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1

Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Zinc-Enriched Yeast in Rats  

PubMed Central

Zinc-enriched yeast (ZnY) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) are considered zinc (Zn) supplements currently available. The purpose of the investigation was to compare and evaluate pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of ZnY and ZnSO4 in rats. ZnY or ZnSO4 were orally administered to rats at a single dose of 4?mg?Zn/kg and Zn levels in plasma and various tissues were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Maximum plasma concentration values were 3.87 and 2.81??g/mL for ZnY and ZnSO4, respectively. Both ZnY and ZnSO4 were slowly eliminated with a half-life of over 7?h and bone had the highest Zn level in all tissues. Compared to ZnSO4, the relative bioavailability of ZnY was 138.4%, indicating that ZnY had a significantly higher bioavailability than ZnSO4. PMID:25215316

Zhang, Shuangqing; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Ning; Zhang, Haibo; Yao, Juan; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Liegang

2014-01-01

2

Protein energy-malnutrition: does the in vitro zinc sulfate supplementation improve chromosomal damage repair?  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is originated by a cellular imbalance between nutrient/energy supply and body's demand. Induction of genetic damage by PEM was reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic effect of the in vitro zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with PEM. Twenty-four samples from 12 children were analyzed. Anthropometric and biochemical diagnosis was made. For the anthropometric assessment, height-for-age index, weight-for-age index, and weight-for-height index were calculated (WHO, 2005). Micronutrient status was evaluated. A survey for assessed previous exposure to potentially genotoxic agents was applied. Results were statistically evaluated using paired sample t test and ? (2) test. Each sample was fractionated and cultured in two separate flasks to performed two treatments. One was added with 180 ?g/dl of ZnSO4 (PEMs/ZnSO4) and the other remains non-supplemented (PEMs). Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage were assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). All participants have at least one type of malnutrition and none have anemia, nor iron, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency. All PEMs/ZnSO4 samples have a significant reduction in the micronucleus (MNi) frequency compared with PEMs (t?=?6.25685; p?zinc sulfate supplementation. PMID:25262017

Padula, Gisel; González, Horacio F; Varea, Ana; Seoane, Analía I

2014-12-01

3

In vitro Study of Percutaneous Absorption, Cutaneous Bioavailability and Bioequivalence of Zinc and Copper from Five Topical Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous absorption and cutaneous bioavailability of zinc and copper from zinc 2-pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate (ZnPC), zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), copper 2-pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate (CuPC) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were compared using 5 formulations (3 emulsions and 2 ointments) that were applied topically on human skin in vitro. After application for 72 h, percutaneous absorption of zinc from ointments containing ZnO

F. Pirot; J. Millet; Y. N. Kalia; Ph. Humbert

1996-01-01

4

Zinc-Induced Changes in Growth Characters, Foliar Properties, and Zn-Accumulation Capacity of Pigeon Pea at Different Stages of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of zinc (Zn) [50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ? g zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)\\/g of soil] reduced the foliage and the total growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Huth]. The root-shoot length ratio, varying little with age, was relatively low in the treated plants. Decrease in dry weights of stem and root was more pronounced in the late

Tarannum Khudsar; Anjum Arshi; Tariq O. Siddiqi; Mahmooduzzafar; Muhammad Iqbal

2008-01-01

5

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2014-07-01

6

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2011-07-01

7

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2012-07-01

8

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2013-07-01

9

A study of the effects of ammonium salts on chemical bath deposited zinc sulde thin lms  

E-print Network

hepta- hydrate (ZnSO4´7H2O), ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4), thiourea (SC(NH2)2), 14.3 N ammonium hydroxideA study of the effects of ammonium salts on chemical bath deposited zinc sul®de thin ®lms I mechanisms of ZnS thin ®lms using an aqueous medium containing an ammonium salt. At room temperature

Chow, Lee

10

Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption study of VO2+-doped sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of VO2+ doped in sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate (Na2Zn(SO4)2·4H2O) have been carried out at room temperature. The results show the presence of three magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites with different populations. The VO2+ impurity ions take up substitutional positions in the host lattice replacing Zn2+ ions. The angular variation of EPR spectra in three mutually orthogonal planes, bc, a*c and ba*, are used to determine the spin-Hamiltonian parameters. The optical absorption spectrum of VO2+ ions doped in the crystal lattice is also recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 325-1100 nm. This is utilized to study the energy level structure of the VO2+ ion. By correlating the EPR and optical data, various molecular orbital coefficients of the VO2+ ion with its ligands are evaluated and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

Kripal, Ram; Shukla, Santwana

2012-01-01

11

21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine...following specifications: Zinc content—19 to 22 percent...46 to 50 percent. Cadmium—not more than 0.05 part...tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec....

2010-04-01

12

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2013-04-01

13

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2012-04-01

14

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2011-04-01

15

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2012-04-01

16

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.155 Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone...ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B...

2011-04-01

17

21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate... § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate...each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin, and...

2013-04-01

18

Evaluation of the toxicity of zinc in the rat olfactory neuronal cell line, Odora.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) has long been touted as a panacea for common cold. Recently, there has been some controversy over whether an intranasal (IN) zinc gluconate gel, purported to fight colds, causes anosmia, or loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Previous evidence has shown that IN zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solutions can cause anosmia in humans as well as significant damage to the olfactory epithelium in rodents. Using an in vitro olfactory neuron model (the rat Odora cell line), we tested the hypothesis that Zn toxicity was caused by inhibition of the hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1(HVCN1), leading to acidosis and apoptotic cell death. Following studies to characterize the toxicity of zinc gluconate and ZnSO4, Odora cells were grown on coverslips and loaded with 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester to measure intracellular pH in the presence and absence of Zn salts. While we found that HVCN1 is not functional in Odora cells, we found that olfactory neurons in vitro maintain their intracellular pH through a sodium/proton exchanger, specifically the sodium proton antiporter 1. ZnSO4, at nontoxic levels, had no impact on intracellular pH after acute exposure or after 24 h of incubation with the cells. In conclusion, Zn toxicity is not mediated through an acidification of intracellular pH in olfactory neurons in vitro. PMID:24980442

Hsieh, H; Amlal, H; Genter, Mb

2015-03-01

19

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOEpatents

A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521); Lawson, Daniel B. (925 Putnam Dr., Lockport, IL 60441)

1994-01-01

20

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOEpatents

A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

1994-02-15

21

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

22

Comparative pharmacokinetics of (/sup 65/Zn)zinc sulfate and (/sup 65/Zn)zinc pantothenate injected intravenously in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

The pharmacokinetics of zinc sulfate were compared with those of a new zinc salt, pantothenate, in rabbits. Each salt was administered at a dosage of 3.3 microCi of zinc-65/kg of body weight. The measured pharmacokinetics of the two compounds responded to a two-compartment open model. The urinary elimination of the two salts was similar, as was their localization in the skin and fur, but zinc pantothenate was fixed by the liver to a lesser extent than was zinc sulfate.

Guillard, O.; Courtois, P.; Murai, P.; Ducassou, D.; Reiss, D.

1984-11-01

23

The influence of sulfur supplementation (methionine and sulfate) on the zinc availability  

E-print Network

Short note The influence of sulfur supplementation (methionine and sulfate) on the zinc availability in lambs. Increasing the sulfur level with methionine and sulfate, of such a diet, enhances zinc / availability / sulfur aminoacid / sheep Résumé ― Influence de la supplémentation en soufre (méthionine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

EPR and optical absorption of Cr3 ions in ternary K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of Cr3+ ions doped ternary K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses has been studied at different temperatures. The low field spectral resonance lines of the EPR spectra of Cr3+ ions in K2SO4-Na2SO4-ZnSO4 glasses are attributed to isolated Cr3+ ions whereas the high field spectral resonance line is attributed to exchange-coupled pairs of Cr3+ ions. The optical absorption spectrum of Cr3+ ions doped glass shows two broad bands characteristic of Cr3+ ions in octahedral symmetry. From the optical spectrum, the crystal field parameter (Dq) and the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the EPR and optical spectral data, it is concluded that the site symmetry arround Cr3+ ions is octahedral and the nature of bonding is predominantly covalent in nature.

Kumar, R. Rama; Reddy, B. C. Venkata

25

Effect of the ratio of zinc amino acid complex to zinc sulfate on the performance of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Multiparous (n=70) and primiparous (n=66) Holstein cows were balanced by 305-d previous mature-equivalent milk yield and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to evaluate the ratio of zinc sulfate to zinc amino acid complex (CZ) in pre- and postpartum Holstein cows fed diets containing 75 mg of added zinc/kg. Treatments were (1) 75 mg of supplemental zinc/kg of dry matter (DM) provided entirely as zinc sulfate (0-CZ); (2) 0-CZ diet, except 33.3 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 15.5mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet were replaced by CZ from Availa-Zn (16-CZ; Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie MN); and (3) 0-CZ diet, except 66.6 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 40.0 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet was replaced by Availa-Zn (40-CZ). Cows were housed at the Iowa State University Dairy Farm and were individually offered a total mixed ration containing dietary treatments beginning at 28 ± 15 d before expected calving date until 250 d in milk. Relative to 0-CZ, multiparous cows (but not primiparous) fed CZ (16-CZ or 40-CZ) had increased (20%) colostrum IgG concentrations. Prepartum DM intake (DMI) was decreased with CZ supplementation. Postpartum DMI was decreased in cows fed CZ, whereas milk yield (MY) was increased in the 40-CZ-fed cows relative to those fed both 0-CZ and 16-CZ. Feed efficiency increased linearly when measured as MY/DMI, 3.5% fat-corrected MY/DMI, and solids-corrected MY/DMI. Regardless of level, feeding CZ decreased services per conception. Feeding 16-CZ decreased milk fat concentration and feeding CZ linearly increased milk urea nitrogen concentration. In summary, supplementing zinc as a mixture of CZ and zinc sulfate, as opposed to supplementing only zinc sulfate, has beneficial effects on production parameters in dairy cows, with those benefits becoming more apparent as the ratio of CZ to zinc sulfate increases. PMID:24819137

Nayeri, A; Upah, N C; Sucu, E; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; DeFrain, J M; Gorden, P J; Baumgard, L H

2014-07-01

26

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

27

ZINC ENHANCES SUGAR BEET EMERGENCE AND YIELD ON A CALCAREOUS SOIL WITH MARGINAL ZINC AVAILABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc fertilization by broadcast, foliar, and seed-row application methods were evaluated as a means to enhance sugar beet (Beta vulagaris L.) production on a calcareous soil with marginal (0.5 to 1.0 ppm) Zn availability. Seed-row-applied ZnSO4 (6 lb ZnSO4/acre, 2 lb Zn/acre) resulted in the most co...

28

Photometric determination of aluminum sulfate in a zinc-aluminum-containing bath in viscose manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procecure has been developed for the photometric determination of the aluminum sulfate content of a mixed zinc-aluminum-containing precipitation bath in viscose manufacturing, using the bifunctional organic reagent chromazo-BRZ.

I. P. Smirnov

1990-01-01

29

Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and

Otto R. Stein; Deborah J. Borden-Stewart; Paul B. Hook; Warren L. Jones

2007-01-01

30

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07

31

Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

2007-08-01

32

Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron  

PubMed Central

Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

2013-01-01

33

Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

2014-08-15

34

Kinetic Studies of Zinc Extraction from Sulfate Solutions with bis(2?Ethylhexyl)thiophosphoric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of the kinetics of zinc extraction from sulfate media with bis(2?ethylhexyl)thiophosphoric acid (D2EHTPA). A cell with a constant interfacial area and with vibrational mixing was used to measure the initial extraction and initial stripping rates under several operating conditions. The results obtained suggest that the extraction process can be described by the reaction mechanism scheme

M. Teresa A. Reis; Jorge M. R. Carvalho

2005-01-01

35

The Role of Zinc Sulfate in Acute Bronchiolitis in Patients Aged 2 to 23 Months  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluating the effect of zinc sulfate in improving the clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis in children younger than 2 years. Methods This was a double blind pilot trial on 50 patients aged 2 to 23 months at Ghaem and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad from January 2008 to March 2009. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a case group received oral zinc sulfate and to the control group was given placebo. Findings Mean age of case group was 168.0±108.6 days and control group 169.2±90.4 days (P=0.98) with male predominance in both groups. At first there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in reducing the symptoms. But 24 hours after treating, improvement of some important manifestations including tachypnea, subcostal and intercostal retraction, wheezing and cyanosis revealed statistically significant difference in control group in comparison with case group (P=0.04). Conclusion Zinc sulfate has no benefit in improving clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis. PMID:23056793

Heydarian, Farhad; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Daluee, Mohammadkhaje; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hematian, Mohammadnasir

2011-01-01

36

Simultaneous Determination of Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury and Nickel in Zinc Sulfate Plant Electrolyte Using Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical and Spectrophotometric Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current efficiency (cost) of electrolytic production of high purity metallic zinc from zinc sulfate plant electrolyte is critically dependent on the concentration of a number of trace elements. The matrix, containing a very large concentration excess of zinc sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid presents difficulties for determining low concentrations of other metals with many analytical methods. In this work

A. M. Bond; G. G. Wallace

1983-01-01

37

Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Twelve Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Their Response to Various Zinc Concentration  

PubMed Central

Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. Materials and Methods: To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30?C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. Results: A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal. PMID:25147702

Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

2014-01-01

38

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. Most toxicological studies employ high levels of zinc. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation of environmentally relevant levels of zinc would cause cardiac changes in healthy rats. To address this, healthy male WKY rats (12 weeks age) were exposed via nose only inhalation to filtered air or 10, 30 or 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of aerosolized zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 5 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. Necropsies occurred 48 h after the last exposure to ensure effects were due to chronic exposure rather than the last exposure. No significant changes were observed in neutrophil or macrophage count, total lavageable cells, or enzyme activity levels (lactate dehydrogenase, n-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, indicating minimal pulmonary effect. In the heart, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity decreased, while mitochondrial ferritin levels increased and succinate dehydrogenase activity decreased, suggesting a mitochondria-specific effect. Although no cardiac pathology was seen, cardiac gene array analysis indicated small changes in genes involved in cell signaling, a pattern concordant with known zinc effects. These data indicate that inhalation of zinc at environmentally relevant levels induces cardiac effects. While changes are small in healthy rats, these may be especially relevant in individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular disease.

Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)], E-mail: wallenborn.grace@epa.gov; Evansky, Paul [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Vallanat, Beena [Experimental Carcinogen Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy H.; Gottipolu, Reddy R. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2008-10-01

39

Comparison of the effect of ginger and zinc sulfate on primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled randomized trial.  

PubMed

Primary dysmenorrhea is common among young women and results in their incapacitation; it can be accompanied by various symptoms that can disrupt their lives. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effect of ginger, zinc sulfate, and placebo on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in young women. One hundred and fifty high school students were recruited. The participants were divided into three groups. The first group received ginger capsules, the second group received zinc sulfate capsules, and the third group received placebo capsules. All participants took the medications for four days, from the day before the commencement of menstruation to the third day of their menstrual bleeding. The severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed every 24 hours by the pain visual analog scale. The severity of pain was significantly different between, before, and after the intervention in both the ginger and the zinc sulfate groups (p < .001). Compared with the placebo receiving group, participants receiving ginger and zinc sulfate reported more alleviation of pain during the intervention (p < .05). Ginger and zinc sulfate had similar positive effects on the improvement of primary dysmenorrheal pain in young women. PMID:24559600

Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Alavinia, Mohammad; Asili, Javad

2014-12-01

40

Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide is alleviated by zinc-mediated expression of antioxidant genes.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich zinc binding proteins that are powerful antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the interaction between zinc, MTs, and other components of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells. Cells were preincubated with zinc and then exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Both zinc pretreatment and SNP exposure separately induced transcription of MT genes (MT1A, MT2A, MT1E, MT1X), as measured using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription (RT). Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) followed by SNP exposure caused MT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA levels to increase more than in cells only exposed to SNP. However, when cells were incubated with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethyl-enediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator, the stimulation of MT transcription by SNP was blocked, suggesting that SNP-induced upregulation of these genes is zinc-dependent. Human glutathione-S-transferase (hGSTA1) and G6PD mRNA levels in the cells treated with 5 microM TPEN decreased. Additionally, the induction of MT by SNP after zinc pretreatment appears to be mediated by metal-activated transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is induced by labile zinc in the cytosol. SNP cytotoxicity was inhibited by preincubation with zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that NO plays an important role in regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis and that NO-mediated release of protein-bound Zn2+ may be an important signal in antioxidant defense. PMID:17018880

Chung, Mi Ja; Hogstrand, Christer; Lee, Sung-Joon

2006-10-01

41

Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein  

PubMed Central

The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-enzymes with near-saturating amounts of zinc as ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2, Zn(NO3)2, or zinc-thionein resulted in reactivation of the apo-enzymes. With apo-aldolase zinc-thionein gave 100% reactivation within 30min. Reactivation by ZnSO4 and Zn(CH3CO2)2 was complete and instantaneous. Zinc-thionein was somewhat better than Zn(NO3)2 in completely reactivating apo-thermolysin. With apo-(alkaline phosphatase) 43% reactivation was obtained with Zn(CH3CO2)2 and 18% with zinc-thionein. With apo-(carbonic anhydrase) zinc-thionein was better than ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2, with a maximal reactivation of 54%. That zinc was really being transferred from zinc-thionein to apo-(carbonic anhydrase) was shown by the fact that 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline had minimal effects on the reactivation of apo-(carbonic anhydrase) when added after the incubation {[apo-(carbonic anhydrase)+zinc thionein]+chelator}, but inhibited reactivation when added before the incubation {apo-(carbonic anhydrase)+[zinc-thionein+chelator]}. These observations support the idea that zinc-thionein can function in zinc homeostasis as a reservoir of zinc, releasing the metal to zinc-requiring metalloenzymes according to need. PMID:6772158

Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

1980-01-01

42

Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil.  

PubMed

The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

2015-01-01

43

Dielectric properties and phase transition of zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric properties and the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition of zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate (ZTS) single crystal have been investigated in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. In the lower frequency region the real part of dielectric permittivity of the ZTS crystal shows a sudden increase at 323 K. Prominent first-order ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition at 323 K has been observed in the plot of dielectric permittivity versus temperature at different frequencies. It has been observed that the phase transition occurs in ZTS crystal with a low degree of disorder. Surprisingly, it has been observed for ZTS that the value of the dielectric permittivity is only about 10 at high frequencies and is found to increase to 50 at low frequencies. Dielectric loss has higher values in the paraelectric region.

Moitra, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kar, T.; Ghosh, A.

2008-09-01

44

Effect of ionic liquid additive [BMIM]HSO 4 on zinc electrodeposition from impurity-containing sulfate electrolyte. Part I: current efficiency, surface morphology, and crystal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ionic liquid additive 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate-[BMIM]HSO4 on the current efficiency (CE), surface morphology, and crystallographic orientations during zinc electrodeposition from\\u000a acidic sulfate solutions containing some common impurities such as copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, and lead were investigated.\\u000a The results indicated that all the metallic impurities studied exerted a deleterious effect on the zinc electrodeposition\\u000a process by decreasing

Qibo Zhang; Yixin Hua

2011-01-01

45

Trace Level Separation of Zinc Sulfate and Lead Nitrate from Toxic Effluent Streams by Reverse Osmosis Modular Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of trace toxic metallic constituents from effluent streams by membrane processes has been under investigation in our laboratory. Removal of zinc sulfate and lead nitrate in low concentration, especially in the millimolar range, using cellulose acetate and TFC-polyamide membranes assembled in plate-n-frame modules is reported in this paper. Separation data are presented as a function of concentration and pressure

M. S. Hanra; V. Ramachandhran

1996-01-01

46

Influence of temperature on the optical properties of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal of zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) was synthesized and grown by the slow evaporation technique at 315 K. The effect of temperature on the optical properties of ZTS crystal was studied in the temperature range 293-338 K. This range involves the first-order phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase (323 K). At room temperature (293 K), the optical transmittance (T) has high values in the completely visible wavelength range. The cut off wavelength equals to 278.5 nm at room temperature. By increasing temperature, the optical transmittance decreases, however the cut off shifts to higher wavelengths. These changes have different rates in the two phases (ferroelectric and paraelectric). Analysis reveals that the type of transition is the direct allowed one. The optical energy gap (Eg) has the value of 3.89 eV at room temperature. This value decreases linearly with increasing temperature by different rates in the two phases. In the region of the absorption edge, the absorption coefficient obeys Urbach's rule, and Urbach parameters were calculated. The Urbach tail energy (Ee), which equals to 1.024 eV at room temperature, increases linearly with increasing temperature. This change has different rates in the two phases. At room temperature, the steepness parameter (?) has the value of 24.697 × 10-3. It decreases linearly with increasing [1/(Temp.)2] by different rates in the two phases. For all studied parameters, the temperature dependence relations change considerably while passing through 323 K. This anomalous behavior confirms that the transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase occurs at this temperature.

Abdulwahab, A. M.

2012-12-01

47

The Mineralogy and Microstructure of Sedimentary Zinc Sulfides Formed by Bacterial Sulfate Reduction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is considered to be the predominant mechanism for low-temperature conversion of sulfate to sulfide [1] and is inferred to have existed since the early Proterozoic [2, 3]. Because BSR leads to precipitation of abundant metal sulfide minerals, some ancient, low-temperature sedimentary ore deposits are now hypothesized to have biogenic origins [4]. We have studied zinc sulfide minerals produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) living in anoxic, 8 oC waters of a flooded mine near Tennyson, Wisconsin [5]. Our objectives were to characterize the morphology, mineralogy, and microstructure of the biominerals and to look for potential biosignatures. Scanning electron microscope images from cryofixed, freeze-fractured samples and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images from ultramicrotomed samples show a close association between cells and spherical aggregates of ZnS. However, SRB cells are generally not coated by ZnS, implying that the particles form and aggregate in solution after sulfide is expelled from the cell. High-resolution TEM images reveal that the few-micron diameter spheres are comprised of about a billion ZnS particles that are typically 1.5-5 nm in diameter. More coarsely crystalline regions appear to have grown via oriented aggregation of smaller nanoparticles. In some cases, orientation gives rise to twinning on \\{111\\} sphalerite. ZnS particles are primarily sphalerite, but domains of wurtzite are not uncommon. Even some of the smallest particles have periodic structure and well-defined morphologies. Reasons for the formation of wurtzite remain unclear, but may be related to the sulfide concentration during aggregation of multinuclear clusters [6] or size-dependent phase stability. In addition, the ZnS spheres are not of uniform density throughout, but contain concentric zones separated from each other by 5-7 nm-wide (average) regions of low particle density. The number of zones per sphere is variable, as is the width of each concentric layer. The existence of these zones implies periodic fluctuations of some form, possibly correlated to nutrient availability, changes in redox conditions within the biofilm, or both. Qualitatively, some spheres located within the same region of the biofilm display similar concentric patterns, indicating that fluctuations are coordinated over micron-scale regions. These results reveal a number of mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of biogenic ZnS that constitute potential biosignatures. These characteristics may be present and recognizable in ancient sedimentary ZnS deposits and would support a nanocrystalline, low-temperature, biogenic origin. References: [1] Trudinger et al. (1985) Can J. Earth Sci. 22, 1910-1918; [2] Ohmoto et al. (1993) Science 262, 555-557; [3] Wagner et al. (1998) J. Bacteriol. 180, 2975-2982; [4] Anderson et al. (2001) Econ.Geol. 96, 885-890; [5] Labrenz et al. (2000) Science 290, 1744-1747; [6] Luther et al. (1999) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63, 3159-3169.

Moreau, J. W.; Webb, R. I.; Banfield, J. F.

2001-12-01

48

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

49

SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF ZINC SULFATE CAUSES CARDIAC CHANGES IN HEALTHY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

50

Influence of glycine on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate (ZTS) single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate (ZTS) is promising semi organic nonlinear material in the field of photonics and optoelectronics. In present investigation amino acid glycine was added in molar percent in under saturated ZTS solution to enhance second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. Effect of glycine on SHG efficiency has been studied by Kurtz and Perry powder test. The enhancement of SHG for 1 mol% glycine doped ZTS is large as compared to other molar concentration. Hence, the 1 mol% glycine doped zinc (tris) thiourea sulfate single crystal was grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was subjected for various characterizations. FTIR studies have been carried out to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. The effect of glycine on transmittance of grown crystal was studied by UV-visible study. The grown crystal was subjected to powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. A thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study has also been carried out.

Dhumane, N. R.; Hussaini, S. S.; Dongre, V. G.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

2008-10-01

51

Toxicity and transcriptomic analysis in Hyalella azteca suggests increased exposure and susceptibility of epibenthic organisms to zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment surface, is likely to have a high potential exposure. Here we show that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs are more toxic to H. azteca compared with the corresponding metal ion, Zn(2+). Dissolution of ZnO NPs contributes about 50% of the Zn measured in the ZnO NP suspensions, and cannot account for the toxicity of these particles to H. azteca. However, gene expression analysis is unable to distinguish between the ZnO NP exposures and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) exposures at equitoxic concentrations. These results lead us to hypothesize that ZnO NPs provide an enhanced exposure route for Zn(2+) uptake into H. azteca, and possibly other sediment dwelling organisms. Our study supports the prediction that sediment dwelling organisms are highly susceptible to the effects of ZnO NPs and should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanomaterials. PMID:23889737

Poynton, Helen C; Lazorchak, James M; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Blalock, Bonnie; Smith, Mark E; Struewing, Katherine; Unrine, Jason; Roose, Deborah

2013-08-20

52

Oral Zinc Sulphate Supplementation for Six Months in SCA2 Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid\\u000a (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily\\u000a either 50 mg ZnSO4 or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during\\u000a 6 months. Outcome measures included the

Luis Velázquez-Pérez; Jorge Rodríguez-Chanfrau; Julio Cesar García-Rodríguez; Gilberto Sánchez-Cruz; Raúl Aguilera-Rodríguez; Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada; Julio Cesar Rodríguez-Díaz; Nalia Canales-Ochoa; Dennis Almaguer Gotay; Luis E. Almaguer Mederos; José M. Laffita Mesa; Marlene Porto-Verdecia; Consuelo González Triana; Noemí Rodríguez Pupo; Idania Hidalgo Batista; Orestes D. López-Hernandez; Iverlis Díaz Polanco; Arelis Jayme Novas

53

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... they may not get enough zinc. People with sickle cell disease because they might need more zinc. ... Children in developing countries often die from diarrhea. Studies show that zinc dietary supplements help reduce the ...

54

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

2014-01-01

55

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

56

Genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a highly copper resistant, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms. PMID:22072648

Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

2011-12-01

57

‘On-farm’ seed priming with zinc sulphate solution—A cost-effective way to increase the maize yields of resource-poor farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of adding zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) to maize (Zea mays L.) growing on calcareous, Zn deficient soils in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan was assessed in vitro, on-station and in on-farm trials. The zinc sulphate was added either as a powder to the soil or by soaking seeds for 16h in dilute solutions prior to sowing. For

D. Harris; A. Rashid; G. Miraj; M. Arif; H. Shah

2007-01-01

58

‘On-farm’ seed priming with zinc in chickpea and wheat in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of on-station trials was implemented between 2002 and 2006 to assess the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) to zinc (Zn) added by soaking seeds (priming) in solutions of ZnSO4 before sowing. Wheat seed was primed for 10 h in 0.3% Zn and chickpea for 6 h in 0.05% Zn. Seed treatments increased the\\u000a seed concentration

David Harris; Abdul Rashid; Ghazal Miraj; Mohammed Arif; Mohammed Yunas

2008-01-01

59

Influence of arsenic, antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of an electrochemical study, the influence of arsenic, antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning\\u000a process, the associated kinetic equations and parameters, and the polarization mechanism have been studied. The results show\\u000a that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4\\/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity

XiaoHua Yu; Gang Xie; RongXing Li; YongGang Li; Ying Lu

2010-01-01

60

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg?1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg?1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

2011-01-01

61

EXTRACTION OF ZINC(II) WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID FROM PERCHLORATE AND SULFATE MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Zn(II) between solutions of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in nonpolar diluents and aqueous sulfate and perchlorate solutions was studied. The type, composition and stability of complexes formed in the system were sought in a mathematical treatment of the distribution data. At initially ˜ 10 M in the aqueous phase, Zn(II) is extracted as the complex ZnA2.2HA. A

Michael Kunzmann; Zdenek Kolarik

1992-01-01

62

Sulfate-based anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles for efficient occlusion within zinc oxide.  

PubMed

Occlusion of copolymer particles within inorganic crystalline hosts not only provides a model for understanding the crystallisation process, but also may offer a direct route for the preparation of novel nanocomposite materials with emergent properties. In the present paper, a series of new well-defined anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles are synthesised by polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) aqueous emulsion polymerisation and then evaluated as crystal habit modifiers for the in situ formation of ZnO in aqueous solution. Systematic studies indicate that both the chemical nature (i.e. whether sulfate-based or carboxylate-based) and the mean degree of polymerisation (DP) of the anionic stabiliser block play vital roles in determining the crystal morphology. In particular, sulfate-functionalised nanoparticles are efficiently incorporated within the ZnO crystals whereas carboxylate-functionalised nanoparticles are excluded, thus anionic character is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successful occlusion. Moreover, the extent of nanoparticle occlusion within the ZnO phase can be as high as 23% by mass depending on the sulfate-based nanoparticle concentration. The optical properties, chemical composition and crystal structure of the resulting nanocomposite crystals are evaluated and an occlusion mechanism is proposed based on the observed evolution of the ZnO morphology in the presence of sulfate-based anionic nanoparticles. Finally, controlled deposition of a 5 nm gold sol onto porous ZnO particles (produced after calcination of the organic nanoparticles) significantly enhances the rate of photocatalytic decomposition of a model rhodamine B dye on exposure to a relatively weak UV source. PMID:25799462

Ning, Y; Fielding, L A; Andrews, T S; Growney, D J; Armes, S P

2015-04-01

63

Influence of Dietary Zinc and Copper on Apparent Mineral Retention and Serum Biochemical Indicators in Young Male Mink (Mustela vison).  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted in a 3?×?3 (Cu?×?Zn) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of dietary copper and zinc on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink on a corn-fish meal based diet. Animals were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from copper sulfate (CuSO4) and Zn from zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Supplemental Cu levels were 0, 15, and 30 mg/kg copper, respectively, while supplemental Zn levels were 0, 150, and 300 mg/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. Copper excretion, retention, and digestibility were influenced by dietary copper (P?zinc-copper interaction. Copper digestibility and retention were substantially reduced when zinc was added to the low copper diet but showed little change with zinc supplementation of the high copper diet. Both plasma Cu and plasma Zn were influenced by dietary level of the respective mineral (P?zinc; however, high Zn in the diet reduced plasma Cu concentrations. There was a zinc-copper interaction for plasma Cu (P?=?0.053). Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) activity tended to be influenced by dietary zinc (P?=?0.065) and dietary copper (P?=?0.035). Dietary copper had a significant effect on ceruloplasmin (CER) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (P?

Wu, Xuezhuang; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Jungang; Wan, Chunmeng; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

2015-05-01

64

Effects of exogenous zinc on cell cycle, apoptosis and viability of MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cells.  

PubMed

As a non-toxic metal to humans, zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability and mitosis. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is crucial for normal cellular functioning, is maintained by various protein families including ZnT (zinc transporter/SLC30A) and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like proteins/SLC39A) that decrease and increase cytosolic zinc availability, respectively. In this study, we investigated the influences of a specific concentration range of ZnSO4 on cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell viability by MTT method in MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cell lines. Fluorescent sensors NBD-TPEA and the counterstain for nuclei Hoechst 33342 were used to stain the treated cells for observing the localisation and amount of Zn(2+) via laser scanning confocal microscope. It was found that the influence manners of ZnSO4 on cell cycle, apoptosis and cell viability in various cell lines were different and corresponding to the changes of Zn(2+) content of the three cell lines, respectively. The significant increase on intracelluar zinc content of MDAMB231 cells resulted in cell death, G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptotic fraction. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of ZnT and ZIP families in the three cell lines, when treated with high concentration of ZnSO4, increased and decreased corresponding to their functions, respectively. PMID:23839533

Wang, Yan-hong; Li, Ke-jin; Mao, Li; Hu, Xin; Zhao, Wen-jie; Hu, An; Lian, Hong-zhen; Zheng, Wei-juan

2013-09-01

65

The effect of metallic salt additives on direct sulfation of calcium carbonate and on decomposition of sulfated samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different types of metallic salt additives (Na2CO3, Li2CO3, K2CO3, Na2SO4, NaF, NaCl, ZnSO4, Ca(NO3)2, Cs2CO3 and Al2(SO4)3) on direct sulfation of calcium carbonate is investigated. The experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under isothermal conditions at temperatures between 700 and 875°C. An ultrapure calcium carbonate sample with a mean size of 17 ?m and a

A. B Fuertes; M. J Fernandez

1996-01-01

66

Zinc Suppresses Apoptosis of U937 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide through an Increase of the Bcl2\\/Bax Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of human premonocytic U937 cells with 500?M H2O2for 1h followed by 4h incubation in fresh medium to allow the cells to execute apoptotic processes caused DNA fragmentation. However, in the presence of 1mM ZnSO4throughout the incubation, DNA ladder formation was markedly inhibited. Hydrogen peroxide treatment for 1h with or without zinc increased both Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. However, only

Yukiyo Fukamachi; Yuji Karasaki; Tsutomu Sugiura; Hideaki Itoh; Tetsuya Abe; Kaori Yamamura; Ken Higashi

1998-01-01

67

Removal of Sulfate, Zinc, and Lead from Alkaline Mine Wastewater Using Pilot-scale Surface-Flow Wetlands at Tara Mines, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive treatment systems have primarily been used at abandoned mines to increase pH and remove metals from the drainage water. Two pilot-scale treatment wetlands were constructed and monitored at an active lead\\/zinc mine (Tara Mines) in Ireland to treat alkaline mine water with elevated sulfate and metal levels. Each system comprised three in-series surface-flow cells that contained spent mushroom compost

Aisling D. O’Sullivan; Declan A. Murray; Marinus L. Otte

2004-01-01

68

Growth and Characterization of Pure and Cd-Doped Zinc Tris-Thiourea Sulfate (ZTS) Single Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure and Cd-doped zinc tris-thiourea sulfate (ZTS) were grown for frequency conversion applications by a low temperature solution growth method, allowing slow evaporation of the water solvent at a constant temperature. The solubility of ZTS was found to increase with the concentration of Cd in the aqueous solution. The optical transparency was found to increase in the Cd-doped crystals as compared to that in the undoped crystals. The doping of Cd was confirmed quantitatively by the atomic absorption spectroscopy and qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the powder x-ray diffraction study, it was found that the lattice constants (a, b and c) decrease with the concentration of Cd in ZTS, but the change in the crystal symmetry and space group has not been reported. A?change in growth habit of Cd-doped crystals has been observed. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis was employed to learn the thermal stability of the grown crystals, and 2 mol% Cd-doped ZTS crystal was found to thermally stable up to 230 °C. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement reveals improvement in the SHG efficiency, as 4 mol% Cd-doped ZTS crystal has 1.36 times more SHG efficiency as compared to the pure ZTS crystal.

Muley, G. G.

2014-02-01

69

Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

2012-10-01

70

The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.  

PubMed

Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

2015-01-01

71

The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage  

PubMed Central

Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

2015-01-01

72

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

73

Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe < CdSe/ZnS or InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves. PMID:23912858

Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

2013-10-01

74

Solar Metal Sulfate-Ammonia Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two classes of hybrid/thermochemical water splitting processes for the production of hydrogen and oxygen have been proposed based on (1) metal sulfate-ammonia cycles (2) metal pyrosulfate-ammonia cycles. Methods and systems for a metal sulfate MSO.sub.4--NH3 cycle for producing H2 and O2 from a closed system including feeding an aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 solution into a photoctalytic reactor to oxidize the aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 into aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 and reduce water to hydrogen, mixing the resulting aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 with metal oxide (e.g. ZnO) to form a slurry, heating the slurry of aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 and ZnO(s) in the low temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of NH3 and H2O and solid ZnSO4(s), heating solid ZnSO4 at a high temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 and solid product ZnO, mixing the gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with an NH3 and H2O stream in an absorber to form aqueous (NH4)(2)SO3 solution and separate O2 for aqueous solution, recycling the resultant solution back to the photoreactor and sending ZnO to mix with aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 solution to close the water splitting cycle wherein gaseous H2 and O2 are the only products output from the closed ZnSO4--NH3 cycle.

Huang, Cunping (Inventor); T-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

2014-01-01

75

Effects of retinoic acid and zinc on the treatment of caustic esophageal burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  An experimental study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of an anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and an antioxidant agent zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) in the prevention of stricture after caustic esophageal burn in rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Esophageal burn was induced using 50% NaOH. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: group A (sham; n = 8), group B (control;

Nergul Corduk; Ugur Koltuksuz; Nese Call?-Demirkan; Simin Rota; Gulcin Abban; Akile Sarioglu-Buke

2010-01-01

76

Effects of zinc and nickel salts in intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable amounts of zinc and nickel salts, such as ZnSO4·7H2O and NiSO4·6H2O, have been incorporated into blends of polypropylene (PP)\\/ammonium polyphosphate (APP)\\/dipentaerythritol (DPER) with the aim of studying their effect on intumescent flame retardance (IFR). The PP\\/IFR\\/salt composites have been prepared using a twin-screw extruder, and their IFR behaviours have been evaluated through limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests

Na Wu; Chao Ding; Rongjie Yang

2010-01-01

77

Clonal differences in copper and zinc tolerance of birch in metal-supplemented soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal tolerance of a range of birch clones (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) originating from metal-contaminated sites in England, Wales, Belgium and Finland were tested in soils supplemented with several concentrations of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn) (500, 2000, 5000 mg kg?1 dry wt. soil of CuSO4·5H2O or ZnSO4·7H2O) for 4 months and with sub-toxic metal supplements (500 mg CuSO4,

P Kopponen; M Utriainen; K Lukkari; S Suntioinen; L Kärenlampi; S Kärenlampi

2001-01-01

78

USING RESPOROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposed novel method for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) waste uses biologically-generated hydrogen sulfide to precipitate the metals in AMD (principally zinc, iron, aluminum, copper and manganese in the Berkeley Pit). The solids are sequentially removed via settling. ...

79

USING RESPIROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

A respirometric method has been developed to measure hydrogen utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). One application of this method has been to test inhibitory metals effects on the SRB culture used in a novel acid mine drainage treatment technology. As a control param...

80

Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal-Thiourea urea zinc sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nonlinear optical crystal thiourea urea zinc sulfate (TUZS) has been grown by slow evaporation technique in equimolar ratio. Solubility and metastable zone width measurements have been determined for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal system belongs to orthorhombic with cell parameters a = 7.78 Å, b = 11.15 Å and c = 15.47 Å. The sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder XRD pattern confirm the crystalline nature of the TUZS compound. The grown mechanism and surface features were investigated by optical microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of zinc in the grown crystal was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy and EDAX analysis. The compound has been confirmed by 1H NMR, mass and FTIR spectral studies. The transmittance spectrum of TUZS has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient K, reflectance R, as functions of photon energy. The optical band gap of TUZS is 4.046 eV. The SHG efficiency has been tested by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and KDP sample has been used as a standard reference material.

Rao, Redrothu Hanumantha; Kalainathan, S.

2012-11-01

81

Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive {>=}2,000 cGy of external beam RT to {>=}30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. {>=}6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx.

Halyard, Michele Y. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Jatoi, Aminah [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: Jatoi.aminah@mayo.edu; Sloan, Jeff A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bearden, James D. [Upstate Carolina CCOP, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Vora, Sujay A. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Atherton, Pamela J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Perez, Edith A. [Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Soori, Gammi [Missouri Valley Consortium, Omaha, NB (United States); Zalduendo, Anthony C. [Illinois Oncology Research Consortium, Omaha, NB (United States); Zhu, Angela [Wichita Community Clinical Oncology Program, Wichita, KS (United States); Stella, Philip J. [Michigan Cancer Consortium, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Loprinzi, Charles L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2007-04-01

82

Root uptake of lipophilic zinc-rhamnolipid complexes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the formation and plant uptake of lipophilic metal-rhamnolipid complexes. Monorhamnosyl and dirhamnosyl rhamnolipids formed lipophilic complexes with copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Rhamnolipids significantly increased Zn absorption by Brassica napus var. Pinnacle roots in (65)Zn-spiked ice-cold solutions, compared with ZnSO4 alone. Therefore, rhamnolipid appeared to facilitate Zn absorption via a nonmetabolically mediated pathway. Synchrotron XRF and XAS showed that Zn was present in roots as Zn-phytate-like compounds when roots were treated with Zn-free solutions, ZnSO4, or Zn-EDTA. With rhamnolipid application, Zn was predominantly found in roots as the Zn-rhamnolipid complex. When applied to a calcareous soil, rhamnolipids increased dry matter production and Zn concentrations in durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Balcali-2000) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BDME-10) shoots. Rhamnolipids either increased total plant uptake of Zn from the soil or increased Zn translocation by reducing the prevalence of insoluble Zn-phytate-like compounds in roots. PMID:18303840

Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Michael J; Cakmak, Ismail; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Karkkainen, Michael

2008-03-26

83

Residence time of polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) in the rat stomach and adhesiveness to ulcerous sites.  

PubMed

Polaprezinc, an insoluble zinc complex of L-carnosine, exhibits anti-ulcer effects by acting directly on mucosal lesions. The disposition of polaprezinc in the stomach was studied to clarify the usefulness of its structure as an insoluble complex. The time courses of 14C-radioactivity in the gastric contents and gastric tissues were parallel to those of 65Zn after oral administration of a mixture of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc (14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc) to rats. The gastric contents of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc were greater than those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4. Mean residence times (MRT) of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc in the stomach were almost the same (ca. 2 hr), and they were double those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4. In gastric tissues, the area under the concentration curves (AUC0-8 hr) of 14C-polaprezinc and 65Zn-polaprezinc were 1.7 times greater than those of 14C-L-carnosine and 65ZnSO4, respectively. After administration of 14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc to rats with acetic acid-induced ulcers, 14C and 65Zn-radioactivities in the ulcerous sites were very similar and greater than those of 14C-, 65Zn-polaprezinc dissolved in acid. In conclusion, polaprezinc is retained in the stomach longer and adheres to the ulcerous sites more than zinc or L-carnosine. The characteristics of this compound may arise from its insolubility and contribute to its strong pharmacological action. PMID:7650862

Furuta, S; Toyama, S; Miwa, M; Itabashi, T; Sano, H; Yoneta, T

1995-04-01

84

Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil ?-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

85

Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil ?-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg?1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg?1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg?1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)?1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

86

Effect of domestic processing on zinc bioavailability from ricebean (Vigna umbellata) diets.  

PubMed

The effects of various processing methods viz. pressure cooking with soaking, sprouting (48 h), sprouting and pressure cooking, dehulling, and pressure cooking of the dehulled legume on the bioavailability of zinc were studied. The total zinc content varied from 3.28 to 3.37%; the highest being in raw ricebeans and the lowest being in dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked, and sprouted and pressure cooked ricebeans, respectively. The soluble zinc content was highest for dehulled soaked and pressure cooked ricebeans (28.2%) and lowest for raw ricebeans (16.0%). The absorption, retention, and balance of zinc were estimated in rats fed experimental and standard ZnSO4 diets using a balance study. The maximum retention of zinc was observed in dehulled soaked, and pressure cooked diets (63.37%) followed by sprouted (48 h) and pressure cooked (61.38%) diets. The gain in body weight, total femur zinc and retention of zinc in liver, kidneys and spleen were found to be highest for rats eating the sprouted pressure cooked diet followed by the dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked diet. Plasma zinc levels were found to range from 3.81 to 6.34 micromol/dl; they were maximum for rats fed the dehulled, soaked and pressure cooked diet. It can be concluded that dehulling significantly improves the availability of zinc and germination of ricebeans is the best method to enhance the zinc availability. PMID:12602938

Kaur, Manpreet; Kawatra, B L

2002-01-01

87

Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

1984-01-01

88

Zinc Fertilization of Avocado Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for Zn fertilization of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were evaluated in a 2-year field experiment on a commercial orchard located on a calcareous soil (pH 7.8) in Ventura County, Calif. The fertilization methods included soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4; irrigation-applied Zn chelate (Zn- EDTA); trunk injection of Zn(NO3)2, and foliar applications of ZnSO4, ZnO, or Zn metalosate. Other

David E. Crowley; Woody Smith

89

Synthesis and initial in vitro biological evaluation of two new zinc-chelating compounds: comparison with TPEN and PAC-1.  

PubMed

The lipophilic, cell-penetrating zinc chelator N,N,N',N',-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN, 1) and the zinc chelating procaspase-activating compound PAC-1 (2) both have been reported to induce apoptosis in various cell types. The relationship between apoptosis-inducing ability and zinc affinity (Kd), have been investigated with two new model compounds, ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4), and compared to that of TPEN and PAC-1. The zinc-chelating o-hydroxybenzylidene moiety in PAC-1 was replaced with a 2,2'-dipicoylamine (DPA) unit (ZnA-DPA, 3) and a 4-pyridoxyl unit (ZnA-Pyr, 4), rendering an order of zinc affinity TPEN>ZnA-Pyr>ZnA-DPA>PAC-1. The compounds were incubated with the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and cell death was measured in combination with ZnSO4, a caspase-3 inhibitor, or a ROS scavenger. The model compounds ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4) induced cell death at higher concentrations as compared to PAC-1 and TPEN, reflecting differences in lipophilicity and thereby cell-penetrating ability. Addition of ZnSO4 reduced cell death induced by ZnA-Pyr (4) more than for ZnA-DPA (3). The ability to induce cell death could be reversed for all compounds using a caspase-3-inhibitor, and most so for TPEN (1) and ZnA-Pyr (4). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), as monitored using dihydro-rhodamine (DHR), were involved in cell death induced by all compounds. These results indicate that the Zn-chelators ZnA-DPA (3) and ZnA-Pyr (4) exercise their apoptosis-inducing effect by mechanisms similar to TPEN (1) and PAC-1 (2), by chelation of zinc, caspase-3 activation, and ROS production. PMID:23859779

Strand, O Alexander H; Aziz, Gulzeb; Ali, Sidra Farzand; Paulsen, Ragnhild E; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Rongved, Pål

2013-09-01

90

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

91

The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect. PMID:25554248

Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

2015-02-11

92

Two new dimeric cadmium(II) and zinc(II) sulfate complexes with 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine and 2,2:6',2"-terpyridine.  

PubMed

The structures of two new sulfate complexes are reported, namely di-mu-sulfato-kappa(3)O,O':O"-bis(aqua[2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine-kappa(3)N(1),N(2),N(6)]cadmium(II)) tetrahydrate, [Cd(2)(SO(4))(2)(C(16)H(12)N(6))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].4H(2)O, and di-mu-sulfato-kappa(2)O:O'-bis[(2,2':6',2"-terpyridine-kappa(3)N(1),N(1'),N(1"))zinc(II)] dihydrate, [Cd(2)(SO(4))(2)(C(15)H(11)N(3))(2)].2H(2)O, the former being the first report of a Cd(tpt) complex [tpt is 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine]. Both compounds crystallize in the space group P-1 and form centrosymmetric dimeric structures. In the cadmium complex, the metal center is heptacoordinated in the form of a pentagonal bipyramid, while in the zinc complex, the metal ion is in a fivefold environment, the coordination geometry being intermediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. Packing of the dimers leads to the formation of planar structures strongly linked by hydrogen bonding. PMID:12743388

Harvey, Miguel; Baggio, Sergio; Russi, Silvia; Baggio, Ricardo

2003-05-01

93

Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

1986-03-05

94

Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

2014-10-01

95

Evaluation of developmental responses of two crop plants exposed to silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The increasing applications of different nanomaterials in the myriad of nano-enabled products and their potential for leaching have raised considerable environmental, health and safety (EHS) concerns. As systematic studies investigating potential anomalies in the morphology and anatomy of crop plants are scarce, herein we report on the developmental responses of two agriculturally significant crop plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), upon in vitro exposure to nanoparticles of citrate-coated silver (Citrate-nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO). Analyses involve histology of the primary root morphology and anatomy using light microscopy, metal biouptake, moisture content, rate of germination, and root elongation. Comparative toxicity profiles of the ionic salts (AgNO3 and ZnSO4) are developed. Notably, we uncover structural changes in maize primary root cells upon exposure to Citrate-nAg, nZnO, AgNO3, and ZnSO4, possibly due to metal biouptake, suggesting potential for functional impairments in the plant growth and development. Citrate-nAg exposure results in lower Ag biouptake compared to AgNO3 treatment in maize. Microscopic evidence reveals 'tunneling-like effect' with nZnO treatment, while exposure to AgNO3 leads to cell erosion in maize root apical meristem. In maize, a significant change in metaxylem count is evident with Citrate-nAg, AgNO3, and ZnSO4 treatment, but not with nZnO treatment (p>0.1). In both maize and cabbage, measures of germination and root elongation reveal lower nanoparticle toxicity compared to free ions. As moisture data do not support osmotically-induced water stress hypothesis for explaining toxicity, we discuss other proximate mechanisms including the potential role of growth hormones and transcription factors. These findings highlight previously overlooked, anatomically significant effects of metal nanoparticles, and recommend considering detailed anatomical investigations in tandem with the standard developmental phytotoxicity assays (germination and root elongation) as the latter ones appear less sensitive for screening plant responses to nanomaterial insults. PMID:23532040

Pokhrel, Lok R; Dubey, Brajesh

2013-05-01

96

Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. IX. Physicochemical formation conditions and thermal stability of zinc selenites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to create a physicochemical analysis of the formation conditions of synthetic zinc selenite, ZnSeO3 · 2H2O and an experimental investigation of its thermal stability, dehydration, and dissociation. This study has been carried out using a comprehensive thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry) within the temperature interval from 25-600°C. It has been established that ZnSeO3 · 2H2O dehydrates at 81-222°C through four stages corresponding to the formation of intermediate hydrate species: ZnSeO3 · 5/3H2O, ZnSeO3 · H2O, and ZnSeO3 · 1/3H2O. It is suggested that under natural oxidation conditions zinc selenite precipitates as stable (ZnSeO3 · 2H2O) or metastable (ZnSeO3 · H2O) species. Anhydrous ZnSeO3 presumably exists at a higher temperature (up to 479°C) and breaks down within a temperature interval of 479-597°C to form ZnO and SeO2.

Charykova, M. V.; Fokina, E. L.; Klimova, E. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Semenova, V. V.

2014-12-01

97

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

2006-01-01

98

Uptake and Distribution of Soil Applied Zinc by Citrus Trees-Addressing Fertilizer Use Efficiency with 68Zn Labeling.  

PubMed

The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

2015-01-01

99

Uptake and Distribution of Soil Applied Zinc by Citrus Trees—Addressing Fertilizer Use Efficiency with 68Zn Labeling  

PubMed Central

The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

2015-01-01

100

Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency. PMID:24515449

Tang, Zhigang; Wen, Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

2014-04-01

101

Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

2011-10-01

102

High covalence in CuSO4 and the radicalization of sulfate: an X-ray absorption and density functional study.  

PubMed

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of anhydrous CuSO(4) reveals a well-resolved preedge transition feature at 2478.8 eV that has no counterpart in the XAS spectra of anhydrous ZnSO(4) or copper sulfate pentahydrate. Similar but weaker preedge features occur in the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra of [Cu(itao)SO(4)] (2478.4 eV) and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)] (2477.7 eV). Preedge features in the XAS spectra of transition metal ligands are generally attributed to covalent delocalization of a metal d-orbital hole into a ligand-based orbital. Copper L-edge XAS of CuSO(4) revealed that 56% of the Cu(II) 3d hole is delocalized onto the sulfate ligand. Hybrid density functional calculations on the two most realistic models of the covalent delocalization pathways in CuSO(4) indicate about 50% electron delocalization onto the sulfate oxygen-based 2p orbitals; however, at most 14% of that can be found on sulfate sulfur. Both experimental and computational results indicated that the high covalence of anhydrous CuSO(4) has made sulfate more like the radical monoanion, inducing an extensive mixing and redistribution of sulfur 3p-based unoccupied orbitals to lower energy in comparison to sulfate in ZnSO(4). It is this redistribution, rather than a direct covalent interaction between Cu(II) and sulfur, that is the origin of the observed sulfur XAS preedge feature. From pseudo-Voigt fits to the CuSO(4) sulfur K-edge XAS spectrum, a ground-state 3p character of 6% was quantified for the orbital contributing to the preedge transition, in reasonable agreement with the DFT calculation. Similar XAS fits indicated 2% sulfur 3p character for the preedge transition orbitals in [Cu(itao)SO(4)] and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)]. The covalent radicalization of ligands similar to sulfate, with consequent energy redistribution of the virtual orbitals, represents a new mechanism for the induction of ligand preedge XAS features. The high covalence of the Cu sites in CuSO(4) was found to be similar to that of Cu sites in oxidized cupredoxins, including its anistropic nature, and can serve as the simplest inorganic examples of intramolecular electron-transfer processes. PMID:15606178

Szilagyi, Robert K; Frank, Patrick; DeBeer George, Serena; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

2004-12-27

103

Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

1983-08-01

104

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

105

A continuous automatic hydroponic cultivation system  

E-print Network

]. Compounds Quantity Boric Acid (H3BO4) (warm) Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) Manganese Sulfate (MnSO ) 4 Molybdenic Acid (M No03) 3 Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) 344. 0 g 9. 5 g 177. 5 g 3. 7 g 18. 2 g 3. 0 g (prevents precipi- tation only... concentrate solution cost. Compound Cost in available quantity Required quantity for 16, 000 ml concentrate Cost/16, 000 ml Boric Acid (H BO ) $3. 50/10(1, b) 344. 0 g $0. 265 Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) Manganese Sulfate (MnSO ) $5. 00/4 (lb) $2. 50...

Reachi Gonzalez, Santiago

1974-01-01

106

A zinc-binding citrus protein metallothionein can act as a plant defense factor by controlling host-selective ACR-toxin production.  

PubMed

Metallothionein is a small cysteine-rich protein known to have a metal-binding function. We isolated three different lengths of rough lemon cDNAs encoding a metallothionein (RlemMT1, RlemMT2 and RlemMT3), and only RlemMT1-recombinant protein had zinc-binding activity. Appropriate concentration of zinc is an essential micronutrient for living organisms, while excess zinc is toxic. Zinc also stimulates the production of host-selective ACR-toxin for citrus leaf spot pathogen of Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype. Trapping of zinc by RlemMT1-recombinant protein or by a zinc-scavenging agent in the culture medium caused suppression of ACR-toxin production by the fungus. Since ACR-toxin is the disease determinant for A. alternata rough lemon pathotype, addition of RlemMT1 to the inoculum suspension led to a significant decrease in symptoms on rough lemon leaves as a result of reduced ACR-toxin production from the zinc trap around infection sites. RlemMT1-overexpression mutant of A. alternata rough lemon pathotype also produced less ACR-toxin and reduced virulence on rough lemon. This suppression was caused by an interruption of zinc absorption by cells from the trapping of the mineral by RlemMT1 and an excess supplement of ZnSO(4) restored toxin production and pathogenicity. Based on these results, we propose that zinc adsorbents including metallothionein likely can act as a plant defense factor by controlling toxin biosynthesis via inhibition of zinc absorption by the pathogen. PMID:23086497

Nishimura, Satoshi; Tatano, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Kouhei; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya

2013-01-01

107

Zinc modulates aluminium-induced oxidative stress and cellular injury in rat brain.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of metal homeostasis has been perceived as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegeneration. Aluminium (Al) has been considered as a major risk factor, which is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, whereas zinc (Zn) has been reported as a vital dietary element, which regulates a number of physiological processes in central nervous system. The present study was conducted to explore the protective potential of zinc, if any, in ameliorating neurotoxicity induced by aluminium. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either aluminium chloride (AlCl3) orally (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt. per day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) at a dose level of 227 mg L(-1) in drinking water or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Aluminium treatment significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, which however were decreased following Zn co-treatment of Al-treated rats. In contrast, Al treatment decreased the activities of glutathione-S-transferase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione, oxidised glutathione and total glutathione, but co-administration of Zn to Al-treated animals increased these levels. Furthermore, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of Fe and Mn as well as of Al but decreased the Zn and metallothionein levels. In the Zn-supplemented animals, the levels of Al, Fe, Mn were found to be significantly decreased, whereas the levels of metallothionein as well as Zn were increased. Moreover, histopathological alterations such as vacuolization and loss of Purkinje cells were also evident following Al treatment, which showed improvement upon Zn supplementation. Therefore, zinc has the potential to alleviate aluminium-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25141099

Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-10-01

108

Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos  

SciTech Connect

As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica

1995-12-31

109

Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols  

PubMed Central

Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at ?20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

2013-01-01

110

EFFECT OF APPLICATION METHOD AND RATE OF ZINC IN AVOCADO TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aunque ninguno de los métodos a las dosis probadas mejoró en forma significativa la concentración de cinc en las hojas, el método de aplicación al suelo con quelato de cinc (450 y 900 g\\/arbol) incremento substancialmente la producción, seguido por el método de aplicación foliar al 0.6% de ZnSO4. En cambio ZnSO4 al 0.3 y 0.6 % aplicado mediante inyección

Juan José Aguilar; J. Isabel Cortés; Eduardo Castillejos; Angel Martínez G

111

Diacetamidinium sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C2H7N2 +·SO4 2?, which contains four cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit, the ions are inter­connected by an extensive hydrogen-bonding system whereby two of the O atoms of sulfate ion are hydrogen-bonded to the amidinium H atoms of two cations, leading to the formation of two eight-membered rings. The two remaining O atoms inter­connect two H atoms of acetamidinium cations, forming an infinite chain. The C?N separations within the H2N?C?NH2 moieties are similar, with an average value of 1.305?(2)?Å, which is in good agreement with a delocalization model. PMID:21589618

Jalový, Zden?k; R?ži?ka, Aleš

2010-01-01

112

A mutant strain Arabidopsis thaliana that lacks vacuolar membrane zinc transporter MTP1 revealed the latent tolerance to excessive zinc.  

PubMed

A mutant line of Arabidopsis thaliana that lacks a vacuolar membrane Zn(2+)/H(+) antiporter MTP1 is sensitive to zinc. We examined the physiological changes in this loss-of-function mutant under high-Zn conditions to gain an understanding of the mechanism of adaptation to Zn stress. When grown in excessive Zn and observed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, wild-type roots were found to accumulate Zn in vacuolar-like organelles but mutant roots did not. The Zn content of mutant roots, determined by chemical analysis, was one-third that of wild-type roots grown in high-Zn medium. Severe inhibition of root growth was observed in mtp1-1 seedlings in 500 muM ZnSO(4). Suppression of cell division and elongation by excessive Zn was reversible and the cells resumed growth in normal medium. In mutant roots, a marked formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) appeared in the meristematic zone, where the MTP1 gene was highly expressed. Zn treatment enhanced the expression of several genes involved in Zn tolerance: namely, the plasma membrane Zn(2+)-export ATPase, HMA4, and plasma and vacuolar membrane proton pumps. CuZn-superoxide dismutases, involved in the detoxification of ROS, were also induced. The expression of plasma membrane Zn-uptake transporter, ZIP1, was suppressed. The up- or down-regulation of these genes might confer the resistance to Zn toxicity. These results indicate an essential role of MTP1 in detoxification of excessive Zn and provide novel information on the latent adaptation mechanism to Zn stress, which is hidden by MTP1. PMID:19433490

Kawachi, Miki; Kobae, Yoshihiro; Mori, Haruki; Tomioka, Rie; Lee, Youngsook; Maeshima, Masayoshi

2009-06-01

113

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-print Network

cells (Yamaguchi et al. 1989). Tissue cultures exposed to zinc have also revealed higher alkaline phosphatase levels (Yamaguchi et al. 1987). A zinc compound chelated to P-alanyl-L-histidine, given to ovariectomized rats, also increased alkaline... on alkaline phosphatase activity have been noted in other studies (Segawa et al. 1993, Yamaguchi et al. 1987, Yamaguchi et al 1989, Yamaguchi, M. and Yamaguchi, R. 1986) Zinc sulfate, administered orally to rats for three days, stimulated alkaline...

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01

114

A COMPARISON OF TREE TRUNK INJECTION AND IMPLANTATION OF ZINC CAPSULES FOR CORRECTION OF ZINC DEFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc sulfate was applied to pecan tree trunks through implants and pressure trunk injection. Small amounts of chelated Zn solution were also injected by means of small pressurized cartridges. The most effective and efficient method for rapid correction of Zn deficiency of pecan when measured by leaflet Zn concentration was by pressure trunk injection using 8 liters per tree of

Ray E. Worley; R. L. Littrell; J. D. Dutcher

1980-01-01

115

Sulfated glycans in inflammation.  

PubMed

Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

Pomin, Vitor H

2015-03-01

116

Polaprezinc, a gastroprotective agent: attenuation of monochloramine-evoked gastric DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

We previously reported that NH2Cl induced extensive DNA fragmentation in gastric cells. Polaprezinc, a zinc-carnosine chelate compound, is reported to be a potent antioxidant in gastric mucosa. The present study was designed to examine whether polaprezinc could attenuate the NH3Cl-induced DNA damage. Gastric cell lines, MKN45, were exposed to NH2Cl in Ca(2+)-containing Hanks' balanced salt solution. DNA fragmentation was evaluated by photometric enzyme immunoassay for in vitro determination of cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes. Polaprezinc, L-carnosine, and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) were added to the cell incubation medium to evaluate the inhibitory effect on the formation of cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes. Separately, the bleaching level of beta-carotene with the addition of each test solution was evaluated to confirm the inhibitory effect against hypochlorous acid. Polaprezinc or L-carnosine, but not ZnSO4, at a concentration of 0.001 mM, significantly attenuated the increased levels of cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes evoked by 0.001 mM NH2Cl. Polaprezinc and L-carnosine, but not ZnSO4, also inhibited NH2Cl-induced beta-carotene bleaching in the cell-free system. In conclusion, polaprezinc, especially its subportion L-carnosine, inhibited NH2Cl-evoked gastric epithelial DNA fragmentation, suggesting a role for this agent in preventing the progression of gastric epithelial injury induced by NH2Cl. PMID:10616765

Suzuki, H; Mori, M; Seto, K; Nagahashi, S; Kawaguchi, C; Morita, H; Suzuki, M; Miura, S; Yoneta, T; Ishii, H

1999-01-01

117

Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

2012-01-01

118

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

119

Crystal growth, structure, crystalline perfection and characterization of zinc magnesium ammonium sulfate hexahydrate mixed crystals ZnxMg(1-x)(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed crystals ZnxMg(1-x)(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O of the two well-known Tutton's salts Zn(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O and Mg(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O were grown with varying molar proportions (x=0.10-0.90) by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The mixed crystal Zn0.54Mg0.46(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O is crystallizing in monoclinic system with space group P21/c and cell parameters a=6.2217(4) Å, b=12.5343(7) Å, c=9.2557(6) Å, ?=106.912(3)°. The coexistence of zinc and magnesium ions in the mixed crystal was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Compositional dependence of lattice parameters follows Vegard's relations. Slight variations are observed in FT-IR and XRD of pure and mixed crystals. Comparison of crystalline perfection as evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) for mixed crystals of various proportions reveals a reasonably good crystalline perfection for the mixed crystal with nearly equimolar ratio of Zn and Mg. The surface morphology of the mixed crystals changing with composition was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis studies reveal that the transparency of the mixed crystals was not much affected.

Ramasamy, G.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Madhurambal, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

2012-08-01

120

Infectious etiology modifies the treatment effect of zinc in severe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Zincisundergoingevaluationasaninexpensivether- apeutic adjuvant for severe pediatric pneumonia. Objective:Weexploredtheeffectofetiologyonthetreatmenteffect of zinc in young children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. Design: We analyzed data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at the Christian Medical College Hospital, a teaching hospital in Tamilnadu, India. Children aged2-23mo(n299)wererandomlyassignedtoreceivea10-mg tablet of zinc sulfate or placebo twice a day during hospitalization. The primary outcomes were length of

Christian L Coles; Anuradha Bose; Prabhakar D Moses; Leni Mathew; Indira Agarwal; Thomas Mammen; Mathuram Santosham

121

Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

1999-01-01

122

The zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method as a catalyst in n-butanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of catalytic properties of n-butanol conversion of the zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method. The zinc ferrite showed good dehydrogenating activity but also catalyzed consecutive bimolecular condensation of emerged aldehyde particles into symmetrical ketone. The zinc-iron oxide of spinel structure was prepared from ferrous sulfate, which forms as a waste during the titanium dioxide production. The X-ray diffraction methods (XRD, XRF) were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained zinc ferrite, while thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used in the study of thermal transformations of zinc spinel in air.

Klimkiewicz, Roman [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, Wroclaw 2 50-950 (Poland)], E-mail: R.Klimkiewicz@int.pan.wroc.pl; Wolska, Jolanta; Przepiera, Aleksander; Przepiera, Krystyna; Jablonski, Maciej [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 42, Szczecin 71-065 (Poland); Lenart, Stanislaw [Institute of Materials Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 19, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland)

2009-01-08

123

Automotive sulfate emission data.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

Somers, J H

1975-01-01

124

Allergy to protamine sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have

Renate Porsche; Zara R. Brenner

1999-01-01

125

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin; Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

126

Maternal Aggression in Rats: Effects of Olfactory Bulbectomy, ZnSO 4Induced Anosmia, and Vomeronasal Organ Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that somatosensory inputs to the snout and ventral trunk, but not visual or auditory stimuli, play critical roles in the elicitation and maintenance of maternal aggression by lactating Norway rats toward a strange male intruder. There are conflicting reports on the influence of olfaction on maternal aggression. We explored the possible roles of central

Jane M. Kolunie; Judith M. Stern

1995-01-01

127

Effect of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 on Regeneration and Lepidine Content in Lepidium Sativum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of lepidine was detected in mature and juvenile explants from both in vivo and in vitro grown plants. The yield, however, was variable depending upon the source and type of explant used. Mature in vivo plants at vegetative stage exhibited highest yield. Among all the explants, maximum lepidine was detected after 8 weeks in shoot apex callus on

Saba; D. Pande; M. Iqbal; P. S. Srivastava

2000-01-01

128

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

129

Allergy to protamine sulfate.  

PubMed

Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have been identified, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, vasectomy, allergy to fish, prior exposure to protamine sulfate, and the rate of infusion. A case study is presented, and strategies for improving patient outcomes are discussed. PMID:10580216

Porsche, R; Brenner, Z R

1999-01-01

130

Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

131

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (˜35 ?mol/cm3/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Tribou, Erik; Noble, Peter A.; Gaillard, Jean-FrançOis; Stahl, David A.

2008-12-01

132

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

SciTech Connect

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

2009-01-06

133

Effects of source and level of zinc on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in steers  

E-print Network

, 95, 215, or 445 mg/kg) from Zn methionine (ZnMet) or ZnSO4 in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement of treatments. Total dietary Zn was 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg. Within treatment groups, steers were assigned to one of two kill groups (kill group I = d...

Nunnery, Greg Alan

1998-01-01

134

Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein  

PubMed Central

Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 ?M ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 ?M CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 ?M CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

2013-01-01

135

Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn) supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ). After STZ induction, animals with fasting plasma glucose level ?16.7 mM were considered as diabetic, and randomly assigned to the group receiving physiological saline (control) or ZnSO4 for 56 days. On days 0, 7, 28 and 56 of treatment, animals were weighed, and their blood samples were analyzed. On day 56, hemodynamic assessment was performed right before the sacrifice of animals. Cardiac tissue specimens were collected and subjected to pathologic assessment, metallothionein (MT) concentration measurement and Western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), the marker of autophagy, and glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), an oxidative stress marker. High-fat diet feeding followed by STZ administration resulted in weight loss, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemodynamic anomalies and a significant increase in the myocardial content of LC3 and GRP78 proteins, but not in MT protein. Zn supplementation effectively attenuated all these aberrations induced by high-fat diet and STZ. These findings suggest that Zn might be a protective factor in diabetic cardiomyopathy, acting in two ways: at least partially, through inhibiting autophagy and by endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:25725139

Lu, Ying; Liu, Ya; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Xue; Wu, Wenjie; Gao, Lichao

2015-01-01

136

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

137

Polarization and corrosion of electrogalvanized steel - evaluation of zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived zinc electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of electrogalvanized 1070 steel wire has been investigated in molar quiescent ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate under near-neutral conditions. Zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived electrolytes were evaluated vs. coatings from relatively pure zinc electrolytes. The waste source of zinc was brass smelter flue dust. Corrosion rates were measured by Tafel line extrapolation and the polarization resistance technique. Values of the Tafel slopes and the corrosion currents were also compared with those for pure zinc (99.999%). Corrosion rates were found to be affected by the medium employed, pH, and bimetal diameter reduction (drawing). Drawn electrogalvanized stee displays higher values of the Tafel slopes than do the as-plated samples. The Tafel slopes are different from thos obtained on pure zinc. This is assumed to be due to inhomogeneous surface features obtained from additive adsorption (during plating) and residual lubricants used in the drawing process as well as surface structure. The corrosion rates of electrogalvanized samples plated in the waste-derived zinc electrolytes were similar to the corrosion rates of samples plated in relatively pure zinc electrolytes. Therefore, wastes are a potential source of zinc for electrogalvanizing.

Dattilo, M.

1985-11-01

138

Uranium extraction using biogenic ferric sulfate a case study on quartz chlorite ore from Jaduguda, Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB), Bihar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of ferric ion as an oxidant and in combination with other anions such as ferric sulfate or chloride as cr leachant is well accepted for the recovery of metals, particularly from ores of copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, zinc and uranium. Biogenically generated ferric sulfate has been in vogue for many dump and heap leaching operations, to recover uranium

A. K. Mathur; K. Viswamohan; K. B. Mohanty; V. K. Murthy; S. T. Seshadrinath

2000-01-01

139

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2010-04-01

141

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2013-04-01

143

PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION  

E-print Network

Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

145

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

146

4, 29492971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate  

E-print Network

ACPD 4, 2949­2971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt and Physics Discussions A study of the phase transition behavior of mixed ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

148

USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...

149

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

150

Bioavailability of zinc in  

E-print Network

Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

Machel, Hans

151

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

152

Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

1996-10-01

153

Cardiovascular and blood coagulative effects of pulmonary zinc exposure  

SciTech Connect

Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were instilled intratracheally with saline or zinc sulfate, 131 {mu}g/kg (2 {mu}mol/kg); the alterations were determined at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h postexposure. High-dose zinc enabled us to show changes in circulating levels of zinc above normal and induce significant pulmonary inflammation/injury such that cardiac impairments were likely. At 1-24 h postexposure, plasma levels of zinc increased to nearly 20% above the base line. Significant pulmonary inflammation and injury were determined by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology in zinc-exposed rats at all time points. Starting at 4 h postexposure, pulmonary damage was accompanied by persistently increased gene expressions of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but not thrombomodulin (TM). Cardiac tissues demonstrated similar temporal increases in expressions of TF, PAI-1, and TM mRNA following pulmonary instillation of zinc. In contrast to extensive pulmonary edema and inflammation, only mild, and focal acute, myocardial lesions developed in a few zinc-exposed rats; no histological evidence showed increased deposition of fibrin or disappearance of troponin. At 24 and 48 h postexposure to zinc, increases occurred in levels of systemic fibrinogen and the activated partial thromboplastin time. These data suggest that cardiovascular blood coagulation impairments are likely following pulmonary zinc exposure and associated pulmonary injury and inflammation.

Gilmour, Peter S. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McGee, John K. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Richards, Judy H. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, MD B143-01, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov

2006-02-15

154

Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems  

SciTech Connect

Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-04-05

155

Zinc and Epileptogenesis  

PubMed Central

Zinc is concentrated in the hippocampus, particularly in the mossy fiber axons of the dentate gyrus, and has been hypothesized to be important in neurodegeneration and epilepsy. Previous studies have suggested that activity-dependent release of zinc from reorganized mossy fibers leads to collapse of granule-cell inhibition. Synaptically released zinc has been proposed to depress the function of the new “epileptic” GABAA receptors, which have subunits that are zinc-sensitive. Recent experiments by Molnar and Nadler have replicated the previous data, and further tested this hypothesis. Their work suggests that activated mossy fibers in hippocampal slices do not release adequate zinc to depress GABAA receptor function at nearby inhibitory synapses. These studies point to the complexity of this hypothesis, particularly in regard to zinc release in vitro versus in vivo and the diffusion of zinc in the extracellular space. PMID:15309193

Dudek, F. Edward

2001-01-01

156

Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-?m-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-?-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. PMID:22414495

Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

2012-04-15

157

Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.  

PubMed

Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

2014-04-01

158

Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p < 0.001 (Scheffè's post hoc test: A vs. C, A vs. D, B vs. C, and B vs. D; p < 0.05). We can conclude that Fe absorption of bread made from low-extraction flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ?60 mg/kg flour. PMID:23821315

Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

2013-09-01

159

Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.  

PubMed

Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

2014-01-01

160

Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence  

PubMed Central

Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

2014-01-01

161

Ferric sulfates on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

Burns, Roger G.

1987-01-01

162

Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K. (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1989-01-01

163

Organics, soot, and ambient sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Evidence is presented for significant local sulfate formation, the existence of a chemical link between ambient sulfate and organic particulate material is postulated, and a new SO/sub 2/ oxidation process by a reaction between organic products of incomplete combustion and SO/sub 2/ is described. Specifically, results of field studies on the relationship among sulfate, SO/sub 2/, and carbonaceous particles, speciation of sulfate and nitrogenous species, and laboratory results on certain aspects of SO/sub 2/ oxidation are presented. It is concluded that in highly polluted atmospheres, large concentrations of ambient sulfate can be produced by conversion of locally emitted SO/sub 2/ by a process that is largely independent of SO/sub 2/ but proportional to soot concentration. Ambient sulfate from many locations is found as anomalous ammonium sulfate where charged organic nitrogen complexes substitute for ammonium ions. Such sulfate is found when the aerosol is rich in organic constituents. The reaction between pyrolysis products of hydrocarbon fuels and SO/sub 2/ is an efficient mechanism for sulfate ion formation. This reaction is strongly dependent on combustion conditions.

Novakov, T.

1982-09-01

164

Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

165

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

166

Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

2006-02-01

167

Ferric sulfates on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented for the possible formation and existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost on Mars. Acidic groundwater, derived from atmospheric oxidation of volcanogenic H2S to H2SO4 aerosols, promoted chemical weathering of fayalitic olivines, iron-rich pyroxenes, plagioclase feldspar, and pyrrhotite-pentlandite mineral assemblages in crustal ultramafic and basic igneous rocks. The acidic groundwater entered into electrochemical reactions with the iron sulfides, yielding dissolved FeSO4+, Fe(SO4)2-, and FeOH2+ complex ions, and the precipitation of basic ferric sulfate minerals such as those belonging to the roemerite, copiapite, botryogen, and jarosite-alunite groups. These phases are stabilized at low temperatures and pH in Martian permafrost. The occurrence of jarosites in terrestrial arid regions suggests that they could also survive on the surface of Mars. Melting of the permafrost and raising of the pH may have initiated the hydrolysis of dissolved ferric sulfato complex ions and led to the precipitation of FeOOH, which reacted with precipitated silica to form phyllosilicates. Alternatively, degradation of the hydrolysate FeOOH to Fe2O3 during sublimation of permafrost exposed on Mars' surface may account for the presence of eolian maghemite suspected to be the magnetic mineral observed on the Viking Landers.

Burns, Roger G.

168

Ferric sulfates on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented for the possible formation and existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost on Mars. Acidic ground water, derived from atmospheric oxidation of volcanogenic H2S to H2SO4 aerosols, promoted chemical weathering of fyalitic olivines, iron-rich pyroxenes, plagioclase feldspar, and pyrrhotite-pentlandite mineral assemblages in crustal ultramafic and basic igneous rocks. The acidic groundwater entered into electrochemical reactions with the iron sulfides, yielding dissolved FeSO4+, Fe(SO4)2-, and FeOH2+ complex ions, and the precipitation of basic ferric sulfate minerals such as those belonging to the roemerite, copiapite, botryogen, and jarosite-alunite groups. These phases are stabilized at low temperatures and pH in Martian permafrost. The occurrence of jarosites in terrestrial arid regions suggests that they could also survive on the surface of mars. Melting of the permafrost and raising of the pH may have initiated the hydrolysis of dissolved ferric sulfato complex ions and led to the precipitation of FeOOH, which reacted with precipitated silica to form phyllosilicates. Alternatively, degradation of the hydrolysate FeOOH to Fe2O3 during sublimation of permafrost exposed on Mars' surface may account for the presence of eolian maghemite suspected to be the magnetic mineral observed on the Viking Landers.

Burns, Roger G.

1987-09-01

169

Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred.

Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

1984-10-01

170

Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross  

SciTech Connect

Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

Barakat, M.A.

1999-07-01

171

Sulfated polysaccharides (chondroitin sulfate and carrageenan) plus glucosamine sulfate are potent inhibitors of HIV.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate, a fusion inhibitor found in human milk, appears to work by blocking the ability of a virus, such as HIV, to infect a cell. There are questions about whether cow or goat milk can offer the same fusion-inhibiting benefits. One sulfated monosaccharide, glucosamine 6-sulfate, appears to have significant anti-HIV activity. Carrageenan, a seaweed derivative, shows promise as a vaginal microbicide, and should be tested further to determine its effectiveness against HIV transmission. PMID:11366556

Konlee, M

1998-01-01

172

Zinc deficiency in Mexican American children: influence of zinc and other micronutrients on T cells, cytokines, and antiinflammatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examina- tion Survey suggested some Mexican American children are at risk of zinc deficiency. Objective:Wemeasuredtheeffectsofzincandmicronutrientsorof micronutrients alone on indexes of cell-mediated immunity and an- tiinflammatory plasma proteins. Design: Subjects (n 54) aged 6-7 y were randomly assigned and treated in double-blind fashion in equal numbers with 20 mg Zn (as sulfate) and micronutrients

Harold H Sandstead; Ananda S Prasad; James G Penland; Frances WJ; Joseph Kaplan Beck; Norman G Egger; Nancy W Alcock; Richard M Carroll; VMS Ramanujam; Hari H Dayal; Carmen D Rocco; Ruth Ann Plotkin; Antonio N Zavaleta

173

Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease  

E-print Network

mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 through sta0n inhibi0on." *Do healthy people with highCholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots

Seneff, Stephanie

174

Integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate is a regulatory polysac- charide. It modulates specific growth factor-receptor in- teractions, accelerates the formation of specific proteinase- proteinase inhibitor complexes, and mediates interactions of the cell surface with several enzymes and structural proteins. It abounds on the surfaces of embryonic cells, respecting or outlining morphogenetic rather than histo- logical boundaries. This cell surface-associated heparan sulfate is implanted

GUIDO DAVID

1993-01-01

175

Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

2002-09-11

176

Preparation of zinc orthotitanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

1977-01-01

177

Zinc in evolution.  

PubMed

The first part of this paper gives an account of the early work I did with Vallee on zinc enzymes. The second part is work and thoughts on zinc biochemistry subsequent to this work and following on from it. I shall then put our knowledge of zinc biochemistry into the context of the evolution of organisms. The zinc proteins are divided into two classes: (1) mainly enzymes often found in the early forms of life, prokaryotes, and continued in eukaryotes, showing virtually no exchange of zinc; (2) mainly buffers, pumps, chaperones and transcription factors all showing faster exchange and largely only found in eukaryotes. The complexity of organisms, especially in three steps, prokaryotes, single-cell and then multicell eukaryotes, coincides with the two major rises of oxygen. The rise of oxygen caused a rise of zinc in the sea as estimated from the analysis of sediments. These changes of zinc and other elements with oxygen indicate that environmental changes were inevitable. To a considerable extent then the rise of organism complexity arose from a need to use and in some cases to avoid the steps in element availability. After about 0.5 Ga there has been little change in the chemistry of the environment and little in the gross features of the chemistry of life notwithstanding the huge increase in diversity. The final paragraph acknowledges the inspiration and stimulation of the work of Vallee in the biology and biochemistry of zinc. PMID:22855949

Williams, R J P

2012-06-01

178

Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

2006-01-01

179

Sulfation of von Willebrand factor  

SciTech Connect

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-12-15

180

Synthesis of Different Zinc and Zinc Included Nanostructures by High Power Copper Vapor Laser Ablation in Water- Surfactants Solutions  

E-print Network

The data of experimental studies of optical characteristics of colloidal solutions, composition and morphology of its dispersed phase, resulting from laser ablation of zinc in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants --- sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) are presented. It is shown that by studying the optical absorption spectra of the colloid, X-ray spectra and AFM-images of extracted from colloid solid phase, it is possible to trace the dynamics of ZnO nanostructures formation from zinc nanoclasters size of several nanometers to ZnO fractal aggregates (FA) size up to hundreds of nanometers. Determinants of this process are the average power and an ablation exposure, the frequency of the laser pulses, the colloid aging time, the type and concentration of surfactant in solution. In the selection of appropriate regimes, along with zinc oxide obtained other nanoproducts --- hydrozincit and organo-inorganic layered composite \\ce{[(\\beta) - Zn(OH)2 + SDS]}.

Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Borodina, Tatyana; Valyano, E G; Gololobova, O A

2011-01-01

181

Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.  

PubMed Central

When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. Images PMID:938044

Houghton, C; Rose, R A

1976-01-01

182

Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

2003-01-01

183

Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.  

PubMed

The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

2014-06-14

184

ZINC PRODUCES A TRANSMURAL VOLTAGE GRADIENT AND DISRUPTION OF INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN THE HEART  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure contributes to serious arrhythmia in high-risk individuals. We previously showed that non-cytotoxic doses of zinc sulfate (Zn, 50uM), a metal common to PM from many sources, alters the gene expression of several cardiac ion c...

185

Assessment of mineral phosphate-solubilizing properties and molecular characterization of zinc-tolerant bacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting bacteria with the ability to tolerate heavy metals have importance both in sustainable agriculture and phytoremediation. The present study reports on the isolation and characterization of mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) bacteria associated with the Achyranthes aspera L. plant (prickly chaff, flower plant). Out of 35 bacterial isolates, 6 isolates, namely RS7, RP23, EPR1, RS5, RP11 and RP19, with high MPS activity were selected and subjected to the assessment of MPS activity under various stress conditions, viz. ZnSO(4) (0.30-1.5 M), NaCl and temperature. MPS activity by the selected isolates was observed at concentrations of as high as >1.2 M ZnSO(4). Significant improvement in plant growth was observed on bacterization of seeds (pearl millet) with all of the six selected isolates. Plant growth was measured in terms of root length, shoot length, fresh weight and % increase in root biomass. The molecular diversity among the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria was studied employing enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-PCR (ERIC-PCR). Representative strains from each ERIC type were identified, on the basis of a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as members of the genera Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Serratia, and Enterobacter. Among all the isolates, RP19 was the best in terms of phosphate-solubizing activity and its response to various stresses. The ability of RP19 and other isolates to exhibit MPS activity at high ZnSO(4) concentrations suggests their potential as efficient biofertilizer for growing plants in metal (ZnSO(4))-contaminated soil. PMID:22359218

Misra, Neha; Gupta, Garima; Jha, Prabhat N

2012-10-01

186

Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

2015-01-01

187

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

188

Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

2006-08-01

189

Cement composition and sulfate attack  

SciTech Connect

Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

Shanahan, Natalya [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Zayed, Abla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)]. E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

2007-04-15

190

Effects of zinc and multimineral vitamin supplementation on glycemic and lipid control in adult diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the effects of zinc with or without other antioxidants on blood glucose, lipid profile, and serum creatinine in adult diabetics on long-term follow-up. Materials and methods: Patients (n = 96) were randomly allocated to three groups: group A (n = 29) was supplemented with oral zinc sulfate (22 mg/day) and multivitamin/mineral (zinc+MVM) preparation; group B (n = 31) was given the same preparation without zinc (MVM); and group C (n = 36) was given a matching placebo for a period of 4 months in a single-blinded study. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after 4 months of supplementation to assess blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C%) and serum levels of zinc, creatinine, and lipids. Results: The zinc+MVM group had a mean change of fasting blood sugar ?0.33 mmol/L (standard error of the mean 0.21 mmol/L) and was significant (P = 0.05) when compared with the other two groups (mean change in the MVM group +0.19 (0.31) mmol/L and +0.43 (0.23) mmol/L in the control group, respectively). The HbA1C% level reduced significantly, irrespective of the baseline level, in zinc+MVM-supplemented individuals. In the other two groups, the change of HbA1C% level was not significant. Serum lipid levels reduced significantly in the zinc+MVM and MVM groups. Conclusions: Zinc+MVM supplementation showed beneficial effects in the metabolic control of adult diabetics in addition to elevating their serum zinc level. Zinc supplementation improved glycemic control measured by HbA1C% and fasting and postprandial glucose. Furthermore, zinc supplementation lowered serum cholesterol and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio. PMID:21448322

Gunasekara, Priyanka; Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Liyanage, Chandrani; Lekamwasam, Sarath

2011-01-01

191

21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4 ·5H2...

2010-04-01

192

Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1995-04-01

193

Zinc deficiency and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc deficiency remains a serious health problem worldwide affecting developed as well as developing countries. Despite the\\u000a evidence proving that zinc deprivation during the periods of rapid growth negatively affects the cognitive brain as well as\\u000a sexual development, there are few complete studies carried out in children. The present article proposes a revision of the\\u000a evidence gathered until now on

M. J. Salgueiro; R. Weill; M. Zubillaga; A. Lysionek; R. Caro; C. Goldman; D. Barrado; M. Martinez Sarrasague; J. Boccio

2004-01-01

194

Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cements exposed to varying concentrations of sodium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is the second major durability problem, after reinforcement corrosion. This type of deterioration is noted in the structures exposed to sulfate-bearing soils and groundwater. Though concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is reported from many countries, the mechanisms of sulfate attack have not been thoroughly investigated, particularly the effect of sulfate concentration and the

S. U. Al-Dulaijan; M. Maslehuddin; M. M. Al-Zahrani; A. M. Sharif; M. Shameem; M. Ibrahim

2003-01-01

195

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation.Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoproteins consisting of a core protein to which linear heparan sulfate side chains are covalently attached. These heparan sulfate side chains can be modified at different positions by several enzymes, which include N-deacetylases, N- and O-sulfotransferases, and an epimerase. These heparan sulfate modifications give rise to an enormous structural diversity,

Angelique L. W. M. M. Rops; JOHAN VAN DER VLAG; Joost F. M. Lensen; Tessa J. M. Wijnhoven; Lambert P. W. J. van den Heuvel; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Jo H. M. Berden

2004-01-01

196

Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc/Polypyrrole Nanotube as a Protective Pigment in Organic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of zinc/polypyrrole nanotube (Zn/PPy) as a protective pigment in organic coatings. The PPy nanotube is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization, and zinc nanoparticles are deposited onto the surface of the synthesized PPy nanotube in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction results confirm the existence of the nanotube morphology and the zinc nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization are performed on steel plates coated with polyvinyl butyral incorporated with the Zn/PPy nanotube. The results show that the existence of zinc can improve the protective properties of the pigment. The existence of zinc leads to a cathodic protection and the main product of zinc corrosion is the stale zinc hydroxide which can block the pores in the coating. In addition, the zinc nanoparticles can increase conductivity of the PPy nanotube leading to increasing nanotube's ability to form protective layers of metal oxides on the steel surface.

Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Alias, Yatimah; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Yousefi, Ramin

2013-07-01

197

Endogenous zinc in neurological diseases.  

PubMed

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

Koh, Jae-Yong

2005-10-01

198

Effect of polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc), a novel antiulcer agent containing zinc, on cellular proliferation: role of insulin-like growth factor I.  

PubMed

The effect of polaprezinc (N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc), a novel antiulcer drug containing zinc, on cellular proliferation was studied using cultured cells. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or human foreskin fibroblast cells, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and the number of cells were increased by polaprezinc under low serum conditions, but polaprezinc had no effect on guinea pig gastric mucosal epithelial cells. In addition, L-carnosine (a component of polaprezinc) had no effect on cultured HUVEC, while zinc sulfate, a representative zinc compound, increased BrdU uptake by about 2-fold at 10(-9) M. However, the action of zinc sulfate was weaker than that of polaprezinc. The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA level was increased in HUVEC by polaprezinc at 10(-9) M approximately 3 x 10(-8) M concentrations, causing stimulation of BrdU uptake. When an anti-IGF-I antibody was added to cultures, the effects of polaprezinc on BrdU uptake was suppressed. These results suggest that although polaprezinc, a novel antiulcer agent, does not have proliferative effects on epithelial cells, it does promote the proliferation of non-parenchymal cells, and IGF-I is involved in this action. PMID:10423164

Seto, K; Yoneta, T; Suda, H; Tamaki, H

1999-07-15

199

Preparation and Characterization of SDF-1?-Chitosan-Dextran Sulfate Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Chitosan (CS) and dextran sulfate (DS) are charged polysaccharides (glycans), which form polyelectrolyte complex-based nanoparticles when mixed under appropriate conditions. The glycan nanoparticles are useful carriers for protein factors, which facilitate the in vivo delivery of the proteins and sustain their retention in the targeted tissue. The glycan polyelectrolyte complexes are also ideal for protein delivery, as the incorporation is carried out in aqueous solution, which reduces the likelihood of inactivation of the proteins. Proteins with a heparin-binding site adhere to dextran sulfate readily, and are, in turn, stabilized by the binding. These particles are also less inflammatory and toxic when delivered in vivo. In the protocol described below, SDF-1? (Stromal cell-derived factor-1?), a stem cell homing factor, is first mixed and incubated with dextran sulfate. Chitosan is added to the mixture to form polyelectrolyte complexes, followed by zinc sulfate to stabilize the complexes with zinc bridges. The resultant SDF-1?-DS-CS particles are measured for size (diameter) and surface charge (zeta potential). The amount of the incorporated SDF-1? is determined, followed by measurements of its in vitro release rate and its chemotactic activity in a particle-bound form. PMID:25650558

Bader, Andrew R; Li, Tina; Wang, Weiping; Kohane, Daniel S; Loscalzo, Joseph; Zhang, Ying-Yi

2015-01-01

200

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

201

Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O ? 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS deposits, except for the lower d34S values for the seawater SO4. The abundance of pyrite in Archean black shales is also evidence of sulfate rich seawater. Pyrites in Archean-aged black shales were most likely the products of either bacterial or thermochemical sulfate reduction during diagenesis of the sediments. Their abundance in sedimentary rocks is determined by: (a) the availability of reactive carbon; (b) the availability of reactive Fe (Fe3+ hydroxides and Fe2+-rich pore fluid); (c) the sedimentation rate; and (d) the flux of SO42- in the sediments, which depends on the seawater SO42- contents. Contrary to a widely held belief, pyrite- and organic C rich black Archean shales are quite common, such as the 2.7 Ga Jeerinah and the 2.5 Ga McRae Shales in WA. Our modeling suggests that the formation of such pyrite-rich shales requires seawater SO4 contents greater than ~1 mM. As for the main source of SO4 in the Archean oceans, the current paradigm, based on mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) in some pyrite and barite samples from some pre-2.4 Ga sedimentary rocks, postulates that the seawater SO4 was produced by UV photolysis of volcanic SO2 gas in an O2-poor atmosphere. However, the recent findings of the absence of MIF-S in many Archean sedimentary rocks, as well as those of oxidized paleosols of Archean ages, suggest that the abundant SO4 in the Archean oceans were generated by the oxidative weathering of sulfides.

Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

2012-12-01

202

Functions of Chondroitin Sulfate and Heparan Sulfate in the Developing Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans are major components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix in\\u000a the brain. Both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate are unbranched highly sulfated polysaccharides composed of repeating\\u000a disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, and glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. During their biosynthesis in the Golgi apparatus, these glycosaminoglycans are highly modified\\u000a by sulfation

N. Maeda; M. Ishii; K. Nishimura; K. Kamimura

2011-01-01

203

Chemical vapor deposition of zinc from diallyl zinc precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organometallic compounds bis(allyl)zinc and bis(2-methylallyl)zinc have been shown to serve as MOCVD precursors for the deposition of zinc at temperatures as low as 150°C. The deposits on Si(100) wafers, quartz, copper, and aluminum consist of aggregates of hexagonal plates and columns. On silicon(100) substrates and at low background pressures (10⁻⁴ Torr), the zinc crystals are oriented preferentially with their

Jinwoo Cheon; G. S. Girolami; L. H. Dubois

1994-01-01

204

Imaging mobile zinc in biology  

E-print Network

Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

Tomat, Elisa

205

Heparan sulfate signaling in cancer.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a biopolymer consisting of variably sulfated repeating disaccharide units. The anticoagulant heparin is a highly sulfated intracellular variant of HS. HS has demonstrated roles in embryonic development, homeostasis, and human disease via non-covalent interactions with numerous cellular proteins, including growth factors and their receptors. HS can function as a co-receptor by enhancing receptor-complex formation. In other contexts, HS disrupts signaling complexes or serves as a ligand sink. The effects of HS on growth factor signaling are tightly regulated by the actions of sulfyltransferases, sulfatases, and heparanases. HS has important emerging roles in oncogenesis, and heparin derivatives represent potential therapeutic strategies for human cancers. Here we review recent insights into HS signaling in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and differentiation. A cancer-specific understanding of HS signaling could uncover potential therapeutic targets in this highly actionable signaling network. PMID:24755488

Knelson, Erik H; Nee, Jasmine C; Blobe, Gerard C

2014-06-01

206

Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that ?34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ?4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ?200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with ?13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in ?13Ccarb and ?34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

2014-03-01

207

History of zinc in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

208

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31

209

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

210

Zinc modulation of glycine receptors.  

PubMed

Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 ?M), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 ?M zinc, prior to glycine (300 ?M) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

Trombley, P Q; Blakemore, L J; Hill, B J

2011-07-14

211

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

1998-02-03

212

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

1998-01-01

213

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

2014-01-01

214

Sulfate-rich Scapolite on Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-rich scapolite may occur in Mars as a primary igneous occurrence or as a metosomatic replacement assemblage caused by hot sulfate-rich brine interactions with previously formed plagioclase assemblages.

Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.

2007-03-01

215

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous...

2010-04-01

216

Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

217

Status of copper sulfate - 2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

218

DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

219

Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

1995-01-01

220

SULFATION OF FUCOIDIN IN FUCUS EMBRYOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Zygotes of the brown,alga Fucus,distichus,L. Powell accumulate,a sulfated polysaccharide,(fucoidin) in the cell wall at the site of rhizoid formation. Previous work,indicated that zygotes grown,in seawater,minus,sulfate do not sulfate the preformed,fucan (an unsulfated fucoidin) but form rhizoids. Under these condi- tions, we determined whether sulfation of the fucan is required for its localization in the rhizoid wall. This was accomplished,by

William E. Hogsett; Ralph S. Quatrano

221

Adaptation of the Common Ice Plant to High Copper and Zinc Concentrations and Their Potential Using for Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative halophite Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (the common ice plant) was shown to grow successively at the high concentrations of Cu and Zn. Although 25 µM CuSO4 or 800 µM ZnSO4 retarded markedly plant growth, they did not interfere with the completion of plant development and the formation of viable\\u000a seeds. In such plants, leaves accumulated more than 200 µg

V. P. Kholodova; K. S. Volkov; Vl. V. Kuznetsov

2005-01-01

222

Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [?4IdoA(2-Sulfate)?-1?3GalNAc(4-Sulfate)?-1?] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we have reported the presence of highly sulfated dermatans in solitary ascidians from the orders Phlebobranchia (Phallusia nigra) and Stolidobranchia (Halocynthia pyriformis and Styela plicata). Despite the identical disaccharide backbone, consisting of [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?], those polymers differ in the position of sulfation on the N-Acetyl galactosamine, which can occur at carbon 4 or 6. We have shown that position rather than degree of sulfation is important for heparin cofactor II activity. As a consequence, 2,4- and 2,6-sulfated dermatans have high and low heparin cofactor II activities, respectively. In the present study we extended the disaccharide analysis of ascidian dermatan sulfates to additional species of the orders Stolidobranchia (Herdmania pallida, Halocynthia roretzi) and Phlebobranchia (Ciona intestinalis), aiming to investigate how sulfation evolved within Tunicata. In addition, we analysed how heparin cofactor II activity responds to dermatan sulfates containing different proportions of 2,6- or 2,4-disulfated units. Results Disaccharide analyses indicated a high content of disulfated disaccharide units in the dermatan sulfates from both orders. However, the degree of sulfation decreased from Stolidobranchia to Phlebobranchia. While 76% of the disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from stolidobranch ascidians are disulfated, 53% of disulfated disaccharides are found in dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians. Besides this notable difference in the sulfation degree, dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians contain mainly 2,6-sulfated disaccharides whereas dermatan sulfate from the stolidobranch ascidians contain mostly 2,4-sulfated disaccharides, suggesting that the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfates might be differently regulated during tunicates evolution. Changes in the position of sulfation on N-acetylgalactosamine in the disaccharide [?4IdoA(2-Sulfate)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?] modulate heparin cofactor II activity of dermatan sulfate polymers. Thus, high and low heparin cofactor II stimulating activity is observed in 2,4-sulfated dermatan sulfates and 2,6-sulfated dermatan sulfates, respectively, confirming the clear correlation between the anticoagulant activities of dermatan sulfates and the presence of 2,4-sulfated units. Conclusions Our results indicate that in ascidian dermatan sulfates the position of sulfation on the GalNAc in the disaccharide [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc?-1?] is directly related to the taxon and that the 6-O sulfation is a novelty apparently restricted to the Phlebobranchia. We also show that the increased content of [?4IdoA(2S)?-1?3GalNAc(4S)?-1?] disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from Stolidobranchia accounts for the increased heparin cofactor II stimulating activity. PMID:21619699

2011-01-01

223

Salts of Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE green tint referred to by ``S.'' (supra) as imparted by zinc sulphate to the Bunsen flame is only observed whilst the water of crystallisation contained in the salt is being given off; the dry salt which remains imparts no colour to the flame. It therefore appears probable that the green colouration of the flame is caused by very finely

W. Bott

1880-01-01

224

Zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first experiments on the production of zinc oxide whiskers in air without crystallization chambers\\u000a or reactors, using CO2-laser radiation. The features of their exciton luminescence are studied, and they are compared with bulk single crystals\\u000a and epitaxial layers of Zno.

B. M. Ataev; I. K. Kamilov; V. V. Mamedov

1997-01-01

225

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

226

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

227

Parameterization of sulfate removal by precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of sulfate in precipitation is predicted to be directly proportional to the sulfate concentration of the air ingested into the cloud and inversely proportional to cloud water concentration. In addition, for light to moderate precipitation rates, the removal of airborne sulfate by precipitation is forecast to be strongly dependent upon the mechanism of precipitation formation. If the precipitation

B. C. Scott

1978-01-01

228

Zinc Supplementation with Polaprezinc Protects Mouse Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity via Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70.  

PubMed

Polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine, is clinically used as a medicine for gastric ulcers. It has been shown that induction of heat shock protein (HSP) is involved in protective effects of polaprezinc against gastric mucosal injury. In the present study, we investigated whether polaprezinc and its components could induce HSP70 and prevent acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with polaprezinc, zinc sulfate or l-carnosine at the concentration of 100 microM for 9 h, and then exposed to 10 mM APAP. Polaprezinc or zinc sulfate increased cellular HSP70 expression. However, l-carnosine had no influence on it. Pretreatment of the cells with polaprezinc or zinc sulfate significantly suppressed cell death as well as cellular lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment. In contrast, pretreatment with polaprezinc did not affect decrease in intracellular glutathione after APAP. Furthermore, treatment with KNK437, an HSP inhibitor, attenuated increase in HSP70 expression induced by polaprezinc, and abolished protective effect of polaprezinc on cell death after APAP. These results suggested that polaprezinc, in particular its zinc component, induces HSP70 expression in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes, and inhibits lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP toxicity. PMID:20104264

Nishida, Tadashi; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Nakada, Junya; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

2010-01-01

229

Zinc Supplementation with Polaprezinc Protects Mouse Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity via Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70  

PubMed Central

Polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine, is clinically used as a medicine for gastric ulcers. It has been shown that induction of heat shock protein (HSP) is involved in protective effects of polaprezinc against gastric mucosal injury. In the present study, we investigated whether polaprezinc and its components could induce HSP70 and prevent acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with polaprezinc, zinc sulfate or l-carnosine at the concentration of 100 µM for 9 h, and then exposed to 10 mM APAP. Polaprezinc or zinc sulfate increased cellular HSP70 expression. However, l-carnosine had no influence on it. Pretreatment of the cells with polaprezinc or zinc sulfate significantly suppressed cell death as well as cellular lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment. In contrast, pretreatment with polaprezinc did not affect decrease in intracellular glutathione after APAP. Furthermore, treatment with KNK437, an HSP inhibitor, attenuated increase in HSP70 expression induced by polaprezinc, and abolished protective effect of polaprezinc on cell death after APAP. These results suggested that polaprezinc, in particular its zinc component, induces HSP70 expression in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes, and inhibits lipid peroxidation after APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP toxicity. PMID:20104264

Nishida, Tadashi; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Nakada, Junya; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

2010-01-01

230

High-dose zinc to terminate angina pectoris: a review and hypothesis for action by ICAM inhibition.  

PubMed

We reviewed the literature related to the effects of high-dose zinc in arteriosclerosis-induced angina pectoris. Lipid peroxidation and LDL oxidation are believed to be critical for arteriosclerosis, and consequently angina pectoris. Administration of biologically available zinc was a beneficial treatment in a significant percentage of patients with severely symptomatic, inoperable atherosclerotic disease. In these patients, there was no difference in zinc concentration between patients with and without atherosclerosis in whole blood, erythocytes or hair, but there was a major difference between normal aorta and diseased aortas (40.6 ppm zinc in normal aorta vs. 23.2 ppm zinc in atherosclerotic aorta, 40.6 ppm zinc in normal aorta vs. 19.4 ppm zinc in atherosclerotic aneurysm aorta, and no difference between normal and aneurysm aorta), although copper was low in aneurysm aorta. Medication with high-dose zinc sulfate to raise zinc serum concentrations from 95 to 177 microg/dl resulted in objective improvement in 12 of 16 of these patients, including a patient that also had Raynaud's disease. Long term environmental exposure to zinc resulted in a 40% reduction in the incidence of angina of effort compared to people not exposed to environmental zinc (P<0.01) and a 40% reduction in the incidence of probable ischemia in exercise (P<0.001). Lead had no effect while cadmium exposure resulted in more than tripling the incidence of angina of effort (P<0.001). The antioxidative action of zinc prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol and consequently stops the main mechanism of atherogenesis. Zinc blocks calcium and its several actions on atherogenesis. Increased amounts of cytotoxic cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-beta and IL-8, often produced in the elderly, are blocked by high-dose zinc. We hypothesize that higher serum concentrations of LDL cholesterol resulting from administration of 300 mg of zinc per day is caused by a release of low density cholesterol from cardiovascular tissues, beneficially flushing it into the serum where it is readily observed, thus decreasing arteriosclerosis, increasing circulation, terminating angina pectoris and restoring more youthful cardiac function. Although prevention of cholesterol-induced arteriosclerosis by zinc is predicted from findings related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, removal of LDL might be attributable to action of ionic zinc on ICAM inhibition. In stark contrast to current practice, high-dose zinc should be considered as basic in the strategy of prophylaxis and therapy of the atherosclerosis process to terminate angina pectoris and restore youthful cardiac function. PMID:16084666

Eby, George A; Halcomb, William W

2006-01-01

231

Alterations in glycosaminoglycan concentration and sulfation during chondrocyte maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used antibodies to chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate and keratan sulfate along with Alcian blue staining of sulfated proteoglycans to investigate changes in content and sulfation within the avian growth plate. In normal chicks, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate content were similar in the proliferating and transitional zones but in the hypertrophic zone, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate were slightly lower

C. Farquharson; C. C. Whitehead; N. Loveridge

1994-01-01

232

Long-term effects of a combination of D-penicillamine and zinc salts in the treatment of Wilson’s disease in children  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a high-dose zinc sulfate and low-dose D-penicillamine combination in the treatment of pediatric Wilson’s disease (WD). A retropective chart review of 65 patients with WD was conducted. These patients received D-penicillamine (8–10 mg/kg/day) and zinc sulfate as the primary treatment. The pediatric dose of elemental zinc is 68–85 mg/day until 6 years of age, 85–136 mg/day until 8 years of age, 136–170 mg/day until 10 years of age and then 170 mg/day, in 3 divided doses 1 h before meals. After clinical and biochemical improvement or stabilization, zinc sulfate alone was administered as the maintenance therapy. Under treatment, the majority of patients (89.2%) had a favourable outcome and 3 patients succumbed due to poor therapy compliance. No penicillamine-induced neurological deterioration was noted and side-effects were observed in <11% of patients over the entire follow-up period. Benefical results on the liver and neurological symptoms were reported following extremely long-term treatment with a combination of low-dose D-penicillamine and high-dose zinc sulfate. Therefore, this regimen is an effective and safe treatment for children with WD. PMID:23599735

CHANG, HONG; XU, AIJING; CHEN, ZHIHONG; ZHANG, YING; TIAN, FEI; LI, TANG

2013-01-01

233

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

234

Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

2006-01-01

235

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

236

Anticoagulant motifs of marine sulfated glycans.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides, like the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin, are known to exhibit anticoagulant properties when certain structural features are present. The structural requirement for this action is well-established for heparin, in which a pentasaccharide motif plays a key role for keeping the high-affinity interaction to antithrombin. Over the last years of this glycomic era, several novel anticoagulant sulfated glycans have been described. Those from marine sources have been awakening special attention mainly because of their impressive anticoagulant effects together with structural uniqueness. The commonest of these glycans are the sulfated fucans (SFs), the sulfated galactans (SGs), and the marine invertebrate GAGs like the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and ascidian dermatan sulfate. Since these marine sulfated glycans do not bear within their polymeric chains the specific pentasaccharide motif of heparin, other structural features must be necessary to trigger the anticoagulant effect. The objective of this report is to present the anticoagulant motifs of the marine SFs, SGs and GAGs. PMID:24838988

Pomin, Vitor H

2014-07-01

237

Sulfate ingress in Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.c [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratory of Study of Concrete and Clay Behaviour, CEA Saclay, Batiment 158, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Schmidt, Thomas [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Leterrier, Nikos [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SFME, Laboratory of Simulation of Flows and Transport, CEA Saclay, Batiment 454, 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

2010-08-15

238

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

1987-08-25

239

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1987-01-01

240

Stability studies of chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

The stability of chondroitin sulfate (CS) was studied under acidic, neutral and basic conditions at 30 and 60 degrees C. CS is remarkably stable under neutral conditions at low temperature, while it degrades at 60 degrees C producing low-molecular-mass fragments and desulfated products. This decomposition process begins at ca. 500-600 h and is consistent with an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages caused by a drop in pH resulting from acidic products. Under basic conditions, a breakdown of glycosidic linkages causes a decrease in molecular mass due to the beta-elimination reaction, confirmed by a strong increase of absorbance at 232 nm and 1H NMR. Virtually no loss of O-sulfate groups can be detected in the base-treated CS. Under acidic conditions, the molecular mass decreases probably through hydrolysis of polysaccharidic linkages resulting in an increased number of reducing end groups. Little or no beta-elimination occurs. A loss of O-sulfate groups was detected, producing desulfated derivatives. PMID:10399305

Volpi, N; Mucci, A; Schenetti, L

1999-02-28

241

Infrared study of sulfated silica  

SciTech Connect

Surface sulfates on silica can be formed via impregnation with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ followed by activation under vacuum at 100 or 250/sup 0/C, respectively. Oxygen-18 isotopic exchange has shown that the structure is (SiO)/sub 2/SO/sub 2/ (II) which has two terminal S=O bonds, unlike the (SiO)/sub 3/SO species (I) which the authors previously showed to exist on sulfated Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TiO/sub 2/. Species II is not stable and decomposes significantly upon heating beyond 250/sup 0/C, and its decomposition is total beyond 500/sup 0/C. Addition of SO/sub 3/ to silica activated at 450 or 650/sup 0/C produces, in addition to II, a surface SiOSO/sub 3/H species (III), and, in the presence of excess SO/sub 3/, a weakly held species. Unlike Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or TiO/sub 2/, silica cannot be sulfated by heating in the presence of H/sub 2/S or SO/sub 2/ with an excess of O/sub 2/. 19 references.

Morrow, B.A.; McFarlane, R.A.; Lion, M.; Lavalley, J.C.

1987-09-01

242

Reduced Sulfation of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Heparan Sulfate in Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes. PMID:23757342

Reine, Trine M.; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G.; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian

2013-01-01

243

Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function  

PubMed Central

Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by Type I Herpes Simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. PMID:24361527

Thacker, Bryan E.; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

244

Salivary zinc as an index of zinc status in women fed a low-zinc diet1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a low-zinc diet on saliva and plasma levels was studied in 12 healthy young women. A diet low in zinc (3.2mg\\/day) was fed to the subjects for 22 days.Subjects were determined to be in satisfactory zinc status via analysis of the zinc levels of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. During the low-zinc diet, concentrations of zinc

Jeanne H. Freeland; Pamela J. Hendrickson; M. Lavone Ebangit; Jeanne V. Snowden

245

Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the plateau.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

246

Lead, zinc, and their alloys  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in the technology and applications of lead and its alloys include improved batteries for electric vehicles, and lead-containing dampers that impart earthquake resistance to buildings and highway structures. For zinc, notable accomplishments include further development of zinc-coated steels for automotive and construction applications, and development of an extrusion process for zinc over steel pipe in the oil production industry.

Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-10-01

247

[Beneficial effect of zinc supplementation on pruritus in hemodialysis patients with special reference to changes in serum histamine levels].  

PubMed

Persistent pruritus is one of the most common symptoms in hemodialysis patients. The cause of pruritus is not known, and conventional treatment for pruritus is rarely helpful. Some authors thought that release of histamine from increased mast cells in uremic patients was the cause of pruritus. On the other hand, there have been a number of reports suggesting that uremic patients are zinc deficient. In vitro as well as in vivo studies have demonstrated that zinc has an inhibitory effect on various functions of some cells, such as histamine release from mast cells. In this study, we examined the serum zinc and histamine levels in 19 hemodialysis patients with persistent pruritus and the effect of zinc supplementation on the pruritus. In patients with pruritus, the serum zinc level decreased and serum histamine level increased, showing a negative correlation between them. Oral zinc sulfate, 445 mg daily for two months, relieved pruritus subjectively in 53% of the patients. After treatment, serum histamine levels decreased significantly, as well as serum zinc levels increased significantly. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency participates in increased histamine levels in dialysis patients, and subsequently in the development of uremic pruritus. PMID:3448919

Sanada, S; Kuze, M; Yoshida, O

1987-12-01

248

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet  

E-print Network

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

249

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2011-04-01

250

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2014-04-01

251

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2012-04-01

252

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2013-04-01

253

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...

2010-04-01

254

Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.  

PubMed

Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

2010-07-01

255

Detection of tyrosine sulfation on proteins.  

PubMed

Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification (PTM) where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine moiety. This PTM is responsible for strengthening interaction between proteins. One of the drawbacks of studying this PTM is the lack of an antibody that can detect all tyrosine-sulfated proteins. In addition, due to the labile nature of the tyrosine sulfate, other techniques such as mass spectrometry cannot be used to study this PTM unless special modification procedures are used. This requires considerable skill and knowledge of mass spectrometry. This unit describes an in vitro technique that can be used to study tyrosine-sulfated proteins by radiolabeling the recombinant protein. The protein is then subject to barium hydroxide hydrolysis and thin-layer electrophoresis (TLE). Co-localization of radioactive tyrosine-sulfate with nonradioactive tyrosine sulfate standard spiked in before TLE analysis identifies a protein as tyrosine-sulfated protein. The advantage of this technique is that, it identifies all tyrosine-sulfated proteins without any bias and is the only technique that identifies the tyrosine sulfate residues in the protein. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25829299

Kanan, Yogita; Al Ubaidi, Muayyad R

2015-01-01

256

Zinc: indications in brain disorders.  

PubMed

Zinc is the authoritative metal which is present in our body, and reactive zinc metal is crucial for neuronal signaling and is largely distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zinc also plays an important role in synaptic function. At cellular level, zinc is a modulator of synaptic activity and neuronal plasticity in both development and adulthood. Different importers and transporters are involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT-3 is a main transporter involved in zinc homeostasis in the brain. It has been found that alterations in brain zinc status have been implicated in a wide range of neurological disorders including impaired brain development and many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease. Furthermore, zinc has also been implicated in neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizure. Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is thus critical to the development of preventive and treatment strategies for these and other neurological disorders. PMID:25659970

Prakash, Atish; Bharti, Kanchan; Majeed, Abu Bakar A

2015-04-01

257

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

258

Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

2012-05-01

259

Acute zinc intoxication: comparison of the antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents.  

PubMed

Four zinc compounds (acetate, nitrate, chloride and sulfate) were administered po or ip to rats and mice. The LD50 values were determined. Animals were observed for 14 days. The majority of deaths occurred during the first 48 hr. The clinical and physical signs appearing after intoxication included miosis, conjunctivitis, decreased food and water consumption and hemorrhages and hematomas in the tail. These changes decreased with time which would suggest a quick elimination of zinc. To determine the effect of 6 chelating agents on the toxicity of zinc, various doses of zinc acetate (66-330 mg/kg) were given ip to male mice followed by the injection of one of the chelators. DTPA, D-PA, CDTA and EDTA were the most effective. CDTA and DTPA were also the most effective in increasing the urinary excretion of zinc. DTPA appears to be the most effective agent of those tested in the prevention of acute zinc intoxication. However, CDTA may be considered as a possible alternative. PMID:3388750

Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Paternain, J L; Corbella, J

1988-06-01

260

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF ZINC DYSHOMEOSTASIS IN RATS WITH CHRONIC ALDOSTERONISM  

PubMed Central

Iterations in Ca2+ and Mg2+ balance accompany aldosteronism (inappropriate for dietary Na+ intake). Increased Zn excretion and Zn translocation to injured tissues, including the heart, also occurs. Several causes and consequences of Zn dyshomeostasis in rats receiving aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST) were examined: 1) the role of urinary acidification in promoting hyperzincuria, acetazolamide (75 mg/kg), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, was used as cotreatment to raise urinary HCO3? excretion; 2) assess Zn levels in the heart, including cardiomyocyte cytosolic free [Zn2+]i and mitochondrial Zn, the expression of metallothionein (MT-I), a Zn binding protein, and biomarkers of oxidative stress; and 3) monitor oxidative stress and cardiac pathology in response to ZnSO4 supplement (40 mg/day). Compared to controls, at 4 wks ALDOST we found: an acidification of urine and metabolic alkalosis associated with increased urinary Zn excretion and hypozincemia, each of which were prevented by acetazolamide; a rise in cardiac Zn including increased [Zn2+]i and mitochondrial Zn, associated with increased tissue MT-I, 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and gp91phox, coupled with oxidative stress in plasma and urine; and ZnSO4 prevented hypozincemia, but not ionized hypocalcemia, and attenuated oxidative stress and microscopic scarring without preventing the vasculitis and perivascular fibrosis of intramural coronary arteries. Thus, the hyperzincuria seen with ALDOST is due to urinary acidification. The oxidative stress that appears in the heart is accompanied by increased tissue Zn serving as an antioxidant. Cotreatment with ZnSO4 attenuated cardiomyocyte necrosis, however, polynutrient supplement may be required to counteract the dyshomeostasis of all 3 cations that accompanies aldosteronism and contribute to cardiac pathology. PMID:18806605

Gandhi, Malay S.; Deshmukh, Prajwal A.; Kamalov, German; Zhao, Tieqiang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Whaley, Jonathan T.; Tichy, Jill R.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Weber, Karl T.

2009-01-01

261

Grafting Sulfated Zirconia on Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect

Sulfated zirconia has received considerable attention as a potential solid acid catalyst in recent years. In this paper, the preparation and properties of acid catalysts obtained by grafting ziconia with atomic precision on MCM-41 mesoporous silica were studied. TEM and potential titration characterizations revealed that ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage can be obtained using this grafting technique. Sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 exhibits improved thermal stability than that of bulk sulfated zirconia, as evidenced by temperature programmed characterizations and XRD analysis. Temperature programmed reaction of isopropanol was used to evaluate the acidity of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41. It was found that the acid strength of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage is weaker than bulk sulfated zirconia but stronger than SiO2-Al2O3, a common strong acid catalyst.

Wang, Yong; Lee, Kwan Young; Choi, Saemin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Peden, Charles HF

2007-06-01

262

Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, coagulation, and cell growth regulation. Expression of DS has been observed to increase in cancerous tissue relative to controls. In earlier studies, MS2 was used to compare the types of CS/DS isomers present in biological samples. The results demonstrated that product ion abundances reflect the types of CS/DS repeats present and can be used quantitatively. It was not clear, however, to which of the CS/DS repeats the product ions abundances were sensitive. The present work explores the utility of MS3 for structural characterization of CS/DS oligosaccharides. The data show that MS3 product ion abundances correlate with the presence of DS-like repeats in specific positions on the oligosaccharide chains. PMID:21860601

Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

2010-01-01

263

Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered. PMID:20807646

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

2013-01-01

264

Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

2005-01-01

265

Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a laboratory study on the sulfate resistance of blended cement combination of reference Portland cement with high volume ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and natural pozzolan (NP). The exposure solutions were tap water containing 5% magnesium sulfate solution and 5% sodium sulfate solution. Two types of grinding method (separately grinding and intergrinding, two finenesses (250m2\\/kg and 500m2\\/kg)

Hanifi Binici; Orhan Akso?an

2006-01-01

266

Biotechnological Treatment of Sulfate-Rich Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-rich wastewaters are generated by many industrial processes that use sulfuric acid or sulfate-rich feed stocks (e.g., fermentation or sea food processing industry). Also, the use of reduced sulfur compounds in industry, that is, sulfide (tanneries, kraft pulping), sulfite (sulfite pulping), or thiosulfate (pulp bleaching, fixing of photographs), contaminates wastewaters with sulfate. A major problem for the biological treatment of

P. N. L. Lens; A. Visser; A. J. H. Janssen; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

1998-01-01

267

Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage.

Bambic, D.G.; Alpers, C.N.; Green, P.G.; Fanelli, E.; Silk, W.K.

2006-01-01

268

Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A. PMID:22140285

Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

2011-01-01

269

Fluidized Bed Selective Oxidation-Sulfation Roasting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrate: Part II. Sulfation Roasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluidized bed sulfation roasting process followed by water leaching was investigated as an alternative process to treat nickel sulfide concentrate for nickel production. The effects of several roasting parameters, such as the sulfation gas flow rate, roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, and the roasting time, were studied. 79 pct Ni, 91 pct Cu, and 95 pct Co could be recovered with minimal dissolution of Fe of 4 pct by water leaching after two-stage oxidation-sulfation roasting under optimized conditions. The sulfation roasting mechanism was investigated, showing that the outermost layer of sulfate melt and the porous iron oxide layer create a favorable sulfation environment with high partial pressure of SO3. Sulfation of the sulfide core was accompanied by the conversion of the sulfide from Ni1- x S to Ni7S6 as well as inward diffusion of the sulfation gas.

Yu, Dawei; Utigard, Torstein A.; Barati, Mansoor

2014-04-01

270

Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

2013-10-15

271

A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

Sullivan, Thomas A.

1992-01-01

272

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

273

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

2013-01-01

274

Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class

Sunandan Baruah; Joydeep Dutta

2011-01-01

275

Multipod zinc oxide nanowhiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanowhiskers with multipod structures have been fabricated on copper-coated Si wafer by sintering the mixture of ZnO and graphite powders in air. The multipod nanowhisker shows tetrapod, tripod and hexapod morphologies with legs of 100-500 nm in diameter and several microns in length. The legs of the multipod nanowhisker intercross at a central knot of the whisker. The octahedron twin nucleus is responsible for the tetrapod structure and possibly responsible for the tripod structure as well. The hexapod structure is due to a stacked nucleus of two octahedron nuclei.

Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.

2005-04-01

276

Influence of glucose on production and N-sulfation of heparan sulfate in cultured adipocyte cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered lipoprotein lipase regulation associated with diabetes leading to the development of hypertriglyceridemia might be attributed to possible changes in content and the fine structure of heparan sulfate and its associated lipoprotein lipase. Adipocyte cell surface is the primary site of synthesis of lipoprotein lipase and the enzyme is bound to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans via heparan sulfate side

Narayanan Parthasarathy; Lisa F. Gotow; James D. Bottoms; Joseph C. Obunike; A. Naggi; Benito Casu; Ira J. Goldberg; William D. Wagner

2000-01-01

277

Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

2001-01-01

278

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2012-04-01

279

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2014-04-01

280

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2011-04-01

281

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2013-04-01

282

Zinc Deficiency in Sickle Cell Disease  

E-print Network

Clinical similarities between patients with sickle cell anemia and zinc-deficient subjects suggested a secon-dary zinc deficiency in sickle cell anemia. Zinc was as-sayed in various biological fluids and tissues by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zinc in the plasma, erythrocytes, and hair was

A S. Prasad; Eric B. Schoomaker; Jesus Ortega; George J. Brewer; Donald Oberleas; Fred J. Oelshlegel

1974-01-01

283

Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

2005-01-01

284

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-print Network

The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

1994-01-01

285

21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...neomycin sulfate per pound of body weight per day for a maximum of 14...be adjusted to compensate for variation in age and weight of animal, the nature...neomycin sulfate per pound of body weight per day for a maximum of 14...

2010-04-01

286

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2012-04-01

287

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2013-04-01

288

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2014-04-01

289

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

2011-04-01

290

Acute toxicity of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc), phenol and sodium on Allium cepa L., Lepidium sativum L. and Daphnia magna St.: Comparative investigations and the practical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations of the effects of various heavy metal: Cu (as CuSO4), Pb (as Pb(NO3)2) and Zn (as ZnSO4), phenol and Na (as Na2SO4 and NaCl) concentrations on root length of onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), as well as on the survival rate of great water flea (Daphnia magna St.) showed varied sensitivity of

Milan B. Arambaši?; Sabrija Bjeli?; Gordana Subakov

1995-01-01

291

21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129...Food Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

292

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2011-07-01

293

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2010-07-01

295

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2012-07-01

296

40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 ...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject to...

2014-07-01

297

Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction  

E-print Network

Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

Sim, Min Sub

2012-01-01

298

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

299

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

300

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2010-04-01

301

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2014-04-01

302

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2010-04-01

303

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

304

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

305

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

306

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

307

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

308

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2014-04-01

309

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

310

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2010-04-01

311

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

312

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

313

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

314

21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

315

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

317

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

318

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2014-04-01

319

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

320

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

322

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

323

TES Observations of the Global Distribution of Sulfate on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global set of TES spectra was deconvolved using endmembers including a laboratory cemented sulfate soil. Good matches are found to the cemented sulfate and appear to represent detection of spatially-coherent regions of cemented sulfates on Mars.

C. D. Cooper; J. F. Mustard

2001-01-01

324

Sulfates on Mars: Comparing TES and ISM Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISM 3 µm water band strengths are compared to TES spectral features that fit cemented sulfate soils. Sulfate endmember exists only with high water abundances, strengthening the argument for sulfate detection.

C. D. Cooper; J. F. Mustard

2002-01-01

325

21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129...Food Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

2013-04-01

327

21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

2012-04-01

328

21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

2011-04-01

329

Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

PubMed Central

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field. PMID:20606213

Hershfinkel, Michal; Aizenman, Elias; Andrews, Glen; Sekler, Israel

2010-01-01

330

Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

Bliss, Mary

2013-11-30

331

Metabolic flexibility of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter. Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200??M, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the ?-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life. In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment. PMID:21734907

Plugge, Caroline M; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C M; Stams, Alfons J M

2011-01-01

332

Complex Sulfate Deposits in Coprates Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of layered sulfate-containing deposits in the Coprates Chasma region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1827UTC (1:27 p.m. EST) on December 12, 2006 near 10.2 degrees south latitude, 68.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

Coprates Chasma forms part of the backbone of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 966 kilometers (600 miles), and is one of the larger chasmata in the Valles Marineris system.

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a knob near the chasma's northern wall.

The center left image, an infrared false color image, shows the knob's layered morphology. The center right image unveils the mineralogical signatures of some of those layers, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple representing polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 3 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits relate to that topography. Darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the knob's western flank. Brighter, monohydrated sulfates (yellow) appear to be superimposed on polyhydrated sulfate deposits in the southwest corner of the image. These coarsely banded deposits continue along the southeast side of the knob.

There are two possible explanations for the compositional banding of these sulfates. The first is deposition of mono- and polyhydrated sulfates in alternating layers. The second is deposition of just one sulfate type, and its subsequent alteration by weathering at the exposed, eroded surface. Further observations and analysis will better determine the origin of these complex banded sulfate deposits.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

333

Review: Zinc’s functional significance in the vertebrate retina  

PubMed Central

This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn2+ that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a great deal of relevant information has been garnered from studies in which Zn2+ was chelated, and the effects of its removal compared with findings obtained in its presence. For a more complete discussion of the consequences of depletion or excess in the body’s trace elements, the reader is referred to a recent review by Ugarte et al. in which they provide a detailed account of the interactions, toxicity, and metabolic activity of the essential trace elements iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease. In addition, Smart et al. have published a splendid review on the modulation by zinc of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels. PMID:25324679

Chappell, Richard L.

2014-01-01

334

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2003. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

335

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1999. Of zinc metal

336

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about zinc metal of commercial grade in 2000. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois, Indiana

337

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2005. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

338

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2  

E-print Network

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

339

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2006, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2006, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2006. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used

340

Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

1995-01-01

341

p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. Methods We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. Results The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p-cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. Conclusion The levels of the uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by probiotics on the reduction of uremic toxins in pediatric dialysis patients. Therefore, studies for other medical intervention to reduce uremic toxins are also necessary in pediatric patients on dialysis. PMID:23646054

Hyun, Hye Sun; Paik, Kyung Hoon

2013-01-01

342

Phyllosilicate and Hydrated Sulfate Deposits in Meridiani  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several phyllosilicate and hydrated sulfate deposits in Meridiani have been mapped in detail with high resolution MRO CRISM [1] data. Previous studies have documented extensive exposures of outcrop in Meridiani (fig 1), or etched terrain (ET), that has been interpreted to be sedimentary in origin [e.g., 2,3]. These deposits have been mapped at a regional scale with OMEGA data and show enhanced hydration (1.9 m absorption) in several areas [4]. However, hydrated sulfate detections were restricted to valley exposures in northern Meridiani ET [5]. New high resolution CRISM images show that hydrated sulfates are present in several spatially isolated exposures throughout the ET (fig 1). The hydrated sulfate deposits in the valley are vertically heterogeneous with layers of mono and polyhydrated sulfates and are morphologically distinct from other areas of the ET. We are currently mapping the detailed spatial distribution of sulfates and searching for distinct geochemical horizons that may be traced back to differential ground water recharge and/or evaporative loss rates. The high resolution CRISM data has allowed us to map out several phyllosilicate deposits within the fluvially dissected Noachian cratered terrain (DCT) to the south and west of the hematite-bearing plains (Ph) and ET (fig 1). In Miyamoto crater, phyllosilicates are located within 30km of the edge of Ph, which is presumably underlain by acid sulfate deposits similar to those explored by Opportunity. The deposits within this crater may record the transition from fluvial conditions which produced and/or preserved phyllosilicates deposits to a progressively acid sulfate dominated groundwater system in which large accumulations of sulfate-rich evaporites were deposited .

Wiseman, S. M.; Avidson, R. E.; Murchie, S.; Poulet, F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F. P.

2008-01-01

343

Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate provides insights into the atmospheric chemical processing of volcanic plumes. First, mass-independent isotopic anomalies quantified by ?17O and to a lesser extent ?33S and ?36S in sulfate depend on the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms that generate sulfate aerosols. Second, the isotopic composition of sulfate (?34S and ?18O) could be an indicator of fractionation (distillation/condensation) processes occurring in volcanic plumes. Here we present analyses of O- and S isotopic compositions of volcanic sulfate absorbed on very fresh volcanic ash from nine moderate historical eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of our volcanic sulfate samples, which are thought to have been generated in the troposphere or in the tropopause region, do not exhibit any significant mass-independent fractionation (MIF) isotopic anomalies, apart from those from an eruption of a Mexican volcano. Coupled to simple chemistry model calculations representative of the background atmosphere, our data set suggests that although H2O2 (a MIF-carrying oxidant) is thought to be by far the most efficient sulfur oxidant in the background atmosphere, it is probably quickly consumed in large dense tropospheric volcanic plumes. We estimate that in the troposphere, at least, more than 90% of volcanic secondary sulfate is not generated by MIF processes. Volcanic S-bearing gases, mostly SO2, appear to be oxidized through channels that do not generate significant isotopically mass-independent sulfate, possibly via OH in the gas phase and/or transition metal ion catalysis in the aqueous phase. It is also likely that some of the sulfates sampled were not entirely produced by atmospheric oxidation processes but came out directly from volcanoes without any MIF anomalies.

Martin, Erwan; Bekki, Slimane; Ninin, Charlotte; Bindeman, Ilya

2014-11-01

344

Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old) male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12) or three treatment groups each containing twelve animals. Animals in the first treatment group was gavaged with copper sulfate, the second treatment group was injected with zinc sulfate, and the third treatment group was given combined treatment of copper and zinc. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar methods. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on day 28 and 56 after treatments for sperm quality evaluations. Results: In spite of testicular weight reduction 56 days after copper consumption in comparison to the control group (p=0.002), there was not a significant difference between the control and combined treatment of copper and zinc group (31.40±0.55 vs. 28.63±0.55, p=0.151). Administration of copper caused a significant decrease in the sperm count, viability and motility after 56 days compared to the control group. However, a complete recovery in sperm count was seen in combined treatment of copper and zinc group after 56 days compared to the control group (p=0.999) and a partial improvement was seen about the percentage of viability and motility (p<0.001). Conclusion: Adverse effects of long term consumption of copper on sperm quality could be prevented by zinc therapy in rats. PMID:24639793

Babaei, Homayoon; Abshenas, Jalil

2013-01-01

345

Sulfate contamination in groundwater near an abandoned mine: hydrogeochemical modeling, microbiology, and isotope geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Sulfide oxidation in a carbonate environment produces a groundwater problem similar to acid mine drainage, except the contaminant is sulfate. An example of this little-studied phenomenon occurred around the zinc-lead mines near Shullsburg, Wisconsin. Sulfate concentrations as high as 40 mmol/l (16 times the safe drinking water level) were found after the mines closed in 1979 and 11 wells were abandoned. The 1983 groundwater flow pattern showed groundwater flowing toward the mines to fill the cone of depression created by dewatering of the mines, thus localizing contamination. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed which predicts groundwater will begin flowing away from the mines between 1989 and 1994. However, sulfate levels should remain low in areas distant from the mines because of dilution of sulfate. Geochemical modeling of chemical reactions and isotope effects using the USGS computer program PHREEQE showed the importance of dolomite, calcite, CO/sub 2/, and iron hydroxides in controlling the water chemistry. Microbiological sampling and sulfur isotopes indicated that Thiobacillus bacteria that thrive under neutral pH conditions may be involved in the oxidation process. Acidophilic bacteria such as T. ferrooxidans were also found. The role of biological factors in oxidation was further investigated by oxidizing a variety of sulfide minerals in the presence of carbonate buffer. The oxygen isotope ratios from both inoculated and sterile experiments indicated a large portion of sulfate oxygen comes from water rather than atmospheric oxygen. The possibility of multiple reaction pathways makes it difficult to use oxygen isotopes to distinguish mechanisms of oxidation.

Toran, L.E.

1986-01-01

346

The zinc repository of Cupriavidus metallidurans.  

PubMed

Zinc is a central player in the metalloproteomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We used a bottom-up quantitative proteomic approach to reveal the repository of the zinc pools in the proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans. About 60% of the theoretical proteome of C. metallidurans was identified, quantified, and the defect in zinc allocation was compared between a ?zupT mutant and its parent strain. In both strains, the number of zinc-binding proteins and their binding sites exceeded that of the zinc ions per cell, indicating that the totality of the zinc proteome provides empty binding sites for the incoming zinc ions. This zinc repository plays a central role in zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans and probably also in other organisms. PMID:25315396

Herzberg, Martin; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Helm, Stefan; Baginsky, Sacha; Nies, Dietrich H

2014-11-01

347

Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

2010-01-01

348

Biological activities of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate was isolated from two bivalve mollusks such as Tridacna maxima and Perna viridis. The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2g/kg (crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (purified) in T. maxima and P. viridis, respectively. Both the bivalves showed the anticoagulant activity of the crude and purified sample as 20,128 USP units/kg and 7.4 USP units/mg, 39,000 USP units/kg and 75 USP units/mg, 9460 USP units/kg and 4.3 USP units/mg, and 13,392 USP units/kg and 54 USP units/mg correspondingly in T. maxima and P. viridis. The antiproliferative activity that was studied with pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells using RPMI media reported that the result is in a dose-dependent manner. Among the two clams, P. viridis showed more antiproliferative activity than that of T. maxima. PMID:25081081

Arumugam, Muthuvel; Giji, Sadhasivam

2014-01-01

349

21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

2011-04-01

350

21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

2013-04-01

352

21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

2012-04-01

353

Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.  

PubMed Central

Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases, and for establishing correlations of structure and function with other important zinc-containing proteins. PMID:6370679

Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; Mills, C; Sadler, P J; Jörnvall, H

1984-01-01

354

Sulfate metabolism in Tuber borchii : characterization of a putative sulfate transporter and the homocysteine synthase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homocysteine synthase (tbhos) and putative sulfate transporter (tbsul1) genes have been characterized in order to understand the sulfate metabolism and regulation in the ectomycorrhizal fungus\\u000a Tuber borchii. The analyses of tbsul1 and tbhos nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of the typical domains shown in homologous proteins.\\u000a Sulfate starvation condition upregulates both genes. The real-time

Sabrina Zeppa; C. Marchionni; R. Saltarelli; C. Guidi; P. Ceccaroli; R. Pierleoni; A. Zambonelli; V. Stocchi

2010-01-01

355

SAMPLING PARAMETERS FOR SULFATE MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluations of critical sampling parameters have been performed for primary sulfate measurement and characterization with a selective condensation method. It was found that filtration temperature and sampling flow rate were the critical parameters and that sampling conducted usin...

356

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

357

21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfate ((NH4 )2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The...

2010-04-01

358

Sulfate attack on alkali-activated slag concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation into durability of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete in sulfate environment. Two tests were used to determine resistance of AAS concrete to sulfate attack. These tests involved immersion in 5% magnesium sulfate and 5% sodium sulfate solutions. The main parameters studied were evolution of compressive strength, products of degradation, and microstructural changes. After 12 months of

T. Bakharev; J. G. Sanjayan; Y.-B. Cheng

2002-01-01

359

Screening of iron- and zinc-enriched yeast strain and optimization of cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae LN-17 was selected from 26 kinds of primary yeast strains that belong to different genera and species. The iron- and zinc-enriched capability of strain LN-17 was higher than the others. The highest iron and zinc contents of the strain were obtained when the strain grew up under the following conditions: The strain was incubated (5%, v/v) in 50 mL wort medium (pH 6.0) with 100 mg/L Fe ion and 120 mg/L Zn ion. The medium was loaded into a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and shaken in a rotary shaker (200 rpm) at 30°C for 60 h. Ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate were chosen as the source of Fe and Zn. The Fe and Zn contents of the dry cells were determined by atomic absorption spectrum analysis. Under the optimized cultivation conditions, the Fe and Zn contents reached 7.854 mg/g dry cells and 4.976 mg/g dry cells. PMID:21660867

Wang, Zhanyong; Zhang, Jing; Su, Tingting; Guan, Zhuanfei; Ji, Man

2011-01-01

360

Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction.  

PubMed Central

We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 mumol liter-1 day-1. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol greater than 3-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol. PMID:2094244

Häggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1990-01-01

361

Interface-mediated synthesis of monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles with sulfate-reducing bacterium culture.  

PubMed

We have created a new method of ZnS nanospheres synthesis. By interface-mediated precipitation method (IMPM), monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles was synthesized on the particle surface of sulfate-reducing bacterium nutritious agar culture. Sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) was used as a sulfide producer because of its dissimilatory sulfate reduction capability, meanwhile produced a variety of amino acids acting as templates for nanomaterials synthesis. Then zinc acetate was dispersed into nutritious agar plate. Subsequently agar plate was broken into particles bearing much external surface, which successfully mediated the synthesis of monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles. The morphology of monodisperse ZnS nanospheres and SRB were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermostability of ZnS nanoparticles was determined by thermo gravimetric-differential thermo gravimetric (TG-DTG). The maximum absorption wavelengh was analysed with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer within a range of 199-700 nm. As a result, monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, with an average diameter of 80 nm. Maximum absorption wavelengh was 228 nm, and heat decomposed temperature of monodisperse ZnS nanoparticles was 596°C. PMID:25078810

Liang, Zhanguo; Mu, Jun; Mu, Ying; Shi, Jiaming; Hao, Wenjing; Dong, Xuewei; Yu, Hongquan

2013-12-01

362

Zinc metalloregulation of the zinc finger pair domain.  

PubMed

The yeast transcriptional activator Zap1 contains two uncommon structural motifs designated zinc finger pair domains. The hallmark of this domain is the packing of two zinc finger motifs in one globular unit. One finger pair domain in Zap1 contains the AD2 transactivation domain. Zn(II) binding to this domain (ZF1/2) is kinetically labile yielding a zinc-regulated transactivator. The second finger pair domain (ZF3/4) lies within the DNA-binding domain, and it stably binds Zn(II). The goal of this study was to map the determinant conferring lability in Zn(II) binding by using finger pair chimeras. Whereas ZF2 contains the transactivation function, zinc regulation is dependent on the presence of ZF1. ZF3 can functionally replace ZF1, and a ZF3/2 finger pair retains limited zinc regulation. Replacement of ZF3 by ZF1 creating a ZF1/4 chimera was found to stably bind Zn(II), suggesting that the presence of a stable motif (ZF4) can impart binding stability on a labile motif (ZF1). Zn(II) binding in finger pair domains is dependent on the presence of both motifs. Mutations in one finger motif markedly attenuate Zn(II) binding to the second motif. Kinetic lability in Zn(II) binding was mapped to the alpha-helix of ZF2. A ZF1/ZFbeta2alpha4 chimera resembles ZF3/4 in Zn(II) binding stability in incubation studies with the Zn(II) chelators. The present results demonstrate that zinc regulation of AD activity of ZF2 is dependent on determinants in ZF1 as well as the alpha-helix segment of ZF2. PMID:16829533

Bird, Amanda J; Swierczek, Sabina; Qiao, Wei; Eide, David J; Winge, Dennis R

2006-09-01

363

Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12  

PubMed Central

The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

364

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent  

E-print Network

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393­402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc; Calcium; Fluorescence; Fluorophore; Calcium Green-1; Fura-2; Fluo-3 Zn2+ and histo- chemically reactive free Zn2+ (chelatable Zn2+). Bound zinc, which makes up

Li, Yang V.

365

Influence of the zinc concentration of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite on cytokines production by human  

E-print Network

1 Influence of the zinc concentration of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite on cytokines production osteoclasts activation. The present work studies the effect of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite particles with various concentrations of zinc on cytokines production (TNF-, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-8) by human

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other  

E-print Network

to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants. Smoking of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacumTrichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other Zinc.F., M.A.M.) Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn

367

Zinc levels after intravenous administration of zinc sulphate in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diabetic patients commonly have increased urinary excretion of zinc, although blood concentrations may be normal, lowered, or raised. We analyzed zinc levels in plasma and urine after an intravenous overload of zinc sulphate (8 mg) in 22 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 22 healthy individuals. No significant differences were found in basal levels of serum zinc in

A. Maldonado Martín; B. Gil Extremera; M. Fernfindez Soto; M. Ruiz Martínez; A. González Jiménez; A. Guijarro Morales; J. de Dios Luna del Castillo

1991-01-01

368

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2014-04-01

369

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2013-04-01

370

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2010-04-01

371

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2011-04-01

372

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2012-04-01

373

Characterisation of endogenous KRAB zinc finger proteins   

E-print Network

The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes comprise one of the largest gene families in the mammalian genome, encoding transcription factors with an N-terminal KRAB domain and C-terminal zinc ...

Crawford, Catherine

2009-01-01

374

Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664

2014-01-01

375

The mechanism of zinc tolerance in grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of zinc tolerance in non?tolerant and tolerant clones of Deschampsia caespitosa and Anthoxanthum odoratum has been investigated. Analysis of non?tolerant and tolerant clones of these two grasses showed that the tolerant roots accumulated more zinc than the non?tolerant ones. The zinc contents of the shoots of both clones were similar and contained less zinc than the roots. Compartmental

A. Brookes; J. C. Collins; D. A. Thurman

1981-01-01

376

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

377

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

378

Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

2014-01-01

379

Molecular Signature of Kappa-Carrageenan Mimics Chondroitin4Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate and Enables Interaction with Arylsulfatase B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common food additive kappa-carrageenan (?-CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide that resembles chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). All have a sulfate group on C4 of a glycoside (galactose for carrageenan and N-acetylgalactosamine for C4S), and the sulfate-bearing glycoside is linked in a ?-1,4-configuration to an unsulfated, 6-carbon sugar (galactose for carrageenan, glucuronate for C4S, and iduronate for DS). The

Sumit Bhattacharyya; Joanne K. Tobacman

380

21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

2014-04-01

381

Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

382

Silver-Zinc batteries for AUV applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-zinc batteries have been in use for years in many underwater applications. With the advent of AUVs, silver-zinc has been chosen to supply the power for various applications. Although a specialized niche, the silver-zinc electrochemistry offers advantages in size and power that are critical to certain applications.

P. Imhof

2002-01-01

383

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate  

E-print Network

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate Ravindra Pandey´tica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006-Oviedo, Spain Stoichiometric zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4 of Al2O3/Ga2O3 via the formation of zinc vacancies is predicted relative to that of ZnO in ZnAl2O4/ZnGa2

Pandey, Ravi

384

Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

385

Lead and zinc removal by laboratory-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands have the potential to trap and remove metals in mine wastewater. To determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for treating selected heavy metals in neutral mine effluent typical of lead mines, eight laboratory-scale constructed wetlands were set up to treat a synthetic, slightly alkaline, mine water containing 34.2 mg/L sulfate (SO4(2-)), 50 micrograms/L lead (Pb), and 300 micrograms/L zinc (Zn). After 45 days, one of the wetlands was switched to treat a synthetic smelter effluent with a much greater load of SO4(2-), sodium (Na+), and Pb. Temperature, hydraulic loading, and substrate composition typically did not affect treatment efficiency. The pH of the effluent was reduced from 8.0 to 8.5 to near neutral. The average removal in the eight wetlands was 90% for Pb and 72% for Zn. In wetlands operating on synthetic mine water, SO4(2-) was completely removed, likely by conversion to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the wetland operating on synthetic smelter effluent, only approximately 25% of 6 g/L influent sulfate was removed, and a breakthrough period of 4 days for Na+ was observed. Whole effluent toxicity assays on undiluted wetland effluent from wetlands treating mine and smelter water had 100% survival of fathead minnows and Daphnia magnia. Survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia was zero in undiluted effluent, but 75 to 100% survival was observed when the effluent was diluted to one-half strength. PMID:11558300

Song, Y; Fitch, M; Burken, J; Nass, L; Chilukiri, S; Gale, N; Ross, C

2001-01-01

386

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

387

Influence of Dietary Zinc Oxide and Copper Sulfate on the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem in Newly Weaned Piglets  

PubMed Central

Dietary doses of 2,500 ppm ZnO-Zn reduced bacterial activity (ATP accumulation) in digesta from the gastrointestinal tracts of newly weaned piglets compared to that in animals receiving 100 ppm ZnO-Zn. The amounts of lactic acid bacteria (MRS counts) and lactobacilli (Rogosa counts) were reduced, whereas coliforms (MacConkey counts) and enterococci (Slanetz counts, red colonies) were more numerous in animals receiving the high ZnO dose. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the colonies on MRS were dominated by three phylotypes, tentatively identified as Lactobacillus amylovorus (OTU171), Lactobacillus reuteri (OTU173), and Streptococcus alactolyticus (OTU180). The colonies on Rogosa plates were dominated by the two Lactobacillus phylotypes only. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis supported the observations of three phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria dominating in piglets receiving the low ZnO dose and of coliforms and enterococci dominating in piglets receiving the high ZnO dose. Dietary doses of 175 ppm CuSO4-Cu also reduced MRS and Rogosa counts of stomach contents, but for these animals, the numbers of coliforms were reduced in the cecum and the colon. The influence of ZnO on the gastrointestinal microbiota resembles the working mechanism suggested for some growth-promoting antibiotics, namely, the suppression of gram-positive commensals rather than potentially pathogenic gram-negative organisms. Reduced fermentation of digestible nutrients in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract may render more energy available for the host animal and contribute to the growth-promoting effect of high dietary ZnO doses. Dietary CuSO4 inhibited the coliforms and thus potential pathogens as well, but overall the observed effect of CuSO4 was limited compared to that of ZnO. PMID:15870311

Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

2005-01-01

388

Influence of Dietary Zinc Oxide and Copper Sulfate on the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem in Newly Weaned Piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary doses of 2,500 ppm ZnO-Zn reduced bacterial activity (ATP accumulation) in digesta from the gastrointestinal tracts of newly weaned piglets compared to that in animals receiving 100 ppm ZnO-Zn. The amounts of lactic acid bacteria (MRS counts) and lactobacilli (Rogosa counts) were reduced, whereas coliforms (MacConkey counts) and enterococci (Slanetz counts, red colonies) were more numerous in animals receiving

O. Hojberg; Nuria Canibe; Hanne Damgaard Poulsen; M. S. Hedemann; B. B. Jensen

2005-01-01

389

Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge near its crest also appears to be coarsely banded.

CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

390

Zinc fluxes and zinc transporter genes in chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group IIb metal zinc (Zn) is an essential dietary component that can be found in protein rich foods such as meat, seafood and legumes. Thousands of genes encoding Zn binding proteins were identified, especially after the completion of genome projects, an indication that a great number of biological processes are Zn dependent. Imbalance in Zn homeostasis was found to

Chiara Devirgiliis; Peter D. Zalewski; Giuditta Perozzi; Chiara Murgia

2007-01-01

391

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1997, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1997, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about than one-half. Three primary and five secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1997

392

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1998, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

192 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1998, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about 62%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1998

393

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

394

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of production. Two primary and 13 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

395

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal

396

Heparin-like properties of sulfated alginates with defined sequences and sulfation degrees.  

PubMed

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans have a vast range of protein interactions relevant to the development of new biomaterials and pharmaceuticals, but their characterization and application is complicated mainly due to a high structural variability and the relative difficulty to isolate large quantities of structurally homogeneous samples. Functional and versatile analogues of heparin/heparan sulfate can potentially be created from sulfated alginates, which offer structure customizability through targeted enzymatic epimerization and precise tuning of the sulfation degree. Alginates are linear polysaccharides consisting of ?-D-mannuronic acid (M) and ?-L-guluronic acid (G), derived from brown algae and certain bacteria. The M/G ratio and distribution of blocks are critical parameters for the physical properties of alginates and can be modified in vitro using mannuronic-C5-epimerases to introduce sequence patterns not found in nature. Alginates with homogeneous sequences (poly-M, poly-MG, and poly-G) and similar molecular weights were chemically sulfated and structurally characterized by the use of NMR and elemental analysis. These sulfated alginates were shown to bind and displace HGF from the surface of myeloma cells in a manner similar to heparin. We observed dependence on the sulfation degree (DS) as well as variation in efficacy based on the alginate monosaccharide sequence, relating to relative flexibility and charge density in the polysaccharide chains. Co-incubation with human plasma showed complement compatibility of the alginates and lowering of soluble terminal complement complex levels by sulfated alginates. The sulfated polyalternating (poly-MG) alginate proved to be the most reproducible in terms of precise sulfation degrees and showed the greatest relative degree of complement inhibition and HGF interaction, maintaining high activity at low DS values. PMID:24844124

Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Sundan, Anders; Espevik, Terje; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

2014-07-14

397

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

398

LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

SciTech Connect

The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.

1980-01-01

399

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

400

Tris(diisopropyl­ammonium) hydrogensulfate sulfate  

PubMed Central

The cations and anions of the title salt, 3C6H16N+·HSO4 ?·SO4 2?, are linked by N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The hydrogensulfate ion, with a single S—O(H) bond of 1.563?(2)?Å, forms a short O—H?O hydrogen bond [O?O = 2.609?(2)?Å] to the sulfate ion. The hydrogensulfate ion accepts two hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to four cations. The sulfate ion is disordered approximately equally over two sites related by rotation around one of the O—S bonds. PMID:21203267

Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein Sh.; Amini, Mostafa M.; Khavasi, Hamid Reza; Ng, Seik Weng

2008-01-01

401

Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties.Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Typical SEM images, TGA curves and XRD patterns of as-prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04166f

Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

2014-10-01

402

Zinc transport and diabetes risk.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes. PMID:24675520

Pearson, Ewan

2014-04-01

403

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

404

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

1980-03-13

405

40 CFR 415.130 - Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.130 Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory....

2011-07-01

406

40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory....

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory....

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170...Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a...polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (PMN...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory....

2013-07-01

410

40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170...Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a...polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (PMN...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory....

2011-07-01

412

40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418...Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

413

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2010-04-01

414

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2013-04-01

415

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2011-04-01

416

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2012-04-01

417

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 415.130 - Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.130 Applicability; description of the potassium sulfate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

423

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

424

Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

2011-01-01

425

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

PubMed Central

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

426

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-07-16

427

Characteristics of zinc behavior during laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the problem of the zinc being easily gasified in laser welding of galvanized steel, laser welding of a zinc "sandwich" sample was performed to experimentally investigate the behavior and characteristics of the zinc inside and outside the keyhole, including the observation of the keyhole, the zinc vapor and zinc plasma, and the calculation of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. Based on the principle of imaging amplification, the detected multi-points can be located precisely in order to study the distribution of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. The results show that the zinc behavior played an important role in the formation of the weld-joint and the zinc plasma altered the energy distribution at the top of the keyhole whose diameter has been enlarged in the welding process. For both continuous-wave laser and pulsed laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample, the average electron temperature of the zinc keyhole plasma was higher than that of the zinc plasma plume outside the keyhole. In the welding process, the continuous wave laser with higher input energy results in higher position of the zinc plasma with higher electron temperature above the sample surface. More zinc vapor resulted in a higher average electron temperature of the plasma.

Zhang, Yi; Li, Shichun; Chen, Genyu; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Mingjun

2012-11-01

428

Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on community composition. CCA of Shannon diversity data after one pore volume revealed that zinc removal, walnut shell content, and abundance of delta-Proteobacteria (sulfate reducing organisms) were all corresponding elements. However, after several pore volumes, the walnut shell column was no longer removing Zn as effectively, and community shifts were observed throughout the columns. Analysis of field and laboratory scale microbiological and geochemical shifts, in parallel, gives insight into key biogeochemical variables linked to the performance of passive remediation systems used for the treatment of contaminated MIW, while also providing further insight into metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

2013-12-01

429

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-M.

2006-01-01

430

Sulfate metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl in whole poplar plants.  

PubMed

4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2'-PCB3 sulfate, 3'-PCB3 sulfate, and 4'-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2'-PCB3 sulfate and 4'-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2'-PCB3 sulfate or 4'-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L

2013-01-01

431

Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants  

PubMed Central

4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2?-PCB3 sulfate, 3?-PCB3 sulfate and 4?-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2?-PCB3 sulfate and 4?-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2?-PCB3 sulfate or 4?-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

2013-01-01

432

Response of zinc, iron and copper status parameters to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in women  

SciTech Connect

Supplementation with zinc at levels available over-the-counter may compromise iron or copper status. This study examined the effects of zinc(50mg/day) or zinc and iron(50 mg each/day) on 18 women aged 25-40. Subjects were matched on initial levels of serum ferritin(SF) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(ESOD) and randomly assigned to Group Z (zinc) or F-Z (iron and zinc). The following were measured pretreatment and after 6 and 10 weeks treatment: serum zinc (BZ), salivary sediment zinc (SSZ), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), SF, serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ESOD. Effects of treatment and weeks of treatment on changes from initial blood and saliva levels were analyzed using AOV. BZ increased (P=0.0144) and ESOD decreased (P=0.0001) with weeks of treatment. Differences due to treatment are presented. No effects were noted on Hgb, Hct or Cp. Intakes of zinc supplements at about 4X RDA appear to decrease copper(ESOD) and iron(SF) status. Use of iron w/zinc may be protective for FE but not Cu, and may compromise zinc (SSZ) status.

Yadrick, K.; Kenney, M.A.; Winterfeldt, E.

1986-03-05

433

Sulfates and phyllosilicates in Aureum Chaos, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Martian regions show a hydrated mineralogy indicating that aqueous processes played a major role in the planet's past. This study combines short wave infrared data, imagery and elevation data to identify these minerals in an equatorial chaotic terrain region and to find out their stratigraphy and geological context. Local Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) display three stratigraphic units: The lowest unit shows massive and also layered, monohydrated sulfate (MHS, best matching kieserite; 20-650 m thick), intercalated hydroxylated ferric sulfates (HFS, best matching jarosite) and ferric oxides. The overlying polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) is commonly layered (20-40 m thick), smooth to heavily fractured, partially with ferric oxides. Spectrally neutral, distinctly layered, bumpy cap rock (40-300 m thick) forms the top. Units are spectrally and morphologically similar to deposits of Aram Chaos (PHS, MHS, ferric oxides; texture of ILD and cap rock) and Juventae Chasma (HFS). Here, the phyllosilicate nontronite is found attributed to chaotic terrain as a light-toned fractured exposure but also within dark, smooth mantling. Coexisting sulfates and phyllosilicates demonstrate geochemical variations in the aqueous environment. Conversions between sulfates and iron oxides are considered, since we might be looking at alteration products instead of the parent rock material. Here, PHS occurs along mantling edges and flat surfaces of MHS without showing textural differences; making it a potential alteration product of MHS (e.g. due to surface exposure). Since the facies and timing of sulfate formation remain undefined, two different formation models are considered: contemporaneous ILD and PHS deposition with diagenetic sulfate conversion due to overburden (into MHS, iron oxides) later on; and groundwater evaporation. The first is less likely since a (sharp) PHS-MHS boundary is required that would indicate a diagenetic formation. The second is more consistent with our observations concerning the potential anhydrous cap rock. Groundwater would have penetrated into a pre-existing sulfate-free ILD whose permeability and porosity would have defined the rate of water absorption and sulfate precipitation that finally lead to its cementation. The surface ages of chaotic terrain (late Hesperian) and mantling deposits (mid to late Amazonian) further constrain the ILD age and potentially the emplacement of sulfates. We suggest that phyllosilicates in the mantling are allochthonous. In contrast, determining the deposition of in-situ phyllosilicates is theoretical; they could be Noachian (excavated material, following the 'phyllosian' era), or instead late Hesperian or even younger (syn- or post-chaotic). Alternatives, as known from Australian saline lakes, combine groundwater alteration with the observed mineralogy. There, close spatial and temporal associations of both mineral groups are explained by vertically separated geochemical environments (phyllosilicates in deep-, sulfates in shallow evaporitic facies). The preservation of nontronite, HFS and MHS displays that since their deposition a relatively dry environment with intermittent aqueous activity must have prevailed.

Sowe, M.; Wendt, L.; McGuire, P. C.; Neukum, G.

2012-12-01

434

Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

1995-01-01

435

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2013-04-01

436

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2012-04-01

437

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2014-04-01

438

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2011-04-01

439

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

2010-04-01

440

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate  

E-print Network

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

MEASUREMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF SULFATES IN MINING INFLUENCED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Most hard rock (mineral) mine drainages contain metals and sulfates higher than current water quality standards permit for discharge. In treating these wastes with passive systems, scientists and engineers have concentrated on using sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) and their ...

442

Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction  

E-print Network

Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

Oduro, Harry D.

443

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

444

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2013-04-01

445

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2014-04-01

446

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2011-04-01

447

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2012-04-01

448

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2010-04-01

449

Sulfates and Iron Oxides in Ophir Chasma, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identified sulfates, including jarosite, and iron oxides in Ophir Chasma around and within Ophir Mensa, based on OMEGA and CRISM data. This suggests sulfate formation both before or during ILD deposition and after their erosion.

Wendt, L.; Gross, C.; Kneissl, T.; Sowe, M.; Combe, J.-P.; Ledeit, L.; McGuire, P. C.; Neukum, G.

2010-03-01

450

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide...

2010-04-01

451

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

2011-04-01

452

Quaternized and sulfated xylan derivative films.  

PubMed

Xylan quaternized sulfate films were prepared from beech xylan (X) and compared with fully sulfated xylan films (XS). When quaternized xylan (QX) was prepared in the first step (DS(Q)=0.55), than by sulfation of QX in the second step the fully substituted ampholytic derivative (QXS; DS(Q)=0.33; DS(S)=1.67) could be obtained. By sulfation in first step, xylan sulphate (SX, DS(S)=0.70) was obtained and by subsequent quaternization, SXQ film with DSQ=0.55 and DSS=0.33 which contained partially unsubstituted hydroxyls. The molar masses (M(n)) of the film's soluble parts were increasing in order X

Šimkovic, Ivan; Tracz, Adam; Kelnar, Ivan; Uhliariková, Iveta; Mendichi, Raniero

2014-01-01

453

Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.

Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.

1989-02-01

454

Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

455

A New Sulfated Flavonoid from Zygophyllum Dumosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sulfated flavonol glycoside isorhamnetin 3-O-(4?-sulfatyl-rutinoside) (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum dumosum, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with data for isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside (2), a compound also obtained from the same plant.

Cong-Jun Li; M. Hani Elgamal; Kamel H. Sharker; Ahmed A. Ahmed; Tom J. Mabry

1996-01-01

456

21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE ...sulfate, Fe2 (SO4 )3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II)...

2010-04-01

457

Heterogeneity of Heparan Sulfates in Human Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfates (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycans, are long linear complex polysaccharides covalently attached to a protein core. The HS molecules are made up of repeating disaccharides onto which modification patterns are superimposed. This re- sults in a large structural heterogeneity and forms the basis of specific interactions of HS toward a vast array of proteins, including growth factors and

Nicole C. Smits; Antoine A. Robbesom; Elly M. M. Versteeg; P. N. Richard Dekhuijzen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt

458

Minnows get columnaris too; copper sulfate works!  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4), when delivered in either a flow-through or static system, on the survival of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas; Fig. 1A) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; Fig. 1B) infected with Flavobacterium columnare (...

459

Albuterol sulfate administration by EMT-Basics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives1) To evaluate the ability to train emergency medical technicians–basic (EMT-Bs) to accurately identify bronchospasm and, based on a treatment protocol, administer albuterol sulfate via nebulization as a standing order. 2) To measure the improvement in patient condition after treatment.

David Markenson; George Foltin; Michael Tunik; Arthur Cooper; Marsha Treiber; Karen Caravaglia

2004-01-01

460

Arsenic Mobility Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a former landfill site in southern Maine approximately 300 ppb arsenic has been observed in groundwater over the last two decades. Laboratory and field measurements support the hypothesis that this arsenic originates within the underlying glaciofluvial sediments containing natural arsenic at concentrations of approximately 6 ppm. Arsenic is mobilized under the landfill by reducing conditions induced by decomposition of organic-rich landfill leachate. The feasibility of arsenic removal by in situ oxidation was investigated with laboratory and pilot field experiments. The high redox buffering capacity of the aquifer solids makes this remediation strategy very difficult to accomplish. A more promising remediation strategy may involve the sequestration of arsenic through the formation of solid phase sulfides under sulfate-reducing conditions. To test this hypothesis, laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted with sediment from beneath the landfill. Acetate was added to the sediments to stimulate sulfate reducing conditions. Microcosms were monitored for changes to the solid and aqueous phase chemistry along with changes to the microbial community. The addition of acetate enabled the native microbial community to establish sulfate reducing conditions. The production of sulfide coincided with a decrease in the observed iron and arsenic concentrations. Over ten days, roughly 70 to 80% of the dissolved arsenic and >99% of the dissolved iron was removed from solution. Arsenic was subsequently partially remobilized, possibly due to continued sulfate reduction and an increase in pH. Results indicated that laboratory manipulations of the microbial community and subsurface redox state were able to lower the dissolved arsenic concentrations.

Keimowitz, A. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Cole, P.; Simpson, H. J.; Stute, M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Kujawinski, E. B.; Zheng, Y.

2004-12-01

461

Lead removal through biological sulfate reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of lead removal through biological sulfate reduction process with ethanol as electron donor was investigated. Sulfide-rich effluent from biological process was used to remove lead as lead sulfide precipitate. The experiments were divided into two stages; Stage I startup and operation of sulfidogenic process in a UASB reactor and Stage II lead sulfide precipitation. In Stage I, the

Tran Thi Hien Hoa; Warounsak Liamleam; Ajit P. Annachhatre

2007-01-01

462

Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

Not Available

1987-07-01

463

ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

464

ZINC--1999 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--1999 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Brandon P, international data coordinator. In 1999, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore in Alaska (table 1). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc

465

ZINC--2000 86.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--2000 86.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2000, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production

466

Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

467

The Impact of Simulated Sulfate Deposition on Peatland Testate Amoebae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peatlands subjected to sulfate deposition have been shown to produce less methane, believed to be due to competitive exclusion\\u000a of methanogenic archaea by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Here, we address whether sulfate deposition produces impacts on a higher\\u000a microbial group, the testate amoebae. Sodium sulfate was applied to experimental plots on a Scottish peatland and samples\\u000a extracted after a period of more

Richard Payne; Vincent Gauci; Dan J. Charman

2010-01-01

468

A Novel Role for 3- O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms provides

Deepak Shukla; Jian Liu; Peter Blaiklock; Nicholas W. Shworak; Xiaomei Bai; Jeffrey D. Esko; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Robert D. Rosenberg; Patricia G. Spear

1999-01-01

469

Albumin is the main plasma binding protein for indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are two uremic retention solutes implicated in the uremic syndrome. Removal during dialysis is limited, mainly due to protein binding. Binding characteristics to healthy albumin have recently been characterized. Whether uremia alters the binding characteristics of albumin is currently unknown. Moreover, protein binding values previously determined with ultrafiltration are in sharp contrast to recently reported values based on microcalorimetry. In the present study, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate binding were therefore quantified using both equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. Deming regression demonstrated good agreement between equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. Free serum concentrations of indoxyl sulfate (+26.6%) and p-cresyl sulfate (+19.7%) were slightly higher at body temperature compared with at room temperature. To investigate binding kinetics, the plasma of healthy individuals or hemodialysis patients was titrated with albumin solutions. Theoretical models of protein binding were fitted to observed titration curves. Binding coefficients of both toxins were highest in purified albumin, and were reduced from healthy to uremic plasma. In conclusion, the ultrafiltration-HPLC technique reliably measures free serum concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Albumin is the main binding protein, both in health and in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease. Modeling suggests that albumin contains two binding sites for both toxins, a single high affinity binding site and a second low affinity binding site. The high affinity binding site accounts for at least 90% of overall binding. Competition for this binding site could be used to augment free solute concentrations during dialysis, thus improving epuration. PMID:23300093

Viaene, Liesbeth; Annaert, Pieter; de Loor, Henriette; Poesen, Ruben; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

2013-04-01

470

Anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides: Part I. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of new pullulan sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop new anticoagulants as potential heparin alternatives, two pullulans with different molecular weight (MW) were used as starting polymers for the partial synthesis of a structurally new class of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of these linear ?-1,4-\\/1,6-glucans was carried out by a method with a SO3–pyridine complex in DMF, which had been optimized for the modification of ?-1,3-glucans.

S Alban; A Schauerte; G Franz

2002-01-01

471

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-print Network

of the matrix due to degradation of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C- S-H), and volumetric expansion due to formation or external sources. Internal sulfate attack could be related to different forms of calcium sulfates which, Kentucky, USA Home #12;attack is generally related to natural sulfates of calcium, magnesium, sodium

Mobasher, Barzin

472

SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS?  

E-print Network

02138, USA Keywords: Phase transition; Atmospheric Aerosols; Ammonium sulfate; Ammonium nitrate and are in aqueous form. For example, the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate is 80% at 298 K while relative humidity; D = diameter (nm) of mineral core particle; AS = ammonium sulfate; AN = ammonium nitrate

473

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

SciTech Connect

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

1983-09-01

474

Cholesterol sulfate in human physiology: what's it all about?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol sulfate is quantitatively the most impor- tant known sterol sulfate in human plasma, where it is present in a concentration that overlaps that of the other abundant cir- culating steroid sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sul- fate. Although these sulfolipids have similar production and metabolic clearance rates, they arise from distinct sources and are metabolized by different pathways. While the function

Charles A. Strott; Yuko Higashi

2003-01-01

475

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF AMMONIUM SULFATE ON CARCINOGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project was designed to evaluate the health effects of ammonium sulfate (Nh4)2 SO4 inhalation using experimental animals. The questions studied were: (1) Is inhaled ammonium sulfate co-carcinogenic. (2) What are the deposition and clearance patterns of inhaled ammonium sulfat...

476

STATISTICAL METHOD FOR DETECTION OF A TREND IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Daily atmospheric concentrations of sulfate collected in northeastern Pennsylvania are regressed against meteorological factors, ozone, and time in order to determine if a significant trend in sulfate can be detected. he data used in this analysis were collected during the Sulfat...

477

Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlaltépetl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified

D. R. Zimbelman; R. O. Rye; G. N. Breit

2005-01-01

478

Durability of geopolymer materials in sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using class F fly ash and alkaline activators when exposed to a sulfate environment. Three tests were used to determine resistance of geopolymer materials. The tests involved immersions for a period of 5 months into 5% solutions of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, and a solution of 5%

T. Bakharev

2005-01-01