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1

Raman diagnostic of the reactivity between ZnSO4 and CaCO3 particles in humid air relevant to heterogeneous zinc chemistry in atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments using Raman imaging demonstrated the behaviour of ZnSO4·7H2O (goslarite) microparticles in contact with a {101bar4} CaCO3 (calcite) surface under three different experimental conditions representative of remote atmosphere. Contact between the ZnSO4·7H2O particles and the CaCO3 surface in humid air (RH ?40-80%) did not induce any deliquescence and chemical phenomena. In contrast, condensation of a water drop at the ZnSO4·7H2O-CaCO3 interface caused free dissolution of the ZnSO4·7H2O particle and rapid precipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 onto the CaCO3 surface. This coating inhibited the surface reaction and subsequent drying resulted in the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, then ZnSO4·H2O (gunningite) and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) superimposed onto the Zn4SO4(OH)6 layer. The deposition of ZnSO4·7H2O particles in a water drop, previously in contact with a CaCO3 particle for a long time, resulted in the coprecipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite). Subsequent drying caused the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·H2O and CaSO4·2H2O as small particles. These results indicated the possible fates of ZnSO4 particles in a humid atmosphere, when externally mixed with CaCO3 mineral dust after atmospheric events such as aggregation, water condensation and evaporation. This study indicated the fundamental role of water that typically existed on the surface of aerosol particles in the troposphere. These heterogeneous chemical processes have substantial consequences on particle size and solubility, and thus on bioavailability and toxicity of metal-rich particles.

Falgayrac, Guillaume; Sobanska, Sophie; Brémard, Claude

2014-03-01

2

Influence of phytase, EDTA, and polyphenols on zinc absorption in adults from porridges fortified with zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.  

PubMed

Fortification of cereal staples with zinc is recommended to combat zinc deficiency. To optimize zinc absorption, strategies are needed to overcome the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) and perhaps polyphenols. Five zinc absorption studies were conducted in young adults consuming maize or sorghum porridges fortified with 2 mg zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or zinc oxide (ZnO) and containing combinations of PA or polyphenols as potential inhibitors and EDTA and phytase as potential enhancers. Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured by using the double isotopic tracer ratio method. Adding phytase to the maize porridge immediately before consumption or using phytase for dephytinization during meal preparation both increased FAZ by >80% (both P < 0.001). Adding Na2EDTA at an EDTA:zinc molar ratio of 1:1 increased FAZ from maize porridge fortified with ZnSO4 by 30% (P = 0.01) but had no influence at higher EDTA ratios or on absorption from ZnO. FAZ was slightly higher from ZnSO4 than from ZnO (P = 0.02). Sorghum polyphenols had no effect on FAZ from dephytinized sorghum porridges but decreased FAZ by 20% from PA-rich sorghum porridges (P < 0.02). The combined inhibitory effect of polyphenols and PA was overcome by EDTA. In conclusion, ZnSO4 was better absorbed than ZnO, phytase used to degrade PA during digestion or during food preparation substantially increased zinc absorption from zinc-fortified cereals, EDTA at a 1:1 molar ratio modestly enhanced zinc absorption from ZnSO4-fortified cereals but not ZnO-fortified cereals, and sorghum polyphenols inhibited zinc absorption in the presence, but not absence, of PA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01210794. PMID:24966411

Brni?, Marica; Wegmüller, Rita; Zeder, Christophe; Senti, Gabriela; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-09-01

3

Nucleation Kinetics, Growth and XRD Studies of undoped and Zinc Sulfate-doped Triglycine Sulpho-Phosphate (TGSP) Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility for various temperatures in the range 30–50°C and induction period measurements for various supersaturation levels were carried out for supersaturated aqueous solutions of undoped and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)-doped triglycine sulpho-phosphate (TGSP) crystals. It is observed that solubility increases with temperature and induction period decreases with supersaturation levels for all the samples of the work. When TGSP crystals are doped

A. Siva Dhas; P. Selvarajan; T. H. Freeda

2009-01-01

4

The reaction between ZnO and molten Na2S2O7 or K2S2O7 forming Na2Zn(SO4)2 orK2Zn(SO4)2, studied by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

Reactions between solid zinc oxide and molten sodium or potassium pyrosulfates at 500 degrees C are shown by Raman spectroscopy to be 1:1 reactions leading to solutions. By lowering the temperature of the solution melts, colorless crystals form. Raman spectra of the crystals are given and tentatively assigned. Crystal structures of the monoclinic salts at room temperature are given. Na(2)Zn(SO(4))(2): space group = P2/n (No. 13), Z = 8, a = 8.648(3) Angstroms, b = 10.323(3) Angstroms, c = 15.103(5) Angstroms, beta = 90.879(6) degrees, and wR(2) = 0.0945 for 2748 independent reflections. K(2)Zn(SO(4))(2): space group = P2(1)/n (No.14), Z = 4, a = 5.3582(11) Angstroms, b = 8.7653(18) Angstroms, c = 16.152(3) Angstroms, beta = 91.78(3) degrees , and wR(2) = 0.0758 for 1930 independent reflections. In both compounds, zinc is nearly perfectly trigonally bipyramidal, coordinated to five oxygen atoms, with Zn-O bond lengths ranging from 1.99 to 2.15 Angstroms, equatorial bonds being slightly shorter on the average. The O-Zn-O angles are approximately 90 degrees and 120 degrees . The sulfate groups connect adjacent Zn(2+) ions, forming complicated three-dimensional networks. All oxygen atoms belong to nearly perfect tetrahedral SO(4)(2-) groups, bound to zinc. No oxygen atom is terminally bound to zinc; all zinc oxygens are further connected to sulfur atoms (Zn-O-S bridging). In both structures, some oxygen atoms are uniquely bound to certain S atoms. The sulfate group tetrahedra have quite short (1.42-1.45 Angstroms) terminal S-O bonds in comparison to the longer (1.46-1.50 Angstroms) Zn-bridging S-O bonds. The Na(+) or K(+) ions adopt positions between the ZnO(5) hexahedra and the SO(4) tetrahedra, completing the three-dimensional network of the M(2)Zn(SO(4))(2) structures. Bond distances and angles compare well with literature values. Empirical correlations between S-O bond distances and average O-S-O bond angles follow a previously found trend. PMID:15877430

Berg, Rolf W; Thorup, Niels

2005-05-16

5

21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

6

Protein energy-malnutrition: does the in vitro zinc sulfate supplementation improve chromosomal damage repair?  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is originated by a cellular imbalance between nutrient/energy supply and body's demand. Induction of genetic damage by PEM was reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic effect of the in vitro zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with PEM. Twenty-four samples from 12 children were analyzed. Anthropometric and biochemical diagnosis was made. For the anthropometric assessment, height-for-age index, weight-for-age index, and weight-for-height index were calculated (WHO, 2005). Micronutrient status was evaluated. A survey for assessed previous exposure to potentially genotoxic agents was applied. Results were statistically evaluated using paired sample t test and ? (2) test. Each sample was fractionated and cultured in two separate flasks to performed two treatments. One was added with 180 ?g/dl of ZnSO4 (PEMs/ZnSO4) and the other remains non-supplemented (PEMs). Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage were assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). All participants have at least one type of malnutrition and none have anemia, nor iron, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency. All PEMs/ZnSO4 samples have a significant reduction in the micronucleus (MNi) frequency compared with PEMs (t?=?6.25685; p?zinc sulfate supplementation. PMID:25262017

Padula, Gisel; González, Horacio F; Varea, Ana; Seoane, Analía I

2014-12-01

7

Zinc-Induced Changes in Growth Characters, Foliar Properties, and Zn-Accumulation Capacity of Pigeon Pea at Different Stages of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of zinc (Zn) [50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ? g zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)\\/g of soil] reduced the foliage and the total growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Huth]. The root-shoot length ratio, varying little with age, was relatively low in the treated plants. Decrease in dry weights of stem and root was more pronounced in the late

Tarannum Khudsar; Anjum Arshi; Tariq O. Siddiqi; Mahmooduzzafar; Muhammad Iqbal

2008-01-01

8

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2014-07-01

9

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2012-07-01

11

Possibility of alveolar bone promoting enhancement by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc related compounds in zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is improvement of therapeutic treatment for periodontitis by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc materials. The sample suspension injections were prepared from zinc octanate (C8Zn), zinc stearate (C18Zn), zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate (ZnSO4) and tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) containing 6.17 w/w% zinc. After administrating of all injections to around alveolar bone of zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats, plasma Zn concentration, bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, BMC and bone mechanical strength (BMS) of femur and permeability tests for hairless rat stripped skin were measured as therapeutic scores. BMC and BMS were measured by using an X-ray computing tomography and the three-point bending method, respectively. The body weight, plasma Zn concentrations and the area under curve (AUC) for Zn of C8Zn, C18Zn and ZnTCP group rats were higher than those of control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. BMC of alveolar bone and femur and BMS of femur for C8Zn and C18Zn groups for 12 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. Stripped rat skin permeability treated by the hydrophilic creams containing C8Zn was 5-times higher than that of ZnTCP. PMID:22975500

Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

2012-01-01

12

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2013-04-01

13

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2013-04-01

14

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2012-04-01

15

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2012-04-01

16

Reinvestigation of growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinvestigation of the growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal is reported. Aqueous reaction of thiourea, urea and zinc sulfate in 1:1:1 mol ratio results in the formation of the well known [Zn(tu)3(SO4)] (1) (tu = thiourea) crystal and not the 'so called' novel semiorganic nonlinear optical thiourea urea zinc sulfate (2) crystal, as claimed by Redrothu Hanumantha Rao, S. Kalainathan, Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal - Thiourea urea zinc sulfate, Spectrochim. Acta A97 (2012) 456-463. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of elemental analytical data, infrared and NMR spectra and X-ray powder pattern, for accurate product characterization.

Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Naik, Teja A.; Tylczy?ski, Zbigniew; Priolkar, K. R.

2014-01-01

17

21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine in purified water. (b) The additive meets the...specifications: Zinc content—19 to 22 percent. C5 H11 NO2 S “DL-methionine”—46 to 50 percent. Cadmium—not more...

2010-04-01

18

Effects of Oxalic Acid on Availability of Zinc from Spinach Leaves and Zinc Sulfate to Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of dietary oxalic acid on availability of zinc from organic and inorganic sources were assessed. Male rats fed zinc- deficient diets with ana without added sodium oxalate were orally dosed once with either 66Zn-labeled spinach leaves or 65Zn-labeled zinc sulfate. Spinach plants (Spinacia olerácea,var. \\

ROSS M. WELCH; WILLIAM A. HOUSE

2010-01-01

19

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOEpatents

A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

1994-02-15

20

Bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-?2 N,N?)(sulfato-?2 O,O?)zinc(II) ethane-1,2-diol solvate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, [Zn(SO4)(C10H8N2)2]·C2H6O2, is a six-coordinate zinc(II) complex with a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The ZnII atom is bonded by two O atoms of the bidentate chelating sulfate ligand and four N atoms of the two chelating 2,2?-bipyridine ligands. The Zn—N bond distances range from 2.1287?(17) to 2.1452?(17)?Å and the Zn—O bond distance is 2.1811?(15)?Å. The two chelating NCCN groups subtend a dihedral angle of 81.1?(1)°. In the crystal structure, the [ZnSO4(C10H8N2)2] and C2H6O2 units are connected by inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonding, which leads to additional stabilization of the structure. PMID:21579615

Zhong, Kai-Long

2010-01-01

21

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

22

Effect of the ratio of zinc amino acid complex to zinc sulfate on the performance of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Multiparous (n=70) and primiparous (n=66) Holstein cows were balanced by 305-d previous mature-equivalent milk yield and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to evaluate the ratio of zinc sulfate to zinc amino acid complex (CZ) in pre- and postpartum Holstein cows fed diets containing 75 mg of added zinc/kg. Treatments were (1) 75 mg of supplemental zinc/kg of dry matter (DM) provided entirely as zinc sulfate (0-CZ); (2) 0-CZ diet, except 33.3 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 15.5mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet were replaced by CZ from Availa-Zn (16-CZ; Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie MN); and (3) 0-CZ diet, except 66.6 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 40.0 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet was replaced by Availa-Zn (40-CZ). Cows were housed at the Iowa State University Dairy Farm and were individually offered a total mixed ration containing dietary treatments beginning at 28 ± 15 d before expected calving date until 250 d in milk. Relative to 0-CZ, multiparous cows (but not primiparous) fed CZ (16-CZ or 40-CZ) had increased (20%) colostrum IgG concentrations. Prepartum DM intake (DMI) was decreased with CZ supplementation. Postpartum DMI was decreased in cows fed CZ, whereas milk yield (MY) was increased in the 40-CZ-fed cows relative to those fed both 0-CZ and 16-CZ. Feed efficiency increased linearly when measured as MY/DMI, 3.5% fat-corrected MY/DMI, and solids-corrected MY/DMI. Regardless of level, feeding CZ decreased services per conception. Feeding 16-CZ decreased milk fat concentration and feeding CZ linearly increased milk urea nitrogen concentration. In summary, supplementing zinc as a mixture of CZ and zinc sulfate, as opposed to supplementing only zinc sulfate, has beneficial effects on production parameters in dairy cows, with those benefits becoming more apparent as the ratio of CZ to zinc sulfate increases. PMID:24819137

Nayeri, A; Upah, N C; Sucu, E; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; DeFrain, J M; Gorden, P J; Baumgard, L H

2014-07-01

23

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

24

Comparative evaluation of a modified zinc sulfate flotation technique.  

PubMed Central

A modified zinc sulfate flotation technique using Formalinized fecal specimens (F-ZnSO4) was compared to the Formalin-ether (FE) concentration method for the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Many laboratories have difficulty storing, using, and disposing of either and need a procedure for concentrating fecal specimens which does not require ether. Comparative data were obtained for the recovery of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs and larvae from feces preserved in Formalin less than and longer than 1 month. Whereas the FE method was found generally to be more efficient, F-ZnSO4 was apparently more effective for the recovery of some species of parasites. F-ZnSO4 was not satisfactory for recovery of schistosome eggs. We conclude that, except for schistosomes, F-ZnSO4 compares favorably to the FE method for detecting infections of clinical significance. PMID:566767

Bartlett, M S; Harper, K; Smith, N; Verbanac, P; Smith, J W

1978-01-01

25

The influence of sulfur supplementation (methionine and sulfate) on the zinc availability  

E-print Network

caramel solution, containing all neces- sary trace elements except zinc and urea, to improve the nitrogen availability of a poor diet in sheep M Lamand, C Lab, M Mignon, JC Tressol INRA, Laboratoire des Maladies availability in lambs. Increasing the sulfur level with methionine and sulfate, of such a diet, enhances zinc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and

Otto R. Stein; Deborah J. Borden-Stewart; Paul B. Hook; Warren L. Jones

2007-01-01

27

Zinc and zinc chelators modify taurine transport in rat retinal cells.  

PubMed

Zinc regulates Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, similar to taurine one, such as those for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. This study examined the ex vivo effect of zinc (ZnSO4), N,N,N,N-tetraquis-(2-piridilmetil)etilendiamino (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), intracellular and extracellular zinc chelators, respectively, on rat retina [(3)H]taurine transport. Isolated cells were incubated in Locke solution with 100 nM of [(3)H]taurine for 25 s. Different concentrations of ZnSO4 (0.5-200 ?M) were used. Low concentrations of ZnSO4 (30 and 40 ?M) increased the transport, while higher concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ?M) decreased it. Various concentrations of TPEN (1-200 ?M) were added. Intermediate concentrations of TPEN (10-60 ?M) significantly decreased [(3)H]taurine transport. The presence of TPEN, 20 ?M, plus ZnSO4 reversed the effect of TPEN alone. Several concentrations of DTPA (1-500 ?M) were also investigated. Reduction of transport took place at high concentrations of the chelator (100, 250 and 500 ?M). DTPA, 500 ?M, plus ZnSO4, did not modify the effect of it. These results indicate that zinc modulates taurine transport in a concentration-dependent manner, directly acting on the transporter or by forming taurine-zinc complexes in cell membranes. PMID:25182776

Márquez, Asarí; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

2014-11-01

28

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07

29

Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

2007-08-01

30

Comparison of Intralesional Two Percent Zinc Sulfate and Glucantime Injection in Treatment of Acute Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in developing countries caused by different species of leishmania parasite, and if left untreated, it will result in a deformed scar after a relatively long period. Although various systemic and topical treatments have been proposed for leishmaniasis, pentavalent Antimony compounds remain the first-line treatment for it. Considering the cases with treatment failure, potential side effects and reluctance of patients to receive the drug, there are continuing efforts to find better treatment alternatives. Aim: Comparison of the effect of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate injection with Glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 45 patients with clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and positive direct smear for leishman body were treated by intralesional injection of either 2% zinc sulfate or Glucantime. After simple randomization, in one group the patients were treated with 2 bouts of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate with a 2-week interval, and in the other group they were treated with 6 weekly bouts of intralesional Glucantime. The patients were monitored in two week intervals for 8 weeks. Healing of the lesions was evaluated clinically and by direct smear, and the data were analyzed using SPSS (11.5) software, t-Student, Mann-Whitney and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistical tests. Findings: In the end of study, 34 patients completed the study, 10 of whom received intralesional Glucantime and 24 of whom received intralesional 2% zinc sulfate. The healing rate after 8 weeks was 80% in the group receiving intralesional Glucantime and 33.3% in the one receiving 2% zinc sulfate (P=0.009). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate was less effective in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis than intralesional Glucantime. PMID:22615508

Maleki, Masoud; Karimi, Gholamreza; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Raftari, Somayyeh; Nahidi, Yalda

2012-01-01

31

Laser induced damage in zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced damage threshold values are reported for two metal-organic complex crystals, zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride. These crystals have single shot and multiple shot damage thresholds which are the highest among the solution grown crystals. The damage morphology, obtained by irradiating with fluences close to the threshold, reflects the symmetry of the face of the test site.

V. Venkataramanan; C. K. Subramanian; H. L. Bhat

1995-01-01

32

Laser induced damage in zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced damage threshold values are reported for two metal-organic complex crystals, zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride. These crystals have single shot and multiple shot damage thresholds which are the highest among the solution grown crystals. The damage morphology, obtained by irradiating with fluences close to the threshold, reflects the symmetry of the face of the test site. At higher fluences the damage leads to stress-induced fracture or thermo-chemical degradation.

Venkataramanan, V.; Subramanian, C. K.; Bhat, H. L.

1995-06-01

33

Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

2014-08-15

34

Effect of zinc on the lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense systems of the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

The effects of oral zinc supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system of alloxan (80-90 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rabbits were examined. Forty-five New Zealand male rabbits, 1 year old, weighing approximately 2.5 kg, were allocated randomly and equally as control, diabetic, and zinc-supplemented diabetic groups. After diabetes was induced, zinc-supplemented diabetic rabbits had 150 mg/L of zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)) in their drinking tap water for 3 months. The feed and water consumption was higher in diabetic groups than (P<0.01) healthy rabbits. The body weight was lower in diabetic rabbits compared to control. The blood glucose levels were higher in diabetic groups than controls. The elevated plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in the diabetic group (P<0.01). The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and ceruloplasmin levels in the diabetic group were decreased by the effect of diabetes but there was no difference between zinc-supplemented diabetic and control rabbits. Serum zinc concentrations were lower in diabetic rabbits but iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) levels in sera were not different among the groups. As a result, it was concluded that daily zinc supplementation could reduce the harmful effects of oxidative stress in diabetics. PMID:17448894

Duzguner, Vesile; Kaya, Sule

2007-05-15

35

Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less and cadmium at 2{mu}M resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [{sup 35}S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [{sup 3}H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [{sup 3}H]thymidine or [{sup 3}H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antithrombogenic property of vascular endothelium. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ohkawara, Susumu; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Chika [Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)] [and others] [Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan); and others

1996-02-09

36

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. Most toxicological studies employ high levels of zinc. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation of environmentally relevant levels of zinc would cause cardiac changes in healthy rats. To address this, healthy male WKY rats (12 weeks age) were exposed via nose only inhalation to filtered air or 10, 30 or 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of aerosolized zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 5 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. Necropsies occurred 48 h after the last exposure to ensure effects were due to chronic exposure rather than the last exposure. No significant changes were observed in neutrophil or macrophage count, total lavageable cells, or enzyme activity levels (lactate dehydrogenase, n-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, indicating minimal pulmonary effect. In the heart, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity decreased, while mitochondrial ferritin levels increased and succinate dehydrogenase activity decreased, suggesting a mitochondria-specific effect. Although no cardiac pathology was seen, cardiac gene array analysis indicated small changes in genes involved in cell signaling, a pattern concordant with known zinc effects. These data indicate that inhalation of zinc at environmentally relevant levels induces cardiac effects. While changes are small in healthy rats, these may be especially relevant in individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular disease.

Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)], E-mail: wallenborn.grace@epa.gov; Evansky, Paul [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Vallanat, Beena [Experimental Carcinogen Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy H.; Gottipolu, Reddy R. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2008-10-01

37

Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Twelve Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Their Response to Various Zinc Concentration  

PubMed Central

Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. Materials and Methods: To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30?C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. Results: A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal. PMID:25147702

Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

2014-01-01

38

The role of zinc sulfate and metallothionein in protection against ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of zinc sulfate against ethanol-induced acute gastric damage in rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. In addition, the present investigation has demonstrated the distribution of metallothionein stimulated by zinc in gastric mucosal tissues, immunohistochemically. The gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 1 ml absolute ethanol per rat. Rats received zinc sulfate (100 mg/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days 2 hr prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. Acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes, a decrease in metallothionein immunreactivity; an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in gastric mucosa. On the other hand, zinc sulfate administration to ethanol-treated rats caused a significant reduction in the histological damage, an increase in metallothionein immunreactivity, a decrease in LPO levels, and an increase in GSH levels in gastric mucosa. As a result, the present study indicates that zinc sulfate has a protective effect against ethanol-induced acute gastric damage. In addition, we might say that the zinc given as exogenous protection against acute gastric damage has a protective effect both by stimulation of metallothionein synthesis and through GSH as well as having antioxidative potential. PMID:17103035

Arda-Pirincci, Pelin; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye

2006-12-01

39

Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil.  

PubMed

The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

2015-01-01

40

Seed Zinc of Soybean as an Indicator of Zinc Status of the Mother Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max L.) genotypes for iron (Fe) deficiency can be influenced by zinc (Zn) deficiency. Post-harvest analysis for seed-Zn concentration [Zn] is one way to assess the likelihood that Zn deficiency interfered with genotype assessment. A greenhouse study was conducted on a calcareous soil low in available Zn to determine the influence of ZnSO4 (0, 1, 2,

John T. Moraghan; Ted C. Helms

2005-01-01

41

A simple and sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase assay using a modification of the Ba(OH)2-ZnSO4 precipitation method.  

PubMed

A modification of the zinc-barium precipitation method is described for the measurement of phosphodiesterase activity. This method differs from the previous precipitation method in that it measures the appearance of the 5'-AMP product in the precipitate rather than the disappearance of the cAMP substrate from the supernatant. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and possesses a high sensitivity. It can be used to measure both the calmodulin activatable and nonactivatable forms of the enzyme. The procedure can be applied to monitoring phosphodiesterase activity throughout the purification of the enzyme from various tissues. PMID:6317374

LeDonne, N C; Crimaldi, A A; Coffee, C J

1983-01-01

42

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

43

SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF ZINC SULFATE CAUSES CARDIAC CHANGES IN HEALTHY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

44

Influence of glycine on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate (ZTS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate (ZTS) is promising semi organic nonlinear material in the field of photonics and optoelectronics. In present investigation amino acid glycine was added in molar percent in under saturated ZTS solution to enhance second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. Effect of glycine on SHG efficiency has been studied by Kurtz and Perry powder test. The enhancement of SHG for 1 mol% glycine doped ZTS is large as compared to other molar concentration. Hence, the 1 mol% glycine doped zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate single crystal was grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was subjected for various characterizations. FTIR studies have been carried out to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. The effect of glycine on transmittance of grown crystal was studied by UV-visible study. The grown crystal was subjected to powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. A thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study has also been carried out.

Dhumane, N. R.; Hussaini, S. S.; Dongre, V. G.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

2008-10-01

45

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

2014-01-01

46

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

47

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... generally increase zinc absorption, although a protein in cow's milk slows absorption down. Soy proteins also reduce ... the most zinc from mother's milk, less from cow's milk, and even less from soy-based milk. ...

48

Physiological Response of Wheat to Foliar Application of Zinc and Inoculation with some Bacterial Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment, sterilized sandy soil (irrigated with Long-Ashton nutrient solution containing a half of the recommended dose of ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was used to study the effects of zinc (Zn) foliar-application, and soil biofertilization on some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 155) plant grown for 70 days in greenhouse under controlled conditions. The treatments comprised different levels

Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Magda M. Aly

2005-01-01

49

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.  

PubMed

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

2011-09-01

50

Effects of the Interrelationship Between Zinc Oxide and Copper Sulfate on Growth Performance of Early-Weaned Pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted four experiments to examine the effects of adding zinc oxide (ZnO) and(or) copper sulfate (CuSO4) to diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1 and 2, weanling pigs (initially 5.3 kg and 19 ± 2 d of age) were fed diets containing 250 ppm of added Cu (CuSO4) and either 110 or 3,110 ppm of added Zn (ZnO). No

J. W. Smith; M. D. Tokach; R. D. Goodband; J. L. Nelssen; B. T. Richert

2010-01-01

51

The effect of cobalt-doping on some of the optical properties of glycine zinc sulfate (GZS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycine zinc sulfate (GZS) single crystals, pure and doped with three different ratios of cobalt ions were synthesized and grown by the slow evaporation technique of aqueous solutions at 34 °C. Optically transparent single crystals with dimensions up to 2×1.5×1.2 cm 3 were obtained in about four weeks. The optical transmittance was measured and used to study some optical properties for these crystals. Pure GZS crystal has high optical transmittance in the whole visible range and UV transparency with lower cut off wavelength at 300 nm. By adding Co-ions to GZS crystal, the transmittance decreases and the value of cut off shifts to the higher wavelengths with increasing Co ratio. Adding Co-dopants to GZS crystal has other effects like increasing the magnitude of the absorption coefficient ( ?) and forming an absorption band around 2.1 eV. The height of this absorption band increases with increasing Co ratio. The optical energy gap ( Eg) for pure GZS crystal is about 3.80 eV. This value decreases with increasing Co ratio to GZS crystals. The predominant optical transition for pure and Co-doped GZS crystals is the allowed indirect one. The phonon energy ( Ep) and the phonon equivalent temperature ( Tp) at room temperature are 0.20 eV and 2318.84 K for pure GZS crystal, respectively, and these values increase with increasing Co content in GZS crystals.

Abu EL-Fadl, A.; Abdulwahab, A. M.

2010-08-01

52

Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

2012-10-01

53

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... as most children in the United States. The common cold Some studies suggest that zinc lozenges or syrup ( ... in pill form) help speed recovery from the common cold and reduce its symptoms if taken within 24 ...

54

Altered Uptake and Biological Half-Lives of 65 Zn on Arsenic Exposure—Modulation by Zinc Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study revealed the effects of zinc on the biokinetics of 65Zn in rats following arsenic intoxication. The animals were segregated into four groups: group I—untreated controls, group\\u000a II—arsenic treated (100 ppm as NaAsO2 in drinking water), group III—zinc treated (227 mg ZnSO4 per liter drinking water), and group IV—arsenic?+?zinc treated. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 1.85 MBq radioactivity\\u000a of 65Zn

Ashok Kumar; Praveen Nair; Anshoo Malhotra; Shaoli Majumdar; Mohan Lal Garg; Devinder Kumar Dhawan

55

Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

56

The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

2011-06-01

57

Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil ?-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg?1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg?1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg?1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

58

Effect of domestic processing on zinc bioavailability from ricebean (Vigna umbellata) diets.  

PubMed

The effects of various processing methods viz. pressure cooking with soaking, sprouting (48 h), sprouting and pressure cooking, dehulling, and pressure cooking of the dehulled legume on the bioavailability of zinc were studied. The total zinc content varied from 3.28 to 3.37%; the highest being in raw ricebeans and the lowest being in dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked, and sprouted and pressure cooked ricebeans, respectively. The soluble zinc content was highest for dehulled soaked and pressure cooked ricebeans (28.2%) and lowest for raw ricebeans (16.0%). The absorption, retention, and balance of zinc were estimated in rats fed experimental and standard ZnSO4 diets using a balance study. The maximum retention of zinc was observed in dehulled soaked, and pressure cooked diets (63.37%) followed by sprouted (48 h) and pressure cooked (61.38%) diets. The gain in body weight, total femur zinc and retention of zinc in liver, kidneys and spleen were found to be highest for rats eating the sprouted pressure cooked diet followed by the dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked diet. Plasma zinc levels were found to range from 3.81 to 6.34 micromol/dl; they were maximum for rats fed the dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked diet. It can be concluded that dehulling significantly improves the availability of zinc and germination of ricebeans is the best method to enhance the zinc availability. PMID:12602938

Kaur, Manpreet; Kawatra, B L

2002-01-01

59

Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

1984-01-01

60

IGF and GH mRNA levels are suppressed upon exposure to micromolar concentrations of cobalt and zinc in rainbow trout white muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cobalt and zinc exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on insulin like growth factors (IGF) and growth hormone (GH). Mature rainbow trouts were exposed to 0.42, 2.1, 4.2, 21 and 42?mol\\/L Co2+ (added as CoCl2·6H2O) and 0.34, 1.7, 3.4, 17 and 34?mol\\/L Zn2+ (added as ZnSO4i·7H2O). After 6, 12,

Deniz Ekinci; Saltuk Bu?rahan Ceyhun; Ercüment Aksakal; Orhan Erdo?an

2011-01-01

61

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

62

Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu(2+) and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.  

PubMed

Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)2Zn(SO4)2 ? 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)2Zn(SO4)2 ? 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or ?-rays. PMID:21841228

Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

2011-08-31

63

Stable isotope evidence for thermochemical sulfate reduction in the Dugald river (Australia) strata-bound shale-hosted zinc?lead deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotopes vary along strike and down-dip in the mid-Proterozoic Dugald River strata-bound shale-hosted zinc?lead ore deposit, Australia. Although the metal grade has been substantially increased at its southern end by tectonism, geological relationships indicate that mineralisation occurred during early diagenesis, probably in an organic-rich, shallow-water to evaporitic setting (Muir, 1983). Cu, Cu\\/(Cu + Pb + Zn) and Pb\\/(Pb +

Grant Dixon; Garry J. Davidson

1996-01-01

64

The Effects of Zinc Sulfate on the Levels of Some Elements and Oxidative Stress Occurring in Lenses of Rats Exposed to Total Cranium Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective There is currently substantial clinical interest in zinc (Zn) as an antioxidant and a protective agent against radiation-related normal tissue injury. To further assess the potential antioxidative effects, the effects of Zn were studied in rat lenses, a model of radiation-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 received neither Zn nor irradiation (control group). Group 2 (RT group) and 3 (RT+Zn group) were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. In addition to irradiation, group 3 was administered 10 mg/kg/day Zn. At the end of 10 days, the rats were killed. Their eyes were enucleated to measure the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. Results Irradiation significantly increased malondialdehyde levels as an end product of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, and iron and calcium concentrations. Irradiation decreased super-oxide dismutase activities and zinc concentrations in the rat lens, indicating an increased oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction. Malondialdehyde levels and iron and calcium concentrations were significantly decreased, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and zinc concentrations were increased, in the rat lenses of the RT+Zn group. No differences were detected in any final measurement of sodium and potassium in the direct comparison among all groups. Conclusion Zinc, acting as an antioxidant agent, may protect the lens from radiation-induced injury by improving oxidative stress generated by the decomposition of water and/or Fenton reaction.

Kandaz, Mustafa; Ertekin, Mustafa Vecdi; Erdemci, Burak; K?z?ltunç, Ahmet; Koçer, ?brahim; Özmen, Hilal K?z?ltunç; Aktan, Meryem I??k; Be?e, Ay?e Vildan

2009-01-01

65

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... sulfate is manufactured from animal sources, such as cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis. It ... those that might transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). So far, there are no reports of ...

66

Barium Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

Cheetah® ... Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), stomach, ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque ...

67

Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. IX. Physicochemical formation conditions and thermal stability of zinc selenites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to create a physicochemical analysis of the formation conditions of synthetic zinc selenite, ZnSeO3 · 2H2O and an experimental investigation of its thermal stability, dehydration, and dissociation. This study has been carried out using a comprehensive thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry) within the temperature interval from 25-600°C. It has been established that ZnSeO3 · 2H2O dehydrates at 81-222°C through four stages corresponding to the formation of intermediate hydrate species: ZnSeO3 · 5/3H2O, ZnSeO3 · H2O, and ZnSeO3 · 1/3H2O. It is suggested that under natural oxidation conditions zinc selenite precipitates as stable (ZnSeO3 · 2H2O) or metastable (ZnSeO3 · H2O) species. Anhydrous ZnSeO3 presumably exists at a higher temperature (up to 479°C) and breaks down within a temperature interval of 479-597°C to form ZnO and SeO2.

Charykova, M. V.; Fokina, E. L.; Klimova, E. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Semenova, V. V.

2014-12-01

68

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

2006-01-01

69

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by

Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid Youssef

2003-01-01

70

Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

2011-10-01

71

Chelated zinc reduces the dietary zinc requirement of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary zinc requirements of year-1 channel catfish were determined with an egg-white-based purified diet and with a soybean-meal-based practical diet, each supplemented with serial concentrations of zinc methionine (ZnMet) or zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnS). In the egg white diet, supplemental dietary zinc requirements, determined by broken-line regression analysis, for ZnMet and ZnS for maximum weight gain were 5.58 and

Tippawan Paripatananont; Richard T. Lovell

1995-01-01

72

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...

73

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

74

Magnesium sulfate.  

PubMed

Since the first American report on the use of magnesium sulfate tocolysis in 1977, its popularity as a tocolytic agent has increased progressively. Primarily because of its safety and familiarity, magnesium has become the primary tocolytic agent in the majority of U.S. centers. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, and long-term effects on neonates have not been studied. Although randomized studies show similar success compared to other tocolytic agents, no placebo-controlled study has shown neonatal improvement with magnesium sulfate tocolysis. This is similar to the studies of beta-sympathomimetic tocolytics and has led some authors (e.g., Higby) to suggest that safe dosages of magnesium sulfate are ineffective in preventing preterm birth and should not be used as a tocolytic agent. Although magnesium sulfate, like other tocolytics, has not fulfilled the initial promise of preventing preterm birth, it does appear if used correctly in a well identified population of patients to at least transiently inhibit preterm labor as well as other tocolytic agents with fewer side effects and fewer contraindications. PMID:8616968

Gordon, M C; Iams, J D

1995-12-01

75

Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos  

SciTech Connect

As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica

1995-12-31

76

Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols  

PubMed Central

Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at ?20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

2013-01-01

77

Growth, structure and spectral studies of a novel mixed crystal potassium zinc manganese sulphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed crystals of K2Zn0.84 Mn0.16(SO4)2?6H2O were grown from an equimolar aqueous solution of Tutton's salt, K2 Zn(SO4)2?6H2O and MnSO4 by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal composition as determined by single crystal XRD analysis reveals the co-existence of zinc and manganese in the mixed crystal. The surface morphological changes are observed by scanning electron microscopy. Small variations in cell parameter values, slight shifts in characteristic vibrational patterns in FT-IR and reduction in intensities observed in XRD confirm the crystal stress as a result of formation of mixed crystal. High resolution XRD diffraction estimates the crystalline perfection of the mixed crystal with predominantly vacancy type of defects. It belongs to P21/c space group with cell parameter values, a = 6.1530 Å, b = 12.2230 Å, c = 9.0430 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°, V = 657.56 Å3, Z = 4. High transmittance in the visible region is observed.

Vijila Manonmoni, J.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah; Amutha, M.

2014-01-01

78

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Chemostat-Cultured Escherichia coli to Zinc  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace metal ion for growth, but an excess of Zn is toxic and microorganisms express diverse resistance mechanisms. To understand global bacterial responses to excess Zn, we conducted transcriptome profiling experiments comparing Escherichia coli MG1655 grown under control conditions and cells grown with a toxic, sublethal ZnSO4 concentration (0.2 mM). Cultures were grown in a defined medium lacking inorganic phosphate, permitting maximum Zn bioavailability, and in glycerol-limited chemostats at a constant growth rate and pH. Sixty-four genes were significantly up-regulated by Zn stress, including genes known to be involved in Zn tolerance, particularly zntA, zraP, and hydG. Microarray transcriptome profiling was confirmed by real-time PCR determinations of cusF (involved in Ag and Cu efflux), ais (an Al-inducible gene), asr (encoding an acid shock-inducible periplasmic protein), cpxP (a periplasmic chaperone gene), and basR. Five up-regulated genes, basR and basS [encoding a sensor-regulator implicated in Salmonella in Fe(III) sensing and antibiotic resistance], fliM (flagellar synthesis), and ycdM and yibD (both with unknown functions), are important for growth resistance to zinc, since mutants with mutations in these genes exhibited zinc sensitivity in liquid media and on metal gradient plates. Fifty-eight genes were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress; notably, several of these genes were involved in protection against acid stress. Since the mdt operon (encoding a multidrug resistance pump) was also up-regulated, these findings have important implications for understanding not only Zn homeostasis but also how bacterial antibiotic resistance is modulated by metal ions. PMID:15659689

Lee, Lucy J.; Barrett, Jason A.; Poole, Robert K.

2005-01-01

79

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-print Network

on alkaline phosphatase activity have been noted in other studies (Segawa et al. 1993, Yamaguchi et al. 1987, Yamaguchi et al 1989, Yamaguchi, M. and Yamaguchi, R. 1986) Zinc sulfate, administered orally to rats for three days, stimulated alkaline...-C, and testosterone levels afier oral zinc supplementation Thus, zinc does affect testosterone levels required for proper bone growth. Insulin elevates growth rates because of its relation to increased protein and DNA synthesis in osteoblastic cells including...

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01

80

A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

Hoppesch, C. W.

1986-01-01

81

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for the ... Glance Eye Conditions Information Colds/Flu Information Safety Information Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Products—Warnings ( FDA ; 06/ ...

82

Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface.  

PubMed

Abstract Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn(2+), together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn(2+) in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn(2+) values peaked 3?h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12?h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn(2+) values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn(2+) values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn(2+). At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1?h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn(2+) have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs. PMID:24289294

Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A; Smith, Jordan N; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Orr, Galya

2013-12-01

83

Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake.

Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

1987-02-01

84

An aqueous zinc-ion battery based on copper hexacyanoferrate.  

PubMed

A new zinc-ion battery based on copper hexacyanoferrate and zinc foil in a 20?mM solution of zinc sulfate, which is a nontoxic and noncorrosive electrolyte, at pH?6 is reported. The voltage of this novel battery system is as high as 1.73?V. The system shows cyclability, rate capability, and specific energy values near to those of lithium-ion organic batteries based on Li4 Ti5 O12 and LiFePO4 at 10?C. The effects of Zn(2+) intercalation and H2 evolution on the performance of the battery are discussed in detail. In particular, it has been observed that hydrogen evolution can cause a shift in pH near the surface of the zinc electrode, and favor the stabilization of zinc oxide, which decreases the performance of the battery. This mechanism is hindered when the surface of zinc becomes rougher. PMID:25510850

Trócoli, Rafael; La Mantia, Fabio

2015-02-01

85

Zinc supplementation reduced DNA breaks in Ethiopian women.  

PubMed

Assessment of zinc status remains a challenge largely because serum/plasma zinc may not accurately reflect an individual's zinc status. The comet assay, a sensitive method capable of detecting intracellular DNA strand breaks, may serve as a functional biomarker of zinc status. We hypothesized that effects of zinc supplementation on intracellular DNA damage could be assessed from samples collected in field studies in Ethiopia using the comet assay. Forty women, from villages where reported consumption of meat was less than once per month and phytate levels were high, received 20 mg zinc as zinc sulfate or placebo daily for 17 days in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Plasma zinc concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cells from whole blood at the baseline and end point of the study were embedded in agarose, electrophoresed, and stained before being scored by an investigator blinded to the treatments. Although zinc supplementation did not significantly affect plasma zinc, mean (±SEM) comet tail moment measurement of supplemented women decreased from 39.7 ± 2.7 to 30.0 ± 1.8 (P< .005), indicating a decrease in DNA strand breaks in zinc-supplemented individuals. These findings demonstrated that the comet assay could be used as a functional assay to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on DNA integrity in samples collected in a field setting where food sources of bioavailable zinc are limited. Furthermore, the comet assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect changes in zinc status as a result of supplementation despite no significant changes in plasma zinc. PMID:25491347

Joray, Maya L; Yu, Tian-Wei; Ho, Emily; Clarke, Stephen L; Stanga, Zeno; Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Hambidge, K Michael; Stoecker, Barbara J

2015-01-01

86

Roles of Heparan Sulfate Sulfation in Dentinogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. PMID:22351753

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md. Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-01-01

87

Effects of Zinc Fertilization of Corn on Hatching of Heterodera glycines in Soil  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of zinc fertilizers on hatching and soil population densities of Heterodera glycines. In vitro egg hatching in solutions of reagent-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chloride and fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate was significantly greater than hatching in deionized water, whereas zinc chelate fertilizer significantly inhibited egg hatching relative to deionized water. In greenhouse experiments, no differences in cumulative percentage egg hatch were detected in soil naturally infested with H. glycines amended with fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chelate at rates equivalent to 0, 1.12, 11.2, and 112 kg Zn/ha and subsequently planted with corn (Zea mays L.). In a field experiment, no significant differences in H. glycines egg population densities and corn yields were detected among plots fertilized with 0, 11.2, and 22.4 kg Zn/ha rates of zinc chelate. Yields of H. glycines-susceptible soybean planted in plots 1 year after zinc fertilization of corn plots also were not significantly affected. Zinc compounds significandy affected H. glycines egg hatching in vitro, but had no effect on hatching in natural soils. PMID:19277276

Behm, J. E.; Tylka, G. L.; Niblack, T. L.; Wiebold, W. J.; Donald, P. A.

1995-01-01

88

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

89

Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

1999-01-01

90

The bioavailability of different zinc compounds used as human dietary supplements in rat prostate: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc (Zn) of any soft tissue in the body. The pool of zinc available to the body is known to significantly decrease with age. It is suggested that dietary Zn supplementation protects against oxidative damage and reduces the risk of cancer. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate were the most frequently mentioned in per os administration in studies on Zn supplementation. The major aim of the study was to compare the bioavailability of different Zn compounds (sulfate, gluconate and citrate) in the prostate after their daily administration to male rats at three different doses (3.0; 15.0; and 50.0 mg Zn/kg b.w.) for 30 days. The results show that bioavailability in the prostate differs significantly between individual zinc preparations. A significantly elevated Zn concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate, compared to controls, was found in the rats supplemented with two compounds only: zinc gluconate and zinc citrate. However, after administration of zinc gluconate, this effect occurred even at the lowest dose. The lowest zinc bioavailability in the prostate was found in the rats administered zinc sulfate: no significant Zn increase was seen in particular zones of the prostate. To sum up, the use of zinc gluconate is worth considering as a possible means of zinc supplementation in men. PMID:24619814

Sapota, Andrzej; Daragó, Adam; Skrzypi?ska-Gawrysiak, Ma?gorzata; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Micha?; Kilanowicz, Anna

2014-06-01

91

Zinc-inhibited Electron Transport of Photosynthesis in Isolated Barley Chloroplasts 1  

PubMed Central

In isolated barley chloroplasts, the presence of 2 millimolar ZnSO4 inhibits the electron transport activity of photosystem II, as measured by photoreduction of dichlorophenolindophenol, O2 evolution, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. The inhibition of photosystem II activity can be restored by the addition of the electron donor hydroxylamine or diphenylcarbazide, but not by benzidine and MnCl2. These observations suggest that Zn inhibits electron flow at the oxidizing side of photosystem II at a site prior to the electron donating site(s) of hydroxylamine and diphenylcarbazide. No inhibition of photosystem I-dependent electron transport by 3 millimolar ZnSO4 is observed. However, with concentrations of ZnSO4 above 5 millimolar, photosystem I activity is partially inactivated. Washing Zn2+-treated chloroplasts partially restores the O2-evolving activity. PMID:16661598

Tripathy, Baishnab C.; Mohanty, Prasanna

1980-01-01

92

Rapid hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods on single crystal sapphire substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

For development of ZnO nanorods-based heterostructures an environmentally benign synthesis process and fabrication route are required. Zinc oxide nanorod arrays have been grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by a rapid hydrothermal method (in 15 min) from a solution of zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide. Two different synthesis regimes have been identified which give different morphologies of depositions shown by SEM.

O. Lupan; L. Chow; Y. Rudzevich; Y. Lin; A. Schulte; E. Monaico; L. Ghimpu; V. Sontea; V. Trofim; S. Railean; V. Cretu; I. Pocaznoi

2011-01-01

93

Effect of Nitrogen, Boron, Potassium and Zinc Sprays on Yield and Fruit Quality of Date Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The present research was accomplished on Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Shahany to investigate the effect of macro and micronutrients on fruit quality and quantity. Treatments were urea (0.5, 1%), boric acid (1500, 2500 ppm), potassium sulfate (1, 2%) and zinc sulfate (300, 600 ppm). Higher and lower yield were obtained from H BO (1500 ppm) and control, respectively.

M. Khayyat; E. Tafazoli; S. Eshghi; S. Rajaee

2007-01-01

94

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

95

Effect of short term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in breast milk of American and Egyptian women  

SciTech Connect

The present study was conducted to observe the effects of short-term maternal oral zinc supplementation on concentration of zinc in milk obtained from American and Egyptian women. Thirty-three American women and 30 Egyptian women were divided into four groups. One group, in each country, was supplemented with 50 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate while the other group did not receive any extra zinc over that obtained from the diet. Milk samples were obtained before supplementation was begun and then again after 10, 15, 20 and 30 days on the supplement and analyzed for zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of zinc in milk among the four groups was not significantly different at the beginning of the study. Concentration of zinc decreased in all four groups during the study. However, the unsupplemented American women had a significantly (p < .05) greater decrease (-24.45 +/- 9.57% Mean +SE) than those who received the 50 mg zinc supplement (-4.35 +/- 9.57%). Between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups in Egypt, however, there was no significant difference in the change in zinc levels during this 34-day period (-9.47 +/- 5.12% and -8.94 +/- 5.23% respectively.

Karra, M.V.; Kirksey, A.; Bassily, N.

1986-03-01

96

Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

97

Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

Pomin, Vitor H.

2014-01-01

98

Glycopeptide Sulfation Evades Resistance  

PubMed Central

The incidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is increasing at an alarming rate. Resistance against front-line therapeutics such as the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has emerged and has spread to highly virulent pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide antibiotics are natural products from the Actinomycetes that have a characteristic heptapeptide core. The chemical diversity of the class is achieved through glycosylation, halogenation, methylation, and acylation of the core, modifications that are implicated in improved solubility, stability, or activity of the molecule. Sulfation is yet another modification observed infrequently in glycopeptides, but its role is not known. Although glycopeptide sulfotransferases are found in the environmental metagenome and must therefore serve an evolutionary purpose, all previous studies have reported decreased antibiotic activity with sulfation. We report that sulfation of glycopeptides has little effect on the compound's ability to bind its target, the d-Ala-d-Ala peptidoglycan precursors of the bacterial cell wall. However, sulfation does impact glycopeptide dimerization, and importantly, sulfated glycopeptides are significantly less potent inducers of the resistance gene cluster vanHAX in actinomycetes. Our results begin to unravel the mystery of the biological role of glycopeptide sulfation and offer a potential new strategy for the development of new antibiotics that avoid resistance. PMID:23104813

Kalan, Lindsay; Perry, Julie; Koteva, Kalinka; Thaker, Maulik

2013-01-01

99

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

100

Maternal Aggression in Rats: Effects of Olfactory Bulbectomy, ZnSO 4Induced Anosmia, and Vomeronasal Organ Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that somatosensory inputs to the snout and ventral trunk, but not visual or auditory stimuli, play critical roles in the elicitation and maintenance of maternal aggression by lactating Norway rats toward a strange male intruder. There are conflicting reports on the influence of olfaction on maternal aggression. We explored the possible roles of central

Jane M. Kolunie; Judith M. Stern

1995-01-01

101

Availability of cadmium from lettuce leaves and cadmium sulfate to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availabilty of cadmium in lettuce leaves and in cadmium sulfate to male rats was studied. Both zinc-depleted and zinc-adequate rats were fed single doses of either ¹°⁹Cd-labeled cadmium sulfate or ¹°⁹Cd-labeled lettuce leaves. Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa, var. 'Black Seeded Simpson') were grown in ¹°⁹Cd-labeled nutrient solutions that contained either 0.045 or 0.225 ppm cadmium and either 0.131 or

R. M. Welch; W. A. House; D. R. Van Campen

1978-01-01

102

Thermal stability, flame retardancy and rheological behavior of ABS filled with magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whisker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Halogen-free and flame-retardant acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) composites were prepared using magnesium\\u000a hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whisker as a flame retardant, and the effect of zinc stearate (ZnSt2) as a dispersion additive on the morphology and properties of the ABS\\/MHSH composites was studied. The morphology observation\\u000a by using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) indicates that the addition of zinc stearate could improve

Bo Liu; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Zhang; Rongxun Li; Guangye Liu

2007-01-01

103

Metallobiology: Zinc differently  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extracellular ejection of zinc, known as a zinc spark, is triggered by the fertilization of a mammalian egg; however, the origin of this zinc was not clear. Now, a combination of four complementary techniques has revealed the source and provided an unprecedented quantification of the distribution of zinc in a maturing mammalian oocyte.

Carter, Kyle P.; Palmer, Amy E.

2015-02-01

104

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

105

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26

106

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

SciTech Connect

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

2009-01-06

107

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

108

Bis(4-sulfamoylanilinium) sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the title salt, 2C6H9N2O2S+·SO4 2?, the sulfate S atom is situated on a crystallographic twofold axis (the symmetry of the anion is 2). The anion exerts intense libration, which is manifested by shortening of the observed sulfate S—O bonds, as well as by features in the electron-density map. The crystal structure is stabilized through a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network formed by strong N—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23634124

Ravikumar, B.; Pandiarajan, S.; Athimoolam, S.

2013-01-01

109

Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration?20?g/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. PMID:25439135

Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

2014-10-01

110

Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucosamine sulfate is a controversial osteoarthritis remedy that is presumed to stimulate articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis by increasing glucosamine concentrations in the joint space. However, this is not plausible because even large oral doses of the product have no effect on serum glucosamine concentrations. We propose instead that sulfate could mediate the clinical benefit attributed to this treatment. Sulfate is

L. John Hoffer; Ludmila N. Kaplan; Mazen J. Hamadeh; Ariadna C. Grigoriu; Murray Baron

2001-01-01

111

Effects of source and level of zinc on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in steers  

E-print Network

, 95, 215, or 445 mg/kg) from Zn methionine (ZnMet) or ZnSO4 in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement of treatments. Total dietary Zn was 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg. Within treatment groups, steers were assigned to one of two kill groups (kill group I = d...

Nunnery, Greg Alan

2012-06-07

112

Research note: responses of laying hens on saline drinking water to dietary supplementation with various zinc compounds.  

PubMed

Production variables, eggshell defects, eggshell quality, the concentration of calcium-binding protein (CaBP), and the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the shell gland mucosa were determined in hens receiving town water (10 mg Na/L), or town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L (796 mg Na/L). Five treatments were examined. Control hens received town water and a proprietary layer mash containing .17% Na. The remaining four treatments received the water containing NaCl (2 g/L). Hens of Treatment 2 were fed the proprietary layer mash and those of Treatments 3, 4, and 5 received, respectively, the layer mash containing supplements of Zn-methionine (Zinpro-200; .5 g/kg), Zn sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O; .46 g/kg), or chelated Zn-EDTA (.54 g/kg) to supply the same concentration of Zn (.1 g/kg). The treatments were applied for 6 wk. Hens receiving the saline drinking water without any dietary Zn supplement produced significantly (P < .05) more eggs with shell defects than hens receiving the town water. This increase in the incidence of eggshell defects was associated with significant reductions in eggshell breaking strength, the concentration of CaBP, and the activity of CA. Supplementing the saline drinking water with any of the three Zn compounds significantly reduced the incidence of eggshell defects and in some cases improved shell breaking strength, the concentration of CaBP, and the activity of CA. PMID:8464801

Balnave, D; Zhang, D

1993-03-01

113

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

114

Desorption and transformation of zinc in a mollisol and its uptake by plants in a rice–wheat rotation fertilized with either zinc-enriched biosludge from molasses or with inorganic zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and greenhouse investigations were carried out with 65Zn-labeled sources to study the kinetics of desorption, transformation, and availability of Zn applied to soil as zinc-enriched\\u000a biosludge from distillery molasses (ZEMB) or as zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZSH). Desorption (0.5 to 72 h) of added Zn by the\\u000a column method followed a biphasic kinetics with an initial (up to 12 h) faster phase

Prakash C. Srivastava; Ajay P. Singh; Surendra Kumar; V. Ramachandran; Manoj Shrivastava; S. F. D’souza

2008-01-01

115

Effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex on gut integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ?50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P?0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P?0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P?0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P?0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P?0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P?0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P?0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P?0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS. PMID:24229744

Sanz Fernandez, M V; Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F; Wilson, M E; Socha, M T; Torrison, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

2014-01-01

116

USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...

117

Zinc oxide overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

118

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

119

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

120

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-11-15

121

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

122

Bioavailability of zinc in  

E-print Network

Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

Machel, Hans

123

Roasting of La Oroya Zinc Ferrite with Na2CO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of metals recovery from zinc ferrite residues using transformational roasting processes was examined by roasting zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru’s La Oroya plant (Peru), containing 19.5 pct Zn, 26.6 pct Fe, 750 g/t In, and 520 g/t Ga, with Na2CO3 and leaching with 200 g/L H2SO4 solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and diagnostic leaching tests indicate that approximately 87 pct of the zinc in this residue is present as franklinite (ZnFe2O4), with the remaining zinc present as entrained ZnSO4 or unleached ZnO. Both preliminary and design of experiments (DOE) testing, using a 22 central composite design (CCD), were performed to test the effects of temperature and a Na2CO3 addition on metals extraction and on the formation of minerals during roasting, and the solubility of these minerals during leaching. Both methods of testing showed that zinc and iron extractions increased with increasing temperature and Na2CO3 additions over the range of conditions tested. Roasting at 950 °C and 80 pct Na2CO3 produced a roasted residue from which 99 pct of the Zn, 88 pct In, and 85 pct Ga could be recovered by leaching, but from which up to 81 pct Fe was also dissolved. Mineralogical analysis using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that, for these conditions, ZnFe2O4 decomposes in the presence of Na2CO3 to form ZnO and either ?-NaFeO2 or ?-NaFeO2. Some of the ZnO formed reacts with Na2CO3 and silicates in the residue to form Na2ZnSiO4 and some unreacted Na2CO3/Na2O/Na2SO4 was also identified after roasting using SEM/EDX. All these phases are dissolved in acid leaching, leaving unreacted ZnFe2O4 and precipitated PbSO4 as the only phases identified in the leach residues. These results indicate that NaFeO2 is formed preferentially to Fe2O3 during roasting and that the NaFeO2 formed during roasting is highly soluble in acidic solutions. The results were also compared with studies on the roasting of more ZnFe2O4-deficient electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts with Na2CO3 or NaOH and indicated that, although roasting with Na2CO3 required higher roasting temperatures to achieve high zinc extractions, much lower Na2CO3 additions are required and higher indium recoveries are possible, if the combination of Na2CO3 roasting and H2SO4 leaching is used.

Holloway, Preston C.; Etsell, Thomas H.; Murland, Andrea L.

2007-10-01

124

Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

1996-10-01

125

Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.  

PubMed

Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

2014-04-01

126

Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p < 0.001 (Scheffè's post hoc test: A vs. C, A vs. D, B vs. C, and B vs. D; p < 0.05). We can conclude that Fe absorption of bread made from low-extraction flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ?60 mg/kg flour. PMID:23821315

Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

2013-09-01

127

Effect of probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 and zinc supplementation on humoral immune response and zinc status of Indonesian pre-school children.  

PubMed

A 90-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pre-post trial was conducted in four groups of Indonesian children aged 12-24 months: placebo, probiotic, zinc, and a combination of probiotic and zinc (n=12 per group). Microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 of dadih origin was supplemented at a dose of 10(10)CFU/day as a probiotic. Zinc was supplemented as 20mg zinc sulfate monohydrate (8mg zinc elemental). Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study period. Fecal sIgA was assessed by ELISA and serum zinc concentrations by ICP-MS. Fecal sIgA increased significantly in the probiotic group (30.33±3.32?g/g; p<0.01) and in the combination probiotic and zinc group (27.55±2.28?g/g; p<0.027), as compared with the placebo group (13.58±2.26?g/g). Changes in serum zinc concentrations in the combination probiotic and zinc group showed the highest elevation at the end of the study period. A combination of probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 at a dose of 10(10)CFU/day and 8mg of elemental zinc supplementation showed a potential ability to improve the zinc status of pre-school children. Taken together, supplementation with the probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 and zinc for 90 days resulted in a significantly increased humoral immune response, as well as improved zinc status, in young children. PMID:25183688

Surono, Ingrid S; Martono, Pratiwi D; Kameo, Satomi; Suradji, Eka W; Koyama, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

128

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

129

Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K. (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1989-01-01

130

Introduction of nitrogen?fixing nodules through iron and zinc fertilization in the nonnodule?forming French bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen?fixing symbionts associated with the french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are absent in soils in the Varanasi, India area. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the effects of Fe (ferrous sulfate) and Zn (zinc sulfate) on nodulation and N2 fixation in french beans. Inorganic treatments were added to the soil. No exogenous supplement of Rhizobium was added to the soil.

A. Hemantaranjan; O. K. Garg

1986-01-01

131

Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

132

Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence  

PubMed Central

Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

2014-01-01

133

Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

1972-01-01

134

Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred.

Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

1984-10-01

135

[Zinc and chronic enteropathies].  

PubMed

In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself. PMID:6100131

Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

1984-01-01

136

Preparation of zinc orthotitanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

1977-01-01

137

Synthesis of Different Zinc and Zinc Included Nanostructures by High Power Copper Vapor Laser Ablation in Water- Surfactants Solutions  

E-print Network

The data of experimental studies of optical characteristics of colloidal solutions, composition and morphology of its dispersed phase, resulting from laser ablation of zinc in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants --- sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) are presented. It is shown that by studying the optical absorption spectra of the colloid, X-ray spectra and AFM-images of extracted from colloid solid phase, it is possible to trace the dynamics of ZnO nanostructures formation from zinc nanoclasters size of several nanometers to ZnO fractal aggregates (FA) size up to hundreds of nanometers. Determinants of this process are the average power and an ablation exposure, the frequency of the laser pulses, the colloid aging time, the type and concentration of surfactant in solution. In the selection of appropriate regimes, along with zinc oxide obtained other nanoproducts --- hydrozincit and organo-inorganic layered composite \\ce{[(\\beta) - Zn(OH)2 + SDS]}.

Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Borodina, Tatyana; Valyano, E G; Gololobova, O A

2011-01-01

138

ZINC PRODUCES A TRANSMURAL VOLTAGE GRADIENT AND DISRUPTION OF INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN THE HEART  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure contributes to serious arrhythmia in high-risk individuals. We previously showed that non-cytotoxic doses of zinc sulfate (Zn, 50uM), a metal common to PM from many sources, alters the gene expression of several cardiac ion c...

139

Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

2015-01-01

140

Zinc homeostasis and immunosenescence.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years, zinc is known to be an essential trace element, having a regulatory role in the immune system. Deficiency in zinc thus compromises proper immune function, like it is observed in the elderly population. Here mild zinc deficiency is a common condition, documented by a decline of serum or plasma zinc levels with age. This leads to a dysregulation mainly in the adaptive immunity that can result in an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, known as a status called inflamm-aging. T cell activation as well as polarization of T helper (Th) cells into their different subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cells (Treg)) is highly influenced by zinc homeostasis. In the elderly a shift of the Th cell balance towards Th2 response is observed, a non-specific pre-activation of T cells is displayed, as well as a decreased response to vaccination is seen. Moreover, an impaired function of innate immune cells indicate a predominance of zinc deficiency in the elderly that may contribute to immunosenescence. This review summarizes current findings about zinc deficiency and supplementation in elderly individuals. PMID:25022332

Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

2015-01-01

141

Vitrification of high sulfate wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is investigating the application of vitrification technology to mixed wastes within the DOE system This work involves identifying waste streams, laboratory testing to identify glass formulations and characterize the vitrified product, and demonstration testing with the actual waste in a pilot-scale system. Part of this program is investigating process limits for various waste components, specifically those components that typically create problems for the application of vitrification, such as sulfate, chloride, and phosphate. This work describes results from vitrification testing for a high-sulfate waste, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste at Hanford. A low melting phosphate glass formulation has been developed for a waste stream high in sodium and sulfate. At melt temperatures in the range of 1,000 C to 1,200 C, sulfate in the waste is decomposed to gaseous oxides and driven off during melting, while the remainder of the oxides stay in the melt. Decomposition of the sulfates eliminates the processing problems typically encountered in vitrification of sulfate-containing wastes, resulting in separation of the sulfate from the remainder of the waste and allowing the sulfate to be collected in the off-gas system and treated as a secondary waste stream. Both the vitreous product and intentionally devitrified samples are durable when compared to reference glasses by TCLP and DI water leach tests. Simple, short tests to evaluate the compatibility of the glasses with potential melter materials found minimal corrosion with most materials.

Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

1994-09-01

142

Zinc absorption by and removal of certain adsorbed elements from pecan leaves  

E-print Network

ON RENOVAL OF LEAFLET ADSORBED ZN 33 Introduction. 33 i iterature Review. 34 Plater ial and Nethods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Experiment 1. Experiment 2 ~ Exoeriment 3. 36 38 38 Analytical Procedures of Experi- ments in This Chapter... in the orchard prior to trace elements dip in the laboratory. 10. Effect of washing procedures on mature leaflets receiving ZnSO4 orchard spray prior to trace element dip in I aboratory. 1. 2. Nutrient analysis of leaflets receiv- ing various washing...

Smith, Morris Wade

2012-06-07

143

Zinc toxicity?induced variation of mineral element composition in hydroponically grown bush bean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were grown for twenty days in nutrient solution (pH=5), containing 0.13, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.75 mg 1 Zn as ZnSO4?7H2O. The plant yield decreased linearly with the increase of the Zn concentration supplied. The phytotoxic threshold content (for 10% growth reduction) was about 486, 242, 95 and 134 ?g Zn g for

A. Ruano; J. Barceló; Ch. Poschenrieder

1987-01-01

144

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18

145

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

146

Aerobic transformation of zinc into metal sulfide by photosynthetic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Industrial activity over the last two centuries has increased heavy metal contamination worldwide, leading to greater human exposure. Zinc is particularly common in industrial effluents and although an essential nutrient, it is highly toxic at elevated concentrations. Photoautotrophic microbes hold promise for heavy metal bioremediation applications because of their ease of culture and their ability to produce sulfide through metabolic processes that in turn are known to complex with the metal ion, Hg(II). The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis were all able to synthesize sulfide and form zinc sulfide when exposed to Zn(II). Supplementation of their respective media with sulfite and cysteine had deleterious effects on growth, although ZnS still formed in Cyanidioschyzon cells to the same extent as in unsupplemented cells. The simultaneous addition of sulfate and Zn(II) had similar effects to that of Zn(II) alone in all three species, whereas supplying sulfate prior to exposure to Zn(II) enhanced metal sulfide production. The coupled activities of serine acetyltransferase and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (SAT/OASTL) did not increase significantly in response to conditions in which enhanced ZnS formation occurred; sulfate added prior to and simultaneously with Zn(II). However, even low activity could provide sufficient sulfate assimilation over this relatively long-term study. Because the extractable activity of cysteine desulfhydrase was elevated in cells that produced higher amounts of zinc sulfide, cysteine is the probable source of the sulfide in this aerobic process. PMID:23344997

Edwards, Chad D; Beatty, Joseph C; Loiselle, Jacqueline B R; Vlassov, Katya A; Lefebvre, Daniel D

2013-04-01

147

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

148

Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

1998-08-01

149

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

150

Effect of [Zn]\\/[S] ratios on the properties of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnS thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique onto glass substrates deposited at about 80°C using aqueous solution of zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate, ammonium sulfate, thiourea, ammonia and hydrazine hydrate. Ammonia and hydrazine hydrate were used as complexing agents. The influence of the ratio of [Zn]\\/[S] on formation and properties of ZnS thin films has been investigated.

Z. Q. Li; J. H. Shi; Q. Q. Liu; Z. A. Wang; Z. Sun; S. M. Huang

2010-01-01

151

Antioxidant and antitumor activities of selenium- and zinc-enriched oyster mushroom in mice.  

PubMed

Selenium and zinc are well-known essential trace elements with potent biological functions. However, the possible health benefits of the combined administration of dietary selenium and zinc have not been studied extensively. In this study, we prepared selenium- and zinc-enriched mushrooms (SZMs) containing increased levels of selenium and zinc. The effects of SZMs on antioxidant and antitumor activities were evaluated. Mice were fed with either a control diet or a diet supplemented with SZMs or sodium selenite and zinc sulfate for 6 weeks. Antioxidant capacity was investigated by measuring the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxide products. Results showed that treatment with SZMs significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin. Furthermore, using a mouse model of lung tumors, we found that SZMs significantly decreased the number of tumor nodes with an increase in the activity of GPx. SZMs had a greater effect on the increase in both antioxidant and antitumor activities than did sodium selenite and zinc sulfate. These findings suggest that SZMs may be effective for improving antioxidant capacity and preventing tumors. PMID:22639385

Yan, Huimin; Chang, Hui

2012-12-01

152

Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc/Polypyrrole Nanotube as a Protective Pigment in Organic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of zinc/polypyrrole nanotube (Zn/PPy) as a protective pigment in organic coatings. The PPy nanotube is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization, and zinc nanoparticles are deposited onto the surface of the synthesized PPy nanotube in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction results confirm the existence of the nanotube morphology and the zinc nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization are performed on steel plates coated with polyvinyl butyral incorporated with the Zn/PPy nanotube. The results show that the existence of zinc can improve the protective properties of the pigment. The existence of zinc leads to a cathodic protection and the main product of zinc corrosion is the stale zinc hydroxide which can block the pores in the coating. In addition, the zinc nanoparticles can increase conductivity of the PPy nanotube leading to increasing nanotube's ability to form protective layers of metal oxides on the steel surface.

Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Alias, Yatimah; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Yousefi, Ramin

2013-07-01

153

Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide. PMID:18357621

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.

2008-01-01

154

Endogenous zinc in neurological diseases.  

PubMed

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

Koh, Jae-Yong

2005-10-01

155

Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

2005-01-01

156

Heparan sulfate structure: methods to study N-sulfation and NDST action.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important modulators of cellular processes where the negatively charged polysaccharide chains interact with target proteins. The sulfation pattern of the heparan sulfate chains will determine the proteins that will bind and the affinity of the interactions. The N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) enzymes are of key importance during heparan sulfate biosynthesis when the sulfation pattern is determined. In this chapter, metabolic labeling of heparan sulfate with [(35)S]sulfate or [(3)H]glucosamine in cell cultures is described, in addition to characterization of polysaccharide chain length and degree of N-sulfation. Methods to measure NDST enzyme activity are also presented. PMID:25325954

Dagälv, Anders; Lundequist, Anders; Filipek-Górniok, Beata; Dierker, Tabea; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena

2015-01-01

157

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R2) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R2 of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R2 of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Holmberg, Charles A.; Smith, Bradford P.

2013-01-01

158

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R (2) ) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R (2) of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R (2) of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C; Holmberg, Charles A; Smith, Bradford P

2013-04-01

159

Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats  

PubMed Central

Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the 3rd experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO4 treatment or VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret. ZnSO4 treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor. PMID:19800371

Masini, Cher V.; Garcia, Robert J.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge

2009-01-01

160

Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

1970-01-01

161

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

162

Chondroitin sulfate for interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

(1) Chondroitin sulfate solution 2.0% is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled into the bladder of GAG-deficient patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). (2) Two non-randomized, uncontrolled pilot studies report improvements in patient-reported symptoms after the use of chondroitin sulfate for one year. Prospective, randomized, head-to-head trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of this technology compared with other IC therapies. (3) The cost and demand for this technology are low, but there could be a significant impact on clinics that administer treatment, if uptake increases. PMID:16724430

Palylyk-Colwell, E

2006-05-01

163

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

164

Imaging mobile zinc in biology  

E-print Network

Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

Tomat, Elisa

165

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains.  

E-print Network

??This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally… (more)

Miletto, M.

2007-01-01

166

21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

167

21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

168

21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

169

21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

170

21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

171

21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

172

DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

173

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

174

Zinc Oxide for Weanling Piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive disorders and impaired performance are common problems among weanling piglets. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect on health and performance of feeding different levels of zinc (as zinc oxide) for one, two or three weeks after weaning to piglets weaned at 28 days of age. A supplement of 2500 ppm zinc for two weeks

Hanne Damgaard Poulsen

1995-01-01

175

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

2014-01-01

176

Zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Ciftçi, Taner; Aycan, Ilker; Celik, Feyzi; Cetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

2014-01-01

177

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

178

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation was applied to zinc stearate to determine its coordination form, and we found that zinc stearate had a bridging bidentate form.

Ishioka, Tsutomu; Shibata, Youko; Takahashi, Mizuki; Kanesaka, Isao

1998-10-01

179

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

180

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

181

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

182

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

183

Zinc oxide varistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of zinc oxide varistors, which are made of semiconducting ceramics with highly nonohmic current-voltage characteristics, which originate at the grain boundaries. These varistors are widely utilized to protect electric power lines and electronic components against dangerous voltage surges. This overview covers electrical characteristics, fabrication methods, effects of additives, microstructures, the conduction mechanism, degradation, and applications.<>

K. Eda

1989-01-01

184

Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

Tadros, Shawky H.

1993-01-01

185

Sulfate ingress in Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.c [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratory of Study of Concrete and Clay Behaviour, CEA Saclay, Batiment 158, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Schmidt, Thomas [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Leterrier, Nikos [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SFME, Laboratory of Simulation of Flows and Transport, CEA Saclay, Batiment 454, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

2010-08-15

186

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

1987-08-25

187

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1987-01-01

188

Crystallization of glycine-sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TGS and DGS crystals have been grown from the aqueous solutions and the results are reported in this paper. It has been found that the pH of the solution at the time of crystallization is the most important parameter determining the crystallization of the different glycine-sulfate compounds. It has been shown that for the crystallization of TGS the required pH is ?1.5.

Pandya, G. R.; Vyas, D. D.

1980-12-01

189

Zinc'ing sensibly: controlling zinc homeostasis at the transcriptional level.  

PubMed

Zinc-responsive transcription factors are found in all kingdoms of life and include the transcriptional activators ZntR, SczA, Zap1, bZip19, bZip23, and MTF-1, and transcriptional repressors Zur, AdcR, Loz1, and SmtB. These factors have two defining features; their activity is regulated by zinc and they all play a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes that directly affect zinc levels or its availability. This review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms by which each of these factors sense changes in intracellular zinc levels and how they control zinc homeostasis through target gene regulation. Other factors that influence zinc ion sensing are also discussed. PMID:24722954

Choi, Sangyong; Bird, Amanda J

2014-07-01

190

PAPST1 regulates sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in epithelial MDCK II cells.  

PubMed

Proteoglycan (PG) sulfation depends on activated nucleotide sulfate, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Transporters in the Golgi membrane translocate PAPS from the cytoplasm into the organelle lumen where PG sulfation occurs. Silencing of PAPS transporter (PAPST) 1 in epithelial MDCK cells reduced PAPS uptake into Golgi vesicles. Surprisingly, at the same time sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) was stimulated. The effect was pathway specific in polarized epithelial cells. Basolaterally secreted proteoglycans (PGs) displayed an altered HS sulfation pattern and increased growth factor binding capacity. In contrast, the sulfation pattern of apically secreted PGs was unchanged while the secretion was reduced. Regulation of PAPST1 allows epithelial cells to prioritize between PG sulfation in the apical and basolateral secretory routes at the level of the Golgi apparatus. This provides sulfation patterns that ensure PG functions at the extracellular level, such as growth factor binding. PMID:25138304

Dick, Gunnar; Akslen-Hoel, Linn Kristin; Grøndahl, Frøy; Kjos, Ingrid; Maccarana, Marco; Prydz, Kristian

2015-01-01

191

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

192

Barnacles: Possible indicators of zinc pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacles [Balanus balanoides (L.), Elminius modestus Darwin, Lepas anatifera (L.)] from several different sites were found to accumulate the heavy metal zinc. The majority of the zinc was deposited in the tissues associated with the gut, and the level of zinc in soft body tissue generally reflected well the level of zinc in the immediate sea-water environment. The zinc accumulated

G. Walker; P. S. Rainbow; P. Foster; D. J. Crisp

1975-01-01

193

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

194

Impact of Trace Element Changes on Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Healthy and Diabetic States among MiddleAge and Elderly Egyptians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium,\\u000a copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is\\u000a the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups:

Noha M. El Husseiny; Elham Sobhy Said; Naglaa El Shahat Mohamed; Azza Ismail Othman

195

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

196

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

197

Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading  

SciTech Connect

Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1998-07-01

198

Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1988-06-28

199

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet  

E-print Network

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

200

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2010-04-01

201

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2012-04-01

204

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2014-04-01

205

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

206

Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity. PMID:25271834

Xue, Jing; Moyer, Amanda; Peng, Bing; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2014-01-01

207

Dissimilatory bacterial sulfate reduction in montana groundwaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of hydrogen sulfide in southeastern Montana groundwaters was investigated. Sulfate?reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 2.0 × 10 to greater than 2.4 × 10 bacteria per 100 ml. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicated a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate?reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive

William S. Dockins; Gregory J. Olson; Gordon A. McFeters; Susan C. Turbak

1980-01-01

208

Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

2012-05-01

209

Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A. PMID:22140285

Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

2011-01-01

210

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...without an antimicrobial agent are contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until the infection is under control and corneal regeneration is well underway. Federal law restricts this drug to use by...

2010-04-01

211

A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

1992-01-01

212

Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Effects of a magnetic field (?0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation. PMID:24738491

Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

2014-05-01

213

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

214

Zinc Oxide Nanostructures by Solvothermal Synthesis .  

E-print Network

??The synthesis, characterization, and properties of three types of one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures are described. They were obtained by solvothermal treatment of nanometric zinc oxide… (more)

Segovia, M.

2012-01-01

215

Intraluminal zinc bioavailability - effect of amino acids on zinc solubility  

SciTech Connect

Human and bovine milks and simple solutions modeled after milks (milk models) have been used in the development of an intraluminal system involves subjecting a food, i.e., milk, to the pH range encountered in the digestive tract, and measuring the amount of soluble minerals at various pH's. With this system the authors have demonstrated that co-precipitation of zinc with calcium phosphate is a key factor modulating the solubility of zinc in milks and in milk models. Since a mineral must be soluble in order to be bioavailable, and since free amino acids have been suggested to increase the solubility of zinc by adding various amino acids. Of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, histidine, and phosphoserine, only histidine (10 mM) increased the solubility of zinc in a milk model, albeit slightly. Supplementation of bovine milk with 10 mM histidine also resulted in a slight increase in zinc solubility. No increase in zinc solubility was observed at a physiologic histidine level. Free amino acids at physiologic concentrations do not increase zinc solubility in milks, and therefore, do not seem to contribute to zinc bioavailability.

Jacobs, F.A.; Nelson, L.S. Jr.; Brushmiller, J.G.

1986-03-01

216

Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage.

Bambic, D.G.; Alpers, C.N.; Green, P.G.; Fanelli, E.; Silk, W.K.

2006-01-01

217

RADIOACTIVE INDICATOR DETERMINATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND PLUTONIUM DOUBLE SULFATES IN SATURATED POTASSIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium and plutonium double sulfates were prepared by mixing in ; saturated potassium sulfate solution. The data indicate the absence of plutonium ; salt hydrolysis. The compositions of the double sulfates of plutonium(IV) and ; zirconium with potassium bisulf ate prepared under identical conditions are \\/sub ; 3\\/nt, KâPu(SOâ)â and KâZr(SOâ) ). (R. V.J.);

Bobrova

1960-01-01

218

Novel chemical synthetic route and characterization of zinc selenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin film have been deposited using chemical bath method on non-conducting glass substrate in a tartarate bath containing zinc sulfate, ammonia, hydrazine hydrate, sodium selenosulfate in an aqueous alkaline medium at 333 K. The deposition parameter of the ZnSe thin film is interpreted in the present investigation. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption, electrical measurements, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The ZnSe thin layers grown with polycrystalline zinc blende system along with some amorphous phase present in ZnSe film. The direct optical band gap ‘Eg’ for the film was found to be 2.81 eV and electrical conductivity in the order of 10-8(? cm)-1 with n-type conduction mechanism.

Hankare, P. P.; Chate, P. A.; Delekar, S. D.; Asabe, M. R.; Mulla, I. S.

2006-11-01

219

Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

2013-10-15

220

Zinc cellular traffic: physiopathological considerations.  

PubMed

Zinc cellular traffic is reviewed in both influx and efflux stages. Zinc influx happens through three different modalities: 1) anionic exchange channels, with the metal cotransported in complex form with anions, often as anionic monovalent complex (Zn [HCO3)2Cl]. Bicarbonate-ions, chloro-ions and thiocyanate-ions can stimulate zinc < uptake >, while phosphate and sulphate-ions are inhibitory. 2) facilitated diffusion through amino acids which, by passing into cells, carry zinc (particularly cysteine and histidine) with them. 3) transferrin receptor route, very important for cellular uptake of iron and zinc. Various mitogenic factors cause increased synthesis of transferrin receptors and increase of metal uptake. Zinc efflux happens through zinc/calcium exchange (zinc efflux coupled with calcium influx). Calcium is then expelled from cells by means of calcium pump (with energy consumption), regulated by membrane Ca-ATPase. Impairment of this ionic exchange process may cause an intracellular accumulation (as may be seen in SHR rats). PMID:7753436

Ripa, S; Ripa, R

1995-01-01

221

Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

222

Arsenic doped zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K. [Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang [Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

2008-06-15

223

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-print Network

The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

2012-06-07

224

The Effects of Supplemental Zinc and Honey on Wound Healing in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Clinicians have long been searching for ways to obtain "super normal" wound healing. Zinc supplementation improves the healing of open wounds. Honey can improve the wound healing with its antibacterial properties. Giving supplemental zinc to normal rats can increase the wound tensile strength. This work is to study the concurrent effects of zinc and honey in wound healing of normal rats. Materials and Methods One hundred and seventy two young rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, zinc-supplement, applied honey, zinc-supplement and applied honey. Two areas of skin about 4 cm² were excised. The wound area was measured every 2 days. After 3 weeks, all animals were killed and tensile strength of wounds, zinc concentration of blood and histological improvement of wounds were evaluated. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the mean differences were tested. Results It was found that honey could inhibit the bacterial growth in skin excisions. The tensile strength was increased significantly in the second to fourth groups at 21st day (P< 0.001). Also there was a significant increase in tensile strength at the same time in the fourth group. The results of the histological study showed a considerable increase in the collagen fibers, re-epithelialization and re-vascularization in the second to fourth groups. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that zinc sulfate could retard re-epithelialization, but when used with natural honey (administered topically) it could have influent wound healing in non-zinc-deficient subjects as well. PMID:23493488

Sazegar, Ghasem; Seyed Reza, Attarzadeh Hosseini; Behravan, Effat

2011-01-01

225

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

226

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

227

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

228

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

229

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

230

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

231

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

233

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

234

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2010-04-01

235

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

236

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2014-04-01

237

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

238

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2010-04-01

239

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

240

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2014-04-01

241

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

242

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

243

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

244

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

245

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2010-07-01

246

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2014-07-01

247

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2013-07-01

248

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2012-07-01

249

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2011-07-01

250

Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

Bliss, Mary

2013-11-30

251

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation

Tsutomu Ishioka; Youko Shibata; Mizuki Takahashi; Isao Kanesaka

1998-01-01

252

Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Oxidation of Zinc Powder for Ethanol Gas Sensor Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide nanowires were prepared by oxidation of zinc powder. The oxidation of zinc was performed by heating a tube of zinc powder at various duration times and temperatures. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Disper- sive Spectrometry (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to char- acterize the tube. It was found that the diameter of zinc

Chanchai Viriyaworasakul; Sombat Kittikunodom; Supab Choopun; Torranin Chairuangsri; Pongsri Mangkorntong; Nikorn Mangkorntong

253

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2014-04-01

254

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2013-04-01

256

Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis: A Theoretical Study of the Initial Sulfation Step by N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase  

E-print Network

and sulfation of N- acetyl-D-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate, a key step in its biosynthesis. Recent modification step in the biosynthesis, N-deacetylation/N-sulfation of D-glucosamine (GlcN) resi- dues

Perera, Lalith

257

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC OF HEPARAN SULFATE  

E-print Network

in the range of 14 to 31 suggesting reasonably good difference between activity and toxicity for polymeric sulfated carbohydrate including heparin, dextran sulfate, fucoidans, and sulfated galactans have been found

Desai, Umesh R

258

Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field.

Michal Hershfinkel (Ben Gurion University;Department of Morphology REV); Elias Aizenman (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology REV); Glen Andrews (University of Kansas Medical Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Israel Sekler (Ben Gurion University;Department of Physiology REV)

2010-07-06

259

Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

1995-01-01

260

Enhancement of HIV infection by cellulose sulfate.  

PubMed

Cellulose sulfate, a polyanionic compound derived from cotton, has been proposed as a topical microbicide to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. However, a phase III clinical trial of a vaginal gel formulation of cellulose sulfate (Ushercell) had to be prematurely closed after early data indicated microbicide users had a higher rate of HIV infection than women using a placebo. The unexpected results of the cellulose sulfate trail prompted us to reexamine and attempt to replicate the available preclinical data for this compound and other polyanions. We show here that cellulose sulfate has a biphasic effect on HIV infection in vitro: at high concentrations it inhibits infection but at low concentrations it significantly and reproducibly increases HIV infection. This stimulatory effect is evident for the R5-tropic strains of virus responsible for sexual transmission, reflects the rate of infection rather than viral growth, and occurs at clinically relevant concentrations of the compound. An examination of published studies shows that the biphasic effect of cellulose sulfate was evident in previous research by independent laboratories and is also found for other polyanions such as dextrin sulfate and PRO2000. These data help in understanding the failure of the Ushercell clinical trial and indicate that cellulose sulfate is not safe for mucosal application in humans. PMID:18627218

Tao, Wang; Richards, Chris; Hamer, Dean

2008-07-01

261

Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate provides insights into the atmospheric chemical processing of volcanic plumes. First, mass-independent isotopic anomalies quantified by ?17O and to a lesser extent ?33S and ?36S in sulfate depend on the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms that generate sulfate aerosols. Second, the isotopic composition of sulfate (?34S and ?18O) could be an indicator of fractionation (distillation/condensation) processes occurring in volcanic plumes. Here we present analyses of O- and S isotopic compositions of volcanic sulfate absorbed on very fresh volcanic ash from nine moderate historical eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of our volcanic sulfate samples, which are thought to have been generated in the troposphere or in the tropopause region, do not exhibit any significant mass-independent fractionation (MIF) isotopic anomalies, apart from those from an eruption of a Mexican volcano. Coupled to simple chemistry model calculations representative of the background atmosphere, our data set suggests that although H2O2 (a MIF-carrying oxidant) is thought to be by far the most efficient sulfur oxidant in the background atmosphere, it is probably quickly consumed in large dense tropospheric volcanic plumes. We estimate that in the troposphere, at least, more than 90% of volcanic secondary sulfate is not generated by MIF processes. Volcanic S-bearing gases, mostly SO2, appear to be oxidized through channels that do not generate significant isotopically mass-independent sulfate, possibly via OH in the gas phase and/or transition metal ion catalysis in the aqueous phase. It is also likely that some of the sulfates sampled were not entirely produced by atmospheric oxidation processes but came out directly from volcanoes without any MIF anomalies.

Martin, Erwan; Bekki, Slimane; Ninin, Charlotte; Bindeman, Ilya

2014-11-01

262

Phyllosilicate and Hydrated Sulfate Deposits in Meridiani  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several phyllosilicate and hydrated sulfate deposits in Meridiani have been mapped in detail with high resolution MRO CRISM [1] data. Previous studies have documented extensive exposures of outcrop in Meridiani (fig 1), or etched terrain (ET), that has been interpreted to be sedimentary in origin [e.g., 2,3]. These deposits have been mapped at a regional scale with OMEGA data and show enhanced hydration (1.9 m absorption) in several areas [4]. However, hydrated sulfate detections were restricted to valley exposures in northern Meridiani ET [5]. New high resolution CRISM images show that hydrated sulfates are present in several spatially isolated exposures throughout the ET (fig 1). The hydrated sulfate deposits in the valley are vertically heterogeneous with layers of mono and polyhydrated sulfates and are morphologically distinct from other areas of the ET. We are currently mapping the detailed spatial distribution of sulfates and searching for distinct geochemical horizons that may be traced back to differential ground water recharge and/or evaporative loss rates. The high resolution CRISM data has allowed us to map out several phyllosilicate deposits within the fluvially dissected Noachian cratered terrain (DCT) to the south and west of the hematite-bearing plains (Ph) and ET (fig 1). In Miyamoto crater, phyllosilicates are located within 30km of the edge of Ph, which is presumably underlain by acid sulfate deposits similar to those explored by Opportunity. The deposits within this crater may record the transition from fluvial conditions which produced and/or preserved phyllosilicates deposits to a progressively acid sulfate dominated groundwater system in which large accumulations of sulfate-rich evaporites were deposited .

Wiseman, S. M.; Avidson, R. E.; Murchie, S.; Poulet, F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F. P.

2008-01-01

263

Undervehicle corrosion testing of zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undervehicle and on-vehicle coupon corrosion test programs were initiated by Dofasco Inc. in 1981, using two commercial trucks\\u000a operated in the deicing salt\\/snow belt area of Southern Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to investigate the relative corrosion\\u000a performance of numerous zinc and zinc alloy coated steels. Seventeen coated steels were tested. Results to date indicate that\\u000a the hot dip coated

R. J. Neville; K. M. de Souza

1986-01-01

264

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-07-15

265

Automated synthesis of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are important sulfated carbohydrates prevalently found in the extracellular matrix that serve many biological functions. The synthesis of structurally diverse but defined GAGs is extremely challenging as one has to account for the various sulfation patterns. Described is the automated synthesis of two chondroitin sulfate hexasaccharides. The oligosaccharides are prepared on a solid support that is equipped with a photolabile linker. The linker cleavage from the resin is performed in a continuous-flow photoreactor under chemically mild conditions. The described approach will serve as a general scheme to systematically access oligosaccharides of all GAG families. PMID:25325938

Liang, Chien-Fu; Hahm, Heung Sik; Seeberger, Peter H

2015-01-01

266

Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rollings, R.S. [Army Engineering Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Pavement Div.

1995-06-01

267

Review: Zinc’s functional significance in the vertebrate retina  

PubMed Central

This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn2+ that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a great deal of relevant information has been garnered from studies in which Zn2+ was chelated, and the effects of its removal compared with findings obtained in its presence. For a more complete discussion of the consequences of depletion or excess in the body’s trace elements, the reader is referred to a recent review by Ugarte et al. in which they provide a detailed account of the interactions, toxicity, and metabolic activity of the essential trace elements iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease. In addition, Smart et al. have published a splendid review on the modulation by zinc of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels. PMID:25324679

Chappell, Richard L.

2014-01-01

268

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2  

E-print Network

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

269

The synergistic effect of hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study of the effect of sub-ppm levels of H{sub 2}S and NO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc in humid air is reported. Each sample was exposed individually to a synthetic atmosphere with careful control of pollutant concentrations, relative humidity, and flow conditions. Corrosion products were analyzed by grazing angle X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ion chromatography was employed to identify water soluble anions. The interaction of the pollutants with zinc metal was studied using trace gas analysis in real time. A strong H{sub 2}S/NO{sub 2} synergism was observed. The main solid product was zinc blende (ZnS), accompanied by small amounts of sulfate. The optically smooth zinc sulfide film was shown to grow by solid-state diffusion of ions, the rate controlling step being the deprotonation of H{sub 2}S adsorbed on the ZnS surface. NO{sub 2} acts as a cathodic depolarizer, forming HNO{sub 2}(g), resulting in a strongly increased rate of zinc sulfidation.

Svensson, J.E.; Johansson, L.G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry]|[Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)

1996-01-01

270

Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old) male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12) or three treatment groups each containing twelve animals. Animals in the first treatment group was gavaged with copper sulfate, the second treatment group was injected with zinc sulfate, and the third treatment group was given combined treatment of copper and zinc. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar methods. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on day 28 and 56 after treatments for sperm quality evaluations. Results: In spite of testicular weight reduction 56 days after copper consumption in comparison to the control group (p=0.002), there was not a significant difference between the control and combined treatment of copper and zinc group (31.40±0.55 vs. 28.63±0.55, p=0.151). Administration of copper caused a significant decrease in the sperm count, viability and motility after 56 days compared to the control group. However, a complete recovery in sperm count was seen in combined treatment of copper and zinc group after 56 days compared to the control group (p=0.999) and a partial improvement was seen about the percentage of viability and motility (p<0.001). Conclusion: Adverse effects of long term consumption of copper on sperm quality could be prevented by zinc therapy in rats. PMID:24639793

Babaei, Homayoon; Abshenas, Jalil

2013-01-01

271

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-01-01

272

Sulfate metabolism in Tuber borchii : characterization of a putative sulfate transporter and the homocysteine synthase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homocysteine synthase (tbhos) and putative sulfate transporter (tbsul1) genes have been characterized in order to understand the sulfate metabolism and regulation in the ectomycorrhizal fungus\\u000a Tuber borchii. The analyses of tbsul1 and tbhos nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of the typical domains shown in homologous proteins.\\u000a Sulfate starvation condition upregulates both genes. The real-time

Sabrina Zeppa; C. Marchionni; R. Saltarelli; C. Guidi; P. Ceccaroli; R. Pierleoni; A. Zambonelli; V. Stocchi

2010-01-01

273

Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

1993-01-01

274

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

275

SAMPLING PARAMETERS FOR SULFATE MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluations of critical sampling parameters have been performed for primary sulfate measurement and characterization with a selective condensation method. It was found that filtration temperature and sampling flow rate were the critical parameters and that sampling conducted usin...

276

21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues of chickens and turkeys. (b) Tolerances are established for total residues of gentamicin in edible tissues of swine as follows:...

2012-04-01

277

21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues of chickens and turkeys. (b) Tolerances are established for total residues of gentamicin in edible tissues of swine as follows:...

2011-04-01

278

Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

2010-01-01

279

The SLC39 family of zinc transporters  

PubMed Central

Zinc is a trace element nutrient that is essential for life. This mineral serves as a cofactor for enzymes that are involved in critical biochemical processes and it plays many structural roles as well. At the cellular level, zinc is tightly regulated and disruption of zinc homeostasis results in serious physiological or pathological issues. Despite the high demand for zinc in cells, free or labile zinc must be kept at very low levels. In humans, two major zinc transporter families, the SLC30 (ZnT) family and SLC39 (ZIP) family control cellular zinc homeostasis. This review will focus on the SLC39 transporters. SLC39 transporters primarily serve to pass zinc into the cytoplasm, and play critical roles in maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. These proteins are also significant at the organismal level, and studies are revealing their link to human diseases. Therefore, we will discuss the function, structure, physiology, and pathology of SLC39 transporters. PMID:23506894

Jeong, Jeeyon; Eide, David J.

2012-01-01

280

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The polyanionic linear polysaccharide heparan sulfate specifically interacts with a multitude of extracellular ligands relevant\\u000a to all steps of tumor progression. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as coreceptors for cytokine and chemokine signaling,\\u000a modulating tumor cell growth and survival, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. As matrix receptors, they act in concert with integrins\\u000a to regulate tumor cell motility. As binding partners for matrix

Ezeddin Salem Gassar; Sherif A. Ibrahim; Martin Götte

281

Glucosamine sulfate—environmental antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this\\u000a study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor\\u000a in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk

Alexander P. Rozin

2009-01-01

282

Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric general circulation model is coupled to an atmospheric chemistry model to calculate the radiative forcing\\u000a by anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. The latter aerosols result from biomass burning as well as fossil fuel\\u000a burning. The black carbon associated with carbonaceous aerosols is absorbant and can decrease the amount of reflected radiation\\u000a at the top-of-the-atmosphere. In contrast, sulfate aerosols

J. E. Penner; C. C. Chuang; K. Grant

1998-01-01

283

Growth and characterization of rare earths doped triglycine sulfate crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystals have been grown by a temperature-lowering technique from the aqueous solution by doping with samarium sulfate, ytterbium sulfate and terbium sulfate in the ferroelectric phase. The effects of these different dopants on the morphology, growth and various properties such as dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric of doped TGS crystals have been investigated. The decrease in

A. K. Batra; Padmaja Guggilla; Dewanna Cunningham; M. D. Aggarwal; R. B. Lal

2006-01-01

284

Zinc and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient that is involved in various physiological metabolisms. Zn dyshomeostasis is often associated with various pathogeneses of chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and related complications. Zn is present in ocular tissue in high concentrations, particularly in the retina and choroid. Zn deficiencies have been shown to affect ocular development, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and even diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism by which Zn deficiency increases the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy remains unclear. In addition, due to the negative effect of Zn deficiency on the eye, Zn supplementation should prevent diabetic retinopathy; however, limited available data do not always support this notion. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to summarize these pieces of available information regarding Zn prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Current theories and possible mechanisms underlying the role of Zn in the eye-related diseases are discussed. The possible factors that affect the preventive effect of Zn supplementation on diabetic retinopathy were also discussed. PMID:23671870

Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Miao, Lining; Fu, Yaowen; Wang, Yonggang; Su, Guanfang; Liu, Quan

2013-01-01

285

Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (?18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The ?18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (?34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present ?18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that ?18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (<4‰) even when the ?34SSO4 varies by up to 30 to 50‰ over the course of the experiment. This disparity could reflect little to no kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

2006-12-01

286

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent  

E-print Network

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393­402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc; Calcium; Fluorescence; Fluorophore; Calcium Green-1; Fura-2; Fluo-3 Zn2+ and histo- chemically reactive free Zn2+ (chelatable Zn2+). Bound zinc, which makes up

Li, Yang V.

287

Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other  

E-print Network

Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other Zinc.F., M.A.M.) Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants. Smoking of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum

288

Influence of Zinc Deficiency on Zinc and Dry Matter Content of Ruminant Tissues and on Excretion of Zinc1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments involving 24 animals, zinc and dry matter contents of various tissues were studied in zinc-deficient and control goats and calves at various time intervals after control animals were fed the zinc- deficient diet. All samples were obtained before any symptoms of a deficiency oc- curred in the controls. Length of time, from 9 to 35 days, which controls

W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry; G. W. Powell; H. F. Perkins

1966-01-01

289

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2010-04-01

291

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

2010-04-01

292

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2012-04-01

293

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2014-04-01

295

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

296

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

297

21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

298

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

299

Contrasting melting behavior of zinc stearate and zinc oleate.  

PubMed

The influence of a double bond in the middle of an otherwise flexible hydrocarbon chain on the melting of such assemblies has been investigated by comparing the melting behavior of zinc stearate and zinc oleate. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the hydrocarbon chain, it is shown that the double bond effectively decouples the thermal evolution of conformational disorder in the chain segments on either side of the double bond and the melting of each of these segments in the assembly occurs as independent events. PMID:16471580

Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

2006-01-19

300

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

301

LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

SciTech Connect

The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.

1980-01-01

302

Radioiodination of aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfates.  

PubMed

Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), (124)I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes (124)I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel (124)I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [(124)I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I Papisov I

2012-01-01

303

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

304

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

305

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

306

Effects of fall applications of urea and zinc sulfate to >Bing= sweet cherry spring budbreak, 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A single treatment of nutrient\\/defoliant chemicals was found to advance bloom significantly in the first half of the bloom period; this treatment was applied on 25 October. This treatment advanced bloom from 4% to 73% in 5 days (March 3 to March 7), compared to the control (0-40%) and the hand defoliation on the same date (0-11%). Hand defoliation

Kitren Glozer; Joe Grant; Stephen M. Southwick

307

Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

308

Zinc Toxicity: Does It Exist&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an indispensable trace element and is a constituent of more than 200 enzymes. It can assure the stability of biological molecules such as DNA, or biological structures such as membranes or ribosomes. It is not surprising, therefore, that, compared with zinc toxicity, zinc deficiency is a much more frequent risk. Few acute toxic effects have been ascribed to

A. Léonard; G. B. Gerber

1989-01-01

309

Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

2012-01-01

310

21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

2014-04-01

311

Regulation of zinc transporters by dietary zinc supplement in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is essential for cell growth and is a co-factor for more than 300 enzymes, representing over 50 different enzyme classes.\\u000a Two gene families have been identified involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT transporters reduce intracellular zinc while ZIP\\u000a transporters increase intracellular zinc. Previous studies have shown that zinc concentration in breast cancer tissues is\\u000a higher than that in normal breast

Daoxu Sun; Lianying Zhang; Yongsheng Wang; Xiaolei Wang; Xiaoyan Hu; Fu-ai Cui; Feng Kong

2007-01-01

312

High-efficiency Cd-free CIGSS thin-film solar cells with solution grown zinc compound buffer layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zn-compounds Zn(X,OH) (X=S,Se) buffer layers have been deposited by chemical bath (CBD) process on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSS) with the aim of developing Cd-free CIGSS-based devices. The films are produced in alkaline aqueous solution containing ZnSO4, ammonia NH3 and XC(NH2)2. Optimum deposition conditions were established. The temperature (Tsub) of the chemical bath is found to be critical for the device quality. The

A. Ennaoui; S. Siebentritt; M. Ch. Lux-Steiner; W. Riedl; F. Karg

2001-01-01

313

Study of zinc oxide ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The authors determined the elemental and phase composition of zinc oxide ceramic (ZOC) by emission spectral (ESA), x-ray phase (XPA), and micro x-ray spectral (MXSA) analysis as well as by the method of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). They studied the microstructure on metallographic and scanning electron microscopes using MXSA and ESCA data. Samples of ZOC were synthesized in the system of oxides Zn, Bi, Sb, Co, Mn, Sn, Si, Ni, Mg, Cr and B. The authors found that several mechanisms are responsible for the changes in the parameters of varistors based on zinc oxide ceramic, each of whose contribution depends on the operating conditions of the varistor.

Petvkhov, A.P.; Fedotova, O.I.; Rumyantseva, I.A.; Teslenko, S.P.

1986-01-01

314

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

1980-03-13

315

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2011-07-01

316

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2014-07-01

317

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2012-07-01

318

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2010-07-01

319

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2013-07-01

320

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2013-04-01

321

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2011-04-01

322

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2012-04-01

324

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-07-16

325

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

PubMed Central

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

326

Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.  

PubMed

A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. PMID:25499684

Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

2015-02-01

327

Zinc bioleaching from an iron concentrate using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iron concentrate from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico, which mainly contained pyrite and pyrrhotite, was treated by the bioleaching process using native strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans) to determine the ability of these bacteria on the leaching of zinc. The native bacteria were isolated from the iron concentrate of the mine. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks to analyze the effects of pH values, pulp density, and the ferrous sulfate concentration on the bioleaching process. The results obtained by microbial kinetic analyses for the evaluation of some aspects of zinc leaching show that the native bacteria A. ferrooxidans, which is enriched with a 9K Silverman medium under the optimum conditions of pH 2.0, 20 g/L pulp density, and 40 g/L FeSO4, increases the zinc extraction considerably observed by monitoring during15 d, i.e., the zinc concentration has a decrease of about 95% in the iron concentrate.

Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Solís-Soto, Aquiles; López-Miranda, Javier; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Rutiaga-Quiñónes, Miriam; Medina-Torres, Luis; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram

2011-10-01

328

Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

1994-01-01

329

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-M.

2006-01-01

330

Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on community composition. CCA of Shannon diversity data after one pore volume revealed that zinc removal, walnut shell content, and abundance of delta-Proteobacteria (sulfate reducing organisms) were all corresponding elements. However, after several pore volumes, the walnut shell column was no longer removing Zn as effectively, and community shifts were observed throughout the columns. Analysis of field and laboratory scale microbiological and geochemical shifts, in parallel, gives insight into key biogeochemical variables linked to the performance of passive remediation systems used for the treatment of contaminated MIW, while also providing further insight into metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

2013-12-01

331

Role of biogenic sulfide in attenuating zinc oxide and copper nanoparticle toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenesis.  

PubMed

Soluble ions released by zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper (Cu(0)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been associated with toxicity to methanogens. This study evaluated the role of biogenic sulfide in attenuating ZnO and Cu(0) NP toxicity to methanogens. Short- and long-term batch experiments were conducted to explore ZnO and Cu(0) NPs toxicity to acetoclastic methanogens in sulfate-containing (0.4mM) and sulfate-free conditions. ZnO and Cu(0) were respectively 14 and 7-fold less toxic in sulfate-containing than in sulfate-free assays as indicated by inhibitory constants (Ki). The Ki with respect to residual soluble metal indicated that soluble metal was well correlated with toxicity irrespective of the metal ion source or presence of biogenic sulfide. Long-term assays indicated that ZnO and Cu(0) NPs caused different effects on methanogens. ZnO NPs without protection of sulfide caused a chronic effect, whereas Cu(0) NPs caused an acute effect and recovered. This study confirms that biogenic sulfide effectively attenuates ZnO and Cu(0) NPs toxicity to methanogens by the formation of metal sulfides. PMID:25464319

Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

2015-02-11

332

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

333

Sulfate metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl in whole poplar plants.  

PubMed

4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2'-PCB3 sulfate, 3'-PCB3 sulfate, and 4'-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2'-PCB3 sulfate and 4'-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2'-PCB3 sulfate or 4'-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L

2013-01-01

334

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

335

Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

2014-01-01

336

Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

2011-01-01

337

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

338

21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a)...

2010-04-01

339

21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044 Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

340

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate  

E-print Network

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. (Shriners Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1989-11-25

342

Scientists Track Sulfate Emissions Across Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have a precise record of sulfate deposition from volcanoes stretching back 2000 years, a finding that will better inform future climate models and policy decisions. The new reconstruction was detailed in a paper published online on 6 July in Nature Climate Change (doi:10.1038/nclimate2293).

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

343

Plasmin Regulation through Allosteric, Sulfated, Small Molecules.  

PubMed

Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Heparin, a natural polydisperse sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is known to allosterically modulate plasmin activity. No small allosteric inhibitor of plasmin has been discovered to date. We screened an in-house library of 55 sulfated, small glycosaminoglycan mimetics based on nine distinct scaffolds and varying number and positions of sulfate groups to discover several promising hits. Of these, a pentasulfated flavonoid-quinazolinone dimer 32 was found to be the most potent sulfated small inhibitor of plasmin (IC50 = 45 ?M, efficacy = 100%). Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric inhibition of plasmin by these inhibitors. Studies also indicated that the most potent inhibitors are selective for plasmin over thrombin and factor Xa, two serine proteases in coagulation cascade. Interestingly, different inhibitors exhibited different levels of efficacy (40%-100%), an observation alluding to the unique advantage offered by an allosteric process. Overall, our work presents the first small, synthetic allosteric plasmin inhibitors for further rational design. PMID:25569517

Al-Horani, Rami A; Karuturi, Rajesh; White, Domonique T; Desai, Umesh R

2015-01-01

344

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

2010-04-01

345

6, 40234059, 2006 Attribution of sulfate  

E-print Network

/4023/2006/ © Author(s) 2006. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Attribution of Modeled Atmospheric Sulfate and SO2 in the Northern Hemisphere for June­July 1997 C light scattering and by perturbing cloud properties and to local concentrations of atmospheric

Boyer, Edmond

346

Radiation Damage Effects in Ferroelectric Triglycine Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peculiar changes in the ferroelectric hysteresis loops of single crystals of triglycine sulfate result when the crystals are subjected to ionizing radiations (x-rays and electrons). Fully polarized crystals develop hysteresis loops biased along the field axis while partially polarized crystals develop double-loop patterns, each subsidiary loop being biased to the same extent but in opposite directions. The biased loops retain

A. G. Chynoweth

1959-01-01

347

Heparan sulfate abnormalities in exostosis growth plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), a condition associated with development and growth of bony exostoses at the ends of the long bones, is caused by germline mutations in the EXT genes. EXT1 and EXT2 function as glycosyltransferases that participate in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) to modify proteoglycans. HS proteoglycans, synthesized by chondrocytes and secreted to the extracellular matrix of

J. T Hecht; C. R Hall; M Snuggs; E Hayes; R Haynes; W. G Cole

2002-01-01

348

Minnows get columnaris too; copper sulfate works!  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4), when delivered in either a flow-through or static system, on the survival of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas; Fig. 1A) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; Fig. 1B) infected with Flavobacterium columnare (...

349

Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates.  

PubMed

The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions. PMID:24649689

Hu, Dawei; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Jianmin; Ye, Xingnan; Li, Ling; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Hu, Zhongyang

2014-01-01

350

Compleximetric determination of sulfate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  

E-print Network

RCXRRCR Aagaet ~ 1961 No)or Subgeets Cheaistrf CONPLRXINETRIC DETEHNIRATICN Ot SULFATE 14XTE ETHILQIEDXAEIEETETRAACETIC ACID Ayyreve4 ae to etre ea4 eoateat by& ~ ege K%84 0 ee ~ ~ ewlg ee 0 Aeyaet ~ 11 Sae oathor wfehoe to os@ross h5...

Spurlock, William W

1961-01-01

351

Hydrolytic reaction by zinc finger mutant peptides: successful redesign of structural zinc sites into catalytic zinc sites.  

PubMed

To redesign a metal site originally required for the stabilization of a folded protein structure into a functional metal site, we constructed a series of zinc finger mutant peptides such as zf(CCHG) and zf(GCHH), in which one zinc-coordinating residue is substituted into a noncoordinating one. The mutant peptides having water bound to the zinc ion catalyzed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate as well as the enantioselective hydrolysis of amino acid esters. All the zinc complexes of the mutant peptides showed hydrolytic activity, depending on their peptide sequences. In contrast, the zinc complex of the wild-type, zf(CCHH), and zinc ion alone exhibited no hydrolytic ability. These results clearly indicate that the catalytic abilities are predominantly attributed to the zinc center in the zinc complexes of the mutant peptides. Kinetic studies of the mutant peptides demonstrated that the catalytic hydrolysis is affected by the electron-donating ability of the protein ligands and the coordination environment. In addition, the pH dependence of the hydrolysis strongly suggests that the zinc-coordinated hydroxide ion participates the catalytic reaction. This report is the first successful study of catalytically active zinc finger peptides. PMID:14989663

Nomura, Akiko; Sugiura, Yukio

2004-03-01

352

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate...recommended for the treatment of bacterial infections associated with topical ophthalmological conditions such as corneal injuries,...

2011-04-01

353

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate...recommended for the treatment of bacterial infections associated with topical ophthalmological conditions such as corneal injuries,...

2012-04-01

354

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate...recommended for the treatment of bacterial infections associated with topical ophthalmological conditions such as corneal injuries,...

2013-04-01

355

The Impact of Simulated Sulfate Deposition on Peatland Testate Amoebae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peatlands subjected to sulfate deposition have been shown to produce less methane, believed to be due to competitive exclusion\\u000a of methanogenic archaea by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Here, we address whether sulfate deposition produces impacts on a higher\\u000a microbial group, the testate amoebae. Sodium sulfate was applied to experimental plots on a Scottish peatland and samples\\u000a extracted after a period of more

Richard Payne; Vincent Gauci; Dan J. Charman

2010-01-01

356

Sources of sulfate supporting anaerobic metabolism in a contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field and laboratory techniques were used to identify the biogeochemical factors affecting sulfate reduction in a shallow, unconsolidated alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. Depth profiles of 35S-sulfate reduction rates in aquifer sediments were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved sulfate. Manipulation of the sulfate concentration in samples revealed a Michaelis-Menten-like relationship with an apparent Km and Vmax of approximately 80 and 0.83 ??M SO4-2??day-1, respectively. The concentration of sulfate in the core of the leachate plume was well below 20 ??M and coincided with very low reduction rates. Thus, the concentration and availability of this anion could limit in situ sulfate-reducing activity. Three sulfate sources were identified, including iron sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and advective flux of sulfate. The relative importance of these sources varied with depth in the alluvium. The relatively high concentration of dissolved sulfate at the water table is attributed to the microbial oxidation of iron sulfides in response to fluctuations of the water table. At intermediate depths, barite dissolves in undersaturated pore water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved barium (???100 ??M) and low concentrations of sulfate. Dissolution is consistent with the surface texture of detrital barite grains in contact with leachate. Laboratory incubations of unamended and barite-amended aquifer slurries supported the field observation of increasing concentrations of barium in solution when sulfate reached low levels. At a deeper highly permeable interval just above the confining bottom layer of the aquifer, sulfate reduction rates were markedly higher than rates at intermediate depths. Sulfate is supplied to this deeper zone by advection of uncontaminated groundwater beneath the landfill. The measured rates of sulfate reduction in the aquifer also correlated with the abundance of accumulated iron sulfide in this zone. This suggests that the current and past distributions of sulfate-reducing activity are similar and that the supply of sulfate has been sustained at these sites.

Ulrich, G.A.; Breit, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.

2003-01-01

357

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF AMMONIUM SULFATE ON CARCINOGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project was designed to evaluate the health effects of ammonium sulfate (Nh4)2 SO4 inhalation using experimental animals. The questions studied were: (1) Is inhaled ammonium sulfate co-carcinogenic. (2) What are the deposition and clearance patterns of inhaled ammonium sulfat...

358

Nanocrystalline cellulose with various contents of sulfate groups.  

PubMed

Properties of films derived from aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose dispersions by water evaporation depend on concentration of sulfate groups. Namely type of thermodestruction and surface morphology change as a function of contents of sulfate groups. Surface roughness increases and water adsorption enhances with increasing sulfate groups content particularly at high relative pressure. PMID:23987369

Voronova, M I; Surov, O V; Zakharov, A G

2013-10-15

359

Discovery of a heparan sulfate 3-o-sulfation specific peeling reaction.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases mentioned above. By contrast, multiple distinct isoforms of 3-O-sulfotranserases exist in mammals (up to seven isoenzymes). Here we describe a novel peeling reaction that specifically degrades HS chains with 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing-end. When HS/heparin is enzymatically depolymerized for compositional analysis, 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing ends appears to be susceptible to degradation under mildly basic conditions. We propose a 3-O-desulfation initiated peeling reaction mechanism based on the intermediate and side-reaction products observed. Our discovery calls for the re-evaluation of the natural abundance and functions of HS 3-O-sulfation by taking into consideration the negative impact of this novel peeling reaction. PMID:25486437

Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert-Jan; Zaia, Joseph

2015-01-01

360

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

361

The Accumulation of Zinc by the Mosquito  

PubMed Central

The zinc content of mosquitoes in various developmental stages was determined by spectrographic and microchemical analysis and use of zinc65 and found to be five to ten times higher than other trace elements. Also the concentration of zinc in the mosquito was much greater than in other insects of different biological orders. Over 90 per cent of this element was localized in the Malpighian tubules at a concentration of 32 µg zinc per mg dry weight. The non-dialyzable form of zinc is loosely bound, for it was dissociated upon dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetate. The uptake of this trace element was correlated during larval growth with weight increase and required the presence of food particles. Furthermore, this uptake was different from that of cobalt which was not accumulated when offered as an inorganic salt or as vitamin B12. Zinc was not detectable in pooled egg masses, and once embodied by the larvae, was retained under fasting conditions and at a constant level throughout the pupal stage and as long as 14 days' adult life. Supplementation of the media with EDTA caused a marked inhibition of growth that could be completely reversed by the addition of zinc or zinc plus lead. The resultant pupae, however, contained less than 5 per cent of the normal amount of zinc and were essentially zinc-free; yet their rate of growth and gross appearance were normal. PMID:13928523

Lang, Calvin A.

1963-01-01

362

Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

Oteiza, Patricia I.

2012-01-01

363

ZINC--1999 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--1999 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Brandon P, international data coordinator. In 1999, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore in Alaska (table 1). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc

364

ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

365

taux pulvriss de sulfate de cadmium et une solution aqueuse satu-re de sulfate de cadmium.  

E-print Network

551 taux pulvérisés de sulfate de cadmium et une solution aqueuse satu- rée de sulfate de cadmium couche de sulfate de cadmium est introduite dans chaque branche. L'élément entier est rempli avec une solution saturée de sulfate de cadmium et ensuite hermétiquement scellée. La formule suivante est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Alterations in zinc absorption and salivary sediment zinc after a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.  

PubMed

The effect of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on plasma zinc tolerance tests and plasma and saliva zinc levels was measured in 12 nonvegetarian women. A diet meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowances for all nutrients, including zinc, was fed to the subjects for 22 days. Initial zinc status of subjects was determined by zinc analysis of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. Plasma response to an oral load of 50 mg Zn was determined in five subjects before and after the dietary period. Zinc levels of salivary sediment, which consisted primarily of epithelial cells, significantly decreased from initial values of 128 to final levels, of 94 microgram/g. No significant differences were found in zinc levels of plasma or whole mixed saliva. Plasma response to initial zinc tolerance tests were inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to dietary protein levels. Significantly increased plasma zinc uptake and areas under zinc tolerance curves were found after consumption of vegetarian diets compared to diets containing meats. The increased plasma response to a zinc load and decrease in salivary sediment zinc after a vegetarian diet indicate that this diet adversely affects zinc status. PMID:6250397

Freeland-Graves, J H; Ebangit, M L; Hendrikson, P J

1980-08-01

367

ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF SYNTHETIC HEPARAN SULFATE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES VARYING IN DEGREE OF SULFATION AND HEXURONIC ACID STEREOCHEMISTRY  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5–1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1–2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry. PMID:23230388

Leach, Franklin E.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

2012-01-01

368

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

369

In-situ zinc bioprecipitation by organic substrate injection in a high-flow, poorly reduced aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated if in-situ metal bioprecipitation (ISMP) is applicable to remediate a highly permeable zinc-contaminated aquifer at a metal-processing factory in Maasmechelen, Belgium. A large (more than 200 m long and 70 m wide) groundwater contamination plume has developed, with zinc concentrations in the range of 1-100 mg/L, whereas the legal Flemish clean-up standard is 0.5 mg/L. The estimated groundwater flow velocity is in the range 0.2-1 m/d. The groundwater is relatively oxidized, naturally low in DOC (< 1 mg/L) and relatively low in sulfate (40-50 mg/L). We conducted both laboratory feasibility tests as well as a long-term field pilot test in two sections of the plume. In the laboratory microcosm tests, zinc bioprecipitation (following addition of organic substrate and sulfate) removed more than 99% of the zinc from the water phase. Lactate, glycerol and vegetable oil were equally effective as substrates. 28-day anaerobic leaching tests indicated that the metal precipitates that were formed are stable, but they also suggested that substrate addition increases the solubility (leachability) of arsenic and manganese. In the field test, Zn concentrations were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude within the 232 day testing period and stayed low for the following 6 months in both pilot zones. In the field, no mobilization of arsenic occurred but manganese groundwater concentrations increased from 0.01-0.6 mg/L to 0.4-6.5 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations also increased markedly from below detection limits to concentrations as high as 67 mg/L. Zinc concentrations in groundwater were closely correlated to pH and redox potential (Eh): plotting y = [Zn] against x = pH/log(Eh), an exponential relationship was found: y=2?10?eR?0.7.

Lookman, R.; Verbeeck, M.; Gemoets, J.; Van Roy, S.; Crynen, J.; Lambié, B.

2013-07-01

370

Suppressive Effect of Zinc on the Formation of Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions in the Mouse Fed High Levels of Dietary Iron  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of zinc on the formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci induced by azoxymethane (AOM) followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice with high iron diet (HFe; 450 ppm iron). Sixweek old ICR mice were fed on high iron diets with combination of three different levels of zinc in diets, low-zinc (LZn; 0.01 ppm), medium-zinc (MZn; 0.1 ppm), and high-zinc (HZn; 1 ppm) for 12 weeks. Animals were received weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (10 mg/kg B.W. in saline) for 3 weeks followed by 2% DSS (molecular weight 36,000~50,000) in the drinking water for a week. To confirm the iron storage in the body, the hepatic iron concentration has been determine chemically and compared with histological assessment visualized by Prussian blue reaction. Aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were analyzed in the colonic mucosa of mouse fed high dietary iron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level were also investigated. Apoptosis in the preneoplastic lesion was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nickend labeling (TUNEL). In addition, immunohistochemistry of ?-catenin was also performed on the mucous membrane of colon. The number of large ACF (? 4 AC/ACF), which possess greater tumorigenic potential, was significantly lower in MZn and HZn groups compared with LZn group. Cytosolic SOD activity in the liver was significantly higher in HZn group compared with LZn group. Hepatic MDA level was decreased significantly in HZn group compared with MZn and LZn groups. Apoptotic index was significantly higher in HZn group. Taken together, these findings indicate that dietary zinc might exert a protective effect against colonic preneoplastic lesion induced by AOM/DSS in ICR mice with high iron status, and suggest that dietary supplement of zinc might play a role in suppressing colon carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:24278588

Park, Hyunji; Kang, Bong Su; Kim, Dang Young; Yoon, Ja Seon; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won

2012-01-01

371

Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin.  

PubMed

The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

2014-08-26

372

Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin?  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

2014-01-01

373

Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly ash pastes confirmed that fly ash mortar or concrete mixes forming more monosulfate than ettringite before exposure to sulfates would offer poor sulfate resistance and vice versa. During quantitative Rietveld analysis carried out for determining ettringite, monosulfate and gypsum formed in the fly ash pastes, it was observed that fly ash mixtures showing more ettringite after exposures to sulfates, give poor sulfate resistance. A good relationship between the amounts of ettringite formed and expansions of mortar specimens in the ASTM C 1012 test was found.

Dhole, Rajaram

374

Detection and Quantification of Sulfated Disaccharides from Keratan Sulfate and Chondroitin\\/Dermatan Sulfate during Chick Corneal Development by ESI-MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To identify and quantify changes in keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin\\/dermatan sulfate (CS\\/DS) sulfated disac- charides in the developing chick cornea using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS). METHODS. Cryostat sections of fresh nonfixed corneas were obtained from White Leghorn embryonic day (E)8 to E20 chicks, and from 4- and 70-week-old chickens. Tissue sections on glass slides were incubated

Yuntao Zhang; Abigail H. Conrad; Elena S. Tasheva; Ke An; Lolita M. Corpuz; Yutaka Kariya; Kiyoshi Suzuki; Gary W. Conrad

375

Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

Luksha, E.

1974-01-01

376

Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-? in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

2014-06-01

377

Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

2012-01-01

378

Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater.  

PubMed

In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of ?(34)S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans. PMID:25378621

Crowe, Sean A; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A; Adkins, Jess F; Sessions, Alex L; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E

2014-11-01

379

Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of ?34S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 103 to 104 years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans.

Crowe, Sean A.; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A.; Adkins, Jess F.; Sessions, Alex L.; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E.

2014-11-01

380

Acute toxicity of heavy metals to acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria: EC100 and EC50.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage from abandoned mines and acid mine pit lakes is an important environmental concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of acid mine drainage, knowledge of acute metal toxicity levels for SRB is essential for the proper functioning of the treatment system for acid mine drainage. Quantification of heavy metal toxicity to mixed cultures of SRB is complicated by the confounding effects of metal hydroxide and sulfide precipitation, biosorption, and complexation with the constituents of the reaction matrix. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that measurements of dissolved metal concentrations could be used to determine the toxicity parameters for mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The effective concentration, 100% (EC100), the lowest initial dissolved metal concentrations at which no sulfate reduction is observed, and the effective concentration, 50% (EC50), the initial dissolved metal concentrations resulting in a 50% decrease in sulfate reduction, for copper and zinc were determined in the present study by means of nondestructive, rapid physical and chemical analytical techniques. The reaction medium used in the experiments was designed specifically (in terms of pH and chemical composition) to provide the nutrients necessary for the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB and to preclude chemical precipitation of the metals under investigation. The toxicity-mitigating effects of biosorption of dissolved metals were also quantified. Anaerobic Hungate tubes were set up (at least in triplicate) and monitored for sulfate-reduction activity. The onset of SRB activity was detected by the blackening of the reaction mixture because of formation of insoluble ferrous sulfide. The EC100 values were found to be 12 mg/L for copper and 20 mg/L for zinc. The dissolved metal concentration measurements were effective as the indicators of the effect of the heavy metals at concentrations below EC100. The 7-d EC50 values obtained from the difference between the dissolved metal concentrations for the control tubes (tubes not containing copper or zinc) and tubes containing metals were found to be 10.5 mg/L for copper and 16.5 mg/L for zinc. Measurements of the turbidity and pH, bacterial population estimations by means of a most-probable number technique, and metal recovery in the sulfide precipitate were found to have only a limited applicability in these determinations. PMID:11764146

Utgikar, V P; Chen, B Y; Chaudhary, N; Tabak, H H; Haines, J R; Govind, R

2001-12-01

381

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01

382

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-06-30

383

Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures  

DOEpatents

A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

Hsu, Julia (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA)

2009-02-17

384

Topochemical demonstration of zinc in meningiomas.  

PubMed

In agreement with the atomic absorption tests, histochemical demonstration of zinc in meningiomas using the dithizone method revealed a higher level of zinc in fibromatous meningiomas than in its meningiotheliomatous variant. Calcified psammoma bodies and vessels exhibited an intensely positive reaction on their surface. The metabolic function of zinc in the synthesis of fibre proteins, as well as in metallo-enzymes associated with mineralization, explains these findings. PMID:3661122

Loennecken, I; Müller, W; Firsching, R

1987-01-01

385

Tribochemistry of Bulk Zinc Metaphosphate Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc polyphosphate glasses are the principal component of the antiwear tribofilms formed on steel surfaces in the presence\\u000a of additives, such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphates. In this work, amorphous, zinc metaphosphate glasses have been synthesized\\u000a and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis,\\u000a and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tribological tests were performed by rubbing steel

Maura Crobu; Antonella Rossi; Filippo Mangolini; Nicholas D. Spencer

2010-01-01

386

Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15

387

40 CFR 721.10714 - Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10714 Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...chemical substance identified generically as zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate)...

2014-07-01

388

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

389

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

2014-07-01

391

Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

Remsberg, E. E.

1973-01-01

392

Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

Ghan, Steven J.

1997-01-01

393

Fundamental Mvssbauer Parameters of Hydrous Iron Sulfates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrous iron sulfates, which form as alteration products of sulfides, are rare on Earth. On Mars, the low temperature and pH found in the martian permafrost create ideal conditions for the formation of this group of minerals [1], which includes such phases as coquimbite (Fe2(SO4) 9H2O) and amarantite (FeSO4(OH) 3H2O). Viking, Mars Pathfinder, MER and OMEGA data [e.g., [2

Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.

2005-01-01

394

Copper sulfate toxicosis in commercial laying hens.  

PubMed

A flock of 51-week-old leghorn hens experienced a 16% drop in egg production in a single week. The layer ration contained 1477 ppm copper from the addition of copper sulfate. Severe oral ulcers were present in the pharynx. Oral ulcers, reduced feed intake, and a drop in egg production occurred when a ration containing 1437 ppm copper was evaluated experimentally. PMID:8713042

Gilbert, R W; Sander, J E; Brown, T P

1996-01-01

395

Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate  

SciTech Connect

The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian (NIH); (UNC)

2008-03-19

396

Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

2003-08-01

397

Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

2014-12-01

398

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate  

E-print Network

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate Ravindra Pandey+ in the spinel oxides considered here. The calculated formation energies of the native defects suggestGa2O4), and intermediate zinc aluminogallate spinel oxides have been investigated recently.1 Both

Pandey, Ravi

399

Molecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl Zinc,  

E-print Network

region.1,2 Doping with indium, gallium, or aluminum improves these properties.3-5 These characteristicsMolecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl deposition of zinc oxide thin films can be carried out with diethyl zinc and water vapor. The present study

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

400

Solution grown antimony doped zinc oxide films.  

E-print Network

??Zinc oxide is an extensively studied semiconducting material due to its versatile properties applicable to many technologies such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing and renewable energy.… (more)

Riley, Conor T.

2012-01-01

401

Oral zinc aspartate treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The essential trace element zinc plays a critical role in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency or excess can cause severe impairment of the immune response, which points to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. We previously reported that injection of zinc aspartate suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as effector T cell functions in vitro. Among the preferred characteristics of novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS are oral availability and a tolerable effective dose to minimize side effects. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of zinc aspartate, an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency in humans, is effective in controlling EAE at clinically approved doses. We show that oral administration of 6 µg/day [0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or 12 µg/day [0.6 mg/kg BW] of zinc aspartate reduces clinical and histopathological signs during the relapsing remitting phase of the disease in SJL mice. The clinical effect in mice was accompanied by suppression of IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and IL-5 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a large array of proinflammatory cytokines was modulated by zinc aspartate exposure in vitro. These data suggest that administration of oral zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases like MS. PMID:25146336

Schubert, Claudia; Guttek, Karina; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Thielitz, Anja; Bühling, Frank; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Reinhold, Dirk

2014-12-01

402

Zinc is a novel intracellular second messenger  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element required for enzymatic activity and for maintaining the conformation of many transcription factors; thus, zinc homeostasis is tightly regulated. Although zinc affects several signaling molecules and may act as a neurotransmitter, it remains unknown whether zinc acts as an intracellular second messenger capable of transducing extracellular stimuli into intracellular signaling events. In this study, we report that the cross-linking of the high affinity immunoglobin E receptor (Fc? receptor I [Fc?RI]) induced a release of free zinc from the perinuclear area, including the endoplasmic reticulum in mast cells, a phenomenon we call the zinc wave. The zinc wave was dependent on calcium influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase activation. The results suggest that the zinc wave is involved in intracellular signaling events, at least in part by modulating the duration and strength of Fc?RI-mediated signaling. Collectively, our findings indicate that zinc is a novel intracellular second messenger. PMID:17502426

Yamasaki, Satoru; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Aiko; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kabu, Koki; Sato, Emi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Susumu; Tokunaga, Makio; Nishida, Keigo; Hirano, Toshio

2007-01-01

403

The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes  

E-print Network

Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

John, Seth G

2007-01-01

404

Effect of [Zn]/[S] ratios on the properties of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnS thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique onto glass substrates deposited at about 80 °C using aqueous solution of zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate, ammonium sulfate, thiourea, ammonia and hydrazine hydrate. Ammonia and hydrazine hydrate were used as complexing agents. The influence of the ratio of [Zn]/[S] on formation and properties of ZnS thin films has been investigated. The ratio of [Zn]/[S] was changed from 3:1 to 1:9 by varying volumes and/or concentrations of zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate and thiourea in the deposition solution. The structural and morphological characteristics of films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis. ZnS films were obtained with the [Zn]/[S] ratio ranged from1:1 to 1:6. In the cases of [Zn]/[S] ratio ? 3:1 or ?1:9, no deposition was found. Transparent and polycrystalline ZnS film was obtained with pure-wurtzite structure at the [S]/[Zn] ratio of 1:6. The related formation mechanisms of CBD ZnS are discussed. The deposited ZnS films show good optical transmission (80-90%) in the visible region and the band gap is found to be in the range of 3.65-3.74 eV. The result is useful to further develop the CBD ZnS technology.

Li, Z. Q.; Shi, J. H.; Liu, Q. Q.; Wang, Z. A.; Sun, Z.; Huang, S. M.

2010-10-01

405

Leaching and separation of zinc from the black paste of spent MnO2-Zn dry cell batteries.  

PubMed

Spent batteries represent a source of hazardous materials when discarded without appropriate treatment. Investigations on the recovery of zinc from the black paste of spent MnO(2)-Zn cell batteries were carried out. Leaching of zinc and manganese from the black paste of spent batteries using sulfuric or hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. It was found that leaching with sulfuric acid solution is more efficient than with HCl solution. Different parameters affecting the leaching of Zn(II) and Mn(II) with sulfuric acid were further studied. Extraction of Zn(II) and Mn(II) from the leaching sulfate medium by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (CYANEX 301) diluted with kerosene was investigated. The factors affecting the extraction process, separately studied, include the effect of contact time, sulfuric acid concentration, CYANEX 301 concentration, phase ratio as well as temperature. The results indicated that, from sulfate medium, Zn(II) is more extracted than Mn(II). Selective stripping of Zn(II) was obtained using 5M HCl. Application of the method on the leaching sulfate solution of the spent MnO(2)-Zn dry cell black paste show the efficiency of the process, where the extraction and stripping of Zn(II) are 98% and 99%, respectively. PMID:17049161

El-Nadi, Y A; Daoud, J A; Aly, H F

2007-05-01

406

Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the (35)SO(4)(2-) radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of < or =142 +/- 20 nmol cm(-3) day(-1). Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that approximately 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [(13)C]acetate- and [(13)C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined < or =100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching < or =1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems. PMID:20363796

Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E; Scheinost, Andreas C; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

2010-05-01

407

Zinc tolerance and accumulation in the ferns Polypodium cambricum L. and Pteris vittata L.  

PubMed

Zn uptake and compartmentalisation were studied in two ferns, the European Polypodium cambricum L., a possible Zn tolerant, and the sub-tropical Pteris vittata L., an As accumulator also able to accumulate Zn. Ferns growing in hydroponic systems were exposed to Zn concentrations ranging from non-toxic to lethal doses (0, 50, 125, 250, 500 mg kg(-1) as ZnSO4). After treatments, the following analyses were made: photosynthetic efficiency (Handy PEA), anatomical symptoms (optical and scanning electron microscopy), determination of Zn in fronds, rhizome and roots (atomic emission spectrometry, ICP-AES). Both species showed high bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors, but low translocation factor, indicating Zn sequestration in the root/rhizome system. P. cambricum was more resistant to Zn, while P. vittata suffered from unrestricted uptake leading to macro- and microscopical damages and plant death. Data suggest that P. cambricum could be suitable for phytostabilisation of Zn-contaminated soils in temperate areas. PMID:20678794

Roccotiello, Enrica; Manfredi, Alice; Drava, Giuliana; Minganti, Vincenzo; Giorgio Mariotti, Mauro; Berta, Graziella; Cornara, Laura

2010-09-01

408

Influence of feed time and sulfate load on the organic and sulfate removal in an ASBR.  

PubMed

The removal of sulfate and organic matter was assessed in an ASBR, which treated wastewater containing 500 mg CODL(-1) (3 g CODL(-1)d(-1)) in 8h-cycles at 30 degrees C. The wastewater was enriched with sulfate at [COD/SO(4)(2-)] ratios of 1.34, 0.67 and 0.34 (8.8,4.5 and 2.2 gSO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1)). For each COD/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio fill times used were: 10 min (batch), 3 and 6h (fed-batch), achieving sulfate reduction of 30%, 72% and 72% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 25%, 58% and 55% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 23%, 37% and 27% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively, and organic matter removal of 87%, 68% and 80% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 78%, 75% and 69% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 85%, 84% and 83% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively. The results showed that fed-batch operation improved sulfate reduction, whereas organic matter removals were similar for batch and fed-batch operation. In addition, increase in sulfate loading in the fed-batch operation improved organic matter removal. PMID:20392632

Mockaitis, Gustavo; Friedl, Gregor F; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

2010-09-01

409

Sulfate homeostasis. II. Influence of chronic aspirin administration on inorganic sulfate in humans.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chronic aspirin administration on the serum concentration and renal clearance of inorganic sulfate in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, eight male subjects received either no treatment or 975 mg of enteric-coated aspirin three times daily for 8 days. Blood and urine samples were collected on the eighth day over a 7-hr period. Midpoint salicylic acid concentrations in serum varied between 55 and 182 micrograms/ml (mean concentration of 109 micrograms/ml). Serum inorganic sulfate concentrations demonstrated a small but significant decrease on the eighth day of aspirin administration but there was no apparent change in the renal clearance of sulfate. There were significant correlations between the renal clearances, urinary excretion rates, and serum concentrations of creatinine and sulfate, reflecting the dependence of sulfate homeostasis on renal function. The serum concentration and renal clearance of creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were unaffected by aspirin treatment. PMID:2395799

Morris, M E; Benincosa, L J

1990-07-01

410

Organ-specific Sulfation Patterns of Heparan Sulfate Generated by Extracellular Sulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 in Mice*  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 hydrolyze 6-O-sulfate in heparan sulfate, thereby regulating cellular signaling. Previous studies have revealed that Sulfs act predominantly on UA2S-GlcNS6S disaccharides and weakly on UA-GlcNS6S disaccharides. However, the specificity of Sulfs and their role in sulfation patterning of heparan sulfate in vivo remained unknown. Here, we performed disaccharide analysis of heparan sulfate in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. Significant increases in ?UA2S-GlcNS6S were observed in the brain, small intestine, lung, spleen, testis, and skeletal muscle of adult Sulf1?/? mice and in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and testis of adult Sulf2?/? mice. In addition, increases in ?UA-GlcNS6S were seen in the Sulf1?/? lung and small intestine. In contrast, the disaccharide compositions of chondroitin sulfate were not primarily altered, indicating specificity of Sulfs for heparan sulfate. For Sulf1, but not for Sulf2, mRNA expression levels in eight organs of wild-type mice were highly correlated with increases in ?UA2S-GlcNS6S in the corresponding organs of knock-out mice. Moreover, overall changes in heparan sulfate compositions were greater in Sulf1?/? mice than in Sulf2?/? mice despite lower levels of Sulf1 mRNA expression, suggesting predominant roles of Sulf1 in heparan sulfate desulfation and distinct regulation of Sulf activities in vivo. Sulf1 and Sulf2 mRNAs were differentially expressed in restricted types of cells in organs, and consequently, the sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate were locally and distinctly altered in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. These findings indicate that Sulf1 and Sulf2 differentially contribute to the generation of organ-specific sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate. PMID:22298771

Nagamine, Satoshi; Tamba, Michiko; Ishimine, Hisako; Araki, Kota; Shiomi, Kensuke; Okada, Takuya; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Kunita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Satoru; Wismans, Ronnie G. P.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Masu, Masayuki; Keino-Masu, Kazuko

2012-01-01

411

The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

2009-05-01

412

Aircraft measurements of organosulfates (IEPOX sulfate and glycolic acid sulfate) in the continental US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfates are important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components. They account for a significant mass fraction of aerosols, can be a good tracer for aqueous aerosol phase chemistry, and are potentially important to the climate due to their hydrophilic property. However, quantification of organosulfates is challenging, and as a result, our knowledge about the spatial distribution of organosulfates, their formation mechanisms, and climate impact is limited. In this study, we present the ambient measurements of organosulfates, including the relatively well-known isoprene-derived IEPOX-sulfate and a newly identified and quantified glycolic acid sulfate (GAS), by the NOAA Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) onboard the NASA DC8 aircraft during the DC3 campaign in the continental US in 2012. IEPOX sulfate accounted for about 1% of aerosol mass loading on average near the ground in the Southeast US where isoprene emission is high, and deceased significantly in the western US (0.2%) and at high altitudes (<0.1%). Compared to IEPOX sulfate, the observed GAS is more uniformly distributed, present in the lower troposphere (0.5% of aerosol mass), upper troposphere (0.7% of aerosol mass), and even lower stratosphere (0.7% of aerosol mass). The higher aerosol mass fraction of GAS in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere and in more aged aerosols indicates that GAS is probably long-lived in the aerosol phase and suggests that GAS is formed from different precursors or via a different chemical mechanism than IEPOX sulfate. In addition, GAS mass fraction usually increased with decreased relative humidity, suggesting that GAS may form in concentrated aerosol aqueous solution instead of cloud water. The increased formation of hydrophilic compounds such as GAS at low RH may in turn increase aerosol hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the ambient measurements demonstrated that acidity promotes the formation of both IEPOX sulfate and GAS and that their formation is likely limited by acidity near the ground.

Liao, J.; Froyd, K.; Murphy, D. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Yu, G.; Wennberg, P. O.; St Clair, J. M.; Crounse, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Chen, G.

2013-12-01

413

Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals  

SciTech Connect

Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-02-15

414

Dealumination of clinoptilolite and its effect on zinc removal from acid rock drainage.  

PubMed

Clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, is capable of removing heavy metals from acid rock drainage (ARD). Previous studies have neglected the dealumination of clinoptilolite and its impact during remediation. This study observed the dealumination of clinoptilolite during ARD remediation in a slurry bubble column (SBC), and investigated its impact on the capture of zinc. Uptake tests were performed with natural ARD and various sorbent average particle diameters from 300 to 1400?m, superficial gas velocities from 0.08 to 0.23ms(-1), initial aqueous pH from 2 to 6, Zn concentrations from 15 to 215ppm and sorbent/solution mass ratios from 25 to 400gkg(-1) to test zinc uptake. Dealumination of clinoptilolite was sometimes observed during the uptake process. Increased Al in the aqueous phase led to co-precipitation of Zn-Al colloid, enhanced by abundant sulfate in solution. The unit zinc uptake of the Al colloid was found to be much higher than for the raw clinoptilolite. PMID:24997948

Xu, Wanjing; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

2014-09-01

415

Zinc and copper in roof runoff.  

PubMed

The zinc and copper content of roof runoff could originate from different sources such as dry and wet deposition and the corrosion of the material. The zinc runoff rate from a galvanized surface depends on the corrosion products formed during the dry days, the rain intensity and roof slope, which determinates the contact time. In the present study the contact time dependence of zinc rate and the re-dissolution of the zinc were investigated with steeping tests and a pilot study. The average zinc runoff measured in the first 2.8 l of runoff was 3.8 mg m(-2) (1.1-8.4 mg m(-2)), while in the following samples 1.2 mg m(-2) were detected. These results are in accordance with the 5-10 min, and 40-60 s contact time laboratory steeping test, respectively, which are realistic. The estimated specific yearly zinc runoff rate was 0.7 g m(-2)y(-1), while the dry and wet deposition rate of copper was 0.009 mg m(-2)d(-1) and 0.053 mg m(-2)storm(-1) respectively. The re-dissolution of the zinc from the evaporated then re-filled samples of leaching tests with high initial zinc content was just 60% after 60 min. PMID:23579827

Horváth, A; Buzás, K

2013-01-01

416

The metallurgy of zinc-coated steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of zinc and zinc alloy coatings on steel is one of the commercially most important processing techniques used to protect steel components exposed to corrosive environments. From a technological standpoint, the principles of galvanizing have remained unchanged since this coating came into use over 200 years ago. However, because of new applications in the automotive and construction industry,

A. R. Marder

2000-01-01

417

Phosphorescent sensor for biological mobile zinc  

E-print Network

A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed, based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific ...

You, Youngmin

418

Kinetics of the fluorination of zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction between zinc metal and fluorine gas can be described by a parabolic rate law. This reaction is both temperature and pressure dependent. Simple kinetics are complicated by the considerable vaporization rate for zinc at temperatures above 300 C (573 K).

Odonnell, P. M.

1975-01-01

419

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption  

E-print Network

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

Boyer, Edmond

420

Zinc as a possible treatment for tinnitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element present in all organs, tissues, fluids, and secretions of the body and it is widely distributed in the central nervous system, including the auditory pathway in synapses of the VIII nerve and in the cochlea. Zinc is an essential component of Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and in certain enzymes and it is important for

Claudia Barros Coelho; Richard Tyler; Marlan Hansen

2007-01-01

421

Parents significantly overestimate zinc intakes in children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary surveys (e.g., CSFII) suggest that many toddlers exceed the Institute of Medicine's tolerable upper limit (UL) for zinc. Our objective was to compare zinc intakes estimated from parental report of toddlers to weighed dietary records carried out at home and in an inpatient setting at the Gene...

422

Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

2009-11-01

423

Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

Scott, R.

1973-01-01

424

Enhanced sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by sulfate ions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of sulfate ions on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by ultrasonic (US) irradiation at various pHs, sulfate doses, powers and temperatures. The removal of PFOA was augmented with an increased sulfate ion concentration, with PFOA being almost completely decomposed in 90min at 25°C with a sulfate dose of 117mM. The two major mechanisms in the sulfate-assisted sonochemical system are the direct destruction of PFOA by cavitation and the indirect destruction of PFOA by sulfate free radicals. The decomposition of PFOA followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not influenced by pH. The reaction rate constants decreased with increases in temperature due to decreases in the surface tension of the solution. PMID:24970115

Lin, Jo-Chen; Lo, Shang-Lien; Hu, Ching-Yao; Lee, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Jeff

2015-01-01

425

Sulfation of Phenylephrine by the Human Cytosolic Sulfotranserases.  

PubMed

Previous studies had demonstrated that sulfation constituted a major pathway for the metabolism of phenylephrine in vivo. The current study was designed to identify the major human SULT(s) responsible for the sulfation of phenylephrine. Of the twelve human SULTs analyzed, SULT1A3 displayed the strongest sulfating activity toward phenylephrine. The enzyme exhibited a pH optimum spanning 7 - 10.5. Kinetic analysis revealed that SULT1A3-mediated sulfation of phenylephrine occurred in the same order of magnitude compared with that previously reported for SULT1A3-mediated sulfation of dopamine. Moreover, sulfation of phenylephrine was shown to occur in HepG2 cells under metabolic setting. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of phenylephrine in vivo as previously reported. PMID:25429512

Yamamoto, Akihiro; Kim, Jiwan; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

2014-11-26

426

Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation  

SciTech Connect

Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-08-02

427

Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

1980-01-01

428

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

DOEpatents

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01

429

The crystal chemistry of four thorium sulfates  

SciTech Connect

Four thorium sulfate compounds have been synthesized and characterized. [Th(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS1) crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=7.2488(4), b=12.1798(7), c=8.0625(5) A, {beta}=98.245(1){sup o}; Na{sub 10}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (ThS2), Pna2{sub 1}, a=17.842(2), b=6.9317(8), c=27.550(3) A; Na{sub 2}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (ThS3), C2/c, a=16.639(2), b=9.081(1), c=25.078(3) A, {beta}= 95.322(2){sup o}; [Th{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS4), Pnma, a=18.2127(9), b=11.1669(5), c=14.4705(7) A. In all cases the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms corresponding to SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. The structural unit of ThS1 is an isolated cluster consisting of a single Th polyhedron with two monodentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and seven H{sub 2}O groups. A double-wide Th sulfate chain is the basis of ThS2. The structures of ThS3 and ThS4 are frameworks of Th polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra, and each contains channels that extend through the framework. One of the Th cations in ThS3 is coordinated by a bidentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedron, and ThS4 is unusual in the presence of a pair of Th cations that share a polyhedral face. - Graphical abstract: The structures of four hydrous thorium sulfates are reported that have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. Highlights: > Four hydrous thorium sulfates have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. > In each the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms from SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. > The details of the linkages of ThO{sub 9} polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra vary considerably in these structures.

Albrecht, Amanda J.; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Moore-Shay, Laura; Wei, Rebecca; Dawes, Colleen; Szymanowski, Jennifer [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2011-07-15

430

Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E. (International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc.)

2006-04-01

431

Thermodynamic Modeling of Zinc Speciation in Electric Arc Furnace Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remelting of automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the generation of a dust, which contains considerable amounts of zinc and other metals. Typically, the amount of zinc is of significant commercial value, but the recovery of this metal can be hindered by the varied speciation of zinc. The majority of the zinc exists as zincite (ZnO) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) or ferritic spinels ((Zn x Mn y Fe1-x-y )Fe2O4), but other zinccontaining species such as zinc chloride, zinc hydroxide chlorides, hydrated zinc sulphates and zinc silicates have also been identified. There is a scarcity of research literature on the thermodynamic aspects of the formation of these zinc-containing species, in particular, the minor zinc-containing species. Therefore, in this study, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry® 6.1 was utilized to calculate the types and the amounts of the zinc-containing species. The variables studied were: the gas composition, the temperature and the dust composition. At high temperatures, zincite forms via the reaction of zinc vapour with oxygen gas and the zinc-manganese ferrites form as a result of the reaction of iron-manganese particles with zinc vapour and oxygen. At intermediate temperatures, zinc sulphates are produced through the reaction of zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide gas. As room temperature is approached, zinc chlorides and fluorides form by the reaction of zinc oxide with hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases, respectively. Zinc silicate likely forms via the high temperature reaction of zinc vapour and oxygen with silica. In the presence of excess water and as room temperature is approached, the zinc sulphates, chlorides and fluorides can become hydrated.

Pickles, Chris A.

2011-04-01

432

A fluorescence enhancement-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.  

PubMed

Sugar-aza-crown ether-based cavitand 1 can act as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion in methanol among a series of tested anions. Spectroscopic studies, particularly NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the C-H hydrogen bonding between 1,2,3-triazole ring of cavitand 1 and hydrogen sulfate ion is crucial for the high selectivity of the receptor for hydrogen sulfate. PMID:22363932

Yang, Shih-Tse; Liao, De-Jhong; Chen, Shau-Jiun; Hu, Ching-Han; Wu, An-Tai

2012-04-01

433

Sulfate ion patterns water at long distance.  

PubMed

The chemical origins of the Hofmeister series are investigated using infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy. IRPD spectra of SO(4)(2-)(H(2)O)(n) with up to 80 water molecules have a band at approximately 3710 cm(-1) for n > 43 but not for n < or = 43. This band corresponds to outer-shell water molecules with "free" OH groups similar to those at the surface of bulk water. These results indicate that the sulfate dianion has a long-range effect on water structure, and this effect is likely to be an important factor in its Hofmeister behavior. PMID:20518523

O'Brien, Jeremy T; Prell, James S; Bush, Matthew F; Williams, Evan R

2010-06-23

434

DETERMINATION OF GAS-PHASE DIMETHYL SULFATE AND MONOMETHYL HYDROGEN SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical techniques have been developed for the collection and determination of gas phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in the flue lines and plumes of power plants and in the ambient atmosphere. The techniques involve the collection of the gas phase species in ...

435

HIGH-TEMPERATURE, SHORT-TIME SULFATION OF CALCIUM- BASED SORBENTS. 1. THEORETICAL SULFATION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model for the sulfation of CaO is developed around the overlapping grain concept. The potential influence of high mass-transfer rates from simultaneous calcination of CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 is incorporated in the mass-transfer coefficient for SO2 diffusion to the partic...

436

Determination of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate impurities in heparin by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) present in certain lots of heparin was identified as the toxic contaminant responsible for severe side effects following intravenous heparin administration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopeia (Eur.Ph.) announced an immediate revision of their monographs for heparin sodium by adding two US Food and Drugs Administration-recommended tests for OSCS based on nuclear magnetic

Govert W. Somsen; Yvonne H. Tak; Javier Sastre Toraño; Peter M. J. M. Jongen; Gerhardus J. de Jong

2009-01-01

437

Sulfate Homeostasis. II. Influence of Chronic Aspirin Administration on Inorganic Sulfate in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chronic aspirin administration on the serum concentration and renal clearance of inorganic sulfate in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, eight male subjects received either no treatment or 975 mg of enteric-coated aspirin three times daily for 8 days. Blood and urine samples were collected on the

Marilyn E. Morris; Lisa Jo Benincosa

1990-01-01

438

Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. PMID:25129780

Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

2014-11-01

439

Mine water treatment with limestone for sulfate removal.  

PubMed

Limestone can be an option for sulfate sorption, particularly from neutral mine drainages because calcium ions on the solid surface can bind sulfate ions. This work investigated sulfate removal from mine waters through sorption on limestone. Continuous stirred-tank experiments reduced the sulfate concentration from 588.0mg/L to 87.0mg/L at a 210-min residence time. Batch equilibrium tests showed that sulfate loading on limestone can be described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum loading of 23.7mg/g. Fixed-bed experiments were utilized to produce breakthrough curves at different bed depths. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was applied, and it indicated sulfate loadings of up to 20.0gSO(4)(2-)/L-bed as the flow rate increased from 1 to 10mL/min. Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and dose-response models, predicted a maximum particle loading of 19mg/g. Infrared spectrometry indicated the presence of sulfate ions on the limestone surface. Sulfate sorption on limestone seems to be an alternative to treating mine waters with sulfate concentrations below the 1200-2000mg/L range, where lime precipitation is not effective. In addition, this approach does not require alkaline pH values, as in the ettringite process. PMID:22541641

Silva, Adarlêne M; Lima, Rosa M F; Leão, Versiane A

2012-06-30

440

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate diversity in sea cucumbers: a review.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is structurally distinct glycosaminoglycans found from the sea cucumber body wall consisted of chondroitin sulfate type backbone with attached sulfated or non-sulfated fucose side chain. Structurally this compound plays an important role in maintaining the body wall integrity and possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Recently several glycosaminoglycans' structures have been solved to elucidate its physicochemical activity. The purpose of this review paper is to elaborate existing structural properties and functions, reporting over 30 years and systematically discussion herein. PMID:25129732

Myron, Pang; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Al Azad, Sujjat

2014-11-01

441

Sulfate Reduction in Groundwater: Characterization and Applications for Remediation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, with a specific focus on implications for groundwater remediation. A case study presenting the results of a pilot-scale ethanol injection test illustrates the advantages and difficulties associated with the use of electron-donor amendments for sulfate remediation.

Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

2012-06-01

442

Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

1987-10-01

443

Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels used in the laboratory, with most of the dissolved sulfate occurring as SO42 -, aqueous calcium sulfate ([CaSO4](aq)), and aqueous magnesium sulfate ([MgSO4](aq)). Our calculations indicate that TSR reactions that occur in natural environments are most likely to involve bisulfate ions (HSO4-) and/or magnesium sulfate contact ion-pairs ([MgSO4]CIP) rather than 'free' sulfate ions (SO42 -) or solvated sulfate ion-pairs, and that water chemistry likely plays a significant role in controlling the rate of TSR. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.

2008-01-01

444

Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42- are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42- is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions ( HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42-. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels used in the laboratory, with most of the dissolved sulfate occurring as SO42-, aqueous calcium sulfate ([CaSO 4] (aq)), and aqueous magnesium sulfate ([MgSO 4] (aq)). Our calculations indicate that TSR reactions that occur in natural environments are most likely to involve bisulfate ions ( HSO4-) and/or magnesium sulfate contact ion-pairs ([MgSO 4] CIP) rather than 'free' sulfate ions ( SO42-) or solvated sulfate ion-pairs, and that water chemistry likely plays a significant role in controlling the rate of TSR.

Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Amrani, Alon; Zhang, Tongwei; Tang, Yongchun

2008-09-01

445

Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae  

E-print Network

Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10% or better for all targets in our sample. The majority of the sample is found to be sub-solar in [Zn/H]. [O/Zn] in half of the sample is found to be consistent with Solar within uncertainties, whereas the remaining half are enhanced in [O/Zn]. [Zn/H] and [O/Zn] as functions of Galactocentric distance have been investigated and there is little evidence to support a trend in either case.

Smith, Christina L; Dinerstein, Harriet L

2014-01-01

446

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2012, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about  

E-print Network

188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2012, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about $1.53 billion secondary--produced the bulk of refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2012. Of the total zinc consumed

447

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2011, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about  

E-print Network

188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2011, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about $1.78 billion secondary--produced the bulk of refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2011. Of the total zinc consumed

448

Speciation And Bioavailability Of Zinc In Amended Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The speciation and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in smelter-contaminated sediments was investigated as a function of phosphate (apatite) and organic amendment loading rate. Zinc species identified in preamendment sediment were zinc hydroxide-like phases, sphalerite, and zinc sorbe...

449

Expression of the zinc transporter ZIP1 in osteoclasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc has been previously demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. The mechanisms for cellular uptake of zinc into osteoclasts have not been characterized. We have corroborated previous studies on the reduction of osteoclastogenesis in the presence of extracellular zinc. We demonstrate that osteoclasts express a ubiquitous plasma membrane zinc transporter, namely ZIP1, which was diffusely

Mohammed A. Khadeer; Surasri N. Sahu; Guang Bai; Sunia Abdulla; Anandarup Gupta

2005-01-01

450

The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal sulfide/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed sulfides and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh basaltic glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper sulfides, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc sulfide is found to predominate. The major sulfides found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the sulfide minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from basalts or basaltic magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.

Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.

1981-01-01

451

ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF DERMATAN SULFATE OLIGOSACCHARIDES  

PubMed Central

The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) oligosaccharides has been a longstanding challenge in the field of mass spectrometry. In this work, we present the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform mass spectrometry to the analysis of dermatan sulfate (DS) oligosaccharides up to 10 residues in length. The EDD mass spectra of DS oligosaccharides were compared to their infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) mass spectra. EDD produces more abundant fragmentation than IRMPD with far less loss of SO3 from labile sulfate modifications. EDD cleaves all glycosidic bonds, yielding both conventional glycosidic bond fragmentation as well as satellite peaks resulting from the additional loss of 1 or 2 hydrogen atoms. EDD also yields more cross-ring fragmentation than IRMPD. For EDD, abundant cross-ring fragmentation in the form of A- and X-ions is observed, with 1,5Xn cleavages occurring for all IdoA residues and many of the GalNAc4S residues, except at the reducing and nonreducing ends. In contrast, IRMPD produces only A-type cross-ring fragmentation for long oligosaccharides (dp6 – dp10). As all the structurally informative fragment ions observed by IRMPD appear as a subset of the peaks found in the EDD mass spectrum, EDD shows great potential for the characterization of GAG oligosaccharides using a single tandem mass spectrometry experiment. PMID:18055211

Wolff, Jeremy J.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Busch, Alexander M.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

2009-01-01

452

Sulfate recognition by a hexaaza cryptand receptor.  

PubMed

A hexamine macrobicycle with pyrrolyl spacers was evaluated as an anion receptor in its protonated forms. The protonation constants of the receptor, as well as its association constants with Cl(-), NO3(-), AcO(-), ClO4(-), H2PO4(-), and SO4(2-) were determined by potentiometry at 298.2 ± 0.1 K in H2O-MeOH (50?:?50 v/v) and at an ionic strength of 0.10 ± 0.01 M in KTsO. These studies revealed that the Hnpyrr(n+) receptor has a very high effective association constant value for the SO4(2-) at pH 4.0 (log?Keff = 6.42), and it is selective for the uptake of this anion in the presence of the other studied anionic substrates. In particular, the receptor showed very high SO4(2-)/NO3(-) selectivity. Using the indicator-displacement approach the receptor is able to signal the presence of sulfate by a change of color. Single crystal X-ray diffraction determination of [(H6pyrr)(SO4)(H2O)3](SO4)2·9.3H2O revealed the presence of one sulfate anion inside the receptor cavity and showed that the encapsulation of the anion is favored by an array of nine hydrogen bonding interactions, including N-HO, C-HO and water-mediated ones. PMID:25407639

Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; André, Vânia; Teresa Duarte, M

2015-01-21

453

The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1 MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO4-H2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous sulfates likely to be found on Mars enhance our understanding of the degrees of hydration of various sulfates that should currently exist on Mars at various seasons and locations and during various atmospheric pressure and obliquity periods. Two sets of systematic experiments were described; one on hydrous Mg sulfates and the other on hydrous Fe3+ sulfates. Also, their implications to Mars sulfates mineralogy were discussed.

Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

2013-01-01

454

Method for inhibiting corrosion in particulate zinc  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the inhibition of corrosion in particulate zinc, which comprises the step of subjecting said zinc in the form of an alkaline slurry to treatment by a corrosion inhibiting effective amount of a corrosion inhibitor which is at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxides of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium and tin, wherein zinc has been obtained by an electrolytic process for regeneration of zinc in an at least partially spent slurry for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to an oxidation product selected from zinc oxide and zincates; (b) an aqueous solution of at least one Group 1a metal comprising anions selected from the group consisting of hydroxide and zincate; (c) an inorganic inhibitor ingredient effective to inhibit an interaction of zinc and at least one Group 1a metal hydroxide in the aqueous solution, which would otherwise result in an evolution of hydrogen gas; (d) a gelling agent; (e) a filler selected from the group consisting of particulate and fibrous fillers; (f) a labelling agent; (g) a dissolved electrolyte extender.

Goldstein, J.; Meitav, A,; Lezion, R.; Kravitz, M.

1993-08-03

455

Interactions of cadmium and zinc during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of cadmium exposure and zinc during pregnancy were investigated by studying rats exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 100 ppm cadmium (as CdCl{sub 2}) in the drinking water from day 6 to day 20 of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, fetuses of rats exposed to 50 and 100 ppm of cadmium were slightly but significantly smaller than those of control animals. Fetal weight was negatively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration and positively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration. Significant fetal cadmium accumulation occurred in both the 50 and 100 ppm cadmium exposure groups; fetal zinc concentrations were decreased. Maternal liver and kidney zinc concentrations were slightly elevated, and the possible role of maternal organ sequestration of available zinc is discussed. The activity of two zinc metalloenzymes, alkaline phosphatase and {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was decreased in maternal and fetal tissues, providing evidence of an alteration in zinc metabolism. In addition, the placental transport of {sup 65}Zn was characterized in control animals and compared to exposed groups; placental zinc transport was significantly decreased in the 50 and 100 ppm exposure groups.

Sorell, T.L.

1988-01-01

456

Zinc-binding sites on selected flavonoids.  

PubMed

Flavonoids have attracted increased attention due to their broad bioactivities related to health and diseases. Modulating metal homeostasis may play an important role in their bioactivities. Recent studies have suggested that dietary flavonoids may affect zinc homeostasis, uptake, and transport. In this work, the zinc-binding sites on a few selected flavonoids have been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy under physiological relevant pH and the species formed were verified by mass spectrometry. Zinc binding induces distinct changes in the proton resonances on the flavonoid rings, providing useful information to locate the Zn-binding sites. No Zn-binding was observed with flavone which lacks a chelation site. Zinc was found to bind to the 3-hydroxyl-4-keto, catechol, and 5-hydroxyl-4-keto chelation sites of flavonol, 3',4'-dihydroxylflavone and chrysin, respectively. Kaempferol and myricetin chelate zinc at the 3-hydroxyl-4-keto site while rutin binds zinc preferentially at the 5-hydroxyl-4-keto site. However, morin appears to bind zinc at the 1-ether-2-hydroxyl site. PMID:25123463

Wei, Yibin; Guo, Maolin

2014-11-01

457

ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

Korinko, P.

2010-12-17

458

Chemical and physical properties of sulfated silk fabrics.  

PubMed

Silk fabrics were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine for different times. The amount of sulfur bound to silk increased during the first 2 h of reaction and then reached a plateau. The amino acidic pattern of sulfated silk remained essentially unchanged for short reaction times (< or =2 h). Longer reaction times resulted in drastic changes in the concentration of Asp, Glu, and Tyr. Surface morphology and texture of silk fabrics changed upon sulfation. Warp and weft yarns became progressively thinner, and deposits of foreign material appeared on the fiber surface. Changes were more evident at longer reaction times (> or =2 h). Spectroscopic analyses performed by FT-IR and FT-Raman showed the appearance of new bands attributable to various vibrations of sulfated groups. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm-1, due to organic sulfate salts, were particularly intense. Bands assigned to alkyl sulfates and sulfonamides appeared in the 1300-1180 cm-1 range. Organic covalent sulfates displayed a weak but distinct IR band at 1385 cm-1. Both IR and Raman spectra revealed that silk fibroin mainly bound sulfates through the hydroxyl groups of Ser and Tyr, while involvement of amines could not be proved. Changes observed in the amide I and II range indicated an increase of the degree of molecular disorder of sulfated silk. Accordingly, the I850/I830 intensity ratio between the two Tyr bands at 850-830 cm-1 increased from 1.41 to 1.52, indicating a more exposed state of Tyr residues in sulfated silk. TGA, DSC, and TG analyses showed that sulfated silk attained a higher thermal stability. A thermal transition attributable to sulfated silk fibroin fractions appeared at about 260 degrees C in the DSC thermograms. PMID:17338562

Taddei, P; Arosio, C; Monti, P; Tsukada, M; Arai, T; Freddi, G

2007-04-01

459

Recent patterns of sulfate variability in pristine streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Systematic modes of spatial and temporal variation in a 13-y record of stream sulfate from a nationwide network of headwater sampling stations are defined using principal components. Based on the undisturbed nature of the sampling network, it is suggested that these modes of stream sulfate variability are analogues for variations in acid deposition. Three statistically significant components, accounting for approximately 50% of the total stream sulfate variance, are identified. Analysis of component loadings and scores indicates that a major transition occurred in the early 1970s when stream sulfate concentrations in the northeast changed from persistently above mean levels to persistently below. At the same time concentrations of sulfate in Gulf and Southeast Atlantic coast streams shifted from persistently below to persistently above mean concentrations. Significantly, these changes occurred contemporaneously with regional trends in sulfate emissions which can generally be characterized as decreasing in the northeast and increasing in the southeast.Systematic modes of spatial and temporal variation in a 13-y record of stream sulfate from a nationwide network of headwater sampling stations are defined using principal components. Based on the undisturbed nature of the sampling network, it is suggested that these modes of stream sulfate variability are analogues for variations in acid deposition. Three statistically significant components, accounting for approximately 50% of the total stream sulfate variance, are identified. Analysis of component loadings and scores indicates that a major transition occurred in the early 1970s when stream sulfate concentrations in the northeast changed from persistently above mean levels to persistently below. At the same time concentrations of sulfate in Gulf and Southeast Atlantic coast streams shifted from persistently below to persistently above mean concentrations.

Lins, H.F.

1986-01-01

460

UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action in human epidermal keratinocytes  

E-print Network

UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an active ingredient in sunscreen owing to its properties of broadly filtering of solar radiation on the skin. This study investigated the dissociation of zinc (Zn2+ ) from Zn

Li, Yang V.

461

Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering  

E-print Network

Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown January 2007 Abstract Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc oxide; dc magnetron sputtering; Surface morphology; Sensors 1

462

[Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fumes and zinc dust inhalation].  

PubMed

Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fume inhalation and zinc powder inhalation are presented. Case 1 demonstrated acute respiratory symptoms during the work of distortion correction of iron boards, coated with a rust preventative including rich zinc using an acetylene gas burner. Case 2 occurred after the work of applying a rust preventative that included zinc powder, mainly using an airless compressor. Since both were working in a boathouse, without using protective equipment, the possible causes of Case 1 and 2 were inhalation exposure to zinc fumes and zinc powder, respectively. The two patients showed similar clinical courses, including favorable treatment outcomes, mimicking acute respiratory failure complicated by a metal fume fever. PMID:24930880

Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Soda, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

463

Zinc: an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent: role of zinc in degenerative disorders of aging.  

PubMed

In the developed countries nearly 30% of the elderly are zinc deficient. Many chronic diseases seen in the elderly such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, neuro-degenerative disorders, Parkinson's disease and age related macular degeneration (AMD) may be due to chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Zinc in human plays an important role in cell mediated immunity and is also an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Zinc supplementation studies in the elderly have shown decreased incidence of infections, decreased oxidative stress, and decreased generation of inflammatory cytokines. Decreased incidences of blindness in patients with AMD and increased atheroprotective effect have been observed in the zinc supplemented elderly. Zinc is a molecular signal for immune cells and many transcription factors involved in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules are regulated by zinc. PMID:25200490

Prasad, Ananda S

2014-10-01

464

Inhibition by zinc of rhinovirus protein cleavage: interaction of zinc with capsid polypeptides.  

PubMed Central

Zinic ions rapidly inhibit virus production in HeLa cells infected with human rhinovirus type 1A and lead to the accumulation of human rhinovirus type 1A precursor polypeptides. The degree to which cleavage of these precursors is inhibited is directly dependent on the quantity of cell-associated zinc. Proteolysis resumes after the removal of zinc-containing medium, and the accumulated viral precursors are cleaved predominantly to stable virus polypeptides. The precursors stabilized at the lowest zinc levels are those that contain capsid protein sequences. Furthermore, added zinc is bound to human rhinovirus type 1A capsids and prevents them from forming crystals. Zinc-resistant mutants display antigenic alterations in coat proteins. These results suggest that zinc complexes with rhinovirus coat proteins and alters them so that they cannot function as substrates for proteases or as reactants in the assembly of the virus particles. Images PMID:176466

Korant, B D; Butterworth, B E

1976-01-01

465

Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds.  

PubMed

Two clinical trials were conducted, one involving 273 subjects with experimental rhinovirus colds and the other involving 281 subjects with natural colds. Symptomatic volunteers were randomized to receive oral lozenges containing zinc gluconate (13.3 mg), zinc acetate (5 or 11.5 mg), or placebo. The median duration of illness in zinc gluconate recipients was 2.5 days, contrasted with 3.5 days in the placebo recipients (P=.035), in the experimental colds study. Zinc gluconate had no effect on symptom severity and zinc acetate had no effect on either duration or severity. Neither formulation had an effect on the duration or severity of natural cold symptoms. Evaluation of blinding, taste, and adverse events revealed no significant differences among the 4 treatment arms. Zinc compounds appear to have little utility for common-cold treatment. PMID:11073753

Turner, R B; Cetnarowski, W E

2000-11-01

466

Zinc Phosphate Transformations by the Paxillus involutus \\/Pine Ectomycorrhizal Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigate zinc phosphate transformations by Paxillus involutus\\/pine ectomycorrhizas using zinc-resistant and zinc-sensitive strains of the ectomycorrhizal fungus under high- and low-phosphorus conditions to further understand fungal roles in the transformation of toxic metal minerals in the mycorrhizosphere. Mesocosm experiments with ectomycorrhizas were performed under sterile conditions with zinc phosphate localized in cellophane bags: zinc and phosphorus

Marina Fomina; John M. Charnock; Stephen Hillier; Ian J. Alexander; Geoffrey M. Gadd

2006-01-01

467

Thermally induced microstrain broadening in hexagonal zinc  

SciTech Connect

Neutron powder-diffraction experiments on polycrystalline hexagonal zinc show considerable temperature-dependent line broadening. Whereas as-received zinc at 300 K exhibits narrow reflections, during cooling to a minimum temperature of 10K considerable line-broadening appears, which largely disappears again during reheating. The line broadening may be ascribed to microstrains induced by thermal microstresses due to the anisotropy of the thermal expansion (shrinkage) of hexagonal zinc. Differences between the thermal microstrains and theoretical predictions considering elastic deformation of the grains can be explained by plastic deformation and surface effects.

Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roberts, Joyce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leineweber, Andreas [STUTTGART, GERMANY; Mittemeijer, E J [STUTTGART, GERMANY; Kreher, W [DRESDEN UNIV

2008-01-01

468

Solubility of uranous sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide important thermodynamic data for use in uranium hydrometallurgy, solubilities of uranous sulfate were determined as a function of free acid concentration and temperature. Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. One set was the precipitation experiments of uranous sulfate crystals, in which concentrated uranous sulfate solution was mixed with sulfuric acid solution of suitable concentration. The other set was the dissolution experiments of uranous sulfate crystals in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions. It is noteworthy that good agreement exists between the solubilities determined by the two methods. At elevated temperatures, say, 363 K, the presence of free sulfuric acid is required to avoid precipitation of uranous hydroxide resulting from the hydrolysis of uranous sulfate. Generally speaking, however, an increase in free sulfuric acid concentration results in a slight decrease in uranous sulfate solubility. The elevation of solution temperature causes a decrease in solubility of uranous sulfate. It should be noted that the solid uranous sulfates equilibrated with saturated solutions at 298 K were U(SO4)2 2H2O in dilute sulfuric acid solution and U(SO4)2 4H2O in concentrated sulfuric acid solution, while those at 333 K and 363 K were mainly U(SO4)2 4H2O.

Suzuki, Shigeru; Hirono, Shuichiro; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Majima, Hiroshi

1990-10-01

469

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-print Network

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1. A simplified model is presented which used cement chemistry, concrete physics, and mechanics to develop of hardened concrete, principally the cement paste, caused by exposure of concrete to sulfates and moisture

Mobasher, Barzin

470

Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions  

E-print Network

Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions P. C. Griffiths* and J. A dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles bound to gelatin have been studied by fluorescence using 8-anilino-1-naphththalene sulfonic acid (ANS) as probe. Like gelatin, ANS binds in the region of the micelle occupied

Bales, Barney

471

Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

2008-01-01

472

Carbonate and sulfate minerals in the Chassigny meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SO2 and CO2 from pyrolysis and combustion of bulk Chassigny and infrared traces of sulfate and carbonate minerals have been previously reported. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x ray spectrometry (EDS), portions of these samples are searched, and a Ca-sulfate/carbonate association is confirmed.

Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

1991-01-01

473

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

E-print Network

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury Joshua M. Browna,1 , Jiang demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within

Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

474

SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are rooted in anoxic sediments that support high levels of microbial activity including utilization of sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor which is reduced to sulfide. Sulfate reduction in seagrass bed sediments is stimulated by input of organic carbon through the ...

475

AMMONIUM SULFATE AND BISULFATE FORMATION IN AIR PREHEATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall goal of this study was to investigate the problems which result from deposition of ammonium sulfates in an air preheater. More specifically, the study had three major objectives. The first was to determine the conditions under which ammonium sulfates are expected to f...

476

Properties of Triglycine Sulfate Crystals Grown from Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dielectric study of triglycine sulfate crystals was carried out and the phase transition temperatures were determined for samples grown at temperatures below 0°C. The influence exerted by a single-crystal silicon substrate treated by various methods on the shape of triglycine sulfate crystals was examined.

Zh. D. Stekhanova; O. B. Yatsenko; S. D. Milovidova; A. S. Sidorkin; O. V. Rogazinskaya

2005-01-01