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1

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

Wentworth, W. E.

1992-04-01

2

Synthesis and assembly of zinc hydroxide sulfate large flakes: Application in gas sensor based on a novel surface mount technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembly of 2D materials into hierarchical architectures can produce films with high orientation and special properties. Most research focus on the nano-sized 2D flakes. In this report, zinc hydroxide sulfate (ZHS) large flakes with lateral size up to 410?m were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of ZnSO4·7H2O solution at 150°C. The large ZHS flakes were then used as building blocks to

Lihong Xue; Xintao Mei; Wuxing Zhang; Lixia Yuan; Xianluo Hu; Yunhui Huang; Kazumichi Yanagisawa

2010-01-01

3

Protein energy-malnutrition: does the in vitro zinc sulfate supplementation improve chromosomal damage repair?  

PubMed

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is originated by a cellular imbalance between nutrient/energy supply and body's demand. Induction of genetic damage by PEM was reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic effect of the in vitro zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with PEM. Twenty-four samples from 12 children were analyzed. Anthropometric and biochemical diagnosis was made. For the anthropometric assessment, height-for-age index, weight-for-age index, and weight-for-height index were calculated (WHO, 2005). Micronutrient status was evaluated. A survey for assessed previous exposure to potentially genotoxic agents was applied. Results were statistically evaluated using paired sample t test and ? (2) test. Each sample was fractionated and cultured in two separate flasks to performed two treatments. One was added with 180 ?g/dl of ZnSO4 (PEMs/ZnSO4) and the other remains non-supplemented (PEMs). Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage were assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). All participants have at least one type of malnutrition and none have anemia, nor iron, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency. All PEMs/ZnSO4 samples have a significant reduction in the micronucleus (MNi) frequency compared with PEMs (t?=?6.25685; p?zinc sulfate supplementation. PMID:25262017

Padula, Gisel; González, Horacio F; Varea, Ana; Seoane, Analía I

2014-12-01

4

Solar-thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental decomposition of zinc sulfate in a rotary kiln which was heated in the White Sands Solar Furnace is described. The main findings are: the zinc sulfate sulfate decomposed after 1 to 5 minutes of solar exposure when the front thermocouple indicated 7000 C and kiln was being rapidly heated with a flux of 9 to 14 kW; or the front thermocouple was above 8500 C and the kiln was maintained at temperature with a minimal flux. It is found that there is a problem with zinc sulfate agglomeration above approximately 8000 C. The agglomeration problem interfered significantly with testing, and it prevented the acquisition of quantitative data on the rate and extent of zinc sulfate decomposition. The agglomeration problem solved either by physically breaking apart the agglomerate by chains or by mixing inert compounds with the zinc sulfate to prevent the particles from sticking to each other. The rotary kiln performed satisfactorily and there were no problems with the window.

Shell, P. K.; Ruiz, R.; Yu, C. M.

1983-01-01

5

Solar-thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Experimental decomposition of zinc sulfate in a rotary kiln which was heated in the White Sands Solar Furnace is described. The main findings of this research are: The zinc sulfate decomposed after 1 to 5 minutes of solar exposure when (a) the front thermocouple indicated 700/sup 0/C and the kiln was being rapidly heated with a flux of 9 to 14 kW, or (b) the front thermocouple was above 850/sup 0/C and the kiln was being maintained at temperature with a minimal flux. There is a problem with zinc sulfate agglomeration above approximately 800/sup 0/C. The agglomeration problem interfered significantly with testing, and it prevented the acquisition of quantitative data on the rate and extent of zinc sulfate decomposition. The agglomeration problem can be solved either by mechanical or chemical means - e.g., by physically breaking apart the agglomerate by means of chains or by mixing inert compounds with the zinc sulfate to prevent the particles from sticking to each other. The rotary kiln performed satisfactorily. In particular, there were no problems with the window.

Shell, P.K.; Ruiz, R.; Yu, C.M.

1983-01-01

6

Responses of two genotypes of Lupinus albus L. to zinc application on an alkaline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupinus albus L. grown on alkaline soils shows symptoms resembling zinc (Zn) deficiency. This study tested whether Zn deficiency is an important cause of poor growth of this species on alkaline soils. We examined the responses of two L. albus genotypes (75B09–02 and Kiev Mutant) to application of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) (0–200 mg Zn per 3 kg soil) on an

A. Liu; C. Tang

1999-01-01

7

40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

8

21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine...following specifications: Zinc content—19 to 22 percent...46 to 50 percent. Cadmium—not more than 0.05 part...tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec....

2010-04-01

9

21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine...following specifications: Zinc content—19 to 22 percent...46 to 50 percent. Cadmium—not more than 0.05 part...tablet form as a source of dietary zinc. [46 FR 58297, Dec....

2011-04-01

10

Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

2004-07-01

11

Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have

W. E. Wentworth

1992-01-01

12

Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

2014-01-01

13

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521); Lawson, Daniel B. (925 Putnam Dr., Lockport, IL 60441)

1994-01-01

14

Double blind study of the effects of zinc sulfate on taste and smell dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, double blind crossover study of the effects of zinc sulfate and placebo was carried out in 106 patients with taste and smell dysfunction secondary to a variety of etiological factors. In the patient group prior to treatment, mean serum zinc concentration and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly lower than normal. Results indicate that zinc sulfate was effectively

ROBERT I. HENKIN; PAUL J. SCHECTER; WILLIAM T. FRIEDEWALD; DAVID L. DEMETS; MORTON RAFF

1976-01-01

15

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

16

Oral Zinc Sulfate Solutions Inhibit Sweet Taste Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose (800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydroch- alcone (NHDC),

Russell S. J. Keast; Thomas M. Canty; Paul A. S. Breslin

2004-01-01

17

The influence of sulfur supplementation (methionine and sulfate) on the zinc availability  

E-print Network

Short note The influence of sulfur supplementation (methionine and sulfate) on the zinc availability in lambs. Increasing the sulfur level with methionine and sulfate, of such a diet, enhances zinc / availability / sulfur aminoacid / sheep Résumé ― Influence de la supplémentation en soufre (méthionine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Effect of the ratio of zinc amino acid complex to zinc sulfate on the performance of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Multiparous (n=70) and primiparous (n=66) Holstein cows were balanced by 305-d previous mature-equivalent milk yield and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments to evaluate the ratio of zinc sulfate to zinc amino acid complex (CZ) in pre- and postpartum Holstein cows fed diets containing 75 mg of added zinc/kg. Treatments were (1) 75 mg of supplemental zinc/kg of dry matter (DM) provided entirely as zinc sulfate (0-CZ); (2) 0-CZ diet, except 33.3 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 15.5mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet were replaced by CZ from Availa-Zn (16-CZ; Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie MN); and (3) 0-CZ diet, except 66.6 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the prepartum and 40.0 mg of zinc sulfate/kg of DM in the postpartum diet was replaced by Availa-Zn (40-CZ). Cows were housed at the Iowa State University Dairy Farm and were individually offered a total mixed ration containing dietary treatments beginning at 28 ± 15 d before expected calving date until 250 d in milk. Relative to 0-CZ, multiparous cows (but not primiparous) fed CZ (16-CZ or 40-CZ) had increased (20%) colostrum IgG concentrations. Prepartum DM intake (DMI) was decreased with CZ supplementation. Postpartum DMI was decreased in cows fed CZ, whereas milk yield (MY) was increased in the 40-CZ-fed cows relative to those fed both 0-CZ and 16-CZ. Feed efficiency increased linearly when measured as MY/DMI, 3.5% fat-corrected MY/DMI, and solids-corrected MY/DMI. Regardless of level, feeding CZ decreased services per conception. Feeding 16-CZ decreased milk fat concentration and feeding CZ linearly increased milk urea nitrogen concentration. In summary, supplementing zinc as a mixture of CZ and zinc sulfate, as opposed to supplementing only zinc sulfate, has beneficial effects on production parameters in dairy cows, with those benefits becoming more apparent as the ratio of CZ to zinc sulfate increases. PMID:24819137

Nayeri, A; Upah, N C; Sucu, E; Sanz-Fernandez, M V; DeFrain, J M; Gorden, P J; Baumgard, L H

2014-07-01

19

Physico-chemical and in vitro biological study of zinc-doped calcium sulfate bone substitute.  

PubMed

In the present study, series of Zn incorporated calcium sulfate bone cements, with different amounts of doped Zn(0, 0.74, 1.97, 3.05, 4.21 wt %) were prepared by mixing a calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and solutions of zinc sulfate, and the effect of zinc-doping on some physical, physico-chemical, and biological properties of the cements were investigated. Pure calcium sulfate cement was also made as control, with the mentioned powder and distilled water as liquid phase. The initial setting time and compressive strength of the cement significantly changed from 17 min and 3.2 MPa for the pure calcium sulfate to 6 min and 6 MPa for the Zn-added calcium sulfate, respectively. Compared to pure calcium sulfate, more gypsum precipitates were formed in the zinc sulfate added samples with a morphology of thin, elongated, and rod-shaped crystals. The biological properties of the samples were analyzed in the terms of cell viability and cell activity on human osteosarcoma (G-292) using MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell culture medium. The best increased cell density and ALP activity were achieved for the calcium sulfate cement with a content of 0.74 wt % Zn, whereas a toxic behavior was observed for the samples with Zn concentrations more than 1.97%. PMID:19358260

Hesaraki, Saeed; Nemati, Roghayeh; Nazarian, Hamid

2009-10-01

20

Zinc and zinc chelators modify taurine transport in rat retinal cells.  

PubMed

Zinc regulates Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, similar to taurine one, such as those for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. This study examined the ex vivo effect of zinc (ZnSO4), N,N,N,N-tetraquis-(2-piridilmetil)etilendiamino (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), intracellular and extracellular zinc chelators, respectively, on rat retina [(3)H]taurine transport. Isolated cells were incubated in Locke solution with 100 nM of [(3)H]taurine for 25 s. Different concentrations of ZnSO4 (0.5-200 ?M) were used. Low concentrations of ZnSO4 (30 and 40 ?M) increased the transport, while higher concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ?M) decreased it. Various concentrations of TPEN (1-200 ?M) were added. Intermediate concentrations of TPEN (10-60 ?M) significantly decreased [(3)H]taurine transport. The presence of TPEN, 20 ?M, plus ZnSO4 reversed the effect of TPEN alone. Several concentrations of DTPA (1-500 ?M) were also investigated. Reduction of transport took place at high concentrations of the chelator (100, 250 and 500 ?M). DTPA, 500 ?M, plus ZnSO4, did not modify the effect of it. These results indicate that zinc modulates taurine transport in a concentration-dependent manner, directly acting on the transporter or by forming taurine-zinc complexes in cell membranes. PMID:25182776

Márquez, Asarí; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

2014-11-01

21

Zinc sulfate in the prevention of total-body irradiation-induced early hematopoietic toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ionizing total-body radiation suppresses hematopoiesis, resulting in decreased production of blood cells. Many\\u000a researchers have demonstrated the critical role of zinc (Zn) in diverse physiological processes, such as growth and development,\\u000a maintenance and priming of the immune system, and tissue repair. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects\\u000a of zinc sulfate (40 mg\\/kg and

Mustafa Vecdi Ertekin; Ihsan Karslio?lu; Fuat Erdem; Orhan Sezen; Akçahan Gepdiremen; Korkmaz ?erifo?lu

2004-01-01

22

Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron  

PubMed Central

Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

2013-01-01

23

Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.  

PubMed

Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

2014-08-15

24

Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. Most toxicological studies employ high levels of zinc. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation of environmentally relevant levels of zinc would cause cardiac changes in healthy rats. To address this, healthy male WKY rats (12 weeks age) were exposed via nose only inhalation to filtered air or 10, 30 or 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of aerosolized zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 5 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. Necropsies occurred 48 h after the last exposure to ensure effects were due to chronic exposure rather than the last exposure. No significant changes were observed in neutrophil or macrophage count, total lavageable cells, or enzyme activity levels (lactate dehydrogenase, n-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, indicating minimal pulmonary effect. In the heart, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity decreased, while mitochondrial ferritin levels increased and succinate dehydrogenase activity decreased, suggesting a mitochondria-specific effect. Although no cardiac pathology was seen, cardiac gene array analysis indicated small changes in genes involved in cell signaling, a pattern concordant with known zinc effects. These data indicate that inhalation of zinc at environmentally relevant levels induces cardiac effects. While changes are small in healthy rats, these may be especially relevant in individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular disease.

Wallenborn, J. Grace [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, UNC School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)], E-mail: wallenborn.grace@epa.gov; Evansky, Paul [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Vallanat, Beena [Experimental Carcinogen Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy H.; Gottipolu, Reddy R. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kodavanti, Urmila P. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2008-10-01

25

Repression of Sulfate Assimilation Is an Adaptive Response of Yeast to the Oxidative Stress of Zinc Deficiency*  

PubMed Central

The Zap1 transcription factor is a central player in the response of yeast to changes in zinc status. Previous studies identified over 80 genes activated by Zap1 in zinc-limited cells. In this report, we identified 36 genes repressed in a zinc- and Zap1-responsive manner. As a result, we have identified a new mechanism of Zap1-mediated gene repression whereby transcription of the MET3, MET14, and MET16 genes is repressed in zinc-limited cells. These genes encode the first three enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. We found that MET30, encoding a component of the SCFMet30 ubiquitin ligase, is a direct Zap1 target gene. MET30 expression is increased in zinc-limited cells, and this leads to degradation of Met4, a transcription factor responsible for MET3, MET14, and MET16 expression. Thus, Zap1 is responsible for a decrease in sulfate assimilation in zinc-limited cells. We further show that cells that are unable to down-regulate sulfate assimilation under zinc deficiency experience increased oxidative stress. This increased oxidative stress is associated with an increase in the NADP+/NADPH ratio and may result from a decrease in NADPH-dependent antioxidant activities. These studies have led to new insights into how cells adapt to nutrient-limiting growth conditions. PMID:19656949

Wu, Chang-Yi; Roje, Sanja; Sandoval, Francisco J.; Bird, Amanda J.; Winge, Dennis R.; Eide, David J.

2009-01-01

26

Repression of sulfate assimilation is an adaptive response of yeast to the oxidative stress of zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

The Zap1 transcription factor is a central player in the response of yeast to changes in zinc status. Previous studies identified over 80 genes activated by Zap1 in zinc-limited cells. In this report, we identified 36 genes repressed in a zinc- and Zap1-responsive manner. As a result, we have identified a new mechanism of Zap1-mediated gene repression whereby transcription of the MET3, MET14, and MET16 genes is repressed in zinc-limited cells. These genes encode the first three enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. We found that MET30, encoding a component of the SCF(Met30) ubiquitin ligase, is a direct Zap1 target gene. MET30 expression is increased in zinc-limited cells, and this leads to degradation of Met4, a transcription factor responsible for MET3, MET14, and MET16 expression. Thus, Zap1 is responsible for a decrease in sulfate assimilation in zinc-limited cells. We further show that cells that are unable to down-regulate sulfate assimilation under zinc deficiency experience increased oxidative stress. This increased oxidative stress is associated with an increase in the NADP(+)/NADPH ratio and may result from a decrease in NADPH-dependent antioxidant activities. These studies have led to new insights into how cells adapt to nutrient-limiting growth conditions. PMID:19656949

Wu, Chang-Yi; Roje, Sanja; Sandoval, Francisco J; Bird, Amanda J; Winge, Dennis R; Eide, David J

2009-10-01

27

Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [ M(C8H11O3N)2(H2O)2]SO4 · 3H2O ( M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH2OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H2O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

Furmanova, N. G.; Berdalieva, Zh. I.; Chernaya, T. S.; Resnyanski?, V. F.; Shiitieva, N. K.; Sula?mankulov, K. S.

2009-03-01

28

Effect of ionic liquid additive [BMIM]HSO 4 on zinc electrodeposition from impurity-containing sulfate electrolyte. Part I: current efficiency, surface morphology, and crystal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ionic liquid additive 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate-[BMIM]HSO4 on the current efficiency (CE), surface morphology, and crystallographic orientations during zinc electrodeposition from\\u000a acidic sulfate solutions containing some common impurities such as copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, and lead were investigated.\\u000a The results indicated that all the metallic impurities studied exerted a deleterious effect on the zinc electrodeposition\\u000a process by decreasing

Qibo Zhang; Yixin Hua

2011-01-01

29

Zinc diffusion and extractability as affected by zinc carrier and soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of soil chemical properties, Zn carrier and time elapsed after fertilizer application on the diffusion and extractability of Zn. A soil block technique was used to study zinc diffusion and DTPA extractability from ZnEDTA and ZnSO4 fertilizers in three soils that varied in texture, CaCO3 content, organic matter content, and pH

A. S. Modaihsh

1990-01-01

30

Effect of Zinc Humate on Growth of Soybean and Wheat in Zinc?Deficient Calcareous Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic acids have many benefits for plant growth and development, and these effects may be maximized if these materials are combined with micronutrient applications. In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc (Zn) humate and ZnSO4 on growth of wheat and soybean in a severely Zn?deficient calcareous soil (DTPA?Zn: 0.10 mg kg soil). Plants were grown

Faruk Ozkutlu; Bulent Torun; Ismail Cakmak

2006-01-01

31

Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial"  

PubMed Central

Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. Results The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. Trial Registration chiCTRTRC10000930 PMID:21453467

2011-01-01

32

Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon

2013-01-01

33

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

2014-01-01

34

Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a Highly Copper Resistant, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Effluents of a Zinc Smelter at the Urals  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms. PMID:22072648

Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

2011-01-01

35

Physiological Response of Wheat to Foliar Application of Zinc and Inoculation with some Bacterial Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment, sterilized sandy soil (irrigated with Long-Ashton nutrient solution containing a half of the recommended dose of ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was used to study the effects of zinc (Zn) foliar-application, and soil biofertilization on some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 155) plant grown for 70 days in greenhouse under controlled conditions. The treatments comprised different levels

Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Magda M. Aly

2005-01-01

36

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.  

PubMed

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

2011-09-01

37

Low-temperature synthesis of ZnO nanorods using a seed layer of zinc acetate\\/sodium dodecyle sulfate nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aligned ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method without calcination. A seed layer of zinc acetate (ZnAc2)\\/sodium dodecyle sulfate (SDS) nanocomposite was used for nucleation of ZnO nanorods. First, a ZnAc2\\/SDS composite was deposited on a Si substrate by spin-coating. And then, ZnO nanorods were grown under hydrothermal conditions at 90°C. ZnO crystals were grown in the direction

Naoyuki Ueno; Takanori Maruo; Norikazu Nishiyama; Yasuyuki Egashira; Korekazu Ueyama

2010-01-01

38

Influence of zinc-oxide eugenol, formocresol, and ferric sulfate on bond strength of dentin adhesives to primary teeth.  

PubMed

This study evaluated in vitro the influence of a temporary filling {zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE)} and two pulpotomy agents {formocresol (FC) and ferric sulfate (FS)} on shear bond strength (SBS) of two dentin adhesives to the dentin of primary molars. A total of 80 dentin surfaces were prepared and randomly allocated into 10 groups of 8 specimens each. Groups were subjected to different treatments, which included covering with a paste of ZOE mixed at different powder:liquid (P:L) ratios, placement on a gauze soaked in FC or FS, or they received no pretreatment and served as a control. XRV Herculite composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces using Prime and Bond NT adhesive resin or Opti Bond Solo Plus adhesive resin. SBSs were determined using the lnstron testing machine running at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The use of ZOE mixed at the lower P:L ratio of 10g:2g significantly decreased the values of SBS of the two adhesives. The use of two pulpotomy agents (FC and FS) significantly decreased the SBS of the two adhesives. The bond strength to dentin of primary teeth was influenced by the pulpotomy agents used and the ZOE P:L ratio but not by the adhesive system used. PMID:16127468

Salama, Fouad Saad

2005-08-15

39

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred ... acetate lozenge, providing 9-24 mg elemental zinc, dissolved in the mouth every two hours while awake ...

40

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

41

Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD analyses demonstrate the typical LDH-like layered structural characteristics of both products. The room temperature MS results reveal the characteristics of both the Fe(II) and Fe(III) species for SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product, while only the Fe(III) characteristic for DBS-containing one. The combination characterization results and Rietveld analysis illustrate that the SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product possesses the Green Rust two (GR2)-like crystal structure with an approximate chemical composition of [Zn{sub 0.435}.Fe{sup II} {sub 0.094}.Fe{sup III} {sub 0.470}.(OH){sub 2}].(SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}){sub 0.235}.1.0H{sub 2}O, while the DBS-containing one exhibits the common LDH compound-like structure. The contact angle measurement indicates the evident hydrophobic properties of DBS-containing nanocomposite, compared with SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product, due to the modification of the internal and external surface of LDHs by the organic hydrophobic chain of DBS. - Graphical abstract: For Zn{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+} GR2(SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}), according to the derived chemical formula, Fe{sup 3+} was arranged at 1a (0, 0, 0) position, while all Zn{sup 2+} were in 2d position with the occupancy 0.645, and the left part of 2d positions were taken by Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

Zhang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huizhang67@gst21.com; Wen Xing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Box 98, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Yingxia [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2007-05-15

42

Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary  

SciTech Connect

Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

1986-03-05

43

Comparison of cytotoxicity and expression of metal regulatory genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells exposed to cadmium sulfate, zinc sulfate and quantum dots.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the ability to manufacture and manipulate materials at the nanometer scale have led to increased production and use of many types of nanoparticles. Quantum dots (QDs) are small, fluorescent nanoparticles composed of a core of semiconductor material (e.g. cadmium selenide, zinc sulfide) and shells or dopants of other elements. Particle core composition, size, shell, and surface chemistry have all been found to influence toxicity in cells. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicities of ionic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and Cd- and Zn-containing QDs in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL). As expected, Cd(2+) was more toxic than Zn(2+), and the general trend of IC50-24 h values of QDs was determined to be CdTe < CdSe/ZnS or InP/ZnS, suggesting that ZnS-shelled CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytocompatible than bare core CdTe crystals. Smaller QDs showed greater toxicity than larger QDs. Isolated mRNA from these exposures was used to measure the expression of metal response genes including metallothionein (MT), metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF-1), divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), zrt and irt like protein (ZIP-1) and the zinc transporter, ZnT-1. CdTe exposure induced expression of these genes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of CdSO4 exposure. However, CdSe/ZnS and InP/ZnS altered gene expression of metal homeostasis genes in a manner different from that of the corresponding Cd or Zn salts. This implies that ZnS shells reduce QD toxicity attributed to the release of Cd(2+), but do not eliminate toxic effects caused by the nanoparticles themselves. PMID:23912858

Tang, Song; Allagadda, Vinay; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

2013-10-01

44

Spectroscopic investigation, nucleation, growth, optical, thermal and second harmonic studies of novel semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal - thiourea urea zinc sulfate.  

PubMed

A new nonlinear optical crystal thiourea urea zinc sulfate (TUZS) has been grown by slow evaporation technique in equimolar ratio. Solubility and metastable zone width measurements have been determined for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal system belongs to orthorhombic with cell parameters a=7.78Å, b=11.15Å and c=15.47Å. The sharp and well defined Bragg peaks observed in the powder XRD pattern confirm the crystalline nature of the TUZS compound. The grown mechanism and surface features were investigated by optical microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of zinc in the grown crystal was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy and EDAX analysis. The compound has been confirmed by (1)H NMR, mass and FTIR spectral studies. The transmittance spectrum of TUZS has been used to calculate the extinction coefficient K, reflectance R, as functions of photon energy. The optical band gap of TUZS is 4.046 eV. The SHG efficiency has been tested by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and KDP sample has been used as a standard reference material. PMID:22820345

Rao, Redrothu Hanumantha; Kalainathan, S

2012-11-01

45

Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

46

Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive {>=}2,000 cGy of external beam RT to {>=}30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. {>=}6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx.

Halyard, Michele Y. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Jatoi, Aminah [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: Jatoi.aminah@mayo.edu; Sloan, Jeff A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bearden, James D. [Upstate Carolina CCOP, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Vora, Sujay A. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Atherton, Pamela J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Perez, Edith A. [Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Soori, Gammi [Missouri Valley Consortium, Omaha, NB (United States); Zalduendo, Anthony C. [Illinois Oncology Research Consortium, Omaha, NB (United States); Zhu, Angela [Wichita Community Clinical Oncology Program, Wichita, KS (United States); Stella, Philip J. [Michigan Cancer Consortium, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Loprinzi, Charles L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2007-04-01

47

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

48

Effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function of broiler chicken.  

PubMed

A total of 450 one-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid (ZnO-MMT) on growth performance, intestinal structure, and function. The birds were allotted to 5 dietary treatments for 21 d, each of which was replicated 6 times with 15 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were 1) corn-soybean meal diet (basal, containing 42.35 mg of Zn/kg); 2) basal diet + 600 mg of MMT/kg (equivalent to the MMT in the ZnO-MMT treatment); 3) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO; 4) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT; and 5) basal diet + 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnSO(4)•7H(2)O. The results showed that chicks fed ZnO-MMT had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and feed intake than those fed the basal diet, MMT, or ZnO. Compared with the control, MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4), supplementation with ZnO-MMT decreased (P < 0.05) viable counts of Clostridium in small intestinal and cecal contents, increased (P < 0.05) colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values, and reduced (P < 0.05) colonic probe mannitol permeability as well as ileal or colonic inulin permeability. Compared with the control, supplemental ZnO-MMT increased (P < 0.05) villus height, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth at the small intestinal mucosa, the trypsin activity in the pancreas, and the digestive enzyme activities in small intestinal contents. Compared with the control, supplementation with ZnO increased (P < 0.05) the villus height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenum. Supplementation with ZnSO(4) increased the trypsin activity in pancreas and small intestinal contents. However, supplemental MMT, ZnO, or ZnSO(4) did not affect (P > 0.05) growth performance, ileal and colonic barrier function, and intestinal microflora. The results indicated that supplementing 60 mg of Zn/kg as ZnO-MMT in broiler chickens improved growth performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, and barrier function as well as the digestive enzyme activities. PMID:23243241

Hu, C H; Qian, Z C; Song, J; Luan, Z S; Zuo, A Y

2013-01-01

49

Aqueous pathways for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We examine the effect of reactant concentrations, temperatures and feeding methods on the morphology of ZnO formed when reacting solutions of ZnSO(4) and NaOH. The catalytic effect of hydroxide in excess relative to the stoichiometric ratio is considered. It is shown that, having fixed other reaction conditions, the end-products, particle structures and size strongly depend on the mole ratio of the precursors. The presence of zinc salt hydroxide species was confirmed at sub-stoichiometric ratios in slightly acidic conditions. At the stoichiometric ratio both zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide are formed, while only zinc oxide forms in an excess of hydroxide. The method of feeding the reactants into the reaction vessel also has a strong influence on the end-product properties, as does the reaction temperature. By control of these parameters the specific surface area could be varied from 10 to 33 m(2) g(-1), the particle shape could be varied from equiaxed, through to star-like and needle-like, and the particle size may be varied from 50 to over 300 nm. PMID:21412544

Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

2011-05-14

50

Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, clinically heterogenous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder continues to raise controversy, and, there is also an increase in treatment options. In this 6-week double blind, placebo controlled-trial, we assessed the effects of zinc plus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity

Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi; Mojgan Khademi

2004-01-01

51

Regulation of biokinetics of (65)zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH+curcumin treated, DMH+zinc treated, and DMH+curcumin+zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30?mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100?mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227?mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

2014-10-01

52

Protective role of zinc during aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess the role of zinc (Zn) in mitigating the biochemical alterations induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, Al treated (AlCl3, 100 mg/kg b.wt./day), Zn treated (ZnSO4, 227 mg/L drinking water), and combined Al + Zn treated. Al and zinc treatments were given for a total duration of 2 months. Al treatment caused a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranferase (ALT) activities, which showed the reverse trend following Zn supplementation. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPx) and activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased following Al treatment, which, however, were increased significantly in Zn co-treated rats. Further Al exposure showed a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as activities, of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). However, Zn supplementation to Al-treated rats brought down the raised levels of reduced (GSH) and SOD to within normal limits, but caused no effect on GR activity. Furthermore, Al treatment also resulted in alterations in liver histoarchitecture with disruption of hepatic cords and increased vacuolization, which were close to normal following Zn supplementation. The present study reveals that Zn is effective in attenuating the liver damage inflicted by Al toxicity. PMID:22422511

Bhasin, Punita; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-03-01

53

Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the

Rahaman O. Suara; James E. Crowe

2004-01-01

54

Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

2006-01-01

55

High covalence in CuSO4 and the radicalization of sulfate: an X-ray absorption and density functional study.  

PubMed

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of anhydrous CuSO(4) reveals a well-resolved preedge transition feature at 2478.8 eV that has no counterpart in the XAS spectra of anhydrous ZnSO(4) or copper sulfate pentahydrate. Similar but weaker preedge features occur in the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra of [Cu(itao)SO(4)] (2478.4 eV) and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)] (2477.7 eV). Preedge features in the XAS spectra of transition metal ligands are generally attributed to covalent delocalization of a metal d-orbital hole into a ligand-based orbital. Copper L-edge XAS of CuSO(4) revealed that 56% of the Cu(II) 3d hole is delocalized onto the sulfate ligand. Hybrid density functional calculations on the two most realistic models of the covalent delocalization pathways in CuSO(4) indicate about 50% electron delocalization onto the sulfate oxygen-based 2p orbitals; however, at most 14% of that can be found on sulfate sulfur. Both experimental and computational results indicated that the high covalence of anhydrous CuSO(4) has made sulfate more like the radical monoanion, inducing an extensive mixing and redistribution of sulfur 3p-based unoccupied orbitals to lower energy in comparison to sulfate in ZnSO(4). It is this redistribution, rather than a direct covalent interaction between Cu(II) and sulfur, that is the origin of the observed sulfur XAS preedge feature. From pseudo-Voigt fits to the CuSO(4) sulfur K-edge XAS spectrum, a ground-state 3p character of 6% was quantified for the orbital contributing to the preedge transition, in reasonable agreement with the DFT calculation. Similar XAS fits indicated 2% sulfur 3p character for the preedge transition orbitals in [Cu(itao)SO(4)] and [Cu[(CH(3))(6)tren]SO(4)]. The covalent radicalization of ligands similar to sulfate, with consequent energy redistribution of the virtual orbitals, represents a new mechanism for the induction of ligand preedge XAS features. The high covalence of the Cu sites in CuSO(4) was found to be similar to that of Cu sites in oxidized cupredoxins, including its anistropic nature, and can serve as the simplest inorganic examples of intramolecular electron-transfer processes. PMID:15606178

Szilagyi, Robert K; Frank, Patrick; DeBeer George, Serena; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

2004-12-27

56

Thermodynamics of arsenates, selenites, and sulfates in the oxidation zone of sulfide ores. II. Systems M1, M2//SO{4/2-}-H2O (M1, M2 = Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+, H+) at 25°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High toxicity of arsenic and selenium makes it important to analyze conditions, under which sulfates, arsenates, and selenites replace sulfides, arsenides, and selenides in the oxidation zones of sulfide ore deposits and in weathered technogenic waste. Published experimental data have been summarized for solubility in ternary systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co sulfates. Due to high solubility of solid phases, the thermodynamic description of solutions was carried out using the Pitzer equations; the necessary parameters were found in the literature or calculated in this article. The applied model was preliminarily verified by experimentally obtained diagrams of solubility. A database was compiled for quantitative thermodynamic modeling of mineral equilibria in most ternary and four-component subsystems of the Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+//SO{4/2-}-H2O system. The lack of experimental data for the systems containing Fe(III) sulfate does not allow calculating necessary parameters of its interaction with other sulfates and conducting calculations in multicomponent systems without simplifications and additional assumptions. Solubility diagrams are considered for the following systems: FeSO4-H2SO4-H2O, NiSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CuSO4-H2SO4-H2O, ZnSO4-H2SO4-H2O, CoSO4-H2SO4-H2O, FeSO4-Fe2(SO4)3-H2O, CoSO4-NiSO4-H2O, ZnSO4NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CoSO4-H2O, FeSO4-NiSO4-H2O, FeSO4-CuSO4-H2O, CoSO4-CuSO4-H2O, NiSO4-CuSO4-H2O, and ZnSO4-CoSO4-H2O. For some of these systems, equilibrium phase diagrams are calculated in this article.

Charykova, M. V.; Krivovichev, V. G.; Depmeier, W.

2010-12-01

57

Chelated zinc reduces the dietary zinc requirement of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary zinc requirements of year-1 channel catfish were determined with an egg-white-based purified diet and with a soybean-meal-based practical diet, each supplemented with serial concentrations of zinc methionine (ZnMet) or zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnS). In the egg white diet, supplemental dietary zinc requirements, determined by broken-line regression analysis, for ZnMet and ZnS for maximum weight gain were 5.58 and

Tippawan Paripatananont; Richard T. Lovell

1995-01-01

58

Barium Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

59

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...

60

Novel three-dimensional coordination polymers of lanthanides with sulfate and oxydiacetic acid.  

PubMed

Three three-dimensional coordination polymers, viz. poly[[diaqua-?4-oxydiacetato-di-?4-sulfato-dipraseodymium(III)] hemihydrate], [Pr2(C4H4O5)(SO4)2(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, (I), poly[[diaquadi-?3-oxydiacetato-?3-sulfato-dineodymium(III)] 1.32-hydrate], [Nd2(C4H4O5)2(SO4)(H2O)2]·1.32H2O, (II), and poly[[diaquadi-?3-oxydiacetato-?3-sulfato-disamarium(III)] 1.32-hydrate], [Sm2(C4H4O5)2(SO4)(H2O)2]·1.32H2O, (III), were obtained by hydrothermal reactions of the respective lanthanide oxides and ZnSO4 with oxydiacetic acid (odaH2). The Nd(3+) and Sm(3+) compounds form isomorphous crystal structures in which the lanthanide cations are nine-coordinate, having a tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination. The Pr(3+) compound has an entirely different crystal structure in which two types of coordination polyhedra are observed, viz. nine-coordinate (trigonal prism) and ten-coordinate (bicapped square antiprism). The sulfate anions show various coordination modes, one of which has only rarely been observed crystallographically to date. PMID:24311500

Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Rajasekharan, M V

2013-12-15

61

Interactions of sulfates of divalent metals in nickel-sulfate-sensitive patients.  

PubMed

70 nickel-sensitive subjects who previously gave positive patch test response to 10 microliters of nickel sulfate 0.1 M, were patch tested to 10 microliters of mixed aqueous solutions containing nickel sulfate 0.1 M+magnesium sulfate 0.3 M, nickel sulfate 0.1 M+zinc sulfate, 0.3 and 0.5 M, respectively, nickel sulfate 0.1 M+ manganese sulphate 0.3 and 0.5 M, respectively nickel sulphate 0.1 M+ cadmium sulfate 0.1 and 0.3 M, respectively, nickel sulfate 0.1 M+iron sulfate (III) 0.1 and 0.3 M, respectively, and to 10 microliters of aq. cadmium sulfate 0.1 M, aq. cadmium sulfate 0.3 M, aq. iron sulfate 0.1 M, aq. iron sulfate 0.3 M. The results showed that, whilst sulfates of divalent metals with similar size and redox properties (Mg, Zn and Mn) were able to reduce or to suppress, in a dose-dependent way, the majority (75%) of nickel reactions, those with large radius and different oxidation state(Fe III), generally gave an increase in the reactions. In about 15% of the tested subjects, an increase in all the positive reactions to the mixed solutions was found. The findings seem to demonstrate that in only a majority but not all of nickel sulfate allergic reactions, is Ni(II) able to substitute for divalent ions with similar properties at the ion sites of some proteins. This tendency reproduces the results of experimental systems, in which nickel toxicity and cancerogenity are considered responsible. In contrast, in about 15% of the tested subjects, there was a general enhancement of the reactions. In these cases, either the occurrence of a "hyper-irritable" skin caused by the adopted test system or, more likely, the formation of Ni complexes with different geometries, is hypothesized. PMID:8734915

Santucci, B; Cannistraci, C; Cristaudo, A; Picardo, M

1996-04-01

62

Recycling spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials.  

PubMed

A novel process to reclaim spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries (SDBs) through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials is present. Firstly, the dismantling, watering, magnetism, baking and griddling steps were consecutively carried out to obtain iron battery shells, zinc grains and manganese compounds using the collected SDBs, and then these separated substances were dissolved with 4 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) to prepare FeSO(4), ZnSO(4) and MnSO(4) reactant solutions. Secondly, Zn-Mn ferrites with stoichiometric ratio of Mn(0.26)Zn(0.24)FeO(2) were synthesized using chemical co precipitation process with ammonium oxalate precipitator. The XRD results showed that the obtained Zn-Mn ferrites had spinel structure and high purity at the calcining temperatures of 850-1250 degrees C. With the increase of calcining temperature, the finer crystalline structure could be formed, and their intensity of saturation magnetization reached the highest value at 1150 degrees C. The magnetization performances of Zn-Mn ferrites prepared from the SDBs were similar to that of from analysis reagents, suggesting the feasibility to synthesize Zn-Mn ferrites with high properties from SDBs. PMID:16310946

Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Cui, Ming; Yang, Minjie; Pan, Linmao

2006-05-20

63

Zinc modulates aluminium-induced oxidative stress and cellular injury in rat brain.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of metal homeostasis has been perceived as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegeneration. Aluminium (Al) has been considered as a major risk factor, which is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, whereas zinc (Zn) has been reported as a vital dietary element, which regulates a number of physiological processes in central nervous system. The present study was conducted to explore the protective potential of zinc, if any, in ameliorating neurotoxicity induced by aluminium. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either aluminium chloride (AlCl3) orally (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt. per day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) at a dose level of 227 mg L(-1) in drinking water or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Aluminium treatment significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, which however were decreased following Zn co-treatment of Al-treated rats. In contrast, Al treatment decreased the activities of glutathione-S-transferase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione, oxidised glutathione and total glutathione, but co-administration of Zn to Al-treated animals increased these levels. Furthermore, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of Fe and Mn as well as of Al but decreased the Zn and metallothionein levels. In the Zn-supplemented animals, the levels of Al, Fe, Mn were found to be significantly decreased, whereas the levels of metallothionein as well as Zn were increased. Moreover, histopathological alterations such as vacuolization and loss of Purkinje cells were also evident following Al treatment, which showed improvement upon Zn supplementation. Therefore, zinc has the potential to alleviate aluminium-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25141099

Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-10-01

64

Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.  

PubMed

The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-02-01

65

Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols  

PubMed Central

Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at ?20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

2013-01-01

66

Role of Zinc Source in Chemical Bath Deposition of Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Si3N4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films have been grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using different zinc sources on a silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrate in an alkaline solution. The zinc precursors used were zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc sulfate. The structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS thin films obtained were analyzed. The morphology of the surface showed that the films were compact and uniform, with some pinholes in the surface depending on the zinc source. The most homogeneous and compact surfaces were those obtained using zinc nitrate as the zinc source with a root-mean-square (RMS) value of 3 nm. The transmission spectra indicated average transmittance of 80% to 85% in the spectral range from 300 nm to 800 nm, and the optical bandgap calculated for the films was around 3.71 eV to 3.74 eV.

Luque, P. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Claudia M.; Lastra, G.; Carrillo-Castillo, A.; Quevedo-López, M. A.; Olivas, A.

2014-08-01

67

Simple organic electron donors support diverse sulfate-reducing communities in fluidized-bed reactors treating acidic metal- and sulfate-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial diversity of lactate- and ethanol-utilizing sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) communities was investigated with culture-independent methods. The FBRs were fed for 500 days with synthetic mineral processing wastewater containing sulfate, zinc and iron with hydraulic retention time of 16–24 h. Sodium lactate or ethanol was used as electron donor for microbial sulfate reduction. For microbial characterization, 16S rRNA gene clone

Anna H Kaksonen; Jason J Plumb; Peter D Franzmann; Jaakko A Puhakka

2004-01-01

68

Sulfate in fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate (SO42?) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on

Paul A. Dawson

2011-01-01

69

Sulfate Adsorption on Goethite.  

PubMed

Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. We have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, we used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichiometry since this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichiometry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10502384

Rietra; Hiemstra; van Riemsdijk WH

1999-10-15

70

Zinc pyrithione induces ERK- and PKC-dependent necrosis distinct from TPEN-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Zinc dyshomeostasis can induce cell death. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which differ dramatically from normal cells in their zinc handling ability. Here, we studied the effects of the ionophore Zn-pyrithione (ZP) and the chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Both compounds induced cell death at micromolar concentrations when incubated with androgen-dependent (LNCaP), androgen-independent (PC3, DU145) and androgen-sensitive (C4-2) PCa cell-lines. Compared to PCa cells, RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells were less sensitive to ZP and more sensitive to TPEN, but total cellular zinc levels were changed similarly. ZnSO4 enhanced the toxicity of ZP, but inhibited the effects of TPEN as expected. The morphological/biochemical responses to ZP and TPEN differed. ZP decreased ATP levels and stimulated ERK, AKT and PKC phosphorylation. DNA laddering was observed only at low doses of ZP but all doses of TPEN. TPEN activated caspase 3/7 and induced PARP-cleavage, DNA-fragmentation, ROS-formation and apoptotic bodies. PKC and ERK-pathway inhibitors, and antioxidants protected against ZP-induced but not TPEN-induced death. Inhibitors of MPTP-opening protected both. Cell death in response to TPEN (but not ZP) was diminished by a calpain inhibitor and largely prevented by a caspase 3 inhibitor. Overall, the results indicated primarily a necrotic cell death for ZP and an apoptotic cell death for TPEN. The enhanced sensitivity of PCa cells to ZP and the apparent ability of ZP and TPEN to kill quiescent and rapidly dividing cells in a p53-independent manner suggest that ZP/TPEN might be used to develop adjunct treatments for PCa. PMID:22027089

Carraway, Robert E; Dobner, Paul R

2012-02-01

71

Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio

Vernon L. Hammersley; Naval Surface

1995-01-01

72

Sulfate in fetal development.  

PubMed

Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

Dawson, Paul A

2011-08-01

73

Measurements of corrosion at defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels using current density mapping  

SciTech Connect

Current density mapping was used to locate and monitor the early stages of corrosion at defects on painted surfaces in solution. Principles of the technique and methods of analysis were reviewed, and the effects of different scribing techniques were investigated. Results for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces showed corrosion occurred initially at localized sites on the exposed zinc in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions and when zinc was galvanically coupled to or isolated from steel. Current density mapping was shown to locate corrosion-susceptible defects on painted roll-formed materials that were not readily discernible optically.

Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1996-03-01

74

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

75

An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

76

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

77

Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease  

E-print Network

Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots #12;· Cholesterol sulfate supplies

Seneff, Stephanie

78

EAF dust as an electrolytic zinc resource  

SciTech Connect

Two viable options are presently available to the electrolytic zinc producer to supplement the zinc production capability significantly by using electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) or leady ZnO products derived from EAFD: Integrated processing of the materials using the Modified Zincex Process and commingling the zinc sulfate solution from that process with the neutral solution from the calcine leaching circuit; Installing a completely separate circuit for treating the material using technologies such as the Modified Zincex or Esinex Processes. EAFD and halogen-bearing EAFD derived products are a zinc resource which is virtually untapped by new or existing electrolytic zinc producers and which offers them, with the advent of new technologies able to deal with halides, the opportunity to maintain or increase their zinc production from a relatively cheap, if not ``free``, and already mined zinc source. Such an approach would also provide the EAFD producer an alternative, perhaps lower cost, outlet for their material to the currently rather closely held EAFD processing industry.

Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

79

Cadmium, copper and zinc toxicity effects on growth, proline content and genetic stability of Solanum nigrum L., a crop wild relative for tomato; comparative study.  

PubMed

Plants like other organisms are affected by environmental factors. Cadmium, copper and zinc are considered the most important types of pollutants in the environment. In this study, a comparison of growth and biochemical parameters between the crop wild relative (CWR) Solanum nigrum versus its cultivated relative Solanum lycopersicum to different levels of Cu, Zn and Cd stress were investigated. The presence of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 in Murashige and Skoog medium affected severely many growth parameters (shoot length, number of roots and leaves, and fresh weight) of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum at high levels. On the other hand, CdCl2 significantly reduced most of the studied growth parameters for both species. S. nigrum exhibited higher tolerance than S. lycopersicum for all types of stress. In addition, results show that as stress level increased in the growing medium, proline content of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum increased. A significant difference was observed between the two species in proline accumulation as a result of stress. In addition, a higher accumulation rate was observed in the crop wild relative (S. nigrum) than in cultivated S. lycopersicum. Changes in Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) pattern of CuSO4 treated S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum plants were also observed. In conclusion, based on growth and biochemical analysis, S. nigrum showed higher level of metals tolerance than S. lycopersicum which indicates the possibility of using it as a crop wild relative for S. lycopersicum. PMID:24554836

Al Khateeb, Wesam; Al-Qwasemeh, Hajer

2014-01-01

80

UNCOUPLING THE COUPLED CALCIUM AND ZINC DYSHOMEOSTASIS IN CARDIAC MYOCYTES AND MITOCHONDRIA SEEN IN ALDOSTERONISM  

PubMed Central

Intracellular [Ca2+]i overloading in cardiomyocytes is a fundamental pathogenic event associated with chronic aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST) and accounts for an induction of oxidative stress that leads to necrotic cell death and consequent myocardial scarring. This prooxidant response to Ca2+ overloading in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria is intrinsically coupled to simultaneous increased Zn2+ entry serving as an antioxidant. Herein, we investigated whether Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis and prooxidant:antioxidant dysequilibrium seen at 4 wks, the pathologic stage of ALDOST, could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidants, using cotreatment with a ZnSO4 supplement, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a Zn2+ ionophore, or ZnSO4 in combination with amlodipine (Amlod), a Ca2+ channel blocker. We monitored and compared responses in cardiomyocyte free [Ca2+]i and [Zn2+]i together with biomarkers of oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria. At wk 4 ALDOST and compared to controls, we found: i) an elevation in [Ca2+]i coupled with [Zn2+]i; and ii) increased mitochondrial H2O2 production, and increased mitochondrial and cardiac 8-isoprostane levels. Cotreatment with the ZnSO4 supplement alone, PDTC, or ZnSO4+Amlod augmented the rise in cardiomyocyte [Zn2+]i beyond that seen with ALDOST alone, while attenuating the rise in [Ca2+]i which together served to reduce oxidative stress. Thus, a coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ and Zn2+ was demonstrated in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria during 4 wks ALDOST, where prooxidants overwhelm antioxidant defenses. This intrinsically coupled Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidant defenses by selectively increasing free [Zn2+]i and/or reducing [Ca2+]i using cotreatment with ZnSO4 or PDTC alone or ZnSO4+Amlod in combination. PMID:20051880

Kamalov, German; Ahokas, Robert A.; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhao, Tieqiang; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Johnson, Patti L.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Weber, Karl T.

2010-01-01

81

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Zinc Accumulation in Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated effects of nitrogen fertilizers on availability of zinc (Zn) in soils. Two slit loams of the Hadley series (Typic Udifluvents) were used. Zinc sulfate was mixed with the soils to give Zn at 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg\\/kg and incubated for 14 days. Fertilizers (compost, cow manure, urea) were mixed with the soils to supply N at

Gretchen M. Bryson; Allen V. Barker

2007-01-01

82

Cyclic Voltammetric Studies of the Behavior of Lead-Silver Anodes in Zinc Electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) for lead-silver anodes has been performed in an acidic zinc sulfate solution with and without Mn2+ at 38 °C. It has been found that the most redox peaks observed at the lowest sweep rate of 3 mV/s in the sulfate solution could be characterized by the Nernst equation. Bubbling argon into the zinc electrolyte and increasing the potential sweep rates from 3 to 300 mV/s did not change the shape of the CV diagrams. It was also found that 0.7% silver as alloying element had an important influence on the reactions of Pb-Ag anodes in the zinc electrolyte. Lead-silver alloys were oxidized more easily in sulfuric acid than in the examined zinc electrolyte. The addition of MnSO4 to the zinc electrolyte decreased the numbers of the redox peaks on the curve of CV for lead-silver anode in zinc electrolyte.

Zhang, W.; Tu, C. Q.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, W. Y.; Houlachi, G.

2013-06-01

83

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

84

Systemic Imbalance of Essential Metals and Cardiac Gene Expression in Rats Following Acute Pulmonary Zinc Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) containing water-soluble zinc produces cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate whether pulmonary zinc exposure produces systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (12–14 wk age) were intratracheally (IT) instilled with saline or 2 ?mol\\/kg zinc sulfate. Temporal analysis was performed for systemic levels of essential metals

Peter S. Gilmour; Mette C. Schladweiler; Abraham Nyska; John K. McGee; Ronald Thomas; Richard H. Jaskot; Judy Schmid; Urmila P. Kodavanti

2006-01-01

85

Characterization of Nickel-Zinc Electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous nickel serves as an interesting catalytic material due to its large surface area and therefore high reactivity. The purpose of this project is to develop a method for producing thin films of nanoporous nickel. This is done by the electrodeposition of a nickel-zinc alloy followed by the selective removal of zinc. A series of primarily sulfate baths were used for deposition in an attempt to produce samples ideal for selective removal of zinc. Deposition variables examined include metal concentration in the solution, ratio of metals in solution, deposition potential and solution pH. Depositions were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Linear sweep voltammetry was also used to characterize the dealloying process. It was determined that increasing the nickel concentration in solution also increased the concentration in the deposit. Uniform depositions with low nickel concentration were successfully made although attempts to increase the nickel concentration adversely affected the deposition quality.

Tkacz, Kevin; Hampton, Jennifer

2013-03-01

86

In Situ Chemical Stabilization of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils Using Ferrous Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a probe into the stabilization effects of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) came from two aspects-stabilization efficiency and leachate content. Fe\\/As molar ratio, arsenic pollution intensity, soil pH, reacted time interval, competitive ions, such as sulfate(SO42-), phosphate(PO43-) and zinc ion(Zn2+), were studied in order to discuss their effects on the stabilization of arsenic. Results show that ,to all different

Huimin Zhao; Huanzhen Zhang; Min Tang; Fei Li

2010-01-01

87

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

88

Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments  

SciTech Connect

Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

2009-01-06

89

Production of zinc pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or

1996-01-01

90

Zinc, infections and immunosenescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections may cause mortality in old age due to damaged immune responses. As zinc is required as a catalyst, structural (zinc fingers) and regulatory ion, it is involved in many biological functions, including immune responses. Low zinc ion bioavailability and impaired cell-mediated immunity are common in ageing and may be restored by physiological supplementation with zinc for 1–2 months, impacting

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Robertina Giacconi; Mario Muzzioli; Catia Cipriano

2001-01-01

91

Zinc and zinc transporters in prostate carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The healthy human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. This unique property is retained in BPH, but is lost in prostatic malignancy, which implicates changes in zinc and its transporters in carcinogenesis. Indeed, zinc concentrations diminish early in the course of prostate carcinogenesis, preceding histopathological changes, and continue to decline during progression toward castration-resistant disease. Numerous studies suggest that increased zinc intake might protect against progression of prostatic malignancy. Despite increased dietary intake, zinc accumulation might be limited by the diminished expression of zinc uptake transporters, resulting in decreased intratumoural zinc levels. This finding can explain the conflicting results of various epidemiological studies evaluating the role of zinc supplementation on primary and secondary prostate cancer prevention. Overall, more research into the mechanisms of zinc homeostasis are needed to fully understand its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Only then can the potential of zinc and zinc transport proteins be harnessed in the diagnosis and treatment of men with prostate cancer. PMID:23478540

Kolenko, Vladimir; Teper, Ervin; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert

2013-01-01

92

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

93

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26

94

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

95

PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION  

E-print Network

Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein  

PubMed Central

Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 ?M ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 ?M CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 ?M CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

2013-01-01

97

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Dallam, R.D.

1987-03-23

98

Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems  

SciTech Connect

Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-04-05

99

Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

SciTech Connect

At present, zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio of the molecular weights of zinc to the zinc compound. This percent zinc is subtracted from percent total zinc and the operation is performed for every zinc compound determined. The remaining zinc value after these subtractions represents zinc as the metal. Zinc metal is the charged state on the anode. Percent total zinc is required in all these calculations. The importance of these components cannot be overemphasized. The presence, or absence, of certain components in the zinc electrode can influence its behavior in a zinc-silver oxide primary battery. Passivation layers, tendency to dendritic growth, corrosion rates, voltage rise times, current density, porosity, surface area, electrochemical capacity, and other considerations make it imperative that the chemical composition of the zinc electrode be known. The focus of this project was to evaluate the present method for total zinc and to develop a better method.

Hammersley, V.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States)

1995-07-01

100

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

101

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-11-15

102

Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2003-01-01

103

Zinc in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc concentration in breast milk varies within and between mothers. Neither environmental (zinc intake — either in natural food or supplemented, nutrient interaction, cigarette smoking, and oral contraceptives) nor constitutional (premature delivery, number of children, teen age pregnancy, undernutrition, infection, and diabetes) variables consistently affected zinc concentration or its rate of decrease in breast milk. Stage of lactation is the

Jose G. Dorea

2000-01-01

104

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... of a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources, because the zinc in plant proteins is not as available for use by ...

105

Sulfate scale dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

1992-01-28

106

Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-?m-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-?-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. PMID:22414495

Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

2012-04-15

107

Time dependent study to evaluate the efficacy of zinc on hepatic marker enzymes and elemental profile in serum and liver of protein deficient rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the time dependent protective effects of zinc sulfate on the serum and liver marker enzymes\\u000a along with elemental profile in protein deficient Sprauge Dawley (S.D.) female rats. Zinc sulfate in the dose of 227 mg\\/l\\u000a in drinking water was administrated to normal control as well as protein deficient rats for a total duration of 8

Pardeep Sidhu; M. L. Garg; D. K. Dhawan

2005-01-01

108

A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation of Specific Growth Rate and Biomass for the Deep-Sea  

E-print Network

. [12], correlated the production of H2S, a metabolic end product of SO4 _2 reduction, to biomass production. The authors channeled the effluent gas of a bioreactor containing biogenic H2S purged from the liquid medium through a ZnSO4 solution that trapped H2S as ZnS(solid). We have modified this approach

Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

109

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs ...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the...

2011-04-01

110

Zinc and autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria. Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

Liuzzi, Juan P; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

2014-12-01

111

Sensitive Reverse Staining of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides on Polyacrylamide Gels by Using Zinc and Imidazole Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for visualizing bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS)\\/lipooligosaccharides (LOS) electrophoresed in sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gels. After electrophoresis, gels are washed in boiling water to appreciably remove remaining electrophoresis reagents, then incubated in 10 mmzinc sulfate for 15 min, and subsequently immersed in 0.2mimidazole for 3 min. As a result, zinc salts precipitate all over the gel surface except

Eugenio Hardy; Elder Pupo; Lila Castellanos-Serra; Jesus Reyes; Carlos Fernández-Patrón

1997-01-01

112

Effusion studies of the decomposition of zinc sulfate and zinc oxysulfate  

SciTech Connect

The torsion-effusion method has been used to measure the SO/sub 3/ decomposition pressure over the crystalline solids ZnSO/sub 4/ and ZnO x 2ZnSO/sub 4/ in the range of about 800 to 900 K. SO/sub 3/ is the only detectable vapor species under these conditions. Vapor composition was verified by mass spectrometry and by molecular weights obtained from simultaneous torsion and mass-loss effusion measurements. The vaporization process is kinetically limited in two respects, since SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ are the dominant gaseous products at equilibrium and since the SO/sub 3/ effusion pressures show a pronounced dependence on orifice size. Equilibrium SO/sub 3/ pressures over both ZnSO/sub 4/ and ZnO x ZnSO/sub 4/, derived by extrapolation of steady-state pressures to zero orifice area, are more than a factor of five lower than values calculated from established thermodynamic data, indicating the likelihood that the product solid phases are formed in a finely divided metastable condition. Addition of a few mole percent of Pt powder to ZnO x 2ZnO/sub 4/ led to a dramatic pressure increase and to effusing gas compositions consistent with decomposition to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, while for ZnSO/sub 4/ the effusing gas was converted to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ but the pressure increase was smaller and not entirely reproducible. 23 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

Brittain, R.D.; Lau, K.H.; Knittel, D.R.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

1986-05-08

113

Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

2002-09-11

114

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

115

Is Zinc a Neuromodulator?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This review, with 3 figures and 57 references, describes the evidence that the cation Zn2+ acts as a modulator of synaptic activity. Beginning with a discussion of the criteria that zinc would have to meet in order to be classified as a neuromodulator and the use of chelators for intercepting zinc in the synaptic cleft, the authors then consider different models for zinc’s action at synapses, ranging from free diffusion of zinc to bound zinc in the extracellular space and a possible action within synaptic vesicles. The article wraps up with suggested experimental approaches that may help resolve the questions surrounding the role of zinc in the central nervous system.

Alan R. Kay (University of Iowa;Department of Biology REV); Katalin Toth (University of Iowa;Department of Biology REV)

2008-05-13

116

Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K. (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1989-01-01

117

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda

2001-01-01

118

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

119

Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

1986-05-01

120

Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred.

Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

1984-10-01

121

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

SciTech Connect

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested exposing only the metal coating and both the coating and the underlying steel. Effect of roll forming was investigated. Current density mapping located corrosion susceptible defects on painted roll formed materials that were not readily discernible optically. Scanning ac mapping showed that artificially formed defects were readily observed. Local impedance variations with frequency were measured for simulated defects and defect free areas of painted surfaces. Variations in paint thickness and the presence of defects were detected using the ac techniques.

Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1995-02-01

122

The effect of zinc methionine or copper lysine on stocker calves grazing oat pastures  

E-print Network

for growth and the prevention of anemia in rats since 1928 (Hart et al. , 1928). Many 12 experiments soon followed providing evidence of copper's essentiality for growth and prevention of a wide range of clinical and pathological disorders in many... in swine when 250 ppm copper as copper sulfate was added. The high level of copper can lead to anemia, copper toxicity, or zinc deficiency unless the diets contain adequate iron and zinc as antagonists. One hundred and fifty ppm of both iron and zinc can...

Griffeth, Laura Ann

2012-06-07

123

Mesospheric sulfate aerosol layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the heretofore unstudied role of volcanic and nonvolcanic sulfur aerosols and gases in the mesosphere. Two-dimensional microphysical calculations show that sulfur may be an important source of particles below the cold summer mesopause. Observed increases in SO2 with altitude in the upper stratosphere had previously suggested ultraviolet destruction of H2SO4, discounting its survival in the mesosphere. Laboratory measurements have now ruled out ultraviolet photolysis of H2SO4, however, and a recent proposal of visible and near-infrared photolysis of H2SO4 explains the SO2 observations. Our calculations show that enough H2SO4 survives this weak photolysis mechanism to produce significant sulfate aerosol surface area in the mesosphere. Neutralization of H2SO4 by metals on the surfaces of meteoritic dust is modeled and affects the mesospheric aerosol negligibly. We discuss the possible implications for this new class of particles for the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes and polar mesospheric clouds in volcanically quiescent and active periods.

Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Thomas, Gary E.

2005-12-01

124

Isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered a voltage-dependent isotope fractionation during electroplating of metal zinc from a zinc sulfate solution. Variations in transition metal stable isotope ratios variations are potentially valuable geochemical tracers, with applications spanning cosmochemistry, solid Earth geochemistry, ocean geochemistry, and biogeochemistry. However, the physical mechanisms underlying their isotope fractionation are not well understood. Here we report recent results from an experimental program designed to examine the isotope effect associated with electrochemical (redox) processes in aqueous solutions. Zinc metal was electrodeposited under potentiosatic conditions from a plating bath consisting of an acidified solution of zinc sulfate. The zinc metal was removed from each glassy carbon electrode, and the ?66Zn isotope abundance was analyzed using an IsoProbe multicollector plasma mass spectrometer. A first set of experiments were designed to examine two variables: electroplating voltage, and amount of Zn deposited (measured in total Coulombs). In these experiments, ~1-5 mg of zinc was electroplated from fresh 20 ml aliquots of the starting solution at overpotentials from 25 mV to 800 mV, with respect to the Zn/Zn^{+2} equilibrium. The resulting fractionation effect is severe, with ??66Zn = -3.60 (±.05) ‰ (with respect to starting solution) at the lowest overpotential, 25 mV. The isotope fractionation has a significant voltage effect; the fractionation becomes less severe with increasing overpotential, with ??66Zn = -2.48 (±.06) ‰ at 800 mV. Four experiments were performed at 100 mV, with plating times varying from 10 to 50 Coulombs. The average ??66Zn value was 3.20 (±.10) ‰, with no observed coulomb-dependent isotope effect. A second set of experiments was designed to examine the isotope evolution and mass balance relationship by Rayleigh distillation between the electroplated zinc and the increasingly depleted electroplating bath as zinc is electroplated out of the solution to the greatest extent possible, at a constant overpotential of 800 mV. In these experiments, the ?66Zn of the plated material evolves from 1.58 (±.01) ‰ after 1000 coulombs to +0.27 (±00) ‰ after 9113 coulombs. The plating solution starts at ?66Zn = 0.3 (±.06) ‰, and evolves to +1.83 (±.03) ‰ after 9113 coulombs. This data set shows that there is a voltage-dependent isotope fractionation of zinc during electroplating. These results are consistent with a theory, based on classical statistical mechanics, predicting voltage-dependent isotope fractionation due to a combination of aqueous speciation and charge transfer, as described in a recent paper (Kavner et al., GCA, 2005). The same theories should allow us to extrapolate these results to environmentally relevant non-redox chemical reactions. An alternative possible explanation for the observed fractionation is mass transport (diffusion) at an electrode; however the lack of a coulomb-dependence of fractionation at 100 mV suggests that isotope fractionation by mass transport does not play a significant role in these experiments. These experimental results will ultimately help to elucidate the processes by which isotope fractionation occurs in nature, allowing us to fully exploit them as geochemical tracers.

Kavner, A.; Sass, S.; John, S.; Boyle, E.

2006-12-01

125

Zinc and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that zinc is an essential trace element, influencing growth and affecting the development and integrity of the immune system. Research has begun to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of zinc on the immune function. It is clear that this trace element has a broad impact on key immunity mediators, such as enzymes, thymic peptides

M Dardenne

2002-01-01

126

Synthesis of Different Zinc and Zinc Included Nanostructures by High Power Copper Vapor Laser Ablation in Water- Surfactants Solutions  

E-print Network

The data of experimental studies of optical characteristics of colloidal solutions, composition and morphology of its dispersed phase, resulting from laser ablation of zinc in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants --- sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) are presented. It is shown that by studying the optical absorption spectra of the colloid, X-ray spectra and AFM-images of extracted from colloid solid phase, it is possible to trace the dynamics of ZnO nanostructures formation from zinc nanoclasters size of several nanometers to ZnO fractal aggregates (FA) size up to hundreds of nanometers. Determinants of this process are the average power and an ablation exposure, the frequency of the laser pulses, the colloid aging time, the type and concentration of surfactant in solution. In the selection of appropriate regimes, along with zinc oxide obtained other nanoproducts --- hydrozincit and organo-inorganic layered composite \\ce{[(\\beta) - Zn(OH)2 + SDS]}.

Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Borodina, Tatyana; Valyano, E G; Gololobova, O A

2011-01-01

127

Meteorological impacts on urban sulfate levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various meteorological conditions on ambient sulfate levels in Boston, Mass., are evaluated. Two-hour average samples of total sulfate and total suspended particulate were collected at three urban sites. Meteorological data including barometric pressure, absolute humidity, and wind direction were obtained for each sampling interval. High correlations between sulfate levels and the meteorological variables are noted. A sulfate

W. A. Turner; C. J. Gregory

1980-01-01

128

Affinity Chromatography Media CellufineTM Sulfate  

E-print Network

, chondroitin sulfate or heparin. Matrex Cellufine Sulfate consists of a rigid spherical cellulose matrix of 3Affinity Chromatography Media Matrex® CellufineTM Sulfate For Concentration, Purification and viral or microbial antigens. Matrex Cellufine Sulfate affinity media is a simple, rapid and effective

Lebendiker, Mario

129

SOIL FACTORS CONTROLLING THE TOXICITY OF COPPER AND ZINC TO MICROBIAL PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIAN SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two soil microbial processes, substrate-induced nitrification (SIN) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), were mea- sured in the topsoils of 12 Australian field trials that were amended separately with increasing concentrations of ZnSO4 or CuSO4. The median effect concentration (EC50) values for Zn and Cu based on total metal concentrations varied between 107 and 8,298 mg kg 1 for Zn and 108

Kris Broos; Michael St. J. Warne; Diane A. Heemsbergen; Daryl Stevens; Mary B. Barnes; Raymond L. Correll; Mike J. McLaughlin

2007-01-01

130

Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

2003-01-01

131

ZINC PRODUCES A TRANSMURAL VOLTAGE GRADIENT AND DISRUPTION OF INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION IN THE HEART  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure contributes to serious arrhythmia in high-risk individuals. We previously showed that non-cytotoxic doses of zinc sulfate (Zn, 50uM), a metal common to PM from many sources, alters the gene expression of several cardiac ion c...

132

Use of poly(lactic acid) amendments to promote the bacterial fixation of metals in zinc smelter tailings.  

PubMed

The ability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to serve as a long-term source of lactic acid for bacterial sulfate reduction activity in zinc smelter tailings was investigated. Solid PLA polymers mixed in water hydrolyzed abiotically to release lactic acid into solution over an extended period of time. The addition of both PLA and gypsum was required for indigenous bacteria to lower redox potential, raise pH, and stimulate sulfate reduction activity in highly oxidized smelter tailings after one year of treatment. Bioavailable cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were all lowered significantly in PLA/gypsum treated soil, but PLA amendments alone increased the bioavailability of lead, nickel and zinc. Similar PLA amendments may be useful in constructed wetlands and reactive barrier walls for the passive treatment of mine drainage, where enhanced rates of bacterial sulfate reduction are desirable. PMID:14693443

Edenborn, H M

2004-04-01

133

Control of Zinc Transfer between Thionein, Metallothionein, and Zinc Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein (MT), despite its high metal binding constant (KZn = 3.2 × 1013 M-1 at pH 7.4), can transfer zinc to the apoforms of zinc enzymes that have inherently lower stability constants. To gain insight into this paradox, we have studied zinc transfer between zinc enzymes and MT. Zinc can be transferred in both directions--i.e., from the enzymes to thionein

Claus Jacob; Wolfgang Maret; Bert L. Vallee

1998-01-01

134

The secondary alkaline zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

1991-02-01

135

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

136

Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  

PubMed

Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-04-01

137

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

138

ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.  

PubMed

The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface. PMID:24611747

Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

2014-04-01

139

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

140

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2014-10-01

141

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2013-10-01

142

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2012-10-01

143

Upgrading of zinc from galvanic sludge and steel furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Mining of zinc demands the upgrading of different residues of the refining process. A method, which had been used over a period of several years, was based on the so-called Doerschel process. From the chemical point of view, the Doerschel process is a high-temperature redox process, combined with a flash distillation (sublimation) step. This process is based on the reduction of zinc compounds with coke at elevated temperature. The metal is then evaporated, reoxidized, precipitated by filtration, and refined hydro-/electrochemically. Zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, germanium, and copper can be refined from solid feed material by this process. Modern waste management also needs such methods for the treatment of hazardous waste from different industrial processes, and the applicability of the Doerschel process in the upgrading of galvanic sludge, dust from steel furnaces, and scrap of portable batteries has been investigated. The feed material used for investigation has a mean zinc content of 15 to 25 wt% and a mean lead content up to 10 wt%. The presence of sulfate determines the anionic nature of feed material from galvanic sludge. The capacity of the kiln used in the investigation is about 10,000 metric tons per year. The efficiency of zinc recovery is about 95% to 98%. The matrix substances of the feed were dissolved in neutral to caustic slag. Sulfur dioxide was recovered by absorption, purification, and condensation.

Siebenhofer, M.; Schweiger, H. [VTU Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria); Lorber, K. [Inst. fuer Entsorgungs- und Deponietechnik, Leoben (Austria)

1997-01-01

144

Molecular aspects of human cellular zinc homeostasis: redox control of zinc potentials and zinc signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc(II) ions are essential for all forms of life. In humans, they have catalytic and structural functions in an estimated\\u000a 3,000 zinc proteins. In addition, they interact with proteins transiently when they regulate proteins or when proteins regulate\\u000a cellular zinc re-distribution. As yet, these types of zinc proteins have been explored poorly. Therefore the number of zinc\\/protein\\u000a interactions is potentially

Wolfgang Maret

2009-01-01

145

Silver-zinc batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until about a decade ago, only lead-acid storage batteries were utilized as a reserve source of dc power for aircraft applications. However, technological advances in the alkaline family of batteries have introduced new electrochemical systems having significant advantages over the lead-acid battery. One of these electrochemical systems is the silver-zinc battery. The silver-zinc battery derives its name from its active

R. Coss; J. Denson

1965-01-01

146

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

147

Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that ?34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ?4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ?200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with ?13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in ?13Ccarb and ?34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

2014-03-01

148

Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

1980-01-01

149

Prediction of serum IgG concentration by indirect techniques with adjustment for age and clinical and laboratory covariates in critically ill newborn calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop prediction models for the serum IgG concentration in critically ill calves based on indirect assays and to assess if the predictive ability of the models could be improved by inclusion of age, clinical covariates, and/or laboratory covariates. Seventy-eight critically ill calves between 1 and 13 days old were selected from 1 farm. Statistical models to predict IgG concentration from the results of the radial immunodiffusion test, the gold standard, were built as a function of indirect assays of serum and plasma protein concentrations, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) turbidity and transmittance, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity. For each assay 4 models were built: without covariates, with age, with age and clinical covariates (infection and dehydration status), and with age and laboratory covariates (fibrinogen concentration and packed cell volume). For the protein models, dehydration status (clinical model) and fibrinogen concentration (laboratory model) were selected for inclusion owing to their statistical significance. These variables increased the coefficient of determination (R2) of the models by ? 7% but did not significantly improve the sensitivity or specificity of the models to predict passive transfer with a cutoff IgG concentration of 1000 mg/dL. For the GGT assay, including age as a covariate increased the R2 of the model by 3%. For the ZnSO4 turbidity test, none of the covariates were statistically significant. Overall, the R2 of the models ranged from 34% to 62%. This study has provided insight into the importance of adjusting for covariates when using indirect assays to predict IgG concentration in critically ill calves. Results also indicate that ZnSO4 transmittance and turbidity assays could be used advantageously in a field setting. PMID:24082398

Fecteau, Gilles; Arsenault, Julie; Pare, Julie; Van Metre, David C.; Holmberg, Charles A.; Smith, Bradford P.

2013-01-01

150

Aerobic sulfate reduction in microbial mats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats.

Canfield, Donald E.; Des Marais, David J.

1991-01-01

151

Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry.  

PubMed

The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals of hippocampal mossy fiber buttons. PMID:23478014

Radford, Robert J; Lippard, Stephen J

2013-04-01

152

EFFECT OF REDUCED SEED AND APPLIED ZINC ON ZINC EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER ZINC DEFICIENCY IN NUTRIENT SOLUTION CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving zinc efficiency of cereals especially wheat under zinc deficiency is a priority area of research to determine and manipulate the plant factors that govern zinc uptake and utilization. Experiments conducted to ascertain variability and also the contribution of seed zinc (complete seed and half seed) to zinc efficiency in diverse wheat genotypes raised on zinc sufficient and deficient nutrient

Bhupinder Singh; B. K. Singh

2011-01-01

153

Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

2005-01-01

154

DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

155

Microbial sulfation of 8-prenylnaringenin.  

PubMed

Out of 24 fungal strains tested for their ability to transform 8-prenylnaringenin, Syncephalastrum racemosum was found to convert this phytoestrogen to a sulfate derivative. The conjugation with sulfuric acid observed in this study is paralleled in mammals indicating that microbes can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. PMID:23923620

Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Tronina, Tomasz; Huszcza, Ewa

2013-01-01

156

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

157

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous...

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.  

... O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous...

2014-04-01

159

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless...

2010-04-01

160

Recalibrating the concentration of Precambrian seawater sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic offset between sulfate sulfur and sulfide sulfur (delta34Ssulfate-sulfide) is widely used in the Precambrian as a paleo-indicator of seawater sulfate concentrations. Popularized by experimental work proposing an increase in seawater sulfate at the Archean - Proterozoic boundary, the concept of using a calibrated physiological process (dissimilatory sulfate reduction) to extract environmental information holds the potential to unlock numerous

D. T. Johnston; A. S. Bradley; A. Hoarfrost; P. R. Girguis

2010-01-01

161

FT Raman investigation of sodium cellulose sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

FT Raman investigation of sodium cellulose sulfates (NaCS) was reported. Different NaCS were prepared by two diverse sulfation\\u000a methods and their total degrees of substitution (DS) of sulfate groups were determined through either 13C-NMR spectroscopy or elemental analysis. Subsequently, these NaCS were characterized with FT Raman spectroscopy. The caused\\u000a bands through the introduction of the sulfate groups in cellulose chain

Kai Zhang; Erica Brendler; Steffen Fischer

2010-01-01

162

Meteorological impacts on urban sulfate levels  

SciTech Connect

The effects of various meteorological conditions on ambient sulfate levels in Boston, Mass., are evaluated. Two-hour average samples of total sulfate and total suspended particulate were collected at three urban sites. Meteorological data including barometric pressure, absolute humidity, and wind direction were obtained for each sampling interval. High correlations between sulfate levels and the meteorological variables are noted. A sulfate prediction model based on multiple linear regression is presented. (4 graphs, 19 references, 2 tables)

Turner, W.A.; Gregory, C.J.

1980-04-01

163

Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

1995-01-01

164

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates  

E-print Network

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11

165

Study of the Mechanisms of Interaction between the Hydrolysis Products of Titanyl Sulfate and Sulfate Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis products of TiOSO4 · 2?2? depending on pH was shown to differently affect an aggregation stability of sulfate lignin. Within the acidic region, these products cause coagulation effect with respect to sulfate lignin, whereas within alkaline region sulfate lignin is the stabilizer preventing the formation and precipitation of the hydrolysis products of titanyl sulfate.

Yu. M. Chernoberezhskii; D. Yu. Mineev; A. B. Dyagileva; A. V. Lorentsson

2002-01-01

166

Imaging mobile zinc in biology  

E-print Network

Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

Tomat, Elisa

167

Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn2(OH)2(ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn3(OH)4(bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4?biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two ?2-OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers

Kjell Ove Kongshaug; Helmer Fjellvåg

2004-01-01

168

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

1998-01-01

169

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

1998-02-03

170

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31

171

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

172

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Dogan, Erdal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker; Cetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gonul Olmez

2014-01-01

173

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

174

Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

2006-01-01

175

Hydrazine sulfate: A current perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrazine sulfate is an anticachexia agent which interrupts host energy wasting as a result of the malignant process. An inhibitor of gluconeogenesis at the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP CK) reaction, this agent has been shown in randomized, placebo?controlled, double?blind trials to improve glucose tolerance, reduce glucose turnover, increase caloric intake, and increase or stabilize weight; in single?arm controlled trials, this agent

Joseph Gold

1987-01-01

176

Use of poly(lactic acid) amendments to promote the bacterial fixation of metals in zinc smelter tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to serve as a long-term source of lactic acid for bacterial sulfate reduction activity in zinc smelter tailings was investigated. Solid PLA polymers mixed in water hydrolyzed abiotically to release lactic acid into solution over an extended period of time. The addition of both PLA and gypsum was required for indigenous bacteria to lower

H. M Edenborn

2004-01-01

177

Factors affecting plant growth in high-zinc medium. II. Influence of soil treatments on growth of soybeans on strongly acid soil containing zinc from peach sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of soil pH, micronutrient additions, and other management practices on soybean yields where peach trees had been grown previously. Decreased soybean yields resulted when either zinc sulfate or superphosphate was added to soil with a pH value below approximately 5.40. FeEDDHA improved plant growth, but did not influence soybean yields. Raising

C. R. Lee; G. R. Craddock

2009-01-01

178

Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

Tadros, Shawky H.

1993-01-01

179

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

180

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...e)(5) of this section, the cargo hatches of holds containing zinc material must remain sealed to prevent the entry of seawater. (5) If the concentration of hydrogen is near 4.1 percent by volume and increasing, despite ventilation, or the...

2011-10-01

181

Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin

2002-12-31

182

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

183

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

184

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

185

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate and heparin.  

PubMed

Covering: up to May 2014Heparan sulfate is a polysaccharide that plays essential physiological functions in the animal kingdom. Heparin, a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate, is a widely prescribed anticoagulant drug worldwide. The heparan sulfate and heparin isolated from natural sources are highly heterogeneous mixtures differing in their polysaccharide chain lengths and sulfation patterns. The access to structurally defined heparan sulfate and heparin is critical to probe the contribution of specific sulfated saccharide structures to the biological functions as well as for the development of the next generation of heparin-based anticoagulant drugs. The synthesis of heparan sulfate and heparin, using a purely chemical approach, has proven extremely difficult, especially for targets larger than octasaccharides having a high degree of site-specific sulfation. A new chemoenzymatic method has emerged as an effective alternative approach. This method uses recombinant heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes combined with unnatural uridine diphosphate-monosaccharide donors. Recent examples demonstrate the successful synthesis of ultra-low molecular weight heparin, low-molecular weight heparin and bioengineered heparin with unprecedented efficiency. The new method provides an opportunity to develop improved heparin-based therapeutics. PMID:25197032

Liu, Jian; Linhardt, Robert J

2014-12-01

186

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

187

Impact of Trace Element Changes on Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Healthy and Diabetic States among MiddleAge and Elderly Egyptians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium,\\u000a copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is\\u000a the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups:

Noha M. El Husseiny; Elham Sobhy Said; Naglaa El Shahat Mohamed; Azza Ismail Othman

188

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

189

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

190

Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading  

SciTech Connect

Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1998-07-01

191

Zinc supplementation does not affect growth, morbidity, or motor development of US term breastfed infants at 4-10 mo of age13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has been documented that growth patterns differ betweenbreastfedandformula-fedinfants.Someinvestigatorshave suggestedthatthesedifferencesmayberelatedtodifferencesinzinc nutriture. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of zincsupplementationongrowth,morbidity,andmotordevelopment in healthy, term, breastfed infants. Design: We conducted a randomized double-blind intervention comparing zinc supplementation (5 mg\\/d as zinc sulfate) with pla- ceboinbreastfedinfantsaged4-10mo.Growthandindexesofbody composition and gross motor development were measured monthly from 3 to 10

M Jane Heinig; Kenneth H Brown; Bo Lönnerdal; Kathryn G Dewey

192

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

193

Protein sulfation analysis--A primer.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to present an overview of protein sulfation in the context of 'modificomics', i.e. post-translational modification-specific proteome research. In addition to a short introduction to the biology of protein sulfation (part 1), we will provide detailed discussion regarding (i) methods and tools for prediction of protein tyrosine sulfation sites (part 2), (ii) biochemical techniques used for protein sulfation analysis (part 3.1), and (iii) mass spectrometric strategies and methods applied to protein sulfation analysis (part 3.2). We will highlight strengths and limitations of different strategies and approaches (including references), providing a primer for newcomers to protein sulfation analysis. PMID:16952486

Monigatti, Flavio; Hekking, Brian; Steen, Hanno

2006-12-01

194

Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons\\/Journals\\/Common\\/Gamma\\

Suresh K. Sampath; D. G. Kanhere; Ravindra Pandey

1999-01-01

195

[Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds. PMID:21598657

Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

2011-01-01

196

Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A. PMID:22140285

Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

2011-01-01

197

Recovery of Kraft Lignin from Aqueous Solutions with Oxotitanium Sulfate, Aluminum Sulfate, and Their Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation recovery of kraft lignin from aqueous solutions with oxotitanium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and a composite coagulant based on their mixture was studied in a wide range of coagulant concentrations and solution pH values.

Yu. M. Chernoberezhskii; D. Yu. Mineev; A. B. Dyagileva; A. V. Lorentsson; Yu. V. Belova

2002-01-01

198

Fluidized Bed Selective Oxidation-Sulfation Roasting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrate: Part II. Sulfation Roasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluidized bed sulfation roasting process followed by water leaching was investigated as an alternative process to treat nickel sulfide concentrate for nickel production. The effects of several roasting parameters, such as the sulfation gas flow rate, roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, and the roasting time, were studied. 79 pct Ni, 91 pct Cu, and 95 pct Co could be recovered with minimal dissolution of Fe of 4 pct by water leaching after two-stage oxidation-sulfation roasting under optimized conditions. The sulfation roasting mechanism was investigated, showing that the outermost layer of sulfate melt and the porous iron oxide layer create a favorable sulfation environment with high partial pressure of SO3. Sulfation of the sulfide core was accompanied by the conversion of the sulfide from Ni1- x S to Ni7S6 as well as inward diffusion of the sulfation gas.

Yu, Dawei; Utigard, Torstein A.; Barati, Mansoor

2014-04-01

199

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

200

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...preparations containing corticosteroids with or without an antimicrobial agent are contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until the infection is under control and corneal regeneration is well underway. Federal law...

2011-04-01

201

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...preparations containing corticosteroids with or without an antimicrobial agent are contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until the infection is under control and corneal regeneration is well underway. Federal law...

2012-04-01

202

21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparations containing corticosteroids with or without an antimicrobial agent are contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until the infection is under control and corneal regeneration is well underway. Federal law...

2010-04-01

203

Sulfate aerosol and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The predicted Earth warming based on recent increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases is slightly more than the observed warming of the atmosphere. In addition, the warming trend in North America does not appear to follow the global pattern. What might account for these and other deviations of fact from theory The answer is ironic. In all probability, aerosols primarily composed of sulfates, themselves the result of commercial activity, enhance the ability of the atmosphere to reflect sunlight back into space before it can reach the planet's surface and participate in the warming process. The sulfate particles, about 0.1 to one micron in diameter, are particularly concentrated over the industrial area of the Northern Hemisphere. Their capacity to cool by scattering sunlight has become a recognized force in climatic change only recently. Clearly, both the cooling effects of aerosols and the warming caused by greenhouse gases must be taken into account if we are to attain accurate climate models and effective industrial policies. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Charlson, R.J. (Univ. of Washington, WA (United States)); Wigley, T.M.L. (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-02-01

204

Changes in vascular pattern of chicken chorioallantois after cartilaginous extract, chondroitin sulfate and dextran sulfate treatment.  

PubMed

Cartilaginous extract, chondroitin sulfate C as well as dextran sulfate in gelatin pellets have an inhibitory effect on the development of fine capillaries, in contrast to pure gelatin pellets or pellets with sucrose. These results suggest an unspecific inhibitory effect of anionic saccharidic polymers on the development of chorioallantoic membrane vessels, because the chemical structure of dextran sulfate is (except anionic groups) different from chondroitin sulfate in the pure form or in the form of proteoglycans (in cartilaginous extract). PMID:8348985

Klepácek, I; Smetana, K; Stol, M

1993-01-01

205

Purification of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase by copper chelate affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase was isolated from human red blood cell hemolysate by DEAE-Sepharose and copper chelate affinity chromatography. Enzyme preparations had specific activities ranging from 3400 to 3800 U/mg and recoveries were approximately 60% of the enzyme activity in the lysate. Copper chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a purification factor of about 60-fold. The homogeneity of the superoxide dismutase preparation was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, analytical gel filtration chromatography, and isoelectric focusing.

Weslake, R.J.; Chesney, S.L.; Petkau, A.; Friesen, A.D.

1986-05-15

206

A chromatographic analysis of capsid protein isolated from alfalfa mosaic virus: zinc binding and proteolysis cause distinct charge heterogeneity.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) is required for viral replication when susceptible plants are inoculated with purified viral genomic RNA. The discovery of AIMV CP in the zinc activated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex prompted our further investigation of AIMV virions and the potential involvement of AIMV CP in metal binding. AIMV CP, isolated from nucleoprotein components, fractionated into four distinct ionic species when purified by cation exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. The CP existed as zinc complexed homodimers, metal-free homodimers, and two forms of proteolyzed heterodimers, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, amino-terminal sequencing, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Although the relative amounts of proteolyzed heterodimers varied, the ratio of zinc complexed homodimers to metal-free homodimers (1:10) was constant between virus and protein isolations for the strains 425 and WISC14. Purified metal-free and zinc-complexed homodimers could be interconverted in vitro by incubation with zinc chloride or with the metal chelator, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC). The potential role of zinc in AIMV nucleoprotein structure and infectivity was investigated by treatment of the virions with NaDDC. Electron microscopy and sucrose density gradient studies failed to detect any gross structural changes for zinc depleted virus; however, a decrease in infectivity was observed with local lesion leaf assays, suggesting a functional role for zinc in viral replication. PMID:7941357

Sehnke, P C; Johnson, J E

1994-11-01

207

Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity. PMID:25271834

Xue, Jing; Moyer, Amanda; Peng, Bing; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2014-01-01

208

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

209

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

210

Natural zinc enrichment in peatlands: Biogeochemistry of ZnS formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands effectively retain heavy metals and prevent stream and watershed contamination. Sulfate reduction is considered the most significant process of metal immobilization in natural wetlands and microbial sulfate reduction is the presumed mechanism that results in the precipitation of metal sulfides. In this study, we examined the biogeochemical mechanisms involved in zinc retention and accumulation in a metalliferous peatland of western New York. In the reducing conditions of these peatlands zinc sulfides occurred as framboidal aggregates of sphalerite and polytypic wurtzite (2nH, n ? 2) nanocrystallites associated with bacterial cells and organic matter. Bacterial cells were co-located with ZnS inside peat particles where the microenvironment remained anoxic. The peat zinc sulfide was depleted in 34S isotopes relative to the sulfate supplied to the peatland by 18-34 per mill, implicating its biological formation. Extraction of microbial community DNA from peat samples yielded diverse PCR amplicons from dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes, indicating varied bacterial taxa capable of reducing forms of oxidized sulfur. Nanocrystals with distinct structural features were observed in samples containing contrasting dsrAB sequences. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that microorganisms can influence the chemical forms of heavy metals in peatland environments. Our findings also provide insight into the conditions necessary to promote the immobilization of chalcophile elements in engineered systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and wastewater effluents.

Yoon, Soh-joung; Yáñez, Carolina; Bruns, Mary Ann; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

2012-05-01

211

Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.  

PubMed

Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility. PMID:21755349

Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

2011-11-01

212

4-Acetyl-pyridinium hydrogen sulfate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H8NO+·HSO4 ?, consists of O—H?Ohydrogen-bonded extended chains of hydrogen sulfate anions. Each hydrogen sulfate anion is furthermore connected to one 4-acetyl­pyridinium cation via a hydrogen bond of the N—H?O type. PMID:21577849

Fu, Xue-qun

2009-01-01

213

Rapid variablity of Cenozoic weawater sulfate concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid inclusion data suggest that the composition of major elements in seawater changes slowly over geological time scales. This view contrasts with high resolution isotope data that imply more rapid fluctuations of seawater chemistry. We use a non-steady state box model of the global sulfur cycle to show that the marine S-isotope record can be explained by variable marine sulfate concentrations triggered by basin scale evaporite precipitation/dissolution events. We propose that the deep time evolution of seawater sulfate concentrations is best characterized by long phases of stasis, punctuated by short intervals of rapid change. This has far reaching implications as sulfate concentrations affect several important biological processes including carbonate mineralogy, microbially mediated organic matter remineralization, sedimentary phosphorous regeneration, and nitrogen fixation. These changes are likely to impact ocean productivity, and the the global carbon cycle. Moreover, because the ocean is a major source for sulfate aerosols, lower marine sulfate concentrations could have affected atmospheric aerosol chemistry as well. Thus, times of high sulfate concentrations correlate with an increased aerosol load and global cooling, whereas times of low marine sulfate concentrations correspond with greenhouse periods. Specifically, the rapid rise of the marine sulfate concentrations during the Early Eocene likely increased the aerosol load in the atmosphere, which may have contributed to the demise of the Eocene Climatic Optimum and the onset of the longterm Cenozoic cooling trend.

Wortmann, U. G.; Paytan, A.

2012-12-01

214

Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

2005-01-01

215

Reactivity of calcium sulfate from FBC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relative estimate of the reactivity of calcium sulfate in a number of coal combustion ash samples was obtained, using the rate of solution in water as a parameter. Measurements were also performed on standard samples of calcium sulfate prepared in different ways, for comparison. The temperature of previous treatment appeared as the most important factor determining the reactivity of

Agripanea P. Iribarne; Julio V. Iribarne; Edward J. Anthony

1997-01-01

216

Sulfation phenomena in fluidized bed combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) are noted for their ability to capture SO2 in situ via direct reaction with Ca-based sorbents. However, despite more than 30 years of intensive study of sulfation processes in atmospheric FBC boilers and numerous laboratory studies, there are still many uncertainties and disagreements on the subject. In particular, the mechanisms of the sulfation reaction are still

E. J. Anthony; D. L. Granatstein

2001-01-01

217

Scintillation properties of lead sulfate  

SciTech Connect

We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO{sub 4}), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm{sup 3}, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO{sub 4} crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45{degrees}C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25{degrees}C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at {minus}145{degrees}C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO{sub 4} (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shlichta, P.J. [Crystal Research, San Pedro, CA (United States)

1991-11-01

218

Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site. I. Stream copper and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonal and spatial variations in metal concentrations and pH were found in a stream at a restored copper mine site located near a massive sulfide deposit in the Foothill copper-zinc belt of the Sierra Nevada, California. At the mouth of the stream, copper concentrations increased and pH decreased with increased streamflow after the onset of winter rain and, unexpectedly, reached extreme values 1 or 2 months after peaks in the seasonal hydrographs. In contrast, aqueous zinc and sulfate concentrations were highest during low-flow periods. Spatial variation was assessed in 400 m of reach encompassing an acidic, metal-laden seep. At this seep, pH remained low (2-3) throughout the year, and copper concentrations were highest. In contrast, the zinc concentrations increased with downstream distance. These spatial patterns were caused by immobilization of copper by hydrous ferric oxides in benthic sediments, coupled with increasing downstream supply of zinc from groundwater seepage.

Bambic, D.G.; Alpers, C.N.; Green, P.G.; Fanelli, E.; Silk, W.K.

2006-01-01

219

21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

220

21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

221

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

222

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

223

21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

2012-04-01

224

21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

2011-04-01

225

21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529.1044b...DRUGS § 529.1044b Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

2011-04-01

226

21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

2010-04-01

227

Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction  

E-print Network

Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

Sim, Min Sub

2012-01-01

228

High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in a Low-Sulfate Hot Spring Microbial Mat Are Driven by a Low Level of Diversity of Sulfate-Respiring Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelec- trode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close

Jesse G. Dillon; Susan Fishbain; Scott R. Miller; Brad M. Bebout; Kirsten S. Habicht; Samuel M. Webb; David A. Stahl

2007-01-01

229

Corrosion behavior of rapidly solidified magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly solidified magnesium alloys with 8 at%, 15 at%, and 20 at% Al and 1 at% and 3 at% Zn were fabricated by centrifugal atomization followed by hot extrusion. Microstructure of the alloys was composed of a fine-grain magnesium matrix (0.5 {micro}m) with {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates. Electrochemical and weight-loss tests were performed in borate and ASTM D 1384 solution (chloride, carbonate, and sulfate). In both media, corrosion current f the alloys decreased with increases in aluminum or zinc content. In borate solution, a passivating plateau was observed from the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) to E{sub corr} + 1,200 mV. Current density decreased with aluminum and zinc concentrations. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized matrix and precipitates was characterized. Zinc increased E{sub corr} of the two phases, with a corresponding decrease of corrosion current. The same trend was noticed for aluminum but with a less dramatic effect. The corrosion mechanism was suggested result from galvanic coupling of the matrix and the second phase. The galvanic corrosion, however, was reduced strongly by passivation of the matrix as a result of the surrounding precipitates. The positive influence of rapid solidification (corrosion rate decreased 1 order of magnitude) was the creation of a fine, highly homogeneous microstructure through this fabrication process.

Daloz, D.; Michot, G. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Physique et Science des Materiaux; Steinmetz, P. [Faculte des Sciences, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Chimie du Solide Mineral

1997-12-01

230

Bacterial transport of sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is an essential element for microorganisms and it can be obtained from varied compounds, sulfate being the preferred\\u000a source. The first step for sulfate assimilation, sulfate uptake, has been studied in several bacterial species. This article\\u000a reviews the properties of different bacterial (and archaeal) transporters for sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions. Sulfate\\u000a uptake is carried out by sulfate permeases

Esther Aguilar-Barajas; César Díaz-Pérez; Martha I. Ramírez-Díaz; Héctor Riveros-Rosas; Carlos Cervantes

2011-01-01

231

A zinc paste primary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

1983-03-01

232

Zinc deficiency and child development.  

PubMed

Zinc is a trace metal that is present in the brain and contributes to its structure and function. Limited evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that zinc deficiency may lead to delays in cognitive development. Although the mechanisms linking zinc deficiency with cognitive development are unclear, it appears that zinc deficiency may lead to deficits in children's neuropsychologic functioning, activity, or motor development, and thus interfere with cognitive performance. In this article a model is presented that incorporates the influence of social context and the caregiving environment and suggests that the relation between zinc deficiency and cognitive development may vary by age in children and may be mediated by neuropsychologic functioning, activity, and motor development. Suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:9701161

Black, M M

1998-08-01

233

Zinc concentrations during mice gestation.  

PubMed

Severe maternal zinc deficiency has a devastating effect on pregnancy outcome. Studies of humans and experimental animals show that maternal zinc deficiency can cause infertility, prolonged labor, intrauterine growth retardation, teratogenesis, severe immunological deficiencies, or fetal death. The additional need for zinc during pregnancy can be met by an increase in zinc intake. An increase in zinc supplements, when excessive, can cause a decrease in copper. Therefore, it is important to determine the zinc and copper concentrations in embryonic tissue in experimental models and their relationship with embryo number and viability. BALB/c mice were divided into groups according to zinc oral supplementation and gestational age. Phagocytosis was assessed in peritoneal macrophages from dams. The zinc and copper concentrations were obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Zn and Cu data concentrations in all the analyzed samples were above the detection limits. No spectral interferences were found in both elements. Zinc concentrations show a tendency to increase in embryos (14 gestational days and 21 gestational days) supplemented with zinc. Copper concentrations showed a noticeable tendency to diminish (36% and 27%, respectively) in the same period. In contrast, in placenta Zn values were increased by 30% and Cu values were decreased by 26%. We suggest a pivotal role of the placenta metabolism with its homeostatic mechanisms, in these findings. An important increment appeared in the +Zn embryo number (40%) relative to control (-Zn) embryos at 21 d gestational age. Embryo mortality was at 6% in +Zn embryos and at 20% in -Zn embryos. We consider these findings, both in the number and in the viability of +Zn embryos, outstanding. PMID:16034165

Lastra, Ma Dolores; Saldívar, Liliana; Martínez, Kristel; Munguía, Nadia; Márquez, Ciro; Aguilar, Ana Esther

2005-01-01

234

Sulfate reducing bacteria in microbial mats: Changing paradigms, new discoveries  

E-print Network

: Sulfate-reducing bacteria; Biofilms; Carbonate precipitation; Lithification; Stromatolites; Microbial mats's 4.6 Ga history (Shen and Buick, 2004). Isotopic evidence indicates that sulfate reduction evolved

235

Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> is found to be 4.11 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 2.79 eV for ZnGa2O4. With reference to the calculated band gap of 5.36 eV for MgAl2O4, the systematic decrease in the gap is attributed to the presence of 3d orbitals of Zn and Ga and the associated p-d hybridization in the upper valence band of zinc aluminate and gallate. Comparison of the contour maps of the electron localization function of ZnAl2O4 and ZnGa2O4 with that of MgAl2O4 clearly shows the bonding to be less ionic in the zinc-based spinel oxides. Finally, the calculations yield a smaller electron effective mass for zinc gallate as compared to that for zinc aluminate, suggesting a higher mobility of electrons in gallate.

Sampath, Suresh K.; Kanhere, D. G.; Pandey, Ravindra

1999-05-01

236

Revisiting the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway.  

PubMed

Sulfur isotopes in the geological record integrate a combination of biological and diagenetic influences, but a key control on the ratio of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary materials is the magnitude of isotope fractionation imparted during dissimilatory sulfate reduction. This fractionation is controlled by the flux of sulfur through the network of chemical reactions involved in sulfate reduction and by the isotope effect associated with each of these chemical reactions. Despite its importance, the network of reactions constituting sulfate reduction is not fully understood, with two principle networks underpinning most isotope models. In this study, we build on biochemical data and recently solved crystal structures of enzymes to propose a revised network topology for the flow of sulfur through the sulfate reduction metabolism. This network is highly branched and under certain conditions produces results consistent with the observations that motivated previous sulfate reduction models. Our revised network suggests that there are two main paths to sulfide production: one that involves the production of thionate intermediates, and one that does not. We suggest that a key factor in determining sulfur isotope fractionation associated with sulfate reduction is the ratio of the rate at which electrons are supplied to subunits of Dsr vs. the rate of sulfite delivery to the active site of Dsr. This reaction network may help geochemists to better understand the relationship between the physiology of sulfate reduction and the isotopic record it produces. PMID:21884365

Bradley, A S; Leavitt, W D; Johnston, D T

2011-09-01

237

The Effects of Supplemental Zinc and Honey on Wound Healing in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Clinicians have long been searching for ways to obtain "super normal" wound healing. Zinc supplementation improves the healing of open wounds. Honey can improve the wound healing with its antibacterial properties. Giving supplemental zinc to normal rats can increase the wound tensile strength. This work is to study the concurrent effects of zinc and honey in wound healing of normal rats. Materials and Methods One hundred and seventy two young rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, zinc-supplement, applied honey, zinc-supplement and applied honey. Two areas of skin about 4 cm² were excised. The wound area was measured every 2 days. After 3 weeks, all animals were killed and tensile strength of wounds, zinc concentration of blood and histological improvement of wounds were evaluated. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the mean differences were tested. Results It was found that honey could inhibit the bacterial growth in skin excisions. The tensile strength was increased significantly in the second to fourth groups at 21st day (P< 0.001). Also there was a significant increase in tensile strength at the same time in the fourth group. The results of the histological study showed a considerable increase in the collagen fibers, re-epithelialization and re-vascularization in the second to fourth groups. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that zinc sulfate could retard re-epithelialization, but when used with natural honey (administered topically) it could have influent wound healing in non-zinc-deficient subjects as well. PMID:23493488

Sazegar, Ghasem; Seyed Reza, Attarzadeh Hosseini; Behravan, Effat

2011-01-01

238

Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rollings, R.S. [Army Engineering Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Pavement Div.

1995-06-01

239

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-07-15

240

Biological removal of heavy metals by sulfate reduction using a submerged packed tower  

SciTech Connect

The Coors Brewing Co. owns and operates two wastewater treatment plants which handle the combined waste of the City of Golden and the Brewery. The discharge permit for Coors contains very strict limits for metals. Silver and mercury are prohibited from discharge at all and copper and zinc are both at low limits. The copper and zinc limits cannot be achieved with the present plant configuration and several programs are underway to reduce the source concentrations to meet the respective limits. Most of the programs are either very expensive or unlikely to produce the needed results soon enough. One possible treatment alternative that has been described in literature is sulfate reduction leading to the generation of hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide in turn can precipitate most divalent metals that are available, though there are limits on the precipitation process. The purpose of this research has been to investigate the use of sulfate reduction to remove metals from the effluent of the Coors` Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP).

Neserke, G. [Coors Brewing Co., Golden, CO (United States); Figueroa, L.; Cook, N. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Division

1994-12-31

241

Enrichment method of sulfated glycopeptides by a sulfate emerging and ion exchange chromatography.  

PubMed

Sulfated glycoproteins are of growing importance for biomarker discovery, as well as for investigating molecular recognition processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful technique for the characterization of glycans and glycoproteins. However, characterization and detection of sulfated glycopeptides by MS is difficult because of the low abundance and low ionization efficiency of these molecules. To overcome this problem, we developed a novel enrichment procedure for sulfated glycopeptides. The procedure consists of anion exchange chromatography and a sulfate emerging (SE) method which controls the net charge of peptides by utilizing limited proteolyzes and modification with acetohydrazide. Using this procedure, we are able to enrich and characterize the sulfated glycopeptides of bovine luteinizing hormone (bLH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the enrichment and detection of sulfated glycopeptides from a complex mixture comprising human serum spiked with bLH at a concentration of 0.1%. PMID:19572564

Toyoda, Masaaki; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kameyama, Akihiko

2009-08-01

242

21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfate ((NH4 )2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.  

...sulfate ((NH4 )2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The...

2014-04-01

244

21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.  

...manganese dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2 ) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal, followed by leaching and crystallization. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2014-04-01

245

21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manganese dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2 ) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal, followed by leaching and crystallization. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2013-04-01

246

21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

2013-04-01

247

21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.  

... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

2014-04-01

248

21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

2011-04-01

249

21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Cattle, swine, sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound...

2012-04-01

250

[Determination of the sulfate ion content in antibiotic sulfate salts by a complexometric titration method].  

PubMed

A possibility of assaying antibiotic sulfates, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, monomycin, neomycin, ristomycin, streptomycin, florimycin and polymyxin M sulfates for sulfate ions by titration with barium chloride in the presence of chlorphosphonaso-III, a metal indicator immediately in the salt solutions or after elimination of the cation by means of ion exchange (sulfocation exchange resins in H+-form) was tested. The procedure was shown to be adequate to the classical weight method. PMID:7469396

Kartseva, V D; Lokshin, G B; Libinson, G S; Kruzhkova, N G

1980-12-01

251

Plant sulfate assimilation genes: redundancy versus specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is an essential nutrient present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, co-enzymes and vitamins. Plants and many\\u000a microorganisms are able to utilize inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into these compounds. Sulfate assimilation in plants\\u000a has been extensively studied because of the many functions of sulfur in plant metabolism and stress defense. The pathway is\\u000a highly regulated in a

Stanislav Kopriva; Sarah G. Mugford; Colette Matthewman; Anna Koprivova

2009-01-01

252

Sulfation in lead–acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead–acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead–acid batteries is the word, sulfation.Sulfation is a residual

Henry A. Catherino; Fred F. Feres; Francisco Trinidad

2004-01-01

253

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-print Network

Bo Conchsion Ccnctrsicn Sulfates other salts InterreUve conctertons Figure 1 Schematic Outline of Testing and Reporting Procedure CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The thesis of this study is that electrical conductivity of soils can be related...Bo Conchsion Ccnctrsicn Sulfates other salts InterreUve conctertons Figure 1 Schematic Outline of Testing and Reporting Procedure CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The thesis of this study is that electrical conductivity of soils can be related...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

2012-06-07

254

Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric general circulation model is coupled to an atmospheric chemistry model to calculate the radiative forcing\\u000a by anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. The latter aerosols result from biomass burning as well as fossil fuel\\u000a burning. The black carbon associated with carbonaceous aerosols is absorbant and can decrease the amount of reflected radiation\\u000a at the top-of-the-atmosphere. In contrast, sulfate aerosols

J. E. Penner; C. C. Chuang; K. Grant

1998-01-01

255

Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.  

PubMed Central

The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

1988-01-01

256

Distribution of sulfate between phases in Portland cement clinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate can occur in Portland cement clinkers as alkali sulfates, potassium calcium sulfate (calcium langbeinite), anhydrite, and as a substituent in the major phases, especially alite and belite. Data for the contents in alite and belite are reviewed and relations to bulk clinker composition are discussed. Evidence on sulfate distribution from extraction procedures is similarly considered. A procedure for predicting

H. F. W. Taylor; H. F. W

1999-01-01

257

Inactivation of Thrombin by a Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Echinoderm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide extracted from the sea cucumber body wall has the same backbone structure as the mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. These branches confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide. Since the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate has analogy in structure with mammalian glycosaminoglycans and sulfated fucans from brown algae, we compared

Paulo A. S Mourão; Catherine Boisson-Vidal; Jacqueline Tapon-Bretaudière; Bruno Drouet; Andrée Bros; Anne-Marie Fischer

2001-01-01

258

Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation  

PubMed Central

The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

Cooper, Ross G.

2008-01-01

259

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-01-01

260

Imaging Zinc: Old and New Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science.

Christopher Frederickson (University of Texas Medical Branch;NeuroBioTex Inc and Departments of Anatomy and Neuroscience Biomedical Engineering and Preventive Medicine and Community Health REV)

2003-05-13

261

Imaging zinc: old and new tools.  

PubMed

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science. PMID:12746547

Frederickson, Christopher

2003-05-13

262

Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (?18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The ?18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (?34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present ?18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that ?18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (<4‰) even when the ?34SSO4 varies by up to 30 to 50‰ over the course of the experiment. This disparity could reflect little to no kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

2006-12-01

263

A revised isotope fractionation model for dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction has been conceptually described by the widely accepted Rees model as related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of bacteria. The magnitude of isotope fractionation is determined by the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. Here we present a revision of Rees’ model for

Benjamin Brunner; Stefano M. Bernasconi

2005-01-01

264

Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences on Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins in Orgueil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

Zolensky, M. E.

2000-01-01

265

Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences On Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins In Orgueil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

Zolensky, Michael E.

1999-01-01

266

A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides

B. Benjamin; S. M. Bernasconi

2004-01-01

267

Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent glycobiology studies have suggested fundamental biological functions for chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and at cell surfaces. They have been implicated in the signaling functions of various heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines, and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system. They

Kazuyuki Sugahara; Tadahisa Mikami; Toru Uyama; Souhei Mizuguchi; Kazuya Nomura; Hiroshi Kitagawa

2003-01-01

268

Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Methods: Rural community health centers providing maternal and child care in two areas with moderate rates of malnutrition were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups, including 393 and 445 children 6-24 months of age, respectively. Children in both groups received routine iron and multivitamin or vitamin A and D supplements through PHC services. Mothers of children in the intervention group were asked to give a single dose of 5 ml/day zinc sulfate syrup (containing 5 mg elemental zinc) to their children for 3 months while children in the control group did not receive the supplement. Results: Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and on a monthly basis in both groups. We found a 0.5 cm difference in the height increment in the intervention group as compared with the control (P < 0.001). Zinc supplementation had no effect on weight increment of children. Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation was found to be both practical and effective in increasing linear growth rate of children less than 2 years of age through PHC. PMID:24829711

Abdollahi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Zahra; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Bondarianzadeh, Dolly

2014-01-01

269

Use of chemisorptive fibres to free wastewater from zinc  

SciTech Connect

The authors use the fibrous ion-exchange materials VION KS-3 and VION KN-1 to free wastewater from zinc. It has been shown that at a sulfuric acid content less than 0.5 g/liter and a sodium sulfate content less than 0.2 g/liter in the wastewater, and also in cleaning up neutral waters, it is advisable to use VION KS-3 fibre. It is possible, the authors say, to use VION KN-1 fibre in cleaning up wastewater having a pH of 4 and a considerable salt background. However, in this case, the VION KN-1 fibre should be in the Na-form.

Zverev, M.P.; Egorov, K.K.; Romanova, T.A.; Volkov, L.A.; Zakharova, N.N.

1985-07-01

270

Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection  

SciTech Connect

Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01

271

Subchronic oral toxicity of zinc in rats  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that zinc has important biological functions. Clinical manifestations in zinc-deficient animals include growth retardation, testicular atrophy, skin changes, and poor appetite. On the other hand, high levels of dietary zinc have been shown to induce copper deficiency in rats and to interfere with the metabolism of calcium and iron. Little is known on the oral toxicity of zinc in mammals. However, some toxic effects in human subjects, rodents, and sheep have been reported. In order to extend the information about the oral toxicity of zinc, a semichronic toxicity study of zinc acetate in rats has been carried out in this paper.

Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L.; Colomina, M.T.; Mayayo, E.; Corbella, J.

1988-07-01

272

Role of permeability in sulfate attack  

SciTech Connect

The role of permeability in sulfate attack was evaluated in this study. Resistance to sulfate attack was measured by determining the expansion caused in concrete specimens with exposure 5% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Concrete specimens were prepared from five binders, namely: ordinary Portland cement (OPC), high slag cement (HSC), sulfate-resistance cement (SRC), OPC with 7% silica fume (SF) and HSC with 7% SF. Concrete of grades 35 and 40 were used. The expansions of concrete samples were compared to their permeabilities to establish the role of permeability in controlling the expansion due to sulfate attack. It was found that the relative performance of concretes cannot be explained by either their permeability only or by only the chemical resistance of the binder. However, by combining the information on permeability and the chemical resistance of binder, the relative performance of concretes can be estimated. Thus, both permeability and the type of binder play an important role in sulfate attack.

Khatri, R.P.; Sirivivatnanon, V. [CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering, North Ryde (Australia)] [CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering, North Ryde (Australia); Yang, J.L. [Ssang Yong Cement Singapore Ltd., Jurong Town (Singapore)] [Ssang Yong Cement Singapore Ltd., Jurong Town (Singapore)

1997-08-01

273

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

274

History of Zinc in Agriculture12  

PubMed Central

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H.

2012-01-01

275

Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Zinc Sulfate in Patients with Geographic Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of the problem: Geographic tongue is characterized by loss of filliform papillae in an erythematous area with keratotic borders. It vanishes after a while and reappears in another area. It is relatively common and is most seen among females. Considering such problems as pain, burning sensation and sharp pain in tongue, decreasing of taste sensation, cancer phobia and esthetic

M. Vahedi; H. R. Abdolsamadi; H. Mortazavi; S. H. Abdollahzadeh

2009-01-01

276

Structure and reactivity of zinc sulfide precipitates formed in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biologically mediated formation of metal sulfide precipitates in anoxic sediments represents a potentially important mechanism for the sequestration of toxic metals. Current knowledge of the structure and reactivity of these biogenic metal sulfides is scarce, limiting the ability to effectively assess contaminant sequestration in, and remobilization from, these solids. In this study, SO4-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were grown for

Edward Peltier; Pavan Ilipilla; David Fowle

2011-01-01

277

A Galvanizing Story--Protein Stability and Zinc Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential component of protein function in all living cells. The intracellular availability of zinc ions must be balanced against their potential toxicity. Maintaining optimal zinc ion levels requires the integration of zinc enzyme expres- sion with zinc transport. Much of the effort to understand bacterial zinc homeostasis, as well as that of other metals, has focused on

Peter T. Chivers

2007-01-01

278

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

279

The use of seaweed and sugarcane bagasse for the biological treatment of metal-contaminated waters under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests. PMID:18401756

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Oliveira Mello, Luiz Antonio; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

2008-03-01

280

Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12  

PubMed Central

The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

281

High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency and Memory Impairment with Inhibition of BDNF Signaling  

PubMed Central

Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit. PMID:23383172

Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

2013-01-01

282

The critical interaction of the metallopeptidase PHEX with heparan sulfate proteoglycans.  

PubMed

The PHEX gene (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidase on the X chromosome) identified as a mutated gene in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), encodes a protein (PHEX) that shows striking homologies to members of the M13 family of zinc metallopeptidases. In the present work the interaction of glycosaminoglycans with PHEX has been investigated by affinity chromatography, circular dichroism, protein intrinsic fluorescence analysis, hydrolysis of FRET substrates flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. PHEX was eluted from a heparin-Sepharose chromatography column at 0.8 M NaCl showing a strong interaction with heparin. Circular dichroism spectra and intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that PHEX is protected by glycosaminoglycans against thermal denaturation. Heparin, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate inhibited PHEX catalytic activity, however among them, heparin presented the highest inhibitory activity (Ki=2.5+/-0.2 nM). Flow cytometry analysis showed that PHEX conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488 binds to the cell surface of CHO-K1, but did not bind to glycosaminoglycans defective cells CHO-745. Endogenous PHEX was detected at the cell surface of CHO-K1 colocalized with heparan sulfate proteoglycans, but was not found at the cell surface of glycosaminoglycans defective cells CHO-745. In permeabilized cells, PHEX was detected in endoplasmic reticulum of both cells. In addition, we observed that PHEX colocalizes with heparan sulfate at the cell surface of osteoblasts. This is the first report that the metallopeptidase PHEX is a heparin binding protein and that the interaction with GAGs modulates its enzymatic activity, protein stability and cellular trafficking. PMID:18585473

Barros, Nilana M T; Nascimento, Fabio D; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Loisel, Thomas; Nader, Helena B; Boileau, Guy; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Carmona, Adriana K

2008-01-01

283

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2012-04-01

284

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2014-04-01

285

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2013-04-01

286

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

PubMed Central

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

287

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, John A. (Chicago, IL); Turner, Clarence B. (Shorewood, IL); Johnson, Irving (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1982-01-01

288

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

1980-03-13

289

Protein kinase C epsilon is localized to the Golgi via its zinc-finger domain and modulates Golgi function.  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of serine/threonine kinases that are central to many signal transduction pathways. Among the PKC isozymes, only PKC epsilon has been reported to exhibit full oncogenic potential. PKC epsilon also displays unique substrate specificity and intracellular localization. To examine the interrelationship between the biological effects and domain structure of PKC epsilon, NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected to overexpress different epitope-tagged fragments of PKC epsilon. The overexpressed proteins each contain the epsilon-tag peptide at the C terminus to allow ready detection with an antibody specific for the tag. The holo-PKC epsilon was found to localize with the Golgi network and other compartments, whereas the zinc-finger domain localized exclusively at the Golgi. Golgi-specific glycosaminoglycan sulfation was strongly inhibited in cells overexpressing either holo-PKC epsilon or its zinc-finger domain, while the secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans into the medium was impaired in cells expressing the PKC epsilon zinc-finger domain. Thus, these results suggest that PKC epsilon may be involved in specifically regulating Golgi-related processes. Further, the results indicate that PKC epsilon domains other than the kinase domain may also have biological activity and that the zinc-finger domain may function as a subcellular localization signal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7877991

Lehel, C; Olah, Z; Jakab, G; Anderson, W B

1995-01-01

290

The zinc\\/thiolate redox biochemistry of metallothionein and the control of zinc ion fluctuations in cell signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free zinc ions are potent effectors of proteins. Their tightly controlled fluctuations (“zinc signals”) in the picomolar range of concentrations modulate cellular signaling pathways. Sulfur (cysteine) donors generate redox-active coordination environments in proteins for the redox-inert zinc ion and make it possible for redox signals to induce zinc signals. Amplitudes of zinc signals are determined by the cellular zinc buffering

Artur Kr??el; Qiang Hao; Wolfgang Maret

2007-01-01

291

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

292

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

293

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

294

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang, A.; Freeman, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Chou, I. -M.

2006-01-01

295

40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production...

2012-07-01

296

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2013-04-01

297

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. ...Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2012-04-01

298

Sulfates and phyllosilicates in Aureum Chaos, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Martian regions show a hydrated mineralogy indicating that aqueous processes played a major role in the planet's past. This study combines short wave infrared data, imagery and elevation data to identify these minerals in an equatorial chaotic terrain region and to find out their stratigraphy and geological context. Local Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) display three stratigraphic units: The lowest unit shows massive and also layered, monohydrated sulfate (MHS, best matching kieserite; 20-650 m thick), intercalated hydroxylated ferric sulfates (HFS, best matching jarosite) and ferric oxides. The overlying polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) is commonly layered (20-40 m thick), smooth to heavily fractured, partially with ferric oxides. Spectrally neutral, distinctly layered, bumpy cap rock (40-300 m thick) forms the top. Units are spectrally and morphologically similar to deposits of Aram Chaos (PHS, MHS, ferric oxides; texture of ILD and cap rock) and Juventae Chasma (HFS). Here, the phyllosilicate nontronite is found attributed to chaotic terrain as a light-toned fractured exposure but also within dark, smooth mantling. Coexisting sulfates and phyllosilicates demonstrate geochemical variations in the aqueous environment. Conversions between sulfates and iron oxides are considered, since we might be looking at alteration products instead of the parent rock material. Here, PHS occurs along mantling edges and flat surfaces of MHS without showing textural differences; making it a potential alteration product of MHS (e.g. due to surface exposure). Since the facies and timing of sulfate formation remain undefined, two different formation models are considered: contemporaneous ILD and PHS deposition with diagenetic sulfate conversion due to overburden (into MHS, iron oxides) later on; and groundwater evaporation. The first is less likely since a (sharp) PHS-MHS boundary is required that would indicate a diagenetic formation. The second is more consistent with our observations concerning the potential anhydrous cap rock. Groundwater would have penetrated into a pre-existing sulfate-free ILD whose permeability and porosity would have defined the rate of water absorption and sulfate precipitation that finally lead to its cementation. The surface ages of chaotic terrain (late Hesperian) and mantling deposits (mid to late Amazonian) further constrain the ILD age and potentially the emplacement of sulfates. We suggest that phyllosilicates in the mantling are allochthonous. In contrast, determining the deposition of in-situ phyllosilicates is theoretical; they could be Noachian (excavated material, following the 'phyllosian' era), or instead late Hesperian or even younger (syn- or post-chaotic). Alternatives, as known from Australian saline lakes, combine groundwater alteration with the observed mineralogy. There, close spatial and temporal associations of both mineral groups are explained by vertically separated geochemical environments (phyllosilicates in deep-, sulfates in shallow evaporitic facies). The preservation of nontronite, HFS and MHS displays that since their deposition a relatively dry environment with intermittent aqueous activity must have prevailed.

Sowe, M.; Wendt, L.; McGuire, P. C.; Neukum, G.

2012-12-01

299

Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on community composition. CCA of Shannon diversity data after one pore volume revealed that zinc removal, walnut shell content, and abundance of delta-Proteobacteria (sulfate reducing organisms) were all corresponding elements. However, after several pore volumes, the walnut shell column was no longer removing Zn as effectively, and community shifts were observed throughout the columns. Analysis of field and laboratory scale microbiological and geochemical shifts, in parallel, gives insight into key biogeochemical variables linked to the performance of passive remediation systems used for the treatment of contaminated MIW, while also providing further insight into metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

2013-12-01

300

Silver-Zinc batteries for AUV applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-zinc batteries have been in use for years in many underwater applications. With the advent of AUVs, silver-zinc has been chosen to supply the power for various applications. Although a specialized niche, the silver-zinc electrochemistry offers advantages in size and power that are critical to certain applications.

P. Imhof

2002-01-01

301

Galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and practical information on galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys, coupled to other metals, particularly steel, is organized and presented, along with a conceptual and elemental analysis of galvanic coupling between zinc and steel. Various factors which may play roles in galvanic action between zinc and coupled metals are systematically discussed. The principles and practical applications of galvanic

X. G. Zhang

1996-01-01

302

A case of acquired Zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

We report a case of adult-onset acquired zinc deficiency after bariatric surgery. Zinc deficiency may be inherited in the form of acrodermatitis enteropathica or acquired by low nutritional intake, malabsorption, excessive loss of zinc, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22630571

Bae-Harboe, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Solky, Ana; Masterpol, Katherine Szyfelbein

2012-05-01

303

Zinc-Air (Oxygen) Cell Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shorting by zinc penetration through the separator layers was prevented in zinc-air and zinc-oxygen cells by inserting a 10 mil thick partially wetproofed porous nickel layer within the layers of separator material. Excellent capacity maintenance was atta...

O. C. Wagner

1973-01-01

304

Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants  

PubMed Central

4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2?-PCB3 sulfate, 3?-PCB3 sulfate and 4?-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2?-PCB3 sulfate and 4?-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2?-PCB3 sulfate or 4?-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

2013-01-01

305

Zinc carboxylating: a new conversion treatment of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to a new surface treatment of zinc, called “carboxylating”, which could be an environmentally friendly alternative to the usual conversion treatments. Carboxylating requires use of both n-alkyl carboxylic acid and peroxoborate as oxidizing agent, in a water–ethanol mixture. As in the phosphating process, the carboxylating one is carried out in four steps: the activation step, oxidation

J. Peultier; E. Rocca; J. Steinmetz

2003-01-01

306

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

... (a) Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

2014-04-01

307

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

2013-04-01

308

21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Potassium sulfate (K2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white crystals or crystalline powder having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

2011-04-01

309

Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Cenozoic Seawater Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous seawater sulfate sulfur isotope curve for the Cenozoic with a resolution of ;1 million years was generated using marine barite. The sulfur isotopic composition decreased from 19 to 17 per mil between 65 and 55 million years ago, increased abruptly from 17 to 22 per mil between 55 and 45 million years ago, remained nearly constant from 35

Adina Paytan; Miriam Kastner; Douglas Campbell; Mark H. Thiemens

1998-01-01

310

Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.

Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.

1989-02-01

311

Sulfate reduction rates in Georgia marshland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reduction rates in Sapelo Island Spartina marsh soils were assessed by a radiometric method. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.93) between the H2 S produced and incubation period, and the regression line passed close to the origin. Sulfide reduction rates for the topmost 35 cm of soil in the short and tall Spartina zones were 62.3

G. W. Skyring; R. L. Oshrain; W. J. Wiebe

1979-01-01

312

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

coproducts of zinc mining and smelting, in order of decreasing tonnage, were lead, sulfur, cadmium, silver186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about

313

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

of zinc mining and smelting, in order of decreasing tonnage, were lead, sulfur, cadmium, silver, gold188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about

314

Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction  

E-print Network

Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

Oduro, Harry D.

315

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

316

21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484...522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of...

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.1044a Section 529.1044a...1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484...522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

319

21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.1044a Section 529.1044a...1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams...

2011-04-01

320

21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044 Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage...

2011-04-01

321

21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044 Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

322

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2011-04-01

323

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2012-04-01

324

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2014-04-01

325

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food,...

2013-04-01

326

21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate...mixture of butyl esters produced by transesterification of an edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation,...

2010-04-01

327

Resistance to Zinc and Cadmium in Staphylococcus aureus of Human and Animal Origin.  

PubMed

Objective.?Studies conducted in Europe have observed resistance to trace metals such as zinc chloride and copper sulfate in livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc and cadmium resistance in S. aureus isolated in the United States. Design.?Cross-sectional study of convenience sample of S. aureus isolates. Participants.?Three hundred forty-nine S. aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) obtained from human, swine, and retail meat were included in the sample set. Methods.?Polymerase chain reaction was used to test for the presence of genes for zinc and cadmium resistance (czrC), methicillin resistance (mecA), and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn). Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was tested using the broth microdilution method. Data were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. Results.?Twenty-nine percent (102/349) of S. aureus isolates were czrC positive. MRSA isolates were more likely to be czrC positive compared to MSSA (MRSA czrC positive: 12/61, 19.6%; MSSA czrC positive: 12/183, 6.6%). After adjustment for oxacillin and clindamycin susceptibility in analysis, multidrug-resistant S. aureus was observed to have low odds of being czrC positive (P = .03). The odds of being czrC positive were observed to be significantly high in tetracycline-resistant S. aureus isolated from noninfection samples (P = .009) and swine (P < .0001). Conclusions.?Resistance to zinc and cadmium was observed to be associated with MRSA, a finding consistently observed in European studies. Prolonged exposure to zinc in livestock feeds and fertilizers could propagate resistance to the metal ion, thereby hindering use of zinc-based topical agents in treating S. aureus infections. PMID:25222896

Nair, Rajeshwari; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Su, Yutao; Smith, Tara C

2014-10-01

328

Determination of Gas-Phase Dimethyl Sulfate and Monomethyl Hydrogen Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical techniques have been developed for the collection and determination of gas phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in the flue lines and plumes of power plants and in the ambient atmosphere. The techniques involve the collection of ...

L. D. Hansen, V. F. White, D. J. Eatough

1986-01-01

329

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

330

The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

331

Controls on Isotope Fractionation During Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during dissimilatory sulfate reduction; therefore, sulfur isotope studies have been useful\\u000a in elucidating the role of sulfate reduction in the sulfur cycle, and in understanding the early evolution of the sulfur metabolism\\u000a on Earth. Sulfur isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction occurs when sulfate is transported into the cell and is reduced\\u000a to sulfide through a series

Joost Hoek; Donald E. Canfield

332

A Novel Role for 3- O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms provides

Deepak Shukla; Jian Liu; Peter Blaiklock; Nicholas W. Shworak; Xiaomei Bai; Jeffrey D. Esko; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Robert D. Rosenberg; Patricia G. Spear

1999-01-01

333

3'-monoiodothyronine sulfate and Triac sulfate are thyroid hormone metabolites in developing sheep.  

PubMed

We used novel 3'-monoiodothyronine sulfate (3'-T1S) and 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid sulfate (TriacS) RIAs to characterize sulfation pathways in fetal thyroid hormone metabolism. 3'-T1S and TriacS levels were measured in serum samples obtained from fetal (n = 21, 94-145 d gestational age), newborn (NB, n = 5), and adult sheep (AD, n = 5) as well as from fetuses after total thyroidectomy (Tx), or sham-operated twin fetuses controls, conducted at gestational age 110-113 d (n = 5). Peak levels (expressed as ng/dL) of both 3'-T1S and TriacS occurred at 130 d gestation. These levels in fetuses were higher than those in NB and AD. In Tx fetuses, there was a significant decrease in the mean serum level of 3'-T1S, but not TriacS. The decrease in 3'-T1S in Tx is similar to that observed for thyroxine sulfate (T4S) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine sulfate (rT3S), whereas TriacS levels were not altered in the hypothyroid state, similarly to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine sulfate (T3S). These data demonstrate that 3'-T1S and TriacS are normal thyroid hormone metabolites in ovine serum and that TriacS is likely derived from T3S or from the same precursor(s) as T3S. PMID:18091342

Wu, Sing-Yung; Polk, Daniel H; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Ho, Eugene; Kattan, Jaffer M; Fisher, Delbert A

2008-02-01

334

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

E. J. Mroz; A. S. Mason; W. A. Sedlacek

1983-01-01

335

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

SciTech Connect

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

1983-09-01

336

Diversity of Sulfur Isotope Fractionations by Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with

JAN DETMERS; VOLKER BRUCHERT; KIRSTEN S. HABICHT; JAN KUEVER

2001-01-01

337

Sulfation of tyrosine residues in coagulation factor V  

SciTech Connect

Sulfation of human coagulation factor V was investigated by biosynthetically labeling the products of HepG2 cells with ({sup 35}S)sulfate. There was abundant incorporation of the sulfate label into a product identified as factor V by immunoprecipitation, lability to proteases, affinity for the lectin jacalin, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two or more sites in factor V incorporated sulfate as indicated by labeling of different peptide chains of factor Va. The 150-Kd activation fragment of factor Va incorporated the greatest amounts of sulfate. This fragment of factor Va was bound selectively by jacalin-agarose, reflecting its content of O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of an alkaline hydrolysate of sulfate-labeled factor Va by anion-exchange chromatography showed that the sulfate occurred partly in tyrosine sulfate residues and partly in alkaline-labile linkages. Sulfate groups are potentially important structural and functional elements in factor V, and labeling with (35S)sulfate provides a useful approach for examining the biosynthesis and processing of this protein. The hypothesis is advanced that sites of sulfation in factor V and several other plasma proteins contribute to the affinity and specificity of thrombin for these molecules, just as it does for the interaction of thrombin with the potent inhibitor hirudin from leeches.

Hortin, G.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

1990-09-01

338

Sulfur Isotopes as Indicators of Amended Bacterial Sulfate  

E-print Network

(II), sulfate, sulfide, acetate, U(VI), and 34S of sulfate and sulfide to explore the utility of sulfur isotopes acetate amend- ments, the highest rates of uranium removal were observed at redox levels optimal sulfate reduction but at decreased rates. Following cessation of acetate amendment and a return to higher

Hubbard, Susan

339

SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS?  

E-print Network

SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS? Scot T. Martin, Hui 02138, USA Keywords: Phase transition; Atmospheric Aerosols; Ammonium sulfate; Ammonium nitrate Observational evidence shows that mineral dusts in Asian outflows become coated by sulfates and nitrates. Layer

340

End-functionalized glycopolymers as mimetics of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans  

E-print Network

End-functionalized glycopolymers as mimetics of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans Song-Gil Lee-like, multivalent architecture found on chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans. We demonstrate-Wilson* Received 18th April 2010, Accepted 15th July 2010 DOI: 10.1039/c0sc00271b Glycosaminoglycans are sulfated

Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

341

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

E-print Network

for review December 27, 2011) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major bar- rier demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth chondroitin sulfate polysac- charides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic

Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

342

Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

2011-01-01

343

Galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and practical information on galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys, coupled to other metals, particularly steel, is organized and presented, along with a conceptual and elemental analysis of galvanic coupling between zinc and steel. Various factors which may play roles in galvanic action between zinc and coupled metals are systematically discussed. The principles and practical applications of galvanic protection for steel by zinc coatings, zinc anodes, zinc-rich paints, and other means are also reviewed. Galvanic corrosion of zinc as well as galvanic corrosion of steel are essentially determined by chemical and electrochemical processes in the system, which is a function of the electrode potentials, reactions involved, metallurgical properties, of the materials, surface conditions, electrolytic properties, and geometric arrangement. 120 refs.

Zhang, X.G. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1996-04-01

344

Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

2014-01-01

345

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

346

Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration. PMID:16674928

Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa, Magdalena; Czupryn, Artur; Wiero?ska, Joanna M; Bra?ski, Piotr; Sadlik, Krystyna; Opoka, W?odzimierz; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Smia?owska, Maria; Skangiel-Kramska, Jolanta; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

2006-05-23

347

Characteristics of zinc behavior during laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the problem of the zinc being easily gasified in laser welding of galvanized steel, laser welding of a zinc "sandwich" sample was performed to experimentally investigate the behavior and characteristics of the zinc inside and outside the keyhole, including the observation of the keyhole, the zinc vapor and zinc plasma, and the calculation of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. Based on the principle of imaging amplification, the detected multi-points can be located precisely in order to study the distribution of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. The results show that the zinc behavior played an important role in the formation of the weld-joint and the zinc plasma altered the energy distribution at the top of the keyhole whose diameter has been enlarged in the welding process. For both continuous-wave laser and pulsed laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample, the average electron temperature of the zinc keyhole plasma was higher than that of the zinc plasma plume outside the keyhole. In the welding process, the continuous wave laser with higher input energy results in higher position of the zinc plasma with higher electron temperature above the sample surface. More zinc vapor resulted in a higher average electron temperature of the plasma.

Zhang, Yi; Li, Shichun; Chen, Genyu; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Mingjun

2012-11-01

348

taux pulvriss de sulfate de cadmium et une solution aqueuse satu-re de sulfate de cadmium.  

E-print Network

551 taux pulvérisés de sulfate de cadmium et une solution aqueuse satu- rée de sulfate de cadmium couche de sulfate de cadmium est introduite dans chaque branche. L'élément entier est rempli avec une solution saturée de sulfate de cadmium et ensuite hermétiquement scellée. La formule suivante est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

The Efficacy of Zinc Supplementation on Outcome of Children with Severe Pneumonia. A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To compare the clinical outcome of children having severe pneumonia, with and without zinc supplementation by a randomized\\u000a double-blind placebo controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, 128 children (3–60 months old) admitted to the hospital with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into 2\\u000a groups (64 in each) that received either zinc sulfate (2 mg\\/kg\\/d, maximum 20 mg in 2 divided doses, for 5 days) or

Ehsan Valavi; Mehran Hakimzadeh; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Majid Aminzadeh; Arash Alghasi

350

Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis: A Theoretical Study of the Initial Sulfation Step by N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase  

E-print Network

part of heparin and heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Heparin is synthesized only by mast cells and is more- lant activity of antithrombin (Berry et al., 1998). It is also involved in cell growth and lipid highly sulfated than heparan sulfate, which is pro- duced by most animal cells (Pikas et al., 2000

Perera, Lalith

351

Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

1995-01-01

352

Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly ash pastes confirmed that fly ash mortar or concrete mixes forming more monosulfate than ettringite before exposure to sulfates would offer poor sulfate resistance and vice versa. During quantitative Rietveld analysis carried out for determining ettringite, monosulfate and gypsum formed in the fly ash pastes, it was observed that fly ash mixtures showing more ettringite after exposures to sulfates, give poor sulfate resistance. A good relationship between the amounts of ettringite formed and expansions of mortar specimens in the ASTM C 1012 test was found.

Dhole, Rajaram

353

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

354

A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides are commonly depleted in 34S by -45\\permil to -70\\permil relative to sulfate whereas maximum sulfur isotope difference between produced sulfides and sulfate of around -46\\permil have been obtained in laboratory cultures. A maximum fractionation of 47\\permil was also predicted by the model of sulfate reduction introduced by Rees (1973). The Rees model is commonly accepted but since its introduction, new information about sulfate reduction and isotope fractionation processes has become available in the literature that demands an update of some of its assumptions. We present a improved model for bacterial sulfate reduction which includes revised fractionation factors for the sulfite-sulfide step, a multi-step reduction of sulfite to sulfide including reverse flows and an exchange flux of sulfide between the cell and ambient water. With this model we show that, contrary to the model of Rees (1973), isotope fractionations well in excess of -47\\permil are possible. Therefore, some of the large sulfur isotope fractionations observed in nature may be explained without the need of alternate pathways involving the oxidative sulfur cycle as proposed by Canfield and Thamdrup (1994). In particular, we speculate that large fractionations should occur under hypersulfidic conditions and substrate limitation. We obviously do not disregard the involvement of processes related to the oxidative cycle of sulfur in near-surface environments, but our model suggests that this is not a prerequisite condition to obtain large isotope fractionations. References: Canfield D. E. and Thamdrup B. (1994) Science, 266, 1973-1975. Rees (1973) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 1141-1162

Benjamin, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.

2004-12-01

355

Detection and Quantification of Sulfated Disaccharides from Keratan Sulfate and Chondroitin\\/Dermatan Sulfate during Chick Corneal Development by ESI-MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To identify and quantify changes in keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin\\/dermatan sulfate (CS\\/DS) sulfated disac- charides in the developing chick cornea using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS). METHODS. Cryostat sections of fresh nonfixed corneas were obtained from White Leghorn embryonic day (E)8 to E20 chicks, and from 4- and 70-week-old chickens. Tissue sections on glass slides were incubated

Yuntao Zhang; Abigail H. Conrad; Elena S. Tasheva; Ke An; Lolita M. Corpuz; Yutaka Kariya; Kiyoshi Suzuki; Gary W. Conrad

356

Endosulfan sulfate sorption on natural organic substances.  

PubMed

This work proposes a viable remediation method based on the use of natural organic substances (NOSs) that characterize the Mediterranean region to improve the ecological system. A series of experiments, including variable conditions, such as temperature, pH, contact time, and pesticide concentration, were performed to demonstrate the efficiency of endosulfan sulfate removal from water by NOSs. Experimental results showed that the pH and temperature of pesticide solutions negatively affect the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity for a specific initial concentration of endosulfan sulfate (0.5 microg/L) was achieved with Origanum compactum (75%), followed by Cistus ladaniferus and Raphanus raphanistrum (72 and 68%, respectively). The adsorption tests gave very satisfying results and point to the possible application of these supports as a remediation technique to prevent pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:18710144

El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

2008-07-01

357

Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate  

PubMed Central

In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with the idea that surfen interacted electrostatically. Surfen neutralized the anticoagulant activity of both unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins and inhibited enzymatic sulfation and degradation reactions in vitro. Addition of surfen to cultured cells blocked FGF2-binding and signaling that depended on cell surface heparan sulfate and prevented both FGF2- and VEGF165-mediated sprouting of endothelial cells in Matrigel. Surfen also blocked heparan sulfate-mediated cell adhesion to the Hep-II domain of fibronectin and prevented infection by HSV-1 that depended on glycoprotein D interaction with heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of identifying small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate and raise the possibility of developing pharmacological agents to treat disorders that involve glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:18725627

Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A.; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2008-01-01

358

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

1987-05-01

359

Zinc metabolism in normal and zinc-deficient rat brain.  

PubMed

Zinc uptake and turnover was measured in nine brain regions, choroid plexus, arachnoid, and cerebrospinal fluid during a 28-day period following a single dose of 65Zn in rats fed Zn-adequate diets. Zinc entry into brain was slow with maximal 65Zn uptake (0.5% of administered dose) occurring between 5 and 14 days in contrast to its rapid metabolism in plasma and nonneural tissues. The brain stem, at the level of the caudal IV ventricle, had the highest rate of initial 65Zn uptake of any brain region. In general, turnover was most rapid in periventricular regions and least in the hippocampus. Relative to plasma, the choroid plexus concentrated 65Zn whereas 65Zn was undetectable in the cerebrospinal fluid after day 1. To determine if specific brain regions were particularly sensitive to changes in Zn status, 65Zn metabolism was measured in Zn-deficient rats and compared with ad libitum- and pair-fed controls. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased 65Zn retention by all brain regions; however, the effect was greatest in optic nerve and choroid plexus. The results of this study suggest that a formidable barrier to Zn entry into brain exists but is under homeostatic control, increasing net Zn uptake during dietary deficiency. Moreover, the choroid plexus may participate in cerebral Zn homeostasis, possibly by transporting Zn out of the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. PMID:6734773

Kasarskis, E J

1984-07-01

360

Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater.  

PubMed

In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of ?(34)S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans. PMID:25378621

Crowe, Sean A; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A; Adkins, Jess F; Sessions, Alex L; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E

2014-11-01

361

Zinc Competition among the Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Bioavailable levels of trace metals, such as iron and zinc, for bacterial growth in nature are sufficiently low that most microbes have evolved high-affinity binding and transport systems. The microbe Campylobacter jejuni lives in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, the principal source of human infection. A high-affinity ABC transporter for zinc uptake is required for Campylobacter survival in chicken intestines in the presence of a normal microbiota but not when chickens are raised with a limited microbiota. Mass spectrometric analysis of cecal contents revealed the presence of numerous zinc-binding proteins in conventional chicks compared to the number in limited-microbiota chicks. The presence of a microbiota results in the production of host zinc-binding enzymes, causing a growth restriction for bacteria that lack the high-affinity zinc transporter. Such transporters in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria make them good targets for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Importance Zinc is an essential trace element for the growth of most organisms. Quantities of zinc inside cells are highly regulated, as too little zinc does not support growth, while too much zinc is toxic. Numerous bacterial cells require zinc uptake systems for growth and virulence. The work presented here demonstrates that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract reduces the quantity of zinc. Without a high-affinity zinc transporter, Campylobacter jejuni, a commensal organism of chickens, is unable to replicate or colonize the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first demonstration of zinc competition between microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of a host. These results could have profound implications in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in our understanding of host metabolism and the microbiota. PMID:22851657

Gielda, Lindsay M.; DiRita, Victor J.

2012-01-01

362

Enthalpy of formation of sulfate green rusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to the systematic study of iron oxide thermodynamics, this work reports enthalpies of formation of green rust, a double layered (FeII, FeIII) hydroxide with the ideal stoichiometry FeII1-xFeIIIx(OH)2[Am-]y\\/m·nH2O, with sulfate as the anion in the interlayer. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Full chemical analysis was performed. Contents of

Lena Mazeina; Alexandra Navrotsky; Darby Dyar

2008-01-01

363

Characterization of Annexin A1 Glycan Binding Reveals Binding to Highly Sulfated Glycans with Preference for Highly Sulfated Heparan Sulfate and Heparin  

PubMed Central

Annexin A1 is a multifunctional, calcium dependent phospholipid binding protein involved in a host of processes including inflammation, regulation of neuroendocrine signaling, apoptosis and membrane trafficking. Annexin A1 binding to glycans has been implicated in cell attachment and modulation of annexin A1 function. We characterized in detail the glycan binding preferences of annexin A1 using glycan arrays and surface plasmon resonance as a starting point to understand the role of glycan binding in annexin A1 function. Glycan array analysis identified a series of sulfated oligosaccharides, demonstrating for the first time annexin A1 binding to sulfated non-glycosaminoglycan carbohydrates. Using heparin/heparan sulfate microarrays, highly sulfated heparan sulfate/heparin were identified as preferential ligands of annexin A1. Binding of annexin A1 to heparin/heparan sulfate is calcium, but not magnesium dependent. The structure-activity relationship of annexin A1-heparan sulfate interactions were established in detail using chemically defined sugars and novel methods, being the first characterization of a calcium dependent heparin binding protein with such approach. N-sulfation and 2-O-sulfation were identified as particularly important for binding. PMID:21370880

Horlacher, T.; Noti, C.; dePaz, J. L.; Bindschädler, P.; Smith, D. F.; Fukuda, M. N.; Seeberger, P. H.

2011-01-01

364

Zinc, T-cell pathways, aging: role of metallothioneins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element for many biological functions, including immune functions. Indeed zinc is required for the biological activity of a thymic hormone, called thymulin in its zinc-bound form, important for the maturation and differentiation of T-cells. With advancing age zinc, thymic functions and peripheral immune efficiency show a progressive decline. Supplementing zinc in old age restores them.

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Mario Muzzioli; Catia Cipriano; Robertina Giacconi

1998-01-01

365

Leucocyte zinc in non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc status and the effect of zinc supplementation were assessed in groups of patients with non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; patients were either untreated or in remission. In the patients in remission, plasma zinc was normal; and whereas 30% of untreated patients had low plasma zinc, the group as a whole did not differ from normal. For mononuclear cell zinc,

Helen P. Field; Robert Jones; Barry E. Walker; Jerry Kelleher; Adrian V. Simmons

1988-01-01

366

[Reptile brain cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates].  

PubMed

Studies have been made on the content of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates, as well as on their fatty acid composition in the brain of reptiles, subclass Anapsida (tortoises Emys orbicularis and Testudo horsfieldi) and subclass Lepidosauria (lizards Agama caucasica, A. sanguinolenta, Phrynocephalus mystaceus and snake Natrix tesselata). Total content of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates is higher in the brain of Lepidosaurians than in that of Anapsids. In the brain of tortoises, the content of cerebroside fraction with hydroxy fatty acids is significantly higher than of the fraction with normal fatty acids, which is also typical of the brain of homoiothermic mammals and birds. In the brain of Lepidosaurians, concentration of hydroxycerebrosides is considerably lower than of cerebrosides with normal fatty acids, which is similar to lower vertebrates -- amphibians and fishes. Low content of hydroxycerebrosides was found in all the Lepidosaurians investigated, irrespectively of their ecological conditions, being therefore dependent on their phylogenetic position. The composition of fatty acids, both normal and hydroxyderivates, as well as that of glycolipids from the brain of Anapsids and Lepidosaurians is essentially similar. However, some interspecific differences were noted in the pattern of fatty acids of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates of the brain, which concern the content of saturated and long chain fatty acids. PMID:506587

Levitina, M V

1979-01-01

367

Sulfate Formation and Decomposition of Nickel Concentrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel sulfide concentrates from two Canadian nickel concentrators were investigated to improve the understanding of SO2 formation and release during processing. The concentrates were heated in gases of various oxygen concentrations up to 1573 K (1300 °C) in a thermal gravimetric analysis unit to simulate what may take place during calcine collection and processing. The resulting SO2 gases were also measured. It was determined that during oxidation, there are competing reactions, such as 3{{FeS}} + 5{{O}}2 = {{Fe}}3 {{O}}4 + 3{{SO}}2 leading to mass loss, or 2{{FeS}} + 5{{O}}2 + {{SO}}2 = {{Fe}}2 ( {{{SO}}4 } )3 causing mass gain. At temperatures up to approximately 973 K (700 °C), sulfates were formed readily, whereas at higher temperatures, they would decompose, evolving SO2. By lowering the oxygen content in the surrounding gas, the sulfates decomposed more readily. In an argon or hydrogen atmosphere or in vacuum, it is possible to enhance the sulfate decomposition greatly, possibly allowing for reduced SO2 emissions from the electric furnaces.

Pandher, R.; Thomas, S.; Yu, D.; Barati, M.; Utigard, T.

2011-04-01

368

Abundance of Zinc Ions in Synaptic Terminals of mocha Mutant Mice: Zinc Transporter 3 Immunohistochemistry and Zinc Sulphide Autometallography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mocha mouse is an autosomal recessive pigment mutant on mouse chromosome 10 caused by a deletion in the gene for the subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3. Based on zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) immunohistochemistry, zinc TSQ fluorescence and a modified Timm method, previous studies found a lack of histochemically-detectable zinc and a substantial reduction in the ZnT3 immunoreactivity. It

Meredin Stoltenberg; Lene N. Nejsum; Agnete Larsen; Gorm Danscher

2004-01-01

369

Influence of feed time and sulfate load on the organic and sulfate removal in an ASBR.  

PubMed

The removal of sulfate and organic matter was assessed in an ASBR, which treated wastewater containing 500 mg CODL(-1) (3 g CODL(-1)d(-1)) in 8h-cycles at 30 degrees C. The wastewater was enriched with sulfate at [COD/SO(4)(2-)] ratios of 1.34, 0.67 and 0.34 (8.8,4.5 and 2.2 gSO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1)). For each COD/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio fill times used were: 10 min (batch), 3 and 6h (fed-batch), achieving sulfate reduction of 30%, 72% and 72% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 25%, 58% and 55% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 23%, 37% and 27% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively, and organic matter removal of 87%, 68% and 80% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 78%, 75% and 69% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 85%, 84% and 83% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively. The results showed that fed-batch operation improved sulfate reduction, whereas organic matter removals were similar for batch and fed-batch operation. In addition, increase in sulfate loading in the fed-batch operation improved organic matter removal. PMID:20392632

Mockaitis, Gustavo; Friedl, Gregor F; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

2010-09-01

370

Effects of magnesium sulfate concentration on the sulfate resistance of mortars with and without silica fume  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was carried out on the resistance of mortars to magnesium sulfate attack. Experiments were carried out on portland cement (PC) and portland cement-silica fume (PC-SF) mortars. Mortars were immersed in magnesium sulfate solutions after 28 days of lime-saturated water curing. Concentrations were 1900, 13,000 and 52,000 mg/L as SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} solutions. A number of physical and mechanical properties were determined at different periods of exposure up to 300 days. For the first 28 days of exposure, some improvements of mortar properties in magnesium sulfate environment were observed. This is the early stage of sulfate attack. Thereafter, negative changes of the properties indicate a transition stage. Deterioration process of mortars was retarded by the presence of silica fume. After the transition stage, negative changes of physical properties accelerate, indicating the later stage. Compressive and flexural strength properties showed different response to magnesium sulfate attack at later stage. Only in 52,000 mg/L concentration, all the measured properties showed clear negative changes.

Tuerker, F. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey)] [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey); Akoez, F.; Koral, S.; Yuezer, N. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)] [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

371

Stability of milrinone and epinephrine, atropine sulfate, lidocaine hydrochloride, or morphine sulfate injection.  

PubMed

The stability of both drug components of admixtures of milrinone and epinephrine, atropine sulfate, lidocaine hydrochloride, morphine sulfate, calcium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate injections was studied. Duplicate solutions of admixtures of milrinone injection 1 mg/mL and epinephrine injection 1:10,000, atropine sulfate injection 1 mg/mL, lidocaine hydrochloride injection 1%, morphine sulfate injection 8 mg/mL, calcium chloride injection 10%, or sodium bicarbonate injection 7.5% were prepared and stored in glass containers at 22-23 degrees C under fluorescent light. Samples were taken immediately and after 20 minutes for assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Milrinone at initial concentrations of 0.10-0.73 mg/mL showed no degradation in any of the solutions during the study period, nor was any degradation observed for lidocaine, morphine, atropine, or epinephrine. Milrinone 0.10-0.73 mg/mL is compatible with atropine sulfate, lidocaine hydrochloride, epinephrine, calcium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate in glass containers stored for 20 minutes at room temperature. These results support the use of milrinone in combination with these agents immediately after the preparation of admixtures. PMID:2278262

Wilson, T D; Forde, M D

1990-11-01

372

Effects of raised temperature of sulfate solutions on the sulfate resistance of mortars with and without silica fume  

SciTech Connect

Effect of raised temperature of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate solutions on the resistance of mortars was investigated. Experimental study was carried out on mortars with and without silica fume. Sulfate concentration was 18,000 mg/L as SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} for the sodium sulfate and 13,000 mg/L magnesium sulfate solutions. Temperatures of solutions were 20 and 40 C. Some physical and mechanical properties were tested during the 300 days of sulfate exposure. Test results showed that raised solution temperature did not accelerate the deterioration of mortars under the conditions used in this research. Moreover, raised temperature improved many properties of the specimens. It can be suggested that there are some problems with raising the temperature of sulfate solution as an accelerated test method.

Akoez, F.; Koral, S.; Yuezer, N. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)] [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerker, F. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey)] [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey)

1999-04-01

373

In-situ zinc bioprecipitation by organic substrate injection in a high-flow, poorly reduced aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated if in-situ metal bioprecipitation (ISMP) is applicable to remediate a highly permeable zinc-contaminated aquifer at a metal-processing factory in Maasmechelen, Belgium. A large (more than 200 m long and 70 m wide) groundwater contamination plume has developed, with zinc concentrations in the range of 1-100 mg/L, whereas the legal Flemish clean-up standard is 0.5 mg/L. The estimated groundwater flow velocity is in the range 0.2-1 m/d. The groundwater is relatively oxidized, naturally low in DOC (< 1 mg/L) and relatively low in sulfate (40-50 mg/L). We conducted both laboratory feasibility tests as well as a long-term field pilot test in two sections of the plume. In the laboratory microcosm tests, zinc bioprecipitation (following addition of organic substrate and sulfate) removed more than 99% of the zinc from the water phase. Lactate, glycerol and vegetable oil were equally effective as substrates. 28-day anaerobic leaching tests indicated that the metal precipitates that were formed are stable, but they also suggested that substrate addition increases the solubility (leachability) of arsenic and manganese. In the field test, Zn concentrations were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude within the 232 day testing period and stayed low for the following 6 months in both pilot zones. In the field, no mobilization of arsenic occurred but manganese groundwater concentrations increased from 0.01-0.6 mg/L to 0.4-6.5 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations also increased markedly from below detection limits to concentrations as high as 67 mg/L. Zinc concentrations in groundwater were closely correlated to pH and redox potential (Eh): plotting y = [Zn] against x = pH/log(Eh), an exponential relationship was found: y=2?10?eR?0.7.

Lookman, R.; Verbeeck, M.; Gemoets, J.; Van Roy, S.; Crynen, J.; Lambié, B.

2013-07-01

374

In-situ zinc bioprecipitation by organic substrate injection in a high-flow, poorly reduced aquifer.  

PubMed

We investigated if in-situ metal bioprecipitation (ISMP) is applicable to remediate a highly permeable zinc-contaminated aquifer at a metal-processing factory in Maasmechelen, Belgium. A large (more than 200m long and 70m wide) groundwater contamination plume has developed, with zinc concentrations in the range of 1-100mg/L, whereas the legal Flemish clean-up standard is 0.5mg/L. The estimated groundwater flow velocity is in the range 0.2-1m/d. The groundwater is relatively oxidized, naturally low in DOC (<1mg/L) and relatively low in sulfate (40-50mg/L). We conducted both laboratory feasibility tests as well as a long-term field pilot test in two sections of the plume. In the laboratory microcosm tests, zinc bioprecipitation (following addition of organic substrate and sulfate) removed more than 99% of the zinc from the water phase. Lactate, glycerol and vegetable oil were equally effective as substrates. 28-day anaerobic leaching tests indicated that the metal precipitates that were formed are stable, but they also suggested that substrate addition increases the solubility (leachability) of arsenic and manganese. In the field test, Zn concentrations were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude within the 232 day testing period and stayed low for the following 6 months in both pilot zones. In the field, no mobilization of arsenic occurred but manganese groundwater concentrations increased from 0.01-0.6mg/L to 0.4-6.5mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations also increased markedly from below detection limits to concentrations as high as 67mg/L. Zinc concentrations in groundwater were closely correlated to pH and redox potential (Eh): plotting y=[Zn] against x=pH/log(Eh), an exponential relationship was found: PMID:23644684

Lookman, R; Verbeeck, M; Gemoets, J; Van Roy, S; Crynen, J; Lambié, B

2013-07-01

375

Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

Luksha, E.

1974-01-01

376

High performance zinc anode for battery applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

377

Heritability and Clinical Determinants of Serum Indoxyl Sulfate and p-Cresyl Sulfate, Candidate Biomarkers of the Human Microbiome Enterotype  

PubMed Central

Background Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. Objective and Design Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study). Results Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4–4.3) and 13.0 (7.4–21.5) ?M, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2?=?0.17) and p-cresyl sulfate (h2?=?0.18) concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. Limitations Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. Conclusions The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites. PMID:24850265

Viaene, Liesbeth; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yanping; Gu, Yumei; Meijers, Bjorn; Claes, Kathleen; Staessen, Jan; Evenepoel, Pieter

2014-01-01

378

The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc\\/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh\\/kg. Using a Hâ-depolarized anode, zinc was

J F Cooper; R Krueger

2006-01-01

379

Tetanically released zinc inhibits hippocampal mossy fiber calcium, zinc and synaptic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the zinc-enriched mossy fiber synapses from hippocampal CA3 area, electrical or chemical stimulation evokes zinc release from glutamatergic synaptic vesicles that may cause different pre- or postsynaptic actions. Besides zinc that can be co-localized with glutamate and GABA, the mossy fibers contain a very high density of ATP-sensitive potassium channels that are activated by zinc. We have investigated the

M. E. Quinta-Ferreira; C. M. Matias

2005-01-01

380

Significance of serum glucocorticoid and chelatable zinc in depression and cognition in zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

Dietary zinc deficiency elicits neuropsychological symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. To pursue the mechanisms of these symptoms, in the present study, the relationship among serum glucocorticoid, chelatable zinc in the synaptic cleft and brain function based on behavior was examined in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Serum glucocorticoid level was significantly increased in zinc-deficient rats. However, the induction of in vivo dentate gyrus LTP and object recognition memory were not affected in zinc-deficient rats. Chelatable zinc levels were decreased in the stratum lucidum of the hippocampal CA3, but not in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. It is reported that dentate gyrus LTP and object recognition memory are affected in clioquinol (30mg/kg)-administered rats, in which chelatable zinc is significantly decreased in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Thus, the significant decrease in chelatable zinc in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus may be required for object recognition memory deficit in zinc deficiency. On the other hand, the time of grooming in the open-field test was decreased in zinc-deficient rats. Immobility time in the forced swim test was increased in zinc-deficient rats, but not in clioquinol-administered rats, in which chelatable zinc was more markedly decreased than in zinc-deficient rats, suggesting that the lack of chelatable zinc does not increase depression-like behavior. These results suggest that the chronic increase in serum glucocorticoid level is involved in the increase in depression-like behavior rather than the decrease in chelatable zinc after 4-week zinc deficiency. PMID:21946308

Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto; Watanabe, Mitsugu

2012-01-01

381

Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and\\u000a trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly\\u000a understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc

Elma LahiveMichael; Michael J. A. O’Callaghan; Marcel A. K. Jansen; John O’Halloran

382

Zinc levels in women and newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an important trace element having a definitive role in the metabolism, growth and development and reproduction. During\\u000a pregnancy the requirements for zinc increase. This study was designed to evaluate the zinc status of normal women, normal\\u000a pregnant women and their new-born babies.\\u000a \\u000a Forty normal adult females, 40 normal pregnant women and their newborn babies were randomly selected and

Satyajeet Singh Rathi; M. Srinivas; J. K. Grover; D. Mitra; V. Vats; J. D. Sharma

1999-01-01

383

Experimental study of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt and implications for sulfate deposits on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-sulfate alteration of basalt by SO2-bearing volcanic vapors has been proposed as one possible origin for sulfate-rich deposits on Mars. To better define mineralogical signatures of acid-sulfate alteration, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate alteration pathways and geochemical processes during reaction of basalt with sulfuric acid. Pyroclastic cinders composed of phenocrysts including plagioclase, olivine, and augite embedded in glass were reacted with sulfuric acid at 145 °C for up to 137 days at a range of fluid : rock ratios. During the experiments, the phenocrysts reacted rapidly to form secondary products, while the glass was unreactive. Major products included amorphous silica, anhydrite, and Fe-rich natroalunite, along with minor iron oxides/oxyhydroxides (probably hematite) and trace levels of other sulfates. At the lowest fluid : rock ratio, hexahydrite and an unidentified Fe-silicate phase also occurred as major products. Reaction-path models indicated that formation of the products required both slow dissolution of glass and kinetic inhibitions to precipitation of a number of minerals including phyllosilicates and other aluminosilicates as well as Al- and Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides. Similar models performed for Martian basalt compositions predict that the initial stages of acid-sulfate alteration of pyroclastic deposits on Mars should result in formation of amorphous silica, anhydrite, Fe-bearing natroalunite, and kieserite, along with relict basaltic glass. In addition, analysis of the experimental products indicates that Fe-bearing natroalunite produces a Mössbauer spectrum closely resembling that of jarosite, suggesting that it should be considered an alternative to the component in sulfate-rich bedrocks at Meridiani Planum that has previously been identified as jarosite.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Hynek, Brian M.

2013-04-01

384

Aircraft measurements of organosulfates (IEPOX sulfate and glycolic acid sulfate) in the continental US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfates are important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components. They account for a significant mass fraction of aerosols, can be a good tracer for aqueous aerosol phase chemistry, and are potentially important to the climate due to their hydrophilic property. However, quantification of organosulfates is challenging, and as a result, our knowledge about the spatial distribution of organosulfates, their formation mechanisms, and climate impact is limited. In this study, we present the ambient measurements of organosulfates, including the relatively well-known isoprene-derived IEPOX-sulfate and a newly identified and quantified glycolic acid sulfate (GAS), by the NOAA Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) onboard the NASA DC8 aircraft during the DC3 campaign in the continental US in 2012. IEPOX sulfate accounted for about 1% of aerosol mass loading on average near the ground in the Southeast US where isoprene emission is high, and deceased significantly in the western US (0.2%) and at high altitudes (<0.1%). Compared to IEPOX sulfate, the observed GAS is more uniformly distributed, present in the lower troposphere (0.5% of aerosol mass), upper troposphere (0.7% of aerosol mass), and even lower stratosphere (0.7% of aerosol mass). The higher aerosol mass fraction of GAS in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere and in more aged aerosols indicates that GAS is probably long-lived in the aerosol phase and suggests that GAS is formed from different precursors or via a different chemical mechanism than IEPOX sulfate. In addition, GAS mass fraction usually increased with decreased relative humidity, suggesting that GAS may form in concentrated aerosol aqueous solution instead of cloud water. The increased formation of hydrophilic compounds such as GAS at low RH may in turn increase aerosol hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the ambient measurements demonstrated that acidity promotes the formation of both IEPOX sulfate and GAS and that their formation is likely limited by acidity near the ground.

Liao, J.; Froyd, K.; Murphy, D. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Yu, G.; Wennberg, P. O.; St Clair, J. M.; Crounse, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Chen, G.

2013-12-01

385

The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

2009-05-01

386

Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15

387

Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

2014-12-01

388

High K+-induced Increase in Extracellular Glutamate in Zinc Deficiency and Endogenous Zinc Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the physiological significance of endogenous zinc release under excess excitation in the hip- pocampus, in the present study, high K + -induced increase in extracellular glutamate and endogenous zinc action against its increase were examined in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks. When the ventral hippocam- pus was perfused by 100 mM KCl, the extracellular

Atsushi Takeda; Hiromasa Itoh; Haruna Tamano; Naoto Oku

2009-01-01

389

The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the mossy fiber zinc content of the rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the mossy fiber zinc content of the rat hippocampus was investigated using PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) spectroscopy. Using the proton microbeam (60×60 ?m), 2 mm linescans were made on hippocampal sections and the data were expressed as absolute zinc concentrations. Values of 55 and 136 ppm (dry weight) were found for

J. Wensink; W. J. M. Lenglet; R. D. Vis; C. J. A. Hamer

1987-01-01

390

Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic

Bernadeta Szewczyk; Magdalena Sowa; Artur Czupryn; Joanna M. Wiero?ska; Piotr Bra?ski; Krystyna Sadlik; W?odzimierz Opoka; Wojciech Piekoszewski; Maria ?mia?owska; Jolanta Skangiel-Kramska; Andrzej Pilc; Gabriel Nowak

2006-01-01

391

Study of zinc electrodes for single flow zinc\\/nickel battery application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc deposition from alkaline zincate solution in single flow zinc\\/nickel battery has been investigated. The effect of different substrates such as copper, cadmium and lead were examined by using cyclic voltammetry and cathodic polarization technique. It was found that the cadmium substrate is better than the others. Zinc deposition was carried out by using galvanostatic technique, and the deposits were

Li Zhang; Jie Cheng; Yu-sheng Yang; Yue-hua Wen; Xin-dong Wang; Gao-ping Cao

2008-01-01

392

Zinc Tolerance and Zinc Removal Ability of Living and Dried Biomass of Desmodesmus communis.  

PubMed

Effects of zinc on growth, cell morphology, oxidative stress, and zinc removal ability of the common phytoplankton species Desmodesmus communis were investigated at a concentration range of 0.25-160 mg L(-1) zinc. Cell densities and chlorophyll content decreased in treated cultures, changes in coenobia morphology and elevated lipid peroxidation levels appeared above 2.5 mg L(-1) zinc. The most effective zinc removal was observed at 5 mg L(-1) zinc concentration, while maximal amount of removed zinc appeared in 15 mg L(-1) zinc treated culture. Removed zinc is mainly bound on the cell surface. Dead biomass adsorbed more zinc than living biomass relative to unit of dry mass, but living biomass was more effective, relative to initial zinc content. This study comprehensively examines the zinc tolerance and removal ability of D. communis and demonstrates, in comparison with published literature, that these characteristics of different isolates of the same species can vary within a wide range. PMID:25193446

Novák, Zoltán; Jánószky, Mihály; B-Béres, Viktória; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

2014-12-01

393

Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific

J. M. Hempe; R. J. Cousins

1991-01-01

394

Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot solubility determinations have suggested that in some cases the solubility increases with increasing salt concentrations.

Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

1998-01-01

395

The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes  

E-print Network

Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

John, Seth G

2007-01-01

396

The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22072659

Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

2011-01-01

397

[Significance of zinc administration in premature infants].  

PubMed

The serum zinc level was determined in premature and mature neonates. Total 28 premature and 15 mature neonates were included in the examinations. Anodical re-dissolution technique an electrochemical method was applied for the measurements. The zinc content of breast milk, food preparation samples and infusion solutions was determined. It is stated that from the viewpoint of zinc intake neither the breast milk nor any available food preparation is satisfactory for feeding neonates of low birth weight. Attention is drawn to the importance of completing the parenteral feeding with zinc. PMID:2652032

Kisbán, G; Csáki, J; Bartalits, L

1989-04-01

398

Oral zinc aspartate treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The essential trace element zinc plays a critical role in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency or excess can cause severe impairment of the immune response, which points to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. We previously reported that injection of zinc aspartate suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as effector T cell functions in vitro. Among the preferred characteristics of novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS are oral availability and a tolerable effective dose to minimize side effects. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of zinc aspartate, an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency in humans, is effective in controlling EAE at clinically approved doses. We show that oral administration of 6 µg/day [0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or 12 µg/day [0.6 mg/kg BW] of zinc aspartate reduces clinical and histopathological signs during the relapsing remitting phase of the disease in SJL mice. The clinical effect in mice was accompanied by suppression of IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and IL-5 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a large array of proinflammatory cytokines was modulated by zinc aspartate exposure in vitro. These data suggest that administration of oral zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases like MS. PMID:25146336

Schubert, Claudia; Guttek, Karina; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Thielitz, Anja; Bühling, Frank; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Reinhold, Dirk

2014-12-01

399

Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease  

SciTech Connect

Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered.

Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

1986-07-01

400

Selective removal of keratan sulfate in chondroitin sulfate samples by sequential precipitation with ethanol.  

PubMed

Keratan sulfate (KS) is present as a contaminant in chondroitin sulfate (CS) mainly extracted from shark cartilage. We report a selective removal procedure of KS in CS samples by means of sequential precipitation with ethanol. Purified shark CS containing approximately 10% to 15% KS was subjected to a precipitation procedure in the presence of increasing percentages of saturated ethanol. In contrast to other solvents, 1.0 volume of ethanol was able to selectively purify CS, with a purity of approximately 100%, from KS. The current selective and simple procedure appears to be a reliable industrial preparation of CS devoid of large amounts of the residual KS. PMID:24291704

Galeotti, Fabio; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

2014-03-01

401

Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals  

SciTech Connect

Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-02-15

402

The crystal chemistry of four thorium sulfates  

SciTech Connect

Four thorium sulfate compounds have been synthesized and characterized. [Th(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS1) crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=7.2488(4), b=12.1798(7), c=8.0625(5) A, {beta}=98.245(1){sup o}; Na{sub 10}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (ThS2), Pna2{sub 1}, a=17.842(2), b=6.9317(8), c=27.550(3) A; Na{sub 2}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (ThS3), C2/c, a=16.639(2), b=9.081(1), c=25.078(3) A, {beta}= 95.322(2){sup o}; [Th{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS4), Pnma, a=18.2127(9), b=11.1669(5), c=14.4705(7) A. In all cases the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms corresponding to SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. The structural unit of ThS1 is an isolated cluster consisting of a single Th polyhedron with two monodentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and seven H{sub 2}O groups. A double-wide Th sulfate chain is the basis of ThS2. The structures of ThS3 and ThS4 are frameworks of Th polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra, and each contains channels that extend through the framework. One of the Th cations in ThS3 is coordinated by a bidentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedron, and ThS4 is unusual in the presence of a pair of Th cations that share a polyhedral face. - Graphical abstract: The structures of four hydrous thorium sulfates are reported that have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. Highlights: > Four hydrous thorium sulfates have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. > In each the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms from SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. > The details of the linkages of ThO{sub 9} polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra vary considerably in these structures.

Albrecht, Amanda J.; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Moore-Shay, Laura; Wei, Rebecca; Dawes, Colleen; Szymanowski, Jennifer [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2011-07-15

403

Zinc Supplementation Increases Zinc Status and Thymopoiesis in Aged Mice12  

PubMed Central

The age-related decline in lymphocyte development and function coincides with impaired zinc status in the elderly. Thymic involution and reduced immune responsiveness are classic hallmarks of both aging and zinc deficiency, resulting in decreased host defense and an increased susceptibility to infections. Thus, compromised zinc status associated with aging may be an important contributing factor in reduced thymopoiesis and impaired immune functions. Our goal in this study was to understand how dietary zinc supplementation affects thymopoiesis in aged mice. We hypothesized that impaired zinc status associated with aging would mediate the decline in thymic function and output and that restoring plasma zinc concentrations via zinc supplementation would improve thymopoiesis and thymic functions. In this study, groups of young (8 wk) and aged (22 mo) mice were fed a zinc-adequate (30 mg/kg zinc) or zinc-supplemented diet (300 mg/kg) for 25 d. Aged mice had impaired zinc status, with zinc supplementation restoring plasma zinc to a concentration not different from those of young male C57Bl/6 mice. Zinc supplementation in aged mice improved thymopoiesis, as assessed by increased total thymocyte numbers. In addition, improved thymic output was mediated in part by reducing the age-related accumulation of immature CD4?CD8?CD44+CD25? thymocytes, as well as by decreasing the expression of stem cell factor, a thymosuppressive cytokine. Taken together, our results showed that in mice, zinc supplementation can reverse some age-related thymic defects and may be of considerable benefit in improving immune function and overall health in elderly populations. PMID:19474155

Wong, Carmen P.; Song, Yang; Elias, Valerie D.; Magnusson, Kathy R.; Ho, Emily

2009-01-01

404

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

principally by the agriculture, chemical, paint, and rubber industries. Major coproducts of zinc mining of apparent consumption: Refined zinc 71 74 72 73 73 All forms of zinc 58 62 60 59 60 Recycling: In 2002 of slab zinc and the remainder in alloys, oxide, and chemicals. Of the total amount of scrap recycled, 300

405

Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms  

SciTech Connect

Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized using biofilms of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in flat-plate continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. U(VI) was continuously fed into the reactor for 32 weeks at a concentration of 126 íM. During this time, the soluble U(VI) was removed (between 88 and 96% of feed) from solution and immobilized in the biofilms. The dynamics of U immobilization in the sulfate-reducing biofilms were quantified by estimating: (1) microbial activity in the SRB biofilm, defined as the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production rate and estimated from the H2S concentration profiles measured using microelectrodes across the biofilms; (2) concentration of dissolved U in the solution; and (3) the mass of U precipitated in the biofilm. Results suggest that U was immobilized in the biofilms as a result of two processes: (1) enzymatically and (2) chemically, by reacting with microbially generated H2S. Visual inspection showed that the dissolved sulfide species reacted with U(VI) to produce a black precipitate. Synchrotron-based U L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of U precipitated abiotically by sodium sulfide indicated that U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV). Selected-area electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic analysis of transmission electron microscope lattice-fringe images confirmed the structure of precipitated U as being that of uraninite.

Beyenal, Haluk; Sani, Rajesh K.; Peyton, Brent M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2004-04-01

406

Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

1980-01-01

407

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

DOEpatents

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01

408

Enhanced sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by sulfate ions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of sulfate ions on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by ultrasonic (US) irradiation at various pHs, sulfate doses, powers and temperatures. The removal of PFOA was augmented with an increased sulfate ion concentration, with PFOA being almost completely decomposed in 90min at 25°C with a sulfate dose of 117mM. The two major mechanisms in the sulfate-assisted sonochemical system are the direct destruction of PFOA by cavitation and the indirect destruction of PFOA by sulfate free radicals. The decomposition of PFOA followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not influenced by pH. The reaction rate constants decreased with increases in temperature due to decreases in the surface tension of the solution. PMID:24970115

Lin, Jo-Chen; Lo, Shang-Lien; Hu, Ching-Yao; Lee, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Jeff

2015-01-01

409

Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.  

PubMed

Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. PMID:23689112

Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2013-01-01

410

A fluorescence enhancement-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.  

PubMed

Sugar-aza-crown ether-based cavitand 1 can act as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion in methanol among a series of tested anions. Spectroscopic studies, particularly NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the C-H hydrogen bonding between 1,2,3-triazole ring of cavitand 1 and hydrogen sulfate ion is crucial for the high selectivity of the receptor for hydrogen sulfate. PMID:22363932

Yang, Shih-Tse; Liao, De-Jhong; Chen, Shau-Jiun; Hu, Ching-Han; Wu, An-Tai

2012-04-01

411

Consequences and controls of bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial sulfate reduction is an integral part of the geochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. To better understand the environmental consequences of sulfate reduction and to further clarify the factors controlling this important biogeochemical process, rates of sulfate reduction were measured in Long Island Sound sediments and in controlled laboratory experiments using the ³⁵S-SOâ= radiotracer technique. Four sediment localities (NWC,

Westrich

1983-01-01

412

Direct reduction of sulfates to sulfur dioxide for isotopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Reduction of Sulfates to Sulfur Dioxide for Isotopic Analysis I\\/sub n\\/ a previously published method, sulfur dioxide for isotopic analysis was prepared from barium sulfate by thermal decomposition. System has been modified by the addition of a furnace with copper turnings at 600°C. The sulfate is mixed with cuprous oxide and silica, system is evacuated and sample is reduced

Max L. Coleman; Michael P. Moore

1978-01-01

413

Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate–methane transition at 2–4m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with 35SO42?, and the rates were compared with results of two diffusion-reaction models. The results showed that, even in

Bo Barker Jørgensen; Andreas Weber; Jakob Zopfi

2001-01-01

414

A biamperometric method for the determination of sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biamperometric method for the determination of sulfate has been developed. Its application to the determination of sulfate content in rubidium uranium trisulfate is discussed. Sulfate is determined by titration with lead nitrate in aqueous ethanolic medium using ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox system as biamperometric indicator. Initially, the method has been tested for standard. K2SO4 solutions. In case of Rb2 U(SO4)3, since

P. R. Nair; M. Xavier; S. G. Marathe; H. C. Jain

1991-01-01

415

Acidic sulfate particles in the winter Arctic atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle samples were collected by aircraft in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, the North Pole, and over the North Atlantic north of Bodo, Norway, during March and April, 1983 as part of the Atmospheric Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program. The sulfate concentrations and aerosol acidities from each of the regions were similar. The average sulfate concentration was 3.2 ± 1.3 µg m-3. The aerosol acidity was equivalent to 41 ± 13% of the sulfate.

Lazrus, Allan L.; Ferek, Ronald J.

416

Glycosaminoglycan modifications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: specific remodeling of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate.  

PubMed

Widespread skeletal muscle degeneration and impaired regeneration lead to progressive muscle weakness and premature death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Dystrophic muscles are progressively replaced by nonfunctional tissue because of exhaustion of muscle precursor cells and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are components of the ECM and are increasingly implicated in the regulation of biologic processes, but their possible role in the progression of DMD pathology is not understood. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses of endogenous GAGs in skeletal muscle biopsies of 10 DMD patients and 11 healthy individuals (controls). Immunostaining targeted to specific GAG species showed greater deposition of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan (DS) sulfate in DMD patient biopsies versus control biopsies. The selective accumulation of CS/DS in DMD biopsies was confirmed by biochemical quantification assay. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated a modification of the sulfation pattern of CS/DS disaccharide units in DMD muscles. In conclusion, our data open up a new path of investigation and suggest that GAGs could represent a new and original therapeutic target for improving the success of gene or cell therapy for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:25003237

Negroni, Elisa; Henault, Emilie; Chevalier, Fabien; Gilbert-Sirieix, Marie; Van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Uzan, Georges; Albanese, Patricia

2014-08-01

417

Calcium sulfate crystallization along citrus root channels in a Florida soil exhibiting acid sulfate properties  

SciTech Connect

The authors observed euhedral crystals in Manatee soil in a citrus grove in St. Lucie County, Florida. The material was identified as gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ /times/ 2H/sub 2/O) using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectra. Photomicrography and scanning electron microscopy revealed that gypsum accumulated both in old root channels and within citrus root tissue of the Btg horizon. The subsurface horizons had elevated sulfate levels, a low initial pH, a drop (0.5 unit) in pH upon air-drying. Electrical conductivity paralleled the concentration of water-soluble sulfate. High levels of calcium and sulfate occurred for horizons above the water table. This accumulation is attributed to groundwater bearing these ions and subsequently discharging them to the overlying soil. Dead citrus roots appear to act as wicks to aid water transfer from lower to higher horizons. The roots and their empty channels provide spaces in which the gypsum can precipitate if the concentrations of calcium and sulfate in the evaporating groundwater exceed the solubility product of gypsum.

Syslo, S.K.; Myhre, D.L.; Harris, W.G.

1988-02-01

418

Zinc-Regulated DNA Binding of the Yeast Zap1 Zinc-Responsive Activator  

PubMed Central

The Zap1 transcription factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes involved in zinc metabolism. Zap1 is active in zinc-limited cells and repressed in replete cells. At the transcriptional level, Zap1 controls its own expression via positive autoregulation. In addition, Zap1's two activation domains are regulated independently of each other by zinc binding directly to those regions and repressing activation function. In this report, we show that Zap1 DNA binding is also inhibited by zinc. DMS footprinting showed that Zap1 target gene promoter occupancy is regulated with or without transcriptional autoregulation. These results were confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Zinc regulation of DNA binding activity mapped to the DNA binding domain indicating other parts of Zap1 are unnecessary for this control. Overexpression of Zap1 overrode DNA binding regulation and resulted in constitutive promoter occupancy. Under these conditions of constitutive binding, both the zinc dose response of Zap1 activity and cellular zinc accumulation were altered suggesting the importance of DNA binding control to zinc homeostasis. Thus, our results indicated that zinc regulates Zap1 activity post-translationally via three independent mechanisms, all of which contribute to the overall zinc responsiveness of Zap1. PMID:21799889

Frey, Avery G.; Bird, Amanda J.; Evans-Galea, Marguerite V.; Blankman, Elizabeth; Winge, Dennis R.; Eide, David J.

2011-01-01

419

Tetanically released zinc inhibits hippocampal mossy fiber calcium, zinc and synaptic responses.  

PubMed

At the zinc-enriched mossy fiber synapses from hippocampal CA3 area, electrical or chemical stimulation evokes zinc release from glutamatergic synaptic vesicles that may cause different pre- or postsynaptic actions. Besides zinc that can be co-localized with glutamate and GABA, the mossy fibers contain a very high density of ATP-sensitive potassium channels that are activated by zinc. We have investigated the possibility that intensely released zinc inhibits presynaptic calcium changes and consequently zinc and glutamate release. The studies were made combining optical recording of fast presynaptic calcium and zinc signals, using the fluorescent indicators Fura-2 and N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide, respectively, with measurements of field potentials. We have observed that strong tetanic stimulation caused posttetanic depressions of electrically induced presynaptic calcium and zinc signals and of synaptic responses, the depressions being blocked by zinc chelators. These results suggest that endogenously released zinc has an inhibitory role, mediated by presynaptic ATP-sensitive potassium channels and/or presynaptic calcium channels, that leads to the depression of zinc and glutamate release. PMID:15950598

Quinta-Ferreira, M E; Matias, C M

2005-06-14

420

Zinc supplementation of trout diets: tissue indicators of body zinc status  

SciTech Connect

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were fed one of three different diets, based with on fish meal, soybean meal, or egg white, containing varying levels of zinc. Several fish tissues were analyzed for zinc content after 202 d to determine if any tissue was a sensitive indicator of zinc status. Caudal fin and whole-body zinc levels of the fish were found to reflect the dietary levels of zinc. They observed a strong statistical correlation between whole-body zinc levels and the zinc concentration of the caudal fin (r = 0.89; P < 0.01). At the same time, the authors observed a negative correlation between whole-body iron concentration and whole-body zinc levels (r = 0.87; P < 0.01). A strong negative correlation also was observed between dietary zinc and whole-body iron (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). The authors data indicate that caudal fin zinc concentrations are a good indicator of zinc status.

Wekell, J.C.; Shearer, K.D.; Gauglitz, E.J. Jr.

1986-07-01

421

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate diversity in sea cucumbers: a review.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is structurally distinct glycosaminoglycans found from the sea cucumber body wall consisted of chondroitin sulfate type backbone with attached sulfated or non-sulfated fucose side chain. Structurally this compound plays an important role in maintaining the body wall integrity and possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Recently several glycosaminoglycans' structures have been solved to elucidate its physicochemical activity. The purpose of this review paper is to elaborate existing structural properties and functions, reporting over 30 years and systematically discussion herein. PMID:25129732

Myron, Pang; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Al Azad, Sujjat

2014-11-01

422

Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42- are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42- is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions ( HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42-. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels used in the laboratory, with most of the dissolved sulfate occurring as SO42-, aqueous calcium sulfate ([CaSO 4] (aq)), and aqueous magnesium sulfate ([MgSO 4] (aq)). Our calculations indicate that TSR reactions that occur in natural environments are most likely to involve bisulfate ions ( HSO4-) and/or magnesium sulfate contact ion-pairs ([MgSO 4] CIP) rather than 'free' sulfate ions ( SO42-) or solvated sulfate ion-pairs, and that water chemistry likely plays a significant role in controlling the rate of TSR.

Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Amrani, Alon; Zhang, Tongwei; Tang, Yongchun

2008-09-01

423

Secondary Storage of Dermatan Sulfate in Sanfilippo Disease*  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetically inherited disorders that result from the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, causing their intralysosomal accumulation. Sanfilippo disease describes a subset of mucopolysaccharidoses resulting from defects in heparan sulfate catabolism. Sanfilippo disorders cause severe neuropathology in affected children. The reason for such extensive central nervous system dysfunction is unresolved, but it may be associated with the secondary accumulation of metabolites such as gangliosides. In this article, we describe the accumulation of dermatan sulfate as a novel secondary metabolite in Sanfilippo. Based on chondroitinase ABC digestion, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels in fibroblasts from Sanfilippo patients were elevated 2–5-fold above wild-type dermal fibroblasts. Lysosomal turnover of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in these cell lines was significantly impaired but could be normalized by reducing heparan sulfate storage using enzyme replacement therapy. Examination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate catabolic enzymes showed that heparan sulfate and heparin can inhibit iduronate 2-sulfatase. Analysis of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fraction by chondroitinase ACII digestion showed dermatan sulfate storage, consistent with inhibition of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The discovery of a novel storage metabolite in Sanfilippo patients may have important implications for diagnosis and understanding disease pathology. PMID:21193389

Lamanna, William C.; Lawrence, Roger; Sarrazin, Stephane; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

424

Zinc deposition during charging nickel/zinc batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of solving the classical problem of short cycle life with nickel/zinc secondary batteries is suggested by studying the effects of the negative electrode substrate on Zn deposition. The use of different coatings on the substrate, (the so-called current-collector) is studied by testing several working electrodes (Zn, Cd and Pb) in a zinc oxide saturated potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Cyclic voltammograms show that the nucleation potential of the Zn deposition on a Pb substrate is lower than that on Zn or Cd. Cathodic polarization curves at various temperatures are also obtained and reveal that slower electrode kinetics and more Cd or Pb coating can retard shape change and dendritic growth by leading to slow electrode kinetics and uniform current distribution. These coatings are applied to a Cu mesh and the effects of coating materials on the current-collector on Zn deposition in Ni/Zn secondary batteries are also studied. Application of Pb as a coating metal on the current-collector of negative electrode retards shape change and the dendritic Zn growth and, hence, increases cycle life.

Chang, H.; Lim, C.

425

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

426

The zinc electrode: Reactions and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. This paper reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on supersaturated zincate and on mossy deposits.

McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-31

427

Phosphorescent sensor for biological mobile zinc  

E-print Network

A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed, based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific ...

You, Youngmin

428

The metallurgy of zinc-coated steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of zinc and zinc alloy coatings on steel is one of the commercially most important processing techniques used to protect steel components exposed to corrosive environments. From a technological standpoint, the principles of galvanizing have remained unchanged since this coating came into use over 200 years ago. However, because of new applications in the automotive and construction industry,

A. R. Marder

2000-01-01

429

Eukaryotic zinc transporters and their regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last ten years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of zinc transporters and their regulation in eukaryotic organisms. Two families of transporters, the ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like Protein) and CDF (Cation Diffusion Facilitator) families, have been found to play a number of important roles in zinc transport. These are ancient gene families that span all phylogenetic levels. The characterized

L. Alex Gaither; David J. Eide

2001-01-01

430

Photocolorimetric method for determining the zinc concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Another standardized method of determining zinc according to GOST-13538-68 is based on the complexometric titration of the metal chloride compounds, obtained by the decomposition of the products being studied with hydrochloric acid, This method for determining zinc is associated with the use of a complicated, glass apparatus for the decomposition of the sample product and with a number of laborious

I. M. Shentov; Z. M. Temirgalieva; T. M. Larionova

1970-01-01

431

Zinc Casting and Recycling (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim, Scope and Background. Metal die casting is a highly energy-intensive industry. In addition to that, the production of primary zinc by smelting consumes huge amounts of energy as well as generates many types of pollution. This paper uses LCA to investigate the environmental performance of a zinc cast product. The areas of environmental concern are focused on the direct

Reginald Tan; Hsien H. Khoo

2005-01-01

432

Synthesis, growth, characterization and crystal structure of zinc cadmium thiourea complex Zn0.625Cd1.375(CS(NH2)2)9.4(SO4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of zinc cadmium thiourea complex Zn0.625Cd1.375(CS(NH2)2)9.4(SO4) (ZCTS) are grown by slow evaporation of aqueous solution containing zinc sulfate, cadmium sulfate and thiourea in the ratio 1:1:6. Crystal composition as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that it belongs to the monoclinic system with space group P21 and cell parameters are a=13.263(5) Å, b=11.886(5) Å, c=27.215(5) Å, ?=?=90.000(5)°, ?=96.586(5)°, V=4262(3) Å3 and Z=2. The presence of zinc and cadmium in the final product is further confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The vibrational patterns in FT-IR are used for identifying the material and the thermal analysis by TG/DTA indicates the stability of the mixed crystal. The surface morphology changes of the mixed crystal are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High transmittance in the visible region is observed with a lower optical cut-off at ˜260 nm. The change in intensity patterns in XRD profiles indicates lattice distortion. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements reveal that the mixed crystal has a superior activity than that of tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate (ZTS).

Ramasamy, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

2013-08-01

433

Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

2009-11-01

434

Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.  

PubMed

Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications. PMID:19875869

Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

2009-11-25

435

Enthalpy of formation of sulfate green rusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a contribution to the systematic study of iron oxide thermodynamics, this work reports enthalpies of formation of green rust, a double layered (Fe II, Fe III) hydroxide with the ideal stoichiometry FeII1-xFeIIIx(OH)2[A]·nHO, with sulfate as the anion in the interlayer. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Full chemical analysis was performed. Contents of Fe II, Fe III, water, and sulfate were obtained. We report standard enthalpies of formation for green rust with different Fe II/Fe III ratios. Enthalpies of formation from single cation compounds, namely, Fe(OH) 2, Fe(OH) 3, FeSO 4 and H 2O show reasonable agreement with Gibbs free energies of formation from single cation compounds recalculated from the reported literature values. These values show that green rust has little stabilization over a mechanical mixture of these single cation compounds and there is no thermodynamic preference for any particular Fe II/Fe III ratio.

Mazeina, Lena; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Dyar, Darby

2008-02-01

436

ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF DERMATAN SULFATE OLIGOSACCHARIDES  

PubMed Central

The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) oligosaccharides has been a longstanding challenge in the field of mass spectrometry. In this work, we present the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform mass spectrometry to the analysis of dermatan sulfate (DS) oligosaccharides up to 10 residues in length. The EDD mass spectra of DS oligosaccharides were compared to their infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) mass spectra. EDD produces more abundant fragmentation than IRMPD with far less loss of SO3 from labile sulfate modifications. EDD cleaves all glycosidic bonds, yielding both conventional glycosidic bond fragmentation as well as satellite peaks resulting from the additional loss of 1 or 2 hydrogen atoms. EDD also yields more cross-ring fragmentation than IRMPD. For EDD, abundant cross-ring fragmentation in the form of A- and X-ions is observed, with 1,5Xn cleavages occurring for all IdoA residues and many of the GalNAc4S residues, except at the reducing and nonreducing ends. In contrast, IRMPD produces only A-type cross-ring fragmentation for long oligosaccharides (dp6 – dp10). As all the structurally informative fragment ions observed by IRMPD appear as a subset of the peaks found in the EDD mass spectrum, EDD shows great potential for the characterization of GAG oligosaccharides using a single tandem mass spectrometry experiment. PMID:18055211

Wolff, Jeremy J.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Busch, Alexander M.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

2009-01-01

437

Zinc sulphate following the administration of iodine-131 on the regulation of thyroid function, in rats.  

PubMed

Hyperthyroidism in men is often treated with high doses of iodine-131 ((131)I), which may induce radiation side effects to patients and their environment. These therapeutic doses of (131)I could be decreased, if the (131)I uptake of the thyroid gland of the patients could be increased. Zinc sulphate has been considered to exercise a protective role by maintaining the cellular integrity of the thyroid under various pathological states. The aim of our study was to study in Wistar rats whether zinc sulphate can after treatment of the thyroid gland with (131)I: a) increase the uptake of (131)I in the thyroid and b) stabilize the function of the follicular cells. If such a stabilization finally exists in men we could have favorable results like fewer cases of hypothyroidism after (131)I treatment of hyperthyroidism. To carry out these investigations, rats were divided into four groups comprising of eight animals each. Group I animals served as normal controls. Group II animals received a dose of 3.7 MBq of (131)I. Group III animals were supplemented with zinc (227 mg/L of drinking water) and animals in Group IV were given (131)I together with zinc sulphate as above. Our results showed that in Group II, serum levels of tetra-iodo-thyronine (T(4)) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T(3)) decreased significantly as a function of time following (131)I treatment. An increase in the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was noticed one week after (131)I treatment, becoming less pronounced with time. In Group II, thyroid uptake at 2h and at 24h was significantly decreased. In the same Group biological half life (T(biol)) of (131)I in the thyroid gland, was significantly elevated four weeks after the administration of (131)I and decreased eight weeks after. In Group IV animals, zinc sulfate after four weeks, induced normalization of elevated serum TSH levels and a further increase in the T(biol) of (131)I. After eight weeks in these animals, serum T(3) became normal and TSH remained at normal levels. Thyroid (131)I uptake at 2 and 24 h was increased as compared to Group II. Group III animals showed some increase in the levels of Na(+)K(+)ATPase and type 1,5'-deiodinase (5'-DI) as compared to normal rats of Group I. In conclusion, this study suggests the protective potential of zinc sulphate in the disturbed after (131)I treatment, thyroid function, thyroid hormones and TSH while the (131)I uptake was reduced. Thus, if this result is further confirmed, zinc sulphate may show to be a promising radioprotective agent for the thyroid gland. PMID:18084658

Dhawan, Davinder; Singh Baweja, Mandeep; Dani, Vijayta

2007-01-01

438

Exp. Eye Res. (1992) 55, 691-709 Age-related Changes of Sulfated Proteoglycans in the Normal  

E-print Network

contained chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, with dermatan sulfate predominant. Basal lamina trabecular mesh- work contains hyaluronic acid, chondroitin-4-sulfate and/or 6-sulfate, dermatan sulfateExp. Eye Res. (1992) 55, 691-709 Age-related Changes of Sulfated Proteoglycans in the Normal Human

Ottino, Julio M.

439

Effects of fou8/fry1 Mutation on Sulfur Metabolism: Is Decreased Internal Sulfate the Trigger of Sulfate Starvation Response?  

PubMed Central

The fou8 loss of function allele of adenosine bisphosphate phosphatase FIERY1 results in numerous phenotypes including the increased enzymatic oxygenation of fatty acids and increased jasmonate synthesis. Here we show that the mutation causes also profound alterations of sulfur metabolism. The fou8 mutants possess lower levels of sulfated secondary compounds, glucosinolates, and accumulate the desulfo-precursors similar to previously described mutants in adenosine 5?phosphosulfate kinase. Transcript levels of genes involved in sulfate assimilation differ in fou8 compared to wild type Col-0 plants and are similar to plants subjected to sulfate deficiency. Indeed, independent microarray analyses of various alleles of mutants in FIERY1 showed similar patterns of gene expression as in sulfate deficient plants. This was not caused by alterations in signalling, as the fou8 mutants contained significantly lower levels of sulfate and glutathione and, consequently, of total elemental sulfur. Analysis of mutants with altered levels of sulfate and glutathione confirmed the correlation of sulfate deficiency-like gene expression pattern with low internal sulfate but not low glutathione. The changes in sulfur metabolism in fou8 correlated with massive increases in 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate levels. The analysis of fou8 thus revealed that sulfate starvation response is triggered by a decrease in internal sulfate as opposed to external sulfate availability and that the presence of desulfo-glucosinolates does not induce the glucosinolate synthesis network. However, as well as resolving these important questions on the regulation of sulfate assimilation in plants, fou8 has also opened an array of new questions on the links between jasmonate synthesis and sulfur metabolism. PMID:22724014

Lee, Bok-Rye; Huseby, Stine; Koprivova, Anna; Chetelat, Aurore; Wirtz, Markus; Mugford, Sam T.; Navid, Emily; Brearley, Charles; Saha, Shikha; Mithen, Richard; Hell, Rudiger; Farmer, Edward E.; Kopriva, Stanislav

2012-01-01

440

Suppléments de zinc pour la gastroentérite aiguë  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question La gastroentérite accompagnée de diarrhée est un problème fréquent chez les enfants et peut entraîner une déshydratation, de la morbidité et, dans certains pays, une mortalité importantes. Y a-t-il lieu de donner des suppléments de zinc dans de tels cas? Réponse Le zinc se retrouve dans divers aliments et, au Canada, certains sont enrichis de zinc. Les suppléments de zinc sont éprouvés comme étant une mesure sûre et efficace pour raccourcir la durée des maladies accompagnées de diarrhée et possiblement réduire d’autres complications, dont la mort. Quoique l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande une dose quotidienne de zinc pendant 10 à 14 jours pour prendre en charge la diarrhée aiguë chez l’enfant, les enfants canadiens qui s’alimentent normalement n’ont pas besoin de tels suppléments.

Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

441

A bioinformatics view of zinc enzymes.  

PubMed

Thanks to the contributions of scientists like Bert Vallee, zinc enzymology is an area of research with a rich history and a strong basis of biochemical and biophysical knowledge. In recent years, the dramatic development of the genomic and post-genomic research has provided this as well as all other fields of life sciences with a massive body of new data, including, but not limited to, protein sequence and structural data. By integrating these new data with the wealth of information available in the literature, it is possible to achieve an unprecedented overview of the properties and functions of zinc enzymes in the context of biological systems. To this aim, the role of bioinformatics is essential. In this work, we use bioinformatics tools and databases that we have developed for the study of metalloproteins to gain insights into the functions of zinc in zinc enzymes, its coordination properties, and the usage of zinc enzymes in living organisms. PMID:22209023

Andreini, Claudia; Bertini, Ivano

2012-06-01

442

Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E. (International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc.)

2006-04-01

443

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

444

Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight  

PubMed Central

Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

2009-01-01

445

Abundance of zinc ions in synaptic terminals of mocha mutant mice: zinc transporter 3 immunohistochemistry and zinc sulphide autometallography.  

PubMed

The mocha mouse is an autosomal recessive pigment mutant on mouse chromosome 10 caused by a deletion in the gene for the delta subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3. Based on zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) immunohistochemistry, zinc TSQ fluorescence and a modified Timm method, previous studies found a lack of histochemically-detectable zinc and a substantial reduction in the ZnT3 immunoreactivity. It has, therefore, been suggested that the mocha mouse could serve as a model for studies of the significance of zinc ions in zinc-enriched (ZEN) neurons. We have chosen the mocha-zinc-model in a study of the significance of ZEN neurons in hypoxia-caused damage in mouse brain. In order to establish that the model was either void of zinc ions or had a significantly decreased level of zinc ions in their ZEN terminals, we repeated the studies that had lead to the above assumption, the only methodology difference being that we used the zinc specific Neo-Timm method instead of the Timm method applied in the original study. We found that, although the ZnS autometallography (AMG) technique revealed a reduction in staining intensity as compared to the littermate controls, there were still plenty of zinc ions in the ZEN terminals, in particular visible in telencephalic structures like neocortex and hippocampus. At ultrastructural levels the zinc ions were found in a pool of vesicles of the ZEN terminals as in the control animals, but additionally zinc ions could be traced in ZEN neuronal somata in the neocortex and hippocampus. The mossy fibres in the hippocampus of mocha mice also bind with TSQ, though less than in the controls. We found ZnS AMG grains in ZEN neuronal somata, which were also immunoreactive for ZnT3. Our study confirmed the decreased ZnT3 immunoreactivity in ZEN terminals of the mocha mouse found in the original study. Based on these findings, we suggest that the mocha mouse may not be an ideal model for studies of the histochemically-detectable zinc ion pool of the central nervous system. PMID:15328918

Stoltenberg, Meredin; Nejsum, Lene N; Larsen, Agnete; Danscher, Gorm

2004-02-01

446

Determination of trace levels of dimethyl sulfate in the presence of monomethyl sulfate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

During a routine determination of dimethyl sulfate in technical materials using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that residual monomethyl sulfate originating from a prior methylation reaction with dimethyl sulfate decomposed in the hot GC injection system to yield dimethyl sulfate and sulfuric acid. This thermal reaction leads to false positive or overestimated residue levels of dimethyl sulfate, accompanied by bad chromatographic peak shapes and poor precision and accuracy values. This short communication describes proper measures to counteract this problem and presents a fast, reliable and validated GC-MS method that is capable of determining dimethyl sulfate residues in the presence of monomethyl sulfate in technical materials using a simple dissolve-and-inject approach. Applying deuterated dimethyl sulfate as internal standard and with a sample weight of 25 mg, a limit of detection of 0.24 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.48 mg kg(-1) was achieved along with a linear range of 0.48-208.6 mg kg(-1). The method offers a precision of 9.1% and an accuracy of 96.5% at the limit of quantification and a precision of 3.6% and an accuracy of 93.8% at a dime