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1

Herpes genitalis - Topical zinc sulfate: An alternative therapeutic and modality  

PubMed Central

Background: Herpes genitalis is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections in the world caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. All herpes viruses show latency. Herpes genitalis caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 is recurrent in 55 and 90% of case respectively. Aims: To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of topical zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in varying concentrations in herpes genitalis. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients clinically diagnosed as herpes genitalis and confirmed by Tzanck test were taken up for study and divided into 3 groups of 30 patients each which were applied topical ZnSO4 in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% respectively for 3 months. Ten patients of herpes genitalis were kept as control in whom only distilled water was applied. Patients were followed up for a total period of 6 months for any recurrences. Results: Ten patients of group 1 (1% ZnSO4) showed recurrence, 6 patients in group 2 (2% ZnSO4) and only one patient in group 3 (4% ZnSO4) showed recurrence. In the control group, 8 out of 10 patients showed recurrence. No serious side effects were seen in all 3 groups. Conclusion: Topical ZnSO4 has been found to be an effective therapeutic modality not only for treatment but also for prolonging remissions in herpes genitalis. Topical 4% ZnSO4 has been found to be most efficacious out of the three concentrations, without any side effects.

Mahajan, B. B.; Dhawan, Mohit; Singh, Rajwinder

2013-01-01

2

Effect of ZnSO4 upon gastric acid secretion and carbonic anhydrase.  

PubMed

Starting from the multiple role zinc holds in the enzymatic processes of the body and from some positive data concerning treatment with zinc sulphate in gastric ulcer, we have studied the effect of ZnSO4 on gastric acid secretion in duodenal ulcer patients, as well as that on purified and gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase. Gastric secretory testing showed that zinc sulphate administered in doses of 60 ml/day (1% solution) for 10 days reduced basal acid secretion in duodenal ulcer patients by 57.7%. In vitro, concentrations of ZnSO4 ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-2)M, inhibit purified carbonic anhydrase activity in a dose-dependent manner, reaching maximum effect at 10(-2)M, when carbonic anhydrase activity dropped from 2060 +/- 65 IU to 660 +/- 85 IU. A similar dose-dependent inhibition was found with gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase activity, where ZnSO4 at 10(-2)M reduces enzyme activity from its basal value of 1.58 +/- 0.36 EU/mg to 0.88 +/- 0.21 EU/mg. Besides this effect, zinc sulphate antagonized in vitro the activation of both purified and gastric mucosa carbonic anhydrase by histamine. In conclusion, the mechanism of antisecretory effect of ZnSO4 might well be the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase in the gastric mucosa. PMID:4077313

Puscas, I; Sturzu, L; Búzás, G

1985-11-01

3

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

Wentworth, W. E.

1992-04-01

4

21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

2013-04-01

5

21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

6

Determination of the diffusion coefficients of CuSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , and NiSO 4 in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficients of CuSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 in the aqueous solution systems of MSO4 and MSO4-H2SO4 were measured at 298 K using a diaphragm-cell method, and are listed as a function of molar concentrations of MSO4 and H2SO4. It was found that the concentration dependencies of the diffusion coefficients for CuSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 in each single metal sulfate

Yasuhiro Awakura; Toshiya Doi; Hiroshi Majima

1988-01-01

7

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and...

2009-04-01

8

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment...neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and...

2010-04-01

9

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

10

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5 milligrams of...

2009-04-01

11

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2012-07-01

12

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

13

Possibility of alveolar bone promoting enhancement by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc related compounds in zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is improvement of therapeutic treatment for periodontitis by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc materials. The sample suspension injections were prepared from zinc octanate (C8Zn), zinc stearate (C18Zn), zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate (ZnSO4) and tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) containing 6.17 w/w% zinc. After administrating of all injections to around alveolar bone of zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats, plasma Zn concentration, bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, BMC and bone mechanical strength (BMS) of femur and permeability tests for hairless rat stripped skin were measured as therapeutic scores. BMC and BMS were measured by using an X-ray computing tomography and the three-point bending method, respectively. The body weight, plasma Zn concentrations and the area under curve (AUC) for Zn of C8Zn, C18Zn and ZnTCP group rats were higher than those of control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. BMC of alveolar bone and femur and BMS of femur for C8Zn and C18Zn groups for 12 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. Stripped rat skin permeability treated by the hydrophilic creams containing C8Zn was 5-times higher than that of ZnTCP. PMID:22975500

Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

2012-01-01

14

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2013-04-01

15

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2013-04-01

16

Reinvestigation of growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal.  

PubMed

Reinvestigation of the growth of thiourea urea zinc sulfate crystal is reported. Aqueous reaction of thiourea, urea and zinc sulfate in 1:1:1mol ratio results in the formation of the well known [Zn(tu)3(SO4)] (1) (tu=thiourea) crystal and not the 'so called' novel semiorganic nonlinear optical thiourea urea zinc sulfate (2) crystal, as claimed by Redrothu Hanumantha Rao, S. Kalainathan, Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal - Thiourea urea zinc sulfate, Spectrochim. Acta A97 (2012) 456-463. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of elemental analytical data, infrared and NMR spectra and X-ray powder pattern, for accurate product characterization. PMID:24060627

Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Naik, Teja A; Tylczy?ski, Zbigniew; Priolkar, K R

2013-08-28

17

Effects of zinc on epithelial barrier properties and viability in a human and a porcine intestinal cell culture model.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential trace element with a variety of physiological and biochemical functions. Piglets are commonly supplemented, during the weaning period, with doses of zinc above dietary requirements with positive effects on health and performance that might be attributed to anti-secretory and barrier-enhancing effects in the intestine. For a better understanding of these observations increasing zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0-200?M) concentrations were used in an in vitro culture model of porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells and effects on barrier function, viability, and the mRNA expression of one selected heat shock protein (Hsp) were assessed. When treated apically with zinc sulfate, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) did not change significantly. In contrast, cell viability measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, by ATP and by WST-1 conversion in postconfluent IPEC-J2 monolayers was affected after a 24-h treatment with 200?M ZnSO4. Caco-2 cells were more resistant to Zn. ZnSO4 did not induce any effect on viability, except when it was used at the highest concentration (200?M), and only in preconfluent cells. Furthermore, ZnSO4 induced Hsp70 mRNA expression at 200?M and was more pronounced in preconfluent cells. The observed dose-related effects of zinc are cell-line specific and depended on the differentiation status of the cells. The IPEC-J2 cell line appears to be a suitable in vitro model to characterize specific effects on porcine intestinal cells. PMID:23274768

Lodemann, U; Einspanier, R; Scharfen, F; Martens, H; Bondzio, A

2012-12-27

18

Oral treatment of acrodermatitis enteropathica with zinc sulfate.  

PubMed

In a 7-year-old boy with acrodermatitis enteropathica, oral administration of zinc sulfate brought about complete relief of symptoms and signs, with clearing of the skin lesions, arrest of diarrhea, and growth of new hair. Considering the dramatic results obtained, we believe that oral treatment with zinc sulfate is an innocuous, inexpensive, and very effective medication for acrodermatitis enteropathica, which can replace the previously used and toxic diiodohydroxyquin-like drugs. PMID:946739

Der Kaloustian, V M; Musallam, S S; Sanjad, S A; Murib, A; Hammad, W D; Idriss, Z H

1976-04-01

19

Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

2004-07-01

20

Double blind study of the effects of zinc sulfate on taste and smell dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, double blind crossover study of the effects of zinc sulfate and placebo was carried out in 106 patients with taste and smell dysfunction secondary to a variety of etiological factors. In the patient group prior to treatment, mean serum zinc concentration and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly lower than normal. Results indicate that zinc sulfate was effectively

ROBERT I. HENKIN; PAUL J. SCHECTER; WILLIAM T. FRIEDEWALD; DAVID L. DEMETS; MORTON RAFF

1976-01-01

21

Evaluation of zinc electrodeposition kinetics from acidic zinc sulfate solutions using a UPD-modified platinum substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, underpotential deposition, UPD, describes the formation of a two-dimensional layer of metal onto a foreign substrate at a potential more positive than that for overpotential deposition, OPD, of the metal. Use of this phenomenon is proposed as a novel technique for generating smooth and reproducible electrode surfaces of reactive metals, using zinc UPD on platinum as a model case. The technique involves polarization of a polished platinum electrode to cause zinc UPD followed by a pulsed polarization step to grow a bulk zinc metal deposit on the electrode. The steady-state zinc deposition rate is recorded as a function of the applied potential. Mass transfer effects are controlled by the use of a rotating disc electrode. After each potential step, the electrode is polarized to a potential near the UPD potential, which dissolves the bulk zinc and regenerates the original smooth electrode. In this manner the voltage-current density relationship for the zinc deposition reaction may be mapped for a particular solution composition. Experiments were conducted to characterize UPD of zinc on platinum in magnesium sulphate and sulphuric acid supporting electrolytes. UPD of zinc on platinum occurs at a voltage approximately 1 V more positive than that of bulk zinc deposition with an estimated charge density of 260 +/- 30 muC cm-2, which is in the order of a monolayer of zinc. The UPD layer was determined to evolve into a Pt-Zn alloy which further inhibited hydrogen evolution, relative to the freshly deposited UPD layer. Bulk zinc deposition experiments were carried out in pure zinc sulphate solutions at 25°C, using the developed technique, and kinetic parameters were evaluated and compared to previously reported values. The Tafel slope for zinc deposition from pH neutral electrolytes was determined to be ca. 60 mV dec-1, while in highly acid electrolytes was ca. 30 mV dec-1, due to the inhibiting effect of hydrogen adsorption. The transition of zinc deposit morphology from a relatively smooth deposit to a dendntic deposit was confirmed to occur at ca . 1000 A m-2 in 1.0 mol dm-3 ZnSO4. By virtue of the low value of the Tafel slope, the current density for zinc deposition is highly sensitive to overpotential (increasing tenfold for every 30 mV increase). Dendritic growth in industrial zinc electrowinning at a conventional current density of ca. 500 A m-2 was attributed to the effects on the local current distribution from the vertical distribution of ohmic drop in the electrolyte and screening of the cathode by attached bubbles. The use of forced convection to mitigate these effects is proposed as a means of extending the current density range of zinc electrowinning.

Guerra, Eduard

22

Electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivities of the aqueous solution system of H2SO4-MSO4 (involving ZnSO4, MgSO4, Na2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), reported by Tozawa et al., were examined in terms of a (H2O) and H+ ion concentration. The equations to compute the concentrations of various species in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing metal sulfates were derived for a typical example of the H2SO4-ZnSO4-MgSO4-(Na2SO4)-H2O system. It was found that the H+ ion concentrations in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions corresponding to practical zinc electrowinning solutions are very high and remain almost constant with or without the addition of metal sulfates. The addition of metal sulfates to aqueous sulfuric acid solution causes a decrease in electrical conductivity, and this phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in water activity, which reflects a decrease in the amount of free water. The relationship between conductivity and water activity at a constant H+ ion concentration is independent of the kind of sulfates added. On the other hand, any increase in H+ ion concentration results in an increase in electrical conductivity. A novel method for the prediction of electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution is proposed that uses the calculated data of water activity and the calculated H+ ion concentration. Also, the authors examined an extension of the Robinson-Bower equation to calculate water activity in quarternary solutions based on molarity instead of molality, and found that such calculated values are in satisfactory agreement with those determined experimentally by a transpiration method.

Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook

1987-03-01

23

Second-harmonic generation in zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear and second-order nonlinear optical properties of single-crystal zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, or ZTS, are determined. The deduced nonlinear coefficients are {vert bar} {ital d}â⁠{vert bar}=0.31, {vert bar} {ital d}ââ {vert bar}=0.35, and {vert bar} {ital d}ââ {vert bar}=0.23 pm\\/V compared with a {vert bar} {ital d}ââ {vert bar} value of 0.39 pm\\/V for potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Because it

H. O. Marcy; L. F. Warren; M. S. Webb; C. A. Ebbers; S. P. Velsko; G. C. Kennedy; G. C. Catella

1992-01-01

24

Thematic course: Research of equilibriums with the method of residual concentration and potentiometric titration. Part I. HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIUM IN SYSTEMS ZnSO4-H2O-KOH, ZnSO4-H2O-NH3 and CuSO4-H2O-KOH, CuSO4-H2O-NH3  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the method of residual concentration we have investigated the equilibrium in systems ZnSO4-H2?-KOH (1), ZnSO4-H2?-NH3 (2) and CuSO4-H2?-KOH (1'), CuSO4-H2?-NH3 (2'). For these systems the mathematical model of heterogeneous equilibrium has been worked out which allows for the formation of precipitates of various structures. In the research there have been estimated the equilibrium constants for complexes Zn(II) and Cu(II)

Rafail A. Yusupov; Marat R. Gafarov; Edward R. Nurislamov; Oleg V. Mihaylov

2002-01-01

25

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

26

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral supplements Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc acetate Zinc sulfate Heated or burned galvanized metal (releases zinc fumes) ...

27

Comparison of inhibitory activities of zinc oxide ultrafine and fine particulates on IgE-induced mast cell activation.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrafine and fine particles of zinc oxide (ZnO) on IgE-dependent mast cell activation were investigated. The rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgE was challenged with OVA in the presence or absence of ZnO particles and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Degranulation of RBL2H3 was examined by the release of ?-hexosaminidase. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating mast cell functions, the effects of ZnO particles on the levels of intracellular Zn2+, Ca2+, phosphorylated-Akt, and global tyrosine phosphorylation were also measured. IgE-induced release of b-hexosaminidase was obviously attenuated by ultrafine ZnO particles and ZnSO4, whereas it was very weakly inhibited by fine ZnO particles. The intracellular Zn2+ concentration was higher in the cells incubated with ultrafine ZnO particles than in those with fine ZnO particles. Consistent with inhibitory effect on release of b-hexosaminidase, ultrafine ZnO particles and ZnSO4, but not fine ZnO particle, strongly attenuated the IgE-mediated increase of phosphorylated-Akt and tyrosine phosphorylations of 100 and 70 kDa proteins in RBL2H3 cells. These findings indicate that ultrafine ZnO particles, with a small diameter and a large total surface area/mass, could release Zn2+ easily and increase intracellular Zn2+ concentration efficiently, thus decreasing FceRI-mediated mast cell degranulation through inhibitions of PI3K and protein tyrosine kinase activation. Exposure to ZnO particles might affect immune responses, especially in allergic diseases. PMID:19609684

Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

2009-12-01

28

Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

2007-05-01

29

Twinned low-temperature structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate, [Zn(C2H8N2)3]SO4, (I),\\u000aundergoes a reversible solid–solid phase transition during\\u000acooling, accompanied by a lowering of the symmetry from\\u000ahigh-trigonal P31c to low-trigonal P3 and by merohedral\\u000atwinning. The molecular symmetries of the cation and anion\\u000achange from 32 (D3) to 3 (C3). This lower symmetry allows an\\u000aordered sulfate anion and generates in the complex cation two\\u000aindependent

M. Lutz

2010-01-01

30

Comparison of Intralesional Two Percent Zinc Sulfate and Glucantime Injection in Treatment of Acute Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in developing countries caused by different species of leishmania parasite, and if left untreated, it will result in a deformed scar after a relatively long period. Although various systemic and topical treatments have been proposed for leishmaniasis, pentavalent Antimony compounds remain the first-line treatment for it. Considering the cases with treatment failure, potential side effects and reluctance of patients to receive the drug, there are continuing efforts to find better treatment alternatives. Aim: Comparison of the effect of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate injection with Glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 45 patients with clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and positive direct smear for leishman body were treated by intralesional injection of either 2% zinc sulfate or Glucantime. After simple randomization, in one group the patients were treated with 2 bouts of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate with a 2-week interval, and in the other group they were treated with 6 weekly bouts of intralesional Glucantime. The patients were monitored in two week intervals for 8 weeks. Healing of the lesions was evaluated clinically and by direct smear, and the data were analyzed using SPSS (11.5) software, t-Student, Mann-Whitney and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistical tests. Findings: In the end of study, 34 patients completed the study, 10 of whom received intralesional Glucantime and 24 of whom received intralesional 2% zinc sulfate. The healing rate after 8 weeks was 80% in the group receiving intralesional Glucantime and 33.3% in the one receiving 2% zinc sulfate (P=0.009). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate was less effective in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis than intralesional Glucantime.

Maleki, Masoud; Karimi, Gholamreza; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Raftari, Somayyeh; Nahidi, Yalda

2012-01-01

31

The separation and concentration of iron from zinc process solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for solvent-extraction technology to be acceptable in the zinc industry as an alternative to existing jarosite precipitation circuits, iron must be cleanly separated and concentrated into a feed stream suitable for downstream iron by-product recovery. In this article, the use of OPAP, a mixed extractant consisting of mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acids, is described as a potentially suitable extractant to selectively extract Fe(III) from concentrated ZnSO4(90 g/l zinc)/H2SO4(50 g/l) solutions, followed by stripping of Fe(III) with 4 6 N HCl. OPAP was found to exhibit very low solubility/degradation characteristics (similar to D2EHPA) and excellent loading characteristics with minimal zinc and sulfate co-extraction. OPAP seems to have the lowest sulfate carryover than any other extractant previously proposed for iron extraction from strong acidic solutions. In terms of stripping, a 70 g/l Fe(II) (as FeCl2)/6 N HCl solution was found to be effective in producting 100 g/l total iron in the strip solution.

Principe, F. T.; Demopoulos, G. P.

1999-12-01

32

The Role of Zinc and Metallothionein in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) and its binding protein metallothionien (MT) have been proposed to suppress the disease activity in ulcerative colitis.\\u000a To determine the role of Zn and MT in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced model of colitis in mice, a DSS dose-response\\u000a study was conducted in male C57BL\\/6 wild-type (MT+\\/+) and MT-null (MT?\\/?) mice by supplementing 2%, 3%, and 4% DSS

C. D. Tran; J. M. Ball; S. Sundar; P. Coyle; G. S. Howarth

2007-01-01

33

Kinetic Studies of Zinc Extraction from Sulfate Solutions with bis(2?Ethylhexyl)thiophosphoric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of the kinetics of zinc extraction from sulfate media with bis(2?ethylhexyl)thiophosphoric acid (D2EHTPA). A cell with a constant interfacial area and with vibrational mixing was used to measure the initial extraction and initial stripping rates under several operating conditions. The results obtained suggest that the extraction process can be described by the reaction mechanism scheme

M. Teresa A. Reis; Jorge M. R. Carvalho

2005-01-01

34

Twinned low-temperature structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate.  

PubMed

Tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate, [Zn(C(2)H(8)N(2))(3)]SO(4), (I), undergoes a reversible solid-solid phase transition during cooling, accompanied by a lowering of the symmetry from high-trigonal P31c to low-trigonal P3 and by merohedral twinning. The molecular symmetries of the cation and anion change from 32 (D(3)) to 3 (C(3)). This lower symmetry allows an ordered sulfate anion and generates in the complex cation two independent N atoms with significantly different geometries. The twinning is the same as in the corresponding Ni complex [Jameson et al. (1982). Acta Cryst. B38, 3016-3020]. The low-temperature phase of tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate, [Cu(C(2)H(8)N(2))(3)]SO(4), (II), has only triclinic symmetry and the unit-cell volume is doubled with respect to the room-temperature structure in P31c. (II) was refined as a nonmerohedral twin with five twin domains. The asymmetric unit contains two independent formula units, and all cations and anions are located on general positions with 1 (C(1)) symmetry. Both molecules of the Cu complex are in elongated octahedral geometries because of the Jahn-Teller effect. This is in contrast to an earlier publication, which describes the complex as a compressed octahedron [Bertini et al. (1979). J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. pp. 1409-1414]. PMID:21051810

Lutz, Martin

2010-10-21

35

Solar thermal, decomposition kinetics of zinc sulfate at high heating rates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the experimental and analytical methods required to study decomposition of zinc sulfate in a simulated solar environment. Experiments were conducted at sample heating rates greater than 2K/s and temperatures in excess of 1400 K in a specially designed thermogravimetric system which employed a 30-kW/sub e//2-kW/sub th/ downward-facing beam, arc-image furnace. The zinc sulfate decomposition took place almost exclusively through the high-temperature ZnSO/sub 4/..beta.. phase under experimental conditions of this study. The kinetic parameters were determined from the thermogravimetric data by using a nonlinear least-squares optimization algorithm. An apparent activation energy, E, between 210 and 250 kJ/mol and an apparent reaction order, n, between 0 and 0.3 were obtained for ..beta..-phase ZnSO/sub 4/ decomposition reaction. The comparison of these results with those from lower temperature and lower heating rate zinc sulfate decomposition tends to suggest a change in reaction mechanism at the high heating rates expected in a concentrated solar environment.

Tabatabaie-Raissi, A.; Narayan, R.; Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

1989-03-01

36

Simultaneous Determination of Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury and Nickel in Zinc Sulfate Plant Electrolyte Using Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical and Spectrophotometric Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current efficiency (cost) of electrolytic production of high purity metallic zinc from zinc sulfate plant electrolyte is critically dependent on the concentration of a number of trace elements. The matrix, containing a very large concentration excess of zinc sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid presents difficulties for determining low concentrations of other metals with many analytical methods. In this work

A. M. Bond; G. G. Wallace

1983-01-01

37

Effects of exogenous zinc on the cellular zinc distribution and cell cycle of A549 cells.  

PubMed

As the second most abundant transition metal in humans, zinc plays essential roles in normal cellular biological functions, including metabolism, signalling, proliferation, gene expression and apoptosis. We use ZnSO(4) as a stressor in this study to investigate for the first time the effects of exogenous Zn(2+) on both the cellular distribution of zinc and zinc-related proteins and the cell cycle of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The cellular distribution of zinc and soluble proteins was determined in the whole cell as well as in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Exogenous zinc in the tested exposure range (0-100 µM) resulted in an altered cellular distribution of both zinc and the soluble proteins, together with total glutathione (GSx), the ratio of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and non-protein sulphydryl (NPSH). Surprisingly, a turning point was observed in the re-distribution trend at a concentration of approximately 50 µM ZnSO(4). It is concluded that there exists a regulatory system in A549 cells that maintains the cellular zinc content stable in the presence of a certain range of extracellular zinc concentration. In addition, an MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that the ZnSO(4) treatment led to a bi-phasic variation in viability and a slight fluctuation in the apoptosis of A549 cells. Our results will help to further elucidate zinc-related cell biology and biochemistry. PMID:23132559

Yuan, Na; Wang, Yan-Hong; Li, Ke-Jin; Zhao, Yue; Hu, Xin; Mao, Li; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Juan

2012-11-07

38

Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less and cadmium at 2{mu}M resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [{sup 35}S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [{sup 3}H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [{sup 3}H]thymidine or [{sup 3}H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antithrombogenic property of vascular endothelium. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ohkawara, Susumu; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Chika [Hokuriku Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)] [and others

1996-02-09

39

Novel spot tests for detecting the presence of zinc sulfate in urine, a newly introduced urinary adulterant to invalidate drugs of abuse testing.  

PubMed

Objectives: To find a suitable method for detecting zinc sulfate in adulterated urine. Methods: Two rapid spot tests to detect the presence of zinc sulfate in urine were developed. Results: Addition of 3 to 4 drops of 1N sodium hydroxide solution to approximately 1 mL of urine containing zinc sulfate led to the formation of a white precipitate, which was soluble in excess sodium hydroxide. In the second spot test, addition of 3 to 4 drops of 1% sodium chromate solution to 1 mL of urine containing zinc sulfate followed by the addition of 4 to 5 drops of 1N sodium hydroxide led to formation of a yellow precipitate (zinc chromate). Detection limit of these visual spot tests was 10 mg/mL of zinc sulfate in urine. Twenty drug-free urine specimens and urine containing high amounts of sugar or reducing substances were tested with no false-positive spot test results observed. However, if lead is present in high amounts in urine, it may cause false-positive spot test results. When aliquots of urine controls for drugs of abuse testing were supplemented with different amounts of zinc sulfate, false-negative drug test results were observed except for amphetamine. Zinc sulfate also falsely reduced measured urine alcohol level in urine. Conclusions: Zinc sulfate can invalidate urine drug and alcohol testing but can be detected using the novel spot tests developed. PMID:24045556

Welsh, Kerry J; Dierksen, Jennifer E; Actor, Jeffrey K; Dasgupta, Amitava

2013-10-01

40

Mapping of nidogen binding sites for collagen type IV, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and zinc.  

PubMed

Recombinant nidogen fragments comprising the globular domains G1 plus G2, the rod-like domain, and the rod connected to the globe G3 were prepared from the culture media of transfected human cell clones. In addition, domains G1 and G2 were separated from each other after cleavage with chymotrypsin. The purified fragments were characterized by N-terminal sequences, electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and radioimmunoassays and the cell clones by Northern hybridization. Transfection with a construct comprising a large part of domain G3 showed high mRNA levels but no secreted protein, indicating a protein folding problem. All these fragments were used as soluble and/or immobilized ligands in binding assays. This demonstrated major binding sites on domain G2 for collagen IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Affinity chromatography on zinc- and cobalt-loaded columns showed binding of domains G2 and G3 and the rod. Protein binding, but not metal binding, was abolished by reduction and alkylation of nidogen. This allowed for the isolation of several zinc-binding tryptic peptides, four from G2, two from the rod, and one from the G3 domain. Most of these short peptides contained several histidines that are likely to mediate binding. Zinc inhibited efficiently G3-mediated nidogen binding to laminin at 4 degrees C (IC50 approximately 5 microM) but less at higher temperatures. Similarly, zinc inhibited binding to collagen IV and proteoglycan at low temperatures but not at high (37 degrees C) temperatures. This indicates a complex modulation of nidogen binding to other basement membrane proteins by some, but not all, transition metals. Whether the particularly striking effects shown for zinc are of biological relevance remains to be established. PMID:8496153

Reinhardt, D; Mann, K; Nischt, R; Fox, J W; Chu, M L; Krieg, T; Timpl, R

1993-05-25

41

Conductometric study of ion association of divalent symmetric electrolytes: I. CoSO 4, NiSO 4, CuSO 4 and ZnSO 4 in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric conductivities of cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc sulfate solutions in water were measured from 5 to 35 °C (steps of 5 °C) in the concentration range 10?4

T. M. Perger; R. Neueder; J. Barthel

2005-01-01

42

Therapeutic effect of zinc-containing calcium phosphate suspension injection in thermal burn-rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of suspensions of zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in the healing of thermal burns in rats. ?-ZnTCP containing 10 mol % zinc, ?-ZnTCP containing 0.9 mol % zinc, and ZnSO4 ·(H2O)7 (ZnSO4) were used. The injections were prepared to suspend ZnSO4 , ?-ZnTCP, and ?-ZnTCP powders in 2 mL of 1% sodium alginate saline solution containing 2 mg of Zn. In vitro Zn release rates were measured in simulated body fluid. The release of Zn from ZnSO4 was very fast, but that from ?-ZnTCP and ?-ZnTCP was slowed by transformation to hydroxyapatite. The suspensions were injected into group C (control), D1 (ZnSO4), D2 (?-ZnTCP), and D3 (?-ZnTCP) rats after thermal burns treatment for 3 h. The area under the curve for the plasma Zn for group D1 was the highest, and the order was groups D1 > D2 ? D3 ? C. The wounded area (Aw) of group D1 had almost the same profile as that of group C, and the Aw at 18 days was about 20%. In contrast, the Aw of group D2 and D3 decreased, and on day 15 was 8% and 37%, respectively. The results indicated that the healing process was shorter in the rats given ?-ZnTCP and ?-ZnTCP than those given ZnSO4 or the control. PMID:23281276

Otsuka, Makoto; Shikamura, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo

2012-12-22

43

Interaction of arsenic with zinc and organics in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)--cultivated field in India.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment on an Inceptisol with pH 7.6, organic carbon 6.8 g kg(-1), and 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic 0.4 mg kg(-1) was conducted to study the interaction effect of graded levels of arsenic (0, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) with zinc (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) and organics (0, 1, and 2% on soil weight basis) separately on the mobilization of arsenic in soils. The results show that the amount of 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic at pH 8.5 increased with the progress of submergence up to 35 days. However, the increase in arsenic concentration was correlated with decreasing application of graded levels of Zn as zinc sulfate. The intensity of reduction varied with varying levels of Zn, being higher (0.73-2.72 mg kg(-1)) in the treatment where Zn was at 10 mg kg(-1) and lower (0.70-1.08 mg kg(-1)) with Zn at 20 mg kg(-1) application. The amount of arsenic content in the soil significantly decreased with the application of varying levels of organics. However, such depressive effect was found more pronounced with well-decomposed farm yard manure than that of vermicompost. The results of field experiments showed that the grain yield between continuous flooding (4.84 t ha(-1)) and intermittent flooding up to 40 days after transplanting then continuous flooding (4.83 t ha(-1)) with the application of ZnSO4 at 25 kg ha(-1) did not vary. The lowest grain yield (3.65 t ha(-1)) was recorded in the treatment where intermittent flooding was maintained throughout the growth period without the application of Zn. The amount of arsenic content was, however, recorded much lower in the treatment where intermittent flooding throughout the growth period was maintained with ZnSO4. PMID:16113941

Das, D K; Garai, T K; Sarkar, S; Sur, Pintu

2005-08-18

44

Comparison between the efficacy of 10% zinc sulfate solution with 4% hydroquinone cream on improvement of melasma  

PubMed Central

Background: Melasma, a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Although 10% zinc sulfate solution has been reported to be useful for patients with melasma, controlled trials are lacking. Materials and Methods: 72 women with moderate to severe melasma were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with 10% zinc sulfate solution and group B with 4% hydroquinone cream twice-daily. The results were evaluated by photoevaluation by patients based on subjective satisfaction and a blinded dermatologist using MASI score. Assessments were obtained at baseline and at 2 and 6 months after starting treatment. Results: According to MASI score changes during treatment, there was a reduction in both groups at 2 months, however, the reduction in group B was more significant (the reduction in mean ± SD MASI was 0.7 ± 0.7 in group A vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 in group B). In addition, the patients in group B continued to decrease MASI score for the remainder of the study period at 6 months follow-up (0.3 ± 0.5) in comparison with patients in group A who did not show more reduction in MASI score. Conclusions: The study indicates that topical zinc sulfate is not as effective in treating disease as was observed in the previous open study. A comparative study with sunscreen and placebo is necessary to determine if topical zinc sulfate is truly superior to sunscreen and placebo in this respect.

Iraji, Fariba; Tagmirriahi, Nabet; Gavidnia, Keyvan

2012-01-01

45

Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [ M(C8H11O3N)2(H2O)2]SO4 · 3H2O ( M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH2OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H2O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

Furmanova, N. G.; Berdalieva, Zh. I.; Chernaya, T. S.; Resnyanski?, V. F.; Shiitieva, N. K.; Sula?mankulov, K. S.

2009-03-01

46

Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man Ill. Effects of ascorbic acid on zinc absorption1 -3  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ascorbic acid is known to enhance the absorption ofdietary iron and to inhibit the absorption of dietary copper, studies were undertaken to examine the effect of ascorbic acid on the bioavailability of zinc in human subjects. The index of absorption was the change in plasma zinc concentration after a 1 10-mg aqueous dose of ZnSO4 . 7H20 (containing 25

Noel W. Solomons; Robert A. Jacob; Oscar Pineda; Fernando E. Viteri

47

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg\\/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive

L. D. Chrosniak; L. N. Smith; C. G. McDonald; B. F. Jones; J. M. Flinn

2006-01-01

48

Effect of Pre and Postnatal Exposure to Zinc on (3H)glucose Uptake in the Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the susceptibility of developing brain and other tissues to accumulate zinc, rats were exposed to zinc at different periods of ontogeny. For the prenatal group, pregnant Wistar rats received 50 ppm of zinc (ZnSO4 · 7H2O) in drinking for the entire duration of pregnancy. On the day of delivery zinc was removed from the drinking water. Another group,

J. Konecki; G. Bielaczyc; P. Nowak; R. Szkilnik; G. Szczerbak; M. Swoboda; A. Kwieci?ski; R. M. Kostrzewa; R. Brus

49

Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm.  

PubMed

The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results. PMID:20650532

Caplat, Christelle; Oral, Rahime; Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Mao, Andrea; Barillier, Daniel; Guida, Marco; Della Rocca, Claudio; Pagano, Giovanni

2010-07-22

50

Effect of ionic liquid additive [BMIM]HSO 4 on zinc electrodeposition from impurity-containing sulfate electrolyte. Part I: current efficiency, surface morphology, and crystal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ionic liquid additive 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate-[BMIM]HSO4 on the current efficiency (CE), surface morphology, and crystallographic orientations during zinc electrodeposition from\\u000a acidic sulfate solutions containing some common impurities such as copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, and lead were investigated.\\u000a The results indicated that all the metallic impurities studied exerted a deleterious effect on the zinc electrodeposition\\u000a process by decreasing

Qibo Zhang; Yixin Hua

2011-01-01

51

Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate treatment on semen variables in fertile and subfertile men.Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled interventional study.Setting: Two outpatient fertility clinics and nine midwifery practices in The Netherlands.Participant(s): One hundred eight fertile and 103 subfertile men.Intervention(s): Both groups were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments for 26 weeks: folic acid and

Wai Yee Wong; Hans M. W. M Merkus; Chris M. G Thomas; Roelof Menkveld; Gerhard A Zielhuis; Régine P. M Steegers-Theunissen

2002-01-01

52

Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc–iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy

Hui Zhang; Xing Wen; Yingxia Wang

2007-01-01

53

Synergistic Effects Between Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Zinc Sulfate in Corrosion Inhibition for Copper in Neutral Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (NaâPâOââ, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and

Y. Feng; K.-L. Tan; A.-K. Hsieh; W.-K. Teo; K.-S. Siow

1997-01-01

54

Sequential Extraction and Determination of Chemical Forms of Zinc in Sulfate Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total content of zinc and other metals has been assayed in thesludge that remained after leaching zinc-bearing smelting losswith sulfuric acid. The paper also presents zinc speciationcarried out by means of the sequential extraction by Rudd and an analysis of chemical forms of zinc. It has been found thatzinc occurs mainly in the mobile, bioavailable, soluble form and in the

Marian Turek; Teofil Korolewicz; Jerzy Ciba; Jan Cebula

2002-01-01

55

Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the andrological variables most sensitive to zinc depletion would expedite the diagnosis of male reproductive pathology induced by zinc deficiency. Eleven volunteers living on a metabolic ward were fed a diet composed ofa mixture ofa semisynthetie formula and conventional foods supplemented with ZnSO4 to supply a total of 1.4, 2.5. 3.4, 4.4, or 10.4 mg Zn\\/d. After an

Curtiss D Hunt; Phyllis E Johnson; JoLavne Herbel; Loanne K Mullen

56

Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates  

SciTech Connect

The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [M(C{sub 8}H{sub 11}O{sub 3}N){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]SO{sub 4} . 3H{sub 2}O (M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH{sub 2}OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H{sub 2}O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

Furmanova, N. G., E-mail: furm@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Berdalieva, Zh. I., E-mail: kakin@inbox.ru [National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Kyrgyzstan); Chernaya, T. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Resnyanskii, V. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Kyrgyzstan); Shiitieva, N. K.; Sulaimankulov, K. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Kyrgyzstan)

2009-03-15

57

Effects of certain impurities on zinc electrowinning in high-purity synthetic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individual effects of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt and antimony on zinc electrowinning were evaluated by measurements in high-purity synthetic solutions, free from additives. The coulombic efficiency (QE) of zinc electrodeposition was determined over 2h under mass transfer-controlled conditions at a temperature of 35°C and a current density of 400 A m-2 in a solution of 0.8 M ZnSO4+1.07 M

A. R. Ault; E. J. Frazer

1988-01-01

58

Calcium sulphate solubilities in simulated zinc processing solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium sulphate solubilities in simulated zinc processing solutions, as well as the densities of the corresponding saturated solutions, were determined on heating and cooling in a series of experiments carried out from 20 to 95 °C. In dilute ZnSO4 media, increasing H2SO4 concentrations in the range of 0.0–0.6 M H2SO4 strongly increase the solubility of calcium sulphate, but have little

J. E Dutrizac

2002-01-01

59

Preventive effects of zinc sulfate on taste alterations in patients under irradiation for head and neck cancers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Taste abnormalities are common among cancer patients after starting radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Considering the role of zinc and reports on its beneficial effects in taste perception, we evaluated the preventive effects of zinc sulfate on radiation-induced taste alterations. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with head and neck cancers who were on schedule for radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, were allocated to receive zinc sulfate (50 mg, three times a day) or placebo; started with beginning of radiotherapy and continued for one month later. Taste acuity was determined by measuring detection and recognition thresholds for four taste qualities at baseline, at the end of radiotherapy, and a month later using the Henkin method. Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age = 59.2 ± 16.5, 60% male) completed the trial. The two groups were similar at baseline. After radiotherapy, and one month later, there was a significant increase in taste perception threshold for bitter, salty, sweet, and sour tastes in the placebo group (P = 0.001). In those who received zinc, there was only slight increase in threshold for perception of the salty taste (P = 0.046). No relevant side effects due to zinc sulfate were reported. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation in head/neck cancer patients under radiotherapy can prevent radiation-induced taste alterations. Further studies with longer follow-ups and with different doses of zinc supplementation are warranted in this regard.

Najafizade, Nadia; Hemati, Simin; Gookizade, Abbas; Berjis, Nezameddin; Hashemi, Mostafa; Vejdani, Soheil; Ghannadi, Alireza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Arbab, Nafise

2013-01-01

60

Anodic oxidation of iron during the purification of sulfate zinc solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic oxidation of iron in zinc solutions is carried out using a two-chamber electrolyzer separated by an anionite membrane.\\u000a The positive effect that copper ions in the solution have on the rate and completeness of the oxidation processes is shown.\\u000a This method is effective for cleaning the solutions of zinc production and processing the industrial zinc-containing wastes.

A. S. Kirpikov; S. V. Karelov; S. V. Mamyachenkov; V. A. Sergeev

2008-01-01

61

SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF ZINC SULFATE CAUSES CARDIAC CHANGES IN HEALTHY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

62

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

63

Temperature-dependent analysis of thermal motion, disorder and structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of the title compounds have been determined in the temperature range 140-290 K for the zinc complex, and 190-270 K for the copper complex. The two structures are isostructural in the trigonal space group P31c with the sulfate anion severely disordered on a site with 32 (D(3)) symmetry. This sulfate disorder leads to a disordered three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network, with the N-H atoms acting as donors and the sulfate O atoms as acceptors. The displacement parameters of the N and C atoms in both compounds contain disorder contributions in the out-of-ligand plane direction owing to ring puckering and/or disorder in hydrogen bonding. In the Zn compound the vibrational amplitudes in the bond directions are closely similar. Their differences show no significant deviations from rigid-bond behaviour. In the Cu compound, a (presumably) dynamic Jahn-Teller effect is identified from a temperature-independent contribution to the displacement ellipsoids of the N atom along the N-Cu bond. These conclusions derive from analyses of the atomic displacement parameters with the Hirshfeld test, with rigid-body models at different temperatures, and with a normal coordinate analysis. This analysis considers the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) from all different temperatures simultaneously and provides a detailed description of both the thermal motion and the disorder in the cation. The Jahn-Teller radii of the Cu compound derived on the basis of the ADP analysis and from the bond distances in the statically distorted low-temperature phase [Lutz (2010). Acta Cryst. C66, m330-m335] are found to be the same. PMID:21245541

Smeets, Stef; Parois, Pascal; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Lutz, Martin

2011-01-15

64

Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon

2013-01-01

65

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

66

A comparison between zinc sulfate and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

Background and the Purpose of the Study Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy for hematological malignancies are susceptible to development of oral mucositis, and no effective modality has been reported for its prophylaxis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc mouthwash on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis lesions. Methods In this double-blind randomized trial, patients under chemotherapy for acute leukemia were divided into two test and control groups of 15 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The test group received 10ml 0.2% zinc sulfate mouthwash, and the control group received 10ml 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, twice a day for a period of two weeks. Spijkervet scale was used to grade the severity of mucositis at every other week during eight weeks. The severity scores were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS 13.0 computer software. Results Mean severity scores were generally lower in the test group compared to the controls at all four time intervals evaluated; but only, the differences in weeks of 2 and 3 were statistically significant (P=0.025). Conclusion Zinc mouthwash used in conjunction with chemotherapy may reduce the severity of oral mucositis lesions in patients with leukaemia.

Mehdipour, M.; Taghavi Zenoz, A.; Asvadi Kermani, I.; Hosseinpour, A.

2011-01-01

67

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

68

The role of zinc in the anti-tumour and anti-cachectic activity of D-myo-inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate  

PubMed Central

Background: D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-triphosphate (?-trinositol, AT) is a polyanionic molecule capable of chelating divalent metal ions with anti-tumour and anti-cachectic activity in a murine model. Methods: To investigate the role of zinc in this process, mice bearing cachexia-inducing MAC16 tumour were treated with AT, with or without concomitant administration of ZnSO4. Results: At a dose of 40?mg?kg?1, AT effectively attenuated both weight loss and growth of the MAC16 tumour, and both effects were attenuated by co-administration of Zn2+. The concentration of zinc in gastrocnemius muscle increased with increasing weight loss, whereas administration of AT decreased the levels of zinc in plasma, skeletal muscle and tumour, which were restored back to control values after administration of ZnSO4. Conclusion: These results suggest that zinc is important in both tumour growth and cachexia in this animal model.

Russell, S T; Siren, P M A; Siren, M J; Tisdale, M J

2010-01-01

69

Manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, and zinc as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n -butane isomerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-row transition metals were tested in a flow reactor as promoters of sulfated zirconia for the isomerization ofn-butane at 373 K and 0.005 barn-butane partial pressure. The activity of each of the sulfated zirconia samples increased through a maximum and then decreased with time on stream. In order of increasing activity measured at the maximum, the effect of the promoters

F. C. Lange; T.-K. Cheung; B. C. Gates

1996-01-01

70

Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a Highly Copper Resistant, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Effluents of a Zinc Smelter at the Urals  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms.

Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

2011-01-01

71

Assessing the in vitro zinc solubilization potential and improving sugarcane growth by inoculating Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane that has been reported to possess various plant growth-promoting characteristics.\\u000a We have assessed the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential of G. diazotrophicus isolates under in vitro conditions (plate and broth assay) with different Zn compounds (ZnO, ZnCO3, and ZnSO4) and by the improvement of sugarcane growth following inoculation. The soluble Zn present in

S. Esath Natheer; Somasundaram Muthukkaruppan

72

Zinc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and so...

1978-01-01

73

Scots pine as a model plant for studying the mechanisms of conifers adaptation to heavy metal action: 1. Effects of continuous zinc presence on morphometric and physiological characteristics of developing pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of zinc (50–150 ?M ZnSO4) on seed germinability, morphometric and physiological characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings during first 6 weeks of their development were studied. Scots pine turned out to be rather sensitive to elevated\\u000a zinc concentrations. This was manifested in reduced seed germinability, root system growth retardation and suppression of\\u000a its development (primarily, reduction in

Yu. V. Ivanov; Yu. V. Savochkin; Vl. V. Kuznetsov

2011-01-01

74

Zinc Suppresses Apoptosis of U937 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide through an Increase of the Bcl2\\/Bax Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of human premonocytic U937 cells with 500?M H2O2for 1h followed by 4h incubation in fresh medium to allow the cells to execute apoptotic processes caused DNA fragmentation. However, in the presence of 1mM ZnSO4throughout the incubation, DNA ladder formation was markedly inhibited. Hydrogen peroxide treatment for 1h with or without zinc increased both Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. However, only

Yukiyo Fukamachi; Yuji Karasaki; Tsutomu Sugiura; Hideaki Itoh; Tetsuya Abe; Kaori Yamamura; Ken Higashi

1998-01-01

75

Supplementation of Zinc from Organic or Inorganic Source Improves Performance and Antioxidant Status of Heat-Distressed Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sources of zinc (ZnSO4H2O or ZnPi- colinate (ZnPic)) supplementation were evaluated for their effects on performance, carcass weight, levels of malondialdehyde, and vitamins C, E, A in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) exposed to high ambient tem- perature of 34°C. The birds (n = 360; 10-d-old) were ran- domly assigned to 12 treatment groups consisting of 3 replicates of

K. Sahin; M. O. Smith; M. Onderci; N. Sahin; M. F. Gursu; O. Kucuk

76

Quantitative dietary zinc requirement of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and effects on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine dietary zinc (Zn) requirement for juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and evaluate the effect of dietary Zn levels on growth performance, whole body mineral composition, hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant responses for this fish species. The six experimental diets were formulated to contain the graded levels of ZnSO4·7H2O (0, 0.002, 0.004, 0.008, 0.016

Zhi Luo; Xiao-Ying Tan; Jia-Lang Zheng; Qi-Liang Chen; Cai-Xia Liu

2011-01-01

77

Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo).  

PubMed

The effects of zinc on growth, mineral content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and detoxifying enzyme activity (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), EC 1.11.1.11; superoxide dismutase (SOD), EC 1.15.1.1) of ryegrass infected or not by Acremonium lolii, and treated with nutrient solution containing 0-50 mM ZnSO(4) were studied. The introduction of zinc induces stress with a decrease in growth at 1, 5 and 10 mM ZnSO(4) and a cessation of growth at 50 mM ZnSO(4), in ryegrass plants infected by A. lolii or not. This decrease in growth may be due to an accumulation of zinc in leaves. Nevertheless, symbiotic plants showed higher values in tiller number, an advantage conferred by the fungus. After 24 d of Zn exposure, leaf fresh weights and leaf water content were lower in plants growing with Zn in the culture medium and no advantage was conferred by the fungus to its host. An increase in Zn supply resulted in a decrease of the Ca, K, Mg, and Cu content of the leaves, a reduction in the quantum yield of electron flow throughout photosystem II (DeltaF/F(1)(m))and a lowering of the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion (F(v)/F(m)), compared to control plants. To counter this zinc stress, detoxifying enzymes APX and SOD increased (100%) when Zn reached the value of 50 mM in the nutrient solution. At 10 mM ZnSO(4), the presence of the fungus in the plant led to an increase in the threshold toxicity of plants to zinc by a diminution of APX activity. PMID:10948221

Bonnet, M; Camares, O; Veisseire, P

2000-05-01

78

Water activity, osmotic and activity coefficients of aqueous solutions of Li 2SO 4, Na 2SO 4, K 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, MgSO 4, MnSO 4, NiSO 4, CuSO 4, and ZnSO 4 at T=298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water activities for aqueous solutions of Li2SO4(aq), Na2SO4(aq), K2SO4(aq), (NH4)2SO4(aq), and sulphates MgSO4(aq), MnSO4(aq), NiSO4(aq), CuSO4(aq), and ZnSO4(aq) were determined experimentally at a temperature of 298.15K with a hygrometric method, at molalities in the range from 0.1mol·kg?1 to saturation. The osmotic coefficients are calculated from these results. The coefficients of Pitzer’s model was used to fit the osmotic coefficients

M. EL Guendouzi; A Mounir; A Dinane

2003-01-01

79

Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13\\/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl

C. H. Edwards; J. S. Adkins; B. Harrison

1986-01-01

80

Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique. PMID:19284803

Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

2009-03-13

81

Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD analyses demonstrate the typical LDH-like layered structural characteristics of both products. The room temperature MS results reveal the characteristics of both the Fe(II) and Fe(III) species for SO42--containing product, while only the Fe(III) characteristic for DBS-containing one. The combination characterization results and Rietveld analysis illustrate that the SO42--containing product possesses the Green Rust two (GR2)-like crystal structure with an approximate chemical composition of [Zn0.435·FeII0.094·FeIII0.470·(OH)2]·(SO42-)0.235·1.0H2O, while the DBS-containing one exhibits the common LDH compound-like structure. The contact angle measurement indicates the evident hydrophobic properties of DBS-containing nanocomposite, compared with SO42--containing product, due to the modification of the internal and external surface of LDHs by the organic hydrophobic chain of DBS.

Zhang, Hui; Wen, Xing; Wang, Yingxia

2007-05-01

82

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... ulcers and promoting weight gain in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Some people use zinc ... weight gain and improving depression in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Treating hypogeusia, a rare ...

83

Synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanodiscs for lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal and hydrophobic zinc borate (Zn2B6O11?3H2O) nanodiscs were successfully prepared by a wet method using Na2B4O7?10H2O and ZnSO4?7H2O as raw materials in situ aqueous solution, and oleic acid as the modifying agent. The microstructures and morphology of the as-obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer

Yumei Tian; Yupeng Guo; Man Jiang; Ye Sheng; Bala Hari; Guangyu Zhang; Yanqiu Jiang; Bing Zhou; Yanchao Zhu; Zichen Wang

2006-01-01

84

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

85

Molecular design of nanometric zinc borate-containing polyimide as a route to flame retardant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc borate (Zn2B6O11·3H2O) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using an emulsion liquid membrane (W\\/O\\/W emulsion) to control the size of particles with Na2B4O7·10H2O, boric acid and ZnSO4·7H2O as raw materials. All materials were dispersed with the polyimide (PI) precursor, poly (amic acid). Using a combination of dissolving the poly (amic acid) and mixing fatty acid surfactant-coated zinc borate nanoparticles; we

Süleyman Köytepe; Sema Vural; Turgay Seçkin

2009-01-01

86

ZINC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing interest by the public in components of the diet that promote health and well being prompt many questions about zinc. This mineral is a nutrient that plays key roles in regulating many biological functions ranging from cell development to brain function. Concern about the importance of zi...

87

Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe < CdSe/ZnS or InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves. PMID:23912858

Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

2013-09-25

88

In situ and one-step synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoplatelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycrystalline and hydrophobic zinc borate (Zn2B6O11·3H2O) nanoplatelets were in situ successfully synthesized via one-step precipitation reaction in aqueous solution of Na2B4O7·10H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O with oleic acid as the modifying agent. The microstructures and morphology of the as-obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

Yumei Tian; Yi He; Lianxiang Yu; Yanhui Deng; Yunhui Zheng; Fang Sun; Zhihui Liu; Zichen Wang

2008-01-01

89

Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal-Thiourea urea zinc sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nonlinear optical crystal thiourea urea zinc sulfate (TUZS) has been grown by slow evaporation technique in equimolar ratio. Solubility and metastable zone width measurements have been determined for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal system belongs to orthorhombic with cell parameters a = 7.78 Å, b = 11.15 Å and c = 15.47 Å. The sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder XRD pattern confirm the crystalline nature of the TUZS compound. The grown mechanism and surface features were investigated by optical microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of zinc in the grown crystal was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy and EDAX analysis. The compound has been confirmed by 1H NMR, mass and FTIR spectral studies. The transmittance spectrum of TUZS has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient K, reflectance R, as functions of photon energy. The optical band gap of TUZS is 4.046 eV. The SHG efficiency has been tested by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and KDP sample has been used as a standard reference material.

Rao, Redrothu Hanumantha; Kalainathan, S.

2012-11-01

90

Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal - thiourea urea zinc sulfate.  

PubMed

A new nonlinear optical crystal thiourea urea zinc sulfate (TUZS) has been grown by slow evaporation technique in equimolar ratio. Solubility and metastable zone width measurements have been determined for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal system belongs to orthorhombic with cell parameters a=7.78Å, b=11.15Å and c=15.47Å. The sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder XRD pattern confirm the crystalline nature of the TUZS compound. The grown mechanism and surface features were investigated by optical microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of zinc in the grown crystal was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy and EDAX analysis. The compound has been confirmed by (1)H NMR, mass and FTIR spectral studies. The transmittance spectrum of TUZS has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient K, reflectance R, as functions of photon energy. The optical band gap of TUZS is 4.046 eV. The SHG efficiency has been tested by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and KDP sample has been used as a standard reference material. PMID:22820345

Rao, Redrothu Hanumantha; Kalainathan, S

2012-06-30

91

The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

2011-06-01

92

THE ADSORPTION OF ZINC(II) ON ANIONEXCHANGE RESINS. III. THE ADSORPTION FROM BROMIDE, FLUORIDE, CYANIDE, OXALATE, ACETATE, NITRATE, PHOSPHATE, SULFATE, AND ALKALINE MEDIA THE PERCHLORATE EFFECT, AND THE ADSORPTION FROM MIXED SOLVENT MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc(II) adsorbs on Dowex 1-X8 from bromide, fluoride and oxalate media ; but not from acetate, nitrate, sulfate and alkaline media. The adsorption curve ; from HBr at 24.8 plus or minus O.2 deg has been interpreted to yield the ; following constants for the formation of ZnBr\\/sup +\\/, ZnBrâ, ZnBrâsup ; -\\/ and ZnBrâ sup =\\/: markedly depresses the

R. A. Horne; R. H. Holm; M. D. Meyers

1957-01-01

93

Degradation of the sealing properties of a zinc oxide-calcium sulfate-based temporary filling material by entrapped cotton fibers.  

PubMed

During root canal therapy cotton may be placed in the pulp chamber before placement of a temporary filling. This study evaluated the effect on the sealing of a zinc oxide-calcium sulfate-based temporary filling material when fibers of the internal cotton passed through the filling material and reached the external surface of the temporary filling. Glass tubes were filled with a 3.5 mm thickness of the temporary filling incorporating a bundle of cotton fibers that passed from the inner surface of the restoration to the outer surface. The time for methylene blue stain to penetrate the filling was compared among four groups. Group 1 (large bundles of fibers) had 20 to 40 fibers, group 2 (medium bundles) had 10 to 15 fibers, group 3 (small bundles) had 3 to 5 fibers, and group 4 (negative controls) had no cotton fibers. All samples with cotton fibers leaked within 12 min. None of the negative controls leaked within the 21 -day observation time. These results demonstrate that even a very small amount of cotton trapped between the wall of the tube and the filling material dramatically reduced the sealing quality of the temporary restoration. PMID:11771593

Newcomb, B E; Clark, S J; Eleazer, P D

2001-12-01

94

Effect of zinc supplementation on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.  

PubMed

In this article, effect of zinc supplementation on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied. It was found that when 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium, solventogenesis was initiated earlier, with 21.0 g/L ABE (12.6 g/L butanol, 6.7 g/L acetone and 1.7 g/L ethanol) produced with a fermentation time of 40 h, compared to 19.4 g/L ABE (11.7 g/L butanol, 6.4 g/L acetone and 1.3g/L ethanol) produced with a fermentation time of 64 h in the control without zinc supplementation, and correspondingly ABE and butanol productivities were increased to 0.53 and 0.32 g/L/h from 0.30 and 0.18 g/L/h, increases of 76.7% and 77.8%, respectively, but their yields were not compromised. The reason for this phenomenon was attributed to rapid acids re-assimilation for more efficient ABE production, which was in accordance with relatively high pH and ORP levels maintained during the fermentation process. The maximum cell density increased by 23.8%, indicating that zinc supplementation stimulated cell growth, and consequently facilitated glucose utilization. However, more zinc supplementation exhibited an inhibitory effect, indicating that zinc supplementation at very low levels such as 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O will be an economically competitive strategy for improving butanol production. PMID:23458964

Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

2013-02-28

95

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

96

Zinc modulates drought induced biochemical damages in tea [Camellia sinensis ( L) O Kuntze].  

PubMed

Zinc(Zn) is an essential micronutrient that affects growth and productivity of tea plant. Drought stress causes various biochemical and physiological damages in plants. The present study aims at understanding the role of Zn to modulates drought stress induced growth and biochemical damages in tea plant. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that drought induced decrease in relative water content (RWC), dry mass of leaf and antioxidants like- ascorbate and glutathione in the tested tea clones (TV-1, TV-17 & TV-29 ) was minimized by zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) treatment before water withholding for 7d. Increase in phenolic content with decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation and differential activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase( SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol peroxidase (PPO) , glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) with concomitant increased Zn uptake in leaf suggested Zn modulates drought mediated biochemical damages in tea plant. PMID:23682650

Upadhyaya, Hrishikesh; Dutta, Biman Kumar; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

2013-05-20

97

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

98

Glucosamine sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... Glucosamine Potassium Sulfate, Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl, Glucosamine Sulfate-Potassium Chloride, Glucosamine Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N- ...

99

Assessment of dietary zinc requirement of weaned piglets fed diets with or without microbial phytase.  

PubMed

Fifty-four pigs, weaned at 26 days of age at an average body weight of 7.74 kg were used in a 26-day experiment to assess the zinc requirement of piglets, using diets based on maize and soybean meal, with or without microbial phytase. The nine experimental diets were the basal diet containing 33 mg of zinc/kg supplemented with 10, 25, 40, 60 or 80 mg of zinc as sulphate (ZnSO(4), 7H(2)O)/kg and the basal diet supplemented with 0, 10, 25 or 40 mg of zinc as sulphate/kg and 700 units (U) of microbial phytase (Natuphos)/kg. Pigs were fed the basal diet for a 7-day adjustment period prior to the 19-day experimental period. Microbial phytase enhanced plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, plasma zinc and bone zinc concentrations. These parameters increased linearly with zinc intake, with a similar slope with and without phytase. The response of bone zinc-to-zinc added did not plateau. Without microbial phytase, plasma AP activity and zinc concentration were maximized when dietary zinc reached 86 and 92 mg/kg respectively. With microbial phytase they were maximized when dietary zinc concentration reached 54 and 49 mg/kg respectively. Accounting for a safety margin, the recommended supply of zinc for weaned piglets up to 16 kg fed maize-soybean meal diets supplemented with zinc as sulphate is thus of 100-110 mg/kg diet. This supply may be reduced by around 35 mg if the diet is supplemented with 700 U of microbial phytase. PMID:16422770

Revy, P S; Jondreville, C; Dourmad, J Y; Nys, Y

2006-02-01

100

Effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function of broiler chicken.  

PubMed

A total of 450 one-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid (ZnO-MMT) on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function. The birds were allotted to 5 dietary treatments for 21 d, each of which was replicated 6 times with 15 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were 1) corn-soybean meal diet (basal, containing 42.35 mg of Zn/kg); 2) basal diet + 600 mg of MMT/kg (equivalent to the MMT in the ZnO-MMT treatment); 3) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO; 4) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT; and 5) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnSO(4)•7H(2)O. The results showed that chicks fed ZnO-MMT had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and feed intake than those fed the basal diet, MMT, or ZnO. Compared with the control, MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4), supplementation with ZnO-MMT decreased (P < 0.05) viable counts of Clostridium in small intestinal and cecal contents, increased (P < 0.05) colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values, and reduced (P < 0.05) colonic probe mannitol permeability as well as ileal or colonic inulin permeability. Compared with the control, supplemental ZnO-MMT increased (P < 0.05) villus height, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth at the small intestinal mucosa, the trypsin activity in the pancreas, and the digestive enzyme activities in small intestinal contents. Compared with the control, supplementation with ZnO increased (P < 0.05) the villus height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenum. Supplementation with ZnSO(4) increased the trypsin activity in pancreas and small intestinal contents. However, supplemental MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4) did not affect (P > 0.05) growth performance, ileal and colonic barrier function, and intestinal microflora. The results indicated that supplementing 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT in broiler chickens improved growth performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, and barrier function as well as the digestive enzyme activities. PMID:23243241

Hu, C H; Qian, Z C; Song, J; Luan, Z S; Zuo, A Y

2013-01-01

101

Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-?(2) N,N')(sulfato-?O)zinc(II) propane-1,2-diol monosolvate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, [Zn(SO4)(C12H8N2)2]·C3H8O2, the Zn(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment composed of four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and one O atom from a monodentate sulfate ligand. The Zn(II) ion lies on a twofold rotation axis. The sulfate ligand and propane-1,2-diol mol-ecules are disordered across the twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angle between the two chelating N2C2 groups is 83.26?(13)°. In the crystal, the complex mol-ecule and the propane-1,2-diol mol-ecule are connected through a pair of O-H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:24098186

Zhong, Kai-Long

2013-09-28

102

Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-?2 N,N?)(sulfato-?O)zinc(II) propane-1,2-diol monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, [Zn(SO4)(C12H8N2)2]·C3H8O2, the ZnII ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment composed of four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and one O atom from a monodentate sulfate ligand. The ZnII ion lies on a twofold rotation axis. The sulfate ligand and propane-1,2-diol mol­ecules are disordered across the twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angle between the two chelating N2C2 groups is 83.26?(13)°. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecule and the propane-1,2-diol mol­ecule are connected through a pair of O—H?O hydrogen bonds.

Zhong, Kai-Long

2013-01-01

103

Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu(2+) and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.  

PubMed

Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH(4))(2)Zn(SO(4))(2) ? 6H(2)O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH(4))(2)Zn(SO(4))(2) ? 6H(2)O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or ?-rays. PMID:21841228

Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

2011-08-12

104

Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to determine the bioavailability of an organic zinc source (Availa-Zn) compared with zinc sulfate in a European-type broiler diet. A total of 480 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were housed in 48 digestibility cages (10 birds per cage), being randomly divided over 9 treatments. At d 3, the number of birds was standardized to 8. Birds were fed a basal wheat-maize-soya diet (containing 33.5 mg of Zn/kg) with different supplementation levels of zinc (reference zinc source: inorganic zinc sulfate: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 mg of Zn/kg of feed; test zinc source: Availa-Zn: 0, 5, 10, 15 mg of Zn/kg of feed). Production performance and tibia zinc content were measured. There were no differences in production performance between the different zinc sources when fed to broilers until 21 d of age. Tibia zinc content was increased linearly with the dietary zinc content up to 20 mg/kg zinc sulfate. The relative biological value of organic zinc was 1.64 compared with zinc sulfate as a reference zinc source (1.00), as indicated by the slope ratio of the linear response curves for both zinc sources, using tibia zinc content as a response parameter. In a practical European broiler diet, the organic Availa-Zn had a higher bioavailability than inorganic zinc sulfate. PMID:23155021

Star, L; van der Klis, J D; Rapp, C; Ward, T L

2012-12-01

105

Determination of Chemical Shifts of Core Electron Binding Energies for Some Zinc Compounds and the Applicability of Electron Spectroscopy to Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core electron binding energies were determined for zinc borate, zinc carbonate, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc iodide, zinc phosphate, zinc sulfate and zinc titanate. These binding energies were measured relative to that of the C 1s line (284.3 eV) an...

C. R. Cothern D. W. Langer C. J. Vesely

1972-01-01

106

Morphine Sulfate  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Morphine Sulfate This ... Drugs. Active ingredient: Morphine Sulfate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

107

The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell proliferation were investigated in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. DNA damage was determined by the use of both the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Zn-deficient medium (0?M) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds (i.e. ZnSO(4) and ZnC) were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0?M. Results from an MTT assay showed that cell growth and viability were decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0?M) as well as at 32?M and 100?M for both Zn compounds (P<0.0001). DNA strand-breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P<0.05). The CBMN-Cyt assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P<0.0001). Elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were induced in Zn-depleted cells (P<0.0001), whereas genome damage was reduced in supplemented cultures for both Zn compounds at 4?M and 16?M, possibly suggesting that these concentrations may be optimal for genome stability. The potential protective effect of ZnSO(4) and ZnC was also investigated following exposure to 1.0Gy ?-radiation. Culture in medium containing these compounds at 4-32?M prior to irradiation displayed significantly reduced frequencies of MNi, NPBs and NBuds compared with cells maintained in 0?M medium (P<0.0001). Expression of ?-H2AX and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase measured by western blotting was increased in Zn-depleted cells. These results suggest that Zn plays important role in genomic stability and that the optimal Zn concentration-range for prevention of DNA damage and cytotoxicity in vitro lies between 4 and 16?M. PMID:21167308

Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Graham, Robin D; Fenech, Michael

2010-12-15

108

Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary

J. H. Meisenhelder; A. P. Brown; R. O. Loutfy; N. P. Yao

1981-01-01

109

Altered uptake and biological half-lives of 65Zn on arsenic exposure--modulation by zinc treatment.  

PubMed

The present study revealed the effects of zinc on the biokinetics of (65)Zn in rats following arsenic intoxication. The animals were segregated into four groups: group I--untreated controls, group II--arsenic treated (100 ppm as NaAsO(2) in drinking water), group III--zinc treated (227 mg ZnSO(4) per liter drinking water), and group IV--arsenic?+?zinc treated. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 1.85 MBq radioactivity of (65)Zn following 3 months of different treatments, and the radioactivity was determined using a suitably shielded scintillation counter. Arsenic treatment showed a significant increase in the fast component (Tb(1)) of the biological half-life of (65)Zn in liver, which remained unaltered in the whole body. Furthermore, arsenic treatment decreased significantly the slow component (Tb(2)) in the whole body, which remained unchanged in the liver. However, zinc supplementation to arsenic-treated rats normalized Tb(1) in the liver, but caused no change in Tb(2) in the whole body. Furthermore, the uptake values of (65)Zn were significantly increased in the liver, brain, kidney, and intestine following arsenic treatment, and the values in the liver and brain were decreased by zinc. Hence, zinc plays a significant role in regulating the biokinetics of (65)Zn in the liver and the whole body of arsenic-intoxicated rats. PMID:21647753

Kumar, Ashok; Nair, Praveen; Malhotra, Anshoo; Majumdar, Shaoli; Garg, Mohan Lal; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar

2011-06-07

110

Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the

Rahaman O. Suara; James E. Crowe

2004-01-01

111

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chrosniak, L. D.; Smith, L. N.; McDonald, C. G.; Jones, B. F.; Flinn, J. M.

2006-01-01

112

Cobalt-, zinc- and iron-bound forms of adenylate kinase (AK) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis.  

PubMed

Adenylate kinase (AK; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.4.3) is involved in the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to AMP. AKs contribute to the maintenance of a constant level of cellular adenine nucleotides, which is necessary for the energetic metabolism of the cell. Three metal ions, cobalt, zinc and iron(II), have been reported to be present in AKs from some Gram-negative bacteria. Native zinc-containing AK from Desulfovibrio gigas was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1.8 A resolution. Furthermore, cobalt- and iron-containing crystal forms of recombinant AK were also obtained and diffracted to 2.0 and 3.0 A resolution, respectively. Zn(2+)-AK and Fe(2+)-AK crystallized in space group I222 with similar unit-cell parameters, whereas Co(2+)-AK crystallized in space group C2; a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit for both the Zn(2+)-AK and Fe(2+)-AK forms and a dimer was present for the Co(2+)-AK form. The structures of the three metal-bound forms of AK will provide new insights into the role and selectivity of the metal in these enzymes. PMID:19724135

Kladova, A V; Gavel, O Yu; Mukhopaadhyay, A; Boer, D R; Teixeira, S; Shnyrov, V L; Moura, I; Moura, J J G; Romão, M J; Trincão, J; Bursakov, S A

2009-08-22

113

Effect of Mineral Fortification on Plasma Biochemical Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating the changes in biochemical profile of male rats following 8 weeks administration of different\\u000a concentration of elemental iron, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), and zinc oxide (ZnO) in whole wheat flour. Eight groups comprising five rats each were fed fortified whole wheat flour\\u000a in the form of baked pallets, while one group served as

Saeed Akhtar; Faqir M. Anjum; Zia Ur Rehman; Munammad Tauseef Sultan; Muhammad Riaz; Anwaar Ahmed

114

131I induced hematological alterations in rat blood: protection by zinc.  

PubMed

The present study was planned to determine the potential of zinc in attenuating the toxicity induced by 131I in rat blood. Female wistar rats were segregated into four main groups. Animals in Group I served as normal controls; Group II animals were administered a dose of 3.7 Mbq of 131I (carrier free) intraperitoneally, Group III was supplemented with Zinc in the form of ZnSo4.7H2O (227 mg/l drinking water), and Group IV was given a combined treatment of Zinc as well as 131I, in a similar way as was given to Groups IV and II animals, respectively. The effects of different treatments were studied on various parameters in rat blood including hemoglobin (Hb) levels, % hematocrit, zinc protoporphyrins (ZPP), activities of enzymes which included aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) and Na+ K+ ATPase and uptake of 65Zn in blood. The study revealed an increase in the levels of hemoglobin, % hematocrit, activities of delta-ALAD, Na+ K+ ATPase and uptake of 65Zn, 7 days after the 131I treatment. On the contrary, the levels of ZPP were found to be significantly decreased after 131I treatment. However, zinc treatment to 131I-treated animals significantly attenuated the various biochemical and hematological indices. Moreover, zinc treatment to the 131I-treated animals could significantly decrease the uptake of 65Zn, which was increased after 131I treatment. Based upon these data, the present study suggests that zinc has the potential to attenuate 131I induced toxicity by restoring the altered hematological indices and biochemical changes. PMID:17916974

Dani, Vijayta; Malhotra, Anshoo; Dhawan, D

2007-01-01

115

Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. II. Systems M1, M2//SO{4/2-}-H2O (M1, M2 = Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+, H+) at 25°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High toxicity of arsenic and selenium makes it important to analyze conditions, under which sulfates, arsenates, and selenites replace sulfides, arsenides, and selenides in the oxidation zones of sulfide ore deposits and in weathered technogenic waste. Published experimental data have been summarized for solubility in ternary systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co sulfates. Due to high solubility of solid phases, the thermodynamic description of solutions was carried out using the Pitzer equations; the necessary parameters were found in the literature or calculated in this article. The applied model was preliminarily verified by experimentally obtained diagrams of solubility. A database was compiled for quantitative thermodynamic modeling of mineral equilibria in most ternary and four-component subsystems of the Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+//SO{4/2-}-H2O system. The lack of experimental data for the systems containing Fe(III) sulfate does not allow calculating necessary parameters of its interaction with other sulfates and conducting calculations in multicomponent systems without simplifications and additional assumptions. Solubility diagrams are considered for the following systems: FeSO4-H2SO4-H2O, NiSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CuSO4-H2SO4-H2O, ZnSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CoSO4-H2SO4-H2O, FeSO4-Fe2(SO4)3-H2O, CoSO4-NiSO4-H2O, ZnSO4NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CoSO4-H2O, FeSO4-NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CuSO4-H2O, CoSO4-CuSO4-H2O, NiSO4-CuSO4-H2O, and ZnSO4-CoSO4-H2O. For some of these systems, equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated in this article.

Charykova, M. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Depmeier, W.

2010-12-01

116

Zinc Enzymes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)|

Bertini, I.; And Others

1985-01-01

117

Zinc deficiency or excess within the physiological range increases genome instability and cytotoxicity, respectively, in human oral keratinocyte cells.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is an essential component of Zn-finger proteins and acts as a cofactor for enzymes required for cellular metabolism and in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Zn deficiency or excess in a primary human oral keratinocyte cell line and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds (Zn Sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn Carnosine (ZnC)) to minimise DNA damage. Zn-deficient medium (0 ?M) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds ZnSO(4) and ZnC were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0 ?M. Cell viability was decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0 ?M) as well as at 32 ?M and 100 ?M for both Zn compounds (P < 0.0001) as measured via the MTT assay. DNA strand breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P < 0.05). Furthermore, elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were observed at 0 and 0.4 ?M Zn, whereas these biomarkers were minimised for both Zn compounds at 4 and 16 ?M Zn (P < 0.05), suggesting these concentrations are optimal to maintain genome stability. Expression of PARP, p53 and OGG1 measured by western blotting was increased in Zn-depleted cells indicating that DNA repair mechanisms are activated. These results suggest that maintaining Zn concentrations within the range of 4-16 ?M is essential for DNA damage prevention in cultured human oral keratinocytes. PMID:21935692

Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Fenech, Michael

2011-09-21

118

Studies on the Bioavailability of Zinc in Humans: Mechanism of the Intestinal Interaction of Nonheme Iron and Zinc1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of the previously described competitive zinc:iron in teraction were explored in healthy human volunteers, using the increment in plasma zinc concentration after an oral dose of 25 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate as the index of zinc absorption. Ferric iron in a 2:1 Fe\\/Zn ratio reduced the plasma uptake of zinc, but to a significantly lesser degree

NOEL W. SOLOMONS; OSCAR PINEDA

2010-01-01

119

Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

1983-08-01

120

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...

121

A zinc-binding citrus protein metallothionein can act as a plant defense factor by controlling host-selective ACR-toxin production.  

PubMed

Metallothionein is a small cysteine-rich protein known to have a metal-binding function. We isolated three different lengths of rough lemon cDNAs encoding a metallothionein (RlemMT1, RlemMT2 and RlemMT3), and only RlemMT1-recombinant protein had zinc-binding activity. Appropriate concentration of zinc is an essential micronutrient for living organisms, while excess zinc is toxic. Zinc also stimulates the production of host-selective ACR-toxin for citrus leaf spot pathogen of Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype. Trapping of zinc by RlemMT1-recombinant protein or by a zinc-scavenging agent in the culture medium caused suppression of ACR-toxin production by the fungus. Since ACR-toxin is the disease determinant for A. alternata rough lemon pathotype, addition of RlemMT1 to the inoculum suspension led to a significant decrease in symptoms on rough lemon leaves as a result of reduced ACR-toxin production from the zinc trap around infection sites. RlemMT1-overexpression mutant of A. alternata rough lemon pathotype also produced less ACR-toxin and reduced virulence on rough lemon. This suppression was caused by an interruption of zinc absorption by cells from the trapping of the mineral by RlemMT1 and an excess supplement of ZnSO(4) restored toxin production and pathogenicity. Based on these results, we propose that zinc adsorbents including metallothionein likely can act as a plant defense factor by controlling toxin biosynthesis via inhibition of zinc absorption by the pathogen. PMID:23086497

Nishimura, Satoshi; Tatano, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Kouhei; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya

2012-10-20

122

Recycling spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials.  

PubMed

A novel process to reclaim spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries (SDBs) through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials is present. Firstly, the dismantling, watering, magnetism, baking and griddling steps were consecutively carried out to obtain iron battery shells, zinc grains and manganese compounds using the collected SDBs, and then these separated substances were dissolved with 4 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) to prepare FeSO(4), ZnSO(4) and MnSO(4) reactant solutions. Secondly, Zn-Mn ferrites with stoichiometric ratio of Mn(0.26)Zn(0.24)FeO(2) were synthesized using chemical co precipitation process with ammonium oxalate precipitator. The XRD results showed that the obtained Zn-Mn ferrites had spinel structure and high purity at the calcining temperatures of 850-1250 degrees C. With the increase of calcining temperature, the finer crystalline structure could be formed, and their intensity of saturation magnetization reached the highest value at 1150 degrees C. The magnetization performances of Zn-Mn ferrites prepared from the SDBs were similar to that of from analysis reagents, suggesting the feasibility to synthesize Zn-Mn ferrites with high properties from SDBs. PMID:16310946

Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Cui, Ming; Yang, Minjie; Pan, Linmao

2005-11-28

123

Uniform colloidal zinc compounds of various morphologies  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of finely dispersed zinc compounds consisting of uniform particles is described. Aging at elevated temperatures ({approx} 90{degree}C) of aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate or zinc chloride in the presence of urea resulted in precipitation of uniform rodlike basic zinc carbonate particles. These solids show x-ray characteristics of crystalline hydrozincite. In the presence of sulfate ions amorphous spherical particles of narrow size distribution of the same chemical composition are generated. On calcination both kinds of solids change to zinc oxide yet retain the original shape. In the presence of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and urea, aqueous zinc salt solutions on aging yield rather uniform amorphous spherical zinc basic phosphate particles, which on calcination lose water.

Castellano, M.; Matijevic, E. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA))

1989-02-01

124

Role of zinc in cellular zinc trafficking and mineralization in a murine osteoblast-like cell line.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) supplementation stimulates bone growth in Zn-deficient humans and animals. A biphasic pattern of mineralization has been observed in cultured osteoblasts; an initiation phase and a progression phase. We used MC3T3-E1, a murine osteoblastic cell line, to elucidate the physiological role of Zn in osteoblast mineralization and cellular Zn trafficking during the mineralization event. Cells were cultured in media containing Chelex-treated fetal bovine serum and 1, 4, 10 and 20 ?M Zn as ZnSO(4) for 14 days (early phase of mineralization) or 21 days (mid-to-late phase of mineralization). During the early phase of mineralization, Alizarin Red staining indicated that mineralization was increased by Zn in a dose-dependent manner. Although Zn exposure did not affect monolayer Zn concentration, metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression increased dose-dependently as assessed by real-time PCR. During the late phase of mineralization, mineralization was maximal at 1 ?M Zn and monolayer Zn concentration reflected Zn exposure. The increase in MT mRNA expression during the late phase was similar to that during the early phase, but the difference in expression between culture Zn concentrations tended to be smaller. ZnT-2 mRNA expression decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in the culture medium during the early phase, but increased significantly during the late phase. Osteocalcin mRNA levels were positively correlated to Zn exposure at both time points. Taken together, we propose that Zn may play an important role in osteoblast mineralization through Zn trafficking involving Zn storage proteins and Zn transporters. PMID:20378322

Nagata, Masashi; Lönnerdal, Bo

2010-04-08

125

Nutritional zinc increases platelet reactivity.  

PubMed

After ingestion of 220 mg zinc sulfate, platelet aggregation was evaluated at various time intervals (i.e., T = 0, 1, and 3 hr) and the autologous plasma analyzed by atomic absorption analysis. The zinc levels increased maximally some 0.4 +/- 0.2 microgram/ml within 3 hr after ingestion, which for the entire blood pool corresponds to only 5% of the ingested zinc. Aggregation responses of platelet rich plasma (PRP), instigated with suboptimal levels of thrombin (less than 0.2 U/ml), ADP (less than 2 microM), epinephrine (less than 2 microM), collagen (less than 2 micrograms/ml), or PAF (less than 50 ng/ml), show significant improvement to at least one aggregant. Mean +/- SEM values for delta % aggregation increase are as follows: thrombin, 51 +/- 10%; epinephrine, 21 +/- 6%; ADP, 31 +/- 6%; collagen 23 +/- 6%; and platelet aggregating factor (PAF), 56 +/- 6%. For controls, the platelets from one individual with Glanzmann thrombasthenia as well as four undosed volunteers exhibited no significant changes in platelet responsiveness. Increased platelet responsiveness to agonists after zinc sulfate ingestion was observed in PRP from blood collected in either citrate or heparin. We demonstrate that within a relatively short time period, single bolus of nutritional zinc intake can significantly increase platelet reactivity. These findings show that nutritional zinc availability is relevant to hemostasis and may pertain to the viability of platelet concentrates in blood banks. PMID:1951315

Marx, G; Krugliak, J; Shaklai, M

1991-11-01

126

Kinetics of oxygen evolution on Pb and Pb-Ag anodes during zinc electrowinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of lead and lead-silver alloy anodes during oxygen evolution in H2SO4?ZnSO4 or H2SO4?ZnSO4?MnSO4 electrolytes, has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A reaction model of anodic processes is presented, which quantitatively fits the experimental data. It is concluded that the presence of silver in lead modifies both the kinetic parameters of the main reaction of oxygen evolution, and

C. Rerolle; R. Wiart

1996-01-01

127

Effects of Dietary Zinc Supplementation on Hen Performance, Ammonia Volatilization, and Nitrogen Retention in Manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnSO4 supplementation on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in hen manure. One hundred twenty, 45-wk-old commercial Leghorn laying hens were sequentially fed diets with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 (Zn-1000, Zn-2000, and Zn-3000), then followed by two control dietary periods with 114 ppm Zn (Control-1 and Control-2)

W. K. KIM; P. H. PATTERSON

2005-01-01

128

Biotreatment of zinc-containing wastewater in a sulfidogenic CSTR: Performance and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfidogenic treatment of sulfate (2–10g\\/L) and zinc (65–677mg\\/L) containing simulated wastewater was studied in a mesophilic (35°C) CSTR. Ethanol was supplemented (COD\\/sulfate=0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by increasing Zn, COD and sulfate loadings. Sulfate removal efficiency, which was 70% at 2g\\/L feed sulfate concentration, steadily decreased with increasing

Erkan Sahinkaya

2009-01-01

129

Effective synthesis of sulfate metabolites of chlorinated phenols.  

PubMed

Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at -20°C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W; Parkin, Sean

2013-07-29

130

Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.  

PubMed

After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p < 0.001) except in the control (p > 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01). It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption. PMID:22826754

Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

2012-03-01

131

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Chemostat-Cultured Escherichia coli to Zinc  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace metal ion for growth, but an excess of Zn is toxic and microorganisms express diverse resistance mechanisms. To understand global bacterial responses to excess Zn, we conducted transcriptome profiling experiments comparing Escherichia coli MG1655 grown under control conditions and cells grown with a toxic, sublethal ZnSO4 concentration (0.2 mM). Cultures were grown in a defined medium lacking inorganic phosphate, permitting maximum Zn bioavailability, and in glycerol-limited chemostats at a constant growth rate and pH. Sixty-four genes were significantly up-regulated by Zn stress, including genes known to be involved in Zn tolerance, particularly zntA, zraP, and hydG. Microarray transcriptome profiling was confirmed by real-time PCR determinations of cusF (involved in Ag and Cu efflux), ais (an Al-inducible gene), asr (encoding an acid shock-inducible periplasmic protein), cpxP (a periplasmic chaperone gene), and basR. Five up-regulated genes, basR and basS [encoding a sensor-regulator implicated in Salmonella in Fe(III) sensing and antibiotic resistance], fliM (flagellar synthesis), and ycdM and yibD (both with unknown functions), are important for growth resistance to zinc, since mutants with mutations in these genes exhibited zinc sensitivity in liquid media and on metal gradient plates. Fifty-eight genes were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress; notably, several of these genes were involved in protection against acid stress. Since the mdt operon (encoding a multidrug resistance pump) was also up-regulated, these findings have important implications for understanding not only Zn homeostasis but also how bacterial antibiotic resistance is modulated by metal ions.

Lee, Lucy J.; Barrett, Jason A.; Poole, Robert K.

2005-01-01

132

Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc  

SciTech Connect

The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

1981-05-01

133

Diacetamidinium sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C2H7N2 +·SO4 2?, which contains four cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit, the ions are inter­connected by an extensive hydrogen-bonding system whereby two of the O atoms of sulfate ion are hydrogen-bonded to the amidinium H atoms of two cations, leading to the formation of two eight-membered rings. The two remaining O atoms inter­connect two H atoms of acetamidinium cations, forming an infinite chain. The C?N separations within the H2N?C?NH2 moieties are similar, with an average value of 1.305?(2)?Å, which is in good agreement with a delocalization model.

Jalovy, Zdenek; Ruzicka, Ales

2010-01-01

134

Sulfate Removal from Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate occurs naturally in groundwater. Concerns regarding the health effects from sulfate in drinking water have been raised because of reports that diarrhea may be associated with water that contains high levels of sulfate. In the live- stock production industry, there is a concern that high levels of sulfate in water can adversely affect productivity. Different methods can be used

ASHREF DARBI; THIRUVENKATACHARI VIRARAGHAVAN; YEE-CHUNG JIN; LARRY BRAUL; DARRELL CORKAL

135

Simple organic electron donors support diverse sulfate-reducing communities in fluidized-bed reactors treating acidic metal- and sulfate-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial diversity of lactate- and ethanol-utilizing sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) communities was investigated with culture-independent methods. The FBRs were fed for 500 days with synthetic mineral processing wastewater containing sulfate, zinc and iron with hydraulic retention time of 16–24 h. Sodium lactate or ethanol was used as electron donor for microbial sulfate reduction. For microbial characterization, 16S rRNA gene clone

Anna H Kaksonen; Jason J Plumb; Peter D Franzmann; Jaakko A Puhakka

2004-01-01

136

Remedial actions for acidic sulfate corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Objectives were to identify a reference acid sulfate environment which produced accelerated intergranular corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing under typical steam generator operating conditions and to identify inhibitors capable of limiting the progression of the corrosion. A background report summarized the occurrences of corrosion in operating steam generators attributed to acid sulfate environments and reviewed the laboratory corrosion tests performed in these environments. Although the corrosion in several operating plants is thought to be caused by acid sulfate environments, and previous laboratory testing his produced corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing in the presence of acid sulfates, the testing performed in this program did not produce accelerated intergranular corrosion. In some cases, the tests produced accelerated localized wastage, but this is not representative of the most relevant plant experience. Testing with more oxidizing conditions was found to reduce the aggressiveness of the corrosion. Given the range of test conditions addressed in the testing, it is concluded that the occurrence of intergranular corrosion with acid sulfate bulk chemistries is confined to a narrower range of operating variables than is typically thought to be the case for intergranular corrosion produced in alkaline environments. Zinc oxide and homologous and substituted derivatives of ethylene-diamine and propylene-diamine were identified as candidate inhibitors for acid sulfate-induced corrosion. They may also have corrosion inhibition capabilities in other crevice environments.

Baum, A.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Div.)

1992-08-01

137

Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio

Vernon L. Hammersley; Naval Surface

1995-01-01

138

Kinetic anomalies of dissolution of sphalerite in ferric sulfate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the leaching of several sphalerite concentrates in acidic ferric sulfate solution, the dissolution rate of zinc decreases with time and overall conversion does not exceed 305. The growing elemental sulfur layer on the surface of each particle was found to be the cause of this passivation. To eliminate this phenomenon, a small addition of lignosulphonate (1 g\\/l) into the

J. Lochmann; M. Ped?ik

1995-01-01

139

[Crystal growth on human dentin surface].  

PubMed

Gypsum crystal growth on human dentin surface was investigated using a crystal growth agent composed of 4-20% ammonium sulfate and 5-60% acrylic acid aqueous admixtures. In the treatment with 4% ammonium sulfate which contains the concentration of acrylic acid from 5% to 60%, fine half-spherical aggregates of 25 microns in diameter of needle-like crystals were obtained from 35% acrylic acid and large ones from 30% acrylic acid. Using the crystal growth agent of 4% ammonium sulfate-35% acrylic acid aqueous admixture, the human dentin surface pretreated with sulfates of different cations was evaluated from crystal growth. All sulfates without 4% ZnSO4 formed half-spherical aggregates of needle-like crystals. Diameter of their half-spherical aggregates increased as follows; 4% Na2SO4 less than none-treatment less than saturated CaSO4.2H2O less than 4% K2SO4 less than 4% MgSO4 less than 4% ZnSO4. The half-spherical aggregates from sulfates of Na+ and K+ (alkali metal) grew finer than those from sulfates of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (alkali-earth metal) and Zn2+ (zinc) and their area on dentin surface increased more with sulfates of alkali metal than with those of alkali-earth. PMID:2603093

Oyamada, S

1989-03-01

140

Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake.

Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

1987-02-01

141

Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

1999-01-01

142

The zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method as a catalyst in n-butanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of catalytic properties of n-butanol conversion of the zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method. The zinc ferrite showed good dehydrogenating activity but also catalyzed consecutive bimolecular condensation of emerged aldehyde particles into symmetrical ketone. The zinc-iron oxide of spinel structure was prepared from ferrous sulfate, which forms as a waste during the titanium dioxide production. The X-ray diffraction methods (XRD, XRF) were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained zinc ferrite, while thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used in the study of thermal transformations of zinc spinel in air.

Klimkiewicz, Roman [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, Wroclaw 2 50-950 (Poland)], E-mail: R.Klimkiewicz@int.pan.wroc.pl; Wolska, Jolanta; Przepiera, Aleksander; Przepiera, Krystyna; Jablonski, Maciej [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 42, Szczecin 71-065 (Poland); Lenart, Stanislaw [Institute of Materials Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 19, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland)

2009-01-08

143

Zinc Oxide Stabilized Zirconia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc oxide stabilized zirconia containing zirconia in cubic phase is prepared by evaporating zirconia and zinc oxide and depositing zirconia and zinc oxide on an atomic scale on a substrate. The stabilized zirconia resists corrosion at high temperatures a...

S. B. Qadri E. F. Skelton P. Lubitz

1997-01-01

144

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

145

Morphogenic and biochemical responses of Bacopa monniera cultures to zinc toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of zinc on morphogenic and biochemical responses of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst and determines the maximum zinc level to which tolerant cultures could be raised. Incorporation of zinc sulfate (100–600 ?M) in the maintenance medium, i.e., Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium (sucrose 2%) supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg l?1), benzylaminopurine (0.5 mg l?1) and

Gayoor Ali; P. S. Srivastava; M. Iqbal

1999-01-01

146

Spouted bed electrowinning of zinc: Part I. Laboratory-scale electrowinning experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of laboratory cells have been constructed to electrowin zinc from sulfate electrolytes: one cell was cylindrical\\u000a while the other had a rectangular (flat) geometry. Cells were operated on industrial or synthetic electrolytes to electrodeposit\\u000a zinc onto a spouted bed of zinc particles in the range of 0.75 to 1.45 mm. Current efficiencies and cell voltages have been\\u000a measured

Juan Carlos Salas-Morales; J. W. Evans; O. M. G. Newman; P. A. Adcock

1997-01-01

147

Systemic Imbalance of Essential Metals and Cardiac Gene Expression in Rats Following Acute Pulmonary Zinc Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) containing water-soluble zinc produces cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate whether pulmonary zinc exposure produces systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (12–14 wk age) were intratracheally (IT) instilled with saline or 2 ?mol\\/kg zinc sulfate. Temporal analysis was performed for systemic levels of essential metals

Peter S. Gilmour; Mette C. Schladweiler; Abraham Nyska; John K. McGee; Ronald Thomas; Richard H. Jaskot; Judy Schmid; Urmila P. Kodavanti

2006-01-01

148

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

149

A controlled trial on utility of oral zinc supplementation in acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants.  

PubMed

A controlled, randomized trial was conducted in 50 infants with acute dehydrating diarrhea to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea. After completion of rehydration, 25 infants in Group A received oral zinc sulfate (20 mg elemental zinc twice daily) and an equal number in Group B were given placebo (glucose). Both groups were comparable with respect to various initial characteristics including nutritional status, diarrheal disease, serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum and rectal mucosal zinc content. During therapy all the assessed parameters of zinc status (serum alkaline phosphatase and serum and rectal zinc) recorded significant elevation and reduction in Groups A and B, respectively. At recovery the zinc status of Group A was significantly better and was nearer that of healthy controls. The diarrheal duration and frequency in the zinc-supplemented group were lower, but the differences were not significant (0.05 less than p less than 0.1). However, when only subjects with relatively severe initial zinc depletion (rectal zinc lower than the 15th percentile of healthy controls; 11 in Group A and 14 in Group B) were considered, the diarrheal duration and frequency were significantly (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively) lower in the zinc-supplemented cases. Weight gain in both groups was similar. It is concluded that oral zinc administration in acute diarrhea can replenish body zinc status and this may shorten the diarrheal duration and frequency in children with relatively severe zinc depletion. PMID:3058919

Sachdev, H P; Mittal, N K; Mittal, S K; Yadav, H S

150

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26

151

Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and calcium levels in postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Research on the zinc status of osteoporotic women is scarce. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and calcium levels in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. A sample of 60 women referred to a rheumatology clinic in Tabriz were randomly divided into intervention (220 mg zinc sulfate daily) and placebo groups. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake of zinc and calcium and serum zinc and calcium were assessed at baseline and after 60 days. Mean serum zinc concentrations were markedly lower than the normal range at baseline, but mean serum calcium levels were normal. In the intervention group serum levels were significantly higher after 60 days [120.5 (SD 7.5) versus 70.5 (SD 4.6) micrograms/dL] while serum calcium levels were unchanged [8.6 (SD 0.1) versus 9.1 (SD 0.3) mg/dL]. The placebo group showed no significant changes in zinc or calcium levels. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women may benefit from zinc supplementation. PMID:23879079

Mahdaviroshan, Marjan; Golzarand, M; Taramsari, M Rahbar; Mahdaviroshan, Merhan

2013-03-01

152

Process for making hydrogen. [reduction of zinc oxide; reaction of zinc and steam; recycling zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for making hydrogen is described which comprises reducing zinc oxide to zinc metal, combining the metallic zinc with molten lead and spraying the mixture under pressure to an oxidizer where metallic zinc is reacted with steam to yield hydrogen and zinc oxide, separating the hydrogen product under pressure, separating the zinc oxide from the molten lead, recycling zinc

Seitzer

1975-01-01

153

Sulfate, nitrate declines noted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of more than 4000 samples of precipitation that were collected weekly from 1978 through 1983 at 19 sites in 13 states showed no clear pattern of changes in overall acidity, according to a recent report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior. The analysis did, however, reveal significant declines in sulfate and nitrate concentrations during that 5-year period.USGS hydrologists said that sulfate and nitrate, sometimes used as indirect indicators of the acidity of precipitation, showed widespread and substantial downward trends in the eastern United States. (All but three of the 19 stations are located east of the Mississippi River.) At the five stations in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, for example, sulfate concentrations declined 25% to 40% during the 5-year period. Only two of those five stations showed statistically significant trends in pH; these were decreases in acidity comparable to the decreases in sulfate.

154

Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product

Matthias Labrenz; Gregory K. Druschel; Tamara Thomsen-Ebert; Benjamin Gilbert; Susan A. Welch; Kenneth M. Kemner; Graham A. Logan; Roger E. Summons; Gelsomina De Stasio; Philip L. Bond; Barry Lai; Shelly D. Kelly; Jillian F. Banfield; Diversions Scuba

2000-01-01

155

Thermal stability, flame retardancy and rheological behavior of ABS filled with magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whisker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Halogen-free and flame-retardant acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) composites were prepared using magnesium\\u000a hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whisker as a flame retardant, and the effect of zinc stearate (ZnSt2) as a dispersion additive on the morphology and properties of the ABS\\/MHSH composites was studied. The morphology observation\\u000a by using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) indicates that the addition of zinc stearate could improve

Bo Liu; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Zhang; Rongxun Li; Guangye Liu

2007-01-01

156

Glycopeptide Sulfation Evades Resistance  

PubMed Central

The incidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is increasing at an alarming rate. Resistance against front-line therapeutics such as the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has emerged and has spread to highly virulent pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide antibiotics are natural products from the Actinomycetes that have a characteristic heptapeptide core. The chemical diversity of the class is achieved through glycosylation, halogenation, methylation, and acylation of the core, modifications that are implicated in improved solubility, stability, or activity of the molecule. Sulfation is yet another modification observed infrequently in glycopeptides, but its role is not known. Although glycopeptide sulfotransferases are found in the environmental metagenome and must therefore serve an evolutionary purpose, all previous studies have reported decreased antibiotic activity with sulfation. We report that sulfation of glycopeptides has little effect on the compound's ability to bind its target, the d-Ala-d-Ala peptidoglycan precursors of the bacterial cell wall. However, sulfation does impact glycopeptide dimerization, and importantly, sulfated glycopeptides are significantly less potent inducers of the resistance gene cluster vanHAX in actinomycetes. Our results begin to unravel the mystery of the biological role of glycopeptide sulfation and offer a potential new strategy for the development of new antibiotics that avoid resistance.

Kalan, Lindsay; Perry, Julie; Koteva, Kalinka; Thaker, Maulik

2013-01-01

157

Zinc bioavailability and homeostasis.  

PubMed

Zinc has earned recognition recently as a micronutrient of outstanding and diverse biological, clinical, and global public health importance. Regulation of absorption by zinc transporters in the enterocyte, together with saturation kinetics of the absorption process into and across the enterocyte, are the principal means by which whole-body zinc homeostasis is maintained. Several physiologic factors, most notably the quantity of zinc ingested, determine the quantity of zinc absorbed and the efficiency of absorption. Other factors are age and the time over which zinc is ingested. Zinc from supplements has not been shown to be absorbed differently from that taken with meals that lack inhibitors of zinc absorption. The principal dietary factor known to impair zinc bioavailability is inositol hexa- (and penta-) phosphate or phytate. Modeling of zinc absorption as a function of dietary zinc and phytate accounts for >80% of the variability in the quantity of zinc absorbed. Fitting the model to new data has resulted in continual improvement in parameter estimates, which currently indicate a maximal absorption in adults of approximately 6 mg Zn/d and that the average estimated dietary requirement doubles with 1000 mg dietary phytate/d. Intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc is regulated in response to recent absorption and to zinc status. The quantitative relation of intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc to zinc absorption is currently considered to be of major importance in the determination of zinc requirements. The effects of phytate on intestinal losses of endogenous zinc merit further investigation but are probably not of the same magnitude as its inhibitory effects on absorption of exogenous zinc. PMID:20200254

Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie E; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Krebs, Nancy F

2010-03-03

158

Zinc reduces the detection of cocaine, methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA urine testing.  

PubMed

Federal workplace drug testing was initiated during the late 1980s. Since then, numerous methods have been employed to subvert these drug tests, adulteration of urine samples being the most common. A wide variety of adulterants has been reported to date along with suitable methods of their detection. Recently, websites have claimed that zinc sulfate can be an effective adulterant to bypass drug testing. Herein, these claims are investigated using standard drug detection kits and urine samples adulterated with zinc. Drug-free urine samples were fortified with different amounts methamphetamines and benzoylecgonine, to which zinc sulfate was added to study its effect. Urine samples from acute marijuana smokers were also obtained in order to study the effects of zinc supplements on THC drug testing. All urine drug testing was performed using ELISA detection kits manufactured by Immunalysis. Both zinc sulfate and zinc supplements are effective in interfering with the detection of all three drugs by Immunalysis drug detection kits. Also, no suitable method could be established to detect zinc in urine samples. Zinc can be an effective adulterant in urine for some illicit drugs that are commonly screened under routine drug testing. PMID:21740689

Venkatratnam, Abhishek; Lents, Nathan H

2011-07-01

159

Sulfation in dog.  

PubMed

Sulfation has been thoroughly studied in several species including e.g. man and rat. However, one important species often used for pharmacological drug studies is the dog. Here we describe recent advances as well as older data in the field of dog sulfation. Species differences in sulfation have been reported. Stereoselectivity, inhibition by pentachlorophenol, bioactivation of DNA binding species, and gender differences have also been observed for canine sulfotransferases (SULTs). Several drugs are being sulfated in vivo in dog, e.g. xamoterol, 4'-hydroxypropanolol, paracetamol and salicylamide. However, studies have shown that also e.g. canine hepatocytes and liverslices will sulfate substrates e.g. paracetamol and 7-hydroxycoumarin in in vitro experiments. Recently, three different enzymes have been cloned and characterized from canine liver, cSULT1A1, cSULT1B1 and cSULT1D1. cSULT1A1 being very similar to the human ortholog in terms of substrate specificity and is also ubiquitously expressed in canine tissues. The cSULT1B1 enzyme is also very similar in both distribution pattern as well as substrate preference compared to the human ortholog. The third enzyme, cSULT1D1, sulfates dopamine with high efficiency and it has no counterpart in man since it is found as a pseudogene. The importance of amino acid residue 247 in cSULT1D1 will be discussed since it can alter the ratio of sulfation of dopamine versus para-nitrophenol. In addition, the phenomenon of the high expression of the canine enzymes in colon is discussed. PMID:15975044

Tsoi, C; Swedmark, S

2005-06-01

160

Polarization and corrosion of electrogalvanized steel - evaluation of zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived zinc electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of electrogalvanized 1070 steel wire has been investigated in molar quiescent ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate under near-neutral conditions. Zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived electrolytes were evaluated vs. coatings from relatively pure zinc electrolytes. The waste source of zinc was brass smelter flue dust. Corrosion rates were measured by Tafel line extrapolation and the polarization resistance technique. Values of the Tafel slopes and the corrosion currents were also compared with those for pure zinc (99.999%). Corrosion rates were found to be affected by the medium employed, pH, and bimetal diameter reduction (drawing). Drawn electrogalvanized stee displays higher values of the Tafel slopes than do the as-plated samples. The Tafel slopes are different from thos obtained on pure zinc. This is assumed to be due to inhomogeneous surface features obtained from additive adsorption (during plating) and residual lubricants used in the drawing process as well as surface structure. The corrosion rates of electrogalvanized samples plated in the waste-derived zinc electrolytes were similar to the corrosion rates of samples plated in relatively pure zinc electrolytes. Therefore, wastes are a potential source of zinc for electrogalvanizing.

Dattilo, M.

1985-11-01

161

Thermodynamic Aspects of the Formation of Sulfate Minerals from Hot Gaseous Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals may form by solid-state reactions or by dissolution and precipitation from a fluid phase, be it magma, aqueous medium, or gas. The latter phase was traditionally not considered as important as the other ones, although it may be essential in some geological environments. Components of minerals (e.g., sulfur) are commonly transported by hot gases in volcanoes. Others may form in burning coal dumps or by burning fossil fuels for energy production. We have identified a number of minerals which precipitated from the hot gases escaping into the atmosphere from the smoke stack of a coal-fired power plant. This power plant uses coal or a mixture of coal and used tires to produce electricity. The phases identified by TEM are anglesite (PbSO4), gunningite (ZnSO4?H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2). In addition to these crystalline phases, amorphous sulfate materials and soot have been identified. All these materials were captured by filtering the escaping gases beyond the last filters intended to remove any particles from the gas stream. Therefore, they must have formed by precipitation from the hot gas and may present a significant pollution load in the vicinity of power plants. Verhulst et al. (1996) have shown that several metals are most likely transported as chloride complexes in the gas phase. Their assumption correlates well with the finding that the chloride-richer coal+tire mixture increases considerably amounts of emitted metals. Using thermodynamic data for these and other sulfate minerals, we are trying to understand and model the precipitation process of these minerals from hot gases at ambient pressures. In this contribution, we focus on the mineral mikasaite (trigonal Fe2(SO4)3). This mineral has been reported only from burning coal dumps (Miura et al. 1994). Using acid-solution calorimetry, we have determined the enthalpy of formation of mikasaite from elements at T = 298.15 K. We have further estimated the standard entropy of this mineral. Using the measured and estimated thermodynamic data for mikasaite and the published data for Fe-Cl complexes, we will present equilibrium diagrams for the Fe2O3-H2O-SO2-HCl system. In future, we are aiming at developing a thermodynamic database for the minerals found to precipitate from hot gases at burning coal dumps, power plants, and volcanic fumaroles. Verhulst, D., Buekens, A., Spencer, P., Eriksson, G., 1996: Thermodynamic behavior of metal chlorides and sulfates under the conditions of incineration furnaces. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 50-56. Miura H, Niida K, Hirama T, 1994: Mikasaite, (Fe3+, Al)2(SO4)3, a new ferric sulfate mineral from Mikasa City, Hokkaido, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine 58, 649-653.

Giere, R.; Majzlan, J.

2006-12-01

162

Zinc oxide overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

163

Desorption and transformation of zinc in a mollisol and its uptake by plants in a rice–wheat rotation fertilized with either zinc-enriched biosludge from molasses or with inorganic zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and greenhouse investigations were carried out with 65Zn-labeled sources to study the kinetics of desorption, transformation, and availability of Zn applied to soil as zinc-enriched\\u000a biosludge from distillery molasses (ZEMB) or as zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZSH). Desorption (0.5 to 72 h) of added Zn by the\\u000a column method followed a biphasic kinetics with an initial (up to 12 h) faster phase

Prakash C. Srivastava; Ajay P. Singh; Surendra Kumar; V. Ramachandran; Manoj Shrivastava; S. F. D’souza

2008-01-01

164

Rechargeable zinc halogen battery  

SciTech Connect

A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

1980-01-01

165

Continuous electrowinning of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic and pure zinc solution produced from laboratory leached oxidised zinc ores, under controlled temperature and pH were subjected to continuous elctrowinning operations until the least possible zinc concentration was reached. Conventional DC electrolysis technique, PC and PCR procedures were examined. The effect of organic additives and some of the impurity foreign cations were also investigated. Current efficiencies of more

A. E Saba; A. E Elsherief

2000-01-01

166

Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin. In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety

JOHANN BRAUN

1999-01-01

167

Tooth about Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... 07, 2013 About | Contact InfoBites The Tooth About Zinc Article Chapters The Tooth About Zinc send to printer From its involvement in a ... immune system to its role in cell growth, zinc is an essential mineral for the human body. ...

168

ELECTRODE POTENTIALS IN MOLTEN LITHIUM SULFATE-POTASSIUM SULFATE EUTECTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium sulfate --potassium sulfate eutectic (80% lithium sulfate by ; mole; melting point 535 deg ) was shown to be an adequate molten solvent for ; electrochemical investigations at 625 deg . A procedure for preparing the ; eutectic melt was established. The silver(I) --silver(0) system was found to be ; a satisfactory reference electrode in this melt. The

C. H. Liu

1962-01-01

169

Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to explore the spatial and temporal variability of the stratospheric sulfate layer, its chemical composition, and mode of formation. In addition, trace chemical concentrations in the natural stratosphere are provided as reference values before extensive use of the stratosphere for aircraft travel. EXPERIMENTAL This research comprises a systematic study of the stable constituents of

A. L. Lazrus; B. W. Gandrud

1974-01-01

170

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.|

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

171

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

172

Effects of iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins on the activity and contents of human placental copper\\/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women, ages 15–45 yr, were divided into three groups. Group A was orally given one spansule\\u000a per day containing 150 mg dried ferrous sulfate, 61.8 mg zinc sulfate, and 500 ?g folic acid, starting from the first 4 wk\\u000a of pregnancy and ending at the day of delivery. Similarly, group B was given one tablet containing

Abdelrahim A. Hunaiti; Marwan S. Saleh

1996-01-01

173

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...base), and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, with or without...

2009-04-01

174

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2009-04-01

175

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2010-04-01

176

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...base), and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, with or without...

2010-04-01

177

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Dallam, R.D.

1987-03-23

178

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants.  

PubMed

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H2 35SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. PMID:3561145

Dallam, R D

1987-03-23

179

Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

1996-10-01

180

Cardiovascular and blood coagulative effects of pulmonary zinc exposure  

SciTech Connect

Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were instilled intratracheally with saline or zinc sulfate, 131 {mu}g/kg (2 {mu}mol/kg); the alterations were determined at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h postexposure. High-dose zinc enabled us to show changes in circulating levels of zinc above normal and induce significant pulmonary inflammation/injury such that cardiac impairments were likely. At 1-24 h postexposure, plasma levels of zinc increased to nearly 20% above the base line. Significant pulmonary inflammation and injury were determined by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology in zinc-exposed rats at all time points. Starting at 4 h postexposure, pulmonary damage was accompanied by persistently increased gene expressions of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but not thrombomodulin (TM). Cardiac tissues demonstrated similar temporal increases in expressions of TF, PAI-1, and TM mRNA following pulmonary instillation of zinc. In contrast to extensive pulmonary edema and inflammation, only mild, and focal acute, myocardial lesions developed in a few zinc-exposed rats; no histological evidence showed increased deposition of fibrin or disappearance of troponin. At 24 and 48 h postexposure to zinc, increases occurred in levels of systemic fibrinogen and the activated partial thromboplastin time. These data suggest that cardiovascular blood coagulation impairments are likely following pulmonary zinc exposure and associated pulmonary injury and inflammation.

Gilmour, Peter S. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McGee, John K. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Richards, Judy H. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov

2006-02-15

181

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by

R Dallam

1987-01-01

182

Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed

A I Inamdar; S H Mujawar; V Ganesan; P S Patil

2008-01-01

183

Zinc attenuation of GDP binding to brown adipocytes mitochondria in genetically obese (ob\\/ob) mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate the in vitro effect of zinc addition on guanosine diphosphate (GDP) binding to mitochondria\\u000a in brown adipocytes of genetically obese (ob\\/ob) mice. Interscapular brown adipocytes of male mice (obese; lean) at 4 and\\u000a 12 wk of age were incubated with 0, 50, 100, or 200 ?M zinc sulfate. Mitochondria were then isolated and their GDP

Ming-Der Chen; Pi-Yao Lin; Piin-Sheng Chen; Vie Cheng; Wen-Han Lin

1997-01-01

184

Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-?m-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-?-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. PMID:22414495

Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

2012-03-11

185

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda

2001-01-01

186

[Zinc and diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

In patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes was frequently found: low blood zinc levels, high zincuria, severe and ubiquitous cellular depletion of zinc, increased basal and after loading blood mineral clearance, and hyperglycaemia due to the reduction of pancreatic insulin secretion and to the reduced biological action of the hormone on liver, as a consequence of chronic zinc deficit. Strong endocellular zinc depletion in diabetics; low insulin secretion; insulin biological action decrease for zinc deficit; IG-I concentration decrease, that happens in this condition; insulin and IGF-I resistance; insulin and IGF-I receptors depletion in diabetics: are strong arguments for zinc pharmacological supplementation, in gastric protective formulation, to avoid gastroenteric problems. PMID:8622809

Ripa, S; Ripa, R

1995-10-01

187

Zinc-halogen battery  

SciTech Connect

A zinc-halogen battery having a negative electrode of zinc electrode, a positive electrode of halogen electrode, and an electrolyte of aqueous solution containing a zinc halide as a main component thereof, which is characterized in that said electrolyte contains T1 and/or T1 compound and further at least one additive selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Sn, Pb, Bi and the compounds thereof, if necessary, with addition of In and/or In compound.

Watakabe, Y.; Fujisaki, F.; Fujiwara, K.; Shimizu, Sh.

1984-09-25

188

Performance and Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics of a Sulfate-Reducing Fluidized-Bed Reactor Treating Acidic Metal-Containing Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of simulated acidic wastewater (pH 2.5–5)containing sulfate (1.0–2.2 g l-1), zinc (15–340 mg l -1) and iron (57 mg l -1) was studied in a sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) at 35 °C.The original lactate feed for enrichment and maintenance\\u000a of the FBRculture was replaced stepwise with ethanol over 50 days. The robustnessof the process was studied by increasing

Anna H. Kaksonen; Peter D. Franzmann; Jaakko A. Puhakka

2003-01-01

189

Zinc-deficiency dermatitis in breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

We report ten infants (mean gestational age: 30 weeks; range: 25 to 40 weeks) with zinc deficiency dermatitis who developed erosive, impetiginized periorificial dermatitis at 10 weeks of age (corresponding to a mean gestational age of 41.4 weeks, with a range of 36-44 weeks), but who were otherwise well. Cutaneous symptoms were initially misdiagnosed as eczema or impetigo in 8/10 (80%) children who received either topical (4/8) and/or systemic (6/8) antibiotics. Topical corticosteroids were applied in 4/10 infants for a mean time of 4 weeks (range: 2 to 5 weeks) before the correct diagnosis was established by decreased serum zinc levels; skin atrophy (telangiectasia, thinning) as a complication of topical steroid treatment (class II steroids) was observed in two infants. All children responded to oral therapy with zinc sulfate or zinc gluconate (1.5-4 mg/kg/d). Skin lesions started to clear within 24 h after the initiation of therapy and had completely cleared in all infants after 14 days of therapy (range: 3-14 days). We conclude that nutritional zinc deficiency is a frequently misdiagnosed problem in thriving, fully breast-fed preterm babies. It is attributable to the decreased zinc content of human milk as compared to cow's milk, and the increased demand of zinc in rapidly thriving preterm infants. It seems advisable to routinely check serum zinc levels in fully breast-fed preterm infants who do not receive regular oral zinc supplementation once they reach a gestational age of 40 weeks. PMID:16960696

Kienast, Antonia; Roth, Bernhard; Bossier, Christiane; Hojabri, Christina; Hoeger, Peter H

2006-09-08

190

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications.

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

191

Chemoenzymatic Design of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides*  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate is a sulfated glycan that exhibits essential physiological functions. Interrogation of the specificity of heparan sulfate-mediated activities demands a library of structurally defined oligosaccharides. Chemical synthesis of large heparan sulfate oligosaccharides remains challenging. We report the synthesis of oligosaccharides with different sulfation patterns and sizes from a disaccharide building block using glycosyltransferases, heparan sulfate C5-epimerase, and sulfotransferases. This method offers a generic approach to prepare heparan sulfate oligosaccharides possessing predictable structures.

Liu, Renpeng; Xu, Yongmei; Chen, Miao; Weiwer, Michel; Zhou, Xianxuan; Bridges, Arlene S.; DeAngelis, Paul L.; Zhang, Qisheng; Linhardt, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

2010-01-01

192

Chemoenzymatic design of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate is a sulfated glycan that exhibits essential physiological functions. Interrogation of the specificity of heparan sulfate-mediated activities demands a library of structurally defined oligosaccharides. Chemical synthesis of large heparan sulfate oligosaccharides remains challenging. We report the synthesis of oligosaccharides with different sulfation patterns and sizes from a disaccharide building block using glycosyltransferases, heparan sulfate C(5)-epimerase, and sulfotransferases. This method offers a generic approach to prepare heparan sulfate oligosaccharides possessing predictable structures. PMID:20729556

Liu, Renpeng; Xu, Yongmei; Chen, Miao; Weïwer, Michel; Zhou, Xianxuan; Bridges, Arlene S; DeAngelis, Paul L; Zhang, Qisheng; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Jian

2010-08-21

193

76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2010-P-0630] Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) Solution...Administration (FDA) has determined that PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (zinc trisodium...

2011-08-19

194

Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross  

SciTech Connect

Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

Barakat, M.A.

1999-07-01

195

Zinc triggers microglial activation  

PubMed Central

Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 ?M zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 ?M zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-?B activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-?B. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

2009-01-01

196

Sulfate scale dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

1992-01-28

197

Sulfate Ions in Titania Polymorphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sol-gel titania was sulfated by using sulfuric acid as hydrolysis catalyst, or by impregnating with ammonium sulfate fresh samples prepared with nitric acid or ammonium hydroxide as hydrolysis catalyst. Samples were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Sulfate ions were found anchored to brookite and anatase phases, because they have short O—O atomic bond

X. Bokhimi; A. Morales; E. Ortíz; T. López; R. Gómez; J. Navarrete

2004-01-01

198

Effect of Zinc, Zinc Oxide and Zinc Borate on the Flammability of Polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycarbonate was blended with zinc, zinc borate (2ZnO·3B2O 3·3.5H2O) and zinc oxide. Blends made of zinc\\/polycarbonate and especially zinc borate\\/polycarbonate show major improvement in oxygen index values. Ohio State University (OSU) heat release studies show reduction in heat release only for zinc borate\\/polycarbonate blends compared to virgin polycarbonate. No improvement in smoke suppression was observed from NBS Smoke Chamber studies

Ramazan Benrashid; Gordon L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm; Leland W. Chew

1995-01-01

199

Tissue uptake of zinc in rats following the administration of zinc dipicolinate or zinc histidinate.  

PubMed

Tissue uptake of zinc was determined in rats fed a low zinc diet (less than 1 ppm Zn) and an adequate zinc diet (20 ppm Zn) following the intramuscular injection of either zinc dipicolinate (ZnPA2) or zinc histidinate (ZnHis). Significant differences were observed when dietary and treatment effects on zinc uptake were compared in pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, kidney, and liver. Zinc uptake by the pancreas was higher in rats fed adequate zinc than in rats fed low zinc regardless of which zinc complex was injected, suggesting that the pancreas has a role in zinc excretion. Since ZnHis was more readily taken up than ZnPA2 by the pancreas of rats on the zinc-adequate diet, zinc chelated by histidine may be more readily excreted than zinc chelated by picolinic acid. No differences in zinc uptake were observed in the intestinal segments from rats fed low zinc compared to rats fed adequate zinc. However, in rats fed low zinc, ZnPA2 was more readily taken up than ZnHis by all intestinal segments implying that zinc chelated by picolinic acid may be more available for storage or utilization by the small intestine than zinc chelated by histidine. Also, the ileum had the highest zinc uptake regardless of which zinc complex was injected. Since the ileum has the largest population of Paneth cells, and high zinc uptake observed in this segment of the small intestine suggests a role for Paneth cells in zinc homeostasis. PMID:7077422

Johnson, W T; Evans, G W

1982-05-01

200

In vitro dialyzability of zinc from different salts used in the supplementation of infant formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven zinc salts—acetate, chloride, lactate, sulfate, citrate, gluconate, and oxide—were added to milk—and soy-based infant\\u000a formulas to estimate possible differences in zinc availability depending on the type of salt used. For this purpose, an in\\u000a vitro method that estimates the dialyzability of the element (i.e., the fraction available for absorption) was applied. Zinc\\u000a dialyzability is always higher in milk-based products

A. Guillem; A. Alegría; R. Barberá; R. Farré; M. J. Lagarda; G. Clemente

2000-01-01

201

Control of promatrilysin (MMP7) activation and substrate-specific activity by sulfated glycosaminoglycans.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases are maintained in an inactive state by a bond between the thiol of a conserved cysteine in the prodomain and a zinc atom in the catalytic domain. Once this bond is disrupted, MMPs become active proteinases and can act on a variety of extracellular protein substrates. In vivo, matrilysin (MMP7) activates pro-alpha-defensins (procryptdins), but in vitro, processing of these peptides is slow, with about 50% conversion in 8-12 h. Similarly, autolytic activation of promatrilysin in vitro can take up to 12-24 h for 50% conversion. These inefficient reactions suggest that natural cofactors enhance the activation and activity of matrilysin. We determined that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), such as heparin, chondroitin-4,6-sulfate (CS-E), and dermatan sulfate, markedly enhanced (>50-fold) the intermolecular autolytic activation of promatrilysin and the activity of fully active matrilysin to cleave specific physiologic substrates. In contrast, heparan sulfate and less sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate did not augment matrilysin activation or activity. Chondroitin-2,6-sulfate (CS-D) also did not enhance matrilysin activity, suggesting that the presentation of sulfates is more important than the overall degree of sulfation. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that promatrilysin bound heparin (K(D), 400 nm) and CS-E (K(D), 630 nm). Active matrilysin bound heparin (K(D), 150 nm) but less so to CS-E (K(D), 60 microm). Neither form bound heparan sulfate. These observations demonstrate that sulfated GAGs regulate matrilysin activation and its activity against specific substrates. PMID:19654318

Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Harju-Baker, Susanna; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Wilson, Carole L; Parks, William C

2009-08-04

202

Rechargeable Alkaline Zinc System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rechargeable alkaline zinc batteries have been investigated heretofore as power sources capable of high energy density applications. One of the major problems with their use is the short circuiting of the unit cells by growth of zinc dendrites from the an...

O. C. Wagner

1970-01-01

203

Kinetics of cobalt cementation on zinc powder  

SciTech Connect

The cementation process may be considered an interesting method to treat dilute solutions containing metal ions. The aim of the process may be either the removal of pollutant metals or the recovery of economically valuable metals such as Ag from spent photographic liquors. The kinetics of cobalt cementation on Zn powder from zinc sulfate concentrated solutions in the presence of copper and antimony ions was investigated in stirred tank reactors. The composition of the solutions was in the range usually utilized in industrial zinc electrowinning plants. The results showed that the reaction occurs by means of the formation of crystallization nuclei of noble metals on the zinc powder, followed by the cementation of cobalt ions on these newly-formed nuclei. Mass transfer to the reaction surface is shown to be the controlling step in copper and antimony reduction, and an equation correlating mass transfer coefficients has been determined. A kinetic equation, which interprets the influence of stirring speed and solution composition on cobalt cementation, has also been proposed.

Polcaro, A.M.; Palmas, S.; Dernini, S. [Univ. degli studi di Cagliari (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali

1995-09-01

204

The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-12-01

205

Electrodeposition of zinc-silica composite coatings: challenges in incorporating functionalized silica particles into a zinc matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is a well-known sacrificial coating material for iron and co-deposition of suitable particles is of interest for further improving its corrosion protection performance. However, incorporation of particles that are well dispersible in aqueous electrolytes, such as silica particles, is extremely difficult. Here, we report a detailed study of Zn-SiO2 nanocomposite coatings deposited from a zinc sulfate solution at pH 3. The effect of functionalization of the silica particles on the electro-codeposition was investigated. The best incorporation was achieved for particles modified with SiO2-SH, dithiooxamide or cysteamine; these particles have functional groups that can strongly interact with zinc and therefore incorporate well into the metal matrix. Other modifications (SiO2-NH3+, SiO2-Cl and N,N-dimethyldodecylamine) of the silica particles lead to adsorption and entrapment only.

Rahman Khan, Tabrisur; Erbe, Andreas; Auinger, Michael; Marlow, Frank; Rohwerder, Michael

2011-10-01

206

Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

2003-01-01

207

Integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate is a regulatory polysac- charide. It modulates specific growth factor-receptor in- teractions, accelerates the formation of specific proteinase- proteinase inhibitor complexes, and mediates interactions of the cell surface with several enzymes and structural proteins. It abounds on the surfaces of embryonic cells, respecting or outlining morphogenetic rather than histo- logical boundaries. This cell surface-associated heparan sulfate is implanted

GUIDO DAVID

1993-01-01

208

Assessment of mineral phosphate-solubilizing properties and molecular characterization of zinc-tolerant bacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting bacteria with the ability to tolerate heavy metals have importance both in sustainable agriculture and phytoremediation. The present study reports on the isolation and characterization of mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) bacteria associated with the Achyranthes aspera L. plant (prickly chaff, flower plant). Out of 35 bacterial isolates, 6 isolates, namely RS7, RP23, EPR1, RS5, RP11 and RP19, with high MPS activity were selected and subjected to the assessment of MPS activity under various stress conditions, viz. ZnSO(4) (0.30-1.5 M), NaCl and temperature. MPS activity by the selected isolates was observed at concentrations of as high as >1.2 M ZnSO(4). Significant improvement in plant growth was observed on bacterization of seeds (pearl millet) with all of the six selected isolates. Plant growth was measured in terms of root length, shoot length, fresh weight and % increase in root biomass. The molecular diversity among the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria was studied employing enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-PCR (ERIC-PCR). Representative strains from each ERIC type were identified, on the basis of a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as members of the genera Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Serratia, and Enterobacter. Among all the isolates, RP19 was the best in terms of phosphate-solubizing activity and its response to various stresses. The ability of RP19 and other isolates to exhibit MPS activity at high ZnSO(4) concentrations suggests their potential as efficient biofertilizer for growing plants in metal (ZnSO(4))-contaminated soil. PMID:22359218

Misra, Neha; Gupta, Garima; Jha, Prabhat N

2012-02-23

209

Zinc toxicity?induced variation of mineral element composition in hydroponically grown bush bean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were grown for twenty days in nutrient solution (pH=5), containing 0.13, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.75 mg 1 Zn as ZnSO4?7H2O. The plant yield decreased linearly with the increase of the Zn concentration supplied. The phytotoxic threshold content (for 10% growth reduction) was about 486, 242, 95 and 134 ?g Zn g for

A. Ruano; J. Barceló; Ch. Poschenrieder

1987-01-01

210

Investigation of Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) Porphyrazine for Application as Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer  

PubMed Central

The phthalocyanine analogue containing nonperipheral long alkyl-substituted benzenoid rings and pyridine rings, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine, was synthesized. Zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine reacted with dimethyl sulfate and monochloroacetic acid to produce their quaternized products and diethyl sulfate to produce the sulfo-substituted products. All quaternized and sulfo-substituted showed amphiphilic character. Identical peaks in cyclic voltammograms appeared for these products before and after quaternization. During the evaluation of zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazine for its photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT) efficacy by cancer cell culture, the light exposed dimethyl sulfate quaternized zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(2,3-pyrido) porphyrazines in IU-002 cells produce cell disruption that can be detected as a decrease in fluorescence.

Sakamoto, Keiichi; Ohno-Okumura, Eiko; Kato, Taku; Watanabe, Masaki; Cook, Michael J.

2008-01-01

211

Sulfation of von Willebrand factor  

SciTech Connect

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-12-15

212

Factors influencing the recovery of dopamine sulfate in the assay of phenol sulfotransferase  

SciTech Connect

Phenol sulfotransferase activity is often measured by incubating dopamine with a source of the enzyme and the sulfate donor /sup 35/S-3'-phosphoadensine-5'-phosphosulfate and then separating the product, /sup 35/S-dopamine sulfate, from the substrates using precipitation with barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate. Using dopamine sulfate standards and high performance liquid chromatography with dual-electrode electrochemical detection, the authors investigated the effects of several parameters on product recovery obtained with this procedure. Amounts of precipitants needed to produce maximal sample-to-blank ratios were determined using crude enzyme preparations from rat brain and human platelets incubated under conditions generating approximately 3 nM dopamine sulfate. Under these conditions, recovery of /sup 3/H-DAS standards was 70-80%. Increasing either the concentration of dopamine sulfate or the amounts of precipitants used resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in dopamine sulfate recovery. These data indicate that the recovery of product in this assay may vary with assay conditions, and should be carefully monitored and optimized. Caution should be exercised when using substrates other than dopamine in this assay procedure, since similar factors might also contribute to variable recovery of other produces. 14 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Toth, L.A.; Kao, G.; Elchisak, M.A.

1987-02-02

213

Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative absorption of zinc after oral administration of three different complexed forms was studied in 15 healthy human volunteers in a double-blind four-period crossover trial. The individuals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group rotated for four week periods through a random sequence of oral supplementation including: zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, and zinc gluconate (equivalent to 50 mg

S. A. Barrie; J. V. Wright; J. E. Pizzorno; E. Kutter; P. C. Barron

1987-01-01

214

Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.  

PubMed

When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. PMID:938044

Houghton, C; Rose, R A

1976-06-01

215

Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.  

PubMed Central

When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. Images

Houghton, C; Rose, R A

1976-01-01

216

Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25°C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 ± 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 ± 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 ± 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 ±0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25°C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 × 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.

1990-03-01

217

Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  

PubMed

Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

218

Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

1986-05-01

219

Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

1998-08-01

220

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the ... sense of taste Problems with the sense of smell Skin sores Slow growth Trouble seeing in the ...

221

Aerobic transformation of zinc into metal sulfide by photosynthetic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Industrial activity over the last two centuries has increased heavy metal contamination worldwide, leading to greater human exposure. Zinc is particularly common in industrial effluents and although an essential nutrient, it is highly toxic at elevated concentrations. Photoautotrophic microbes hold promise for heavy metal bioremediation applications because of their ease of culture and their ability to produce sulfide through metabolic processes that in turn are known to complex with the metal ion, Hg(II). The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis were all able to synthesize sulfide and form zinc sulfide when exposed to Zn(II). Supplementation of their respective media with sulfite and cysteine had deleterious effects on growth, although ZnS still formed in Cyanidioschyzon cells to the same extent as in unsupplemented cells. The simultaneous addition of sulfate and Zn(II) had similar effects to that of Zn(II) alone in all three species, whereas supplying sulfate prior to exposure to Zn(II) enhanced metal sulfide production. The coupled activities of serine acetyltransferase and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (SAT/OASTL) did not increase significantly in response to conditions in which enhanced ZnS formation occurred; sulfate added prior to and simultaneously with Zn(II). However, even low activity could provide sufficient sulfate assimilation over this relatively long-term study. Because the extractable activity of cysteine desulfhydrase was elevated in cells that produced higher amounts of zinc sulfide, cysteine is the probable source of the sulfide in this aerobic process. PMID:23344997

Edwards, Chad D; Beatty, Joseph C; Loiselle, Jacqueline B R; Vlassov, Katya A; Lefebvre, Daniel D

2013-01-24

222

Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

1997-01-01

223

Lightweight zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes a light weight zinc electrode made of a sintered mat of copper metal coated graphite fibers, a composite material of zinc active material, and a hydrogel dispersed in a solid, impervious, inert polymer matrix. The composite material surrounds the individual copper metal coated graphite fibers of the sintered mat which support the composite material and provide paths of electrical conductivity throughout the composite material.

Ferrando, William A.

1994-02-01

224

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

225

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

226

Impact of excess zinc on growth parameters, cell division, nutrient accumulation, photosynthetic pigments and oxidative stress of sugarcane ( Saccharum spp . )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study employed a sand culture experiment with three levels of zinc viz., 0.065 (control), 65.0 and 130 mg l?1 Zn (excess) as zinc sulfate, respectively, in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivar CoLk 8102. The results indicated growth depression, dark green leaves, decreased root number and length and\\u000a sharp depression in mitotic activity of roots due to high doses of Zn (65

Radha JainS; S. Srivastava; S. Solomon; A. K. Shrivastava; A. Chandra

2010-01-01

227

Zinc for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Trial Alone and Combined with Amphetamine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore effects of zinc supplementation in American children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mideastern trials reported significant benefit from 13–40?mg elemental zinc as the sulfate. Method We randomly assigned 52 children aged 6–14 with DSM-IV ADHD to zinc supplementation (15?mg every morning [qAM] or two times per day [b.i.d.] as glycinate, n?=?28) or matched placebo (n?=?24) for 13 weeks: 8 weeks monotherapy and then 5 weeks with added d-amphetamine (AMPH). AMPH dose was weight-standardized for 2 weeks and then clinically optimized by week 13. Zinc glycinate was chosen as having less gastrointestinal discomfort than sulfate. Hypotheses were that zinc would improve inattention more than placebo by effect size of d?>?0.25 at 8 weeks; zinc+AMPH would improve ADHD symptoms more than placebo+AMPH by d?>?0.25, and optimal dose of AMPH with zinc would be 20% lower than with placebo. An interim analysis requested by the National Institute of Mental Health resulted in an increased dosage, so that 20 received 15?mg/day qAM and 8 received 30?mg/day (15?mg b.i.d.) Results Only the third hypothesis was upheld: Optimal mg/kg AMPH dose with b.i.d. zinc was 37% lower than with placebo. Other clinical outcomes were equivocal, sometimes favoring zinc, sometimes placebo, but objective neuropsychological measures mostly favored b.i.d. zinc (d?=?0.36–0.7). Safety tests and adverse events were not different between groups. Copper and iron blood indices were not impaired by 8 weeks of 30?mg/day zinc. Conclusion Doses up to 30?mg/day of zinc were safe for at least 8 weeks, but clinical effect was equivocal except for 37% reduction in amphetamine optimal dose with 30?mg/day zinc (not with 15?mg). Possible reasons for difference from mideastern reports include endemic diets, population genetics, relative rate of zinc deficiency, difference in background nutrition, insufficient dosage or absorption, or wrong anion (sulfate may be necessary for reported benefit). Dose may be especially important: All visually impressive advantages over placebo appeared only with 15?mg b.i.d. rather than once a day. Future research should use larger doses than 15?mg/day, provide a basic recommended daily allowance/intake multivitamin/mineral supplement for all to standardize background nutrition, select participants for low zinc, and consider the issue of anion interaction.

DiSilvestro, Robert A.; Bozzolo, Dawn; Bozzolo, Hernan; Crowl, Lindsay; Fernandez, Soledad; Ramadan, Yaser; Thompson, Susan; Mo, Xiaokui; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Joseph, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

228

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R (2) ) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R (2) of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R (2) of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Paré, Julie; Van Metre, David C; Holmberg, Charles A; Smith, Bradford P

2013-04-01

229

Antioxidant and antitumor activities of selenium- and zinc-enriched oyster mushroom in mice.  

PubMed

Selenium and zinc are well-known essential trace elements with potent biological functions. However, the possible health benefits of the combined administration of dietary selenium and zinc have not been studied extensively. In this study, we prepared selenium- and zinc-enriched mushrooms (SZMs) containing increased levels of selenium and zinc. The effects of SZMs on antioxidant and antitumor activities were evaluated. Mice were fed with either a control diet or a diet supplemented with SZMs or sodium selenite and zinc sulfate for 6 weeks. Antioxidant capacity was investigated by measuring the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxide products. Results showed that treatment with SZMs significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin. Furthermore, using a mouse model of lung tumors, we found that SZMs significantly decreased the number of tumor nodes with an increase in the activity of GPx. SZMs had a greater effect on the increase in both antioxidant and antitumor activities than did sodium selenite and zinc sulfate. These findings suggest that SZMs may be effective for improving antioxidant capacity and preventing tumors. PMID:22639385

Yan, Huimin; Chang, Hui

2012-05-26

230

Sulfidation of zinc by traces of hydrogen sulfide in air  

SciTech Connect

The effect of H{sub 2}S in the sub-parts per million range on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been investigated in the laboratory. Each sample was exposed individually to air with careful control of pollutant concentration, relative humidity, and flow conditions. Monitoring of H{sub 2}S concentration at the outlet of the corrosion chamber was used to study the reaction of H{sub 2}S with zinc metal during the first 24 h. Four-week exposures were also performed to study the corrosion rate and the corrosion products. The deposition of H{sub 2}S on zinc strongly depended on the relative humidity. In dry air H{sub 2}S deposition was limited to an uptake on the order of a monolayer. At 70 to 99% RH the initial deposition rate of H{sub 2}S was faster, and the deposition reached a steady state after 15 to 20 h of exposure. Analysis of the H{sub 2}S evolved from the samples when treated with acid showed 95 {+-} 5% of the H{sub 2}S deposited on zinc to be present in sulfide form. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatographic analysis supported this finding, small amounts of sulfate being detected besides sulfide. After a 4 week exposure to 410 ppb H{sub 2}S at 95% RH, zinc blende (sphalerite) (ZnS) was identified by grazing angle X-ray diffraction. It was concluded that the zinc sulfide film grows by bulk diffusion of ions. The rate of zinc sulfidation was independent of H{sub 2}S concentration between 25 and 780 ppb.

Svensson, J.E.; Johansson, L.G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry]|[Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)

1995-05-01

231

Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide.

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.

2008-01-01

232

Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry.  

PubMed

The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals of hippocampal mossy fiber buttons. PMID:23478014

Radford, Robert J; Lippard, Stephen J

2013-03-13

233

Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized.

2005-01-01

234

A novel biological approach on extracellular synthesis and characterization of semiconductor zinc sulfide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticle is an important step in the emerging field of biomedical nanotechnology. In this communication, the zinc sulfide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized by using Serratia nematodiphila which was isolated from chemical company effluent. The surface plasmon resonance centered at 390 nm on the UV spectrum indicates the presence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the reaction mixture ( S. nematodiphila and zinc sulfate); EDAX analysis also confirmed the presence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the synthesized zinc sulfide nanoparticles were spherical in nature and nanoparticles of about 80 nm in size were obtained from transmission electron microscope images. The peaks in the XRD spectrum corresponding to (111), (220) and (311) show that the zinc sulfide nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy shows the functional groups of the nanoparticle in the range of 4,000-400 cm-1. Further, the antibacterial activity of zinc sulfide nanoparticles was examined against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola. The maximum zone of inhibition occurred at 200 ?l of silver nanoparticles. Due to potent antimicrobial and intrinsic properties of zinc sulfide, it is actively used for biomedical and food packaging applications.

Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2013-10-01

235

Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc/Polypyrrole Nanotube as a Protective Pigment in Organic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of zinc/polypyrrole nanotube (Zn/PPy) as a protective pigment in organic coatings. The PPy nanotube is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization, and zinc nanoparticles are deposited onto the surface of the synthesized PPy nanotube in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction results confirm the existence of the nanotube morphology and the zinc nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization are performed on steel plates coated with polyvinyl butyral incorporated with the Zn/PPy nanotube. The results show that the existence of zinc can improve the protective properties of the pigment. The existence of zinc leads to a cathodic protection and the main product of zinc corrosion is the stale zinc hydroxide which can block the pores in the coating. In addition, the zinc nanoparticles can increase conductivity of the PPy nanotube leading to increasing nanotube's ability to form protective layers of metal oxides on the steel surface.

Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Alias, Yatimah; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Yousefi, Ramin

2013-07-01

236

Spouted bed electrowinning of zinc: Part I. Laboratory-scale electrowinning experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of laboratory cells have been constructed to electrowin zinc from sulfate electrolytes: one cell was cylindrical while the other had a rectangular (flat) geometry. Cells were operated on industrial or synthetic electrolytes to electrodeposit zinc onto a spouted bed of zinc particles in the range of 0.75 to 1.45 mm. Current efficiencies and cell voltages have been measured during the course of batch experiments, enabling the calculation of the energy consumption per kilogram of zinc deposited. Electrolyte samples have been analyzed. Current densities (current per unit of cell cross-sectional area) were in the range of 1380 to 6200 A/m2. Most catholytes were initially neutral and contained on the order of 150 g/L of zinc. Final acid contents were in the range of 39 to 114 g/L of sulfuric acid. The performance of the cells (particularly with respect to current efficiency) was superior to prior work on fluidized bed electrowinning from similar electrolytes. The flat cell was superior to the cylindrical cell and showed energy consumptions of less than 3 kWh/kg zinc at current densities up to 3500 A/m2 when used to take the zinc content from 150 to 100 g/L zinc. Current efficiencies in this application ranged from 91 to 92 pct.

Salas-Morales, Juan Carlos; Evans, J. W.; Newman, O. M. G.; Adcock, P. A.

1997-02-01

237

Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization\\u000a byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes\\u000a can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial\\u000a feasibility of utilizing a biological system

Nuran Deveci; Cüneyt Göktug Delaloglu

1995-01-01

238

[Antiviral action of sulfated polysaccharides].  

PubMed

The literature data on the structure and biological spectrum of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans) from the sea brown algae are presented. The review includes the data on the experimental studies and the results of the author's researches on the sulfated polysaccharides inhibitory action on virus adsorption on eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms of the antiviral action of the fucoidans from the sea brown algae are discussed. PMID:19499720

Makarenkova, I D; Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S

2009-01-01

239

Effects of Adding Two Forms of Supplemental Zinc to a Practical Diet on Skin Regeneration in Holstein Heifers and Evaluation of a Procedure for Determining Rate of Wound Healing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for measuring wound heal- ing in terms of skin regeneration following removal of biopsy sections was evaluated. The effects of adding supplemental zinc oxide and zinc sulfate to a practical diet also were studied. Eighteen Holstein heif- ers, averaging 5.7 months, were fed lim- ited concentrates and Coastal Bermudagrass hay ad libitum with two-thirds o£ the dry matter

W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; J. M. Hiers Jr.; P. R. Fowler; C. M. Clifton; R. P. Gentry

1967-01-01

240

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

241

Potential instabilities of lead silver alloy anodes in acidic sulfate electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic behaviour of lead and lead–silver anodes, polarized under galvanostatic conditions in a H2SO4ZnSO4MnSO4 electrolyte,\\u000a has been studied. Whereas the potential of the lead anode stabilizes during electrolysis, the potential of the lead–silver\\u000a alloy anode oscillates between two limits after an induction time. Both silver on the anode surface and manganese in the electrolyte\\u000a are required for the potential

C. Cachet; C. LE PAPE-Rerolle; R. Wiart

1998-01-01

242

ESR and optical absorption spectra of Co 2+ ions in LiF?B 2O 3 and K 2SO 4?ZnSO 4 glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation of the structure of Co2+ ions in xLiF-(100?x)B2O3 and xK2SO4-(100?x)ZnSO4 glasses with 10 ? x ? 50 mol% using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and optical absorption techniques are reported. The ESR spectra of Co2+ doped LiF?B2O3 glasses at 4.2 K has a broad asymmetric line at g = 4.41 ± 0.02 and a broad

B. Sreedhar; Ch. Sumalatha; H. Yamada; K. Kojima

1996-01-01

243

Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of the { x ZnCl 2 +(1? x )ZnSO 4 }(aq) System at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for {xZnCl2+(1?x)ZnSO4}(aq) solutions with ZnCl2 molality fractions of x=(0,0.3062,0.5730,0.7969, and 1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements\\u000a cover the water activity range 0.901–0.919?a\\u000a w?0.978. The experimental osmotic coefficients were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer)\\u000a model for these mixed electrolyte solutions. A similar analysis was made

Rozalija Ninkovi?; Jelena Miladinovi?; Milica Todorovi?; Snežana Gruji?; Joseph A. Rard

2007-01-01

244

Long-Term Effects of Oxymetholone vs. Testosterone with orWithout ZnSO4 on Growth Performance of Turkey Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxymetholone at 0.6 mg\\/kg feed or mixed with ZnSO (45mg\\/kg feed), testosterone at 10 mg\\/kg 4 feed or mixed with ZnSO (45 mg\\/kg feed) and 0 mg\\/kg of either one were given to 180 turkey chicks (n = 9; 4 r = 4) from 6-18 weeks of age to determine their effects on growth performance. Body Weight (BW) was increased

J. Arshami; M. Heydar-Poor; H. Zarghi; M. Pilevar; M. Esmailzadeh

2009-01-01

245

Zinc and Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc deficiency is one of the most consistent nutritional\\/biochemical observations in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The objectives of our research are to determine how alcohol interferes with cellular zinc homeostasis and if zinc deficiency is a causal factor in the development of ALD. Metallothionein (MT) is a major protein responsible for cellular zinc homeostasis. MT-transgenic (MT-TG) mice with hepatic overexpression

Zhanxiang Zhou

2010-01-01

246

In vitro exchangeable erythrocytic zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchangeable erythrocytic zinc is measured by65Zn uptake in and release from erythrocytes under standarized and near, physiological conditions: 7.6 ?M zinc and 580 ?M albumin in the medium. The intracellular exchangeable erythrocytic zinc pool in healthy volunteers amounts to 5 ?mol zinc\\/L\\u000a packed cells. The half-time of the exchange is 7 h, its activation energy 84 kJ\\/mol. The effects of

JACOBUS P. VAIl WOUWE; Marcel Veldhuizen; Jeroen J. M. De Goeij; Cornelis J. A. Van den Hamer

1990-01-01

247

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

248

Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 ?M), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 ?M zinc, prior to glycine (300 ?M) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission.

Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.

2011-01-01

249

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31

250

Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

1981-01-01

251

History of zinc in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

252

Zinc Deposition in Acid Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, sev...

J. McBreen E. Gannon

1981-01-01

253

The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides

Tim H Muster; Ivan S Cole

2004-01-01

254

Sulfate deposition to surface waters  

SciTech Connect

Critical loads are the highest deposition of strong acid anions in surface waters that will not cause harmful biological effects on populations, such as declines in or extinctions of fish. Our analysis focuses on sulfate deposition because in glaciated regions sulfate is conservative in soils, whereas nitrate in biologically cycled. Sulfate also is the dominant anion in acidic deposition and in most acidic lakes. This analysis, represents the first evaluation of certain data available from Norway and the eastern United States, with an emphasis on the data from Scandinavia. The concept of dose-response is widely used in connection with water pollution. Any lake system subjected to an external dose of pollutants will have an internal resistance (or buffer capacity) to the change. The response of the lake system will depend on the relative magnitudes of the dose and the resistance parameters.

Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.

1988-01-01

255

Imaging Mobile Zinc in Biology  

PubMed Central

Summary Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution and mobilization in live cells fuels the development of increasingly sophisticated probes. Detection systems that respond to zinc binding with changes of their fluorescence emission properties have provided sensitive tools for mobile zinc imaging, and fluorescence microscopy experiments have afforded depictions of zinc distribution within live cells and tissues. Both small-molecule and protein-based fluorescent probes can address complex imaging challenges, such as analyte quantification, site-specific sensor localization, and real-time detection.

Tomat, Elisa; Lippard, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

256

Zinc: the brain's dark horse.  

PubMed

Zinc is a life-sustaining trace element, serving structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in cellular biology. It is required for normal mammalian brain development and physiology, such that deficiency or excess of zinc has been shown to contribute to alterations in behavior, abnormal central nervous system development, and neurological disease. In this light, it is not surprising that zinc ions have now been shown to play a role in the neuromodulation of synaptic transmission as well as in cortical plasticity. Zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by a class of glutamatergic or "gluzinergic" neurons and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Because gluzinergic neurons are found almost exclusively in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures, zinc may be critical for normal cognitive and emotional functioning. Conversely, direct evidence shows that zinc might be a relatively potent neurotoxin. Neuronal injury secondary to in vivo zinc mobilization and release occurs in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in addition to epilepsy and ischemia. Thus, zinc homeostasis is integral to normal central nervous system functioning, and in fact its role may be underappreciated. This article provides an overview of zinc neurobiology and reviews the experimental evidence that implicates zinc signals in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may therefore allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis. PMID:19623531

Bitanihirwe, Byron K Y; Cunningham, Miles G

2009-11-01

257

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

258

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

259

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

260

Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin

2002-12-31

261

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

262

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

263

Classification of chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine 6 sulfate using chemometric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are natural products that are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of arthritis. They belong to a class of compounds known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are available over the counter as nutritional supplements. However, increasing use has led to increasing scrutiny of the quality of products on the market.

M. Foot; M. Mulholland

2005-01-01

264

Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.

2012-03-01

265

Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.|

Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

2005-01-01

266

Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

267

Natural Relationships among Sulfate-Reducing Eubacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA sequencing. All genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicro...

R. Devereux M. Delaney F. Widdel D. A. Stahl

1989-01-01

268

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous...

2013-04-01

269

21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b)...

2013-04-01

270

21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b)...

2013-04-01

271

21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b)...

2013-04-01

272

Active ingredient: Abacavir Sulfate and Lamivudine Form ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionContains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Abacavir Sulfate and Lamivudine ... Active ingredient: Abacavir Sulfate and Lamivudine ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

273

Infrared Spectroscopy of Amorphous Sulfate Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability experiments have indicated that amorphous sulfate phases may be important constituents of martian surface materials. IR spectral properties of X-ray amorphous Mg- and Fe-sulfate phases are described and compared with their crystalline counterparts.

Rogers, A. D.; Reeder, R. J.; Glotch, T. D.

2009-03-01

274

Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123  

PubMed Central

Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role.

King, Janet C

2011-01-01

275

Barnacles: Possible indicators of zinc pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacles [Balanus balanoides (L.), Elminius modestus Darwin, Lepas anatifera (L.)] from several different sites were found to accumulate the heavy metal zinc. The majority of the zinc was deposited in the tissues associated with the gut, and the level of zinc in soft body tissue generally reflected well the level of zinc in the immediate sea-water environment. The zinc accumulated

G. Walker; P. S. Rainbow; P. Foster; D. J. Crisp

1975-01-01

276

Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.  

PubMed

The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ?235 °C. At ?360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ?800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds. PMID:23963063

Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

2013-09-24

277

Smoking alters the relationship between maternal zinc intake and biochemical indices of fetal zinc status13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking impairs fetal zinc status. This study was designed to clarify the effect of smoking on the relationship between maternal zinc intake and zinc status in mother and fetus. Zinc was measured with atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Statistical analyses consisted of descriptive statis- tics, simple correlations, and stepwise multiple regression. The results suggest that maternal plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc,

Betty R Kuhnert; Paul M Kuhnert; Sharon L Groh; Noam Lazebnik

278

Properties of Sea Water and Solutions Containing Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate and Magnesium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density, vapor pressure and viscosity were measured and tabulated for: Water; Binary solutions (NaCl-KCl, Na sulfate, Mg sulfate); Ternary solutions (NaCl-KCl, NaCl-Na sulfate, NaCl-Mg sulfate); Sea water and its concentrates. Thermal conductivity data of...

B. M. Fabuss A. Korosi

1968-01-01

279

Proconvulsant effects of neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of chronic treatment with the neurosteroids, pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, on the potential neurotoxicity in pentylenetetrazol seizure sensitivity test in mice. Four weeks of subcutaneous treatment with pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 day?1, significantly shifted the pentylenetetrazol dose-percent convulsions and latency curves to the left, and markedly

Doodipala S Reddy; Shrinivas K Kulkarni

1998-01-01

280

21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4 ·H2...obtained by reacting manganese compounds with...byproduct in the manufacture of hydroquinone...on a slurry of manganese dioxide in sulfuric...with solid ferrous sulfate and coal,...

2010-01-01

281

21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4 ·H2...obtained by reacting manganese compounds with...byproduct in the manufacture of hydroquinone...on a slurry of manganese dioxide in sulfuric...with solid ferrous sulfate and coal,...

2009-04-01

282

Synthesis of zinc oxide by zinc–air system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economical and environment friendly zinc–air system route is used for the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) on a zinc (Zn) plate in room temperature. A Zn plate and a single air-cathode are used as the anode and cathode, respectively. It is found that the growth of ZnO increases with increasing electrolyte solution concentration until an optimum concentration is reached.

C. K. Yap; W. C. Tan; S. S. Alias; A. A. Mohamad

2009-01-01

283

Zinc transporters in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a major health concern as it has the second highest incidence rate among cancers in men. Despite progress in tumor diagnostics and therapeutic approaches, prognosis for men with advanced disease remains poor. In this review we provide insight into the changes of the intermediary metabolism in normal prostate and prostate cancer. In contrast to normal cells, prostate cancer cells are reprogrammed for optimal energy-efficiency with a functional Krebs cycle and minimal apoptosis rates. A key element in this relationship is the uniquely high zinc level of normal prostate epithelial cells. Zinc is transported by the SLC30 and SLC39 families of zinc transporters. However, in prostate cancer the intracellular zinc content is remarkably reduced and expression levels of certain zinc transporters are altered. Here, we summarize the role of different zinc transporters in the development of prostate cancer. PMID:23506906

Franz, M-C; Anderle, P; Bürzle, M; Suzuki, Y; Freeman, M R; Hediger, M A; Kovacs, G

284

Zinc and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders, the incidence of which varies widely throughout the world. The treatment\\u000a of diabetes mellitus includes insulin, oral antidiabetic agents, and dietary regimens. Although the emphasis is on macronutrients\\u000a intakes, there is strong evidence that there is an abnormal metabolism of several micronutrients in diabetic individuals.\\u000a Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients

Maria J. Salgueiro; Nancy Krebs; Marcela B. Zubillaga; Ricardo Weill; Eric Postaire; Alexis E. Lysionek; Ricardo A. Caro; Tomas De Paoli; Alfredo Hager; Jose Boccio

2001-01-01

285

Salivary zinc as an index of zinc status in women fed a low-zinc diet1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a low-zinc diet on saliva and plasma levels was studied in 12 healthy young women. A diet low in zinc (3.2mg\\/day) was fed to the subjects for 22 days.Subjects were determined to be in satisfactory zinc status via analysis of the zinc levels of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. During the low-zinc diet, concentrations of zinc

Jeanne H. Freeland; Pamela J. Hendrickson; M. Lavone Ebangit; Jeanne V. Snowden

286

Surface energy of zinc  

SciTech Connect

The influence of temperature and associated dislocation microstructure on the energetics of basal plane cleavage in zinc crystals has been investigated using the method of Hull, Beardmore, and Valentine (HBV). A marked temperature dependence was observed in the zinc surface energy, over the range 77--298 /sup 0/K, contrary to previous expectations. Plastic relaxation was associated with crack initiation at 77 /sup 0/K, but not propagation; while at room temperature a plastic zone of 1200--1500 ..mu..m in depth was produced by crack extension. The surface energy could be estimated, independent of the usual Griffith analysis, by measuring the energy dissipation in a fully relaxed deformed zone associated with an explosively formed precursor crack. This method yielded surface energies of 0.066 to 0.079 J m/sup -2/ which was in good agreement with previous work. It is demonstrated that the cleavage surface energy of zinc is well below the thermodynamic surface energy and that this discrepancy is not related to plastic deformation.

Bilello, J.C.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Pucino, A.T.

1983-04-01

287

Zinc can for battery anode  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Presented is a virtually lead additive-free but highly reliable and practical anode zinc can for battery with improved process-ability and corrosion resistance, and a manganese dry battery made by using such a zinc can. Disclosed is a manufacturing method of a proposed zinc can and a battery along with engineering clues for material evaluation and processing with regard to metallographic aspect.

Kobayashi; Kazunari (Chiba, JP); Maeda; Mutsuhiro (Chiba, JP)

2010-11-09

288

Zinc and depression. An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsatisfactory clinical efficacy and a variety of adverse effects of current antidepressant drugs have incited search for better therapy. Zinc, an antagonist of the glutamate\\/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, exhibits antidepressant-like activity in rodent tests\\/models of depression. Similarly to antidepressants, zinc induces brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and increases level of synaptic pool of zinc in the hippocampus. Clinical observations

Gabriel Nowak; Bernadeta Szewczyk; Andrzej Pilc

289

Sulfate minerals and organic compounds on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong evidence for evaporitic sulfate minerals such as gypsum and jarosite has recently been found on Mars. Although organic molecules are often codeposited with terrestrial evaporitic minerals, there have been no systematic investigations of organic components in sulfate minerals. We report here the detection of organic material, including amino acids and their amine degradation products, in ancient terrestrial sulfate minerals. Amino acids and amines appear to be preserved for geologically long periods in sulfate mineral matrices. This suggests that sulfate minerals should be prime targets in the search for organic compounds, including those of biological origin, on Mars.

Aubrey, Andrew; Cleaves, H. James; Chalmers, John H.; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2006-05-01

290

Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates  

DOEpatents

Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

Hubble, Bill R. (Plainfield, IL); Siegel, Stanley (Downers Grove, IL); Cunningham, Paul T. (Naperville, IL)

1978-03-28

291

Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.  

PubMed

Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

2010-07-01

292

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...

2013-04-01

293

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 ...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2013-04-01

294

Zinc for Colds: The Final Word?  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Zinc for colds: The final word? By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Zinc for colds: The final word? Will taking zinc ...

295

Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction.  

PubMed

Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates are more stable than metal hydroxides that are sensitive to pH change. Theoretically, conversion of 1 mol of sulfate requires 0.67 mol of chemical oxygen demand or electron donors. Sulfate rich wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require external addition of electron donors in order to achieve complete sulfate reduction. This paper reviews various electron donors employed in biological sulfate reduction. Widely used electron donors include hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, sugar, and molasses. The selection criteria for suitable electron donors are discussed. PMID:17572039

Liamleam, Warounsak; Annachhatre, Ajit P

2007-05-17

296

Spectroscopic Study of Sulfates Applied to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definitive evidence for sulfates on Mars has been presented in 2004, including the Mars Exploration Rover Moessbauer spectroscopic identification of jarosite in Meridiani Planum and the Mars Express OMEGA visible/near infrared spectroscopic identification of kieserite in Valles Marineris and elsewhere. In addition to Moessbauer and VIS/NIR, other spectroscopic techniques can be employed for determining which sulfate minerals are present on Mars. This study focuses on the use of the thermal infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the study of sulfates using emission spectroscopy to uniquely identify sulfate minerals. The fundamental molecular vibrational modes of sulfates are present in thermal infrared spectra. These modes influence the overtones and combination bands seen in VIS/NIR data. Clearly sulfate minerals are important Martian geologic materials and, because sulfates form under diverse environmental conditions, can help understand the specific formational and chemical settings that once existed on Mars.

Lane, M. D.

2004-12-01

297

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and cancer  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are widely distributed in mammalian tissues and involved in a number of processes related to malignancy. They are composed of a core protein to which chains of the glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), are attached. The existence of various classes of core protein, in addition to highly polymorphic HS chains, creates a superfamily of macromolecules with considerable diversity of structure and function. HSPGs interact with many proteins including growth factors, chemokines and structural proteins of the extracellular matrix to influence cell growth, differentiation, and the cellular response to the environment. The recent identification of two inherited syndromes that are associated with an increased cancer risk, and caused by mutations in HSPG-related genes, has intensified interest in these molecules. This review describes our current understanding of HSPGs in cancer and highlights new possibilities for therapeutic control. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign??http://www.bjcancer.com

Blackhall, F H; Merry, C L R; Davies, E J; Jayson, G C

2001-01-01

298

Sulfate ingress in Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.c [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratory of Study of Concrete and Clay Behaviour, CEA Saclay, Batiment 158, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Schmidt, Thomas [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Leterrier, Nikos [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SFME, Laboratory of Simulation of Flows and Transport, CEA Saclay, Batiment 454, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

2010-08-15

299

Large Scale Purification of Isoinhibitors of Trypsin from Swine Colostrum Using Zinc Chelate Chromatography and Chromatofocusing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight trypsin inhibitors were purified from swine colostrum on a large scale under mild conditions. Ammonium sulfate fractionation and metal chelate chromatography on zinc chelate Sepharose and phenyl Sepharose were used for removal of the bulk of proteins. The inhibitors showed only a weak hydrophobic interaction with phenyl Sepharose even in the presence of 1 M (Nll4)2SO4, and

Makoto Yoshimoto; M. Laskowski Sr

1982-01-01

300

Zinc acetate pretreatment ameliorates cisplatin-induced Sertoli cell dysfunction in Sprague-Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to determine if prior administration of zinc acetate (ZnAc) or copper sulfate (CuSO4) could prevent pituitary, Leydig, or Sertoli cell dysfunction subsequent to cisplatin administration in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were given cisplatin at a dose of 2 mg\\/kg daily for 5 days, with or without the i.p. administration of ZnAc (6 mg\\/kg per day)

Leonard M. Pogach; Y. Lee; W. Giglio; M. Naumoff; Hosea F. S. Huang

1989-01-01

301

Purification of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by copper chelate affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase was isolated from human red blood cell hemolysate by DEAE-Sepharose and copper chelate affinity chromatography. Enzyme preparations had specific activities ranging from 3400 to 3800 U/mg and recoveries were approximately 60% of the enzyme activity in the lysate. Copper chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a purification factor of about 60-fold. The homogeneity of the superoxide dismutase preparation was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, analytical gel filtration chromatography, and isoelectric focusing.

Weslake, R.J.; Chesney, S.L.; Petkau, A.; Friesen, A.D.

1986-05-15

302

Investigating the Synergistic Effect of D2EHPA and Cyanex 302 on Zinc and Manganese Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effect of Cyanex 302 on the extraction of zinc and manganese with D2EHPA in sulfate media was investigated. Experiments were carried out in the pH range of 1.0–5.0, temperature of 23, 40, and 60°C with sole D2EHPA and Cyanex 302 as extractant and D2EHPA to Cyanex 302 ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. The experimental results showed that

T. Hosseini; F. Rashchi; E. Vahidi; N. Mostoufi

2010-01-01

303

Electroless Ni–P deposition plus zinc phosphate coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electroless Ni–P deposition process has been developed to treat the AZ91D magnesium alloy surfaces against corrosion. Magnesium alloy AZ91D was first phosphatized in a zinc phosphating bath containing molybdate. Then an electroless Ni–P deposition was carried out on the phosphate coating from a sulfate solution. The phases in the phosphate coatings were analyzed by XRD. Microstructures of phosphate coatings

J. S. Lian; G. Y. Li; L. Y. Niu; C. D. Gu; Z. H. Jiang; Q. Jiang

2006-01-01

304

Atomic force microscopy study of surface morphology of zinc-iron electrodeposits  

SciTech Connect

Zinc-iron alloys, composed of {eta} (hcp) phase, were electrodeposited on steel substrates from sulfate electrolyte with additions of Sn{sup 2+} ions. The deposit exhibited a morphology of hexagonal columnar crystals and a strong crystallographic texture of (00{center_dot}2) planes of {eta}-phase aligned perpendicular to the growth direction. The atomic force microscopy topographical analysis indicates that the hexagonal planes consist of both lateral macro- and numerous nanosize growth steps.

Czerwinski, F.; Szpunar, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Kondo, K. [Univ. of Hokkaido, Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-02-01

305

Heparan sulfate in glomerular inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of patients with glomerulonephritis worldwide is approximately 1.5 million and is still increasing. Proliferative glomerulonephritis is manifested in a range of diseases, such as anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis, lupus glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and ANCA-asoociated vasculitis. Proliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by the influx of inflammatory cells (leukocytes) and it has been demonstrated that heparan sulfate

L. W. M. Rops

2007-01-01

306

Protective effects of zinc on cadmium toxicity in rodents.  

PubMed

A study of acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium ions [Cd(II)] was carried out on male Swiss mice and Sprague-Dawley rats with and without previous administration of zinc chloride. The LD50 of Cd(II) as cadmium sulfate (ip) was lower in animals previously given 10 mg/kg of zinc(II) chloride (sc). Factors such as animal weight variations, biochemical parameters, and accumulation patterns of Cd(II) and Zn(II) were taken into consideration when the subacute toxicity was evaluated. Alteration of the activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) was observed in short-term-exposure (<6 h) cases. These alterations reverted to normal after 1 wk. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum are also changed, especially so in the groups given CdSO4 alone. In the experimental groups treated with ZnCl2 prior to administration of cadmium, proteinuria was detected 5 wk after the treatment. Also at 5 wk, both Zn-treated and nontreated groups showed an abnormally low liver mass with respect to total body mass. Both Cd and Zn are retained preferentially in the liver but show also in the kidneys. If CdSO4 and ZnCl2 are given simultaneously, especially after 1 wk of treatment, Cd is accumulated in greater amounts in these organs when compared to the groups given only cadmium sulfate. PMID:11051591

Claverie, C; Corbella, R; Martín, D; Díaz, C

2000-01-01

307

Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.  

PubMed

The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 ?g/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 ?g/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups. PMID:23544648

Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-01-25

308

Thermodynamics of molten sulfate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative studies of the formation of low melting point sulfates were made by equilibrating NiO-Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixtures with argon-SO/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/-air mixtures of different compositions in the temperature range 1000-1173 K. Using these data and the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-NiSO/sub 4/ phase diagram, the enthalpy of fusion and melting temperature of NiSO/sub 4/ were estimated. An equation is given for the free energy change for the reaction NiO(s)+SO/sub 3/(g).NiSO/sub 4/(l) (dissolved in Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). This has then been used to calculate the minimum P/sub SO(3)/ required for liquid sulfate formation. Similar calculations were carried out from existing data for the CoSO/sub 4/-Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ system, and verified by a limited number of experiments. The calculated minimum P/sub SO(3)/ required for liquid sulfate formation is approximately an order of magnitude lower for Co-base alloys compared with Ni-base alloys, and the implications of this with regard to hot corrosion are briefly discussed. 16 refs.

Misra, A.K.; Whittle, D.P.; Worrell, W.L.

1982-08-01

309

Comparative electrochemical studies of zinc chromate and zinc phosphate as corrosion inhibitors for zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticorrosive performance of two inhibitive pigments, zinc chromate and zinc phosphate, was compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) in pigment extracts in 0.1M NaCl. It was observed that zinc was protected from corrosion in both extracts. In tests using hot dip galvanised steel painted with an epoxy primer incorporating the pigments, the

A. C. Bastos; M. G. S. Ferreira; A. M. Simões

2005-01-01

310

Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes. PMID:23757342

Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

2013-06-11

311

Polarographic Method of Determining Zinc in Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A polarographic method has been developed for determining zinc in additives DF-11, DFTs-3/8, LANI-317, VNIINP-354, and VNIINP-360. The zinc is extracted from the solution of the additive in hexane by a 6N aqueous HCl. This method allows the content of zin...

L. G. Fedorenko V. A. Kuznestsov Y. T. Gordash

1971-01-01

312

Electroluminescence in zinc sulpho-selenide and in zinc sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-emitting devices with electrode areas of 1 mm2 have been prepared on single crystals of solid solutions of zinc selenide and zinc sulphide. It is shown that it is relatively easy to prepare ohmic contacts with indium on samples containing lp to 80% molar of sulphur. The most intense electroluminescence has been obtained from devices carrying one indium and one

M. E. Ozsan; J. Woods

1977-01-01

313

Zinc-promoted alkyl transfer: a new role for zinc.  

PubMed

The roles of zinc in biology are often thought to be limited to activating water, as in hydrolytic enzymes, and conferring structure, as in the zinc finger proteins. Over the past 15 years, it has been shown that there are many zinc-containing proteins that have 'structural-like' zinc sites with multiple cysteine ligands but in which the site promotes the alkylation of a zinc-bound thiolate. Recent work continues to extend the range of proteins showing zinc-promoted alkytransfer activity, and has refined the structural details of these sites. Of particular interest are recent crystal structures suggesting that in most cases the endogenous ligand that is displaced when the substrate thiol bind is an endogenous amino acid and not water, as had been previously thought. Despite extensive study, it remains unclear whether these enzymes function via an associative mechanism (direct alkylation of a zinc-bound thiolate) or a dissociate mechanism (nucleophilic attack by a free thiolate that has dissociated from the zinc). PMID:17376731

Penner-Hahn, James

2007-03-21

314

Nutritionally and chemically induced impairment of sulfate activation and sulfation of xenobiotics in vivo.  

PubMed

Sulfation requires 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the sulfate donor. In the search for methods to inhibit sulfation reactions via impairment of PAPS synthesis, two experimental conditions have been tested in rats. A low-sulfur diet, which does not deplete hepatic glutathione, reduced inorganic sulfate but not PAPS levels in the liver and moderately decreased sulfation of acetaminophen. Administration of molybdate, which is an alternative substrate for intestinal and renal sulfate transport as well as for ATP-sulfurylase, depleted both sulfate and PAPS in liver and markedly inhibited sulfation of acetaminophen. Therefore, administration of molybdate may be used as an experimental tool to study the role of sulfation in the fate and effect of xenobiotics. PMID:8033252

Gregus, Z; Oguro, T; Klaassen, C D

1994-06-01

315

Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male rats were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulfate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, diameter of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease than those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen about the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

2012-11-01

316

Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

2012-05-01

317

Effect of glutathione depletion on sulfate activation and sulfate ester formation in rats.  

PubMed

Sulfation of organic compounds requires activation of inorganic sulfate via formation of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Inorganic sulfate can be formed by sulfoxidation of cysteine, which can be derived from GSH. Thus, a decrease in hepatic GSH may impair formation of inorganic sulfate, the synthesis of PAPS, and the sulfation of chemicals. This hypothesis was tested by investigating the effect of GSH depletion on the levels of inorganic sulfate in serum and of PAPS in liver, and on the capacity to form the sulfate conjugate of harmol in rats. Phorone (2 mmol/kg, i.p.) decreased hepatic GSH (97%), serum inorganic sulfate (63%), and hepatic PAPS (48%). Diethyl maleate and vinylidene chloride (6 mmol/kg, each, i.p.) were less effective than phorone in decreasing GSH in liver and inorganic sulfate in serum, and they did not alter hepatic PAPS levels. Three hours after phorone treatment, the nadir of hepatic PAPS concentration, harmol was injected in order to assess sulfation in vivo. After administration of harmol (100 and 300 mumol/kg, i.v.), less harmol sulfate and more harmol glucuronide were found in the serum of phorone-treated rats as compared to control rats. At the higher dosage of harmol, phorone reduced the biliary excretion of harmol sulfate while increasing the biliary excretion of harmol glucuronide. These results indicate that severe GSH depletion decreases PAPS formation and sulfation of chemicals. However, an increase in glucuronidation may compensate for the impaired sulfation. PMID:3196355

Gregus, Z; White, C; Howell, S; Klaassen, C D

1988-11-15

318

Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage.

Bambic, D. G.; Alpers, C. N.; Green, P. G.; Fanelli, E.; Silk, W. K.

2006-01-01

319

Zinc-bromine cell design  

SciTech Connect

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low-cost manufacturing techniques and scale-up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. Also outlined is a computer model of the zinc-bromine battery. (LEW)

Bellows, R.

1983-11-30

320

Zinc-bromine cell design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low cost manufacturing techniques and scale up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. A computer model of the zinc-bromine battery is outlined.

Bellows, R.

1983-11-01

321

Zinc-bromine cell design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low cost manufacturing techniques and scale up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. A computer model of the zinc-bromine battery is outlined.

R. Bellows

1983-01-01

322

Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

323

Zinc partitioning in Mediterranean rainwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven rainwater samples were collected in the Western Mediterranean region in clean conditions in order to study the partitioning of zinc between soluble and insoluble forms. The pH of the rainwater sampled ranges between 4 and 7; the high values of pH resulting from the neutralization of acidic species by the calcium carbonate present in desertic dusts. The soluble zinc

Rémi Losno; Gilles Bergametti; Patrick Buat-Ménard

1988-01-01

324

Novel chemical synthetic route and characterization of zinc selenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin film have been deposited using chemical bath method on non-conducting glass substrate in a tartarate bath containing zinc sulfate, ammonia, hydrazine hydrate, sodium selenosulfate in an aqueous alkaline medium at 333 K. The deposition parameter of the ZnSe thin film is interpreted in the present investigation. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption, electrical measurements, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The ZnSe thin layers grown with polycrystalline zinc blende system along with some amorphous phase present in ZnSe film. The direct optical band gap ‘Eg’ for the film was found to be 2.81 eV and electrical conductivity in the order of 10-8(? cm)-1 with n-type conduction mechanism.

Hankare, P. P.; Chate, P. A.; Delekar, S. D.; Asabe, M. R.; Mulla, I. S.

2006-11-01

325

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

326

A zinc paste primary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

1983-03-01

327

Corrosion behavior of rapidly solidified magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly solidified magnesium alloys with 8 at%, 15 at%, and 20 at% Al and 1 at% and 3 at% Zn were fabricated by centrifugal atomization followed by hot extrusion. Microstructure of the alloys was composed of a fine-grain magnesium matrix (0.5 {micro}m) with {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates. Electrochemical and weight-loss tests were performed in borate and ASTM D 1384 solution (chloride, carbonate, and sulfate). In both media, corrosion current f the alloys decreased with increases in aluminum or zinc content. In borate solution, a passivating plateau was observed from the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) to E{sub corr} + 1,200 mV. Current density decreased with aluminum and zinc concentrations. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized matrix and precipitates was characterized. Zinc increased E{sub corr} of the two phases, with a corresponding decrease of corrosion current. The same trend was noticed for aluminum but with a less dramatic effect. The corrosion mechanism was suggested result from galvanic coupling of the matrix and the second phase. The galvanic corrosion, however, was reduced strongly by passivation of the matrix as a result of the surrounding precipitates. The positive influence of rapid solidification (corrosion rate decreased 1 order of magnitude) was the creation of a fine, highly homogeneous microstructure through this fabrication process.

Daloz, D.; Michot, G. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Physique et Science des Materiaux; Steinmetz, P. [Faculte des Sciences, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Chimie du Solide Mineral

1997-12-01

328

Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading  

SciTech Connect

Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1998-07-01

329

Formation sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product results from buffering of sulfide concentrations at low values by sphalerite precipitation. These results show how microbes control metal concentrations in groundwater- and wetland-based remediation systems and suggest biological routes for formation of some low-temperature ZnS deposits.

Labrenz, M.; Druschel, G. K.; Thomsen-Ebert, T.; Gilbert, B.; Welch, S. A.; Kemner, K. M.; Logan, G. A.; Summons, R. E.; De Stasio, G.; Bond, P. L.; Lai, B.; Kelly, S. D.; Banfield, J. F.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Australian Geological Survey Organisation; Diversions Scuba

2000-12-01

330

Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> is found to be 4.11 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 2.79 eV for ZnGa2O4. With reference to the calculated band gap of 5.36 eV for MgAl2O4, the systematic decrease in the gap is attributed to the presence of 3d orbitals of Zn and Ga and the associated p-d hybridization in the upper valence band of zinc aluminate and gallate. Comparison of the contour maps of the electron localization function of ZnAl2O4 and ZnGa2O4 with that of MgAl2O4 clearly shows the bonding to be less ionic in the zinc-based spinel oxides. Finally, the calculations yield a smaller electron effective mass for zinc gallate as compared to that for zinc aluminate, suggesting a higher mobility of electrons in gallate.

Sampath, Suresh K.; Kanhere, D. G.; Pandey, Ravindra

1999-05-01

331

Transference numbers of zinc in zinc-chloride battery electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration of zinc-ion species affects the local zinc chloride concentration and solution density in the electrolyte adjacent to the zinc electrode and in this way influences natural convection at the electrode during both charge and discharge. Experimentally measured transference numbers are presented for ionic-zinc species in aqueous solutions containing 1.5-3m ZnCl2 + 0-4m KCl + 0-3m NaCl + 0-0.4m HCl at 30 C using the Hittorf method. Negative transference numbers for zinc are obtained in the majority of mixed-salt solutions, with minima of -0.2 to -0.3 occurring in the chloride ion concentration range of 6-8m. The transference number of zinc in general depends on the total chloride content. The effect of the cations is found to be small, noticeable only at higher concentrations; it follows the order of their ionic mobilities. The data corroborate the presence of anionic zinc complexes, such as ZnCl3(-) and ZnCl4(2-), which account for the negative transference numbers.

Jorne, J.; Ho, W.-T.

1982-05-01

332

Grafting Sulfated Zirconia on Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect

Sulfated zirconia has received considerable attention as a potential solid acid catalyst in recent years. In this paper, the preparation and properties of acid catalysts obtained by grafting ziconia with atomic precision on MCM-41 mesoporous silica were studied. TEM and potential titration characterizations revealed that ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage can be obtained using this grafting technique. Sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 exhibits improved thermal stability than that of bulk sulfated zirconia, as evidenced by temperature programmed characterizations and XRD analysis. Temperature programmed reaction of isopropanol was used to evaluate the acidity of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41. It was found that the acid strength of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage is weaker than bulk sulfated zirconia but stronger than SiO2-Al2O3, a common strong acid catalyst.

Wang, Yong; Lee, Kwan Young; Choi, Saemin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Peden, Charles HF

2007-06-01

333

Aerobic sulfate reduction in microbial mats  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O{sub 2}) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O{sub 2} challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O{sub 2} have little effect on rates on sulfate reduction in these mats. 33 refs., 3 figs.

Canfield, D.E.; Des Marais, D.J. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

1991-03-22

334

Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, coagulation, and cell growth regulation. Expression of DS has been observed to increase in cancerous tissue relative to controls. In earlier studies, MS2 was used to compare the types of CS/DS isomers present in biological samples. The results demonstrated that product ion abundances reflect the types of CS/DS repeats present and can be used quantitatively. It was not clear, however, to which of the CS/DS repeats the product ions abundances were sensitive. The present work explores the utility of MS3 for structural characterization of CS/DS oligosaccharides. The data show that MS3 product ion abundances correlate with the presence of DS-like repeats in specific positions on the oligosaccharide chains.

Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

2010-01-01

335

Plasmatic dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate determination in mucopolysaccharidoses.  

PubMed

The evaluation of plasmatic galactosaminoglycans, dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) can be helpful in the early identification of MPS patients, also considering that primary storage of one type of GAG can lead to secondary accumulation of other lysosomal substrates. We explore the possibility to determine plasmatic DS and CS in numerous healthy pediatric (and sometimes adult) subjects depending on age and in patients affected by various forms of MPS. A highly sensitive HPLC separation and fluorescence detection was applied for plasma/serum DS and CS determination after a specific enzymatic treatment able to release their constituent disaccharides. DS and CS content decrease significantly with age in controls having high values in the first year (~8 ?g/mL). A highly significant decrease was observed for 1-5-year-old (?-33%) and 5-10-year-old (?-65%) healthy subgroups. No further decrease was determined showing a stabilization after 5 years of age. MPS I Scheie and Hurler patients showed rather similar DS and CS content significantly higher than controls matched for age. Similarly, MPS II, III and IV subjects all presented significantly higher plasmatic DS and CS content compared to healthy subjects matched for age. The same trend was determined for the only patient affected by MPS VI. Plasmatic DS and CS analyzed by the present procedure may be a useful diagnostic and screening marker for various forms of MPS. PMID:23872470

Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Galeotti, Fabio; Zampini, Lucia; Santoro, Lucia; Padella, Lucia; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Gabrielli, Orazio; Coppa, Giovanni V

2013-07-04

336

Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered.

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

2013-01-01

337

Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin.  

PubMed

In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety of chronic disorders, two different types of iron deficiency are found: (a) absolute iron deficiency and (b) relative, or functional, iron deficiency. The latter occurs when iron, despite adequate stores, is not delivered rapidly enough to the erythroblasts. ZPP is not only indicative of absolute iron deficiency, but it is also, for now, the best indicator of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, along with the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells. By contrast, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation may not adequately assess functional iron deficiency. Elevated ZPP levels in renal failure patients can be caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as chronic inflammatory disease, lead poisoning, and the presence of uremic factors, all of which could potentially inhibit heme biosynthesis. However, ZPP levels do not consistently predict an erythropoietic response to iron supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients, and thus, iron overload during i.v. iron supplementation cannot be detected by measuring ZPP. PMID:10084287

Braun, J

1999-03-01

338

Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Oxidation of Zinc Powder for Ethanol Gas Sensor Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide nanowires were prepared by oxidation of zinc powder. The oxidation of zinc was performed by heating a tube of zinc powder at various duration times and temperatures. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Disper- sive Spectrometry (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to char- acterize the tube. It was found that the diameter of zinc

Chanchai Viriyaworasakul; Sombat Kittikunodom; Supab Choopun; Torranin Chairuangsri; Pongsri Mangkorntong; Nikorn Mangkorntong

339

Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

2001-01-01

340

Dissimilatory bacterial sulfate reduction in montana groundwaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of hydrogen sulfide in southeastern Montana groundwaters was investigated. Sulfate?reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 2.0 × 10 to greater than 2.4 × 10 bacteria per 100 ml. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicated a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate?reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive

William S. Dockins; Gregory J. Olson; Gordon A. McFeters; Susan C. Turbak

1980-01-01

341

Biotechnological Treatment of Sulfate-Rich Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-rich wastewaters are generated by many industrial processes that use sulfuric acid or sulfate-rich feed stocks (e.g., fermentation or sea food processing industry). Also, the use of reduced sulfur compounds in industry, that is, sulfide (tanneries, kraft pulping), sulfite (sulfite pulping), or thiosulfate (pulp bleaching, fixing of photographs), contaminates wastewaters with sulfate. A major problem for the biological treatment of

P. N. L. Lens; A. Visser; A. J. H. Janssen; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

1998-01-01

342

Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA) inhibited heparan sulfate binding to various extents. Heat treatment (80 degrees C for 10 min) and treatment of the bacteria with pronase E, proteinase K, pepsin, and chymotrypsin considerably reduced their ability to bind 125I-heparan sulfate, but treatment with trypsin and neuraminidase did not affect binding. Scatchard plot analysis indicated the presence of cell surface components with low affinity (Kd = 3 x 10(-5) M) for heparan sulfate. Cell surface components were released by stirring bacteria with 1 M LiCl at 37 degrees C for 2 h. Proteins of this extract that competitively inhibited binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus were isolated by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. Two proteins having molecular masses of approximately 66 and 60 kDa and the ability to bind 125I-heparan sulfate were obtained. The first 9 amino-terminal amino acid residues of the 66-kDa protein are Asp-Trp-Thr-Gly-Trp-Leu-Ala-Ala-Ala, and the first 4 amino-terminal amino acid residues of the 60-kDa protein are Met-Leu-Val-Thr. Images

Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadstrom, T

1992-01-01

343

Occurrence of different inter-varietal and inter-organ defence strategies towards supra-optimal zinc concentrations in two cultivars of Triticum aestivum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Albimonte, traditional cultivar very important in Italy since long time; and Manital, more recent, evincing better productive performances) were grown for 10 d in presence of 0.7 (control), 70 or 350?M ZnSO4, to verify whether Zn excess was differently managed at inter-varietal and at inter-organ level. Roots were found to be the main

Luigi Sanità di Toppi; Antonella Castagna; Emanuele Andreozzi; Maria Careri; Giovanni Predieri; Emanuela Vurro; Annamaria Ranieri

2009-01-01

344

[Acute zinc poisoning in a dog].  

PubMed

Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia was diagnosed in a young dog. The origin of the zinc intoxication was the ingestion of a toy material which contained a high percentage of zinc. The level of zinc in the liver and kidneys was resp. 1050 and 1320 ppm. PMID:15551629

Borst, G H A; Peperkamp, N H M T; Soethout, N C J

2004-10-15

345

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2013-04-01

346

The mechanism of zinc uptake in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of zinc influx was investigated using giant algal cells (Chara corallina Klein ex Will.esk. R.D. Wood), in which it was possible to discriminate clearly between tracer zinc bound in the cell wall and actual uptake into the cell. It was shown that despite lengthy desorption, retention of zinc in slowly exchanging zinc pools in the cell wall can

Robert J. Reid; Justin D. Brookes; Mark A. Tester; F. Andrew Smith

1996-01-01

347

Guidance on Atazanavir Sulfate Active ingredient: Atazanavir ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Guidance on Atazanavir Sulfate This guidance represents the Food and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

348

Microbial transformation of sulfate in forest soils  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of forest soils containing sulfate labeled with sulfur-35 showed rapid conversion of the added sulfate to organic sulfur forms by microbial populations. Activity rates were highest in the forest floor, but significant activity was observed throughout the soil profile. The annual potential sulfur incorporation for forest floor and soil combined is estimated to be 30 kilograms per hectare. The metabolism of inorganic sulfate to organic forms can be a major process in the sulfur cycle, influencing sulfate accumulation and mobility in forest ecosystems. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Swank, W.T.; Fitzgerald, J.W.; Ash, J.T.

1984-01-13

349

THE USE OF SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA TO REMOVE SULFATE FROM IRON MINING TAILINGS WATER1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of various substrates to support sulfate reducing bacteria and remove sulfate from iron mining tailings basin water in northern Minnesota. The tailings water has a pH of around 7.5, 800 mg\\/L of sulfate and low levels of iron and trace metals. Although sulfate was removed in all columns, overall removal rates

Paul Eger; Tom Moe; John Engesser

350

Zinc-bromine battery development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

1990-05-01

351

Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field.

Michal Hershfinkel (Ben Gurion University;Department of Morphology REV); Elias Aizenman (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology REV); Glen Andrews (University of Kansas Medical Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Israel Sekler (Ben Gurion University;Department of Physiology REV)

2010-07-06

352

Zinc and Manduca sexta hemocyte functions  

PubMed Central

Two metalloproteases have recently been linked to the immune response in Lepidoptera. In addition, zinc is highly important in many mammalian immune-related functions. Because of these, we investigated the effect of zinc and two zinc-protease inhibitors on Manduca sexta hemocyte behavior in vitro. Plasmatocytes were significantly more elongated in Grace's medium supplemented with 100 µm zinc chloride than in the absence of zinc. To test whether zinc-dependent proteases were responsible for the increased length seen in the presence of zinc, we tested two zinc-protease inhibitors, phosphoramidon and bestatin. Each resulted in decreased plasmatocyte length compared to the control, but the distributions of lengths differed with each inhibitor. Each inhibitor also affected plasmatocyte network formation in vitro. This work suggests (1) that at least two different zinc proteases are involved in the cellular defense response of M. sexta, and (2) that zinc should be included in media used for in vitro studies of the immune response.

Willott, Elizabeth; Tran, Hung Q

2002-01-01

353

Maternal zinc intake of Wistar rats has a protective effect in the alloxan-induced diabetic offspring.  

PubMed

Zinc has a role in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, and has been suggested to be beneficial when used in the diabetic state. Effect of zinc intake in pregnant rats has been studied here on diabetized offspring. Pregnant rats were divided in two groups; the control group received normal food and water, and the experimental group received zinc sulfate during pregnancy and 3 weeks after offspring birth. Male offspring from the control (C) and experimental (E) groups were divided each in three groups: C1, fed with normal food and water; C2, diabetized with alloxan; C3, received zinc sulfate; E1, fed with normal food and water; E2, diabetized with alloxan; and E3, receiving zinc sulfate. After 30 days, the histological changes of pancreatic tissues were investigated by light microscopy. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin levels, food intake, water intake, and urine quantity were also compared between the groups. Water intake and urine quantity were decreased significantly (p?zinc intake may influence subsequent deleterious effects of diabetes on alloxan-diabetized offspring. PMID:22730079

Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Esfahani-Nejad, Hamideh; Ahmadi, Ramesh; Hayati-Roodbari, Nasim; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

2012-06-23

354

Effects of sodium sulfate concentration on the sulfate resistance of mortars with and without silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulfate concentration on the sulfate resistance of mortars. Experiments were carried out on the RILEM portland cement standard mortars and portland cement-silica fume mortars. Sulfate exposure of mortars were initiated after 28 days of lime saturated water curing. Some physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 300 days

Fevziye Aköz; Fikret Türker; Sema Koral; Nabi Yüzer

1995-01-01

355

Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated

Jinan Feng; Yuch Ping Hsieh

1998-01-01

356

Investigation of Zinc Electrodes Relevant to Zinc-Air Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The particulate electrode (fluidized bed electrode or moving bed electrode) has been studied to evaluate its possible application to energy storage. The first part of this study is concerned with the effect of current fluctuation on the morphology of zinc...

H. S. Choi

1986-01-01

357

Zinc phosphide-zinc oxide heterojunction solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc phosphide-zinc oxide heterojunction solar cells have been prepared by sputter-depositing ZnO onto a Zn3P2 substrate. An active-area conversion efficiency of 2% has been obtained. In the absence of shunts and by reducing the series resistance of the device, an efficiency of 5% is achievable. The experimental results are discussed in terms of an interface recombination model. It is indicated

P. S. Nayar; A. Catalano

1981-01-01

358

Zinc-rich epoxy primers based on lamellar zinc dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  1. Lamellar zinc primers showed an apparent reduction in the effective pigment volume concentration; the levels from 50 to\\u000a 55% were the best and they are estimated to be near the corresponding critical pigment volume concentration which is significantly\\u000a lower than that for spherical zinc primers which was approximately 66%.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Taking into account both corrosion and blistering resistance, the

C Gidice; J C Benftez; M M Linares

1997-01-01

359

? NMR in zinc metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-precision observation of NMR in zinc metal at 295 K is reported. The 0953-8984/8/50/051/img2 nuclear quadrupole coupling 0953-8984/8/50/051/img3 and isotropic and axial components of the Knight shift (0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img5) have been determined, as well as the temperature variation of 0953-8984/8/50/051/img6 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 in a 283 K range around 295 K. The large positive value for the temperature coefficient of 0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 is comparable to that of cadmium, and a similar explanation appears likely. At 295 K the following values are obtained: 0953-8984/8/50/051/img9 MHz, 0953-8984/8/50/051/img10 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img11.

Bastow, T. J.

1996-12-01

360

Effect of Zinc and Zinc Borate on Fire Properties of Modified Polyphenylene Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified polyphenylene oxide resin (m-PPO) (virgin) and m-PPO flame retarded with triaryl phosphate (FR m-PPO) were blended with zinc borate, zinc, and zinc\\/zinc borate. Both virgin and FR m-PPO containing zinc borate showed a marked reduction in smoke production (flaming and non- flaming-NBS Smoke Chamber). In FR m-PPO a reduction in oxygen index values was seen for zinc borate, except

R. Benrashid; G. L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm

1993-01-01

361

Sulfate adsorption in Michigan forest soils  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of acidic atmospheric deposition raised concerns over adverse cation leaching effects on Michigan forest soils with low cation exchange capacities. Leaching effects of acid deposition depend on mobility of sulfate in the soil. Little was known, however, concerning the ability of these soils to adsorb sulfate. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of representative Michigan forest soils to adsorb sulfate, to relate sulfate adsorption to soil properties, and to develop equations to predict sulfate adsorption in similar forest soils. Frigid zone soil series studied were Grayling (Typic Udipsamments), Rubicon (Entic Haplorthods), Kalkaska (Typic Haplorthods), and Montcalm (Eutric Glossoboralfs). Mesic zone series studied were Spinks (Psammentic Hapludals) and Oshtemo (Typic Hapludalfs). Six randomly located pedons of each series were sampled. Sulfate adsorption was determined by shaking 10 gram soil samples for 24 hours in 50 mL 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/ solution containing 10 mg SO/sub 4/-S L/sup -1/. Solution filtrates were turbidimetrically analyzed for SO/sub 4/-S and adsorption was calculated from reduction in SO/sub 4/-S concentration. Bw, Bs, and Bh horizons of frigid zone soils and E and Bt horizons of mesic zone soils had the highest sulfate adsorbing abilities. No significant differences were found between series in total sulfate adsorptive capacity.

MacDonald, N.W.

1987-01-01

362

Sulfate Emissions from Vehicles on the Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to measure vehicle sulfate emissions, by vehicle type, at two tunnels on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. A satisfactory balance between estimated fuel sulfur consumption and observed emissions of sulfur compounds corrected for ambient-air contributions was obtained. This work started in 1974 before the introduction of catalyst-equipped automobiles and continued into 1976. The sulfate contributed by vehicles even

W. R. Pierson; W. W. Brachaczek; R. H. Hammerle; D. E. McKee; J. W. Butler

1978-01-01

363

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfate is a common divalent anion found in a number of minerals in the environment. Sulfate salts of sodium ion, potassium ion, or magnesium ion are soluble in water, whereas salts of calcium ion, barium ion and other heavy metals are poorly soluble or i...

1990-01-01

364

Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the available evidence regarding efficacy, benefits, and risks of magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis in women with preeclampsia or eclampsia.Data Sources: The English-language literature in MEDLINE was searched from 1966 through February 1998 using the terms “magnesium sulfate,” “seizure,” “preeclampsia,” “eclampsia,” and “hypertension in pregnancy.” Reviews of bibliographies of retrieved articles and consultation with experts in the field

AndreaG Witlin; BahaM Sibai

1998-01-01

365

Perinatal death and tocolytic magnesium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether there is a significant association between perinatal mortality and exposure to total doses of tocolytic magnesium sulfate larger than 48 g.Methods: We did a case-control study in which cases were defined as neonates or fetuses who died after being exposed to tocolytic magnesium sulfate and controls were those who survived exposure. The study included fetuses and

Rebecca Scudiero; Babak Khoshnood; Peter G Pryde; Kwang-Sun Lee; Stephen Wall; Robert Mittendorf

2000-01-01

366

NATURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SULFATE-REDUCING EUBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA seguencing. ll genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicrobium and the gliding Desul...

367

Sulfate washout ratios in winter storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washout ratios for sulfate were computed from simultaneous measurements of sulfate in precipitation and in the air below cloud base. Stratification of the data according to predominant mode of precipitation growth (growth primarily by accretion of liquid cloud droplets versus growth primarily by vapor deposition onto ice particles) illustrated that for cases of accretional growth, the washout ratio was 10--50

B. C. Scott

1981-01-01

368

21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ·7H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by...

2010-01-01

369

21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ·7H2 O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by...

2009-04-01

370

Characterization of sulfated quercetin and epicatechin metabolites.  

PubMed

Different monosulfates of quercetin and epicatechin with metabolic interest were obtained by hemisynthesis and characterized regarding their chromatographic behavior and absorption and mass spectra. Three of these compounds were further isolated, and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). The calculation of the proton and carbon shifts caused by sulfation allowed for the assignment of the position of the sulfate group in the flavonoids, so that the compounds were identified as quercetin-3'-O-sulfate, quercetin 4'-O-sulfate, and epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate. It was found that sulfation at position 3' induced a large upfield shift in the carbon bearing the sulfate group and downfield displacements of the adjacent carbons, whereas no significant upfield or downfield shifts were observed with respect to the parent flavonoid when sulfation was produced at position 4'. PMID:22420600

Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Paramas, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

2012-03-28

371

Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

2009-08-01

372

Influence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate concentration, which is required to form gypsum from portlandite, was derived from thermodynamical calculations and experimental measurements. The obtained results were compared to the sulfate concentrations in laboratory solutions that are commonly used to test the performance of concrete exposed to sulfate attack and also to sulfate concentrations that can be expected under field conditions. It was derived that the formation of gypsum can strongly affect the performance of binders in the tests, but has a less marked impact under most field conditions. An SEM investigation of mortar bars that were exposed to different sulfate concentrations supports the suggestion made.

Bellmann, Frank [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Moeser, Bernd [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Stark, Jochen [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany)

2006-02-15

373

Zinc complexes of the carbahemiporphyrazines.  

PubMed

Zinc can be inserted into the carbahemiporphyrazines by use of the organometallic reagent diethylzinc; in the case of benziphthalocyanine, concomitant alkylation of an alpha-carbon position and metalation occurs. PMID:20148207

Bonner, Emily S; Engle, James T; Sripothongak, Saovalak; Ziegler, Christopher J

2010-01-06

374

A zinc oxide microwire laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report stimulated emission from a zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystal grown by carbothermal evaporation observed by spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) and high excitation spectroscopy (HES).

C. Czekalla; J. Lenzner; A. Rahm; T. Nobis; M. Grundmann

2007-01-01

375

A zinc oxide microwire laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report stimulated emission from a zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystal grown by carbothermal evaporation observed by spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) and high excitation spectroscopy (HES).

Czekalla, C.; Lenzner, J.; Rahm, A.; Nobis, T.; Grundmann, M.

2007-05-01

376

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-02-25

377

Marine Biogeochemistry of Zinc Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, natural plankton, and seawater....

S. G. John

2007-01-01

378

Zinc: Mineral Commodity Profiles 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines report presents comprehensive data on zinc including strategic considerations, problems, technology trends and developments, reserves-resources, supply-demand relationships, economic factors and problems, and operating factors and pro...

J. H. Jolly

1983-01-01

379

Spectroscopic characterization of zinc oxide nanorods synthesized by solid-state reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-crystallized zinc oxide nanorods have been fabricated by single step solid-state reaction using zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide, at room temperature. The sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) stabilized zinc oxide nanorods were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction revealed the wurtzite structure of zinc oxide. The size estimation by XRD and TEM confirmed that the ZnO nanorods are made of single crystals. The growth of zinc oxide crystals into rod shape was found to be closely related to its hexagonal nature. The mass ratio of SLS:ZnO in the nanorods was found to be 1:10 based on the thermogravimetric analysis. Blue shift of photoluminescence emission was noticed in the ZnO nanorods when compared to that of ZnO bulk. FT-IR analysis confirmed the binding of SLS with ZnO nanorods. Apart from ease of preparation, this method has the advantage of eco-friendliness since the solvent and other harmful chemicals were eliminated in the synthesis protocol.

Prasad, Virendra; D'Souza, Charlene; Yadav, Deepti; Shaikh, A. J.; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

2006-09-01

380

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

2013-04-01

381

21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

382

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2013-07-01

383

21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.50 Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a...aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b)...

2009-04-01

384

21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129...Food Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

385

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129...Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

386

21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529.1044b...DRUGS § 529.1044b Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

2013-04-01

387

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

389

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

391

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127...Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

392

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127...Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2009-04-01

393

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127...Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-01-01

394

Zinc\\/bromine battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 20-40 kWh zinc\\/bromine battery systems for electric vehicles and load-leveling applications are discussed. Cycling for a 20-kWh electric vehicle battery (Z20-low profile), including capacity tests, power tests, and standing self-discharge tests, is reported. A load management test facility is described, and assembly and testing of a 20-kWh load-leveling module is discussed. A zinc\\/bromine battery system

J. P. Zagrodnik; M. D. Eskra

1987-01-01

395

Zinc-bromine battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for

Lew Richards; Walter Vanschalwijk; George Albert; Mike Tarjanyi; Anthony Leo; Stephen Lott

1990-01-01

396

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a\\u000a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase.\\u000a The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard

Raffaele De Nicola; Graeme Walker

2009-01-01

397

Scintillation properties of lead sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO4), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. Its physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as it has a density of 6.4 gm/cm(exp 3), a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998 percent pure PbSO4 crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5 percent) and 19 ns (36 percent) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36 percent) and 425 ns (23 percent) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature from 3,200 photons/MeV at +45 C to 4,900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25 C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at -145 C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO4 (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60 percent that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available.

Moses, W. W.; Derenzo, S. E.; Shlichta, P. J.

1991-11-01

398

Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter. Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10–200??M, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the ?-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life. In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2011-01-01

399

High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in a Low-Sulfate Hot Spring Microbial Mat Are Driven by a Low Level of Diversity of Sulfate-Respiring Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelec- trode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close

Jesse G. Dillon; Susan Fishbain; Scott R. Miller; Brad M. Bebout; Kirsten S. Habicht; Samuel M. Webb; David A. Stahl

2007-01-01

400

Imaging Zinc: Old and New Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science.

Christopher Frederickson (University of Texas Medical Branch;NeuroBioTex Inc and Departments of Anatomy and Neuroscience Biomedical Engineering and Preventive Medicine and Community Health REV)

2003-05-13

401

Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order.

2010-01-01

402

Bacterial transport of sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is an essential element for microorganisms and it can be obtained from varied compounds, sulfate being the preferred\\u000a source. The first step for sulfate assimilation, sulfate uptake, has been studied in several bacterial species. This article\\u000a reviews the properties of different bacterial (and archaeal) transporters for sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions. Sulfate\\u000a uptake is carried out by sulfate permeases

Esther Aguilar-Barajas; César Díaz-Pérez; Martha I. Ramírez-Díaz; Héctor Riveros-Rosas; Carlos Cervantes

2011-01-01

403

Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Promotes Replication of Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work suggests that cell surface heparan sulfate acts as a receptor for the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis, we show that heparan sulfate is necessary and sufficient for infectivity. Further, we demonstrate that the parasite requires N sulfation of heparan sulfate initiated by N-deacetylase\\/N-sulfotransferase-1, but 2-O sulfation and 6-O

Joseph R. Bishop; Brett E. Crawford; Jeffrey D. Esko

2005-01-01

404

[Zinc and nociception: a pharmacological approach].  

PubMed

In the last decade, neurophysiological research regarding nociceptive mediation seems to suggest a possible new approach in pain management--zinc applicability. Immunohistochemical studies prove that zinc can be found in central nervous system, inside structures active in nociception. Zinc stabilizes primary afferent C fibers, nervous fibers involved in nociception. However, this phenomenon is probably only true for extreme zinc concentrations--excess or deficit. Electrophysiological studies indicate that zinc inhibits NMDA receptors, while potentiating the activity of non-NMDA receptors. All these are arguments supporting the existence of a role of endogenous zinc regarding pain transmission. PMID:12635353

Mungiu, Q C; Ionescu, Dun?rea Georgeta; Jaba, Irina Maria

405

Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection  

SciTech Connect

Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01

406

Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate: Structural Specificity and Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Heparan sulfate (HS) is present on the surface of endothelial and surrounding tissues in large quantities. It plays important roles in regulating numerous functions of the blood vessel wall, including blood coagulation, inflammation response and cell differentiation. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide containing glucosamine and glucuronic/iduronic acid repeating disaccharide units. The unique sulfated saccharide sequences of HS determine its specific functions. Heparin, an analogue of heparan sulfate, is the most commonly used anticoagulant drug. Because of its wide range of biological functions, HS has become an interesting molecule to biochemists, medicinal chemists and developmental biologists. Here, we summarize recent progress towards understanding the interaction between heparan sulfate and blood coagulating factors, the biosynthesis of anticoagulant heparan sulfate and the mechanism of action of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes. Further, knowledge of the biosynthesis of HS facilitates the development of novel enzymatic approaches to synthesize HS from bacterial capsular polysaccharides and to produce polysaccharide end products with high specificity for the biological target. These advancements provide the foundation for the development of polysaccharide-based therapeutic agents.

Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C.

2007-01-01

407

A zinc calcium phosphorous oxide ceramic and malic acid-Ca(OH)2-vitamin E composite for repairing bone defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to develop a resorbable zinc calcium phosphorous ceramic oxide (ZCAP) organic acid-vitamin E composite containing an antibiotic for orthopedic and\\/or dental application, including nearly all cases of trauma of hard tissues. A composite consisting of 3.0 g ZCAP, 1.2 g malic acid, 0.6 g Ca(OH)2 , 9.6 mg gentamicin sulfate and 20 pl of

Andrea Longo; Brian Mehling; Peter Barre; Dale Snead; Ann Taylor; Dave Reynolds; P. K. Bajpai

1995-01-01

408

History of Zinc in Agriculture12  

PubMed Central

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application.

Nielsen, Forrest H.

2012-01-01

409

Screw dislocation-driven growth of two-dimensional nanoplates.  

PubMed

We report the dislocation-driven growth of two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. They are another type of dislocation-driven nanostructure and could find application in energy storage, catalysis, and nanoelectronics. We first focus on nanoplates of zinc hydroxy sulfate (3Zn(OH)(2)·ZnSO(4)·0.5H(2)O) synthesized from aqueous solutions. Both powder X-ray and electron diffraction confirm the zinc hydroxy sulfate (ZHS) crystal structure as well as their conversion to zinc oxide (ZnO). Scanning electron, atomic force, and transmission electron microscopy reveal the presence of screw dislocations in the ZHS nanoplates. We further demonstrate the generality of this mechanism through the growth of 2D nanoplates of ?-Co(OH)(2), Ni(OH)(2), and gold that can also follow the dislocation-driven growth mechanism. Finally, we propose a unified scheme general to any crystalline material that explains the growth of nanoplates as well as different dislocation-driven nanomaterial morphologies previously observed through consideration of the relative crystal growth step velocities at the dislocation core versus the outer edges of the growth spiral under various supersaturations. PMID:21894947

Morin, Stephen A; Forticaux, Audrey; Bierman, Matthew J; Jin, Song

2011-09-09

410

Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc\\/bromine storage batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc\\/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc\\/bromine battery is that modest amounts of

R. A. Assink; C. Arnold Jr.

1991-01-01

411

Electronic Structure of Zinc Oxide and Related Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this investigati on is the elucidation of the electronic energy band structure of zinc oxide and related wurtzite-type crystals, including alloys of zinc oxide and zinc sulfide; zinc sulfide; zinc selenide; and zinc telluride. The principal fea...

F. Herman

1966-01-01

412

Screening of iron- and zinc-enriched yeast strain and optimization of cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae LN-17 was selected from 26 kinds of primary yeast strains that belong to different genera and species. The iron- and zinc-enriched capability of strain LN-17 was higher than the others. The highest iron and zinc contents of the strain were obtained when the strain grew up under the following conditions: The strain was incubated (5%, v/v) in 50 mL wort medium (pH 6.0) with 100 mg/L Fe ion and 120 mg/L Zn ion. The medium was loaded into a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and shaken in a rotary shaker (200 rpm) at 30°C for 60 h. Ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate were chosen as the source of Fe and Zn. The Fe and Zn contents of the dry cells were determined by atomic absorption spectrum analysis. Under the optimized cultivation conditions, the Fe and Zn contents reached 7.854 mg/g dry cells and 4.976 mg/g dry cells. PMID:21660867

Wang, Zhanyong; Zhang, Jing; Su, Tingting; Guan, Zhuanfei; Ji, Man

2011-01-01

413

Effect of zinc source on performance, zinc status, immune response, and rumen fermentation of lactating cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of zinc (Zn) source on the performance, Zn status, immune response, and rumen fermentation of lactating cows to find the most available Zn source for dairy production. In Experiment 1, a total of 30 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly allocated by body weight and milk yield to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with no Zn addition (containing 37.60 mg?Zn/kg TMR by analysis), and the basal TMR supplemented with 40 mg?Zn/kg TMR from either Zn sulfate or one of three organic Zn chelates with weak (Zn-AA W), moderate (Zn-Pro M), or strong (Zn-Pro S) chelation strengths, respectively for 55 days. In Experiment 2, the in vitro rumen fermentation method was used in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The four Zn sources were the same as those used in Experiment 1, and the three supplemental Zn levels in the rumen fluid were 0, 10, and 20 ?g/mL, respectively. The feed intake, milk composition, and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P > 0.05) by treatments. However, the milk yield was increased (P < 0.05) by addition of Zn from both the Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S. Plasma Zn level at the end of the experiment was increased (P < 0.05) by addition of Zn from all three organic sources. Serum antibody titers on day 21 after vaccination with foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine were increased (P < 0.05) by both supplemental Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S. The organic Zn sources with different chelation strengths supplemented at the added Zn level of 10 ?g/mL were more effective (P < 0.05) in improving the rumen fermentation than Zn sulfate, with the most effective being Zn-AA W. In conclusion, Zn source had no influence on the feed intake, milk composition, and SCC; however, both the Zn-AA W and Zn-Pro S were more effective than Zn-Pro M and Zn sulfate in enhancing the rumen fermentation, Zn status, and humoral immune response as well as improving milk yield of lactating cows. The improved milk production might be attributed to the improved rumen fermentation, Zn status, and immune function. PMID:23279942

Wang, Run L; Liang, Jian G; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Li Y; Li, Su F; Luo, Xu G

2013-01-03

414

Novel Alkylsulfatases Required for Biodegradation of the Branched Primary Alkyl Sulfate Surfactant 2-Butyloctyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent alcohol exhibited no hydrolytic activity on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. DP1 and the analogous AP2 are thus new alkylsulfatase enzymes with novel specificity toward 2-butyloctyl sulfate.

Ellis, Andrew J.; Hales, Stephen G.; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G. A.; White, Graham F.

2002-01-01

415

Zinc levels after intravenous administration of zinc sulphate in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diabetic patients commonly have increased urinary excretion of zinc, although blood concentrations may be normal, lowered, or raised. We analyzed zinc levels in plasma and urine after an intravenous overload of zinc sulphate (8 mg) in 22 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 22 healthy individuals. No significant differences were found in basal levels of serum zinc in

A. Maldonado Martín; B. Gil Extremera; M. Fernfindez Soto; M. Ruiz Martínez; A. González Jiménez; A. Guijarro Morales; J. de Dios Luna del Castillo

1991-01-01

416

Quantitative analysis of copper, zinc and copper\\/zinc ratio in selected human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Serum copper and zinc concentrations and copper\\/zinc ratios have been shown to be increased in several types of human malignancies, including human brain tumors. In this study, copper and zinc levels and copper\\/zinc ratios were determined by atomic absorption analysis in tissue and serum from 29 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients. Metastatic carcinomas and malignant gliomas revealed significantly

Daizo Yoshida; Yukio Ikeda; Shozo Nakazawa

1993-01-01

417

Release of zinc mobilizing root exudates in different plant species as affected by zinc nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of zinc nutritional status of the plant on the release of zinc mobilizing root exudates was studied in various dicotyledonous (apple, bean, cotton, sunflower, tomato) and graminaceous (barley, wheat) plant species grown in nutrient solutions. In all species, zinc deficiency increased root exudation of amino acids, sugars and phenolics. However, the root exudates of zinc deficient dicotyledonous species

Fusuo Zhang; Volker Romheld; Horst Marschner

1991-01-01

418

Zinc Utilization in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women Fed Controlled Diets Providing the Zinc RDA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pregnant (P) women in their third trimester and 10 nonpregnant (NP) women participated in a 21-day confined metabolic study. The participants were fed semipurified liquid diets providing 20 mg zinc\\/day. Apparent zinc balance was calculated and parameters of zinc status assessed. Even though an adequate amount of a readily available form of zinc was fed, the P women consistently

CHRISTINE A. SWANSON; ANDJANET C. KING

2010-01-01

419

Steel cathodic protection afforded by zinc, aluminium and zinc\\/aluminium alloy coatings in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc has traditionally been the metallic material most widely used to protect steel against atmospheric corrosion due to its ability to afford cathodic protection to steel in all types of natural atmospheres. In recent decades, aluminium and zinc\\/aluminium alloy coatings have been used instead of zinc in certain atmospheric applications. Although these coatings present some advantages over zinc, they are

Z. Panossian; L. Mariaca; M. Morcillo; S. Flores; J. Rocha; J. J. Peña; F. Herrera; F. Corvo; M. Sanchez; O. T. Rincon; G. Pridybailo; J. Simancas

2005-01-01

420

The current distribution and shape change of zinc electrodes in secondary silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current and potential distributions of zinc electrodes in secondary zinc-silver oxide cells during cycling were studied using a sectioned electrode technique. The shape change occurring in zinc electrodes resulting from cell cycling was examined. The zinc electrodes used for this study were of a conventional type of design and were fabricated by a slurry paste method. The positive electrodes

S.-P. Poa; C. H. Wu

1978-01-01

421

Recovery, Re-Use, and Reduction of Zinc Metal Waste in Zinc-Rich Primers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of mechanisms to re-use zinc wastes in zinc-rich primers is reported. Rapid expansion in the use of zinc-rich primers for protective coatings is sharply increasing the volume of waste zinc which amounts to over 50 percent of the amount used in...

E. V. Plock

1979-01-01

422

High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency and Memory Impairment with Inhibition of BDNF Signaling  

PubMed Central

Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

2013-01-01

423

Zinc as an essential micronutrient: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is one of the most important essential tracer metals of human nutrition, and its deficiency is a world nutritional problem. This work compiles past and present information about the role of zinc in human health.

María J Salgueiro; Marcela Zubillaga; Alexis Lysionek; María I Sarabia; Ricardo Caro; Tomás De Paoli; Alfredo Hager; Ricardo Weill; José Boccio

2000-01-01

424

High Energy Sealed Nickel-Zinc Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The construction and performance details for 4 cell sealed nickel-zinc batteries are presented. The batteries evaluated contained non-sintered positive nickel-hydroxide electrodes, Teflonated zinc oxide negative, Ag/Hg oxygen recombination electrodes and ...

A. Charkey

1973-01-01

425

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and...restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in...

2013-04-01

426

21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

2013-04-01

427

21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

2013-04-01

428

21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

429

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

430

21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

431

Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of our work was to develop polyelectrolyte-modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings to protect cold-rolled steels against corrosion. Accordingly, we formulated environmentally acceptable material systems for the zinc phosphating make-up solutio...

T. Sugama N. Carciello C. I. Handsy

1995-01-01

432

Undervehicle corrosion testing of zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

SciTech Connect

Undervehicle and on-vehicle coupon corrosion test programs are initiated by Dofasco Inc. in 1981, using two commercial trucks operated in the deicing salt/snow belt area of Southern Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to investigate the relative corrosion performance of numerous zinc and zinc alloy coated steels. Seventeen coated steels were tested. Results to date indicate that the hot dip coated steels with the thicker coatings are outperforming the electrolytic coated steels in both the unpainted and phosphated/cathodic primed conditions. Fully painted on-vehicle test coupons show minimal corrosion and little difference to date.

Neville, R.J.; de Souza, K.M.

1986-12-01

433

Formation of hydroxy?sulfates from pyrite in coastal acid sulfate soil environments in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite in hydromorphic soils is oxidized when it is exposed to the atmosphere. The sulfide oxidation releases hydrogen (H) ions and other ions into the aqueous solution, and subsequently hydroxy?sulfates are formed. A laboratory aging experiment was conducted using coastal sulfate?rich soils in Malaysia to identify and determine the nature and composition of the hydroxy?sulfates and to explain the mechanism

J. Shamshuddin; I. Jamilah; J. A. Ogunwale

1995-01-01

434

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

435

Drosophila Heparan Sulfate, a Novel Design*  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes such as growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, wound healing, and tumor metastasis. Functionally important interactions between HS and a variety of proteins depend on specific structural features within the HS chains. The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is frequently applied as a model organism to study HS function in development. Previous structural studies of Drosophila HS have been restricted to disaccharide composition, without regard to the arrangement of saccharide domains typically found in vertebrate HS. Here, we biochemically characterized Drosophila HS by selective depolymerization with nitrous acid. Analysis of the generated saccharide products revealed a novel HS design, involving a peripheral, extended, presumably single, N-sulfated domain linked to an N-acetylated sequence contiguous with the linkage to core protein. The N-sulfated domain may be envisaged as a heparin structure of unusually low O-sulfate content.

Kusche-Gullberg, Marion; Nybakken, Kent; Perrimon, Norbert; Lindahl, Ulf

2012-01-01

436

21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sulfate ((NH4 )2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The...

2013-04-01

437

21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible...established for total residues of gentamicin in edible tissues of swine...determinative procedure and an HPLC confirmatory procedure for gentamicin have been developed to...

2009-04-01

438

Acid precipitation and sulfate deposition in Florida  

SciTech Connect

The acidity of rainfall in Florida has increased markedly in the past 25 years, and the average sulfate and nitrate concentrations have increased by factors of 1.6 and 4.5, respectively, over the period. Annual average pH values below 4.7 now occur over the northern three quarters of the state. Summer rainfall has average pH values 0.2 to 0.3 unit lower than winter rainfall, and sulfate concentrations at most sites are higher in summer. The annual deposition of H+ (about 300 to 500 equivalents per hectare) in northern Florida is a third to a half of the deposition in the heavily impacted northeastern United States; comparable figures for excess sulfate (derived from sulfur dioxide) are 7 to 11 kilograms of sulfur per hectare or 50 to 90 percent of the sulfate deposition rates at Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire.

Brezonik, P.L.; Edgerton, E.S.; Hendry, C.D.

1980-05-30

439

Sulfated Polyvinylalcohol Based Low Density Lipoprotein Binders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis covers the synthesis and characterization of three Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) binders based on sulfated polyvinylalcohol. These binders are to be used in extracorporeal bloodtreatment in order to reduce high plasma LDL levels, as encountered...

N. Maaskant

1986-01-01

440

Ultrasonic Relaxation in Manganese Sulfate Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two step, three state association-dissociation model was used to interpret the ultrasonic absorption data for manganese sulfate in aqueous solution, combining data obtained in the present work with literature data. The relaxation parameters were calcula...

L. G. Jackopin E. Yeager

1970-01-01

441

Field emission from zinc oxide nanopins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructural zinc oxide pins have been fabricated by vapor transport on copper-coated silicon wafer. The nanopins are composed of hexagonal wurtzite-phase zinc oxide with single crystal quality. The growth process includes two steps: (1) growth of a micron-sized zinc oxide dot on the substrate and (2) growth of a sharp tip from the zinc oxide dot. The field emission of

C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun

2003-01-01

442

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

443

STUDIES ON OBTAINING OF ZINC PHOSPHATE NANOMATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the phosphate pigments, zinc phosphate found the widest application in paints, since it provides excellent corrosion resistance and is non-toxic. The two methods of preparation of zinc phosphate with the average crystallite size of 30-40 nm have been developed. Nanocrystalline zinc phosphate tetrahydrate was formed in the three-stage process: the synthesis of Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O from diammonium phosphate and zinc nitrate,

B. Grzmil; B. Kic; K. Lubkowski

444

Development of an automated protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibition assay and the screening of putative insulin-enhancing vanadium(IV) and zinc(II) complexes.  

PubMed

The inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Vanadium and zinc metal coordinated complexes have insulin-enhancing activities, and while vanadium compounds inhibit PTP1B, little is known on the mode of action of zinc compounds. In this study we developed an automated PTP1B inhibition assay that allows for a rapid assessment of the PTP1B inhibition strength of candidate compounds. Synthetic vanadium(IV) and zinc(II) complexes were evaluated: IC50 values for vanadium complexes ranged from 0.06 to 0.8 microM whereas for zinc compounds, values were above 10 microM. Vanadium sulfate, a non-conjugated inorganic salt, had stronger inhibition activity than any of the conjugated metal complexes. PMID:15742140

Seale, Andre P; de Jesus, Lucia A; Kim, Se-Yeon; Choi, Yeon-Hong; Lim, H B; Hwang, Cheong-Soo; Kim, Yang-Sun

2005-02-01

445

Recalibrating the concentration of Precambrian seawater sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic offset between sulfate sulfur and sulfide sulfur (?34Ssulfate-sulfide) is widely used in the Precambrian as a paleo-indicator of seawater sulfate concentrations. Popularized by experimental work proposing an increase in seawater sulfate at the Archean - Proterozoic boundary, the concept of using a calibrated physiological process (dissimilatory sulfate reduction) to extract environmental information holds the potential to unlock numerous geological questions. To that end, the interpretability of sulfur isotope records relies on the degree to which strict quantitative constraints have been placed on the relationship between sulfate concentrations and sulfate reducing bacteria. Our work serves to extend those constraints. Here we present data from a series of replicate quasi-chemostat microbial reactors, inoculated with marine sediment from Monterey Bay and incubated with artificial seawater ([SO42-]< 5 mM). Our experimental design continuously removes sulfide and allows for systematic tracking of the dependence of ?34Ssulfate-sulfide on seawater sulfate concentration. In addition to expanding the existing ?34S context, we target high-precision multiple sulfur isotope data, which allows for a greater interpretability of both the overall result and its mapping onto environmental records. Further, we use natural abundance and ?18O spiked water within our experiments to assay rates of cellular re-oxidation (within the sulfate reduction pathway) and to constrain natural ?18O effects within these systems. Finally, we use modern molecular biological techniques to track community structure as a function of time and environmental conditions. Together, these data provide an integrated metric with which to interpret complex natural sulfur isotope records.

Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.; Hoarfrost, A.; Girguis, P. R.

2010-12-01

446

Optimization of a biological sulfate reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological sulfate reduction process is presented. It is intended to treat sulfate wastes by converting them to hydrogen sulfide which can be further oxidized to elemental sulfur. An optimization study of a completely-mixed reactor system was performed. Major operating parameters were determined at the bench-scale level. The study was conducted in batch-culture experiments, using a mixed Desulfovibrio culture from

Lebel

1985-01-01

447

Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric general circulation model is coupled to an atmospheric chemistry model to calculate the radiative forcing\\u000a by anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. The latter aerosols result from biomass burning as well as fossil fuel\\u000a burning. The black carbon associated with carbonaceous aerosols is absorbant and can decrease the amount of reflected radiation\\u000a at the top-of-the-atmosphere. In contrast, sulfate aerosols

J. E. Penner; C. C. Chuang; K. Grant

1998-01-01

448

THE ROLE OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX IN SULFATE METABOLISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was designed to determine if sulfate metabolism is the function of a particular cell organelle, or whether the site of sulfation varies, depending upon the type of cell and the class of sulfated compound . Rats and mice were injected intravenously with inorganic sulfate labeled with I'S (H 235SO 4),and were then killed by vascular perfusion of fixative

RICHARD W. YOUNG

1973-01-01

449

Growth and characterization of rare earths doped triglycine sulfate crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystals have been grown by a temperature-lowering technique from the aqueous solution by doping with samarium sulfate, ytterbium sulfate and terbium sulfate in the ferroelectric phase. The effects of these different dopants on the morphology, growth and various properties such as dielectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric of doped TGS crystals have been investigated. The decrease in

A. K. Batra; Padmaja Guggilla; Dewanna Cunningham; M. D. Aggarwal; R. B. Lal

2006-01-01

450

Work function determination of zinc oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide-silicon heterojunctions were fabricated using both n and p-type silicon. The zinc oxide films were deposited by magnetron sputtering process at various substrate temperatures to form these devices. The electrical properties of these devices were measured and the work function of the zinc oxide was evaluated

K. B. Sundaram; Ashamin Khan

1996-01-01

451

Zinc oxide multilayers for solar collector coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar selective coating has been fabricated by capping black zinc oxide with a transparent zinc oxide heat mirror film. Deposition onto glass substrates was accomplished by reactive bias sputtering. The zinc oxide multilayer structure had a solar absorptance of 0.90 and an IR emittance of 0.26. Suggestions are made for significant improvement of solar selective performance.

M. J. Brett; R. R. Parsons; H. P. Baltes

1986-01-01

452

Pressure acid leaching of zinc sulfide concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of particle size of the zinc sulfide concentrate, leaching temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio and additive amount on pressure acid leaching process of the zinc sulfide concentrate were studied. The results indicate that the additive can improve the reaction kinetics and the conversion rate. And sulfur can be successfully separated from the zinc sulfide concentrate as elemental sulfur. The reasonable experiment

Yan GU; Ting-an ZHANG; Yan LIU; Wang-zhong MU; Wei-guang ZHANG; Zhi-he DOU; Xiao-li JIANG

2010-01-01

453

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 ...and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2013-04-01

454

21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications . Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

2013-04-01

455

A case of zinc chloride ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc chloride is a powerful corrosive agent. Reports of zinc chloride ingestion are uncommon, and there is little information about its toxicity and management. The authors report the clinical course of a 10-year-old girl who accidentally ingested an acid soldering flux solution (pH, 3.0; zinc chloride, 30%to

Atsuyuki Yamataka; Kevin C Pringle; John Wyeth

1998-01-01

456

Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

457

Galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and practical information on galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys, coupled to other metals, particularly steel, is organized and presented, along with a conceptual and elemental analysis of galvanic coupling between zinc and steel. Various factors which may play roles in galvanic action between zinc and coupled metals are systematically discussed. The principles and practical applications of galvanic

X. G. Zhang

1996-01-01

458

Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Zinc Waste Dusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrometallurgical separation processes offer attractive potential for recovery of marketable zinc from industrial wastes. In view of the importance of having a supply of zinc from a diversity of sources to supplement zinc imports, it is useful to assess the applicability of available separation technology. A brief review is presented of applications of several separation processes which have been applied

Clyde S. Brooks

1995-01-01

459

Zinc and human development: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, considerable evidence has been obtained regarding the importance of zinc in human nutrition. Zinc is an important component of many metalloenzymes and is also required for metabolism of nucleic acids and synthesis of protein. Human requirements for zinc vary at different times in development, but appear to be particularly high during embryonic life, during periods

Lowell E. Sever

1975-01-01

460

Effect of prenatal zinc supplementation on birthweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined sup- plement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of

Mahama SAAKA; Jacques Oosthuizen; Shelley Beatty

2009-01-01

461

Percutaneous Absorption of Zinc from Zinc Oxide Applied Topically to Intact Skin in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of zinc through normal skin treated with a zinc oxide (25%) medicated occlusive dressing was studied.The mean release rate of zinc to the skin was 5 ?g\\/cm2\\/h. After 48 h of treatment suction blisters were raised by the« Kiistala method. The zinc concentration of the epidermis blister fluid and dermis was increased beneath the zinc dressing compared to

Magnus S. Ågren

1990-01-01

462

Acid sulfate corrosion in PWR steam generators  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the plant operating experience and the results of laboratory testing associated with the occurrence of corrosion produced in acid sulfate environments. Three forms of steam generator corrosion have been attributed to the presence of these environments: reduced sulfate species have produced stress corrosion cracking in several plants having sensitized tubing (primarily in once-through steam generators); acid sulfates have produced stress corrosion cracking in recirculating steam generators having largely unsensitized tubing; and acid sulfates are thought to be responsible for wastage found in the cold leg tube support plate crevices in several plants having recirculating steam generators. Laboratory testing has found that the extent of cracking in acid sulfate environments increases with increasing temperature, decreasing pH, and increasing applied stress levels. More extensive cracking is evident when chlorides are present as well as sulfates. More cracking is produced in mill annealed Alloy 600 tubing than in thermally treated Alloy 600 tubing, or in Alloy 800 and 690 tubing. 32 refs.

Baum, A.J.; Connor, W.M.; Piskor, S.D.; Stenger, W.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Energy Systems)

1991-06-01

463

Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction.  

PubMed Central

We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 mumol liter-1 day-1. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol greater than 3-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol.

Haggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1990-01-01

464

Zinc homeostasis in the hippocampus of zinc-deficient young adult rats.  

PubMed

On the basis of the evidence of the transient learning impairment of young adult rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks, zinc concentration in the hippocampus was examined in the zinc-deficient rats to understand the mechanism of brain dysfunction in zinc deficiency. Zinc concentration in the hippocampus, as well as that in other brain regions, was not decreased by 4-week zinc deprivation. When Timm's stain, with which histochemically reactive zinc in the presynaptic vesicles is detected, was compared between the control and zinc-deficient rats, the intensity of Timm's stain in the hippocampus was almost the same between them. In the hippocampus, zinc concentration in the synaptosomal fraction was not also decreased by 4-week zinc deprivation, whereas that in the crude nuclear fraction was significantly increased. These results suggest that zinc concentration in the presynaptic vesicles is not decreased in young adults rats by 4-week zinc deprivation. It is likely that zinc-requiring systems in the nucleus are more responsive to zinc deficiency than vesicular zinc. This responsiveness appears to be involved in the transient learning impairment. PMID:15670638

Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Tochigi, Minori; Oku, Naoto

2004-12-19

465

Electrowinning Zinc from Zinc Chloride-Alkali Metal Chloride Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its goal to help maintain an adequate supply of minerals to meet national economic and strategic needs, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is investigating a fused-salt electrolytic procedure for producing zinc metal. A previ...

D. E. Shanks F. P. Haver C. H. Elges M. M. Wong

1979-01-01

466

The characteristic high sulfate content in Brassica oleracea is controlled by the expression and activity of sulfate transporters.  

PubMed

The uptake and distribution of sulfate in BRASSICA OLERACEA, a species characterised by its high sulfate content in root and shoot, are coordinated and adjusted to the sulfur requirement for growth, even at external sulfate concentrations close to the K (m) value of the high-affinity sulfate transporters. Plants were able to grow normally and maintain a high sulfur content when grown at 5 or 10 microM sulfate in the root environment. Abundance of mRNAs for the high affinity sulfate transporters, BolSultr1;1 and BolSultr1;2, were enhanced at sulfate, and this was accompanied with an up to three-fold increase in the sulfate uptake capacity, whereas sulfate, organic sulfur, and thiol contents were only slightly affected. Upon sulfate deprivation, there was a much greater induction of the sulfate transporters, BolSultr1;1, BolSultr1;2, BolSultr1;3, BolSultr2;1, and BolSultr4;1, whilst the sulfate uptake capacity was only increased up to four-fold. Plant growth and shoot to root biomass allocation were affected only upon sulfate-deprivation and not at low external sulfate concentrations. From the current results it is suggested that the internal sulfate concentration may act as a determining factor in the regulation of activity and expression of sulfate transporters, and of shoot to root biomass allocation in B. OLERACEA. PMID:17853365

Koralewska, A; Posthumus, F S; Stuiver, C E E; Buchner, P; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

2007-09-01

467

Effect of Low Sulfate Concentrations on Lactate Oxidation and Isotope Fractionation during Sulfate Reduction by Archaeoglobus fulgidus Strain Z†  

PubMed Central

The effect of low substrate concentrations on the metabolic pathway and sulfur isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was investigated for Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain Z. This archaeon was grown in a chemostat with sulfate concentrations between 0.3 mM and 14 mM at 80°C and with lactate as the limiting substrate. During sulfate reduction, lactate was oxidized to acetate, formate, and CO2. This is the first time that the production of formate has been reported for A. fulgidus. The stoichiometry of the catabolic reaction was strongly dependent on the sulfate concentration. At concentrations of more than 300 ?M, 1 mol of sulfate was reduced during the consumption of 1 mol of lactate, whereas only 0.6 mol of sulfate was consumed per mol of lactate oxidized at a sulfate concentration of 300 ?M. Furthermore, at low sulfate concentrations acetate was the main carbon product, in contrast to the CO2 produced at high concentrations. We suggest different pathways for lactate oxidation by A. fulgidus at high and low sulfate concentrations. At about 300 ?M sulfate both the growth yield and the isotope fractionation were limited by sulfate, whereas the sulfate reduction rate was not limited by sulfate. We suggest that the cell channels more energy for sulfate uptake at sulfate concentrations below 300 to 400 ?M than it does at higher concentrations. This could explain the shift in the metabolic pathway and the reduced growth yield and isotope fractionation at low sulfate levels.

Habicht, Kirsten S.; Salling, Lilian; Thamdrup, Bo; Canfield, Donald E.

2005-01-01

468

Preparation, Characterisation and Thermal Properties of Hydrazinium Magnesium Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrazinium magnesium sulfate, (N2H5)2Mg(SO4)2, has been prepared by dissolving magnesium powder in a solution of ammonium sulfate in hydrazine hydrate, by the reaction of ammonium magnesium sulfate with hydrazine hydrate, and by the cocrystallisation of dihydrazinium sulfate and magnesium sulfate. The product has been characterized by chemical analysis and infrared spectra. Thermal analysis of (N2H5)2Mg(SO4)2 by TG and DTA show

K. C. Patil; S. Govindarajan; H. Manohar

1981-01-01

469