and metastasis. Thus, a heparanase inhibitor can be a potential anticancer drug. Because HS with unsubstituted glucosamine residues accumulates in heparanase-expressing breast cancer cells, we assumed that these HS structures are resistant to heparanase and can therefore be utilized as a heparanase inhibitor. As expected, chemically synthetic HS-tetrasaccharides containing unsubstituted glucosamine residues, GlcA?1–4GlcNH3+(6-O-sulfate)?1–4GlcA?1–4GlcNH3+(6-O-sulfate), inhibited heparanase activity and suppressed invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro. Bifunctional NDST-1 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1) catalyzes the modification of N-acetylglucosamine residues within HS chains, and the balance of N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities of NDST-1 is thought to be a determinant of the generation of unsubstituted glucosamine. We also report here that EXTL3 (exostosin-like 3) controls N-sulfotransferase activity of NDST-1 by forming a complex with NDST-1 and contributes to generation of unsubstituted glucosamine residues. PMID:24753252

  11. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2009-10-01

    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies. PMID:19495827

  12. Sulfation of dietary flavonoids by human sulfotransferases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, G.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids catechin, epicatechin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin were investigated as substrates and inhibitors of human sulfotransferases (hSULTs). Purified recombinant proteins and human intestine cytosol were used as enzyme sources. hSULT1A1 and hSULT1A3 as well as human intestine cytosol can catalyse the sulfation of the investigated flavonoids. Sulfation of catechin, epicatechin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin by recombinant hSULTs showed substrate inhibition at high flavonoid concentrations. Hesperetin and eriodictyol are potent inhibitors of purified hSULT1A1, hSULT1A3, hSULT1E1, and hSULT2A1. Catechin and epicatechin inhibited hSULT1A1 and hSULT1A3, but not hSULT1E1 and hSULT2A1. The sulfation efficacy and potency of inhibition is related to the C-ring structure of flavonoids. These results suggest that dietary flavonoids may regulate human SULT activity and, therefore, affect the regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters, detoxification of drugs, and the bioactivation of pro-carcinogens and pro-mutagens. PMID:19350454

  13. Sulfated glycans in sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-02-01

    Fertilization is a controlled cell-cell interaction event that ultimately leads to the union of the gametes involved in reproduction. Fertilization is characterized by three major steps: (i) sperm binding to the extracellular matrix that coats the egg, inducing thereby the acrosome reaction; (ii) penetration of the acrosome-reacted sperm through the egg coat until its contact with the egg plasma membrane; and (iii) adhesion and fusion of the cell membranes of both gametes and the interchange of genetic materials. The acrosome reaction in the first step is important because it ensures that fertilization occurs only between gametes of homologous species. This specificity is primarily driven by the structure of egg jelly coat glycans recognized by a lectin-like binding protein (receptor) in the sperm membrane. Sea urchin fertilization is the best model utilized for understanding carbohydrate-mediated acrosome reactions. This report aims at describing the biochemical basis of regulatory mechanisms exerted by sea urchin sulfated fucans and galactans of well-defined chemical structures on the egg-sperm recognition process during fertilization of this invertebrate. Flagellasialin, a sulfated polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein found in sea urchin sperm flagella, is another sulfated glycan example also involved in fertilization of the echinoderm. PMID:25636273

  14. FTIR studies on the acidity of sulfated zirconia prepared by thermolysis of zirconium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Platero, E.E.; Mentruit, M.P.; Arean, C.O.; Zecchina, A. [Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    Sulfated zirconia having a BET surface area of 90 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and a temperature-resistant mesoporous texture was prepared by thermolysis (at 1000 K) of zirconium sulfate. Infrared studies of surface sulfates, CO adsorption at 77 K, and room temperature adsorption of pyridine showed close similarity to sulfated zirconias prepared by impregnation of doping from the gas phase. Four main families of Lewis acid centers were found, which gave CO adducts characterized by stretching frequencies of 2212, 2202, 2196, and 2188 cm{sup -1}. Interaction of CO (at liquid nitrogen temperature) with surface hydroxyls (in partially hydroxylated samples) was found to shift the O-H stretching frequency from 3650 to 3510 cm{sup -1}, due to formation of hydrogen-bonded OH{center_dot}{center_dot}CO complexes. This downward shift, {Delta}{nu}{sub OH} = 140 cm{sup -1}, is significantly larger than the corresponding value for pure zirconia ({Delta}{nu}{sub OH} = 90 cm{sup -1}), which strongly suggests enhancement of the Bronsted acidity. Samples showing the acidic OH group at 3650 cm{sup -1} were found to contain also disulfate groups and traces of molecular water. Surface hydroxyls is sulfated zirconia still appear, however, to be weaker Bronsted acid sites than are bridging OH groups in zeolites. 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Physico-chemical transformations of sulfated compounds during the leaching of highly sulfated cemented wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lovera, P.; Bescop, P. le; Adenot, F. [CEA Centre de`Etudes de Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France)] [CEA Centre de`Etudes de Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France); Li, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France)] [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France); [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan (France). Lab. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Tanaka, Y. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Owaki, E. [Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Technology Research Center] [Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-01

    Cementation of sulfated evaporator concentrates leads to highly sulfated low level wastes, (ca. 25% w/w sodium sulfate solution as mix water), which exhibit the presence of U-phase, a sodium-bearing calcium monosulfphoaluminate-like phase. During the leaching of simulated highly sulfated OPC/BFS cements, cured at room temperature and containing U-phase, sodium sulfate, and ettringite, physico-chemical transformations have been pointed out (transformation of U-phase into ettringite). Samples having the same chemical composition, but cured at high temperature (maximal temperature during curing: 120 C), do not contain ettringite initially, but secondary ettringite is formed during leaching. XRD spectra point out the existence of precipitation fronts (or of phase formation fronts) varying linearly versus the square root of time. The analysis of leaching solutions has provided complementary data used in a code, the aim of which is to assess cement degradation, based on coupling between transport by diffusion and chemical reactions (DIFFUZON code). The U-phase-ettringite transformation is confirmed.

  16. Zinc Supplementation Increases Zinc Status and Thymopoiesis in Aged Mice12

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carmen P.; Song, Yang; Elias, Valerie D.; Magnusson, Kathy R.; Ho, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The age-related decline in lymphocyte development and function coincides with impaired zinc status in the elderly. Thymic involution and reduced immune responsiveness are classic hallmarks of both aging and zinc deficiency, resulting in decreased host defense and an increased susceptibility to infections. Thus, compromised zinc status associated with aging may be an important contributing factor in reduced thymopoiesis and impaired immune functions. Our goal in this study was to understand how dietary zinc supplementation affects thymopoiesis in aged mice. We hypothesized that impaired zinc status associated with aging would mediate the decline in thymic function and output and that restoring plasma zinc concentrations via zinc supplementation would improve thymopoiesis and thymic functions. In this study, groups of young (8 wk) and aged (22 mo) mice were fed a zinc-adequate (30 mg/kg zinc) or zinc-supplemented diet (300 mg/kg) for 25 d. Aged mice had impaired zinc status, with zinc supplementation restoring plasma zinc to a concentration not different from those of young male C57Bl/6 mice. Zinc supplementation in aged mice improved thymopoiesis, as assessed by increased total thymocyte numbers. In addition, improved thymic output was mediated in part by reducing the age-related accumulation of immature CD4?CD8?CD44+CD25? thymocytes, as well as by decreasing the expression of stem cell factor, a thymosuppressive cytokine. Taken together, our results showed that in mice, zinc supplementation can reverse some age-related thymic defects and may be of considerable benefit in improving immune function and overall health in elderly populations. PMID:19474155

  17. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. 180.284 Section 180.284...EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances ...Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  18. Na+-sulfate cotransporter SLC13A1.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na(+)-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (? 66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal growth. Disruption of murine NaS1 gene leads to hyposulfatemia and hypersulfaturia, as well as changes in metabolism, growth, fecundity, behavior, gut physiology, and liver detoxification. This suggests that NaS1 is an important sulfate transporter and its disruption leads to perturbed sulfate homeostasis, which contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24193406

  19. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  20. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot solubility determinations have suggested that in some cases the solubility increases with increasing salt concentrations.

  1. Sulfation of keratan sulfate proteoglycan reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Kamiyama, Shin; Hazawa, Masaharu; Yasuda, Takeshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Imai, Takashi

    2013-01-16

    This study focuses on clarifying the contribution of sulfation to radiation-induced apoptosis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, using 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporters (PAPSTs). Overexpression of PAPST1 or PAPST2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in Namalwa cells, whereas the repression of PAPST1 expression enhanced apoptosis. Inhibition of PAPST slightly decreased keratan sulfate (KS) expression, so that depletion of KS significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis. In addition, the repression of all three N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases (CHST2, CHST6, and CHST7) increased apoptosis. In contrast, PAPST1 expression promoted the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in irradiated Namalwa cells. These findings suggest that 6-O-sulfation of GlcNAc residues in KS reduces radiation-induced apoptosis of human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. PMID:23238079

  2. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    PubMed

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications. PMID:19875869

  3. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2009-11-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  4. Dealumination of clinoptilolite and its effect on zinc removal from acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanjing; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2014-09-01

    Clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, is capable of removing heavy metals from acid rock drainage (ARD). Previous studies have neglected the dealumination of clinoptilolite and its impact during remediation. This study observed the dealumination of clinoptilolite during ARD remediation in a slurry bubble column (SBC), and investigated its impact on the capture of zinc. Uptake tests were performed with natural ARD and various sorbent average particle diameters from 300 to 1400?m, superficial gas velocities from 0.08 to 0.23ms(-1), initial aqueous pH from 2 to 6, Zn concentrations from 15 to 215ppm and sorbent/solution mass ratios from 25 to 400gkg(-1) to test zinc uptake. Dealumination of clinoptilolite was sometimes observed during the uptake process. Increased Al in the aqueous phase led to co-precipitation of Zn-Al colloid, enhanced by abundant sulfate in solution. The unit zinc uptake of the Al colloid was found to be much higher than for the raw clinoptilolite. PMID:24997948

  5. The combination of zinc and glibenclamide limits cardiovascular complications in diabetic rats via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Attia, Hala; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Faddah, Laila

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications have become a major cause of mortality for diabetic patients. Glibenclamide is an effective hypoglycemic agent, but failed to alleviate diabetic complications. This study aimed to evaluate whether the addition of zinc to glibenclamide could mitigate such complications. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Cardiovascular complications were detected by the significant rise of cardiac enzymes, serum lipids, myocardial oxidative stress and cardiac levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, a marker for inflammation) as well as massive histological changes in the heart wall in diabetic control compared to non-diabetic group. Levels of serum nitric oxide and cardiac vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, an angiogenic marker) were lower in diabetic rats. Addition of zinc sulfate (30mg/kg) to glibenclamide (600?g/kg) resulted in significant improvement in cardiac biomarkers, oxidative status and serum lipids. Highly significant reduction in cardiac TNF-? (P<0.001), in addition to significant rise in nitric oxide (P< 0.05) and VEGF (P<0.01) were observed. Cellular infiltration and myocardial edema were ameliorated. These results suggest that a combined treatment of zinc and glibenclamide might be a potential therapy for preventing the risk of cardiovascular complications and reducing the mortality rate among diabetic patients. PMID:25730804

  6. Phytase inclusion in pig diets improves zinc status but its effect on copper availability is inconsistent.

    PubMed

    Bikker, P; van Diepen, J Th M; Binnendijk, G P; Jongbloed, A W

    2012-12-01

    Complexation of dietary phytate with cations is a major cause of reduced bioavailability of Zn and possibly Cu in pig diets. We conducted 2 studies with 2 treatments in young growing pigs (8 to 40 kg) to estimate potential contributions of phytase to availability and supply of Zn and Cu, respectively. Each treatment comprised 10 pens with 8 pigs each as experimental units. In Exp. 1, 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase (Natuphos 5000G; BASF) was added to a diet containing 15 mg Zn from ZnSO(4) and 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO(4) in addition to Cu and Zn from feed ingredients. In Exp. 2, 500 FTU/kg was added to a diet containing 45 mg Zn from ZnSO(4) without added CuSO(4). Feces were collected to determine nutrient digestibility, blood was collected, and pigs were killed to determine Cu and Zn in the liver. In both experiments, phytase inclusion increased (P < 0.001) Zn digestibility by on average 10% units, serum Zn level (P < 0.001) by 0.4 mg/L, and liver Zn content (P < 0.001) by 129 mg/kg DM. In Exp. 1 phytase increased (P = 0.03) Cu digestibility by 6% units but reduced (P = 0.04) liver Cu content by 35 mg/kg DM. In Exp. 2 phytase reduced (P < 0.001) Cu digestibility by 16% units without affecting liver Cu content. Results indicate that the effect of phytase on Cu availability depends on dietary Cu and Zn content and the response variable studied. In conclusion, the consistent effects of phytase on indices of Zn status allow a reduction of Zn inclusion in phytase-supplemented diets. PMID:23365328

  7. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  8. Coordinated expression of sulfate uptake and components of the sulfate assimilatory pathway in maize.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, L; Parmar, S; Bouranis, D L; Howarth, J R; Hawkesford, M J

    2004-07-01

    A high-affinity-type sulfate transporter (Group 1: ZmST1;1, Accession No. AF355602) has been cloned from maize seedlings by RT-PCR. Tissue and cell specific localisation of this sulfate transporter has been determined along the developmental gradient of the root and in leaves of different ages. In S-sufficient conditions there was uniform low expression of ZmST1;1 in the root and very low expression in the leaves. Increased mRNA abundance and sulfate influx capacity indicated that S-starvation increased ZmST1;1 expression in roots, especially at the top of the root (just behind the seed, the area possessing most laterals and root hairs) compared to the root tip. Similarly a group 2, probable low affinity-type sulfate transporter, ZmST2;1, and also ATP-sulfurylase and APS-reductase but not OAS(thiol)lyase were induced by S-starvation and showed highest expression in the upper section of the root. S-starvation increased root/shoot ratio by 20 % and increased root lateral length and abundance in the region closest to the root tip. As the increase in root proliferation was not as great as the increase in mRNA pools, it was clear that there was a higher cellular abundance of the mRNAs for sulfate transporters, ATP-sulfurylase, and APS-reductase in response to sulfur starvation. In the leaves, the sulfate transporters, ATP-sulfurylase and APS-reductase were induced by S-starvation with the most mature leaf showing increased mRNA abundance first. In situ hybridization indicated that ZmST1;1 was expressed in epidermal and endodermal cell layers throughout the root whilst OAS(thiol)lyase was highly expressed in the root cortex. PMID:15248123

  9. Aircraft measurements of organosulfates (IEPOX sulfate and glycolic acid sulfate) in the continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Froyd, K.; Murphy, D. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Yu, G.; Wennberg, P. O.; St Clair, J. M.; Crounse, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Chen, G.

    2013-12-01

    Organosulfates are important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components. They account for a significant mass fraction of aerosols, can be a good tracer for aqueous aerosol phase chemistry, and are potentially important to the climate due to their hydrophilic property. However, quantification of organosulfates is challenging, and as a result, our knowledge about the spatial distribution of organosulfates, their formation mechanisms, and climate impact is limited. In this study, we present the ambient measurements of organosulfates, including the relatively well-known isoprene-derived IEPOX-sulfate and a newly identified and quantified glycolic acid sulfate (GAS), by the NOAA Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) onboard the NASA DC8 aircraft during the DC3 campaign in the continental US in 2012. IEPOX sulfate accounted for about 1% of aerosol mass loading on average near the ground in the Southeast US where isoprene emission is high, and deceased significantly in the western US (0.2%) and at high altitudes (<0.1%). Compared to IEPOX sulfate, the observed GAS is more uniformly distributed, present in the lower troposphere (0.5% of aerosol mass), upper troposphere (0.7% of aerosol mass), and even lower stratosphere (0.7% of aerosol mass). The higher aerosol mass fraction of GAS in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere and in more aged aerosols indicates that GAS is probably long-lived in the aerosol phase and suggests that GAS is formed from different precursors or via a different chemical mechanism than IEPOX sulfate. In addition, GAS mass fraction usually increased with decreased relative humidity, suggesting that GAS may form in concentrated aerosol aqueous solution instead of cloud water. The increased formation of hydrophilic compounds such as GAS at low RH may in turn increase aerosol hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the ambient measurements demonstrated that acidity promotes the formation of both IEPOX sulfate and GAS and that their formation is likely limited by acidity near the ground.

  10. Purification of Keratan Sulfate-endogalactosidase and its action on keratan sulfates of different origin.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, K; Suzuki, S

    1975-02-10

    A glycosidase which attacks corneal keratan sulfate was purified from extracts of Pseudomonas sp. IFO-13309. When corneal keratan sulfate was degraded by the purified enzyme, Sephadex G-50 chromatography indicated the presence of a number of oligosaccharides differing in size and sulfate content. The characterization of two major fractions of the oligosaccharides indicated that the point of enzyme attack is limited to the endo-beta-D-galactoside bonds in which nonsulfated D-galactose residues participate. The enzyme, unlike ordinary exo-beta-D-galactosidases, did not catalyze the hydrolysis of phenyl beta-D-galactoside. Moreover, beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucosyl-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-D-glucose ("lacto-N-tetraose") was completely refractory to the action of this enzyme, suggesting that a structure of the type, X-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-Y, is not the only specificity-determining factor, i.e. neighboring sugars, X and Y, or even larger portions of substrate molecule must have an important effect. Compared with corneal keratan sulfate, keratan sulfates from human nucleus pulposus and shark cartilage were attacked at lower rates with a resultant production of oligosaccharides of relatively large size. The result is in agreement with the view that considerable variations exist in the structure of keratan sulfates of different origin, and further suggests that the enzyme may serve as a useful reagent in studying these variations. PMID:234443

  11. Plasma and Erythrocyte Zinc Concentrations and their Relationship to Dietary Zinc Intake and Zinc Supplementation During Pregnancy in Low-Income African-American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASMIN H NEGGERS; ROBERT L GOLDENBERG; TSUNENOBU TAMURA; KELLEYE JOHNSTON; RACHEL L COPPER; MARY DuBARD

    1997-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of usual dietary intake of zinc and of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentrations.Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Subjects Low-income African-American women (n=580) assigned randomly to groups at 19 weeks of gestation.Intervention A daily dose of zinc (25 mg) or a placebo until delivery.Main outcome measures Plasma, erythrocyte, and dietary zinc

  12. Absorption of zinc from small and large intestine of calves.

    PubMed

    Hampton, D L; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Kincaid, R L; Blackmon, D M; Gentry, R P

    1976-11-01

    Calves fed a high-zinc diet were used to study zinc absorption from various sections of the small intestine. Absorption was determined by measuring zinc-65 in various tissues and plotting the tissue concentrations against dosing site, expressed as percentage of intestinal length. Zinc absorption, per unit of intestinal length, was similar throughout the small intestine and was as great in the distal as in the proximal end. Apparently, early researchers using isolated loops and everted sac techniques failed to recognize rate of digesta passage and tissue homeostasis as major factors associated with zinc uptake when they concluded that the duodenum was the primary site of zinc absorption. The data show that the duodenum is not the major site of zinc absorption in calves regardless of dietary zinc. In a separate experiment, zinc-65 was injected directly into the large intestine of calves fed a low zinc diet. Only about 2% of total zinc absorption was from the large intestine. PMID:993414

  13. Effect of sulfate addition on methane production and sulfate reduction in a mesophilic acetate-fed anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen-Lin; Tang, Yue-Qin; Gou, Min; Jiang, Xia

    2015-04-01

    A mesophilic anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated to evaluate the effect of sulfate addition on methane production and sulfate reduction using acetate as the sole carbon source. The results show that at the organic loading rate of 4.0 g TOC/L/day, the TOC removal efficiencies and the biogas production rates achieved over 95 % and 7000 mL/L/day without sulfate, respectively, and slightly decreased with sulfate addition (500-800 mg/L). Methane production capacities were not influenced significantly with the addition of sulfate, while sulfate reduction efficiencies were not stable with 23-87 % in the acetate-fed reactor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the functional microbial compositions of acetate-degrading methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the reactor. The results found that as the increase of sulfate concentration, the proportion of Methanomicrobiales increased up to 58?±?2 %, while Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina decreased. The dominant methanogens shifted into hydrogenotrophic methanogens from even distribution of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. When hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant, sulfate reduction efficiency was high, while sulfate reduction efficiency was low as acetoclastic methanogens were dominant. PMID:25427678

  14. The metallurgy of zinc-coated steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Marder

    2000-01-01

    The generation of zinc and zinc alloy coatings on steel is one of the commercially most important processing techniques used to protect steel components exposed to corrosive environments. From a technological standpoint, the principles of galvanizing have remained unchanged since this coating came into use over 200 years ago. However, because of new applications in the automotive and construction industry,

  15. Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

  16. Phosphorescent sensor for biological mobile zinc

    E-print Network

    You, Youngmin

    A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed, based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific ...

  17. SECRETION OF ZINC IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. MILLER; R. G. CRAGLE

    Two nonabsorbed marker techniques (Ce~'Cl~ and Cr~_O~) were compared for determining sites of gastrointestinal absorption or secretion of radiozine in dairy cattle. Zinc was absorbed from the abomasum and lower small in- testine, whereas absorption or excretion below the cecum was negligible. Secre- tion of endogenous zinc occurred in the upper part of the small intestine. Net absorption of Zn

  18. Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

  19. Zinc-air alkaline batteries - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chakkaravarthy; A. K. Abdul Waheed; H. V. K. Udupa

    1981-01-01

    The basic principles involved in the operation of an alkaline zinc-air system are considered. Fully developed primary and mechanically rechargeable cells and their applications are reviewed. Various obstacles pertaining to the development of an electrically rechargeable zinc-air alkaline battery and possible means of overcoming them to some degree are summarized.

  20. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, L M; Hasman, H; Stegger, M; Andersen, P S; Skov, R; Fluit, A C; Ito, T; Aarestrup, F M

    2010-09-01

    We recently reported a phenotypic association between reduced susceptibility to zinc and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates from Danish swine (F. M. Aarestrup, L. M. Cavaco, and H. Hasman, Vet. Microbiol. 142:455-457, 2009). The aim of this study was to identify the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene was identified in strain 171 and cloned in S. aureus RN4220. Furthermore, 81 MRSA and 48 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, isolated from pigs (31 and 28) and from humans (50 and 20) in Denmark, were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and for the presence of a putative resistance determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czrC is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus. PMID:20585119

  1. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-08-02

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

  2. Anaerobic biotransformation of fuel oxygenates under sulfate-reducing conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyapawn Somsamak; Robert M Cowan; Max M Häggblom

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic biotransformation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and methyl tert-amyl ether (TAME) was evaluated under different anoxic electron-accepting conditions. Enrichments were established with a polluted estuarine sediment inoculum under conditions promoting denitrification, sulfate reduction, Fe(III) reduction, or methanogenesis. Complete loss of MTBE and TAME was observed under sulfate-reducing conditions, concomitant with the reduction of sulfate.

  3. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN107 by Evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by

  4. A fluorescence enhancement-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Tse; Liao, De-Jhong; Chen, Shau-Jiun; Hu, Ching-Han; Wu, An-Tai

    2012-04-01

    Sugar-aza-crown ether-based cavitand 1 can act as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion in methanol among a series of tested anions. Spectroscopic studies, particularly NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the C-H hydrogen bonding between 1,2,3-triazole ring of cavitand 1 and hydrogen sulfate ion is crucial for the high selectivity of the receptor for hydrogen sulfate. PMID:22363932

  5. Ammonium sulfate on Titan: Possible origin and role in cryovolcanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Fortes; P. M. Grindrod; S. K. Trickett; L. Vo?adlo

    2007-01-01

    We model the chemical evolution of Titan, wherein primordial NH3 reacts with sulfate-rich brines leached from the silicate core during its hydration. The resulting differentiated body consists of a serpentinite core overlain by a high-pressure ice VI mantle, a liquid layer of aqueous ammonium sulfate, and a heterogeneous shell of methane clathrate, low-pressure ice Ih and solid ammonium sulfate. Cooling

  6. Effect of marginal maternal zinc intake on zinc absorption and growth of 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.K.; Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Golub, M.S.; Hendrickx, A.G.; Gershwin, M.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-09-01

    One compensatory mechanism for marginal zinc intake may be through an enhanced absorption of zinc. Such a compensatory mechanism could be of value to the neonate, as poor zinc nutriture during early life has severe consequences on growth and development. We studied the uptake of zinc by 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys born to dams fed control diets 100 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet or zinc-restricted diets (4 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet). Zinc uptake/retention was studied by feeding 3-month-old infant monkeys that had fasted an infant formula containing zinc 65 by gavage. Whole body radioactivity was counted immediately after intubation and on days 10 and 17 after intubation. Regardless of dietary group, 65-zinc retention was high, ranging from 33% to 71% of the dose fed to the monkeys. There were no significant differences between the two dietary groups in the percentage of zinc retention at days 10 and 17. Independent of the dietary group, there was no correlation between plasma zinc and zinc absorption. A positive correlation was found between weight gain and zinc retention in the marginal zinc infants, while a negative correlation between weight gain and zinc retention was observed in the control infants. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying growth may be different in infants born to dams fed control vs marginal zinc diets.

  7. Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Beyenal, Haluk; Sani, Rajesh K.; Peyton, Brent M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2004-04-01

    Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized using biofilms of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in flat-plate continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. U(VI) was continuously fed into the reactor for 32 weeks at a concentration of 126 íM. During this time, the soluble U(VI) was removed (between 88 and 96% of feed) from solution and immobilized in the biofilms. The dynamics of U immobilization in the sulfate-reducing biofilms were quantified by estimating: (1) microbial activity in the SRB biofilm, defined as the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production rate and estimated from the H2S concentration profiles measured using microelectrodes across the biofilms; (2) concentration of dissolved U in the solution; and (3) the mass of U precipitated in the biofilm. Results suggest that U was immobilized in the biofilms as a result of two processes: (1) enzymatically and (2) chemically, by reacting with microbially generated H2S. Visual inspection showed that the dissolved sulfide species reacted with U(VI) to produce a black precipitate. Synchrotron-based U L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of U precipitated abiotically by sodium sulfide indicated that U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV). Selected-area electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic analysis of transmission electron microscope lattice-fringe images confirmed the structure of precipitated U as being that of uraninite.

  8. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. 3: Sulfate-resisting Portland cement -- Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gollop, R.S.; Taylor, H.F.W. [Blue Circle Industries PLC, Kent (United Kingdom)] [Blue Circle Industries PLC, Kent (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    Cubes of a sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) paste that had been stored for 6 months in solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or MgSO{sub 4} were examined by scanning electron microscopy using backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis. The changes observed were broadly similar to those which the authors have found with a normal Portland cement (PC), but cracking and loss of material were less marked, less ettringite was formed, and decalcification of the C-S-H was much reduced. At with the PC gypsum was formed, both in veins and mixed with the C-S-H. The differences are attributed to the low content of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the hydration products of the SRPC, and to the fact that some of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is already present as ettringite. The decreased formation of ettringite and decreased decalcification of the C-S-H in the SRPC together explain the superior resistance to sulfate attack.

  9. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate diversity in sea cucumbers: a review.

    PubMed

    Myron, Pang; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Al Azad, Sujjat

    2014-11-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is structurally distinct glycosaminoglycans found from the sea cucumber body wall consisted of chondroitin sulfate type backbone with attached sulfated or non-sulfated fucose side chain. Structurally this compound plays an important role in maintaining the body wall integrity and possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Recently several glycosaminoglycans' structures have been solved to elucidate its physicochemical activity. The purpose of this review paper is to elaborate existing structural properties and functions, reporting over 30 years and systematically discussion herein. PMID:25129732

  10. Metals for which crystalline anhydrous sulfates are not known

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.S.

    1987-06-03

    In the study of potential sorbents for the removal of SO2 from flue gas, the question arose as to the formation of molybdenum sulfate. After a short search, it became evident that no molybdenum sulfate had been reported in the literature. Further search identified other metals for which no data on simple anhydrous sulfates existed. This article presents a summary of an unsuccessful search through the literature for data on anhydrous sulfates of molybdenum and of other metals. Possible explanations for the nonexistence of these compounds are also included.

  11. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  12. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  13. Sulfate Reduction in Groundwater: Characterization and Applications for Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2012-06-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, with a specific focus on implications for groundwater remediation. A case study presenting the results of a pilot-scale ethanol injection test illustrates the advantages and difficulties associated with the use of electron-donor amendments for sulfate remediation.

  14. Heparan sulfate of perlecan is involved in glomerular filtration.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Ashio; Inui, Kiyoko; Ideura, Terukuni; Watanabe, Hideto; Wang, Ling; Soininen, Raija; Tryggvason, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and a major component of the glomerular basement membrane. To understand the role of heparan sulfate chains of perlecan in glomerular filtration, detailed analyses were performed of the kidneys of Hspg2(Delta)(3/)(Delta)(3) mice, whose perlecan lacks heparan sulfate attachment sites in N-terminal domain I. Macroscopic, histologic, and electron microscopic observations, as well as immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses using specific antibodies against perlecan and agrin core proteins, revealed no significant abnormalities in these mice under physiologic conditions. Polyethyleneimine staining demonstrated no significant changes in charge density in the glomerular basement membrane. Transcripts of other heparan sulfate proteoglycans, agrin, and collagen type XVIII, as well as perlecan, were expressed at similar levels to those in the wild-type littermates. Approximately 40% of the perlecan synthesized by Hspg2(Delta)(3/)(Delta)(3) fibroblasts was substituted with heparin sulfate and 60% was substituted with chondroitin sulfate. All of the perlecan synthesized by wild-type fibroblasts contained heparin sulfate, indicating an altered substitution of glycosaminoglycans on Hspg2(Delta)(3/)(Delta)(3) perlecan. Immunostaining indicated that the level of chondroitin sulfate was actually increased in the Hspg2(Delta)(3/)(Delta)(3) glomerular basement membrane. When administered intraperitoneally with BSA, Hspg2(Delta)(3/)(Delta)(3) mice exhibited remarkable proteinuria. These findings suggest that heparan sulfate chains of perlecan play an important role in glomerular filtration, especially of a large amount of protein. PMID:15872080

  15. Multi-metal contaminant dynamics in temporarily flooded soil under sulfate limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Frank-Andreas; Voegelin, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2009-10-01

    In many river basins, floodplain soils have accumulated a variety of metal contaminants, which might be released during periods of flooding. We investigated the dynamics of copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, and nickel in a contaminated freshwater floodplain soil under a realistic sulfate-limited flooding regime in microcosm experiments. We found that most contaminants were initially mobilized by processes driven by the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) and Mn(IV, III) (hydr)oxides. Subsequently, bacterial sulfate respiration resulted in the transformation of the entire available sulfate (2.3 mmol/kg) into chromous reducible sulfur (CRS). Cu K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy revealed that the soil Cu speciation changed from predominantly Cu(II) bound to soil organic matter (SOM) intermittently to 14% metallic Cu(0) and subsequently to 66% copper sulfide (Cu xS). These Cu xS precipitates accounted for most of the formed CRS, suggesting that Cu xS was the dominant sulfide phase formed in the flooded soil. Sequential metal extractions, in agreement with CRS results, suggested that easily mobilizable Cd was completely and Pb partially sequestered in sulfide precipitates, controlling their dissolved concentrations to below detection limits. In contrast, Zn and Ni (as well as Fe) were hardly sequestered into sulfide phases, so that micromolar levels of dissolved Zn and Ni (and millimolar dissolved Fe(II)) persisted in the reduced soil. The finding that Cu, Cd, and Pb were sequestered (but hardly any Zn, Ni, and Fe) is consistent with the thermodynamically predicted sulfide ladder following the increasing solubility products of the respective metal sulfides. The observation that Cd and Pb were sequestered in sulfides despite the presence of remaining SOM-bound Cu(II) suggested that the kinetics of Cu(II) desorption, diffusion, and/or Cu xS precipitation interfered with the sulfide ladder. We conclude that the dynamics of multiple metal contaminants are intimately coupled under sulfate limitation by the relative thermodynamic stabilities and formation kinetics of the respective metal sulfides.

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2012, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2012, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about $1.53 billion secondary--produced the bulk of refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2012. Of the total zinc consumed

  17. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2011, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2011, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about $1.78 billion secondary--produced the bulk of refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2011. Of the total zinc consumed

  18. Effect of initial sulfate level on electron partition between methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the rumen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    disposal system in anaerobic environments such as sewage sludges and coastal marine sediments. Since at the highest level of sulfate. This is distinct from methanogenic sewage sludges in which electron disposal University, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan Metabolic hydrogen produced during fermentation is disposed

  19. The treatment of experimental osteomyelitis by surgical debridement and the implantation of calcium sulfate tobramycin pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl L. Nelson; Sandra G. McLaren; Robert A. Skinner; Mark S. Smeltzer; J. Roby Thomas; Keith M. Olsen

    2002-01-01

    Calcium sulfate was used as a biodegradable delivery system for the administration of antibiotics in musculoskeletal infection. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Staphylococcus aureus, debrided, and randomized to one of four treatment groups: calcium sulfate pellets with 10% tobramycin sulfate, placebo calcium sulfate pellets and IM tobramycin, placebo calcium sulfate pellets, or debridement. Serum and wound exudate tobramycin

  20. ZINC AND ZINC TRANSPORTERS IN NORMAL PROSTATE FUNCTION AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Milon, Beatrice; Feng, Pei; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal for all cells. It plays a role in a wide variety of physiological and biochemical processes. In the prostate epithelial cell the accumulation of high cellular zinc is a specialized function that is necessary for these cells to carry out the major physiological functions of production and secretion of citrate. The production of citrate and its secretion into prostatic fluid is a differentiated function of the prostate epithelial cells that is apparently important for reproduction. The loss of citrate and zinc accumulation is the most consistent and persistent characteristic of prostate malignancy. This characteristic of prostate cancer indicates that the lost ability of the malignant cells to accumulate zinc and citrate is an important factor in the development and progression of malignancy. The lost ability of the epithelial cells to accumulate zinc and thus to also accumulate citrate is the result of decreased expression of specific zinc uptake transporters. The purpose of this presentation is to review the current understanding of zinc and zinc homeostasis in the prostate and the role of zinc and zinc transporters in the normal function of the prostate and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. PMID:15970489