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1

Zinc Concentration in Tissues and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Pharmacological Levels of Zinc from ZnO, Zn-Methionine, Zn-Lysine, or ZnSO4 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four trials were conducted to exa- mine concentration of zinc in tissues and performance of pigs fed high levels of Zn from ZnO, Zn-methionine, Zn-lysine, or ZnSO4. In Trials 1 (n = 80, 28 d of age, 7.5 kg BW), 2 (n = 80, 26 d of age, 7.1 kg BW), and 3 (n = 70, 23 d of age,

T. C. Schell; E. T. Kornegay

2010-01-01

2

EPR studies of VO2+ in single crystals of ZnSO4.7H2O and certain polycrystalline sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPR studies of vanadyl doped ZnSO4.7H2O are reported. Vanadyl is found to have fixed orientations in the lattice and there are two magnetically inequivalent complexes in the lattice. The angular variation of the spectra is studied in the crystallographic ab, bc, and ac planes. The principal values of g and A and the direction cosines which the principal axes make

A. Kasi Viswanath

1977-01-01

3

Comparison of chelated zinc and zinc sulfate as zinc sources for growth and bone mineralization of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus) fed practical diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc methionine (ZnMet), zinc proteinate (ZnPr), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) were evaluated as dietary zinc sources for channel catfish. All diets were practical diets and all known dietary nutrient requirements for channel catfish were satisfied except for zinc. Two experiments were conducted in aquaria in which fish were fed twice daily to approximate satiation for 10 or 12 weeks. In

Meng H. Li; Edwin H. Robinson

1996-01-01

4

Electrospray ionization FT-ICR/MS Investigation of Zinc Sulfate Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is a common salt present in oxidized surface waters and may serve as a suitable model material to better understand precipitation/nucleation processes in aqueous fluids. In brief, precipitation of ZnSO4 commences with single molecule association (complexation) reactions and proceeds via a wide range of prenucleation clusters (ZnSO4)n and nanocrystalites ultimately toward bulk ZnSO4. Evidently, ZnSO4 growth will pass through the cluster-size domain, from which small ZnSO4 cluster subunits emerge with characteristic chain, sheet and 3-D structures. This experimental study focuses on small zinc sulfate clusters and provides a set of preliminary results pertaining to the stoichiometry, abundance and stability of these materials in aqueous environments. At present, very little is known with respect to the composition, structure and stability of ZnSO4 at the cluster level, however, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry can provide detailed insight into the aforementioned features of ZnSO4. In addition, application of resonance techniques, such as high-resolution Fourier Transfer Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) provides detailed information with respect to the molecular composition of individual ion clusters at high resolution. Here we present the stoichiometries of zinc sulfate ion clusters identified using FT-ICR/MS. In 15mM dilute aqueous solution of zinc sulfate, singly-charged ion clusters [Znm(SO4)m-1(OH)?(H2O)n]+ with m=2, 3, 4 and 5 have been identified. In addition, a set of doubly-charged clusters with the general form [Znm(SO4)m-1?(H2O)n]2+ with 4?m?10 have been characterized. We will propose a scheme, in which singly-charged cluster species with m=4,5 are regarded to be of a critical-size from which stable doubly-charged ions begin to emerge. Upon passing the m~4-5 size-range, zinc sulfate clusters exhibit a strong affinity towards water with stable hepta-hydrates marking the upper range of microsolvation. Building on our present findings, future studies of this cluster system will involve predicting stable structures of identified cluster species and corresponding thermodynamic parameters via DFT techniques, and by doing, establish an alternative perspective on zinc-sulfate speciation in aqueous environments.

Chen, K.; Lemke, K.

2013-12-01

5

Spectroscopic properties of guanidinium zinc sulphate [C(NH 2) 3] 2Zn(SO 4) 2 and ab initio calculations of [C(NH 2) 3] 2 and HC(NH 2) 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman and FTIR spectra of guanidinium zinc sulphate [C(NH 2) 3] 2Zn(SO 4) 2 are recorded and the spectral bands assignment is carried out in terms of the fundamental modes of vibration of the guanidinium cations and sulphate anions. The analysis of the spectrum reveals distorted SO 42- tetrahedra with distinct S-O bonds. The distortion of the sulphate tetrahedra is attributed to Zn-O-S-O-Zn bridging in the structure as well as hydrogen bonding. The CN 3 group is planar which is expressed in the twofold symmetry along the C-N (1) vector. Spectral studies also reveal the presence of hydrogen bonds in the sample. The vibrational frequencies of [C(NH 2) 3] 2 and HC(NH 2) 3 are computed using Gaussian 03 with HF/6-31G* as basis set.

Antony, C. J.; Bushiri, M. Junaid; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Fleck, Michel

2009-09-01

6

Bioavailability of zinc from zinc sulfate and different organic zinc sources and their effects on ruminal volatile fatty acid proportions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four Angus steers were used to determine the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) level and source on Zn metabolism and ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns. All steers were fed a low Zn diet (18.8 mg Zn per kg) for 42 days prior to assignment to dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of: (1) control (low Zn diet), (2) Zn sulfate (ZnSO4),

J. W. Spears; P. Schlegel; M. C. Seal; K. E. Lloyd

2004-01-01

7

Coadministration of atazanavir-ritonavir and zinc sulfate: impact on hyperbilirubinemia and pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

Atazanavir (ATV) causes an elevation of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (HBR) as a result of UDP glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 inhibition. Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) reduces unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. We assessed the changes in total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin and the effect on ATV pharmacokinetics (PK) after single and 14-day dosing of ZnSO(4). HIV patients, stable on ATV/ritonavir (ATV/r)-containing regimens with a total bilirubin level of >25 mmol/liter received 125 mg daily of ZnSO(4) as Solvazinc tablets for 14 days. ATV/r and bilirubin concentrations were measured pre-ATV/r dose and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h post-ATV/r dose; before ZnSO4 initiation (phase 1), after a single dose (phase 2) and after 14 days (phase 3). Changes in bilirubin and ATV/r concentrations in the absence or presence of ZnSO4 were evaluated by geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs; we used phase 1 as a reference). Sixteen male patients completed the study maintaining virologic suppression; ZnSO(4) was well tolerated. Statistically significant declines in total bilirubin C(max) and AUC(0-24) of 16 and 17% were seen in phase2 and 20% in phase 3. Although there were no significant changes in conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin Cmax and AUC(0-24) of were lower (17 and 19%, phase 2; 20 and 23% during phase 3). The ATV GMRs (90% CI) for C(trough), C(max), and AUC(0-24) were 0.74 (0.62 to 0.89), 0.82 (0.70 to 0.97), and 0.78 (0.70 to 0.88). Intake of ZnSO(4) decreases total and unconjugated bilirubin and causes modest declines in ATV exposure. ZnSO(4) supplementation may be useful in management of ATV-related HBR in selected patients. PMID:23689708

Moyle, Graeme; Else, Laura; Jackson, Akil; Back, David; Yapa, Manisha H; Seymour, Natalia; Ringner-Nackter, Lisa; Karolia, Zeenat; Gazzard, Brian; Boffito, Marta

2013-08-01

8

Coadministration of Atazanavir-Ritonavir and Zinc Sulfate: Impact on Hyperbilirubinemia and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Atazanavir (ATV) causes an elevation of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (HBR) as a result of UDP glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 inhibition. Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) reduces unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. We assessed the changes in total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin and the effect on ATV pharmacokinetics (PK) after single and 14-day dosing of ZnSO4. HIV patients, stable on ATV/ritonavir (ATV/r)-containing regimens with a total bilirubin level of >25mmol/liter received 125 mg daily of ZnSO4 as Solvazinc tablets for 14 days. ATV/r and bilirubin concentrations were measured pre-ATV/r dose and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h post-ATV/r dose; before ZnSO4 initiation (phase 1), after a single dose (phase 2) and after 14 days (phase 3). Changes in bilirubin and ATV/r concentrations in the absence or presence of ZnSO4 were evaluated by geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs; we used phase 1 as a reference). Sixteen male patients completed the study maintaining virologic suppression; ZnSO4 was well tolerated. Statistically significant declines in total bilirubin Cmax and AUC0–24 of 16 and 17% were seen in phase2 and 20% in phase 3. Although there were no significant changes in conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin Cmax and AUC0–24 of were lower (17 and 19%, phase 2; 20 and 23% during phase 3). The ATV GMRs (90% CI) for Ctrough, Cmax, and AUC0–24 were 0.74 (0.62 to 0.89), 0.82 (0.70 to 0.97), and 0.78 (0.70 to 0.88). Intake of ZnSO4 decreases total and unconjugated bilirubin and causes modest declines in ATV exposure. ZnSO4 supplementation may be useful in management of ATV-related HBR in selected patients.

Moyle, Graeme; Else, Laura; Jackson, Akil; Back, David; Yapa, Manisha H.; Seymour, Natalia; Ringner-Nackter, Lisa; Karolia, Zeenat; Gazzard, Brian

2013-01-01

9

Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.  

PubMed

The fortification of staple foods with zinc may play an important role in achieving adequate zinc intakes in countries at risk of zinc deficiency. However, little is known about the relative bioavailability of different zinc compounds that may be used in food fortification. The objective of this study was to measure and compare fractional zinc absorption from a test meal that included a maize tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA. A double isotopic tracer ratio method ((67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer) was used to estimate zinc absorption in 42 Mexican women living in a periurban community of Puebla State, Mexico. The test meal consisted of maize tortillas, yellow beans, chili sauce, and milk with instant coffee; it contained 3.3 mg zinc and had a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 17. Fractional zinc absorption did not differ significantly between the test groups (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Percent absorptions were (mean +/- SD) zinc oxide, 10.8 +/- 0.9; zinc sulfate, 10.0 +/- 0.02; zinc oxide + EDTA, 12.7 +/- 1.5; and sodium-zinc EDTA, 11.1 +/- 0.7. We conclude that there was no difference in zinc absorption from ZnO and ZnSO(4) when added as fortificants to maize tortillas and consumed with beans and milk. The addition of EDTA with zinc oxide or the use of prechelated sodium-zinc EDTA as fortificants did not result in higher zinc absorption from the test meal. PMID:15867288

Hotz, Christine; DeHaene, Jessica; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera, Juan A; King, Janet C

2005-05-01

10

Synthesis and assembly of zinc hydroxide sulfate large flakes: Application in gas sensor based on a novel surface mount technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembly of 2D materials into hierarchical architectures can produce films with high orientation and special properties. Most research focus on the nano-sized 2D flakes. In this report, zinc hydroxide sulfate (ZHS) large flakes with lateral size up to 410?m were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of ZnSO4·7H2O solution at 150°C. The large ZHS flakes were then used as building blocks to

Lihong Xue; Xintao Mei; Wuxing Zhang; Lixia Yuan; Xianluo Hu; Yunhui Huang; Kazumichi Yanagisawa

2010-01-01

11

Nucleation Kinetics, Growth and XRD Studies of undoped and Zinc Sulfate-doped Triglycine Sulpho-Phosphate (TGSP) Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility for various temperatures in the range 30–50°C and induction period measurements for various supersaturation levels were carried out for supersaturated aqueous solutions of undoped and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)-doped triglycine sulpho-phosphate (TGSP) crystals. It is observed that solubility increases with temperature and induction period decreases with supersaturation levels for all the samples of the work. When TGSP crystals are doped

A. Siva Dhas; P. Selvarajan; T. H. Freeda

2009-01-01

12

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

Wentworth, W. E.

1992-04-01

13

Reexamination of the location of VO2 + in ZnSO4 . 7H2O by EPR and ZFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single crystal EPR spectra of VO2+ doped ZnSO4?7H2O have been reexamined. The angular behavior confirms the orthorhombic structure and the ion is found to replace zinc–water units. Accurate values of the hyperfine principal values were determined by zero-field EPR (ZFR). One previous publication had incorrect locations of the crystallographic axes, with magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites wrongly identified as physically

Richard Bramley; Steven J. Strach

1985-01-01

14

Electrical conductivities of aqueous ZnSO 4 ?H 2 SO 4 solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductivities of aqueous ZnSO4-H2SO4 solutions are reported for a wide range of ZnSO4 and H2SO4 concentrations (ZnSO4 concentrations of 0~1.2 M and H2SO4 concentrations of 0~2 M) at 25°C, 40°C and 60°C. The results indicate that the solution conductivity at a given ZnSO4 concentration is controlled by the H2SO4 (H+) concentration. The variation of the specific conductivity with ZnSO4 concentration

J. T. Hinatsu; V. D. Tran; F. R. Foulkes

1992-01-01

15

High Temperature Enthalpies of Zinc Sulfate and Zinc Oxy-Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high temperature enthalpies (500 to 1200 K) of zinc sulfate and zinc oxy-sulfate were measured using a drop calorimeter. The data include determination of the transformation enthalpy associated with the alpha to beta phase transition of zinc sulfate w...

P. K. Hosmer O. H. Krikorian

1980-01-01

16

Solar-Thermal Decomposition of Zinc Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental decomposition of zinc sulfate in a rotary kiln which was heated in the White Sands Solar Furnace is described. The main findings of this research are: The zinc sulfate decomposed after 1 to 5 minutes of solar exposure when (a) the front therm...

P. K. Shell R. Ruiz C. M. Yu

1983-01-01

17

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

18

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2009-07-01

19

The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and metal ions are brought into contact with each other. A thermodynamic study has been used to determine a theoretical operating window,

H. ter Maat; J. A. Hogendoorn; G. F. Versteeg

2005-01-01

20

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and...

2009-04-01

21

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and...

2010-04-01

22

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

23

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5 milligrams of...

2009-04-01

24

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2013-07-01

25

Zinc-Induced Changes in Growth Characters, Foliar Properties, and Zn-Accumulation Capacity of Pigeon Pea at Different Stages of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of zinc (Zn) [50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ? g zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)\\/g of soil] reduced the foliage and the total growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Huth]. The root-shoot length ratio, varying little with age, was relatively low in the treated plants. Decrease in dry weights of stem and root was more pronounced in the late

Tarannum Khudsar; Anjum Arshi; Tariq O. Siddiqi; Mahmooduzzafar; Muhammad Iqbal

2008-01-01

26

Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption study of VO2+-doped sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of VO2+ doped in sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate (Na2Zn(SO4)2·4H2O) have been carried out at room temperature. The results show the presence of three magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites with different populations. The VO2+ impurity ions take up substitutional positions in the host lattice replacing Zn2+ ions. The angular variation of EPR spectra in three mutually orthogonal planes, bc, a*c and ba*, are used to determine the spin-Hamiltonian parameters. The optical absorption spectrum of VO2+ ions doped in the crystal lattice is also recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 325-1100 nm. This is utilized to study the energy level structure of the VO2+ ion. By correlating the EPR and optical data, various molecular orbital coefficients of the VO2+ ion with its ligands are evaluated and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

Kripal, Ram; Shukla, Santwana

2012-01-01

27

Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersive ZnO nanoparticles with a primary particle size of about 70 nm and an average agglomerate size of about 2.0 ?m were\\u000a synthesized via the precipitation-thermal decomposition route using ZnSO4 and Na2CO3 as the reactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surface modification agent. The presence of minor amounts of SDS\\u000a in the formation of hydrozicite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6) precursor changed the agglomeration

Li-Zhao Zhang; Lan Xiang

2011-01-01

28

Determination of the diffusion coefficients of CuSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficients of CuSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 in the aqueous solution systems of MSO4 and MSO4-H2SO4 were measured at 298 K using a diaphragm-cell method, and are listed as a function of molar concentrations of MSO4 and H2SO4. It was found that the concentration dependencies of the diffusion coefficients for CuSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 in each single metal sulfate solution are very similar. The presence of H2SO4 generally causes a less significant concentration dependency of the diffusion coefficients of MSO4. The concentration dependencies of the diffusion coefficients of CuSO4 in aqueous solutions of CuSO4 and CuSO4-H2SO4 are attributed to the changes in the mean activity coefficient of CuSO4 and the viscosity of the solutions.

Awakura, Yasuhiro; Doi, Toshiya; Majima, Hiroshi

1988-02-01

29

Reinvestigation of growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal.  

PubMed

Reinvestigation of the growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal is reported. Aqueous reaction of thiourea, urea and zinc sulfate in 1:1:1 mol ratio results in the formation of the well known [Zn(tu)3(SO4)] (1) (tu=thiourea) crystal and not the 'so called' novel semiorganic nonlinear optical thiourea urea zinc sulfate (2) crystal, as claimed by Redrothu Hanumantha Rao, S. Kalainathan, Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal - Thiourea urea zinc sulfate, Spectrochim. Acta A97 (2012) 456-463. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of elemental analytical data, infrared and NMR spectra and X-ray powder pattern, for accurate product characterization. PMID:24060627

Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Naik, Teja A; Tylczy?ski, Zbigniew; Priolkar, K R

2014-01-01

30

Copper removal by chelating adsorption in solution purification of hydrometallurgical zinc production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the chelating adsorbent CuWRAM® in the copper removal step of hydrometallurgical zinc process has been studied. This adsorbent contains 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine groups anchored on a polyamine–silica composite and it binds copper and other transition metals by a chelating adsorption mechanism. Equilibrium binding capacity of metal sulfates and sulfuric acid from synthetic and authentic ZnSO4 process solution was determined at

Katri Laatikainen; Marko Lahtinen; Markku Laatikainen; Erkki Paatero

2010-01-01

31

Possibility of alveolar bone promoting enhancement by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc related compounds in zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is improvement of therapeutic treatment for periodontitis by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc materials. The sample suspension injections were prepared from zinc octanate (C8Zn), zinc stearate (C18Zn), zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate (ZnSO4) and tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) containing 6.17 w/w% zinc. After administrating of all injections to around alveolar bone of zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats, plasma Zn concentration, bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, BMC and bone mechanical strength (BMS) of femur and permeability tests for hairless rat stripped skin were measured as therapeutic scores. BMC and BMS were measured by using an X-ray computing tomography and the three-point bending method, respectively. The body weight, plasma Zn concentrations and the area under curve (AUC) for Zn of C8Zn, C18Zn and ZnTCP group rats were higher than those of control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. BMC of alveolar bone and femur and BMS of femur for C8Zn and C18Zn groups for 12 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. Stripped rat skin permeability treated by the hydrophilic creams containing C8Zn was 5-times higher than that of ZnTCP. PMID:22975500

Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

2012-01-01

32

Evaluation and comparison of zinc absorption level from 2-Alkyle 3-Hydroxy pyranon-zinc complexes and zinc sulfate in rat in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background: Although zinc sulfate has been used to improve disorders originated from zinc deficiency, its low compliance is due to gastrointestinal complications; therefore, other zinc compounds have been suggested as replacers for zinc deficient people. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the absorption of ethyl and methyl zinc-maltol with that of zinc sulfate to substitute zinc sulfate with those complexes. Materials and Methods: After five weeks of being fed by zinc deficient food, zinc deficient rats were divided into four groups randomly receiving medicinal solutions of zinc sulfate, zinc ethyl maltol and zinc methyl maltol using feeding tube method for two weeks while the control was received distilled water. Serum zinc concentration and ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) and LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) activity of rats were determined before and after the study. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 11.5. The study was conducted from 2008 to 2010. Results: Serum zinc concentration and enzyme activity in all groups receiving drug solution increased. The most and least increase were in zinc sulfate and zinc methyl maltol groups, respectively. The difference between zinc methyl maltol and zinc sulfate group was significant (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not significant in the case of zinc ethyl maltol. Conclusion: Zinc ethyl maltol can be a suitable and preferable substitute for zinc sulfate.

Akbar, Badii; Niloufar, Nekouei; Abolfazl, Mostafavi; Lofollah, Saghaei; Ali, Khodarahmi Qadam; Soheyla, Valadian

2013-01-01

33

Effects of zinc on epithelial barrier properties and viability in a human and a porcine intestinal cell culture model.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential trace element with a variety of physiological and biochemical functions. Piglets are commonly supplemented, during the weaning period, with doses of zinc above dietary requirements with positive effects on health and performance that might be attributed to anti-secretory and barrier-enhancing effects in the intestine. For a better understanding of these observations increasing zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0-200?M) concentrations were used in an in vitro culture model of porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells and effects on barrier function, viability, and the mRNA expression of one selected heat shock protein (Hsp) were assessed. When treated apically with zinc sulfate, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) did not change significantly. In contrast, cell viability measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, by ATP and by WST-1 conversion in postconfluent IPEC-J2 monolayers was affected after a 24-h treatment with 200?M ZnSO4. Caco-2 cells were more resistant to Zn. ZnSO4 did not induce any effect on viability, except when it was used at the highest concentration (200?M), and only in preconfluent cells. Furthermore, ZnSO4 induced Hsp70 mRNA expression at 200?M and was more pronounced in preconfluent cells. The observed dose-related effects of zinc are cell-line specific and depended on the differentiation status of the cells. The IPEC-J2 cell line appears to be a suitable in vitro model to characterize specific effects on porcine intestinal cells. PMID:23274768

Lodemann, U; Einspanier, R; Scharfen, F; Martens, H; Bondzio, A

2013-03-01

34

Zinc Sulfate Failure as Accelerator of Collagen Biosynthesis and Fibroblast Proliferation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of zinc sulfate on collagen biosynthesis and fibroblast proliferation has been studied in a tissue culture model system using human skin fibroblasts. Addition of zinc sulfate to newly established (low density) cultures in concentrations of 0.00...

J. C. Houck J. J. Amato M. D. Waters R. D. Moore

1971-01-01

35

Solar Furnace Study of Zinc Sulfate Decomposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study are: to establish the applicability of solar central receivers to thermochemical cycles that can utilize solid sulfate decomposition as the high temperature step; to demonstrate the use of a rotating kiln that has been designe...

O. H. Krikorian P. K. Shell

1981-01-01

36

[Tolerance of large doses of oral zinc sulfate].  

PubMed

The toxicity of oral zinc was investigated in patients hospitalized for chronic leg ulcers. Untoward effects were monitored by reference to clinical tolerance, hematological, hepatic and renal parameters, and serum concentrations of copper and iron. The investigation was conducted by comparing two groups of patients who initially did not differ significantly with regard to ulcer area, hemoglobin, leukocytes, copper, iron and zinc. Both groups had serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range. One group was treated with 3 daily doses of 220 mg oral zinc sulfate and the other with placebo, and hence, untoward effects of zinc should have become manifest in the zinc-treated group. This was not the case. Therefore, oral zinc appears to be well tolerated clinically and does not cause hematological, renal or hepatic toxicity. In view of the increasing interest in and range of indications for zinc, particularly in conditions associated with cellular immunological hyporeactivity, this finding is a prerequisite for the institution of clinical zinc therapy. PMID:7031872

Tschumi, P; Floersheim, G L

1981-10-17

37

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOEpatents

A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521); Lawson, Daniel B. (925 Putnam Dr., Lockport, IL 60441)

1994-01-01

38

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOEpatents

A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

1994-02-15

39

Thermodynamic equilibrium of the O 2–ZnSO 4–H 2SO 4–H 2O system from 25 to 250 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase equilibrium model of the O2–ZnSO4–H2SO4–H2O system with the mixed solvent electrolyte (MSE) model is presented. The available thermodynamic properties, including mean activity coefficient of ZnSO4 in water, and the solubility of ZnSO4 in water and in H2SO4 solutions were modeled first to obtain model parameters: equilibrium constants for solids and the MSE ion interaction parameters between Zn2+–SO42? and

Haixia Liu; Vladimiros G. Papangelakis

2005-01-01

40

Relative yield and zinc uptake by rice from zinc sulphate and zinc oxide coatings onto urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is prevalent worldwide and is a barrier to achieving yield goals in crops. It is also now recognized\\u000a as a leading risk factor for disease in humans in developing countries. In general, soil application of 5–17 kg of Zn ha?1 year?1 as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) or more is recommended. However, in developing rice growing countries of Asia, ZnSO4 of

Yashbir Singh Shivay; Dinesh Kumar; Rajendra Prasad; I. P. S. Ahlawat

2008-01-01

41

Electrodeposition of zinc hydroxysulfate nanosheets and reduction to zinc metal microdendrites on polypyrrole films.  

PubMed

Nanothin sheets made of zinc sulfate hydroxide hydrate, ZnSO4[Zn(OH)2]3 x 5H2O, are easily and quickly prepared using an innovative electrochemical route onto polypyrrole-polystyrene sulfonate (PPy-PSS) films. The sheets are characterized using a range of experimental techniques. The deposits are formed on the film surface with instantaneous nucleation to grow into a network of entangled nanosheets. The effect of the experimental conditions on the deposition is reported. Interestingly, the formation of the nanosheets is observed on PPy-PSS films only, and not on films doped with other sulfate/sulfonate dopants. The zinc nanosheets can be easily electrochemically reduced to metallic zinc microdentrites. PMID:22523984

Andreoli, Enrico; Rooney, Denise A; Redington, Wynette; Gunning, Robert; Breslin, Carmel B

2012-01-01

42

Comparison of inhibitory activities of zinc oxide ultrafine and fine particulates on IgE-induced mast cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ultrafine and fine particles of zinc oxide (ZnO) on IgE-dependent mast cell activation were investigated. The\\u000a rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgE was challenged with OVA in the presence or absence\\u000a of ZnO particles and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Degranulation of RBL2H3 was examined by the release of ?-hexosaminidase. To understand the mechanisms

Kouya Yamaki; Shin Yoshino

2009-01-01

43

New Varieties of Zinc Chromium Sulfate Lamellar Double Hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of zinc-chromium lamellar double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sulfate anions is carried out with a one-step method that combines coprecipitation and anionic exchange. The materials obtained in a reactor containing a sodium sulfate solution are compared with those prepared from lithium, potassium, and ammonium sulfate solutions. The compounds are characterized by chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and infra-red spectroscopy. Depending on pH conditions, the washing process, and the nature of the monovalent cation, the sulfate intercalated compounds exhibit two 2H hexagonal varieties with different layer spacings d?8.9 Å and d?11 Å at room temperature; this last phase is related to the insertion of alkaline interlamellar cations. Under dry air, the loss of intercalated water leads to a 3R rhombohedral variety with d?8.2 Å. A second rhombohedral variety with d?10.9 Å is reversibly obtained from the "8.9 Å" phase under high relative humidity. These four [Zn-Cr-SO 4] LDHs differ by their stacking sequences and interlamellar distances and can be selectively obtained.

Khaldi, M.; De Roy, A.; Chaouch, M.; Besse, J. P.

1997-04-01

44

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

45

Evaluation of zinc electrodeposition kinetics from acidic zinc sulfate solutions using a UPD-modified platinum substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, underpotential deposition, UPD, describes the formation of a two-dimensional layer of metal onto a foreign substrate at a potential more positive than that for overpotential deposition, OPD, of the metal. Use of this phenomenon is proposed as a novel technique for generating smooth and reproducible electrode surfaces of reactive metals, using zinc UPD on platinum as a model case. The technique involves polarization of a polished platinum electrode to cause zinc UPD followed by a pulsed polarization step to grow a bulk zinc metal deposit on the electrode. The steady-state zinc deposition rate is recorded as a function of the applied potential. Mass transfer effects are controlled by the use of a rotating disc electrode. After each potential step, the electrode is polarized to a potential near the UPD potential, which dissolves the bulk zinc and regenerates the original smooth electrode. In this manner the voltage-current density relationship for the zinc deposition reaction may be mapped for a particular solution composition. Experiments were conducted to characterize UPD of zinc on platinum in magnesium sulphate and sulphuric acid supporting electrolytes. UPD of zinc on platinum occurs at a voltage approximately 1 V more positive than that of bulk zinc deposition with an estimated charge density of 260 +/- 30 muC cm-2, which is in the order of a monolayer of zinc. The UPD layer was determined to evolve into a Pt-Zn alloy which further inhibited hydrogen evolution, relative to the freshly deposited UPD layer. Bulk zinc deposition experiments were carried out in pure zinc sulphate solutions at 25°C, using the developed technique, and kinetic parameters were evaluated and compared to previously reported values. The Tafel slope for zinc deposition from pH neutral electrolytes was determined to be ca. 60 mV dec-1, while in highly acid electrolytes was ca. 30 mV dec-1, due to the inhibiting effect of hydrogen adsorption. The transition of zinc deposit morphology from a relatively smooth deposit to a dendntic deposit was confirmed to occur at ca . 1000 A m-2 in 1.0 mol dm-3 ZnSO4. By virtue of the low value of the Tafel slope, the current density for zinc deposition is highly sensitive to overpotential (increasing tenfold for every 30 mV increase). Dendritic growth in industrial zinc electrowinning at a conventional current density of ca. 500 A m-2 was attributed to the effects on the local current distribution from the vertical distribution of ohmic drop in the electrolyte and screening of the cathode by attached bubbles. The use of forced convection to mitigate these effects is proposed as a means of extending the current density range of zinc electrowinning.

Guerra, Eduard

46

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have

W. E. Wentworth

1992-01-01

47

The effect of additives on zinc deposited from zinc sulfate solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is industrially electrowon from acid zinc sulfate solutions at ambient temperatures. Some refining agents are usually added to improve the deposit qualities. Gelatin is a traditional additive, but other additives are also used. In the investigation described here, the basic parameters of deposition (e.g., current density, acid concentration, and zinc concentration) were optimized. Gelatin and a tetraalkylammonium salt (TAS) were used separately and in combination as grain refiners of the cathodic deposits. Current efficiency determination experiments were performed to investigate the role of these additives. Scanning electron micrographs of the cathodic deposits were obtained to examine the surface qualities of deposits at certain conditions. Results showed that gelatin is generally a better refiner, although TAS may be used in concentrations of 0.074 mg/l to 1 mg/l. A mixture of the two additives resulted in a decrease of current efficiency.

Afifi, S. E.; Ebaid, A. R.; Hegazy, M. M.; Barakat, A. K.

1992-01-01

48

Electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivities of the aqueous solution system of H2SO4-MSO4 (involving ZnSO4, MgSO4, Na2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), reported by Tozawa et al., were examined in terms of a (H2O) and H+ ion concentration. The equations to compute the concentrations of various species in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing metal sulfates were derived for a typical example of the H2SO4-ZnSO4-MgSO4-(Na2SO4)-H2O system. It was found that the H+ ion concentrations in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions corresponding to practical zinc electrowinning solutions are very high and remain almost constant with or without the addition of metal sulfates. The addition of metal sulfates to aqueous sulfuric acid solution causes a decrease in electrical conductivity, and this phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in water activity, which reflects a decrease in the amount of free water. The relationship between conductivity and water activity at a constant H+ ion concentration is independent of the kind of sulfates added. On the other hand, any increase in H+ ion concentration results in an increase in electrical conductivity. A novel method for the prediction of electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution is proposed that uses the calculated data of water activity and the calculated H+ ion concentration. Also, the authors examined an extension of the Robinson-Bower equation to calculate water activity in quarternary solutions based on molarity instead of molality, and found that such calculated values are in satisfactory agreement with those determined experimentally by a transpiration method.

Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook

1987-03-01

49

Effect of the ratio of zinc amino acid complex to zinc sulfate on the performance of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Multiparous (n=70) and primiparous (n=66) Holstein cows were balanced by 305-d previous mature-equivalent milk yield and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to evaluate the ratio of zinc sulfate to zinc amino acid complex (CZ) in pre- and postpartum Holstein cows fed diets containing 75mg of added zinc/kg. Treatments were (1) 75mg of supplemental zinc/kg of dry matter (DM) provided entirely as zinc sulfate (0-CZ); (2) 0-CZ diet, except 33.3mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 15.5mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet were replaced by CZ from Availa-Zn (16-CZ; Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie MN); and (3) 0-CZ diet, except 66.6mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 40.0mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet was replaced by Availa-Zn (40-CZ). Cows were housed at the Iowa State University Dairy Farm and were individually offered a total mixed ration containing dietary treatments beginning at 28±15d before expected calving date until 250 d in milk. Relative to 0-CZ, multiparous cows (but not primiparous) fed CZ (16-CZ or 40-CZ) had increased (20%) colostrum IgG concentrations. Prepartum DM intake (DMI) was decreased with CZ supplementation. Postpartum DMI was decreased in cows fed CZ, whereas milk yield (MY) was increased in the 40-CZ-fed cows relative to those fed both 0-CZ and 16-CZ. Feed efficiency increased linearly when measured as MY/DMI, 3.5% fat-corrected MY/DMI, and solids-corrected MY/DMI. Regardless of level, feeding CZ decreased services per conception. Feeding 16-CZ decreased milk fat concentration and feeding CZ linearly increased milk urea nitrogen concentration. In summary, supplementing zinc as a mixture of CZ and zinc sulfate, as opposed to supplementing only zinc sulfate, has beneficial effects on production parameters in dairy cows, with those benefits becoming more apparent as the ratio of CZ to zinc sulfate increases. PMID:24819137

Nayeri, A; Upah, N C; Sucu, E; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; DeFrain, J M; Gorden, P J; Baumgard, L H

2014-07-01

50

Experimental study of sono-crystallisation of ZnSO4·7H2O, and interpretation by the segregation theory.  

PubMed

Power ultrasound is known to enhance crystals nucleation, and nucleation times can be reduced by one up to three orders of magnitude for several organic or inorganic crystals. The precise physics involved in this phenomenon still remains unclear, and various mechanisms involving the action of inertial cavitation bubbles have been proposed. In this paper, two of these mechanisms, pressure and segregation effects, are examined. The first one concerns the variations of supersaturation induced by the high pressures appearing in the neighbourhood of a collapsing bubble, and the second one results from the modification of clusters distribution in the vicinity of bubble. Crystallisation experiments were performed on zinc sulphate heptahydrate ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O, which has been chosen for its pressure-independent solubility, so that pressure variations have no effect on supersaturation. As observed in past studies on other species, induction times were found lower under insonification than under silent conditions at low supersaturations, which casts some doubts on a pure pressure effect. The interfacial energy between the solid and the solution was estimated from induction times obtained in silent conditions, and, using classical nucleation theory, the steady-state distribution of the clusters was calculated. Segregation theory was then applied to calculate the over-concentrations of n-sized clusters at the end of the collapse of a 4 ?m bubble driven at 20 kHz by different acoustic pressures. The over-concentration of clusters close to the critical size near a collapsing bubble was found to reach more than one order of magnitude, which may favour the direct attachment process between such clusters, and enhance the global nucleation kinetics. PMID:21482476

Harzali, H; Baillon, F; Louisnard, O; Espitalier, F; Mgaidi, A

2011-09-01

51

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

52

EPR and optical absorption of Cr3 ions in ternary K2SO4Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of Cr3+ ions doped ternary K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses has been studied at different temperatures. The low field spectral resonance lines of the EPR spectra of Cr3+ ions in K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses are attributed to isolated Cr3+ ions whereas the high field spectral resonance line is attributed to exchange-coupled pairs of Cr3+ ions. The optical absorption spectrum of

R. Rama Kumar; B. C. Venkata Reddy

1999-01-01

53

Effects of different sources and levels of zinc on H2O2-induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cells.  

PubMed

Zinc has been shown to be an inhibitor of apoptosis for many years. The present study was designed to investigate effects of three zinc chemical forms on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells via analysis of cell vitality, LDH activity, apoptosis percentage, caspase-3 activity, and Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 gene expression. Cells were divided into H2O2 and zinc sources+H2O2 groups, and there are three different zinc sources [zinc oxide nanoparticle (nano-ZnO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)] and three concentrations (normal = 25 ?M, medium = 50 ?M, and high = 100 ?M) used in this article. In the present study, we found the striking cytotoxicity of H2O2 higher than 200 ?M on cell vitality, LDH activity, and apoptosis percentage in the cells using five different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ?M) of H2O2 for 4 h. Moreover, we observed that cell vitality was increased, LDH activity and apoptotic percentage were decreased, and gene expression level of Bax and caspase-3 and -9 was markedly reduced, while gene expression level of Bcl-2 and ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased in normal concentration groups of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 compared with H2O2 group, but no significant difference was observed in caspase-8 gene expression. Furthermore, medium or, more intensely, high concentrations of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 enhanced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. Compared with nano-ZnO and ZnSO4, ZnO showed weakest protective effect on H2O2-induced apoptosis at normal concentration and was less toxic to cells at high level. Taken together, we proposed that preventive and protective effects of zinc on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis varied in IEC-6 cells with its chemical forms and concentrations, and maybe for the first time, we suggested that nano-ZnO have a protective effect on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. PMID:23912254

Mao, Lei; Chen, Juncai; Peng, Quanhui; Zhou, Aiming; Wang, Zhisheng

2013-10-01

54

Influence of anions on the formation and structure of artificial zinc rusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate the atmospheric corrosion of steels galvanized with Zn under different conditions, artificial zinc rusts of basic zinc salt (BZS) were prepared by hydrolyzing ZnO particles in aqueous solutions including ZnCl2, ZnSO4 and Zn(NO3)2. In ZnCl2–ZnSO4, ZnSO4–Zn(NO3)2 and ZnCl2–Zn(NO3)2–ZnSO4 systems, zinc hydroxysulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4)·nH2O) was formed while zinc hydroxychloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) was generated in ZnCl2–Zn(NO3)2 system. Zinc hydroxynitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) was yielded

Hidekazu Tanaka; Yumi Takeuchi; Tatsuo Ishikawa; Takenori Nakayama

2011-01-01

55

Bioavailability of zinc from NutriSet zinc tablets compared with aqueous zinc sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:The apparent widespread extent of zinc (Zn) deficiency in developing countries and the efficacy of oral Zn supplements as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy make oral Zn supplementation an increasingly important modality in clinical medicine and public health. In this study we aimed to compare the relative bioavailability of oral doses of 30 mg of Zn in two dosing

N W Solomons; M-E Romero-Abal; G Weiss; B Michalke; K Sch?mann

2011-01-01

56

Effect of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Lipid and Glucose in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive illness that causes considerable morbidity and premature mortality. More people are still having tendency to use herbal or alternative remedies. Zinc is a trace mineral which may be effective in diabetic patients. We evaluated the effect of zinc sulfate on biochemical markers of type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, controlled trial

Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani; Mahdi Karimi; Seid Mohammad Mohammadi; Forough Nourani

2008-01-01

57

[Increased sebum secretion due to oral administration of zinc sulfate].  

PubMed

In 87 patients hospitalized for chronic leg ulcers the effect of oral zinc on sebum secretion was determined. The patients were divided into three groups according to serum zinc concentrations. Patients with zinc levels in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) were not treated. Patients with zinc levels in the lower normal range (Zn < 1.0 mg/l) received either three daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate or a placebo. The zinc-treated group displayed significantly increased sebum secretion. This effect was more marked in males, and may be due to a zinc-induced rise in plasma testosterone. Indications for oral zinc in dermatological conditions are discussed. PMID:7423170

Floersheim, G L; Kull, P

1980-08-23

58

Thematic course: Research of equilibriums with the method of residual concentration and potentiometric titration. Part I. HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIUM IN SYSTEMS ZnSO4-H2O-KOH, ZnSO4-H2O-NH3 and CuSO4-H2O-KOH, CuSO4-H2O-NH3  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the method of residual concentration we have investigated the equilibrium in systems ZnSO4-H2?-KOH (1), ZnSO4-H2?-NH3 (2) and CuSO4-H2?-KOH (1'), CuSO4-H2?-NH3 (2'). For these systems the mathematical model of heterogeneous equilibrium has been worked out which allows for the formation of precipitates of various structures. In the research there have been estimated the equilibrium constants for complexes Zn(II) and Cu(II)

Rafail A. Yusupov; Marat R. Gafarov; Edward R. Nurislamov; Oleg V. Mihaylov

2002-01-01

59

Changes in vacuolar and mitochondrial motility and tubularity in response to zinc in a Paxillus involutus isolate from a zinc-rich soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term effects of zinc on organelles were investigated in Paxillus involutus from a zinc-rich soil. Vacuoles were labelled with Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid and mitochondria with DiOC6(3). Hyphae were treated with ZnSO4 in the range 1–100mM and examined by fluorescence microscopy. ZnSO4 caused loss of tubularity and motility in both organelles depending on concentration and exposure time. Tubular vacuoles

Sandra Tuszynska; Danielle Davies; Katarzyna Turnau; Anne E. Ashford

2006-01-01

60

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07

61

EPR and optical absorption of Cr3 ions in ternary K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of Cr3+ ions doped ternary K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses has been studied at different temperatures. The low field spectral resonance lines of the EPR spectra of Cr3+ ions in K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses are attributed to isolated Cr3+ ions whereas the high field spectral resonance line is attributed to exchange-coupled pairs of Cr3+ ions. The optical absorption spectrum of Cr3+ ions doped glass shows two broad bands characteristic of Cr3+ ions in octahedral symmetry. From the optical spectrum, the crystal field parameter (Dq) and the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the EPR and optical spectral data, it is concluded that the site symmetry arround Cr3+ ions is octahedral and the nature of bonding is predominantly covalent in nature.

Kumar, R. Rama; Reddy, B. C. Venkata

62

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SURFECTANTS ON ZINC EFFICIENCY IN SPINACH YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar during 2010 to study the effect of different types of surfactants on Zinc efficiency in spinach yield and uptake of other nutrients. The experiment consisted of two different rates of Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) (0.5% and 1%) with three different surfactants (Aerial, Bonus and surf excel) and control without ZnSO4

Zia-ul-haq Kakar; Sajida Parveen; Sabir Gul Khattak; Zahid Saleem

2014-01-01

63

Effect of cations and anions on properties of zinc oxide particles synthesized in supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide fine particles from zinc salt (Zn(CH3COO)2, ZnSO4, Zn(NO3)2) and alkali metal hydroxide (LiOH, KOH) aqueous solution was carried out with a Ti alloy batch reactor in supercritical water. Particle size synthesized in LiOH solution was relatively smaller than that in KOH. Emission spectra of the particle produced from ZnSO4 and LiOH aqueous solution shows the

Kiwamu Sue; Kazuhito Kimura; Kenji Murata; Kunio Arai

2004-01-01

64

Bioavailability, biodistribution, and toxicity of BioZn-AAS(1): a new zinc source. comparative studies in rats.  

PubMed

Food fortification with a proper zinc compound is an economic and effective strategy to prevent zinc deficiency. BioZn-AAS, a zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine, was compared with zinc sulfate (reference standard), zinc hydroxide, and zinc gluconate, all of them labeled with (65)Zn. This preclinical study was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes, and the administered dose was 85 microg/kg of zinc. Bioavailability studies showed that absorption of BioZn-AAS was not statistically different than absorption from other sources in female rats (25.65% +/- 2.20% for BioZn-AAS, 28.24% +/- 4. 60% for ZnSO(4), 24.91% +/- 4.02% for Zn[OH](2), and 25.51% +/- 2. 70% for Zn-gluconate). In the case of the male rats, absorption of BioZn-AAS (27.97% +/- 4.20%) was higher (P<0.05) than that from the other compounds (23.15% +/- 2.90% for ZnSO(4), 22.62% +/- 3.90% for Zn[OH](2), and 22.30% +/- 3.90% for Zn-gluconate). Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the zinc from BioZn-AAS followed the same metabolic pathway as zinc from the other sources. Toxicity studies were performed with 50 female and 50 male rats. The value of oral lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) was 2000 mg/kg for female rats and 1900 mg/kg for male rats. Therefore, we conclude that BioZn-AAS has adequate properties to be considered a proper zinc compound for food fortification or dietary supplementation. PMID:10978858

Salgueiro, M J; Zubillaga, M B; Lysionek, A E; Sarabia, M I; Caro, R A; De Paoli, T; Hager, A; Ettlin, E; Weill, R; Boccio, J R

2000-09-01

65

Effects of 2-picoline on zinc electrowinning from acidic sulfate electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of 2-picoline with and without antimony during electrowinning of zinc from acidic sulfate solutions was studied and was compared with that of gum arabic which is commonly used in industry as a levelling agent. The effects of these additives on current efficiency, power consumption, deposit quality, polarization behaviour, crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were determined. The addition of

S. C. Das; P. Singh; G. T. Hefter

1996-01-01

66

Filter press plugging in zinc plant purification circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogical studies were carried out to identify the causes of filter press plugging in two zinc plant purification circuits. In the first circuit, Kraft paper covers were used over the filter cloths. An extensive layer of basic zinc sulfate, Zn4(SO4)(OH)6.xH2O or Zn5(SO4)2)(OH)6.xH2O, precipitated on the surface of the Kraft paper and within the pores of the paper. In the second circuit, woven polypropylene cloth was used in the first-stage filter presses. The cloth was extensively covered by basic zinc sulfate, which also filled the relatively large pores in this type of material. An unwoven polypropylene cloth was used in the second-stage filter presses of this circuit. The significantly finer pores in this type of cloth appeared to be plugged by major amounts of zinc sulfate, ZnSO4.xH2O, that presumably crystallized because of the temperature-concentration conditions prevailing in that part of the circuit.

Chen, T. T.; Dutrizac, J. E.

2003-04-01

67

Comparison of inhibitory activities of zinc oxide ultrafine and fine particulates on IgE-induced mast cell activation.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrafine and fine particles of zinc oxide (ZnO) on IgE-dependent mast cell activation were investigated. The rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgE was challenged with OVA in the presence or absence of ZnO particles and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Degranulation of RBL2H3 was examined by the release of ?-hexosaminidase. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating mast cell functions, the effects of ZnO particles on the levels of intracellular Zn2+, Ca2+, phosphorylated-Akt, and global tyrosine phosphorylation were also measured. IgE-induced release of b-hexosaminidase was obviously attenuated by ultrafine ZnO particles and ZnSO4, whereas it was very weakly inhibited by fine ZnO particles. The intracellular Zn2+ concentration was higher in the cells incubated with ultrafine ZnO particles than in those with fine ZnO particles. Consistent with inhibitory effect on release of b-hexosaminidase, ultrafine ZnO particles and ZnSO4, but not fine ZnO particle, strongly attenuated the IgE-mediated increase of phosphorylated-Akt and tyrosine phosphorylations of 100 and 70 kDa proteins in RBL2H3 cells. These findings indicate that ultrafine ZnO particles, with a small diameter and a large total surface area/mass, could release Zn2+ easily and increase intracellular Zn2+ concentration efficiently, thus decreasing FceRI-mediated mast cell degranulation through inhibitions of PI3K and protein tyrosine kinase activation. Exposure to ZnO particles might affect immune responses, especially in allergic diseases. PMID:19609684

Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

2009-12-01

68

The effect of staggered administration of zinc sulfate on the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalexin  

PubMed Central

AIMS To investigate the effect of zinc sulfate on pharmacokinetics of cephalexin when administered concurrently or at strategically spaced dosing times designed to avoid the potential interaction in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this study, all subjects (n = 12) were randomized to receive the following four treatments, separated by a wash-out period of 7 days: cephalexin 500 mg alone, concomitantly with zinc 250 mg, 3 h after zinc 250 mg or 3 h before zinc 250 mg. RESULTS All subjects completed the study safely. Zinc supplements administered concurrently with cephalexin significantly decreased the peak serum concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration–time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0–?) and the time for which the plasma concentration of the drug remained above the minimal inhibitory concentration of the pathogenic organism (T > MIC) of cephalexin [mean percentage decrease (95% confidence intervals) of 31.05% (22.09–40.01%), 27.40% (18.33–36.47%) and 22.33% (12.51–32.16%), respectively; P < 0.05] compared with administration of cephalexin alone. Also, administration of zinc 3 h before cephalexin decreased the Cmax, AUC0–? and T > MIC of the drug compared with administration of cephalexin alone [mean percentage decrease (95% confidence intervals) of 11.48% (3.40–19.55%), 18.12% (9.63–26.60%) and 23.75% (14.30–33.20%), respectively; P < 0.05]. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of cephalexin was not notably altered by administration of zinc 3 h after cephalexin dosing (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The significant interaction between zinc and cephalexin might affect the clinical outcome of cephalexin therapy. The dosing recommendation is that zinc sulfate can be safely administered 3 h after a cephalexin dose.

Ding, Yi; Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Fan; Liu, Wen-Xing; Lu, Cheng-Tao; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Yang, Jing; Ding, Li-Kun; Yang, Lin; Wen, Ai-Dong

2012-01-01

69

Zinc modulates drought-induced biochemical damages in tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze].  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient that affects the growth and productivity of tea plant. Drought stress causes various biochemical and physiological damages in plants. The present study aims at understanding the role of Zn in modulating drought stress induced growth and biochemical damages in tea plant. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that drought-induced decrease in relative water content (RWC), dry mass of leaf, and antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione in the tested tea clones (TV-1, TV-17, and TV-29) was minimized by zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) treatment before water withholding for 7 days. Increase in phenolic content with decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation and differential activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol peroxidase (PPO), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) with concomitant increased Zn uptake in leaf suggested Zn modulates drought-mediated biochemical damages in tea plant. PMID:23682650

Upadhyaya, Hrishikesh; Dutta, Biman Kumar; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

2013-07-10

70

Isopiestic determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients of ZnSO 4 (aq) at T = 298.15 K, and the standard potential of the electrochemical cell ZnHg x (two phase) | ZnSO 4 (aq) | PbSO 4 (s) | PbHg x (two phase)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made for ZnSO4(aq) at T= 298.15 K, both at Texas Christian University and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from molality m= 0.1004 mol · kg?1to the supersaturated m= 4.3092 mol · kg?1, and included solubility determinations. These results were combined with critically assessed e.m.f. results from m= 6.7 · 10?4to m= 3.4413 mol · kg?1to yield

John G. Albright; Joseph A. Rard; Samuel Serna; Erin E. Summers; Michelle C. Yang

2000-01-01

71

Effect of zinc sulfate fortificant on iron absorption from low extraction wheat flour co-fortified with ferrous sulfate.  

PubMed

The co-fortification of wheat flour with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is a strategy used to prevent these deficiencies in the population. Given that Zn could interact negatively with Fe, the objective was to assess the effect of Zn on Fe absorption from bread prepared with wheat flour fortified with Fe and graded levels of Zn fortificant. Twelve women aged 30-43 years, with contraception and a negative pregnancy test, participated in the study. They received on four different days, after an overnight fast, 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70 % extraction) fortified with 30 mg Fe/kg as ferrous sulfate (A) or prepared with the same Fe-fortified flour but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. Results: The geometric mean and range of ± 1 SD of Fe absorption were: A= 19.8 % (10.5-37.2 %), B = 18.5 % (10.2-33.4 %), C = 17.7 % (7.7-38.7 %), and D = 11.2 % (6.2-20.3 %), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 5.14, p < 0.01 (Scheffè's post hoc test: A vs D and B vs D, p < 0.05). We can conclude that Fe is well absorbed from low extraction flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and up to 60 mg/kg of Zn, as Zn sulfate. A statistically significant reduction of Fe absorption was observed at a Zn fortification level of 90 mg Zn/kg. PMID:23271682

Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Fernando; López de Romaña, Daniel

2013-03-01

72

Absorption Spectrum of Ni in K2Zn(SO4)2·6H2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical absorption spectrum of Ni in potassium zinc sulphate hexahydrate single crystal has been studied at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. From the nature and position of the observed bands, a successful interpretation could be made assuming octahedral symmetry for the Ni ion in the crystal. The splitting of T1g (F) band at liquid nitrogen temperature has been interpreted

S. V. J. Lakshman; A. Sundar Jacob

1983-01-01

73

Selective extraction of copper from acidic zinc sulfate leach solution using LIX 622  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out on the use of solvent extraction to remove copper from concentrated zinc sulfate leach solution. In a series of experiments using a plant leach solution containing 2 g\\/l Cu, 2 g\\/l Fe, 173 g\\/l Zn, 7.9 g\\/l H2SO4, 250 mg\\/l Cd, 15 mg\\/l Co and LIX 622 in SX-1, up to 97–98% of the

George Owusu

1999-01-01

74

Blue and green luminescence from layered zinc hydroxide\\/dodecyl sulfate hybrid nanosheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plasma plume consisting of metal ions and atoms induced by laser ablation of metal Zn can react strongly with the molecules it encounters in liquid solutions. We report the liquid-phase laser ablation-induced synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and layered zinc hydroxide\\/dodecyl sulfate (ZnHDS) hybrid nanosheets using a fundamental 1064-nm nanosecond laser. A large amount of ZnHDS nanosheets, together with a

Changhao Liang; Zhenfei Tian; Tohru Tsuruoka; Weiping Cai; Naoto Koshizaki

2011-01-01

75

Impact of zinc salts on heat-induced aggregation of natural actomyosin from yellow stripe trevally.  

PubMed

Impact of zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) on heat-induced aggregation of natural actomyosin (NAM) extracted from yellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis) was investigated. In the presence of ZnSO(4) or ZnCl(2), the transition temperature (T(max)) of myosin shifted from 47.83 ± 0.30°C to 46.05 ± 0.36 and 46.49 ± 0.49°C, with the coincidental decreases in ?H from 1.07 ± 0.03 J/g to 0.63 ± 0.02 and 0.67 ± 0.04 J/g, respectively (P<0.05). Additionally, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of NAM decreased with increasing the concentrations of ZnSO(4) or ZnCl(2) during heating up to 40°C. During heating from 20 to 75°C, higher turbidity, surface hydrophobicity and disulphide bond formation were obtained in NAM added with ZnSO(4) or ZnCl(2) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C, compared with the control. Nevertheless, a higher aggregation was found in NAM added with ZnSO(4,) compared with ZnCl(2.) Zeta potential (?) analysis suggested that the surface of NAM added with ZnSO(4) became less negatively charged, compared with that of ZnCl(2) counterpart. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure of NAM was highly interconnected, finer and denser when zinc salts, especially ZnSO(4) were incorporated. Therefore, ZnSO(4) could be used to induce aggregation of fish muscle proteins, thereby improving gelling property of fish mince or surimi. PMID:22980864

Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat

2012-12-15

76

Comparison of oral zinc sulfate with systemic meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate comparison between oral zinc sulfate and meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). So 100 patients with CL were included and randomly divided into two groups. The first group was treated with oral zinc sulfate (10?mg/kg/day during 45 days period), and the second group was treated with systemic meglumine antimoniate (20?mg/kg/day intramuscularly for 20 days). Acceptable cure after completing 45 days of followup occurred in 30.2% of lesions in first group, while this was 35.5% for the second group. There is not any significant difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.42). Serious side effects resulting in treatment discounting occurred in only meglumine antimoniate group. Although cure rate of systemic meglumine antimoniate group was better the treatment with zinc sulfate is much easier, cheaper, more convenient in consumption, safer, and nearly close cure percentage to systemic meglumine antimoniate injections without serious side effect. PMID:21747837

Yazdanpanah, Mohamad Javad; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Famili, Sororozaman; Tavakoli Rodi, Iman; Yousefzadeh, Hadis

2011-01-01

77

Comparison of Oral Zinc Sulfate with Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate comparison between oral zinc sulfate and meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). So 100 patients with CL were included and randomly divided into two groups. The first group was treated with oral zinc sulfate (10?mg/kg/day during 45 days period), and the second group was treated with systemic meglumine antimoniate (20?mg/kg/day intramuscularly for 20 days). Acceptable cure after completing 45 days of followup occurred in 30.2% of lesions in first group, while this was 35.5% for the second group. There is not any significant difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.42). Serious side effects resulting in treatment discounting occurred in only meglumine antimoniate group. Although cure rate of systemic meglumine antimoniate group was better the treatment with zinc sulfate is much easier, cheaper, more convenient in consumption, safer, and nearly close cure percentage to systemic meglumine antimoniate injections without serious side effect.

Yazdanpanah, Mohamad Javad; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Famili, Sororozaman; Tavakoli Rodi, Iman; Yousefzadeh, Hadis

2011-01-01

78

Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less and cadmium at 2{mu}M resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [{sup 35}S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [{sup 3}H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [{sup 3}H]thymidine or [{sup 3}H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antithrombogenic property of vascular endothelium. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ohkawara, Susumu; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Chika [Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)] [and others] [Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan); and others

1996-02-09

79

The effectiveness of different application methods of zinc sulfate on nutritional conditions of apple in calcareous soils of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effectiveness of the different application methods of zinc sulfate in apples, an investigation was carried out in one of the orchards of West Azerbaijan province in 2000 growing season. The treatments with five replications were tested: T1; control, T2; balanced fertilization based on soil test except zinc application, T3; T1+trunk injection of zinc (1.0%), T4; T2+trunk injection

RASOULI SADAGHIANI

80

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed with copper sulfate only. Lower decomposition temperatures were observed in vacuum as compared to those at atmospheric pressure. Uniform sulfur distribution was observed across sample cross sections. Analysis consisted of Scanning electron microscopy/X-ray microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A., Jr.; Fisher, Edward P.; Shen, Ming-Shing; Miltz, Angela L.

1999-11-01

81

The separation and concentration of iron from zinc process solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for solvent-extraction technology to be acceptable in the zinc industry as an alternative to existing jarosite precipitation circuits, iron must be cleanly separated and concentrated into a feed stream suitable for downstream iron by-product recovery. In this article, the use of OPAP, a mixed extractant consisting of mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acids, is described as a potentially suitable extractant to selectively extract Fe(III) from concentrated ZnSO4(90 g/l zinc)/H2SO4(50 g/l) solutions, followed by stripping of Fe(III) with 4 6 N HCl. OPAP was found to exhibit very low solubility/degradation characteristics (similar to D2EHPA) and excellent loading characteristics with minimal zinc and sulfate co-extraction. OPAP seems to have the lowest sulfate carryover than any other extractant previously proposed for iron extraction from strong acidic solutions. In terms of stripping, a 70 g/l Fe(II) (as FeCl2)/6 N HCl solution was found to be effective in producting 100 g/l total iron in the strip solution.

Principe, F. T.; Demopoulos, G. P.

1999-12-01

82

Rechargeability of manganese dioxide/zinc cell using zinc sulfate electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge/discharge of electrolytic ?-MnO 2 (EMD) in sulfate solution rather than chloride was investigated. Discharge potential-time curves at different conditions of current density, charging schemes and solutions were registered. The charge/discharge cycle can be repeated up to the 20th cycle with no significant change in the discharge behaviour. The charge/discharge products are characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern indicating recovery of ?-MnO 2 during charging process. The results are promising and encouraging. They are discussed in the light of recent views.

Askar, M. H.; Abbas, H.; Afifi, S. E.

83

Denervation of the primary olfactory pathway in mice. V. Long-term effect of intranasal ZnSO4 irrigation on behavior, biochemistry and morphology.  

PubMed

Intranasal irrigation of mice with 0.17 M ZnSO4 solution results in the immediate and total loss of the ability to find a buried food pellet. This anosmia persists for 6 weeks in at least 80% of the treated mice and for 4 months in half of the animals. This marked behavioral effect is matched by a long-term reduction of the levels of carnosine synthesis and transport in the primary olfactory pathway. These biochemical parameters are virtually undetectable at two weeks after treatment and even at one year after treatment do not exceed 5-10% of average control values. Light microscopic observations of tissues of the primary olfactory pathway at various times after treatment are consistent with these observations and indicate a substantial destruction of the olfactory epithelium with subsequent atrophy of the olfactory bulb. At very long intervals after treatment, some receptor regeneration is apparent with accompanying reinnervation of the olfactory bulb. Estimates from microscopy and biochemistry suggest that much less than 10% of the normal complement of functioning receptor cells is adequate to give apparently normal food-finding behavior. PMID:626892

Harding, J W; Getchell, T V; Margolis, F L

1978-01-27

84

Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the effect(s) of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Materials and Methods: Patients (n=79) were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (n=40) 4 mg/kg/d ferrous sulfate was given orally. In the other group (n=39), in addition to ferrous sulfate, 5 mg/d oral zinc sulfate was given. Results: Compared to the initial values statistically significant increase in mean height, weight, and head circumference has been observed in both groups after 3 months. However, there was no statistical difference between two groups concerning mean height, weight, and head circumference at the beginning (83.43±11.3 cm vs 84.62±12.77 cm; 12.36±3.08 kg vs 12.72±3.87 kg; 47.33±2.15 cm vs 47.26±2.73 cm, respectively), at the first month, (84.82±10.97 vs 85.97±12.28; 12.78±3.09 vs 13.09±3.87; 47.76±2.10 vs 47.61±2.67, respectively), and at the third month, (86.4±11.12 vs 87.69±12.13; 12.9±3.06 vs 13.35±3.81; 48.22±1.89 vs 48.07±2.45, respectively). There were no statistical differences between mean hematological parameters of the groups at the beginning, at the first month, and at the third month, either (mean hb of Group 1: 8.78±1.12 g/dL; 11.27±1.09 g/ dL; 12.05±1.00 g/dL respectively and of Group 2: 9.10±1.07 g/dL; 11.12±0.85 g/dL; 11.80±0.79 g/dL, respectively). Mean ferritin and zinc values of the groups were statistically insignificant at the beginning (Mean ferritin: 4.96±4.03 ?g/dL vs 4.52±2.94 ?g/dL, zinc: 88.64±15.35 ng/mL vs 86.84±17.34 ng/mL). Their increase was statistically significant at the third month (mean ferritin: 15.91±9.57 ?g/dL vs 15.25±10.47 ?g/dL; zinc: 88.02±15.10 ng/mL vs 95.25±16.55 ng/mL). Conclusion: In our study neither positive nor negative effect of zinc administration on IDA treatment was demonstrated. Therefore, in the treatment of IDA zinc together with iron should be used at different times if there is coexistent zinc deficiency. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Gulsan, Meltem; Malbora, Bar?s; Avc?, Zekai; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Bozkaya, Ikbal; Ozbek, Namik

2013-01-01

85

Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the effect(s) of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Materials and Methods: Patients (n=79) were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (n=40) 4 mg/kg/d ferrous sulfate was given orally. In the other group (n=39), in addition to ferrous sulfate, 5 mg/d oral zinc sulfate was given. Results: Compared to the initial values statistically significant increase in mean height, weight, and head circumference has been observed in both groups after 3 months. However, there was no statistical difference between two groups concerning mean height, weight, and head circumference at the beginning (83.43±11.3 cm vs 84.62±12.77 cm; 12.36±3.08 kg vs 12.72±3.87 kg; 47.33±2.15 cm vs 47.26±2.73 cm, respectively), at the first month, (84.82±10.97 vs 85.97±12.28; 12.78±3.09 vs 13.09±3.87; 47.76±2.10 vs 47.61±2.67, respectively), and at the third month, (86.4±11.12 vs 87.69±12.13; 12.9±3.06 vs 13.35±3.81; 48.22±1.89 vs 48.07±2.45, respectively). There were no statistical differences between mean hematological parameters of the groups at the beginning, at the first month, and at the third month, either (mean hb of Group 1: 8.78±1.12 g/dL; 11.27±1.09 g/ dL; 12.05±1.00 g/dL respectively and of Group 2: 9.10±1.07 g/dL; 11.12±0.85 g/dL; 11.80±0.79 g/dL, respectively). Mean ferritin and zinc values of the groups were statistically insignificant at the beginning (Mean ferritin: 4.96±4.03 ?g/dL vs 4.52±2.94 ?g/dL, zinc: 88.64±15.35 ng/mL vs 86.84±17.34 ng/mL). Their increase was statistically significant at the third month (mean ferritin: 15.91±9.57 ?g/dL vs 15.25±10.47 ?g/dL; zinc: 88.02±15.10 ng/mL vs 95.25±16.55 ng/mL). Conclusion: In our study neither positive nor negative effect of zinc administration on IDA treatment was demonstrated. Therefore, in the treatment of IDA zinc together with iron should be used at different times if there is coexistent zinc deficiency. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385777

Gülsan, Meltem; Malbora, Bar??; Avc?, Zekai; Bayraktar, Nilüfer; Bozkaya, Ikbal; Ozbek, Namik

2013-06-01

86

Effect of zinc sulphate on gelling properties of phosphorylated protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally.  

PubMed

Impacts of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) (0-140 ?mol/kg) on gel properties of yellow stripe trevally surimi added with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (0.25% and 0.5%, w/w) and protein isolate phosphorylated with STPP at 0.25% and 0.5% (w/w) were studied. Gels from surimi added with 60 ?mol ZnSO4/kg in the absence and presence of 0.5% STPP had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 20.9% and 33.3%, and 11.6% and 18.6%, respectively, compared with the control surimi gel (without additives). Gel of protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP containing 100 ?mol ZnSO4/kg had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 14.87% and 5.6%, respectively, compared with the gel from non-phosphorylated protein isolate at the same ZnSO4 level, suggesting that the phosphorylated protein isolate was more crosslinked by Zn(2+). The addition of ZnSO4 at the suitable level lowered the expressible moisture content, but increased whiteness of surimi or protein isolate gels (P<0.05). Non-covalent bonds, more likely salt bridge and ionic interactions, played a major role in cross-linking of proteins in both surimi and protein isolate added with ZnSO4, regardless of phosphates incorporated. Microstructure study revealed that a gel having highly interconnected and denser network with smaller voids was formed when protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP was added with ZnSO4 at a level of 100 ?mol/kg. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally phosphorylated with STPP in conjunction with addition of ZnSO4 at an appropriate level. PMID:23871033

Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-12-01

87

In situ metal precipitation in a zinc-contaminated, aerobic sandy aquifer by means of biological sulfate reduction.  

PubMed

The applicability of in situ metal precipitation (ISMP) based on bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with molasses as carbon source was tested for the immobilization of a zinc plume in an aquifer with highly unsuitable initial conditions (high Eh, low pH, low organic matter content, and low sulfate concentrations), using deep wells for substrate injection. Batch experiments revealed an optimal molasses concentration range of 1-5 g/L and demonstrated the necessity of adding a specific growth medium to the groundwater. Without this growth medium, even sulfate, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium addition combined with pH optimization could not trigger biological sulfate reduction. In column experiments, precipitation of ZnS(s) was induced biologically as well as chemically (by adding Na2S). In both systems, zinc concentrations dropped from about 30 mg/L to below 0.02 mg/L. After termination of substrate addition the biological system showed continuation of BSR for at least 2 months, suggesting the insensitivity of the sulfate reducing system for short stagnations of nutrient supply, whereas in the chemical system an immediate increase of Zn concentrations was observed. A pilot experiment conducted in situ at the zinc-contaminated site showed a reduction of zinc concentrations from around 40 mg/L to below 0.01 mg/L. Termination of substrate supply did not result in an immediate stagnation of the BSR process, but continuation of BSR was observed for at least 5 weeks. PMID:15298212

Janssen, G M C M; Temminghoff, E J M

2004-07-15

88

Zinc modified polypyrrole coating on mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypyrrole (PPy) films (?1.7 ?m thick) have been electrodeposited on mild steel (MS) substrates from 0.1 M pyrrole containing aqueous oxalic acid solution, by using cyclic voltammetry technique. Then, the polymer coatings were modified with deposition of zinc particles (?1 mg\\/cm2), at a constant potential value of ?1.20 V in 0.2 M ZnSO4 solution. The corrosion performance of zinc modified PPy coating has been investigated

Tunç Tüken

2006-01-01

89

Comparison between the efficacy of 10% zinc sulfate solution with 4% hydroquinone cream on improvement of melasma  

PubMed Central

Background: Melasma, a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Although 10% zinc sulfate solution has been reported to be useful for patients with melasma, controlled trials are lacking. Materials and Methods: 72 women with moderate to severe melasma were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with 10% zinc sulfate solution and group B with 4% hydroquinone cream twice-daily. The results were evaluated by photoevaluation by patients based on subjective satisfaction and a blinded dermatologist using MASI score. Assessments were obtained at baseline and at 2 and 6 months after starting treatment. Results: According to MASI score changes during treatment, there was a reduction in both groups at 2 months, however, the reduction in group B was more significant (the reduction in mean ± SD MASI was 0.7 ± 0.7 in group A vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 in group B). In addition, the patients in group B continued to decrease MASI score for the remainder of the study period at 6 months follow-up (0.3 ± 0.5) in comparison with patients in group A who did not show more reduction in MASI score. Conclusions: The study indicates that topical zinc sulfate is not as effective in treating disease as was observed in the previous open study. A comparative study with sunscreen and placebo is necessary to determine if topical zinc sulfate is truly superior to sunscreen and placebo in this respect.

Iraji, Fariba; Tagmirriahi, Nabet; Gavidnia, Keyvan

2012-01-01

90

Vibrational behavior of matrix-isolated ions in Tutton compounds. V. Infrared spectroscopic study of NH 4+ and SO 42- ions included in zinc sulfates and selenates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectra of K 2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O and (NH 4) 2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O containing SO 42- guest ions and those of K 2Zn(SO 4) 2·6H 2O and K 2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O containing NH 4+ guest ions are presented and discussed in the region of the stretching modes ?3 and ?1 of the sulfate ions and in the region of asymmetric bending modes ?4 of the NH 4+ ions, respectively. The SO 42- ions matrix-isolated in the selenate matrices (approximately 2 mol%) exhibit three bands for ?3 and one band for ?1 in agreement with the low site symmetry C1 of the selenate host ions. The NH 4+ guest ions included in the potassium sulfate matrix are characterized also with three site symmetry components of ?4. However, the ammonium ions in (NH 4) 2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O as well as those included in K 2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O display four infrared bands corresponding to ?4 probably due to some kind of disorder of the ammonium ions. The extent of energetic distortion of the isomorphously included sulfate ions as deduced from the values of ? ?3 (site-group splitting) and ? ?max (the difference between the highest and the lowest wavenumbered components of the stretching modes) are commented. The spectroscopic experiments reveal that the SO 42- guest ions are weaker distorted in the potassium selenate matrix than the same ions in the neat potassium sulfate due to the larger unit-cell volumes of the selenate compounds. However, the SO 42- guest ions are stronger distorted in the ammonium selenate matrix as compared to the same ions in the neat ammonium sulfate owing to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the SO 42- guest ions and the NH 4+ host ions. The analysis of the spectra shows that the band positions of the water librations in the host potassium compounds are affected by the included ammonium cations. The formation of the hydrogen bonds between the NH 4+ guest ions and the XO 42- host ions leads to a decrease in the proton acceptor capabilities of the anions ( anti-cooperative or proton acceptor competitive effect) and as a result the hydrogen bonds formed by the water molecules weaken on going from the neat potassium compounds to the mixed crystals K 1.8(NH 4) 0.2Zn(SO 4) 2·6H 2O and K 1.8(NH 4) 0.2Zn(SeO 4) 2·6H 2O (the bands corresponding to water librations are broadened and shifted to lower frequencies).

Marinova, D.; Georgiev, M.; Stoilova, D.

2010-05-01

91

Therapeutic effect of zinc-containing calcium phosphate suspension injection in thermal burn-rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of suspensions of zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in the healing of thermal burns in rats. ?-ZnTCP containing 10 mol % zinc, ?-ZnTCP containing 0.9 mol % zinc, and ZnSO4 ·(H2O)7 (ZnSO4) were used. The injections were prepared to suspend ZnSO4 , ?-ZnTCP, and ?-ZnTCP powders in 2 mL of 1% sodium alginate saline solution containing 2 mg of Zn. In vitro Zn release rates were measured in simulated body fluid. The release of Zn from ZnSO4 was very fast, but that from ?-ZnTCP and ?-ZnTCP was slowed by transformation to hydroxyapatite. The suspensions were injected into group C (control), D1 (ZnSO4), D2 (?-ZnTCP), and D3 (?-ZnTCP) rats after thermal burns treatment for 3 h. The area under the curve for the plasma Zn for group D1 was the highest, and the order was groups D1 > D2 ? D3 ? C. The wounded area (Aw) of group D1 had almost the same profile as that of group C, and the Aw at 18 days was about 20%. In contrast, the Aw of group D2 and D3 decreased, and on day 15 was 8% and 37%, respectively. The results indicated that the healing process was shorter in the rats given ?-ZnTCP and ?-ZnTCP than those given ZnSO4 or the control. PMID:23281276

Otsuka, Makoto; Shikamura, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo

2013-05-01

92

Effects of zinc ex vivo and intracellular zinc chelator in vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects. Zinc modulates Na+\\/Cl?-dependent transporters. This study examined the effect of zinc (ZnSO4) ex vivo and zinc chelator N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) in vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. The effect of TPEN in vivo on taurine and zinc levels was determined. Isolated cells\\u000a were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1–100 ?M). Taurine transport was done

S. Nusetti; M. Urbina; F. Obregón; M. Quintal; Z. Benzo; L. Lima

2010-01-01

93

Zinc modified polyaniline coating for mild steel protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaniline (PANi) coating (?1.1?m thick) was synthesized electrochemically on mild steel (MS), from 0.1M aniline containing aqueous oxalic acid solution and using cyclic voltammetry technique. Then, this PANi coating was modified with the deposition of zinc particles from 0.2M ZnSO4 solution. The electrodeposition of zinc particles (approximately 1mg\\/cm2) has been achieved, at the constant potential value of ?1.20V. The corrosion

Tunç Tüken; Birgül Yaz?c?; Mehmet Erbil

2006-01-01

94

Antioxidant properties of chromium and zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chromium (chromium picolinate, CrPic) and zinc (ZnSO4H2O) supplementation on serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) and serum status\\u000a of some antioxidant vitamins and minerals of laying hens (Hy-Line) reared at a low ambient temperature (6.8°C) were evaluated.\\u000a One hundred twenty laying hens (Hy-Line; 32 wk old) were divided into 4 groups, 30 hens

Muhittin Onderci; Nurhan Sahin; Kazim Sahin; Nermin Kilic

2003-01-01

95

Effect of aluminum chloride and zinc sulfate on Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ACNPV) replication in cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  When IPL-Sf-21AE III continuous insect cell line was grown and maintained in IPL-41 insect cell culture medium supplemented\\u000a with 16µM of AlCl3 or 0.24µM of ZnSO4·7H2O, or both metallic salts, and then infected withAutographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, virus replication was increased significantly. The yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB)\\u000a was enhanced up to 121%. Synthesis of cellfree nonoccluded virus

S. A. Weiss; G. C. Smith; J. L. Vaughn; E. M. Dougherty; G. J. Tompkins

1982-01-01

96

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and Cats â(1) Amount. Apply a thin film over the cornea 3 or 4 times daily. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of superficial bacterial infections...

2013-04-01

97

Purification of properties of dihydroorotase, a zinc-containing metalloenzyme in Clostridium oroticum.  

PubMed Central

Dihydroorotase +4,5-L-dihydro-orotate amidohydrolase [EC 3.5.2.3]), which catalyzes the reversible cyclization of N-carbamyl-L-aspartate to L-dihydroorotate, has been purified from orotate-grown Clostridium oroticum. The enzyme is homogeneous when subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and is stable at pH 7.6 in 0.3 M NaCl containing 10 muM ZnSO4. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 110,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, using three different buffer systems, indicated the enzyme is composed of two subunits, each having a molecular weight of 55,000. Dihydroorotase is shown by atomic absorption spectroscopy to be a zinc-containing metalloenzyme with 4 g-atoms of zinc per 110,000 g of protein. The pH optima for the conversion of N-carbamyl-L-aspartate to L-dihydroorotate and for L-dihydroorotate to N-carbamyl-L-aspartate are pH 6.0 and 8.2, respectively. The Km values for N-carbamyl-L-aspartate and for L-dihydroorotate are 0.13 and 0.07 mM, respectively. Inhibitor studies indicate that zinc may be involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Images

Taylor, W H; Taylor, M L; Balch, W E; Gilchrist, P S

1976-01-01

98

The dissolution of sphalerite in ferric sulfate media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, in ferric sulfate media was investigated using closely sized fractions of crushed sphalerite crystals. Linear kinetics were observed, and the rate increased in proportion to the surface area, as the average particle size of the sphalerite decreased. The predominant reaction products are ZnSO4, FeSO4, and elemental sulfur. The leaching rate increases with increasing temperature, and

J. E. Dutrizac

2006-01-01

99

The dissolution of sphalerite in ferric sulfate media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, in ferric sulfate media was investigated using closely sized fractions of crushed\\u000a sphalerite crystals. Linear kinetics were observed, and the rate increased in proportion to the surface area, as the average\\u000a particle size of the sphalerite decreased. The predominant reaction products are ZnSO4, FeSO4, and elemental sulfur. The leaching rate increases with increasing temperature, and

J. E. Dutrizac

2006-01-01

100

Influence of temperature on the optical properties of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) was synthesized and grown by the slow evaporation technique at 315 K. The effect of temperature on the optical properties of ZTS crystal was studied in the temperature range 293-338 K. This range involves the first-order phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase (323 K). At room temperature (293 K), the optical transmittance (T) has high values in the completely visible wavelength range. The cut off wavelength equals to 278.5 nm at room temperature. By increasing temperature, the optical transmittance decreases, however the cut off shifts to higher wavelengths. These changes have different rates in the two phases (ferroelectric and paraelectric). Analysis reveals that the type of transition is the direct allowed one. The optical energy gap (Eg) has the value of 3.89 eV at room temperature. This value decreases linearly with increasing temperature by different rates in the two phases. In the region of the absorption edge, the absorption coefficient obeys Urbach's rule, and Urbach parameters were calculated. The Urbach tail energy (Ee), which equals to 1.024 eV at room temperature, increases linearly with increasing temperature. This change has different rates in the two phases. At room temperature, the steepness parameter (?) has the value of 24.697 × 10-3. It decreases linearly with increasing [1/(Temp.)2] by different rates in the two phases. For all studied parameters, the temperature dependence relations change considerably while passing through 323 K. This anomalous behavior confirms that the transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase occurs at this temperature.

Abdulwahab, A. M.

2012-12-01

101

[Lack of effect of oral zinc sulfate on wound healing in leg ulcer].  

PubMed

The effect of oral zinc on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers has been investigated in 91 hospitalized patients aged approximately 70 years. The patients were divided into three groups: group A consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) who received no zinc therapy. Groups B and C consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range (Zn less than 1.0 mg/l) who received either 3 daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate (group B) or placebo (group C). In group B, a marked increase in serum zinc concentration occured within one month (from 0.9 to 1.25 mg/L). In group A, serum zinc levels decreased slightly during the observation period of three months (from 1.1 to 1.0 mg/l) while a slight rise was seen in group C (from 0.9 to 1.0 mg/l). The healing rate of the ulcers in group A was not superior to that in group C. Zinc substitution in the low zinc group B did not improve healing as compared to placebo-treated low zinc group C. A favourable effect of oral zinc on wound healing in patients with initially low serum zinc concentrations could not be demonstrated. Initial ulcer areas were significantly smaller in patients with higher serum zinc levels than in patients with lower serum zinc levels. Low serum zinc levels appear to be a consequence of insufficient nutrition, an observation which may indicate a correlation between nutritional deficiency and ulcer area. The healing rate did not depend significantly upon age, sex, weight or cause. It was, however, accelerated in the case of larger ulcers. PMID:7423160

Floersheim, G L; Lais, E

1980-07-26

102

Effect of Pre and Postnatal Exposure to Zinc on (3H)glucose Uptake in the Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the susceptibility of developing brain and other tissues to accumulate zinc, rats were exposed to zinc at different periods of ontogeny. For the prenatal group, pregnant Wistar rats received 50 ppm of zinc (ZnSO4 · 7H2O) in drinking for the entire duration of pregnancy. On the day of delivery zinc was removed from the drinking water. Another group,

J. Konecki; G. Bielaczyc; P. Nowak; R. Szkilnik; G. Szczerbak; M. Swoboda; A. Kwieci?ski; R. M. Kostrzewa; R. Brus

103

Zinc Fertilizer Solubility and Its Effects on Zinc Bioailability Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have found that low water-soluble zinc (Zn) sources are not as effective in supplying Zn for plant use as highly water soluble ZnSO4·2H2O. However, there is a question as to the residual effects of Zn from low water-soluble fertilizers on subsequent crops. The objective of this greenhouse study was to determine the relationship between water solubility of Zn fertilizers

T. M. Shaver; D. G. Westfall; M. Ronaghi

2007-01-01

104

Preventive effects of zinc sulfate on taste alterations in patients under irradiation for head and neck cancers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Taste abnormalities are common among cancer patients after starting radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Considering the role of zinc and reports on its beneficial effects in taste perception, we evaluated the preventive effects of zinc sulfate on radiation-induced taste alterations. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with head and neck cancers who were on schedule for radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, were allocated to receive zinc sulfate (50 mg, three times a day) or placebo; started with beginning of radiotherapy and continued for one month later. Taste acuity was determined by measuring detection and recognition thresholds for four taste qualities at baseline, at the end of radiotherapy, and a month later using the Henkin method. Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age = 59.2 ± 16.5, 60% male) completed the trial. The two groups were similar at baseline. After radiotherapy, and one month later, there was a significant increase in taste perception threshold for bitter, salty, sweet, and sour tastes in the placebo group (P = 0.001). In those who received zinc, there was only slight increase in threshold for perception of the salty taste (P = 0.046). No relevant side effects due to zinc sulfate were reported. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation in head/neck cancer patients under radiotherapy can prevent radiation-induced taste alterations. Further studies with longer follow-ups and with different doses of zinc supplementation are warranted in this regard.

Najafizade, Nadia; Hemati, Simin; Gookizade, Abbas; Berjis, Nezameddin; Hashemi, Mostafa; Vejdani, Soheil; Ghannadi, Alireza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Arbab, Nafise

2013-01-01

105

Ultrasound-assisted analyte extraction for the determination of sulfate and elemental sulfur in zinc sulfide by different liquid chromatography techniques.  

PubMed

The speciation and determination of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and elemental sulfur (S degree) in zinc sulfide (ZnS) using ion-chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) respectively is described. Three sample pretreatment approaches were employed with the aim of determining sulfate: (i) conventional water extraction of the analyte; (ii) solid-liquid aqueous extraction with an ultrasonic probe; and (iii) elimination of the zinc sulfide matrix via ion-exchange dissolution (IED). The separation of sulfate was carried out by an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS17), followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Elemental sulfur was extracted ultrasonically from the acid treated sample solution into chloroform and separated on a reversed phase HPLC column equipped with a diode array detector (DAD) at 264 nm. The achievable solid detection limits for sulfate and sulfur were 35 and 10 microg g(-1) respectively. PMID:15776159

Dash, K; Thangavel, S; Krishnamurthy, N V; Rao, S V; Karunasagar, D; Arunachalam, J

2005-04-01

106

Generation and characterization of sulfate aerosols for laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sulfate aerosols including Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4. MnSO4·H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O, AI2(SO4)3·18H2O, Fe2(SO4)3·xH2O, (NH4)2SO4·ZnSO4 6H2O and H2SO4 were generated and characterized with respect to size distribution, mass concentration, chemical component, and crystal structure of the aerosols. The aerosols were generated utilizing an ultrasonic nebulizer whose performance characteristics were also thoroughly investigated in this study. The aerosol generation system was very stable, showing

CHONG S. KIM; RAYMOND McDONALD; MARVIN A. SACKNER

1981-01-01

107

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

108

Effect of aluminum chloride and zinc sulfate on Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ACNPV) replication in cell culture.  

PubMed

When IPL-SF-21AE III continuous insect cell line was grown and maintained in IPL-41 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 16 microM of AlCl3 or 0.24 microM of ZnSO4 . 7H2O, or both metallic salts, and then infected with Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, virus replication was increased significantly. The yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was enhanced up to 121%. Synthesis of cell-free nonoccluded virus was increased to 365% when infectivity was assayed by the plaque method. Newly applied electron microscopic quantitation and stereological techniques also revealed a significant increase in virus particles (VP) and in amount and size of PIB as well as number of VP per PIB. PMID:6759370

Weiss, S A; Smith, G C; Vaughn, J L; Dougherty, E M; Tompkins, G J

1982-11-01

109

Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass

2008-01-01

110

Comparative study of responses in four Datura species to a zinc stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zinc toxicity on the growth and the photosynthetic activities of four Datura species (Datura metel, Datura innoxia, Datura sanguinea, Datura tatula) were studied using various ZnSO4 concentrations (0, 1, 2.5 and 5mM) added in the Coïc Lessaint solution. Growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration were measured after 20days of zinc stress. These parameters were severely reduced

N. Vaillant; F. Monnet; A. Hitmi; H. Sallanon; A. Coudret

2005-01-01

111

Cobalt and Nickel Removal from Zinc Sulfate Electrolyte by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sphalerite concentrates prepared during processing of Missouri lead ores contain small percentages of cobalt and nickel which adversely affect zinc electrolysis. The Federal Bureau of Mines has evaluated solvent extraction and precipitation techniques to ...

R. G. Sandberg T. L. Hebble

1978-01-01

112

Calcium sulphate solubilities in simulated zinc processing solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium sulphate solubilities in simulated zinc processing solutions, as well as the densities of the corresponding saturated solutions, were determined on heating and cooling in a series of experiments carried out from 20 to 95 °C. In dilute ZnSO4 media, increasing H2SO4 concentrations in the range of 0.0–0.6 M H2SO4 strongly increase the solubility of calcium sulphate, but have little

J. E Dutrizac

2002-01-01

113

Synthesis and characterization of copper doped zinc telluride thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper doped zinc telluride (ZnTe:Cu) thin films have been synthesized by an electrodeposition technique from acidic aqueous bath containing ZnSO4, TeO2 and CuSO4. The reaction mechanism has been studied by cyclic voltammetry to identify the deposition potential of ZnTe and ZnTe:Cu. X-ray diffraction as well as SEM techniques have been employed to investigate the structure and surface morphology of as-deposited

V. S. John; T. Mahalingam; Jinn P. Chu

2005-01-01

114

Genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a highly copper resistant, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms. PMID:22072648

Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

2011-12-01

115

Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a Highly Copper Resistant, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Effluents of a Zinc Smelter at the Urals  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms.

Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

2011-01-01

116

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

117

Toxicity and transcriptomic analysis in Hyalella azteca suggests increased exposure and susceptibility of epibenthic organisms to zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment surface, is likely to have a high potential exposure. Here we show that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs are more toxic to H. azteca compared with the corresponding metal ion, Zn(2+). Dissolution of ZnO NPs contributes about 50% of the Zn measured in the ZnO NP suspensions, and cannot account for the toxicity of these particles to H. azteca. However, gene expression analysis is unable to distinguish between the ZnO NP exposures and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) exposures at equitoxic concentrations. These results lead us to hypothesize that ZnO NPs provide an enhanced exposure route for Zn(2+) uptake into H. azteca, and possibly other sediment dwelling organisms. Our study supports the prediction that sediment dwelling organisms are highly susceptible to the effects of ZnO NPs and should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanomaterials. PMID:23889737

Poynton, Helen C; Lazorchak, James M; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Blalock, Bonnie; Smith, Mark E; Struewing, Katherine; Unrine, Jason; Roose, Deborah

2013-08-20

118

Combined Use of Acid Fibroblast Growth Factor, Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor and Zinc Sulphate Accelerates Diabetic Ulcer Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies demonstrated that topic application of recombinant human acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) significantly, but still not completely, improved in diabetic ulcer healing. To obtain a maximal therapy for diabetic ulcer healing, a combined protocol containing aFGF, anti-oxidative reagent zinc (Zn) and stem cell stimulator granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), i.e.: aFGF\\/G-CSF\\/zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), was explored in the present

Shaoqiang Lin; Hengwu Xu; Jian Xiao; Yanlong Liu; Yi Zhang; Lu Cai; Xiaokun Li; Yi Tan

2009-01-01

119

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.  

PubMed

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-Ting; Yi, Shu-Min; Li, Xue-Peng; Li, Jian-Rong

2014-01-01

120

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-ting; Yi, Shu-min; Li, Xue-peng; Li, Jian-rong

2014-02-01

121

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

2014-01-01

122

Response of Corn to Banded Zinc Sulfate Fertilizer in Fields with Variable Soil pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are soil series that contain free calcium carbonate (CaCO3) within fields where the surrounding pHs of the soil series are slightly acid. The objective was to study corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield response to zinc (Zn) fertilizer on different soil series within fields. The study was conducted at 12 sites between 1998 and 2000. Treatments were 0 and

A. Bickel; R. Killorn

2007-01-01

123

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... viruses . The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA , the genetic material in all cells. ... colitis or Crohn's disease . These conditions can both decrease the amount of zinc that the body absorbs ...

124

A simple preparation technique for shape-controlled zinc oxide nanoparticles: Formation of narrow size-distributed nanorods using seeds in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various shapes of wurtzite-type ZnO nanoparticles were selectively produced in a simple aqueous system prepared by mixing ZnSO4 and NaOH solutions. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles were obtained by the addition of an alkaline agent into an acidic zinc solution (acidic route), while nanorods were grown by mixing a zinc precursor into an alkaline solution (basic route). The aspect ratio and size distribution

Tetsuo Kawano; Hiroaki Imai

2008-01-01

125

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg?1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg?1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

Hayes, Sarah M.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

2011-01-01

126

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.  

PubMed

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

2011-09-01

127

Effects of zinc source and phytate on zinc absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zn source and phytate on Zn absorption in broilers. In experiment 1, eight different Zn sources, including ZnSO4, Zn Gly chelate, Zn Met chelate, and Zn amino acid C complex with the weak complex strength (Zn AA C), Zn protein B complex with the moderate complex strength (Zn Pro B), and zinc protein A complex with the strong complex strength (Zn Pro A), and the mixtures of ZnSO4 with either Gly or Met (Zn+Gly or Zn+Met, respectively) were used to study the effects of Zn sources on Zn absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers. In experiment 2, 3×4 factorial arrangements of treatments involving 3 phytate levels and 4 Zn sources were used to investigate the effect of phytate on Zn absorption. Three molar ratios of phytate to Zn were 0, 2:1, and 10:1, respectively, and 4 Zn sources included ZnSO4, Zn AA C, Zn Pro B, and Zn Pro A, respectively. No differences (P>0.05) were found among the absorption percentages of Zn as Zn+Gly, Zn+Met, and ZnSO4 in 3 intestinal segments. The absorption percentages of Zn as Zn Gly chelate, Zn Met chelate, Zn AA C, Zn Pro B, and Zn Pro A in the duodenum and jejunum were 29 to 129% higher (P<0.05) than those of Zn as ZnSO4, Zn+Gly, and Zn+Met in the following order: Zn Pro A>Zn Pro B>Zn AA C>Zn Gly chelate or Zn Met chelate>ZnSO4, Zn+Met, or Zn+Gly. The changes of Zn absorption as different Zn sources in the ileum were also observed and were similar to those in the duodenum and jejunum. There was a significant interaction (P<0.05) between phytate levels and Zn sources on Zn absorption in 3 intestinal segments. The absorption percentage of Zn as ZnSO4 in the duodenum with a phytate-added group (10:1) was 40% (P<0.05) lower than that of Zn as ZnSO4 without a phytate-added group. With the increasing phytate levels, the changes of Zn absorption as organic Zn sources in 3 intestinal segments were similar to those of ZnSO4 in the duodenum. However, the reduction of Zn absorption as organic Zn sources was lessened with the increasing complex strengths, and the highest absorption of Zn as Zn Pro A was observed. These results indicated that the absorption of Zn as organic Zn was more effective than that of Zn as inorganic Zn. The organic Zn absorption increased with the increasing complex strengths as well. The simple mixture of ZnSO4 with amino acid did not increase Zn absorption. In addition, the phytate could reduce Zn absorption as different Zn sources in 3 intestinal segments. Organic Zn sources could lessen the negative effect of phytate on Zn absorption, and then the absorption of organic Zn, especially Zn Pro A with strong complex strength, was more effective than inorganic Zn under the high levels of phytate. PMID:20852107

Yu, Y; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Xi, L; Luo, X G; Liu, B

2010-10-01

128

A New Type of Metal-Binding Site in Cobalt- And Zinc-Containing Adenylate Kinases Isolated From Sulfate-Reducers D. Gigas And D. Desulfuricans ATCC 27774  

SciTech Connect

Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterized in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the 'LID' domain. The sequence {sup 129}Cys-X{sub 5}-His-X{sub 15}-Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

Gavel, O.Y.; Bursakov, S.A.; Rocco, G.Di; Trincao, J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Calvete, J.J.; Brondino, C.; Pereira, A.S.; Lampreia, J.; Tavares, P.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I.

2009-05-18

129

Zinc sulfate inhibited inflammation of Der p2-induced airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 and NF-?B phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Inflammation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is believed to be important in causing airway hyperresponsiveness. However, zinc has been reported to be implicated in many kinds of cell inflammation. Little is known about the effect of zinc treatment on Der p2 (group II Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-induced inflammation from ASMCs. This study investigated effects and mechanisms of zinc in Der p2-treated ASMCs. Der p2-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with various concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO?) 6 ?M, 12 ?M, 24 ?M, and 96 ?M. The proteins and mRNAs of cytokines in ASMCs were examined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Intracellular zinc was stained with Zinquin fluorescence. The cell signaling protein expression was detected by Western blot. Der p2 was used to induce interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production of ASMCs. However, we found that 24 ?M ZnSO? reduced these inflammatory mediators production of Der p2-treated primary ASMCs. Der p2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) phosphorylation were suppressed by supplementation of 24 ?M ZnSO?. Zinc is an anti-inflammatory agent that reduces inflammation of Der p2-treated ASMCs through the suppression of the ERK and NF-?B pathway. The results may be helpful for the development of effective treatments. PMID:23264166

Shih, Chia-Ju; Chiou, Ya-Ling

2013-06-01

130

Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD analyses demonstrate the typical LDH-like layered structural characteristics of both products. The room temperature MS results reveal the characteristics of both the Fe(II) and Fe(III) species for SO 42--containing product, while only the Fe(III) characteristic for DBS-containing one. The combination characterization results and Rietveld analysis illustrate that the SO 42--containing product possesses the Green Rust two (GR2)-like crystal structure with an approximate chemical composition of [Zn 0.435·Fe II0.094·Fe III0.470·(OH) 2]·(SO 42-) 0.235·1.0H 2O, while the DBS-containing one exhibits the common LDH compound-like structure. The contact angle measurement indicates the evident hydrophobic properties of DBS-containing nanocomposite, compared with SO 42--containing product, due to the modification of the internal and external surface of LDHs by the organic hydrophobic chain of DBS.

Zhang, Hui; Wen, Xing; Wang, Yingxia

2007-05-01

131

The effect of cobalt-doping on some of the optical properties of glycine zinc sulfate (GZS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycine zinc sulfate (GZS) single crystals, pure and doped with three different ratios of cobalt ions were synthesized and grown by the slow evaporation technique of aqueous solutions at 34 °C. Optically transparent single crystals with dimensions up to 2×1.5×1.2 cm 3 were obtained in about four weeks. The optical transmittance was measured and used to study some optical properties for these crystals. Pure GZS crystal has high optical transmittance in the whole visible range and UV transparency with lower cut off wavelength at 300 nm. By adding Co-ions to GZS crystal, the transmittance decreases and the value of cut off shifts to the higher wavelengths with increasing Co ratio. Adding Co-dopants to GZS crystal has other effects like increasing the magnitude of the absorption coefficient ( ?) and forming an absorption band around 2.1 eV. The height of this absorption band increases with increasing Co ratio. The optical energy gap ( Eg) for pure GZS crystal is about 3.80 eV. This value decreases with increasing Co ratio to GZS crystals. The predominant optical transition for pure and Co-doped GZS crystals is the allowed indirect one. The phonon energy ( Ep) and the phonon equivalent temperature ( Tp) at room temperature are 0.20 eV and 2318.84 K for pure GZS crystal, respectively, and these values increase with increasing Co content in GZS crystals.

Abu EL-Fadl, A.; Abdulwahab, A. M.

2010-08-01

132

Effect of dose and source of supplemental zinc on immune response and oxidative enzymes in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment of 150 days was conducted on 42 male Nellore lambs (28.3?±?0.64 kg) to determine the effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation\\u000a (0,15, 30 and 45 ppm) in diet from inorganic (ZnSO4) and organic (Zn proteinate) sources on immune response and antioxidant enzyme activities by allotting them randomly to 7\\u000a groups in completely randomized design. The basal diet (BD) contained 29.28 ppm Zn. The

D. Nagalakshmi; K. Dhanalakshmi; D. Himabindu

2009-01-01

133

Nano-crystallites formation and Eu 3+ luminescence in zinc boro-sulphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In zinc borosulphate glasses (ZnSO4:B2O3 binary system) nano-crystallites formation is observed which can be attributed to homogenous nucleation process and the size of the crystallites formed is in the range 40–50 nm. Using IR spectroscopy studies, it has been found that the glass-ceramics region consists of tetrahedral borates (BO4)5? while tha glassy region is made of triangular borates (BO3)3? and

R. Jagannathan; K. Athinarayanasamy; A. Mani; C. K. Jayasankar

1996-01-01

134

Separation of zinc from aqueous samples using a molecular imprinting technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the separation of zinc from aqueous samples by solid-phase extraction based on a molecular imprinting technique is described. Zn-imprinted polymer was prepared by free radical solution polymerisation in a glass tube containing ZnSO4, morin, 4-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as a cross-linking monomer, and 2,2?-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The obtained polymer block was ground and sieved

Mostafa Khajeh; Massoud Kaykhaii; Majid Mirmoghaddam; Hossein Hashemi

2009-01-01

135

Supplemental zinc and vitamin A can alleviate negative effects of heat stress in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc (ZnSO4H2O) and vitamin A (retinol) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol,\\u000a total protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens (Ross) reared at a high\\u000a temperature (34C). One hundred twenty 10-d-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups,

Osman Kucuk; Nurhan Sahin; Kazim Sahin

2003-01-01

136

Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

2012-10-01

137

Effects of exogenous zinc on cell cycle, apoptosis and viability of MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cells.  

PubMed

As a non-toxic metal to humans, zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability and mitosis. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is crucial for normal cellular functioning, is maintained by various protein families including ZnT (zinc transporter/SLC30A) and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like proteins/SLC39A) that decrease and increase cytosolic zinc availability, respectively. In this study, we investigated the influences of a specific concentration range of ZnSO4 on cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell viability by MTT method in MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cell lines. Fluorescent sensors NBD-TPEA and the counterstain for nuclei Hoechst 33342 were used to stain the treated cells for observing the localisation and amount of Zn(2+) via laser scanning confocal microscope. It was found that the influence manners of ZnSO4 on cell cycle, apoptosis and cell viability in various cell lines were different and corresponding to the changes of Zn(2+) content of the three cell lines, respectively. The significant increase on intracelluar zinc content of MDAMB231 cells resulted in cell death, G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptotic fraction. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of ZnT and ZIP families in the three cell lines, when treated with high concentration of ZnSO4, increased and decreased corresponding to their functions, respectively. PMID:23839533

Wang, Yan-hong; Li, Ke-jin; Mao, Li; Hu, Xin; Zhao, Wen-jie; Hu, An; Lian, Hong-zhen; Zheng, Wei-juan

2013-09-01

138

Effect of different zinc levels on activity of superoxide dismutases & acid phosphatases and organic acid exudation on wheat genotypes.  

PubMed

A field study was carried out to investigate the effect of three Zn levels 0, 20 kg ZnSO4 ha(-1) and 20 kg ZnSO4 ha(-1)+ foliar spray of 0.5 % ZnSO4 on superoxide dismutase activity, acid phosphatase activity and grain yield and a pot experiment to study the effect of zinc deficient and sufficient conditions on organic acid exudation. Increasing Zn levels was established as beneficial in improving the enzyme activities of genotypes. Combined foliar and soil application of Zn proved to be superior of all the treatments. Zinc application resulted in a maximum increment limit of 96.8 % in superoxide dismutase activity, 75.76 % in acid phosphatase activity, and a decrement limit of 88.57 % in oxalic acid exudation irrespective of stages and year of study. The increased enzyme activities had a positive impact on grain yield. As an average of all genotypes an improvement of 19.88 % in 2009 and 21.29 % in 2010 due to soil application while of 16.45 % in 2009 and 13.01 % in 2010 due to combined application was calculated for grain yield. There existed a variation among genotypes in showing responses towards zinc application and the genotypes UP 2584 and PBW 550 were found to be more responsive. PMID:24554837

Bharti, Kiran; Pandey, Neha; Shankhdhar, Deepti; Srivastava, P C; Shankhdhar, S C

2014-01-01

139

Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The most commonly used medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the psychostimulants. There is, however, considerable awareness in alternative, nonstimulant therapies, because some patients respond poorly to stimulants or are unable to tolerate them. Some studies suggest that deficiency of zinc play a substantial role in the aetiopathogenesis of ADHD. Therefore, to assess the efficacy of zinc

Mustafa Bilici; Fatma Y?ld?r?m; Sema Kandil; Mehmet Bekaro?lu; Sermet Y?ld?rm??; Orhan De?er; Metin Ülgen; Ali?an Y?ld?ran; Hatice Aksu

2004-01-01

140

Effect of pressure on the solubilities of LiF, NaF, KCl, NH4, Cl, K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, and ZnSO4·7H2O in water at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilities of seven inorganic compounds in water were measured at 298.15 K and up to 350 MPa. The solubilities of K2SO4, LiF, NaF, and KCI increased with increasing pressure, those of NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4 decreased, and that of ZnSO4·7H2O showed almost no dependence on pressure. From the slopes of these solubility curves at 0.1 MPa, we estimated the volume changes

Seiji Sawamura; Takeo Ishigami; Nobuaki Egoshi; Masao Tsuchiya; Yoshihiro Taniguchi; Keizo Suzuki

1994-01-01

141

Effects of dietary chromium and zinc on egg production, egg quality, and some blood metabolites of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of chromium (chromium picolinate, CrPic) and zinc (ZnSO4·H2O) on egg production, egg quality, and serum insulin, corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and total protein concentrations\\u000a of laying hens reared under a low ambient temperature (6.8°C). One hundred twenty laying hens (Hy-Line; 32 wk old) were divided\\u000a into 4 groups, 30 hens per group. The

Nurhan Sahin; Muhittin Onderci; Kazim Sahin

2002-01-01

142

Effective removal of zinc from aqueous solution by hydrocalumite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn2+) from aqueous solutions was removed via synthesized hydrocalumite, and Visual MINTEQ was applied to verify the removal process in this paper. The results showed that the maximum removal capacity of Zn2+ was 7.34, 6.72 and 7.57mmolL?1 with SO42?, NO3? and Cl?, respectively. Under an initial Zn2+ concentration of 10.2mmolL?1 in ZnSO4 solution, the final Ca2+ concentration was equal

Qiang Liu; Yajun Li; Jia Zhang; Ying Chi; Xiuxiu Ruan; Jianyong Liu; Guangren Qian

2011-01-01

143

Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary  

SciTech Connect

Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

1986-03-05

144

Sequence of phases in the hydrothermal synthesis of zinc-doped magnetite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal techniques have been used to synthesize samples of ZnxFe3?xO4 (x=0.0–1.0) starting with ZnSO4·7H2O\\/FeSO4·7H2O aqueous solution. The sequence of phases, structural and magnetic properties were followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Refinement of the XRD spectra yielded the dependence of the lattice parameters of zinc-doped magnetite and zinc ferrite phase as function of the

Monica Sorescu; L. Diamandescu; D. Tarabasanu-Mihaila; V. Teodorescu

2007-01-01

145

Molecular design of nanometric zinc borate-containing polyimide as a route to flame retardant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc borate (Zn2B6O11·3H2O) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using an emulsion liquid membrane (W\\/O\\/W emulsion) to control the size of particles with Na2B4O7·10H2O, boric acid and ZnSO4·7H2O as raw materials. All materials were dispersed with the polyimide (PI) precursor, poly (amic acid). Using a combination of dissolving the poly (amic acid) and mixing fatty acid surfactant-coated zinc borate nanoparticles; we

Süleyman Köytepe; Sema Vural; Turgay Seçkin

2009-01-01

146

Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe < CdSe/ZnS or InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves. PMID:23912858

Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

2013-10-01

147

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

148

Distribution of zinc forms in highly calcareous soils as influenced by soil physical and chemical properties and application of zinc sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water?soluble zinc (Zn) fertilizers are rapidly converted to insoluble forms in calcareous soils resulting in lower efficiency of such fertilizers. A knowledge of distribution of native and applied Zn in such soils is necessary for understanding the fate of applied Zn fertilizers and finding ways to increase their efficiency. This experiment was conducted to obtain such information in selected highly

J. Yasrebi; N. Karimian; M. Maftoun; A. Abtahi; A. M. Sameni

1994-01-01

149

Comparative study of responses in four Datura species to a zinc stress.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc toxicity on the growth and the photosynthetic activities of four Datura species (Datura metel, Datura innoxia, Datura sanguinea, Datura tatula) were studied using various ZnSO4 concentrations (0, 1, 2.5 and 5 mM) added in the Coic Lessaint solution. Growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration were measured after 20 days of zinc stress. These parameters were severely reduced by this heavy metal. The zinc excess involves the stomate closing, the increase of CO2 concentration in the leaves, the inhibition of certain enzyme of the Calvin cycle, a degradation of photosystem and the chlorophyll decomposition. These phenomena allow the decrease of the net photosynthesis to be partially explained. These key parameters to assess photosynthetic performance allow the plants to be classified according to their resistance to zinc. Compared with the three other species, D. innoxia showed a very strong capacity to protect itself against toxic zinc concentrations; a large amount of ZnSO4 (5 mM) was required to inhibit 43% of the photosynthesis. PMID:15823334

Vaillant, N; Monnet, F; Hitmi, A; Sallanon, H; Coudret, A

2005-05-01

150

USING RESPIROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

A respirometric method has been developed to measure hydrogen utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). One application of this method has been to test inhibitory metals effects on the SRB culture used in a novel acid mine drainage treatment technology. As a control param...

151

Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal-Thiourea urea zinc sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nonlinear optical crystal thiourea urea zinc sulfate (TUZS) has been grown by slow evaporation technique in equimolar ratio. Solubility and metastable zone width measurements have been determined for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal system belongs to orthorhombic with cell parameters a = 7.78 Å, b = 11.15 Å and c = 15.47 Å. The sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder XRD pattern confirm the crystalline nature of the TUZS compound. The grown mechanism and surface features were investigated by optical microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of zinc in the grown crystal was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy and EDAX analysis. The compound has been confirmed by 1H NMR, mass and FTIR spectral studies. The transmittance spectrum of TUZS has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient K, reflectance R, as functions of photon energy. The optical band gap of TUZS is 4.046 eV. The SHG efficiency has been tested by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and KDP sample has been used as a standard reference material.

Rao, Redrothu Hanumantha; Kalainathan, S.

2012-11-01

152

The dissolution of sphalerite in ferric sulfate media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, in ferric sulfate media was investigated using closely sized fractions of crushed sphalerite crystals. Linear kinetics were observed, and the rate increased in proportion to the surface area, as the average particle size of the sphalerite decreased. The predominant reaction products are ZnSO4, FeSO4, and elemental sulfur. The leaching rate increases with increasing temperature, and the apparent activation energy is 44 kJ/mol. The relatively high apparent activation energy suggests that the rate is chemically controlled, a conclusion supported by the insensitivity of the rate of the rotation speed that was observed in complementary rotating disk experiments. The rate increases as the 0.3 to 0.4 power of the Fe(SO4)1.5 concentration, and is nearly independent of the pulp density, in the presence of a stoichiometric excess of ferric sulfate. In 0.3 M Fe(SO4)1.5 media, the rate increases with increasing acid concentrations >0.1 M H2SO4, but is insensitive to more dilute acid concentrations. In the absence of ferric ions, the rate increases rapidly with increasing H2SO4 concentrations, and relatively rapid rates are observed in solutions containing >0.5 M H2SO4. The rate decreases with increasing initial concentrations of ZnSO4, MgSO4, or FeSO4 in the ferric sulfate leaching solution, and this emphasizes the importance of maintaining the dissolved iron in a fully oxidized state in a commercial leaching operation.

Dutrizac, J. E.

2006-04-01

153

Destruction of the Main Olfactory Epithelium Reduces Female Sexual Behavior and Olfactory Investigation in Female Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as

Matthieu Keller; Quentin Douhard; Michael J. Baum; Julie Bakker

2006-01-01

154

Bioavailability of Calcium, Iron and Zinc Fortified Whole Wheat Flour Chapatti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability and interactive effects of calcium, iron and zinc fortified whole wheat flour chapattis on female Sprague–Dawley\\u000a albino rats were determined. The whole wheat flour was fortified with CaCO3, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at 1000, 40 and 20 mg\\/kg, respectively and fed to 64 female Sprague–Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Retention of Ca, Fe and Zn was\\u000a determined in plasma, femur and

Anwaar Ahmed; F. Muhammad Anjum; Salim Ur Rehman; M. Atif Randhawa; Umar Farooq

2008-01-01

155

The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

2011-06-01

156

The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance.  

PubMed

Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO. PMID:21711491

Clausen, Carol A; Kartal, S Nami; Arango, Rachel A; Green, Frederick

2011-01-01

157

The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance  

PubMed Central

Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

2011-01-01

158

Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

McHugh, J. B.; Miller, W. R.; Ficklin, W. H.

1984-01-01

159

Synthesis of nanoparticle zinc phosphate dihydrate by solid state reaction at room temperature and its thermochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle zinc phosphate dihydrate was prepared by solid-state reaction at ambient temperature from Na3PO4·12H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O, and characterized by X-ray, Raman, FT-IR spectra and TEM. Thermochemical study was performed by a RD496-III microcalorimeter at 298.15 K. The results reveal that the obtained product is Zn3(PO4)2·2H2O with spherical shape and particle size is between 40–50 nm. The standard enthalpy value for

A. Q. Yuan; S. Liao; Zh. F. Tong; J. Wu; Z. Y. Huang

2006-01-01

160

Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application.  

PubMed

Human deficiencies of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are worldwide problems. Biofortification of wheat could reduce Fe and Zn deficiencies in societies that depend on wheat consumption. This study investigated the effects of foliar application of Fe with or without Zn on the concentrations of Fe and Zn in grain and especially in flour of three wheat cultivars. On average, grain Fe concentration was increased significantly from 29.5 mg kg(-1) in the control to 37.8, 35.9, or 34.9 mg kg(-1) by application of FeSO4, ferric citrate plus ZnSO4, or ferric citrate, respectively. As expected, grain Zn concentration was increased from 29.0 mg kg(-1) in the control to 45.7 or 39.6 mg kg(-1) by application of ferric citrate plus ZnSO4 or a complex of micronutrients. Although the Fe and Zn concentrations in flour were inherently lower than in bran and shorts made by experimental mill, the concentrations in flour were simultaneously increased from 10.4 to 12.4 mg kg(-1) for Fe and from 11.8 to 17.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn by application of ferric citrate plus ZnSO4. Importantly, Fe was peripherally localized within grain fractions and strictly limited to transport to endosperm, making it more difficult to increase the quantity of Fe in flour products by foliar Fe application, but the situation with Zn is promising because Zn is more readily transported to the endosperm than Fe. The current study increases the understanding of agronomic biofortification. PMID:21073194

Zhang, Yueqiang; Shi, Rongli; Rezaul, Karim Md; Zhang, Fusuo; Zou, Chunqin

2010-12-01

161

Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil ?-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg?1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg?1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg?1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

162

Molecular origins of nonlinear optical activity in zinc tris(thiourea)sulfate revealed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction data and ab initio calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure-property relationships are established in the nonlinear optical (NLO) material, zinc tris(thiourea)sulfate (ZTS), via an experimental charge-density study, x-ray constrained wave-function refinement, and quantum-mechanical calculations. The molecular charge-transfer characteristics of ZTS, that are important for NLO activity, are topologically analyzed via a multipolar refinement of high-resolution x-ray diffraction data, which is supported by neutron diffraction measurements. The extent to which each chemical bond is ionic or covalent in nature is categorized by Laplacian-based bonding classifiers of the electron density; these include bond ellipticities, energy densities, and the local source function. Correspondingly, the NLO origins of ZTS are judged to best resemble those of organic NLO materials. The molecular dipole moment, ?i, and (hyper)polarizability coefficients, ?ij and ?ijk, are calculated from the experimental diffraction data using the x-ray constrained wave-function method. Complementary gas-phase ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations of ?i, ?ij, and ?ijk offer a supporting comparison. When taken alone, the experimental charge-density analysis does not fare well in deriving ?i, ?ij, or ?ijk, which is not entirely surprising given that the associated calculations are only generally valid for organic molecules. However, by refining the x-ray data within the constrained wave-function method, the evaluations of ?i, ?ij, and ?ijk are shown to agree very well with those from ab initio calculations and show remarkable normalization to experimental refractive index measurements. The small differences observed between ab initio and x-ray constrained wave-function refinement results can be related directly to gas- versus solid-state phase differences. ?i is found to be 28.3 Debye (gas phase) and 29.7 Debye (solid state) while ?ijk coefficients are not only significant but are also markedly three dimensional in form. Accordingly, substantial octupolar as well as dipolar NLO contributions in ZTS are indicated, which challenges the traditional focus on dipolar NLO molecules. This evaluation of NLO properties and their relation to the molecular structure offers several ways by which ZTS may be more widely functionalized as a NLO material. More generally, this case study on ZTS demonstrates how experimental and computational techniques can be combined to understand NLO structure-property relationships, an important tool for the quantum-tailored molecular design of next-generation metalorganic NLO materials.

Cole, Jacqueline M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.

2013-11-01

163

Influence of Cobalt and Zinc Exposure on mRNA Expression Profiles of Metallothionein and Cytocrome P450 in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research aims to evaluate the effects of cobalt and zinc exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on metallothioneins and cytocrome P450. Mature rainbow trouts were exposed to 10 mg\\/L CoCl2.6H2O and 1 mg\\/L ZnSO4.7H2O. After 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of treatment, expressions of muscle MT-A, MT-B, and CYP P4501A1 mRNAs were measured by means\\u000a of quantitative real-time polymerase chain

Saltuk Bu?rahan Ceyhun; Ercüment Aksakal; Deniz Ekinci; Orhan Erdo?an; ?ükrü Beydemir

164

Zinc Fertilization of Avocado Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for Zn fertilization of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were evaluated in a 2-year field experiment on a commercial orchard located on a calcareous soil (pH 7.8) in Ventura County, Calif. The fertilization methods included soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4; irrigation-applied Zn chelate (Zn- EDTA); trunk injection of Zn(NO3)2, and foliar applications of ZnSO4, ZnO, or Zn metalosate. Other

David E. Crowley; Woody Smith

165

Effect of zinc supplementation on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.  

PubMed

In this article, effect of zinc supplementation on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied. It was found that when 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium, solventogenesis was initiated earlier, with 21.0 g/L ABE (12.6 g/L butanol, 6.7 g/L acetone and 1.7 g/L ethanol) produced with a fermentation time of 40 h, compared to 19.4 g/L ABE (11.7 g/L butanol, 6.4 g/L acetone and 1.3g/L ethanol) produced with a fermentation time of 64 h in the control without zinc supplementation, and correspondingly ABE and butanol productivities were increased to 0.53 and 0.32 g/L/h from 0.30 and 0.18 g/L/h, increases of 76.7% and 77.8%, respectively, but their yields were not compromised. The reason for this phenomenon was attributed to rapid acids re-assimilation for more efficient ABE production, which was in accordance with relatively high pH and ORP levels maintained during the fermentation process. The maximum cell density increased by 23.8%, indicating that zinc supplementation stimulated cell growth, and consequently facilitated glucose utilization. However, more zinc supplementation exhibited an inhibitory effect, indicating that zinc supplementation at very low levels such as 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O will be an economically competitive strategy for improving butanol production. PMID:23458964

Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

2013-05-10

166

Synthesis and initial in vitro biological evaluation of two new zinc-chelating compounds: comparison with TPEN and PAC-1.  

PubMed

The lipophilic, cell-penetrating zinc chelator N,N,N',N',-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN, 1) and the zinc chelating procaspase-activating compound PAC-1 (2) both have been reported to induce apoptosis in various cell types. The relationship between apoptosis-inducing ability and zinc affinity (Kd), have been investigated with two new model compounds, ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4), and compared to that of TPEN and PAC-1. The zinc-chelating o-hydroxybenzylidene moiety in PAC-1 was replaced with a 2,2'-dipicoylamine (DPA) unit (ZnA-DPA, 3) and a 4-pyridoxyl unit (ZnA-Pyr, 4), rendering an order of zinc affinity TPEN>ZnA-Pyr>ZnA-DPA>PAC-1. The compounds were incubated with the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and cell death was measured in combination with ZnSO4, a caspase-3 inhibitor, or a ROS scavenger. The model compounds ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4) induced cell death at higher concentrations as compared to PAC-1 and TPEN, reflecting differences in lipophilicity and thereby cell-penetrating ability. Addition of ZnSO4 reduced cell death induced by ZnA-Pyr (4) more than for ZnA-DPA (3). The ability to induce cell death could be reversed for all compounds using a caspase-3-inhibitor, and most so for TPEN (1) and ZnA-Pyr (4). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), as monitored using dihydro-rhodamine (DHR), were involved in cell death induced by all compounds. These results indicate that the Zn-chelators ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4) exercise their apoptosis-inducing effect by mechanisms similar to TPEN (1) and PAC-1 (2), by chelation of zinc, caspase-3 activation, and ROS production. PMID:23859779

Strand, O Alexander H; Aziz, Gulzeb; Ali, Sidra Farzand; Paulsen, Ragnhild E; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Rongved, Pål

2013-09-01

167

Endothelial metallothionein expression and intracellular free zinc levels are regulated by shear stress  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of fluid shear stress on metallothionein (MT) gene and protein expression and intracellular free zinc in mouse aorta and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Immunostaining of the endothelial surface of mouse aorta revealed increased expression of MT protein in the lesser curvature of the aorta relative to the descending thoracic aorta. HUVECs were exposed to high steady shear stress (15 dyn/cm2), low steady shear stress (1 dyn/cm2), or reversing shear stress (mean of 1 dyn/cm2, 1 Hz) for 24 h. Gene expression of three MT-1 isoforms, MT-2A, and zinc transporter-1 was upregulated by low steady shear stress and reversing shear stress. HUVECs exposed to 15 dyn/cm2 had increased levels of free zinc compared with cells under other shear stress regimes and static conditions. The increase in free zinc was partially blocked with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting a role for shear stress-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. Cells subjected to reversing shear stress in zinc-supplemented media (50 ?M ZnSO4) had increased intracellular free zinc, reduced surface intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, and reduced monocyte adhesion compared with cells exposed to reversing shear stress in normal media. The sensitivity of intracellular free zinc to differences in shear stress suggests that intracellular zinc levels are important in the regulation of the endothelium and in the progression of vascular disease.

Conway, Daniel E.; Lee, Sungmun; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Shah, Ankit K.; Jo, Hanjoong

2010-01-01

168

V-ATPase dysfunction under excess zinc inhibits Arabidopsis cell expansion.  

PubMed

Although zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, zinc is harmful to cells at high levels. In the presence of excess zinc, plants exhibit several major symptoms, including root growth inhibition, abnormal root hair morphology and chlorosis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of excess zinc on plant cells, we used aniTRA Q-based quantitative proteomics approach to analyze the microsomal protein profiles of Arabidopsis roots from wild-type (WT) plants and de-etiolated 3-1 (det3-1), a vacuolar H+ -AT Pase (V-AT Pase) subunit C-defective mutant. A comparative analysis of the iTRA Q data from WT and det3-1 plants exposed to excess zinc suggests that the reduction in V-AT Pase subunit levels and its activity are the cause of the symptoms of zinc toxicity, including the inhibition of cell expansion. Provided that reduced V-AT Pase activity in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) alone can inhibit cell expansion, it is possible that the det3-1 mutant phenotype is caused mainly by a defect in TGN acidification, leading to reduced cell wall component trafficking and cell expansion in the presence of excess zinc. To evaluate the contribution of V-AT Pase activity to vacuolar acidification under excess zinc, the vacuolar pH was measured. Our results indicate clear alkalinization of deep cell vacuoles treated with 300 ?M ZnSO4. PMID:21847017

Fukao, Yoichiro; Ferjani, Ali

2011-09-01

169

Control of the sulfide (S2-) concentration for optimal zinc removal by sulfide precipitation in a continuously stirred tank reactor.  

PubMed

Precipitation of Zn2+ with S2- was studied at room temperature in a continuously stirred tank reactor of 0.5l to which solutions of ZnSO4 (800-5800 mgl(-1) Zn2+) and Na2S were supplied. The pH was controlled at 6.5 and S2- concentration in the reactor was controlled at set point values ranging from 3.2x10(-19) to 3.2x10(-4) mgl(-1), making use of an ion-selective S2- electrode. In steady state, the mean particle size of the ZnS precipitate decreased linearly from 22 to 1 microm for S2- levels dropping from 3.2x10(-4) to 3.2x10(-18) mgl(-1). At 3.2x10(-11) mgl(-1) of S2-, the supplies of ZnSO4 and Na2S solutions were stoichiometric for ZnS precipitation. At this S2- level, removal of dissolved zinc was optimal with effluent zinc concentration <0.03 mgl(-1) while ZnS particles formed with a mean geometric diameter of about 10 microm. Below 3.2x10(-11) mgl(-1) of S2- insufficient sulfide was added for complete zinc precipitation. At S2- levels higher than 3.2x10(-11) mgl(-1) the effluent zinc concentration increased due to the formation of soluble zinc sulfide complexes as confirmed by chemical equilibrium model calculations. PMID:12867339

Veeken, Adrie H M; Akoto, Lawrence; Hulshoff Pol, Look W; Weijma, Jan

2003-09-01

170

Effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function of broiler chicken.  

PubMed

A total of 450 one-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid (ZnO-MMT) on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function. The birds were allotted to 5 dietary treatments for 21 d, each of which was replicated 6 times with 15 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were 1) corn-soybean meal diet (basal, containing 42.35 mg of Zn/kg); 2) basal diet + 600 mg of MMT/kg (equivalent to the MMT in the ZnO-MMT treatment); 3) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO; 4) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT; and 5) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnSO(4)•7H(2)O. The results showed that chicks fed ZnO-MMT had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and feed intake than those fed the basal diet, MMT, or ZnO. Compared with the control, MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4), supplementation with ZnO-MMT decreased (P < 0.05) viable counts of Clostridium in small intestinal and cecal contents, increased (P < 0.05) colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values, and reduced (P < 0.05) colonic probe mannitol permeability as well as ileal or colonic inulin permeability. Compared with the control, supplemental ZnO-MMT increased (P < 0.05) villus height, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth at the small intestinal mucosa, the trypsin activity in the pancreas, and the digestive enzyme activities in small intestinal contents. Compared with the control, supplementation with ZnO increased (P < 0.05) the villus height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenum. Supplementation with ZnSO(4) increased the trypsin activity in pancreas and small intestinal contents. However, supplemental MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4) did not affect (P > 0.05) growth performance, ileal and colonic barrier function, and intestinal microflora. The results indicated that supplementing 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT in broiler chickens improved growth performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, and barrier function as well as the digestive enzyme activities. PMID:23243241

Hu, C H; Qian, Z C; Song, J; Luan, Z S; Zuo, A Y

2013-01-01

171

Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, clinically heterogenous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder continues to raise controversy, and, there is also an increase in treatment options. In this 6-week double blind, placebo controlled-trial, we assessed the effects of zinc plus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity

Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi; Mojgan Khademi

2004-01-01

172

Nano-crystallites formation and Eu 3+ luminescence in zinc boro-sulphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In zinc borosulphate glasses (ZnSO 4:B 2O 3 binary system) nano-crystallites formation is observed which can be attributed to homogenous nucleation process and the size of the crystallites formed is in the range 40-50 nm. Using IR spectroscopy studies, it has been found that the glass-ceramics region consists of tetrahedral borates (BO 4) 5- while tha glassy region is made of triangular borates (BO 3) 3- and boroxyl ring (B 3O 6) 3- networks. The profound dependence of nucleation properties on the halides added in the glass composition can be explained in terms of an inductive effect. The Eu 3+ ion in this glass system yields intense 5D 0? 7F J emission. Also it has been found that the ?2 and ?4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters are very much dependent on the covalent surroundings of the Eu 3+ luminescent centre. Various results based on these are discussed.

Jagannathan, R.; Athinarayanasamy, K.; Mani, A.; Jayasankar, C. K.

1996-01-01

173

Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the

Rahaman O. Suara; James E. Crowe

2004-01-01

174

Effects of ferrous sulfate, inoculum history, and anionic form on lead, zinc, and copper toxicity to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13  

SciTech Connect

The current study reports the single and combined toxicities of Pb, Zn, and Cu to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13. The observed half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50),?±?95% confidence intervals, for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 0.9?±?0.1?mM, 39?±?0.5?mM, and 120?±?8?mM, respectively. The observed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 7.5?mM, 75?mM, and 250?mM, respectively. When metals were presented in binary mixtures, the toxicities were less than additive. For example, when 50% of the Pb MIC and 50% of the Cu MIC were presented together, the specific growth rate was inhibited by only 59?±?3%, rather than 100%. In addition, the presence of ferrous iron in the growth media decreased Pb and Zn toxicity to A. caldus strain BC13. The importance of inoculum history was evaluated by pre-adapting cultures through subsequent transfers in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu at their respective IC50s. After pre-adaptation, cultures had specific growth rates 39?±?11, 32?±?7, and 28?±?12% higher in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu IC50s, respectively, compared with cultures that had not been pre-adapted. In addition, when cells exposed to the MICs of Pb, Zn, and Cu were harvested, washed, and re-inoculated into fresh, metal-free medium, they grew, showing that the cells remained viable with little residual toxicity. Finally, metal chlorides showed more toxicity than metal sulfates, and studies using sodium chloride or a mixture of metal sulfates and sodium chloride suggested that this was attributable to an additive combination of the metal and chloride toxicities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2669–2675. © 2010 SETAC

John E. Aston; William A. Apel; Brady D. Lee; Brent M. Peyton

2010-12-01

175

Initial use of the di-2-pyridyl ketone/sulfate “blend” in 3d-metal cluster chemistry: Preparation, X-ray structures and physical studies of zinc(II) and nickel(II) cubanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of di-2-pyridyl ketone ((py) 2CO)/sulfate "blend" in nickel and zinc chemistry has yielded the neutral cubane clusters [Ni 4(SO 4) 2{(py) 2C(OH)O} 4]·4MeOH·3H 2O ( 1·4MeOH·3H 2O) and [Zn 4 (SO 4) 2{(py) 2C(OH)O} 4 (H 2O) 2]·6H 2O ( 2·6H 2O). The preparation of the two complexes was achieved by the reaction of MSO 4·×H 2O [M = Ni, x = 6 ( 1); M = Zn, x = 7 ( 2)] with (py) 2CO and LiOH·H 2O in MeOH/H 2O (for both complexes) or MeOH/MeCN (only for 1). The structures of both compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Di-2-pyridyl ketone exists in its monoanionic gem-diol form and functions as an ?1: ?3: ?1: ?3 ligand. Both complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman). Thermal decomposition (TG, DTG and DTA) data for 2 are also discussed. The magnetic properties of 1 have been studied by variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility techniques. The studies indicate both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling between the four Ni II atoms. A three- J model was found to be adequate for describing the thermal variation of the molar magnetic susceptibility.

Papatriantafyllopoulou, Constantina; Efthymiou, Constantinos G.; Raptopoulou, Catherine P.; Vicente, Ramon; Manessi-Zoupa, Evy; Psycharis, Vassilis; Escuer, Albert; Perlepes, Spyros P.

2007-03-01

176

Iron control in zinc pressure leach processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of zinc in sulfide ore deposits is generally accompanied by various iron minerals. Hence, even the most efficient concentrators generally produce a zinc concentrate with significant iron content. The efficient recovery of zinc metal from zinc concentrates requires the rejection of iron residue in a form that minimizes the zinc entrainment. Careful control of the iron precipitation step is important, so that the iron residue produced is amenable to efficient liquid-solid separation in order to obtain high zinc recoveries. In hydrometallurgical zinc processes, the coprecipitation of minor impurities along with iron precipitation is also important in producing zinc-sulfate solution from which high-purity zinc cathode can be electrowon. The integration of Dynatec’s zinc pressure leach process with existing roast-leach-electrowin plants employing various methods of iron rejection is briefly described in this article, along with the application of two-stage pressure leaching in stand-alone processes.

Buban, K. R.; Collins, M. J.; Masters, I. M.

1999-12-01

177

Protective role of zinc during aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess the role of zinc (Zn) in mitigating the biochemical alterations induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, Al treated (AlCl3, 100 mg/kg b.wt./day), Zn treated (ZnSO4, 227 mg/L drinking water), and combined Al + Zn treated. Al and zinc treatments were given for a total duration of 2 months. Al treatment caused a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranferase (ALT) activities, which showed the reverse trend following Zn supplementation. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPx) and activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased following Al treatment, which, however, were increased significantly in Zn co-treated rats. Further Al exposure showed a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as activities, of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). However, Zn supplementation to Al-treated rats brought down the raised levels of reduced (GSH) and SOD to within normal limits, but caused no effect on GR activity. Furthermore, Al treatment also resulted in alterations in liver histoarchitecture with disruption of hepatic cords and increased vacuolization, which were close to normal following Zn supplementation. The present study reveals that Zn is effective in attenuating the liver damage inflicted by Al toxicity. PMID:22422511

Bhasin, Punita; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-03-01

178

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chrosniak, L. D.; Smith, L. N.; McDonald, C. G.; Jones, B. F.; Flinn, J. M.

2006-01-01

179

Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

2011-10-01

180

Zinc Enzymes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

Bertini, I.; And Others

1985-01-01

181

Determination of relative bioavailability of zinc in a petit suisse cheese using weight gain and bone zinc content in rats as markers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the relative bioavailability of zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine in a Petit Suisse cheese from an infant dessert. Weight gain and bone zinc content were the nutritional responses evaluated for the diets of different zinc content: 2 ppm (basal) and 5, 10, and 30 ppm from zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine and zinc sulfate. Nonlinear regression analysis of the fitted curves for weight gain determined a relative zinc bioavailability of 100% for the Ymax ratio and 96% for Ymax/t1/2 ratio for zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine (R2=0.7996 for zinc sulfate and 0.8665 for zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine). The slope ratio analysis from linear regression of femur zinc determined a relative zinc bioavailability of 93% for zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine (R2=0.8693 for zinc sulfate and 0.8307 for zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine). Zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine has similar bioavailability as zinc sulfate in a Petit Suisse cheese nutritional matrix, with the advantage that the stabilized compound does not modify the sensorial characteristics of the fortified cheese. PMID:15930595

Salgueiro, J; Leonardi, N; Zubillaga, M; Weill, R; Goldman, C; Calmanovici, G; Barrado, A; Sarrasague, M Martinez; Boccio, J

2005-06-01

182

Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped alkali zinc borosulphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum at 9.205 GHz has been examined at 300 K for a series of Cr 3+ ions doped alkali zinc borosulphate ( R2SO4 · ZnSO4 · B2O3; R = Li, Na, KorCs) glasses. The low field spectral resonance lines of the EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions in alkali zinc borosulphate glasses are attributed to isolated Cr 3+ ions whereas the high field spectral resonance line is attributed to exchange coupled pairs of Cr 3+ ions. The optical absorption spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped alkali zinc borosulphate glasses show two broad bands characteristic of Cr 3+ ions in octahedral symmetry. From the optical spectra the crystal field parameter ( Dq) and the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameters ( B and C) have been evaluated. From the EPR and optical data, it is concluded that the site symmetry around Cr 3+ ions is octahedral and the nature of bonding is predominantly covalent in nature.

Rao, A. Srinivasa; Rao, J. Lakshmana; Lakshman, S. V. J.

1993-02-01

183

Ability of transgenic poplars with elevated glutathione content to tolerate zinc(2+) stress.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation potentials of four poplar lines, Populus nigra (N-SL clone), Populus canescens, and two transgenic P. canescens clones were investigated using in vitro leaf discs cultures. The transgenic poplars overexpressed a bacterial gene encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in the cytosol (11ggs) or in the chlopoplasts (6LgI), and therefore, they contained an elevated level of glutathione. Leaf discs of poplar clones were exposed to different concentrations of ZnSO(4) for 21 days. Zinc(2+) was phytotoxic only at high concentrations (10(-2) to 10(-1) M) at all P. canescens lines, but P. nigra was more sensitive. Transgenic poplars showed elevated heavy metal uptake as compared to the nontransformed clones. Treatments with zinc(2+) strongly induced the activity of glutathione S-transferase enzyme in untransformed poplar lines but to a lesser extent in the transgenic clones. These results suggest that transgenic poplars are more suitable for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with zinc(2+) than wild-type plants. PMID:15661291

Bittsánszky, András; Kömives, Tamás; Gullner, Gábor; Gyulai, Gábor; Kiss, József; Heszky, László; Radimszky, László; Rennenberg, Heinz

2005-02-01

184

Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. II. Systems M1, M2//SO{4/2-}-H2O (M1, M2 = Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+, H+) at 25°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High toxicity of arsenic and selenium makes it important to analyze conditions, under which sulfates, arsenates, and selenites replace sulfides, arsenides, and selenides in the oxidation zones of sulfide ore deposits and in weathered technogenic waste. Published experimental data have been summarized for solubility in ternary systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co sulfates. Due to high solubility of solid phases, the thermodynamic description of solutions was carried out using the Pitzer equations; the necessary parameters were found in the literature or calculated in this article. The applied model was preliminarily verified by experimentally obtained diagrams of solubility. A database was compiled for quantitative thermodynamic modeling of mineral equilibria in most ternary and four-component subsystems of the Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+//SO{4/2-}-H2O system. The lack of experimental data for the systems containing Fe(III) sulfate does not allow calculating necessary parameters of its interaction with other sulfates and conducting calculations in multicomponent systems without simplifications and additional assumptions. Solubility diagrams are considered for the following systems: FeSO4-H2SO4-H2O, NiSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CuSO4-H2SO4-H2O, ZnSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CoSO4-H2SO4-H2O, FeSO4-Fe2(SO4)3-H2O, CoSO4-NiSO4-H2O, ZnSO4NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CoSO4-H2O, FeSO4-NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CuSO4-H2O, CoSO4-CuSO4-H2O, NiSO4-CuSO4-H2O, and ZnSO4-CoSO4-H2O. For some of these systems, equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated in this article.

Charykova, M. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Depmeier, W.

2010-12-01

185

Syntheses of vanadyl and zinc(II) complexes of 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-substituted 2(1H)-pyrimidinones and their insulin-mimetic activities.  

PubMed

Control of the glucose level in the blood plasma has been achieved in vitro and in vivo by administration of vanadium and zinc in form of inorganic salts. It has been shown that elements are poorly absorbed in their inorganic forms and required high doses which have been associated with undesirable side effects. Many researchers, therefore, have focused on metal complexes that were prepared from VOSO(4) or ZnSO(4) and low-molecular-weight bidentate ligands. Seven kinds of 1-hydroxy-4,6-disubstituted and 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-trisubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by reaction of N-benzyloxyurea and beta-diketones and subsequent removal of the protecting group. Six kinds of 1-hydroxy-4-(substituted)amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by the substitution reaction of 1-benzyloxy-4-(1',2',4'-triazol-1'-yl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinone with various alkyl amines or amino acids. Treatment with VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) or Zn(OAc)(2) afforded vanadyl(IV) and zinc(II) complexes which were characterized by means of (1)H NMR, IR, EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, and combustion analysis. The in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of these complexes was evaluated from 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) on free fatty acid (FFA) release from isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine. Vanadyl complexes of 4,6-disubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones showed higher insulin-mimetic activities than those of 4,5,6-trisubstituted ones. On the other hand, Zn(II) complexes showed lower insulin-mimetic activities than VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) as positive controls. It was found that the balance of the hydrophilicity and/or hydrophobicity is important for higher insulin-mimetic activity. The in vivo insulin-mimetic activity was evaluated with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were lowered from hyperglycemic to normal levels after the treatment with bis(1,2-dihydro-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrimidinolato)oxovanadium(IV) by daily intraperitoneal injections. The improvement in glucose tolerance was also confirmed by an oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:16387366

Yamaguchi, Mika; Wakasugi, Kei; Saito, Ryota; Adachi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sakurai, Hiromu; Katoh, Akira

2006-02-01

186

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested

H. S. Isaacs; A. J. Jr. Aldykiewicz; D. Thierry; T. C. Simpson

1995-01-01

187

Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.  

PubMed

The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-02-01

188

Zinc-binding proteins detected by protein blotting  

SciTech Connect

The Western blotting technique was used for the detection of zinc-binding proteins. Proteins were separated electrophoretically on 15% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate minigels, the gels were soaked in a reduction buffer, and the proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Zinc-binding proteins were probed with radioactive zinc (/sup 65/Zn) and were detected by autoradiography. This technique allows the detection of as little as 20 to 100 pmol of zinc metalloproteins.

Mazen, A.; Gradwohl, G.; de Murcia, G.

1988-07-01

189

Influence of dietary amiloride supplement on the zinc status of growing rats with marginal zinc supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

We divided 36 male pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats with an average live mass (LM) of 51 g into four treatment groups of\\u000a nine animals each. They received for a period of 28 trial days a semisynthetic purified diet based on casein for ad libitum\\u000a consumption, supplemented with 5 ppm zinc (groups 1–3) or 57 ppm zinc (group 4) as zinc sulfate.

M. Kirchgeßner; C. Motz; H.-P. Roth

1995-01-01

190

Novel three-dimensional coordination polymers of lanthanides with sulfate and oxydiacetic acid.  

PubMed

Three three-dimensional coordination polymers, viz. poly[[diaqua-?4-oxydiacetato-di-?4-sulfato-dipraseodymium(III)] hemihydrate], [Pr2(C4H4O5)(SO4)2(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, (I), poly[[diaquadi-?3-oxydiacetato-?3-sulfato-dineodymium(III)] 1.32-hydrate], [Nd2(C4H4O5)2(SO4)(H2O)2]·1.32H2O, (II), and poly[[diaquadi-?3-oxydiacetato-?3-sulfato-disamarium(III)] 1.32-hydrate], [Sm2(C4H4O5)2(SO4)(H2O)2]·1.32H2O, (III), were obtained by hydrothermal reactions of the respective lanthanide oxides and ZnSO4 with oxydiacetic acid (odaH2). The Nd(3+) and Sm(3+) compounds form isomorphous crystal structures in which the lanthanide cations are nine-coordinate, having a tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination. The Pr(3+) compound has an entirely different crystal structure in which two types of coordination polyhedra are observed, viz. nine-coordinate (trigonal prism) and ten-coordinate (bicapped square antiprism). The sulfate anions show various coordination modes, one of which has only rarely been observed crystallographically to date. PMID:24311500

Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Rajasekharan, M V

2013-12-15

191

Synthesis of Zinc Iodide Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two inquiry-based labs that complement a previously published activity in this Journal, "The Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory", are described. These two experiments could be of interest to introductory chemistry instructors at the college or high school level who teach their students about limiting and excess stoichiometry as well as acid base chemistry. The inquiry-based experiments center on alternate reaction pathways involving a second synthesis of zinc iodide and a side reaction that produces zinc hydroxide. In the first experiment, students draw upon their understanding of solubility and molarity to propose a synthesis of zinc iodide from a double replacement reaction involving zinc sulfate and barium iodide. Students compare the double replacement reaction with the elemental synthesis in terms of percentage yield, efficiency, safety, and cost. In the second experiment, students are asked to identify a white precipitate that forms during a synthesis of zinc iodide from its elements when a specific reagent, acetic acid, is not used. By referring to the literature and conducting qualitative tests, students determine that the white product is zinc hydroxide, a base produced from the hydrolysis of zinc ion.

Demeo, Stephen

2003-07-01

192

Effective synthesis of sulfate metabolites of chlorinated phenols.  

PubMed

Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at -20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W; Parkin, Sean

2013-11-01

193

Effects of Metals on Methanogenesis, Sulfate Reduction, Carbon Dioxide Evolution, and Microbial Biomass in Anoxic Salt Marsh Sediments †  

PubMed Central

The effects of several metals on microbial methane, carbon dioxide, and sulfide production and microbial ATP were examined in sediments from Spartina alterniflora communities. Anaerobically homogenized sediments were amended with 1,000 ppm (ratio of weight of metal to dry weight of sediment) of various metals. Time courses in controls were similar for CH4, H2S, and CO2, with short initial lags (0 to 4 h) followed by periods of constant gas production (1 to 2 days) and declining rates thereafter. Comparisons were made between control and experimental assays with respect to initial rates of production (after lag) and overall production. Methane evolution was inhibited both initially and overall by CH3HgCl, HgS, and NaAsO2. A period of initial inhibition was followed by a period of overall stimulation with Hg, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Cu, all as chlorides, and with ZnSO4, K2CrO4, and K2Cr2O7. Production of CO2 was generally less affected by the addition of metals. Inhibition was noted with NaAsO2, CH3HgCl, and Na2MoO4. Minor stimulation of CO2 production occurred over the long term with chlorides of Hg, Pb, and Fe. Sulfate reduction was inhibited in the short term by all metals tested and over the long term by all but FeCl2 and NiCl2. Microbial biomass was decreased by FeCl2, K2Cr2O7, ZnSO4, CdCl2, and CuCl2 but remained generally unaffected by PbCl2, HgCl2, and NiCl2. Although the majority of metals produced an immediate inhibition of methanogenesis, for several metals this was only a transient phenomenon followed by an overall stimulation. The initial suppression of methanogenesis may be relieved by precipitation, complexation, or transformation of the metal (possibly by methylation), with the subsequent stimulation resulting from a sustained inhibition of competing organisms (e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria). For several environmentally significant metals, severe metal pollution may substantially alter the flow of carbon in sediments.

Capone, Douglas G.; Reese, Dwight D.; Kiene, Ronald P.

1983-01-01

194

Monolayer Dispersed Ru-Zn Catalyst and Its Performance in the Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Ru-Zn catalysts with different Zn loadings were prepared by co-precipitation. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that a large part of the Zn in the Ru-Zn catalysts were present in the form of ZnO and the ZnO on the catalyst surface could react with ZnSO4 in the slurry to form a basic zinc sulfate salt

Haijie SUN; Xudong ZHANG; Zhihao CHEN; Xiaoli ZHOU; Wei GUO; Zhongyi LIU; Shouchang LIU

2011-01-01

195

Silver-Zinc Electrodes and Separator Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of ZnSo4 in the negative plate mix appears to aid cycle life at 60% depth-of-discharge. Surfactants tested to date other than Emulphogene BC-610 do no improve cycle life performance at room temperature at 60% depth-of-discharge. Development of fai...

J. A. Keralla J. J. Lander

1967-01-01

196

Investigation of optimal conditions for zinc electrowinning from aqueous sulfuric acid electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of an experimental investigation of the effects of aqueous zinc(II) and sulfuric acid concentrations\\u000a on current efficiencies and deposit morphologies of metallic zinc, aimed at designing a process for zinc recovery from solid\\u000a industrial wastes by leaching and electrodeposition. Voltammetry and chronopotentiometry of additive-free solutions of zinc(II)\\u000a sulfate and sulfuric acid were used to determine the zinc(II)

P. Guillaume; N. Leclerc; C. Boulanger; J. M. Lecuire; François Lapicque

2007-01-01

197

The Therapeutic Effect and the Changed Serum Zinc Level after Zinc Supplementation in Alopecia Areata Patients Who Had a Low Serum Zinc Level  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that some alopecia areata patients have zinc deficiency. There have also been several reports published concerning oral zinc sulfate therapy, with encouraging results, in some alopecia areata patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oral zinc supplementation for twelve weeks in alopecia areata patients who had a low serum zinc level. Methods Oral zinc gluconate (50 mg/T/day) supplementation was given to alopecia areata patients without any other treatment for twelve weeks. The serum zinc level was measured before and after zinc supplementation. A four-point scale of hair regrowth was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of oral zinc supplementation in these patients. Results Fifteen alopecia areata patients were enrolled in this study. After the therapy, the serum zinc levels increased significantly from 56.9 µg/ to 84.5 µg/dl. Positive therapeutic effects were observed for 9 out of 15 patients (66.7%) although this was not statistically significant. The serum zinc levels of the positive response group increased more than those of the negative response group (p=0.003). Conclusion Zinc supplementation needs to be given to the alopecia areata patients who have a low serum zinc level. We suggest that zinc supplementation could become an adjuvant therapy for the alopecia areata patients with a low serum zinc level and for whom the traditional therapeutic methods have been unsuccessful.

Park, Hoon; Kim, Chul Woo; Park, Chun Wook

2009-01-01

198

Effects of pyrithiones and surfactants on zinc and enzyme levels in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and sodium pyrithione (NaPT), including the influence of various vehicles, upon whole blood and plasma zinc levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) have been investigated in rabbits following dermal and\\/or iv administration. Two such vehicles, ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, affected zinc homeostasis differently than the pyrithiones, in that, unlike the

ROBERT C. SPIKER; H. P. CIUCHTA

1980-01-01

199

Olfactory epithelium destruction by ZnSO4 modified sulfhydryl oxidase expression in mice.  

PubMed

Experimental destruction of olfactory neurons stimulates proliferation and differentiation of local neural precursors and is used as a model to study in vivo mechanisms for degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system. Quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidases (QSOX) have a potential role in the control of the cell cycle or growth regulation and have recently been described in the central nervous system. In mice, we show an expression of QSOX in olfactory mucosa. Northern- and western-blot analysis show that the destruction of olfactory epithelium is associated with a reversible reduction in QSOX expression. Interestingly, QSOX is not localized in olfactory neurons (ON) but in cells of the lamina propria, suggesting that olfactory epithelium destruction may act as a signal of down-regulation of QSOX expression. PMID:15671873

Bon, Karine; Adami, Pascale; Esnard, Frédéric; Jouvenot, Michèle; Versaux-Bottéri, Claudine

2005-02-01

200

Interfacial effects of surface-active agents under zinc pressure leach conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution interfacial tensions and liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution-zinc sulfide (marmatite) contact angles were measured in the absence and presence of surface-active agents. Interfacial tensions measured varied between 54 ± 1 mN/m in the surfactant-free system and 20 ± 1 mN/m in the presence of a surfactant. The liquid sulfur-zinc sulfide mineral-zinc sulfate solution contact angle varies between 80 ± 5 deg, in the absence of any surfactant, and 148 ± 5 deg, depending on the surfactant used. The surface-active agents were used as dispersants for sulfur in bench-scale zinc pressure-leaching experiments. The observed extent of zinc extraction depends on the surfactant and varies from 40 to 96 pct.

Owusu, George; Dreisinger, David B.; Peters, Ernest

1995-02-01

201

Zinc/Zinc Oxide Preliminary Source Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary source assessment of industries with zinc and/or zinc oxide emissions is presented. Brief descriptions of these industries and associated air pollution control equipment are presented. Zinc/zinc oxide emission data were primarily obtained fr...

1987-01-01

202

Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

Stojkovi?, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djuri?, Zorica; Paroj?i?, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

2014-03-01

203

Zinc-binding proteins detected by protein blotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western blotting technique was used for the detection of zinc-binding proteins. Proteins were separated electrophoretically on 15% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate minigels, the gels were soaked in a reduction buffer, and the proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Zinc-binding proteins were probed with radioactive zinc (⁶⁵Zn) and were detected by autoradiography. This technique allows the detection of as little as

A. Mazen; G. Gradwohl; G. de Murcia

1988-01-01

204

Growth, structure and spectral studies of a novel mixed crystal potassium zinc manganese sulphate.  

PubMed

Mixed crystals of K2Zn0.84 Mn0.16(SO4)2·6H2O were grown from an equimolar aqueous solution of Tutton's salt, K2 Zn(SO4)2·6H2O and MnSO4 by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal composition as determined by single crystal XRD analysis reveals the co-existence of zinc and manganese in the mixed crystal. The surface morphological changes are observed by scanning electron microscopy. Small variations in cell parameter values, slight shifts in characteristic vibrational patterns in FT-IR and reduction in intensities observed in XRD confirm the crystal stress as a result of formation of mixed crystal. High resolution XRD diffraction estimates the crystalline perfection of the mixed crystal with predominantly vacancy type of defects. It belongs to P21/c space group with cell parameter values, a=6.1530 Å, b=12.2230 Å, c=9.0430 Å, ?=?=?=90°, V=657.56 Å(3), Z=4. High transmittance in the visible region is observed. PMID:23981410

Vijila Manonmoni, J; Bhagavannarayana, G; Ramasamy, G; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah; Amutha, M

2014-01-01

205

Sequential ultrastructural changes of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis in ducklings.  

PubMed Central

The sequential ultrastructural alterations of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis were examined in ducklings fed 2500 ppm Zn (as ZnSO4) for 56 days. From days 3 to 17, acinar cells had cytoplasmic vacuoles that contained electron-dense, zymogen-like material and increased autophagocytosis. Other changes were swollen mitochondria and dilatation, vesiculation, degranulation and intracisternal sequestration of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apoptosis was the predominant form of cell deletion. By day 10, acinar cellular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were noted. Islets appeared normal. After day 19, the pancreas consisted of ductlike structures embedded in fibrous connective tissue with a minimal inflammatory cell response. These ductlike structures were lined by attenuated to cuboidal, atrophic acinar cells. Many cells contained granular, electron-dense cytoplasmic debris that served as a marker of previous cell damage. This ultrastructural study provides support for a previously proposed theory that ductlike structures (tubular complexes) arise by atrophy and dedifferentiation of acinar cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12

Kazacos, E. A.; Van Vleet, J. F.

1989-01-01

206

Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies and dietary supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in their search for relief. Glucosamine is ... Over-the-counter supplements come from animal sources. Chondroitin sulfate is another natural substance found in the ...

207

Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

2011-09-01

208

Effect of Zinc on the Anti-Inflammatory and Ulcerogenic Activities of Indometacin and Diclofenac  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of zinc sulfate (zinc) has been examined in rats with acute and chronic inflammation. Additionally, we studied the effect of the concurrent administration of zinc on the anti-inflammatory activity of indometacin and diclofenac and their gastric side effects. Oral or subcutaneous administration of zinc (25 and 15 mg\\/kg, respectively) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced

Gamal Abou-Mohamed; Hassan A. El-Kashef; Hatem A. Salem; Mohamed M. Elmazar

1995-01-01

209

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for the ... Glance Eye Conditions Information Colds/Flu Information Safety Information Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Products—Warnings ( FDA ; 06/ ...

210

Zinc sulphate improved microspore embryogenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ZnSO4 concentration on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspore embryogenesis was investigated using cultivars of different androgenetic response. Concentrations from 0 (control)\\u000a to 600 ?M in the stress pre-treatment medium alone or in combination with 30 (control) to 600 ?M in the embryo induction medium\\u000a were assayed in anther culture. Incorporation of Zn2+ in the pre-treatment medium itself did not

Begoña Echavarri; Mercedes Soriano; Luis Cistué; M. Pilar Vallés; Ana M. Castillo

2008-01-01

211

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level.

Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

212

Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403

2012-01-01

213

Normal growth rate in rats is recovered after a period of zinc deficiency by restoration of zinc supply by means of a zinc-fortified Petit Suisse cheese.  

PubMed

Fortification of a Petit Suisse cheese with zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine was used as a tool to overcome zinc-deficiency effects on total-body growth and skeletal growth. Animals were divided in 4 groups of 10 rats: basal (B), control (C), depletion-repletion 1 (DR1), and depletion-repletion 2 (DR2). These four groups were fed with four diets: basal (2 ppm Zn), control (30 ppm Zn), DR1, and DR2; they received a basal diet for 14 d and a control diet for the other 14 d of the experiment, using zinc sulfate for DR1 and zinc gluconate stabilized with glycine for DR2. After 28 d of the experiment, total-body weight and weight gain of the control and DR1 and DR2 animals were not statistically different (p<0.05), Femur weight and femur zinc content of DR1 and DR2 did not achieve the values of control animals (p<0.05), but they were higher than that of basal animals. Our results show that restoration of dietary zinc levels by means of food fortification normalized weight gain, as an indicator of total-body growth, and presented a trend to normalize bone weight, as a marker of skeletal growth, in young rats and independently of the zinc source used. PMID:15930596

Salgueiro, J; Leonardi, N; Zubillaga, M; Weill, R; Goldman, C; Calmanovici, G; Barrado, A; Sarrasague, M Martinez; Boccio, J

2005-06-01

214

Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. PMID:22351753

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-04-01

215

Roles of Heparan Sulfate Sulfation in Dentinogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix.

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md. Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-01-01

216

Zinc pyrithione induces ERK- and PKC-dependent necrosis distinct from TPEN-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Zinc dyshomeostasis can induce cell death. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which differ dramatically from normal cells in their zinc handling ability. Here, we studied the effects of the ionophore Zn-pyrithione (ZP) and the chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Both compounds induced cell death at micromolar concentrations when incubated with androgen-dependent (LNCaP), androgen-independent (PC3, DU145) and androgen-sensitive (C4-2) PCa cell-lines. Compared to PCa cells, RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells were less sensitive to ZP and more sensitive to TPEN, but total cellular zinc levels were changed similarly. ZnSO4 enhanced the toxicity of ZP, but inhibited the effects of TPEN as expected. The morphological/biochemical responses to ZP and TPEN differed. ZP decreased ATP levels and stimulated ERK, AKT and PKC phosphorylation. DNA laddering was observed only at low doses of ZP but all doses of TPEN. TPEN activated caspase 3/7 and induced PARP-cleavage, DNA-fragmentation, ROS-formation and apoptotic bodies. PKC and ERK-pathway inhibitors, and antioxidants protected against ZP-induced but not TPEN-induced death. Inhibitors of MPTP-opening protected both. Cell death in response to TPEN (but not ZP) was diminished by a calpain inhibitor and largely prevented by a caspase 3 inhibitor. Overall, the results indicated primarily a necrotic cell death for ZP and an apoptotic cell death for TPEN. The enhanced sensitivity of PCa cells to ZP and the apparent ability of ZP and TPEN to kill quiescent and rapidly dividing cells in a p53-independent manner suggest that ZP/TPEN might be used to develop adjunct treatments for PCa. PMID:22027089

Carraway, Robert E; Dobner, Paul R

2012-02-01

217

Automotive sulfate emission data.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions.

Somers, J H

1975-01-01

218

Zinc'ing down RNA polymerase I  

PubMed Central

Most RNA polymerases contain zinc, yet the precise function of zinc and its influence of polymerases stability are unknown. A recent study provides evidence that zinc levels control the stability of RNA polymerase I in vivo and that the enzyme might serve as a zinc reservoir for other proteins.

Chanfreau, Guillaume F

2013-01-01

219

Alteration of porcine skin acid mucopolysaccharides in zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is overtly manifested as a dermatitis in swine; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine possible zinc-related alterations in the metabolism of the skin acid mucopolysaccharides (AMPs). Eighteen 4-week-old Yorkshire pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments. Six animals were fed a semipurified, zinc-deficient, basal diet containing 20 ppm zinc. Six animals served as pair-fed controls and were fed the basal diet supplemented with 90 ppm zinc as zinc carbonate. The remaining six animals were fed the zinc-supplemented diet on and ad libitum schedule. All animals were killed after 36 days when overt deficiency symptoms were apparent in those animals fed 20 ppm zinc. Skin AMPs were isolated. Total hexosamine and galactosamine indicated no alteration in total AMPs. Fractionation of total AMPs into consitituent sulfated and nonsulfated components revealed a significant increase in hyaluronic acid. No statistical difference in sulfated AMPs was found in skin from deficient and pair-fed animals, which was in accord with an in vitro sulfur-35 uptake study. PMID:234528

Thompson, R W; Gilbreath, R L; Bielk, F

1975-02-01

220

The bioavailability of different zinc compounds used as human dietary supplements in rat prostate: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc (Zn) of any soft tissue in the body. The pool of zinc available to the body is known to significantly decrease with age. It is suggested that dietary Zn supplementation protects against oxidative damage and reduces the risk of cancer. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate were the most frequently mentioned in per os administration in studies on Zn supplementation. The major aim of the study was to compare the bioavailability of different Zn compounds (sulfate, gluconate and citrate) in the prostate after their daily administration to male rats at three different doses (3.0; 15.0; and 50.0 mg Zn/kg b.w.) for 30 days. The results show that bioavailability in the prostate differs significantly between individual zinc preparations. A significantly elevated Zn concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate, compared to controls, was found in the rats supplemented with two compounds only: zinc gluconate and zinc citrate. However, after administration of zinc gluconate, this effect occurred even at the lowest dose. The lowest zinc bioavailability in the prostate was found in the rats administered zinc sulfate: no significant Zn increase was seen in particular zones of the prostate. To sum up, the use of zinc gluconate is worth considering as a possible means of zinc supplementation in men. PMID:24619814

Sapota, Andrzej; Daragó, Adam; Skrzypi?ska-Gawrysiak, Ma?gorzata; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Micha?; Kilanowicz, Anna

2014-06-01

221

Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... English | En español Search NCI Home Cancer Topics Clinical Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI ... of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Overview Hydrazine sulfate is ...

222

Cyclic Voltammetric Studies of the Behavior of Lead-Silver Anodes in Zinc Electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) for lead-silver anodes has been performed in an acidic zinc sulfate solution with and without Mn2+ at 38 °C. It has been found that the most redox peaks observed at the lowest sweep rate of 3 mV/s in the sulfate solution could be characterized by the Nernst equation. Bubbling argon into the zinc electrolyte and increasing the potential sweep rates from 3 to 300 mV/s did not change the shape of the CV diagrams. It was also found that 0.7% silver as alloying element had an important influence on the reactions of Pb-Ag anodes in the zinc electrolyte. Lead-silver alloys were oxidized more easily in sulfuric acid than in the examined zinc electrolyte. The addition of MnSO4 to the zinc electrolyte decreased the numbers of the redox peaks on the curve of CV for lead-silver anode in zinc electrolyte.

Zhang, W.; Tu, C. Q.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, W. Y.; Houlachi, G.

2013-06-01

223

Controlling barium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though for several years success has been realized in controlling barium sulfate scale deposition in relatively shallow, low pressure oil wells--by squeezing an organic phosphonate scale inhibitor into the producing zone--barium sulfate scale depositon in deep, high pressure\\/high temperature wells usually meant an expensive workover operation. A case history of a deep (16,000 ft) well in St. Mary Parish,

Greenley

2009-01-01

224

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

225

Reduction: distillation method for sulfate determination  

SciTech Connect

This article describes an improvement of the reduction/distillation/spectrophotometric technique that is widely used in the nuclear industry. The procedure involves the reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide with a hot solution containing hydroiodic acid, sodium hypophosphite, and acetic acid. The hydrogen sulfide is sparged from the reaction mixture with nitrogen which is then bubbled through a dilute zinc acetate solution which traps the sulfide. The addition of acid, p-aminodimethylaniline, and ferric chloride to the zinc acetate trapping solution quantitatively converts the sulfide to methylene blue which is then measured by absorption spectrophotometry at 667 nm. In this version of the technique, the samples and standard are added serially to a single, relatively large batch of the boiling reduction solution. The apparatus is not cooled down and disassembled between each sample run and the reduction solution is kept at a boil at all times and is continuously sparged with nitrogen gas. This reduces the total analysis time to a fraction of that necessary with the previous methods. Tables are presented summarizing the studies on: effect of matrix constituents on the determination of 100 ..mu..g of sulfate; effects of nitrates; and comparison of ion chromatographic results with those obtained by the sulfate reduction techniques. Agreement between values is good for these two techniques. The overall time for the analysis of a single solution sample is on the order of 10 min including the delay for color development. The relative standard deviations obtained on finely ground solid calcined nuclear waste containing from 0.1 to 10% sulfur as sulfate are typically on the order of 3 to 5%.

Siemer, D.D.

1980-10-01

226

Preliminary study of combination therapy with interferon-alpha and zinc in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) plus zinc therapy in hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b, poor responders for IFN alone. Ten patients were injected with 10 MU of IFN-alpha every day for 4 wk, followed by three times a week for 20 wk (control group). Nine patients took 300 mg of zinc sulfate a day orally during IFN-alpha therapy (zinc sulfate group), and 15 patients took IFN-alpha and 150 mg of polaprezinc (polaprezinc group). On the d 8 of IFN therapy, circadian zinc levels in serum elevated significantly in the polaprezinc group compared to the zinc sulfate group or control group. Serum ALT levels normalized in 73.3% of the polaprezinc group, 55.6% of the zinc sulfate group, and 40.0% of the control group at 6 mo after the end of IFN therapy. Sustained eradication for the hepatitis C virus RNA judged at the end of the 6-mo follow-up period was higher in the polaprezinc group than in the zinc sulfate group (53.3% vs 11.1%, p < 0.05) or the control group (20.0%). No clinical side effects of zinc were observed at the dose used. The data suggest that polaprezinc is expected to increase the therapeutic response of IFN-alpha for chronic hepatitis C with genotype 1b. PMID:11051596

Nagamine, T; Takagi, H; Takayama, H; Kojima, A; Kakizaki, S; Mori, M; Nakajima, K

2000-01-01

227

Cadmium, copper and zinc toxicity effects on growth, proline content and genetic stability of Solanum nigrum L., a crop wild relative for tomato; comparative study.  

PubMed

Plants like other organisms are affected by environmental factors. Cadmium, copper and zinc are considered the most important types of pollutants in the environment. In this study, a comparison of growth and biochemical parameters between the crop wild relative (CWR) Solanum nigrum versus its cultivated relative Solanum lycopersicum to different levels of Cu, Zn and Cd stress were investigated. The presence of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 in Murashige and Skoog medium affected severely many growth parameters (shoot length, number of roots and leaves, and fresh weight) of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum at high levels. On the other hand, CdCl2 significantly reduced most of the studied growth parameters for both species. S. nigrum exhibited higher tolerance than S. lycopersicum for all types of stress. In addition, results show that as stress level increased in the growing medium, proline content of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum increased. A significant difference was observed between the two species in proline accumulation as a result of stress. In addition, a higher accumulation rate was observed in the crop wild relative (S. nigrum) than in cultivated S. lycopersicum. Changes in Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) pattern of CuSO4 treated S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum plants were also observed. In conclusion, based on growth and biochemical analysis, S. nigrum showed higher level of metals tolerance than S. lycopersicum which indicates the possibility of using it as a crop wild relative for S. lycopersicum. PMID:24554836

Al Khateeb, Wesam; Al-Qwasemeh, Hajer

2014-01-01

228

Thermal stability, flame retardancy and rheological behavior of ABS filled with magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whisker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Halogen-free and flame-retardant acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) composites were prepared using magnesium\\u000a hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whisker as a flame retardant, and the effect of zinc stearate (ZnSt2) as a dispersion additive on the morphology and properties of the ABS\\/MHSH composites was studied. The morphology observation\\u000a by using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) indicates that the addition of zinc stearate could improve

Bo Liu; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Zhang; Rongxun Li; Guangye Liu

2007-01-01

229

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

230

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (˜35 ?mol/cm3/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Tribou, Erik; Noble, Peter A.; Gaillard, Jean-FrançOis; Stahl, David A.

2008-12-01

231

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

SciTech Connect

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

2009-01-06

232

Sulfate Aerosol Particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The condensation of SO3 vapor to detrimental acid-mist occurs only after substantial flue gas cooling, usually downstream from electrostatic precipitators. This condensation is an equilibrium process depending on gas temperature and water vapor pressure. Smelter plume opacity is related to acidmist and other sulfate aerosol particulate concentration through Mie particulate scattering theory. It is possible to estimate the amounts of sulfate particulate emissions and plume opacity, particularly those resulting from anticipated changes in smelter operations and flue gas treatment. These estimates can be used to determine compliance with current or anticipated regulations on smelter particulate emissions or plume opacity.

Bartlett, Robert W.

1987-09-01

233

Zinc in buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat flour was subjected to peptic and pancreatic digestion. The soluble zinc component in the digesta was separated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Approximately 72% of the zinc in buckwheat was solubilized on digestion. The majority of the soluble zinc was bound with a substance with molecular weight of approximately 1,000 dalton. Our findings suggest that zinc in

Sayoko Ikeda; Mari Edotani; Shizuka Naito

1990-01-01

234

Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and calcium levels in postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Research on the zinc status of osteoporotic women is scarce. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and calcium levels in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. A sample of 60 women referred to a rheumatology clinic in Tabriz were randomly divided into intervention (220 mg zinc sulfate daily) and placebo groups. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake of zinc and calcium and serum zinc and calcium were assessed at baseline and after 60 days. Mean serum zinc concentrations were markedly lower than the normal range at baseline, but mean serum calcium levels were normal. In the intervention group serum levels were significantly higher after 60 days [120.5 (SD 7.5) versus 70.5 (SD 4.6) micrograms/dL] while serum calcium levels were unchanged [8.6 (SD 0.1) versus 9.1 (SD 0.3) mg/dL]. The placebo group showed no significant changes in zinc or calcium levels. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women may benefit from zinc supplementation. PMID:23879079

Mahdaviroshan, Marjan; Golzarand, M; Taramsari, M Rahbar; Mahdaviroshan, Merhan

2013-03-01

235

Zinc and zinc transporters in prostate carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The healthy human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. This unique property is retained in BPH, but is lost in prostatic malignancy, which implicates changes in zinc and its transporters in carcinogenesis. Indeed, zinc concentrations diminish early in the course of prostate carcinogenesis, preceding histopathological changes, and continue to decline during progression toward castration-resistant disease. Numerous studies suggest that increased zinc intake might protect against progression of prostatic malignancy. Despite increased dietary intake, zinc accumulation might be limited by the diminished expression of zinc uptake transporters, resulting in decreased intratumoural zinc levels. This finding can explain the conflicting results of various epidemiological studies evaluating the role of zinc supplementation on primary and secondary prostate cancer prevention. Overall, more research into the mechanisms of zinc homeostasis are needed to fully understand its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Only then can the potential of zinc and zinc transport proteins be harnessed in the diagnosis and treatment of men with prostate cancer.

Kolenko, Vladimir; Teper, Ervin; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert

2013-01-01

236

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

237

Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucosamine sulfate is a controversial osteoarthritis remedy that is presumed to stimulate articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis by increasing glucosamine concentrations in the joint space. However, this is not plausible because even large oral doses of the product have no effect on serum glucosamine concentrations. We propose instead that sulfate could mediate the clinical benefit attributed to this treatment. Sulfate is

L. John Hoffer; Ludmila N. Kaplan; Mazen J. Hamadeh; Ariadna C. Grigoriu; Murray Baron

2001-01-01

238

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

239

Structural features of sulfated chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan sulfates prepared by different methods were analyzed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. It was shown that the sulfation conditions of chitosan essentially affect the position and degree of substitution with sulfate in derivatives of chitosan. Sulfated products obtained under homogeneous conditions are characterized by more heterogeneity and they have to be considered as copolymers of chitosan 6-O-monosulfate and 3,6-O-disulfate, whereas

A. Gamzazade; A. Sklyar; S. Nasibov; I. Sushkov; A. Shashkov; Yu. Knirel

1997-01-01

240

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2009-04-01

241

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2010-04-01

242

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three companies produced natural sodium sulfate from a total of three plants in California, Texas, and Utah. The domestic natural sodium sulfate industry supplied about one-half of the total output of U.S. sodium sulfate. Because of the location of these ...

1993-01-01

243

21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2 (SO4 )3 ...substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The...

2009-04-01

244

21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2 (SO4 )3 ...substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The...

2013-04-01

245

21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2 (SO4 )3 ...substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The...

2010-01-01

246

Effect of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 on Regeneration and Lepidine Content in Lepidium Sativum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of lepidine was detected in mature and juvenile explants from both in vivo and in vitro grown plants. The yield, however, was variable depending upon the source and type of explant used. Mature in vivo plants at vegetative stage exhibited highest yield. Among all the explants, maximum lepidine was detected after 8 weeks in shoot apex callus on

Saba; D. Pande; M. Iqbal; P. S. Srivastava

2000-01-01

247

Comparative efficacy of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA application for fertilization of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread Zn deficiency for rice crop has been reported from different parts of the world, including India. To correct such deficiency, Zn is often applied to the soil as fertilizer. Its concentration in soil solution and its availability to crops is controlled by sorption?–?desorption reactions at the surfaces of soil colloidal materials. The objective of this study was to compare

Tanmoy Karak; Uttam Kumar Singh; Sampa Das; Dilip Kumar Das; Yakov Kuzyakov

2005-01-01

248

Dissolution of sulfate scales  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

Hen, J.

1991-11-26

249

Adeninium cytosinium sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C5H6N5 +·C4H6N3O+·SO4 2?, the adeninium (AdH+) and cytosinium (CytH+) cations and sulfate dianion are involved in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network with four different modes, viz. AdH+?AdH+, AdH+?CytH+, AdH+?SO4 2? and CytH+?SO4 2?. The adeninium cations form N—H?N dimers through the Hoogsteen faces, generating a characteristic R 2 2(10) motif. This AdH+?AdH+ hydrogen bond in combination with AdH+?CytH+ H-bonds leads to two-dimensional cationic ribbons parallel to the a axis. The sulfate anions inter­link the ribbons into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network and thus reinforce the crystal structure.

Cherouana, Aouatef; Bousboua, Raja; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

2009-01-01

250

Thermodynamic Aspects of the Formation of Sulfate Minerals from Hot Gaseous Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals may form by solid-state reactions or by dissolution and precipitation from a fluid phase, be it magma, aqueous medium, or gas. The latter phase was traditionally not considered as important as the other ones, although it may be essential in some geological environments. Components of minerals (e.g., sulfur) are commonly transported by hot gases in volcanoes. Others may form in burning coal dumps or by burning fossil fuels for energy production. We have identified a number of minerals which precipitated from the hot gases escaping into the atmosphere from the smoke stack of a coal-fired power plant. This power plant uses coal or a mixture of coal and used tires to produce electricity. The phases identified by TEM are anglesite (PbSO4), gunningite (ZnSO4?H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2). In addition to these crystalline phases, amorphous sulfate materials and soot have been identified. All these materials were captured by filtering the escaping gases beyond the last filters intended to remove any particles from the gas stream. Therefore, they must have formed by precipitation from the hot gas and may present a significant pollution load in the vicinity of power plants. Verhulst et al. (1996) have shown that several metals are most likely transported as chloride complexes in the gas phase. Their assumption correlates well with the finding that the chloride-richer coal+tire mixture increases considerably amounts of emitted metals. Using thermodynamic data for these and other sulfate minerals, we are trying to understand and model the precipitation process of these minerals from hot gases at ambient pressures. In this contribution, we focus on the mineral mikasaite (trigonal Fe2(SO4)3). This mineral has been reported only from burning coal dumps (Miura et al. 1994). Using acid-solution calorimetry, we have determined the enthalpy of formation of mikasaite from elements at T = 298.15 K. We have further estimated the standard entropy of this mineral. Using the measured and estimated thermodynamic data for mikasaite and the published data for Fe-Cl complexes, we will present equilibrium diagrams for the Fe2O3-H2O-SO2-HCl system. In future, we are aiming at developing a thermodynamic database for the minerals found to precipitate from hot gases at burning coal dumps, power plants, and volcanic fumaroles. Verhulst, D., Buekens, A., Spencer, P., Eriksson, G., 1996: Thermodynamic behavior of metal chlorides and sulfates under the conditions of incineration furnaces. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 50-56. Miura H, Niida K, Hirama T, 1994: Mikasaite, (Fe3+, Al)2(SO4)3, a new ferric sulfate mineral from Mikasa City, Hokkaido, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine 58, 649-653.

Giere, R.; Majzlan, J.

2006-12-01

251

RED Facts: Zinc Phosphide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0026, zinc phosphide. Zinc phosphide is a rodenticide used to control gophers, mice, rats, lagomorphs (e.g. jack rabbits), prairie dogs, and squirrels.

1998-01-01

252

Effects of iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins on the activity and contents of human placental copper\\/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women, ages 15–45 yr, were divided into three groups. Group A was orally given one spansule\\u000a per day containing 150 mg dried ferrous sulfate, 61.8 mg zinc sulfate, and 500 ?g folic acid, starting from the first 4 wk\\u000a of pregnancy and ending at the day of delivery. Similarly, group B was given one tablet containing

Abdelrahim A. Hunaiti; Marwan S. Saleh

1996-01-01

253

Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2003-01-01

254

Zinc in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc concentration in breast milk varies within and between mothers. Neither environmental (zinc intake — either in natural food or supplemented, nutrient interaction, cigarette smoking, and oral contraceptives) nor constitutional (premature delivery, number of children, teen age pregnancy, undernutrition, infection, and diabetes) variables consistently affected zinc concentration or its rate of decrease in breast milk. Stage of lactation is the

Jose G. Dorea

2000-01-01

255

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources, because the zinc in plant proteins is not as available for use by ...

256

Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein.  

PubMed

Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 ?M ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 ?M CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 ?M CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

2013-06-01

257

Effects of zinc and sodium monensin on ruminal degradation of lysine-HCl and liquid 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid.  

PubMed

Four nonlactating, mature, Holstein cows were fitted with ruminal cannula and used in a 4 x 4 Latin square-designed experiment to evaluate the impact of supplemental Zn and monensin on ruminal degradation of Lys and liquid 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMB). Cows were fed 4.54 kg (as fed) of alfalfa hay top-dressed with 4.54 kg (as fed) concentrate once daily. Concentrates were formulated to provide 0 or 500 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 0 or 40 mg/kg of monensin in the total diet. Zinc supplementation provided approximately 22-fold greater dietary Zn than estimated by NRC requirements. On d 14 of each period, cows were dosed via the rumen cannula with 50 g of HMB and 100 g of Lys-HCl, and the concentrations of Lys and HMB were monitored every 0.5 h for 8 h. Supplemental Zn tended to decrease the proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid postfeeding and increased the proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid postfeeding. Supplemental Zn increased mean fluid passage rate from the rumen. Monensin decreased the proportion of acetate and increased the mean proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid, resulting in a decrease in the ratio of acetate to propionate. Monensin also increased the mean fluid passage rate from the rumen. Neither Zn nor monensin affected the apparent rate of ruminal disappearance of HMB or Lys. However, Zn and monensin interacted to alter the ruminal degradability of free Lys but not HMB. These data indicate that Zn and monensin may interact to alter ruminal degradability of free amino acids. PMID:15328281

Bateman, H G; Williams, C C; Gantt, D T; Chung, Y H; Beem, A E; Stanley, C C; Goodier, G E; Hoyt, P G; Ward, J D; Bunting, L D

2004-08-01

258

Preparation of nanocrystalline zinc carbonate and zinc oxide via solid-state reaction at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precursor mixture was obtained by grinding ZnSO4·7H2O and NH4HCO3 with surfactant OP thoroughly at room temperature. Then soluble inorganic salts were removed by washing with water. After drying, the pure nanocrystalline ZnCO3 was obtained. ZnO powder was obtained by one-step thermal decomposition of the ZnCO3 at 400°C for 1.5h. Both the ZnCO3 and the ZnO were characterized by TG\\/DTA,

Wenwei Wu; Qiuyu Jiang

2006-01-01

259

Effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex on gut integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ?50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P?0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P?0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P?0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P?0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P?0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P?0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P?0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P?0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS. PMID:24229744

Sanz Fernandez, M V; Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F; Wilson, M E; Socha, M T; Torrison, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

2014-01-01

260

Effects of different levels of dietary lead on zinc metabolism in dairy calves  

SciTech Connect

The effects of feeding diets containing 500 or 1500 ppM added lead as lead sulfate on zinc and zinc-65 metabolism in Holstein bull calves were investigated. Zinc absorption was slightly (not significantly) reduced in the calves fed lead. Fecal zinc excretion was increased by the lead diets by day 24 of the experiment. Dietary lead had no significant effect on zinc in blood. Except for the tibia, muscle, and brain, stable zinc decreased in all tissues of calves fed the 1500 ppM lead diets, and differences were significant in pancreas, heart, and testicle. A significant decrease was noted in pancreatic zinc in pancreas of calves fed 500 ppM lead. Tissue zinc-65 concentrations were decreased significantly by lead in the tibia and muscle. Intestinal tissue zinc was not affected materially by lead. Dietary lead had very little effect on cellular distribution of zinc in the liver and kidney. In the mucosal cells of the small intestine, lead increased zinc-65 in the cytosol while decreasing it in the crude nuclear fraction. This effect occurred in a linear fashion in all three sections of the small intestine as dietary lead increased.

White, F.D.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Miller, W.J.; Logner, K.R.; Blackmon, D.M.

1985-05-01

261

Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor  

DOEpatents

Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA)

1991-02-05

262

Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

1996-10-01

263

Zinc metabolism in uremia.  

PubMed

Subnormal plasma zinc levels have been reported in uremic patients. However, detailed studies regarding zinc status in uremia are not available. Twenty-five patients with chronic renal failure (10 undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, five receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis, and 10 nondialyzed azotemic patients) had lower concentration of zinc in plasma, leukocytes, and hair as well as increased plasma ammonia and ribonuclease activity compared to age- and sex-matched controls (p less than 0.001). Similar biochemical changes have been reported in experimentally induced zinc deficiency in both animals and man, except that erythrocyte zinc concentration was elevated in these patients. High erythrocyte zinc concentration may be related to ineffective erythropoiesis in uremia. The results of this study suggest that abnormality in zinc metabolism occurs commonly in patients with chronic renal failure and that it develops prior to initiation of dialysis treatment. PMID:501198

Mahajan, S K; Prasad, A S; Rabbani, P; Briggs, W A; McDonald, F D

1979-11-01

264

Roasting of La Oroya Zinc Ferrite with Na2CO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of metals recovery from zinc ferrite residues using transformational roasting processes was examined by roasting zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru’s La Oroya plant (Peru), containing 19.5 pct Zn, 26.6 pct Fe, 750 g/t In, and 520 g/t Ga, with Na2CO3 and leaching with 200 g/L H2SO4 solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diagnostic leaching tests indicate that approximately 87 pct of the zinc in this residue is present as franklinite (ZnFe2O4), with the remaining zinc present as entrained ZnSO4 or unleached ZnO. Both preliminary and design of experiments (DOE) testing, using a 22 central composite design (CCD), were performed to test the effects of temperature and a Na2CO3 addition on metals extraction and on the formation of minerals during roasting, and the solubility of these minerals during leaching. Both methods of testing showed that zinc and iron extractions increased with increasing temperature and Na2CO3 additions over the range of conditions tested. Roasting at 950 °C and 80 pct Na2CO3 produced a roasted residue from which 99 pct of the Zn, 88 pct In, and 85 pct Ga could be recovered by leaching, but from which up to 81 pct Fe was also dissolved. Mineralogical analysis using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that, for these conditions, ZnFe2O4 decomposes in the presence of Na2CO3 to form ZnO and either ?-NaFeO2 or ?-NaFeO2. Some of the ZnO formed reacts with Na2CO3 and silicates in the residue to form Na2ZnSiO4 and some unreacted Na2CO3/Na2O/Na2SO4 was also identified after roasting using SEM/EDX. All these phases are dissolved in acid leaching, leaving unreacted ZnFe2O4 and precipitated PbSO4 as the only phases identified in the leach residues. These results indicate that NaFeO2 is formed preferentially to Fe2O3 during roasting and that the NaFeO2 formed during roasting is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The results were also compared with studies on the roasting of more ZnFe2O4-deficient electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts with Na2CO3 or NaOH and indicated that, although roasting with Na2CO3 required higher roasting temperatures to achieve high zinc extractions, much lower Na2CO3 additions are required and higher indium recoveries are possible, if the combination of Na2CO3 roasting and H2SO4 leaching is used.

Holloway, Preston C.; Etsell, Thomas H.; Murland, Andrea L.

2007-10-01

265

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs ...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the...

2013-04-01

266

Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.  

PubMed

Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

2014-04-01

267

Morphological, optical, and nonlinear optical properties of fluorine-indium-doped zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically sprayed fluorine-indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:F:In) were deposited on glass substrates. A mixture of zinc pentanedionate, indium sulfate, and fluoride acid was used in the starting solution. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphological, linear, and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were fully characterized with atomic force

O. G. Morales-Saavedra; L. Castañeda; J. G. Bañuelos; R. Ortega-Martínez

2008-01-01

268

Morphological, optical, and nonlinear optical properties of fluorine-indium-doped zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically sprayed fluorine-indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:F:In) were deposited on glass substrates. A mixture of\\u000a zinc pentanedionate, indium sulfate, and fluoride acid was used in the starting solution. The influence of both the dopant\\u000a concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphological, linear, and nonlinear\\u000a optical (NLO) properties were fully characterized with atomic force

O. G. Morales-Saavedra; L. Castañeda; J. G. Bañuelos; R. Ortega-Martínez

2008-01-01

269

Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed

A I Inamdar; S H Mujawar; V Ganesan; P S Patil

2008-01-01

270

Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p < 0.001 (Scheffè's post hoc test: A vs. C, A vs. D, B vs. C, and B vs. D; p < 0.05). We can conclude that Fe absorption of bread made from low-extraction flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ?60 mg/kg flour. PMID:23821315

Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

2013-09-01

271

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. sodium sulfate production increased 6% in 1993 to 651,000 tons according to preliminary statistics from the Bureau of the Census. Production of natural sodium sulfate from three domestic locations declined 5% to 327,000 tons, which was the lowest lev...

D. S. Kostick

1994-01-01

272

Integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate is a regulatory polysac- charide. It modulates specific growth factor-receptor in- teractions, accelerates the formation of specific proteinase- proteinase inhibitor complexes, and mediates interactions of the cell surface with several enzymes and structural proteins. It abounds on the surfaces of embryonic cells, respecting or outlining morphogenetic rather than histo- logical boundaries. This cell surface-associated heparan sulfate is implanted

GUIDO DAVID

1993-01-01

273

Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

2002-09-11

274

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell\\/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

P. N. Jr

1988-01-01

275

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

276

Sulfation of von Willebrand factor  

SciTech Connect

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-12-15

277

Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K. (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1989-01-01

278

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda

2001-01-01

279

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1989-06-27

280

Zinc-deficiency dermatitis in breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

We report ten infants (mean gestational age: 30 weeks; range: 25 to 40 weeks) with zinc deficiency dermatitis who developed erosive, impetiginized periorificial dermatitis at 10 weeks of age (corresponding to a mean gestational age of 41.4 weeks, with a range of 36-44 weeks), but who were otherwise well. Cutaneous symptoms were initially misdiagnosed as eczema or impetigo in 8/10 (80%) children who received either topical (4/8) and/or systemic (6/8) antibiotics. Topical corticosteroids were applied in 4/10 infants for a mean time of 4 weeks (range: 2 to 5 weeks) before the correct diagnosis was established by decreased serum zinc levels; skin atrophy (telangiectasia, thinning) as a complication of topical steroid treatment (class II steroids) was observed in two infants. All children responded to oral therapy with zinc sulfate or zinc gluconate (1.5-4 mg/kg/d). Skin lesions started to clear within 24 h after the initiation of therapy and had completely cleared in all infants after 14 days of therapy (range: 3-14 days). We conclude that nutritional zinc deficiency is a frequently misdiagnosed problem in thriving, fully breast-fed preterm babies. It is attributable to the decreased zinc content of human milk as compared to cow's milk, and the increased demand of zinc in rapidly thriving preterm infants. It seems advisable to routinely check serum zinc levels in fully breast-fed preterm infants who do not receive regular oral zinc supplementation once they reach a gestational age of 40 weeks. PMID:16960696

Kienast, Antonia; Roth, Bernhard; Bossier, Christiane; Hojabri, Christina; Hoeger, Peter H

2007-03-01

281

Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis  

SciTech Connect

Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

1985-07-01

282

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications.

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

283

Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

1986-05-01

284

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

SciTech Connect

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested exposing only the metal coating and both the coating and the underlying steel. Effect of roll forming was investigated. Current density mapping located corrosion susceptible defects on painted roll formed materials that were not readily discernible optically. Scanning ac mapping showed that artificially formed defects were readily observed. Local impedance variations with frequency were measured for simulated defects and defect free areas of painted surfaces. Variations in paint thickness and the presence of defects were detected using the ac techniques.

Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1995-02-01

285

Zinc triggers microglial activation  

PubMed Central

Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 ?M zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 ?M zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-?B activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-?B. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

2009-01-01

286

Isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered a voltage-dependent isotope fractionation during electroplating of metal zinc from a zinc sulfate solution. Variations in transition metal stable isotope ratios variations are potentially valuable geochemical tracers, with applications spanning cosmochemistry, solid Earth geochemistry, ocean geochemistry, and biogeochemistry. However, the physical mechanisms underlying their isotope fractionation are not well understood. Here we report recent results from an experimental program designed to examine the isotope effect associated with electrochemical (redox) processes in aqueous solutions. Zinc metal was electrodeposited under potentiosatic conditions from a plating bath consisting of an acidified solution of zinc sulfate. The zinc metal was removed from each glassy carbon electrode, and the ?66Zn isotope abundance was analyzed using an IsoProbe multicollector plasma mass spectrometer. A first set of experiments were designed to examine two variables: electroplating voltage, and amount of Zn deposited (measured in total Coulombs). In these experiments, ~1-5 mg of zinc was electroplated from fresh 20 ml aliquots of the starting solution at overpotentials from 25 mV to 800 mV, with respect to the Zn/Zn^{+2} equilibrium. The resulting fractionation effect is severe, with ??66Zn = -3.60 (±.05) ‰ (with respect to starting solution) at the lowest overpotential, 25 mV. The isotope fractionation has a significant voltage effect; the fractionation becomes less severe with increasing overpotential, with ??66Zn = -2.48 (±.06) ‰ at 800 mV. Four experiments were performed at 100 mV, with plating times varying from 10 to 50 Coulombs. The average ??66Zn value was 3.20 (±.10) ‰, with no observed coulomb-dependent isotope effect. A second set of experiments was designed to examine the isotope evolution and mass balance relationship by Rayleigh distillation between the electroplated zinc and the increasingly depleted electroplating bath as zinc is electroplated out of the solution to the greatest extent possible, at a constant overpotential of 800 mV. In these experiments, the ?66Zn of the plated material evolves from 1.58 (±.01) ‰ after 1000 coulombs to +0.27 (±00) ‰ after 9113 coulombs. The plating solution starts at ?66Zn = 0.3 (±.06) ‰, and evolves to +1.83 (±.03) ‰ after 9113 coulombs. This data set shows that there is a voltage-dependent isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating. These results are consistent with a theory, based on classical statistical mechanics, predicting voltage-dependent isotope fractionation due to a combination of aqueous speciation and charge transfer, as described in a recent paper (Kavner et al., GCA, 2005). The same theories should allow us to extrapolate these results to environmentally relevant non-redox chemical reactions. An alternative possible explanation for the observed fractionation is mass transport (diffusion) at an electrode; however the lack of a coulomb-dependence of fractionation at 100 mV suggests that isotope fractionation by mass transport does not play a significant role in these experiments. These experimental results will ultimately help to elucidate the processes by which isotope fractionation occurs in nature, allowing us to fully exploit them as geochemical tracers.

Kavner, A.; Sass, S.; John, S.; Boyle, E.

2006-12-01

287

Structural diversity of N-sulfated heparan sulfate domains: distinct modes of glucuronyl C5 epimerization, iduronic acid 2-O-sulfation, and glucosamine 6-O-sulfation.  

PubMed

The N-sulfated regions (NS domains) represent the modified sequences of heparan sulfate chains and mediate interactions of the polysaccharide with proteins. We have investigated the relationship between the type/extent of polymer modification and the length of NS domains in heparan sulfate species from human aorta, bovine kidney, and cultured NMuMG and MDCK cells. C5 epimerization of D-glucuronic acid to L-iduronic acid was found to be extensive and essentially similar in all heparan sulfate species studied, regardless of domain size, whereas the subsequent 2-O-sulfation of the formed iduronic acid residues varies appreciably. In aorta heparan sulfate, up to 90% of the formed iduronate residues were 2-O-sulfated, whereas in kidney heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfation occurred only in sulfation was consistently increased with increasing NS domain length, suggesting a correlation between 2-O-sulfation efficiency and length of the polymeric substrate during heparan sulfate biosynthesis. By contrast, 6-O-sulfation of glucosamine units did not correlate to domain size. 6-O-Sulfation exceeded 2-O-sulfation in NS domains from kidney heparan sulfate, but was very low in aorta heparan sulfate. Remarkably, total O-sulfation of NS domains, i.e., the sum of 2-O- and 6-O-sulfate groups, was highly similar in all heparan sulfate samples investigated. The results reveal marked tissue-specific variation in the sulfation patterns of NS domains and indicate previously unrecognized distinctions in the coordination of the three polymer modification reactions during heparan sulfate biosynthesis. PMID:10978168

Safaiyan, F; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

2000-09-01

288

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium sulfate is produced from natural sources or recovered as a byproduct from various manufacturing processes and has several important and useful applications in various consumer products. In a survey of the top 50 basic organic and inorganic chemical...

D. S. Kostick

1990-01-01

289

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. natural and synthetic sodium sulfate production and consumption decreased 44% and 48%, respectively, from those of 1980 to 1991. The decreases were because of changes in the recovery operations of consuming industries mandated by environmental legisl...

D. S. Kostick

1992-01-01

290

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ensure that it is as dry as practical. No zinc material that is wet may be accepted for shipment. (d) Zinc material may not...150 °F), the cargo hatches should be opened provided that weather and sea conditions are favorable. When hatches are opened...

2013-10-01

291

Preparation of zinc orthotitanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

1977-01-01

292

The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-12-01

293

Electrodeposition of zinc-silica composite coatings: challenges in incorporating functionalized silica particles into a zinc matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is a well-known sacrificial coating material for iron and co-deposition of suitable particles is of interest for further improving its corrosion protection performance. However, incorporation of particles that are well dispersible in aqueous electrolytes, such as silica particles, is extremely difficult. Here, we report a detailed study of Zn-SiO2 nanocomposite coatings deposited from a zinc sulfate solution at pH 3. The effect of functionalization of the silica particles on the electro-codeposition was investigated. The best incorporation was achieved for particles modified with SiO2-SH, dithiooxamide or cysteamine; these particles have functional groups that can strongly interact with zinc and therefore incorporate well into the metal matrix. Other modifications (SiO2-NH3+, SiO2-Cl and N,N-dimethyldodecylamine) of the silica particles lead to adsorption and entrapment only.

Rahman Khan, Tabrisur; Erbe, Andreas; Auinger, Michael; Marlow, Frank; Rohwerder, Michael

2011-10-01

294

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution? ‡  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 × 108 atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during “zinc shock,” when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients.

Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J.

2007-01-01

295

Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole in zinc storage and intracellular zinc distribution.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 x 10(8) atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during "zinc shock," when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients. PMID:17526722

Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J

2007-07-01

296

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the

Philip N

1989-01-01

297

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through

P. N. Jr

1989-01-01

298

Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.  

PubMed

The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

2014-06-14

299

Investigation of Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) Porphyrazine for Application as Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer  

PubMed Central

The phthalocyanine analogue containing nonperipheral long alkyl-substituted benzenoid rings and pyridine rings, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine, was synthesized. Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine reacted with dimethyl sulfate and monochloroacetic acid to produce their quaternized products and diethyl sulfate to produce the sulfo-substituted products. All quaternized and sulfo-substituted showed amphiphilic character. Identical peaks in cyclic voltammograms appeared for these products before and after quaternization. During the evaluation of zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine for its photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT) efficacy by cancer cell culture, the light exposed dimethyl sulfate quaternized zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazines in IU-002 cells produce cell disruption that can be detected as a decrease in fluorescence.

Sakamoto, Keiichi; Ohno-Okumura, Eiko; Kato, Taku; Watanabe, Masaki; Cook, Michael J.

2008-01-01

300

Investigation of Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) Porphyrazine for Application as Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer.  

PubMed

The phthalocyanine analogue containing nonperipheral long alkyl-substituted benzenoid rings and pyridine rings, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine, was synthesized. Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine reacted with dimethyl sulfate and monochloroacetic acid to produce their quaternized products and diethyl sulfate to produce the sulfo-substituted products. All quaternized and sulfo-substituted showed amphiphilic character. Identical peaks in cyclic voltammograms appeared for these products before and after quaternization. During the evaluation of zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine for its photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT) efficacy by cancer cell culture, the light exposed dimethyl sulfate quaternized zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazines in IU-002 cells produce cell disruption that can be detected as a decrease in fluorescence. PMID:18350121

Sakamoto, Keiichi; Ohno-Okumura, Eiko; Kato, Taku; Watanabe, Masaki; Cook, Michael J

2008-01-01

301

In vitro and in vivo selectin-blocking activities of sulfated lipids and sulfated sialyl compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is accumulating evidence that sulfated lipids, sulfated oligosaccharides and other sulfated compounds are reactive with selectins in a manner that interferes with selectin interactions with their natural ligands. In the report we describe the ability of sulfated lipids (sulfatides and gangliosides) and multimeric forms of sulfated sialic acid to block binding of P- and E-selectin-Ig to neutrophils. The in

Michael S. Mulligan; Roscoe L. Warner; John B. Lowe; Peter L. Smith; Yasuo Suzuki; Masayuki Miyasaka; Shinya Yamaguchi; Yasuhiro Ohta; Yoji Tsukada; Makoto Kiso; Akira Hasegawa; Peter A. Ward

1998-01-01

302

Sulfate contamination in groundwater from a carbonate-hosted mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfide oxidation in a carbonate environment produces groundwater contamination with high sulfate making the water unsuitable for drinking supplies. The zinc-lead mines near Shullsburg, Wisconsin are located in the Galena-Platteville Formation, a carbonate aquifer that was dewatered during mining. Sulfate levels have reached as high as 40 nmol/l in some local wells and eleven wells were abandoned. Geochemical modeling of chemical reactions and isotope effects using the USGS computer program PHREEQE showed the importance of dolomite, calcite, CO 2, and siderite or iron hydroxide in controlling the water chemistry. The decrease in sulfate levels with time indicated that dilution by incoming recharge water was an ongoing process. The results of carbon isotope reaction modeling are consistent with dilution of contaminated water. The evidence for localization of contamination and dilution means that area farmers have seen the worst of the contamination. The mechanism of contamination was further examined by microbiological sampling and sulfur isotope determinations, which indicated that bacteria of the Thiobacillus species that thrive under neutral pH conditions may have catalyzed sulfide oxidation. Research into the chemical evolution of contamination in this environment not only explains how sulfide oxidation causes contamination despite buffering by carbonate rocks, but also suggests how oxidation is initiated in the case of acid mine drainage.

Toran, Laura

1987-09-01

303

Zinc and immune function.  

PubMed

Zinc and immune function relationship has been extensively studied. Both in experimentally induced mineral deficit and in genetically determined deficit observable in acrodermatitis enteropathica and in enteropathy of Danish A-46 cattle, a B and T dependent antibody response decrease, a T dependent cytolytic response decrease and a natural killer cytotoxic activity decrease are present noteviously. Serious reduction of the immune function is present, in proportion to the value of low zinc plasmatic level, in elderly patients, in malnourished and seriously zinc deficient children, in patients subjected to total parenteral supply, in HIV infections and especially in evident AIDS: in this condition the plasmatic zinc level can be considered, together with the CD4+ lymphocytes amount and the B2-microglobulin value, a disease progression marker. Zinc immunostimulating action mechanisms are complex, although thymic hormone (of which zinc is essential cofactor) stimulation seems to be most important. Zinc supplementation, also parenterally, can be useful in immunodeficiency (in the elderly, in the post-surgical patients, in genetically determined or alimentary induced deficit, in AIDS. PMID:7478075

Ripa, S; Ripa, R

1995-01-01

304

The secondary alkaline zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

1991-02-01

305

Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

2013-12-01

306

Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25°C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 ± 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 ± 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 ± 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 ±0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25°C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 × 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.

1990-03-01

307

Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative absorption of zinc after oral administration of three different complexed forms was studied in 15 healthy human volunteers in a double-blind four-period crossover trial. The individuals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group rotated for four week periods through a random sequence of oral supplementation including: zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, and zinc gluconate (equivalent to 50 mg

S. A. Barrie; J. V. Wright; J. E. Pizzorno; E. Kutter; P. C. Barron

1987-01-01

308

The mineralogical deportment of germanium in the Clarksville Electrolytic Zinc Plant of Savage Zinc Inc.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mineralogical study was carried out on the neutral leach residue and weak acid leach residue generated from Gordonsville zinc concentrate at the Clarksville Electrolytic Zinc Plant of Savage Zinc Inc. The intent was to characterize the mineral forms and associations of germanium. The Gordonsville zinc concentrate consists mostly of sphalerite which has a solid solution Ge content of ~400 ppm; the sphalerite is the dominant, if not only, Ge carrier in the concentrate. The neutral leach residue consists principally of iron gel-silica gel, ZnO, and basic zinc sulfate, (Zn,Cu)4(SO4)(OH)6·4H2O, together with minor amounts of ZnFe2O4, sphalerite, Zn2SiO4, Zn-Fe-Pb silicate, and PbSO4, as well as traces of quartz, silicates, Pb-K jarosite solid solution, Fe2O3, and FeO·OH. The major Ge carrier is the iron gel-silica gel phase, but modest amounts of Ge are present in the ZnO, ZnFe2O4, sphalerite, and Zn-Fe-Pb silicate phases. The weak acid leach residue consists mostly of iron gel-silica gel, ZnFe2O4, PbSO4, Pb-K jarosite, Zn-Fe-Pb silicate, and quartz. The major Ge carrier is the iron gel-silica gel phase which contains up to 1.7 pct Ge and accounts for ~70 pct of the total Ge content of this residue. The remaining Ge is carried by the Zn-Fe-Pb silicate, ZnFe2O4, and some of the rare Mn-Pb-Fe oxide phases.

Dutrizac, J. E.; Chen, T. T.; Longton, R. J.

1996-08-01

309

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

310

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

311

Electrochemical studies of zinc in zinc-insulin solution.  

PubMed

The electrochemical determination of zinc arising from zinc-insulin complexes was investigated and it was demonstrated that zinc in zinc-insulin solution can be measured in the presence of dissolved oxygen by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) at mercury thin-film electrodes on glassy carbon disc minielectrode and cylindrical carbon fibre microelectrode substrates. Reoxidation signals arise from complexed zinc at low insulin concentrations (< 100 nmol l-1) and from labile zinc at higher concentrations; the latter can be quantified through linear calibration curves. Batch injection analysis with SWASV was successfully tested for the determination of zinc in zinc-insulin solutions in small sample volumes. Since intracellularly stored insulin exists in the form of a zinc-insulin complex, these techniques are very promising for the indirect study of insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:9008404

Barbosa, R M; Rosário, L M; Brett, C M; Brett, A M

1996-12-01

312

Impact of excess zinc on growth parameters, cell division, nutrient accumulation, photosynthetic pigments and oxidative stress of sugarcane ( Saccharum spp . )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study employed a sand culture experiment with three levels of zinc viz., 0.065 (control), 65.0 and 130 mg l?1 Zn (excess) as zinc sulfate, respectively, in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivar CoLk 8102. The results indicated growth depression, dark green leaves, decreased root number and length and\\u000a sharp depression in mitotic activity of roots due to high doses of Zn (65

Radha JainS; S. Srivastava; S. Solomon; A. K. Shrivastava; A. Chandra

2010-01-01

313

Zinc Finger Libraries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A library of multimeric DNA binding polypeptides is provided. Preferred such polypeptides are zinc finger protein DNA binding domains. Libraries of nucleotides encoding such polypeptides, expression vectors containing such nucleotides, cells containing an...

C. F. Barbas P. Blancafort

2003-01-01

314

A Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Structures and Mixed Alkali Effect in Sulfate Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular dynamics stimulation of alkali sulfate-zinc sulfate melts and glasses is presented. Oxygen coordinations of Zn 2+, Na +, and K + cations have been found to be nearly six, eight, and twelve respectively. The radial distribution function has been calculated and compared with the same reported from experimental X-ray diffraction work. Several important aspects of a modified random close packing model described earlier to account for the behavior of sulfate glasses have been confirmed by the present molecular dynamics simulation. Diffusion coefficients of various ions have been evaluated from mean squared displacement data and occurrence of the mixed alkali effect has been noted. A surprising spatial correlation of dissimilar alkali ions has been observed and it is suggested that it provides support for a structural origin of mixed alkali effect in ionic glasses.

Rao, K. J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Damodaran, K. V.

1993-09-01

315

The effects of lead on the electrochemical and adhesion behavior of zinc electrodeposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of excessive lead in zinc sulfate electrolytes can lead to problems related to both processing efficiency and the properties of the metal produced. For example, poor adhesion can occur in electrogalvanized steel when it is heated in the temperature range of 215 °C to 280 °C if lead is present in the deposit. The duration of heating necessary to induce the peeling of the zinc was found to be dependent on the temperature, time, and concentration of lead in the electrolyte and the plating parameters. The presence of lead slowed the formation of the intermetallic, and the peeling occurred between the zinc and the iron-zinc intermetallic layer. In order to gain a better fundamental understanding of the role of lead, rotating disc electrodes were used to measure the diffusion coefficient of lead in the zinc sulfate electrolyte. The experimentally determined mass transport data on lead can be used as an aid to set an acceptable limit of lead allowable in the electrolyte or to evaluate the electrochemical characteristics of an electrolytic zinc system. By the addition of strontium carbonate to the plating solution followed by filtration, the lead concentration in the electrolyte could be reduced to an acceptable level, preventing the poor adhesion on heating.

Srinivasan, Vijay; Cuzmar, J. Sami; O'Keefe, Thomas J.

1990-02-01

316

Aerobic sulfate reduction in microbial mats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats.

Canfield, Donald E.; Des Marais, David J.

1991-01-01

317

Spouted bed electrowinning of zinc: Part I. Laboratory-scale electrowinning experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of laboratory cells have been constructed to electrowin zinc from sulfate electrolytes: one cell was cylindrical while the other had a rectangular (flat) geometry. Cells were operated on industrial or synthetic electrolytes to electrodeposit zinc onto a spouted bed of zinc particles in the range of 0.75 to 1.45 mm. Current efficiencies and cell voltages have been measured during the course of batch experiments, enabling the calculation of the energy consumption per kilogram of zinc deposited. Electrolyte samples have been analyzed. Current densities (current per unit of cell cross-sectional area) were in the range of 1380 to 6200 A/m2. Most catholytes were initially neutral and contained on the order of 150 g/L of zinc. Final acid contents were in the range of 39 to 114 g/L of sulfuric acid. The performance of the cells (particularly with respect to current efficiency) was superior to prior work on fluidized bed electrowinning from similar electrolytes. The flat cell was superior to the cylindrical cell and showed energy consumptions of less than 3 kWh/kg zinc at current densities up to 3500 A/m2 when used to take the zinc content from 150 to 100 g/L zinc. Current efficiencies in this application ranged from 91 to 92 pct.

Salas-Morales, Juan Carlos; Evans, J. W.; Newman, O. M. G.; Adcock, P. A.

1997-02-01

318

Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide.

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.

2008-01-01

319

Zinc Vacancy-Zinc Interstitial Frenkel Pairs in Zinc Selenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron irradiation of ZnSe at low temperatures creates zinc vacancy-zinc interstitial Frenkel pairs. Pairs with different separations between the vacancy and the interstitial give rise to different optically detected magnetic resonance signals. From the magnetic resonance spectrum, the exchange interaction between an electron localized on the interstitial and a hole localized on the vacancy can be determined. Several of these Frenkel pairs have already been reported by Watkins (50) and Rong (50, 37). In this dissertation we report a new group of Frenkel pairs. This new group of Frenkel pairs has very small exchange interactions, indicating that they are farther apart than the pairs that had previously been reported. For some of these pairs, the exchange is so small that their magnetic resonance spectra are very similar to the spectra of the isolated vacancy and the isolated interstitial. The Frenkel pairs are detected from luminescence emitted when an electron on the zinc interstitial recombines with a hole on the zinc vacancy. The recombination rate for this process is spin dependent. For each Frenkel pair there are four excited spin states. Two of them are pure triplet states and the transitions from them to the singlet ground state are not spin-allowed. The other two states are mixtures of triplet and singlet with the mixture depending on the separation of the vacancy and the interstitial. I have measured the recombination rate (lifetime of the excited state) for both of the radiative states for several Frenkel pairs and find that for the state that becomes more singlet -like as the exchange increases, the recombination rate increases with exchange. For the state that becomes more triplet like with increasing exchange, the radiative rate increases with exchange for small exchange but for larger exchange the rate begins to decrease reflecting the increasing unallowedness of the excited triplet state to ground singlet state transition. We have developed simple models of the exchange and the recombination rate as a function of separation. The magnitudes of the exchange interaction and the recombination rate depend exponentially on the separation of the vacancy and the interstitial. The two models can be combined to get the recombination rate as a function of exchange. That combined model agrees quite well with the experimental data.

Barry, William Anthony

1992-01-01

320

Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized.

2005-01-01

321

Polymer batteries fabricated from lithium complexed acetylated chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that 0.8 g lithium nitrate added to a solution of 1 g chitosan dissolved in 100 ml 1% acetic acid produces a film, via the solution cast technique, with a maximum electrical conductivity of the order of 10 -4 S cm -1. This film is amorphous. For battery fabrication, metal powder and hydrogen storage material are used for the anode, and a metallic oxide (MnO 2) for the cathode material. The anode contains a mixture of zinc and zinc sulfate in the ratio of 3:1. Batteries with configurations Zn + ZnSO 4·7H 2O/LiCAC/I 2 + C and Zn + ZnSO 4·7H 2O/ LiCAC/MnO 2+C (LiCAC = lithium complexed acetylated chitosan) provide open-circuit voltages of 1.113 and 0.765 V, respectively. The discharge characteristics of the batteries are presented. Unfortunately, only short lifetimes and small discharge currents can be obtained. This is possibly due to incompatibility between the electrode materials and the electrolytes.

Mohamed, N. S.; Subban, R. H. Y.; Arof, A. K.

322

Repeatability of the submitochondrial particle assay.  

PubMed

A study assessing the intralaboratory precision of the in vitro submitochondrial particle (SMP) electron transfer (ETr) and reverse electron transfer (RET) assays was undertaken using the standard reference toxicants, pentachlorophenol (PCP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and zinc sulfate 7-hydrate (ZnSO4 7H2O). One to three trials of each assay were manually conducted daily for at least 5 days with each toxicant using commercially available sources of particles and reagents. Composite coefficients of variation (CVs) for the ETr assay ranged from 20.6% for ZnSO4 to 29.3% for PCP (n > or = 15). Composite CVs for the RET assay ranged from 6.5% for SDS to 16.5% for PCP (n > or = 15). Comparison of intralaboratory results with in-house and published data demonstrates that the precision of both of these SMP assays is comparable to that of the more common in vivo, whole-organism bacterial, invertebrate, and fish toxicity tests. PMID:12481867

Doherty, Francis G; Gustavson, Karl E

2002-09-01

323

Ceric-cerous sulfate dosimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With a spectrophotometer at wavelength of 320 nm, the molar linear absorption coefficient determined for Ce(sup 4+) ions in acidic sulfate solution is 599.1 m(sup 2)/mol and its linearity is better than 0.5% in the absorption range from 0.1 to 1.6. The re...

Zhang Guiqing Chen Yundong Ye Hongsheng Lin Min

1994-01-01

324

Sulfated binary oxide solid superacids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated binary oxide solid superacids were prepared by the chemical method. The structural properties of the catalyst were examined by using BET, XRD, DTA and IR spectroscopy. Acidity properties of the catalysts were tested by Hammett indicator. Catalytic activity of the catalysts was researched by the reaction of glycerin with acetic acid in toluene. The optimum calcined temperature of the

Hua Yang; Rong Lu; Jingzhe Zhao; Xuwei Yang; Lianchun Shen; Zichen Wang

2003-01-01

325

Minerals Yearbook, 1989: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. sodium sulfate industry rebounded slightly in 1989 as demand increased in the detergent and pulp and paper sectors. After years of stagnant growth, domestic producers were encouraged at the positive trend but were aware the trend may be short liv...

D. S. Kostick

1989-01-01

326

Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

2005-01-01

327

21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...522.2121 Spectinomycin sulfate. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of solution contains spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate equivalent to 100 milligrams (mg) spectinomycin. (b) Sponsor . See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this...

2010-04-01

328

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

329

Optimized zinc electrode for the rechargeable zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of a long-lived, electrically rechargeable zinc–air battery the structure and wettability of pasted zinc electrodes were optimized. Pasted zinc electrodes containing 1 to 10% cellulose but having almost the same nominal capacities were prepared and tested in zinc\\/oxygen cells. The effect of discharge rate on cell voltage and delivered capacity, as well as the maximum power, were

S. Müller; F. Holzer; O. Haas

1998-01-01

330

Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

1995-01-01

331

Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

1978-01-01

332

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

333

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis

Claudia Simm; Brett Lahner; David Salt; Ann LeFurgey; Peter Ingram; Brian Yandell; David J. Eide

2007-01-01

334

Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [->4IdoA(2-Sulfate)?-1->3GalNAc(4-Sulfate)?-1->] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we have reported the presence of highly sulfated dermatans in solitary ascidians from the orders Phlebobranchia (Phallusia nigra) and Stolidobranchia (Halocynthia pyriformis and Styela plicata). Despite the identical disaccharide backbone, consisting of [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?], those polymers differ in the position of sulfation on the N-Acetyl galactosamine, which can occur at carbon 4 or 6. We have shown that position rather than degree of sulfation is important for heparin cofactor II activity. As a consequence, 2,4- and 2,6-sulfated dermatans have high and low heparin cofactor II activities, respectively. In the present study we extended the disaccharide analysis of ascidian dermatan sulfates to additional species of the orders Stolidobranchia (Herdmania pallida, Halocynthia roretzi) and Phlebobranchia (Ciona intestinalis), aiming to investigate how sulfation evolved within Tunicata. In addition, we analysed how heparin cofactor II activity responds to dermatan sulfates containing different proportions of 2,6- or 2,4-disulfated units. Results Disaccharide analyses indicated a high content of disulfated disaccharide units in the dermatan sulfates from both orders. However, the degree of sulfation decreased from Stolidobranchia to Phlebobranchia. While 76% of the disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from stolidobranch ascidians are disulfated, 53% of disulfated disaccharides are found in dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians. Besides this notable difference in the sulfation degree, dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians contain mainly 2,6-sulfated disaccharides whereas dermatan sulfate from the stolidobranch ascidians contain mostly 2,4-sulfated disaccharides, suggesting that the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfates might be differently regulated during tunicates evolution. Changes in the position of sulfation on N-acetylgalactosamine in the disaccharide [?4IdoA(2-Sulfate)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?] modulate heparin cofactor II activity of dermatan sulfate polymers. Thus, high and low heparin cofactor II stimulating activity is observed in 2,4-sulfated dermatan sulfates and 2,6-sulfated dermatan sulfates, respectively, confirming the clear correlation between the anticoagulant activities of dermatan sulfates and the presence of 2,4-sulfated units. Conclusions Our results indicate that in ascidian dermatan sulfates the position of sulfation on the GalNAc in the disaccharide [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?] is directly related to the taxon and that the 6-O sulfation is a novelty apparently restricted to the Phlebobranchia. We also show that the increased content of [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc(4S)?-1?] disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from Stolidobranchia accounts for the increased heparin cofactor II stimulating activity.

2011-01-01

335

LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50%

K. E. Cox; W. M. Jones; C. L. Peterson

1980-01-01

336

21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556...of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0...established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible...

2009-04-01

337

21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556...of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0...established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible...

2010-04-01

338

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate

S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink

1998-01-01

339

Acid sulfate corrosion in PWR steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the plant operating experience and the results of laboratory testing associated with the occurrence of corrosion produced in acid sulfate environments. Three forms of steam generator corrosion have been attributed to the presence of these environments: reduced sulfate species have produced stress corrosion cracking in several plants having sensitized tubing (primarily in once-through steam generators); acid sulfates

A. J. Baum; W. M. Connor; S. D. Piskor; W. J. Stenger

1991-01-01

340

21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4 , CAS Reg...23) of this chapter, 0.35 percent for processed...

2009-04-01

341

Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present. Thymopoeitin, a hormone needed for T-cell maturation, has also been shown to be zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency affects T-cell functions and chemotaxis adversely. Disorders of cell-mediated immune functions are commonly observed in patients with zinc deficiency. Zinc is beneficial for wound healing in zinc-deficient subjects. In certain zinc-deficient subjects, abnormal taste and abnormal dark adaptation have been noted to reverse with zinc supplementation. PMID:3896271

Prasad, A S

1985-01-01

342

ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.  

PubMed

The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface. PMID:24611747

Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

2014-04-01

343

Elaboration of a new anode material for all-solid state Zn/MnO 2 protonic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new composite consisting of a mixture of zinc and hydrated ammonium zinc sulfate, Tutton salt, has been elaborated and studied as anode material for all-solid state protonic cells. The results obtained point out the ability of (NH 4) 2Zn(SO 4) 2·6H 2O double salt to concomitantly exchange protons with the solid proton conducting electrolyte and accommodate Zn 2+ cations issued from oxidation. Such features have been evinced by thermal and crystallographic characterizations. The anode composition has been optimized through a kinetic study on a three-electrode type-cell, showing that a 35 wt.% salt-based composite displays the minimum polarization. Zn/MnO 2 cells prepared using such a composite anode achieve relatively high specific capacity and energy of, more than 30 Ah kg -1 and 40 Wh kg -1, respectively.

Telli, Laid; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Brahimi, Brahim; De Doncker, Rik W.

344

Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Statement was prepared to give you information about zinc and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. Zinc has been found in at least 776 of the sites on the NPL. However, the number of NPL sites evaluated for zinc ...

A. A. Ademoyero K. N. Gan

1994-01-01

345

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

1998-01-01

346

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

1998-02-03

347

Sulfate minerals and organic compounds on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong evidence for evaporitic sulfate minerals such as gypsum and jarosite has recently been found on Mars. Although organic molecules are often codeposited with terrestrial evaporitic minerals, there have been no systematic investigations of organic components in sulfate minerals. We report here the detection of organic material, including amino acids and their amine degradation products, in ancient terrestrial sulfate minerals. Amino acids and amines appear to be preserved for geologically long periods in sulfate mineral matrices. This suggests that sulfate minerals should be prime targets in the search for organic compounds, including those of biological origin, on Mars.

Aubrey, Andrew; Cleaves, H. James; Chalmers, John H.; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2006-05-01

348

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

349

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1987-01-01

350

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

1987-08-25

351

Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

2006-01-01

352

Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precipitation method with zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. The synthesized sample was calcined at different temperatures for 2 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. SEM images show various morphological changes of ZnO obtained by the above method. The average crystallite sizes of the samples were calculated from the full width at half maximum of XRD peaks by using Debye-Scherrer's formula and were found to be in the nanorange. EDS shows that the above route produced highly pure ZnO nanostructures. PIXE technique was used for trace elemental analysis of ZnO. The optical band gaps of various ZnO powders were calculated from UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies.

Kumar, Surabhi Siva; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Rao, Vanka Ranga; Rao, Gollapalli Nagewsara

2013-05-01

353

Zinc-responsive dermatosis in a red wolf (canis rufus).  

PubMed

An 18-mo-old male red wolf (Canis rufus) presented with footpad hyperkeratosis, suppurative paronychia, distal limb pyoderma, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Diet for the previous 11 mo consisted of a mixture of two commercially prepared dog foods with a mineral supplement containing primarily calcium. Culture of the draining tracts on the distal limbs yielded a mixed population of opportunistic bacteria. Histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of zinc deficiency. Medical therapy consisted of 15 mg/kg amoxicillin p.o. b.i.d. and 10 mg/kg zinc sulfate p.o. s.i.d. Calcium supplementation was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved by 10 wk after the initiation of treatment. PMID:10982145

Kearns, K; Sleeman, J; Frank, L; Munson, L

2000-06-01

354

Patch testing with neomycin sulfate.  

PubMed

The recommended patch test concentration of neomycin sulfate is 20% in petrolatum applied occluded for 48 h (2 days [D]). In the current study, the efficiency of such a test is compared to results with other techniques using lower allergen dose than obtained by approximately 20 microl of the 20% substance. Efficiency of petrolatum and demineralized water as vehicles are compared. 16 neomycin-sulfate positive subjects were retested with serial doses ranging from 0.4 to 0.0085 mg/cm2 neomycin sulfate in cellulose printed on polyester squares and applied by both tapes and plastic foils. Additionally, tests were performed with the 20% petrolatum substance in Finn Chambers. Tests containing the 20% substance in petrolatum and in water were applied directly with transparent foils. Readings ranged from 3 to 264 h (11D) following applications. Results show that foil applications of a polyester square dose, that is 7% of the dose obtained with the 20% substance, distinguished between perfusion of subjects who were visually positive and not with any test in the study. With the same test technique and visual assessments, 2 subjects were false-negative but developed doubtful test responses with the Finn Chambers. PMID:11016671

Bjarnason, B; Flosadóttir, E

2000-11-01

355

Photosynthetic sulfur bacteria from Zimapan Reservoir (Mexico): Seasonal variations and toxic effects of zinc in a microcosm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic sulfur bacteria oxidize the sulfide produced by dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria, thus preventing the occurrence of pollution by these compounds in the oxygenic zone of aquatic systems. Zinc is one of the most abundant heavy metals. Its toxic effects have been documented in various organisms that can photosynthesize, but a lack of information prevails in this respect, about photosynthetic sulfur

Armando Vega-López; Enriqueta Amora-Lazcano; Marcela Galar-Martínez; Eugenia López-López; José B. Proal-Nájera

2008-01-01

356

Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

Tadros, Shawky H.

1993-01-01

357

Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes. PMID:23757342

Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

2013-08-01

358

Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the plateau.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

359

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R (2) ) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R (2) of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R (2) of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C; Holmberg, Charles A; Smith, Bradford P

2013-04-01

360

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R2) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R2 of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R2 of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting.

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Pare, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Holmberg, Charles A.; Smith, Bradford P.

2013-01-01

361

Zinc: the brain's dark horse.  

PubMed

Zinc is a life-sustaining trace element, serving structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in cellular biology. It is required for normal mammalian brain development and physiology, such that deficiency or excess of zinc has been shown to contribute to alterations in behavior, abnormal central nervous system development, and neurological disease. In this light, it is not surprising that zinc ions have now been shown to play a role in the neuromodulation of synaptic transmission as well as in cortical plasticity. Zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by a class of glutamatergic or "gluzinergic" neurons and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Because gluzinergic neurons are found almost exclusively in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures, zinc may be critical for normal cognitive and emotional functioning. Conversely, direct evidence shows that zinc might be a relatively potent neurotoxin. Neuronal injury secondary to in vivo zinc mobilization and release occurs in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in addition to epilepsy and ischemia. Thus, zinc homeostasis is integral to normal central nervous system functioning, and in fact its role may be underappreciated. This article provides an overview of zinc neurobiology and reviews the experimental evidence that implicates zinc signals in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may therefore allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis. PMID:19623531

Bitanihirwe, Byron K Y; Cunningham, Miles G

2009-11-01

362

Zinc signals and immune function.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years, it has been known that zinc deficiency compromises immune function. During this time, knowledge about the biochemistry of zinc has continued to grow, but only recent years have provided in-depth molecular insights into the multiple aspects of zinc as a regulator of immunity. A network based on ZnT and ZIP proteins for transport and metallothionein for storage tightly regulates zinc availability, and virtually all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity are affected by zinc. In vivo, zinc deficiency alters the number and function of neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK)-, T-, and B-cells. T cell functions and balance between the different subsets are particularly susceptible to changes in zinc status. This article focuses in particular on the main mechanisms by which zinc ions exert essential functions in the immune system. On the one hand, this includes tightly protein bound zinc ions serving catalytic or structural functions in a multitude of different proteins, in particular enzymes and transcription factors. On the other hand, increasing evidence arises for a regulatory role of free zinc ions in signal transduction, especially in cells of the immune system. Identification of several molecular targets, including phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, caspases, and kinases suggest that zinc ions are a second messenger regulating signal transduction in various kinds of immune cells. PMID:23804522

Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar

2014-01-01

363

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

364

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

365

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

366

Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin

2002-12-31

367

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

368

Effect of glutathione depletion on sulfate activation and sulfate ester formation in rats.  

PubMed

Sulfation of organic compounds requires activation of inorganic sulfate via formation of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Inorganic sulfate can be formed by sulfoxidation of cysteine, which can be derived from GSH. Thus, a decrease in hepatic GSH may impair formation of inorganic sulfate, the synthesis of PAPS, and the sulfation of chemicals. This hypothesis was tested by investigating the effect of GSH depletion on the levels of inorganic sulfate in serum and of PAPS in liver, and on the capacity to form the sulfate conjugate of harmol in rats. Phorone (2 mmol/kg, i.p.) decreased hepatic GSH (97%), serum inorganic sulfate (63%), and hepatic PAPS (48%). Diethyl maleate and vinylidene chloride (6 mmol/kg, each, i.p.) were less effective than phorone in decreasing GSH in liver and inorganic sulfate in serum, and they did not alter hepatic PAPS levels. Three hours after phorone treatment, the nadir of hepatic PAPS concentration, harmol was injected in order to assess sulfation in vivo. After administration of harmol (100 and 300 mumol/kg, i.v.), less harmol sulfate and more harmol glucuronide were found in the serum of phorone-treated rats as compared to control rats. At the higher dosage of harmol, phorone reduced the biliary excretion of harmol sulfate while increasing the biliary excretion of harmol glucuronide. These results indicate that severe GSH depletion decreases PAPS formation and sulfation of chemicals. However, an increase in glucuronidation may compensate for the impaired sulfation. PMID:3196355

Gregus, Z; White, C; Howell, S; Klaassen, C D

1988-11-15

369

Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.

2012-03-01

370

Influence of UV and visible laser light on the structure and composition of layered organic - inorganic zinc and copper nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of UV and visible laser light on the structure and composition of layered organic-inorganic nanocomposites of transition metals, zinc [zinc hydroxide/dodecyl sulfate, Zn(OH)2DS] and copper [copper hydroxide/dodecyl sulfate, Cu2(OH)3DS], has been experimentally investigated. Nanocomposites have been synthesised by laser ablation of targets from the aforementioned materials in aqueous solutions of a surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The absorption and Raman spectra of the thus obtained colloids are analysed. The structural composition and morphology of the solid phase isolated from the colloids are determined using X-ray diffraction, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that exposure of nanocomposites to UV and visible laser light with intensities in the range of 5 × 105-107 W cm-2 or higher leads to their fragmentation and change in their composition.

Borodina, T. I.; Val'yano, G. E.; Gololobova, O. A.; Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T.; Malikov, Mikhail M.; Strikanov, D. A.

2013-06-01

371

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

372

Impact of Trace Element Changes on Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Healthy and Diabetic States among MiddleAge and Elderly Egyptians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium,\\u000a copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is\\u000a the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups:

Noha M. El Husseiny; Elham Sobhy Said; Naglaa El Shahat Mohamed; Azza Ismail Othman

373

Long-term effects of a combination of D-penicillamine and zinc salts in the treatment of Wilson's disease in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a high-dose zinc sulfate and low-dose D-penicillamine combination in the treatment of pediatric Wilson's disease (WD). A retropective chart review of 65 patients with WD was conducted. These patients received D-penicillamine (8-10 mg/kg/day) and zinc sulfate as the primary treatment. The pediatric dose of elemental zinc is 68-85 mg/day until 6 years of age, 85-136 mg/day until 8 years of age, 136-170 mg/day until 10 years of age and then 170 mg/day, in 3 divided doses 1 h before meals. After clinical and biochemical improvement or stabilization, zinc sulfate alone was administered as the maintenance therapy. Under treatment, the majority of patients (89.2%) had a favourable outcome and 3 patients succumbed due to poor therapy compliance. No penicillamine-induced neurological deterioration was noted and side-effects were observed in <11% of patients over the entire follow-up period. Benefical results on the liver and neurological symptoms were reported following extremely long-term treatment with a combination of low-dose D-penicillamine and high-dose zinc sulfate. Therefore, this regimen is an effective and safe treatment for children with WD. PMID:23599735

Chang, Hong; Xu, Aijing; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Ying; Tian, Fei; Li, Tang

2013-04-01

374

Plasmatic dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate determination in mucopolysaccharidoses.  

PubMed

The evaluation of plasmatic galactosaminoglycans, dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) can be helpful in the early identification of MPS patients, also considering that primary storage of one type of GAG can lead to secondary accumulation of other lysosomal substrates. We explore the possibility to determine plasmatic DS and CS in numerous healthy pediatric (and sometimes adult) subjects depending on age and in patients affected by various forms of MPS. A highly sensitive HPLC separation and fluorescence detection was applied for plasma/serum DS and CS determination after a specific enzymatic treatment able to release their constituent disaccharides. DS and CS content decrease significantly with age in controls having high values in the first year (~8 ?g/mL). A highly significant decrease was observed for 1-5-year-old (?-33%) and 5-10-year-old (?-65%) healthy subgroups. No further decrease was determined showing a stabilization after 5 years of age. MPS I Scheie and Hurler patients showed rather similar DS and CS content significantly higher than controls matched for age. Similarly, MPS II, III and IV subjects all presented significantly higher plasmatic DS and CS content compared to healthy subjects matched for age. The same trend was determined for the only patient affected by MPS VI. Plasmatic DS and CS analyzed by the present procedure may be a useful diagnostic and screening marker for various forms of MPS. PMID:23872470

Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Galeotti, Fabio; Zampini, Lucia; Santoro, Lucia; Padella, Lucia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Gabrielli, Orazio; Coppa, Giovanni V

2013-11-01

375

Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered.

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

2013-01-01

376

Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading  

SciTech Connect

Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1998-07-01

377

Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

2005-02-13

378

Selective leaching of zinc from zinc ferrite with hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc ferrite is a major constituent of the steel-making dust and sludge. In the present work the hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from this material was studied. ZnFe2O4 and the sludge were leached in hydrochloric acid at atmospheric and elevated pressure using the microwave heating. More than 90% of zinc can be extracted with diluted acid when the temperature is 250 °C

Šárka Langová; Juraj Leško; Dalibor Matýsek

2009-01-01

379

A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

1992-01-01

380

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of ophthalmic preparation contains 0.10 milligram... â(1) Amount â(i) Preparation containing hydroxypropyl...

2013-04-01

381

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of ophthalmic preparation contains 0.10 milligram... â(1) Amount â(i) Preparation containing hydroxypropyl...

2009-04-01

382

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524...polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of ophthalmic preparation contains 0.10 milligram... â(1) Amount â(i) Preparation containing hydroxypropyl...

2010-04-01

383

Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A.

Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

2011-01-01

384

Fluidized Bed Selective Oxidation-Sulfation Roasting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrate: Part II. Sulfation Roasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluidized bed sulfation roasting process followed by water leaching was investigated as an alternative process to treat nickel sulfide concentrate for nickel production. The effects of several roasting parameters, such as the sulfation gas flow rate, roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, and the roasting time, were studied. 79 pct Ni, 91 pct Cu, and 95 pct Co could be recovered with minimal dissolution of Fe of 4 pct by water leaching after two-stage oxidation-sulfation roasting under optimized conditions. The sulfation roasting mechanism was investigated, showing that the outermost layer of sulfate melt and the porous iron oxide layer create a favorable sulfation environment with high partial pressure of SO3. Sulfation of the sulfide core was accompanied by the conversion of the sulfide from Ni1- x S to Ni7S6 as well as inward diffusion of the sulfation gas.

Yu, Dawei; Utigard, Torstein A.; Barati, Mansoor

2014-04-01

385

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and 10 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats â(1) Amount. Apply a thin film over the cornea three or four times daily. (2) Indications for use. For treating acute or chronic...

2013-04-01

386

Zinc transporters in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is a major health concern as it has the second highest incidence rate among cancers in men. Despite progress in tumor diagnostics and therapeutic approaches, prognosis for men with advanced disease remains poor. In this review we provide insight into the changes of the intermediary metabolism in normal prostate and prostate cancer. In contrast to normal cells, prostate cancer cells are reprogrammed for optimal energy-efficiency with a functional Krebs cycle and minimal apoptosis rates. A key element in this relationship is the uniquely high zinc level of normal prostate epithelial cells. Zinc is transported by the SLC30 and SLC39 families of zinc transporters. However, in prostate cancer the intracellular zinc content is remarkably reduced and expression levels of certain zinc transporters are altered. Here, we summarize the role of different zinc transporters in the development of prostate cancer.

Franz, M.-C.; Anderle, P.; Burzle, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Freeman, M.R.; Hediger, M. A.; Kovacs, G.

2014-01-01

387

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

388

Effect of sulfite exposure on zinc, iron, and copper levels in rat liver and kidney tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfite is a potentially toxic molecule that might enter the body via ingestion, inhalation, or injection. For cellular detoxification,\\u000a mammalians rely on sulfite oxidase to convert sulfite to sulfate. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect\\u000a of sulfite on zinc, iron, and copper levels in rat liver and kidney tissues. Forty normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient male\\u000a albino

Vural Kucukatay; Sebahat Turgut; Erdogan Kocamaz; Gulten Emmungil; Melek Bor-Kucukatay; Gunfer Turgut; Hakan Akca; Huseyin Bagci

2006-01-01

389

Zinc-air primary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary zinc-air batteries based upon the use of plastic cell trays in a prismatic, stackable configuration, which overcomes the capacity limitation of zinc-air button cells and the rate limitations of currently available industrial zinc-air batteries, were developed. A series of experiments was conducted on subscale prototype cells to test the elements of the design basis and to optimize electrode formulations.

R. A. Putt; G. W. Merry

1992-01-01

390

Commercial zinc-air batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is presented indicating that zinc-air cells have twice the capacity of mercury and silver cells. Discharge and decay mechanisms are considered in detail and design data presented which allow optimization of any zinc-air cell for maximum capacity and tolerance to environmental conditions. Performance details for zinc-air button cells are compared with the three most common mercury and

J. W. Cretzmeyer; H. R. Espig; R. S. Melrose

1976-01-01

391

Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Effects of a magnetic field (?0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation. PMID:24738491

Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

2014-05-01

392

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

393

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2009-04-01

394

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2010-04-01

395

Selective effects of sodium chlorate treatment on the sulfation of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the effect of sodium chlorate treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells on the structure of heparan sulfate (HS), to assess how the various sulfation reactions during HS biosynthesis are affected by decreased availability of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. Metabolically [(3)H]glucosamine-labeled HS was isolated from chlorate-treated and untreated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and subjected to low pH nitrous acid cleavage. Saccharides representing (i) the N-sulfated domains, (ii) the domains of alternating N-acetylated and N-sulfated disaccharide units, and (iii) the N-acetylated domains were recovered and subjected to compositional disaccharide analysis. Upon treatment with 50 mM chlorate, overall O-sulfation of HS was inhibited by approximately 70%, whereas N-sulfation remained essentially unchanged. Low chlorate concentrations (5 or 20 mM) selectively reduced the 6-O-sulfation of HS, whereas treatment with 50 mM chlorate reduced both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. Analysis of saccharides representing the different domain types indicated that 6-O-sulfation was preferentially inhibited in the alternating domains. These data suggest that reduced 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate availability has distinct effects on the N- and O-sulfation of HS and that O-sulfation is affected in a domain-specific fashion. PMID:10593915

Safaiyan, F; Kolset, S O; Prydz, K; Gottfridsson, E; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

1999-12-17

396

Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1988-06-28

397

Interactions between zinc and thymulin.  

PubMed

Thymulin (formerly called "Facteur Thymique Sérique or FTS) is a metallopeptidic hormone selectively produced by thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and known to induce intra and extra-thymic T cell differentiation. It was initially isolated from porcine serum and shown to be present in calf thymus extract. Its amino-acid sequence was determined (zinc, in an equimolecular ratio. The metallopeptide thus formed bears a specific tridimensional conformation detected by nuclear magnetic resonance studies, and that yielded a new monoclonal antibody-defined epitope. The presence of zinc and metallothionein has been demonstrated within TEC which produce the peptide, suggesting that the molecule is secreted in its active zinc-containing form. The zinc/thymulin relationship, was further studied using various models of mild zinc deficiency in experimental animals and in humans. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of zinc deficiency, and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter could be a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency. When considered together with the parallel variations seen in T-cell subpopulations and lymphokine production, these observations could provide a possible explanation of the role of zinc on T cell functions. PMID:18476235

Dardenne, M; Pleau, J M

1994-01-01

398

Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

2012-05-01

399

Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of the { x ZnCl 2 +(1? x )ZnSO 4 }(aq) System at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for {xZnCl2+(1?x)ZnSO4}(aq) solutions with ZnCl2 molality fractions of x=(0,0.3062,0.5730,0.7969, and 1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements\\u000a cover the water activity range 0.901–0.919?a\\u000a w?0.978. The experimental osmotic coefficients were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer)\\u000a model for these mixed electrolyte solutions. A similar analysis was made

Rozalija Ninkovi?; Jelena Miladinovi?; Milica Todorovi?; Snežana Gruji?; Joseph A. Rard

2007-01-01

400

Long-Term Effects of Oxymetholone vs. Testosterone with orWithout ZnSO4 on Growth Performance of Turkey Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxymetholone at 0.6 mg\\/kg feed or mixed with ZnSO (45mg\\/kg feed), testosterone at 10 mg\\/kg 4 feed or mixed with ZnSO (45 mg\\/kg feed) and 0 mg\\/kg of either one were given to 180 turkey chicks (n = 9; 4 r = 4) from 6-18 weeks of age to determine their effects on growth performance. Body Weight (BW) was increased

J. Arshami; M. Heydar-Poor; H. Zarghi; M. Pilevar; M. Esmailzadeh

2009-01-01

401

A novel thermal decomposition method for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from low concentration ZnSO 4 solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research work, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by direct thermal decomposition method with Zn4(SO4)(OH)6·0.5 H2O as a precursor. The precursor was calcinated in air for 1h at 825°C. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectrum (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD, EDS, and IR results indicated

Esmaeel Darezereshki; Mostafa Alizadeh; Fereshteh Bakhtiari; Mahin Schaffie; Mohammad Ranjbar

2011-01-01

402

Recovery of Zinc from Zinc Waste By-adsorption Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc present in the dead tank wash water of plating industry is of about 300 ppm approximately. The aim of the experiment was to reduce the zinc content in the effluent. Treatment by ion exchange produces reusable water. Generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. If this water is sent as waste the

S. Madhan Babu; C. Ahmed Basha; S. Murthy Shekhar

2006-01-01

403

Characterization of sulfated quercetin and epicatechin metabolites.  

PubMed

Different monosulfates of quercetin and epicatechin with metabolic interest were obtained by hemisynthesis and characterized regarding their chromatographic behavior and absorption and mass spectra. Three of these compounds were further isolated, and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). The calculation of the proton and carbon shifts caused by sulfation allowed for the assignment of the position of the sulfate group in the flavonoids, so that the compounds were identified as quercetin-3'-O-sulfate, quercetin 4'-O-sulfate, and epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate. It was found that sulfation at position 3' induced a large upfield shift in the carbon bearing the sulfate group and downfield displacements of the adjacent carbons, whereas no significant upfield or downfield shifts were observed with respect to the parent flavonoid when sulfation was produced at position 4'. PMID:22420600

Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Paramas, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

2012-04-11

404

Sulfation phenomena in fluidized bed combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) are noted for their ability to capture SO2 in situ via direct reaction with Ca-based sorbents. However, despite more than 30 years of intensive study of sulfation processes in atmospheric FBC boilers and numerous laboratory studies, there are still many uncertainties and disagreements on the subject. In particular, the mechanisms of the sulfation reaction are still

E. J. Anthony; D. L. Granatstein

2001-01-01

405

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consists primarily of ferrous sulfate monohydrate (CAS Reg. No. 17375-41-6) with varying amounts of ferrous sulfate tetrahydrate (CAS Reg. No. 20908-72-9) and occurs as a grayish-white to buff-colored powder. (b) The...

2009-04-01

406

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consists primarily of ferrous sulfate monohydrate (CAS Reg. No. 17375-41-6) with varying amounts of ferrous sulfate tetrahydrate (CAS Reg. No. 20908-72-9) and occurs as a grayish-white to buff-colored powder. (b) The...

2010-01-01

407

Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the available evidence regarding efficacy, benefits, and risks of magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis in women with preeclampsia or eclampsia.Data Sources: The English-language literature in MEDLINE was searched from 1966 through February 1998 using the terms “magnesium sulfate,” “seizure,” “preeclampsia,” “eclampsia,” and “hypertension in pregnancy.” Reviews of bibliographies of retrieved articles and consultation with experts in the field

AndreaG Witlin; BahaM Sibai

1998-01-01

408

Heparan sulfate: a piece of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' The sulfated glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate and heparin, are increasingly impli- cated in cell-biological processes such as cytokine action, cell adhesion, and regulation of enzyniic catalysis. These activities generally depend on inter- actions of the polysaccharides with proteins, medi- ated by distinct saccharide sequences, and expressed at various levels of specificity, selectivity, and mo- lecular organization. The formation of hepa-

MARKKU SALMIVIRTA; KERSTIN UDHOLT; ULF LINDAHL

409

Influence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate concentration, which is required to form gypsum from portlandite, was derived from thermodynamical calculations and experimental measurements. The obtained results were compared to the sulfate concentrations in laboratory solutions that are commonly used to test the performance of concrete exposed to sulfate attack and also to sulfate concentrations that can be expected under field conditions. It was derived that the formation of gypsum can strongly affect the performance of binders in the tests, but has a less marked impact under most field conditions. An SEM investigation of mortar bars that were exposed to different sulfate concentrations supports the suggestion made.

Bellmann, Frank [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Moeser, Bernd [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Stark, Jochen [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany)

2006-02-15

410

Scintillation properties of lead sulfate  

SciTech Connect

We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO{sub 4}), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm{sup 3}, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO{sub 4} crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45{degrees}C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25{degrees}C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at {minus}145{degrees}C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO{sub 4} (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Shlichta, P.J. (Crystal Research, San Pedro, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

411

Sulfated glycolipids and cell adhesion.  

PubMed

The adhesive glycoproteins laminin, thrombospondin, and von Willebrand factor bind specifically and with high affinity to sulfatides, and it is this binding that probably accounts for their ability to agglutinate glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes. The three proteins differ, however, in the inhibition of their binding to sulfatides by sulfated polysaccharides. Fucoidan strongly inhibits binding of both laminin and thrombospondin, but not of von Willebrand factor, suggesting the involvement of laminin or thrombospondin, or other unknown sulfatide-binding proteins in specific cell interactions that are also inhibited by fucoidan. Thrombospondin adsorbed on plastic promotes the attachment and spreading of some melanoma cells. Interestingly, fucoidan and an antibody against the sulfatide-binding domain of thrombospondin selectively inhibit spreading but not attachment to thrombospondin-coated surfaces. Sulfatides, but not neutral glycolipids or gangliosides, when adsorbed on plastic also promote attachment and spreading of some cultured cell lines. Direct adhesion of melanoma cells requires high densities of adsorbed sulfatide. In the presence of laminin, however, specific adhesion of some cell types to sulfatide is strongly stimulated and requires only low densities of adsorbed lipid, suggesting that laminin is mediating adhesion by crosslinking receptors on the cell surface to sulfatide adsorbed on the plastic. Although thrombospondin also binds to sulfatides and to melanoma cells, it does not enhance but rather inhibits direct and laminin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion to sulfatide, presumably because it is unable to bind simultaneously to ligands on opposing surfaces. Thus, sulfated glycolipids can participate in both laminin- and thrombospondin-mediated cell adhesion, but their mechanisms of interaction are different. PMID:3063211

Roberts, D D; Ginsburg, V

1988-12-01

412

Fatty acid binding protein inhibits glycolithocholate sulfation.  

PubMed

Sulfation of hepatotoxic monohydroxy bile salts is viewed as an important detoxification mechanism. Bile salts are bound by fatty acid binding protein (FABP) with decreasing affinity as the extent of their hydroxylation increases. This binding has the potential to interfere with sulfation of monohydroxy bile salts and to augment their toxicity. FABP inhibits monohydroxy bile salt sulfation via bile salt sulfotransferases BST 1 and 2. With BST 1, the main BST, we obtained a maximal reduction of sulfation by 42.8 +/- 8.1%, using 10 microM glycolithocholate as substrate. FABP had no effect on sulfation of either 10 microM glycodeoxycholate or glycochenodeoxycholate. FABP may therefore specifically alter hepatotoxicity of lithocholate and its metabolites. PMID:1417875

Singer, S S; Dravis, D; Henkels, K; Trulzsch, D V

1992-07-01

413

Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

Bliss, Mary

2013-11-30

414

Novel chemical synthetic route and characterization of zinc selenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin film have been deposited using chemical bath method on non-conducting glass substrate in a tartarate bath containing zinc sulfate, ammonia, hydrazine hydrate, sodium selenosulfate in an aqueous alkaline medium at 333 K. The deposition parameter of the ZnSe thin film is interpreted in the present investigation. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption, electrical measurements, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The ZnSe thin layers grown with polycrystalline zinc blende system along with some amorphous phase present in ZnSe film. The direct optical band gap ‘Eg’ for the film was found to be 2.81 eV and electrical conductivity in the order of 10-8(? cm)-1 with n-type conduction mechanism.

Hankare, P. P.; Chate, P. A.; Delekar, S. D.; Asabe, M. R.; Mulla, I. S.

2006-11-01

415

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

416

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

417

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

418

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

419

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

420

21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

2013-04-01

421

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

422

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-01-01

423

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

424

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

425

21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129...Food Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

426

21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044c Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044c Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

2009-04-01

428

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2010-07-01

429

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2012-07-01

430

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2011-07-01

431

Bacterial transport of sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is an essential element for microorganisms and it can be obtained from varied compounds, sulfate being the preferred\\u000a source. The first step for sulfate assimilation, sulfate uptake, has been studied in several bacterial species. This article\\u000a reviews the properties of different bacterial (and archaeal) transporters for sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions. Sulfate\\u000a uptake is carried out by sulfate permeases

Esther Aguilar-Barajas; César Díaz-Pérez; Martha I. Ramírez-Díaz; Héctor Riveros-Rosas; Carlos Cervantes

2011-01-01

432

Complex Sulfate Deposits in Coprates Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of layered sulfate-containing deposits in the Coprates Chasma region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1827UTC (1:27 p.m. EST) on December 12, 2006 near 10.2 degrees south latitude, 68.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

Coprates Chasma forms part of the backbone of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 966 kilometers (600 miles), and is one of the larger chasmata in the Valles Marineris system.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a knob near the chasma's northern wall.

The center left image, an infrared false color image, shows the knob's layered morphology. The center right image unveils the mineralogical signatures of some of those layers, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple representing polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 3 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits relate to that topography. Darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the knob's western flank. Brighter, monohydrated sulfates (yellow) appear to be superimposed on polyhydrated sulfate deposits in the southwest corner of the image. These coarsely banded deposits continue along the southeast side of the knob.

There are two possible explanations for the compositional banding of these sulfates. The first is deposition of mono- and polyhydrated sulfates in alternating layers. The second is deposition of just one sulfate type, and its subsequent alteration by weathering at the exposed, eroded surface. Further observations and analysis will better determine the origin of these complex banded sulfate deposits.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

433

Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

Lovley, D. R.; Coates, J. D.; Woodward, J. C.; Phillips, E. J. P.

1995-01-01

434

Selective reduction of 6-O-sulfation in heparan sulfate from transformed mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate at cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix regulates cell proliferation and adhesion by binding to growth factors and matrix proteins via structurally specific oligosaccharide domains. We have used the hormonally regulated mouse mammary carcinoma cell line S115 as a model to elucidate the effect of malignant transformation on the structure of heparan sulfate. When cultured in the presence of testosterone, S115 cells form tumor cell colonies in soft agar and exhibit fibroblast-like morphology; withdrawal of testosterone results in a loss of the tumorigenic capacity and a switch towards epithelial morphology. Metabolically 35SO4-labeled heparan sulfate was isolated from testosterone-treated and non-treated S115 cells and subjected to structural analysis. We found that the testosterone-dependent malignant transformation was associated with reduced sulfation of heparan sulfate due to a approximately 40% decrease in the amount of GlcN6S units. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in the amounts of 2-O-sulfate or N-sulfate groups. The reduced 6-O-sulfation of GlcN units in heparan sulfate from transformed S115 cells led to a marked decrease in the amount of trisulfated IdoA2S-GlcNS6S units (IdoA, L-iduronic acid), implicated in many heparan sulfate-protein interactions. PMID:9546676

Safaiyan, F; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

1998-03-15

435

Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development  

SciTech Connect

In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

Noonan, D.M.

1985-01-01

436

Characteristically shaped ZnO particles produced by periodic precipitation in organic gel media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wurtzite-type ZnO particles were directly prepared in agar gel containing zinc sulfate by diffusion of hydroxyl ions (OH -). A banded structure consisting of characteristically shaped particles, such as star-like, ellipsoidal, and round grains, was obtained through periodic precipitation along the direction of the OH - diffusion. The individual particles were composed of nanoscale ZnO crystallites elongated in the c-axis. The star-like and ellipsoidal ZnO aggregates were produced through a dissolution-precipitation process from previously precipitated thin plates of ZnSO 4·3Zn(OH) 2. The gel media provided a diffusion field of the precursors resulting in the formation of various kinds of characteristic shapes consisting of nanoscale ZnO particles.

Kawano, Tetsuo; Imai, Hiroaki

2005-10-01

437

Extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites by fusion with caustic soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc ferrites are one of the major forms of zinc in some wastes, such as steel mill EAF dusts and the leaching residues of roasted zinc sulfide concentrates. These ferrites can be very difficult to chemically decompose so that the zinc can be recovered. This decomposition is the key to the recovery of zinc in these solid wastes. In this

Zhao Youcai; R. Stanforth

2000-01-01

438

Maternal zinc intake of Wistar rats has a protective effect in the alloxan-induced diabetic offspring.  

PubMed

Zinc has a role in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, and has been suggested to be beneficial when used in the diabetic state. Effect of zinc intake in pregnant rats has been studied here on diabetized offspring. Pregnant rats were divided in two groups; the control group received normal food and water, and the experimental group received zinc sulfate during pregnancy and 3 weeks after offspring birth. Male offspring from the control (C) and experimental (E) groups were divided each in three groups: C1, fed with normal food and water; C2, diabetized with alloxan; C3, received zinc sulfate; E1, fed with normal food and water; E2, diabetized with alloxan; and E3, receiving zinc sulfate. After 30 days, the histological changes of pancreatic tissues were investigated by light microscopy. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin levels, food intake, water intake, and urine quantity were also compared between the groups. Water intake and urine quantity were decreased significantly (p?zinc intake may influence subsequent deleterious effects of diabetes on alloxan-diabetized offspring. PMID:22730079

Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Esfahani-Nejad, Hamideh; Ahmadi, Ramesh; Hayati-Roodbari, Nasim; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

2013-03-01

439

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM c