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Sample records for zinc sulfate znso4

  1. Raman diagnostic of the reactivity between ZnSO4 and CaCO3 particles in humid air relevant to heterogeneous zinc chemistry in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgayrac, Guillaume; Sobanska, Sophie; Brémard, Claude

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory experiments using Raman imaging demonstrated the behaviour of ZnSO4·7H2O (goslarite) microparticles in contact with a {101bar4} CaCO3 (calcite) surface under three different experimental conditions representative of remote atmosphere. Contact between the ZnSO4·7H2O particles and the CaCO3 surface in humid air (RH ∼40-80%) did not induce any deliquescence and chemical phenomena. In contrast, condensation of a water drop at the ZnSO4·7H2O-CaCO3 interface caused free dissolution of the ZnSO4·7H2O particle and rapid precipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 onto the CaCO3 surface. This coating inhibited the surface reaction and subsequent drying resulted in the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, then ZnSO4·H2O (gunningite) and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) superimposed onto the Zn4SO4(OH)6 layer. The deposition of ZnSO4·7H2O particles in a water drop, previously in contact with a CaCO3 particle for a long time, resulted in the coprecipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite). Subsequent drying caused the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·H2O and CaSO4·2H2O as small particles. These results indicated the possible fates of ZnSO4 particles in a humid atmosphere, when externally mixed with CaCO3 mineral dust after atmospheric events such as aggregation, water condensation and evaporation. This study indicated the fundamental role of water that typically existed on the surface of aerosol particles in the troposphere. These heterogeneous chemical processes have substantial consequences on particle size and solubility, and thus on bioavailability and toxicity of metal-rich particles.

  2. Experimental determination and model simulation of the solid-liquid equilibria in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoya; Yin, Xia; Chen, Zifang; Yu, Xiuli; Zeng, Dewen; Tan, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    The solubility data and pH of the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system were elaborately measured at T = 291.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 323.15 K, and the solid phases were determined by XRD to be ZnSO4 · 3Zn(OH)2 · 5H2O. The Pitzer model was applied to simulate thermodynamically and predict the relationship between mass percent of ZnSO4 and pH in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system taking account of the equilibrium of ions over the temperature from 273.15 to 323.15 K. Based on the experimental data and the calculation results, a theoretical direction of avoiding base zinc sulfate forming in industrial processes was advised.

  3. Electrospray ionization FT-ICR/MS Investigation of Zinc Sulfate Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Lemke, K.

    2013-12-01

    Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is a common salt present in oxidized surface waters and may serve as a suitable model material to better understand precipitation/nucleation processes in aqueous fluids. In brief, precipitation of ZnSO4 commences with single molecule association (complexation) reactions and proceeds via a wide range of prenucleation clusters (ZnSO4)n and nanocrystalites ultimately toward bulk ZnSO4. Evidently, ZnSO4 growth will pass through the cluster-size domain, from which small ZnSO4 cluster subunits emerge with characteristic chain, sheet and 3-D structures. This experimental study focuses on small zinc sulfate clusters and provides a set of preliminary results pertaining to the stoichiometry, abundance and stability of these materials in aqueous environments. At present, very little is known with respect to the composition, structure and stability of ZnSO4 at the cluster level, however, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry can provide detailed insight into the aforementioned features of ZnSO4. In addition, application of resonance techniques, such as high-resolution Fourier Transfer Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) provides detailed information with respect to the molecular composition of individual ion clusters at high resolution. Here we present the stoichiometries of zinc sulfate ion clusters identified using FT-ICR/MS. In 15mM dilute aqueous solution of zinc sulfate, singly-charged ion clusters [Znm(SO4)m-1(OH)●(H2O)n]+ with m=2, 3, 4 and 5 have been identified. In addition, a set of doubly-charged clusters with the general form [Znm(SO4)m-1●(H2O)n]2+ with 4≤m≤10 have been characterized. We will propose a scheme, in which singly-charged cluster species with m=4,5 are regarded to be of a critical-size from which stable doubly-charged ions begin to emerge. Upon passing the m~4-5 size-range, zinc sulfate clusters exhibit a strong affinity towards water with stable hepta-hydrates marking the upper range of

  4. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses. PMID:26349687

  5. Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine; DeHaene, Jessica; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera, Juan A; King, Janet C

    2005-05-01

    The fortification of staple foods with zinc may play an important role in achieving adequate zinc intakes in countries at risk of zinc deficiency. However, little is known about the relative bioavailability of different zinc compounds that may be used in food fortification. The objective of this study was to measure and compare fractional zinc absorption from a test meal that included a maize tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA. A double isotopic tracer ratio method ((67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer) was used to estimate zinc absorption in 42 Mexican women living in a periurban community of Puebla State, Mexico. The test meal consisted of maize tortillas, yellow beans, chili sauce, and milk with instant coffee; it contained 3.3 mg zinc and had a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 17. Fractional zinc absorption did not differ significantly between the test groups (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Percent absorptions were (mean +/- SD) zinc oxide, 10.8 +/- 0.9; zinc sulfate, 10.0 +/- 0.02; zinc oxide + EDTA, 12.7 +/- 1.5; and sodium-zinc EDTA, 11.1 +/- 0.7. We conclude that there was no difference in zinc absorption from ZnO and ZnSO(4) when added as fortificants to maize tortillas and consumed with beans and milk. The addition of EDTA with zinc oxide or the use of prechelated sodium-zinc EDTA as fortificants did not result in higher zinc absorption from the test meal. PMID:15867288

  6. Comparative studies of the effects of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate on serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, O. A.; Melnikov, G. V.; Melnikov, A. G.; Kovalenko, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The work is devoted to the study of the interaction of heavy metals with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), by quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins and fluorescent probe pyrene by heavy metal ions. Sulfates of copper and zinc (CuSO4, ZnSO4) were taken as the metal salts. The value of the Stern-Volmer constants of quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of proteins and fluorescence probe pyrene reduced from Cu (II) to the Zn (II). It was experimentally found that the copper ions have a greater ability to fluorescence quenching, which is probably associated with the greater availability of protein chromophore groups to copper ions and with adsorbed fluorescent probe pyrene in the protein globule.

  7. Desorption behavior of zinc atoms from zinc-sulfate solution irradiated with pulsed DC plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaba, Takafumi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2016-07-01

    A DC pulsed plasma ignited between a metal needle and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution electrode was used to investigate Zn metal desorption from an electrolyte solution. Using an ICCD camera and optical band-pass filter, 2D atomic absorption spectroscopy was carried out during irradiation of pulsed plasma to the surface of the solution. The time-resolved measurement of Zn atoms released to the gas phase revealed that the Zn desorption rate monotonically increased with increasing number of discharge repetitions. The surface temperature of the electrolyte solution was observed with a thermographic camera, and correlations between the H2O and Zn desorption rate were inspected. The correlation between the H2O and Zn desorption rate suggested that Zn desorption is assisted not only by the electric field of the discharge but also by H2O evaporating from the solution.

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation. PMID:25903182

  19. In situ observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in aqueous ZnSO4 solutions at temperatures up to 400 °C: Implications for Zn2+-SO42- association and evolution of submarine hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Wan, Ye; Hu, Wenxuan; Chou, I.-Ming; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Liquid-liquid immiscibility is gaining recognition as an important process in hydrothermal fluid activity. However, studies of this complex process are relatively limited. We examined liquid-liquid immiscibility in aqueous ZnSO4 solutions at temperatures above ∼266.5 °C and at vapor-saturation pressures. The homogeneous aqueous ZnSO4 solution separated into ZnSO4-rich (L1) and ZnSO4-poor (L2) liquid phases coexisting with the vapor phase. The L1-L2 phase separation temperature decreased with increasing ZnSO4 concentration up to 1.0 mol/kg, and then increased at greater ZnSO4 concentrations, showing a typical lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of ∼266.5 °C. Gunningite (ZnSO4·H2O) precipitated in 2.0 mol/kg ZnSO4 solution at 360 °C. The L1-L2 phase separation resulted mainly from the strong Zn2+-SO42- association at high temperatures. The major results of this study are: (1) the discovery of the LCST in these systems, a macroscale property associated with polymeric mixtures; (2) analyses of the peak area ratios of the v1(SO42-) and OH stretching bands, which suggest that the sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature in L1, especially above 375 °C; (3) a new Raman v1(SO42-) mode at ∼1005 cm-1 observed only in the L1 phase, whose fraction increases with increasing temperature; and (4) the shape of the OH Raman stretching band, which indicates that water molecules and solute interact much more strongly in L1 than in the coexisting L2 phase, suggesting that water molecules fit into the framework formed by various Zn2+-SO42- pairs and chain structures in L1. These results have potential implications for understanding transport and reduction of seawater-derived sulfate in submarine hydrothermal systems. The formation of an immiscible sulfate-rich liquid phase can favor the circulation of sulfate within mid-ocean ridge basalt because the sulfate-rich liquid density is higher than that of the coexisting fluid. The reduction of sulfate

  20. A three-dimensional metal-organic framework with a pcu net constructed by zinc(II)/3-amino-1,2,4-triazole layer and an inorganic sulfate pillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian-Di; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Xie, Yong-Ping; Li, Qing-Lu

    2015-03-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of ZnSO4·7H2O and 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (HATRZ) led to a three-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer, Zn2(ATRZ)2SO4·3H2O (1). Compound 1 has been fully characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1 is a pcu-like network metal-organic framework which is constructed by a zinc(II)/ATRZ layer and a rarely reported inorganic sulfate pillar. Moreover, 1 shows characteristic ligand-centered fluorescence property.

  1. The Kinetic Response of the Proteome in A549 Cells Exposed to ZnSO4 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-jie; Song, Qun; Zhang, Zi-jin; Mao, Li; Zheng, Wei-juan; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is involved in many important physiological processes. Cell responses to zinc stress show time-dependent effects besides concentration-dependence and tissue-specificity. Herein, we investigated the time-dependent differential expression of the proteome in A549 cells after administered with ZnSO4 for both 9 and 24 h using 2DE. 123 differentially expressed protein spots were detected, most of which were up-regulated by Zn2+ treatment. Interestingly, 49 proteins exhibited significant differential expression repeatedly during these two treatment periods, and moreover showed a conserved change with different ratios and four time-dependent expression patterns. Pattern 1 (up-regulated with rapid initial induction and subsequent repression) and pattern 4 (down-regulated with steady repression) were the predominant expression patterns. The abundances of the proteins in patterns 1 and 4 after 24 h of zinc treatment are always lower than that after 9 h, indicating that exogenous zinc reduced the expression of proteins in cells after 24 h or longer. Importantly, these findings could also reflect the central challenge in detecting zinc homeostasis proteins by 2DE or other high throughput analytical methods resulting from slight variation in protein expression after certain durations of exogenous zinc treatment and/or low inherent protein content in cells. These time-dependent proteome expression patterns were further validated by measuring dynamic changes in protein content in cells and in expression of two proteins using the Bradford method and western blotting, respectively. The time-dependent changes in total zinc and free Zn2+ ion contents in cells were measured using ICP-MS and confocal microscopy, respectively. The kinetic process of zinc homeostasis regulated by muffling was further revealed. In addition, we identified 50 differentially expressed proteins which are predominantly involved in metabolic process, cellular process or

  2. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  3. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  4. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  5. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  6. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  7. A [meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato]zinc(ii) complex as an oral therapeutic for the treatment of type 2 diabetic KKA(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan K; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2007-02-01

    We prepared and characterized [meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato]zinc(II) ([Zn(tpps)]), and investigated its in vitro insulin-mimetic activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic KKA(y) mice. The results were compared with those of previously proposed insulin-mimetic zinc(II) complexes and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)). The in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of [Zn(tpps)] was considerably better than that of bis(allixinato)zinc(II) ([Zn(alx)(2)]), bis(maltolato)zinc(II) ([Zn(mal)(2)]), bis(2-aminomethylpyridinato)zinc(II) ([Zn(2-ampy)(2)](2+)), and ZnSO(4). In particular, the order of in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of the complexes was determined to be: [Zn(tpps)]>[Zn(alx)(2)]>[Zn(mal)(2)]>[Zn(2-ampy)](2+)>ZnSO(4). [Zn(tpps)] normalized the hyperglycemia of KKA(y) mice within 21 days when administered orally at doses of 10-20 mg (0.15-0.31 mmol) Zn per kg body mass for 28 days. In addition, metabolic syndromes such as insulin resistance, the degree of renal disturbance, and the degree of liver disturbance were significantly improved in [Zn(tpps)]-treated KKA(y) mice relative to those administered with saline and ZnSO(4). The improvement in diabetes was validated by the results of oral glucose-tolerance tests and the decrease in the HbA(1c) level observed. In contrast, ZnSO(4) and the ligand H(2)tpps did not lower the elevated blood glucose level under the same experimental conditions. Based on these observations, [Zn(tpps)] is proposed to be the first orally active zinc(II)-porphyrin complex for the efficacious treatment of not only type 2 diabetes but also metabolic syndromes in animals. PMID:17245806

  8. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  9. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  10. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  11. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  12. Zinc-cadmium interactions: Impact on wheat physiology and mineral acquisition.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Nadeem; Ishaq, Wajid; Farid, Ghulam; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Imran, Muhammad; Geng, Mingjian; Hussain, Saddam

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentration of Cd in soil is of great concern due to risk of its entry into food chain. Zinc (Zn) being antagonist to Cd is an important micronutrient to ameliorate its toxic effects on plants and to limit its entry into food chain. A pot experiment was conducted using Cd contaminated soil (30 mg Cd kg(-1) soil as 3CdSO4 · 8H2O) to investigate the effect of soil and foliar applied Zn on physiological response and Cd concentration in wheat. In soil, Zn was applied at 15 and 30 mg Zn kg(-1) soil as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 · 7H2O). For foliar applications, 3 and 6 g L(-1) ZnSO4 solution was sprayed on completing eight weeks of growth. Results indicated that Zn application could effectively improve physiological performance and mineral content of wheat grown on Cd contaminated soils. Among different Zn fertilization treatments, foliar application of 3 g L(-1) ZnSO4 solution recorded the maximum soluble proteins and the minimum grain-Cd concentration. Soil application of ZnSO4 or foliar application at 6 g L(-1) did not affect Cd concentration in grains. Zinc application through both the methods significantly increased phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and Zn concentrations in shoots. Concentration of P and K in grains showed positive relationship with that of Zn. In crux, present study suggests that foliar application of Zn at booting stage in a suitable concentration (3 g L(-1) ZnSO4 solution) can effectively ameliorate the adverse effects of Cd and decrease grain-Cd of wheat grown in Cd contaminated soil. PMID:26426697

  13. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and...

  14. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and...

  15. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and...

  16. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional... reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine in purified water. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and...

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity of zinc in the rat olfactory neuronal cell line, Odora.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, H; Amlal, H; Genter, M B

    2015-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) has long been touted as a panacea for common cold. Recently, there has been some controversy over whether an intranasal (IN) zinc gluconate gel, purported to fight colds, causes anosmia, or loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Previous evidence has shown that IN zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solutions can cause anosmia in humans as well as significant damage to the olfactory epithelium in rodents. Using an in vitro olfactory neuron model (the rat Odora cell line), we tested the hypothesis that Zn toxicity was caused by inhibition of the hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1(HVCN1), leading to acidosis and apoptotic cell death. Following studies to characterize the toxicity of zinc gluconate and ZnSO4, Odora cells were grown on coverslips and loaded with 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester to measure intracellular pH in the presence and absence of Zn salts. While we found that HVCN1 is not functional in Odora cells, we found that olfactory neurons in vitro maintain their intracellular pH through a sodium/proton exchanger, specifically the sodium proton antiporter 1. ZnSO4, at nontoxic levels, had no impact on intracellular pH after acute exposure or after 24 h of incubation with the cells. In conclusion, Zn toxicity is not mediated through an acidification of intracellular pH in olfactory neurons in vitro. PMID:24980442

  19. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

  20. Sensitivity and efficiency of selected coproscopical methods-sedimentation, combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation, and McMaster method.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ann-Christin; Kraemer, Amelie; Epe, Christian; Strube, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Coproscopical methods used in veterinary-parasitological diagnostics were validated according to their sensitivity (Se) and egg recovery rate [efficiency (Ef)]. Validation of the combined sedimentation-flotation method and the modified McMaster method was performed by using feces spiked with eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cooperia oncophora, cyathostomins, Ascaris suum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Moniezia expansa, and Anoplocephala perfoliata. For validation of the sedimentation method, Fasciola hepatica eggs were used. With the combined sedimentation-flotation method using ZnSO4 as flotation medium [specific gravity (SG) 1.30], 5 g fecal samples of all tested parasite species (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 epg) were reproducibly detected "positive" (100 % Se) as of 80 epg. The Ef of the combined sedimentation-flotation method, defined as percentage of rediscovered eggs, revealed clear differences between parasites and showed the highest value for cyathostomins and the lowest for U. stenocephala and T. leonina eggs. The average Ef for all parasite species at 80 epg was 1.50 %. With the McMaster method (concentration levels 1, 30, 50, 80, 100, 500, and 1000 epg), all tested parasite species were detected reliably positive as of 500 epg with a mean Ef of 46.4 %. When evaluating the sedimentation method (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 epg), F. hepatica eggs were reproducibly found in 5 g fecal samples as of 20 epg with 20.0 % Ef. The result that the combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation method (SG 1.30) as flotation medium provides diagnostic certainty only as of 80 epg has to be considered at preventing zoonoses. If pet owners wish to prevent any zoonotic infection ("zero tolerance"), a monthly anthelminthic treatment should be advised instead of monthly fecal examinations. PMID:26997342

  1. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  2. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  3. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 025463; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  4. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.154 Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B... units of polymyxin B. (2) To 000061 and 043264; each gram contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc,...

  5. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  6. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  8. Zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite improves tissue zinc accumulation in laying hens by enhancing zinc transporter gene mRNA abundance.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Li, Ping; Chen, Yueping; Wen, Chao; Zhuang, Su; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (ZnCP), as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), on laying performance, tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression in laying hens. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allocated to three treatments, each of which had six replicates with 15 hens per replicate, receiving basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (control, 80 mg Zn/kg diet), 0.23% ZnCP (40.25 mg Zn/kg diet) and 0.46% ZnCP (80.50 mg Zn/kg diet) for 8 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, hens fed diet containing 0.23% ZnCP had similar Zn content in measured tissues (P > 0.05). A higher ZnCP inclusion (0.46%) enhanced Zn accumulation in liver (P < 0.05) and pancreas (P < 0.05). In addition, ZnCP inclusion increased blood iron (Fe) content (P < 0.05). ZnCP supplementation enhanced jejunal metallothionein-4 (MT-4) messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance (P < 0.05). ZnCP inclusion at a higher level (0.46%) increased mRNA expression of MT-4 in pancreas (P < 0.05) and zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) in jejunum (P < 0.05). The highest ZnT-2 mRNA abundance in jejunum was found in hens fed 0.23% ZnCP inclusion diet (P < 0.05). The results indicated that ZnCP reached a higher bioavailability as compared with ZnSO4 as evidenced by enhanced tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression. PMID:25597922

  9. Evaluation of zinc electrodeposition kinetics from acidic zinc sulfate solutions using a UPD-modified platinum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Eduard

    In general, underpotential deposition, UPD, describes the formation of a two-dimensional layer of metal onto a foreign substrate at a potential more positive than that for overpotential deposition, OPD, of the metal. Use of this phenomenon is proposed as a novel technique for generating smooth and reproducible electrode surfaces of reactive metals, using zinc UPD on platinum as a model case. The technique involves polarization of a polished platinum electrode to cause zinc UPD followed by a pulsed polarization step to grow a bulk zinc metal deposit on the electrode. The steady-state zinc deposition rate is recorded as a function of the applied potential. Mass transfer effects are controlled by the use of a rotating disc electrode. After each potential step, the electrode is polarized to a potential near the UPD potential, which dissolves the bulk zinc and regenerates the original smooth electrode. In this manner the voltage-current density relationship for the zinc deposition reaction may be mapped for a particular solution composition. Experiments were conducted to characterize UPD of zinc on platinum in magnesium sulphate and sulphuric acid supporting electrolytes. UPD of zinc on platinum occurs at a voltage approximately 1 V more positive than that of bulk zinc deposition with an estimated charge density of 260 +/- 30 muC cm-2, which is in the order of a monolayer of zinc. The UPD layer was determined to evolve into a Pt-Zn alloy which further inhibited hydrogen evolution, relative to the freshly deposited UPD layer. Bulk zinc deposition experiments were carried out in pure zinc sulphate solutions at 25°C, using the developed technique, and kinetic parameters were evaluated and compared to previously reported values. The Tafel slope for zinc deposition from pH neutral electrolytes was determined to be ca. 60 mV dec-1, while in highly acid electrolytes was ca. 30 mV dec-1, due to the inhibiting effect of hydrogen adsorption. The transition of zinc deposit

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of (/sup 65/Zn)zinc sulfate and (/sup 65/Zn)zinc pantothenate injected intravenously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, O.; Courtois, P.; Murai, P.; Ducassou, D.; Reiss, D.

    1984-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of zinc sulfate were compared with those of a new zinc salt, pantothenate, in rabbits. Each salt was administered at a dosage of 3.3 microCi of zinc-65/kg of body weight. The measured pharmacokinetics of the two compounds responded to a two-compartment open model. The urinary elimination of the two salts was similar, as was their localization in the skin and fur, but zinc pantothenate was fixed by the liver to a lesser extent than was zinc sulfate.

  11. Electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook

    1987-03-01

    The electrical conductivities of the aqueous solution system of H2SO4-MSO4 (involving ZnSO4, MgSO4, Na2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), reported by Tozawa et al., were examined in terms of a (H2O) and H+ ion concentration. The equations to compute the concentrations of various species in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing metal sulfates were derived for a typical example of the H2SO4-ZnSO4-MgSO4-(Na2SO4)-H2O system. It was found that the H+ ion concentrations in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions corresponding to practical zinc electrowinning solutions are very high and remain almost constant with or without the addition of metal sulfates. The addition of metal sulfates to aqueous sulfuric acid solution causes a decrease in electrical conductivity, and this phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in water activity, which reflects a decrease in the amount of free water. The relationship between conductivity and water activity at a constant H+ ion concentration is independent of the kind of sulfates added. On the other hand, any increase in H+ ion concentration results in an increase in electrical conductivity. A novel method for the prediction of electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution is proposed that uses the calculated data of water activity and the calculated H+ ion concentration. Also, the authors examined an extension of the Robinson-Bower equation to calculate water activity in quarternary solutions based on molarity instead of molality, and found that such calculated values are in satisfactory agreement with those determined experimentally by a transpiration method.

  12. High-Zinc Recovery from Residues by Sulfate Roasting and Water Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming; Peng, Bing; Chai, Li-yuan; Li, Yan-chun; Peng, Ning; Yuan, Ying-zhen; Chen, Dong

    2015-09-01

    An integrated process for the recovery of zinc that is generated from zinc hydrometallurgy in residues was developed. A mixture of residue and ferric sulfate was first roasted to transform the various forms of zinc in the residue, such as ferrite, oxide, sulfide, and silicate, into zinc sulfate. Next, water leaching was conducted to extract the zinc while the iron remained in the residue as ferric oxide. The effects of the roasting and leaching parameters on zinc recovery were investigated. A maximum zinc recovery rate of 90.9% was achieved for a mixture with a ferric sulfate/residue weight ratio of 0.05 when roasting at 640°C for 30 min before leaching with water at room temperature for 20 min using a liquid/solid ratio of 10. Only 0.13% of the iron was dissolved in the water. Thus, the leaching liquor could be directly returned for zinc smelting.

  13. Bromobenzene-induced lethal toxicity in mouse is prevented by pretreatment with zinc sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Fukuishi, Nobuyuki; Nagatsu, Akito; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Onosaka, Satomi

    2016-07-25

    In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of zinc (Zn) against bromobenzene (BB) -induced lethal toxicity. We used Zn because this element is known to be an inducer of metallothionein (MT), which is in turn known to serve as an endogenous scavenger of free radicals. We administered Zn (as ZnSO4) at 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once-daily for 3 successive days prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of 1.2 g/kg BB in male ddY mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with Zn completely abolished the BB-induced mortality of mice until 48 h. We also found that pretreatment of mice with Zn significantly decreased the functional marker levels and reduced the histological damage both in liver and kidney as assessed at 18 h post-BB. We also showed that pretreatment with Zn enhanced antioxidative activity, resulting in decreased lipid peroxidation in both liver and kidney. Moreover, BB-induced calcium levels were downregulated by pretreatment with Zn. In addition, Zn-induced MT was decreased in Zn + BB-treated animals, implying that MT was consumed by BB-induced radicals. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with Zn protects mice from BB-induced lethal toxicity by decreasing oxidative stress in liver and kidney, presumably by induction of MT, which scavenges radicals induced by BB exposure. PMID:27270452

  14. Effects of zinc sulfate pretreatment on heat tolerance of Bama miniature pig under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, F; Shan, T; Li, Z; Xu, W; Li, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat tolerance of Bama miniature pigs under high ambient temperature (40°C) and Zn interactive functions during heat treatment (HT). Bama miniature pigs (male; n = 24; 6-mo old; BW = 10.79 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 groups and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1,500 mg of Zn (ZnSO4·H2O)/kg diet for 38 d. At 7 mo of age (d 30), the thermal neutral (TN) groups remained at 25°C, whereas the HT groups were exposed to ambient temperature at 40°C for 5 h daily for 8 consecutive days. Pigs in 4 groups were sacrificed on d 38. Individual rectal temperatures, skin temperatures, and breathing rates were recorded at 3 h after the onset of HT and the blood samples were collected immediately after HT on d 30, 34, and 38. Pigs fed diets with or without Zn doubled their breathing rates (P < 0.05) and increased body surface, scrotal, and rectal temperatures during HT on d 30, 34, and 38, respectively. Zinc supplementation increased BW gain (BWG; P < 0.05) during 38-d experiment period, and HT decreased BWG only from d 30 to 34 (P < 0.05). Heat treatment increased serum testosterone on d 30 (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the heat-induced increase of testosterone in HT on d 30 and 34 (P < 0.05). The relative weight of liver increased in HT groups (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the relative weights of spleen (P < 0.05) and testis (P < 0.01). The values of abnormal lymphocyte count and large unstained cell count declined approximately 5 times in groups of Zn supplementation, whereas Zn supplementation increased the values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Zinc concentrations increased in serum, liver, kidney, epididymis, longissimus, hair, and feces in groups fed with Zn (P < 0.01). However, additional Zn decreased Zn concentrations in lung, spleen, and testis (P < 0.01). Moreover, HT decreased serum Zn

  15. Organoheterotrophic Bacterial Abundance Associates with Zinc Removal in Lignocellulose-Based Sulfate-Reducing Systems.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Dina M; Almstrand, Robert; Lee, Ilsu; Landkamer, Lee; Figueroa, Linda; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic relationships between fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria are essential to lignocellulose-based systems applied to the passive remediation of mining-influenced waters. In this study, seven pilot-scale sulfate-reducing bioreactor columns containing varying ratios of alfalfa hay, pine woodchips, and sawdust were analyzed over ∼500 days to investigate the influence of substrate composition on zinc removal and microbial community structure. Columns amended with >10% alfalfa removed significantly more sulfate and zinc than did wood-based columns. Enumeration of sulfate reducers by functional signatures (dsrA) and their putative identification from 16S rRNA genes did not reveal significant correlations with zinc removal, suggesting limitations in this directed approach. In contrast, a strong indicator of zinc removal was discerned in comparing the relative abundance of core microorganisms shared by all reactors (>80% of total community), many of which had little direct involvement in metal or sulfate respiration. The relative abundance of Desulfosporosinus, the dominant putative sulfate reducer within these reactors, correlated to representatives of this core microbiome. A subset of these clades, including Treponema, Weissella, and Anaerolinea, was associated with alfalfa and zinc removal, and the inverse was found for a second subset whose abundance was associated with wood-based columns, including Ruminococcus, Dysgonomonas, and Azospira. The construction of a putative metabolic flowchart delineated syntrophic interactions supporting sulfate reduction and suggests that the production of and competition for secondary fermentation byproducts, such as lactate scavenging, influence bacterial community composition and reactor efficacy. PMID:26605699

  16. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  17. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hentig, James T; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes. PMID:27589738

  18. Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

    2007-08-01

    To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

  19. Kinetics of Reductive Acid Leaching of Cadmium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Mixture Using Hydrazine Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Min, Xiaobo; Wang, Mi; Zhou, Bosheng; Shen, Chen

    2015-09-01

    The reductive acid leaching kinetics of synthetic cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite was investigated, and the influence of reaction temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate were studied. The results illustrated that an increase in the reaction temperature, initial sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate significantly enhanced the extraction efficiencies of cadmium, zinc and iron. The leaching kinetics were controlled by a surface chemical reaction based on a shrinking core model. The empirical equation applied was found to fit well with the kinetics analysis; the leaching processes of cadmium, zinc and iron were similar and the activation energies were 79.9 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 79.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent orders of cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite dissolution with respect to sulfuric acid concentration were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.84 for Cd, Zn and Fe, respectively.

  20. Atmospheric corrosion of zinc in the presence of ammonium sulfate particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lobnig, R.E.; Siconolfi, D.J.; Psota-Kelty, L.; Frankenthal, R.P.; Sinclair, J.D.; Grundmeier, G.; Stratmann, M.

    1996-05-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of zinc in the presence of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles has been investigated at 300 and 373 K in air-water vapor mixtures. The development of corrosion products was followed by several in situ techniques, including Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, pH measurements, and scanning Kelvin probe measurements. Unlike earlier work on copper and aluminum, zinc reacts with the particles below the critical relative humidity (CRH) of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. At 300 K reaction was observed at 65% relative humidity (RH), but not at 60% /RH. This is attributed to the presence of basic zinc carbonate on the surface, which absorbs sufficient water at this low RH to make electrochemical reactions possible. At and above the CRH of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, zinc reacts with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} forming mixed ammonium zinc sulfate and later on basic zinc sulfate, and at 373 K additionally zincite (ZnO). Above the CRH of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the corrosion potential decreases directly after formation of droplets surrounding the particles and zinc becomes active. Corrosion mechanisms are proposed to explain the observations.

  1. Simultaneous sulfate and zinc removal from acid wastewater using an acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wenkai; Liu, Guangli; Luo, Haiping; Zhang, Renduo; Xiang, Yinbo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a novel acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode for treatment of acid wastewater. A biocathode was developed using acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria as the catalyst. Artificial wastewater with 200mgL(-1) sulfate and different Zn concentrations (0, 15, 25, and 40 mg L(-1)) was used as the MEC catholyte. The acidophilic biocathode dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. with an abundance of 66% (with 82% of Desulfovibrio sequences similar to Desulfovibrio simplex) and achieved a considerable sulfate reductive rate of 32 gm(-3)d(-1). With 15 mg L(-1) Zn added, the sulfate reductive rate of MEC improved by 16%. The formation of ZnS alleviated the inhibition from sulfide and sped the sulfate reduction. With 15 and 25 mgL(-1) Zn added, more than 99% of Zn was removed from the wastewater. Dissolved Zn ions in the catholyte were converted into insoluble Zn compounds, such as zinc sulfide and zinc hydroxide, due to the sulfide and elevated pH produced by sulfate reduction. The MEC with acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode can be used as an alternative to simultaneously remove sulfate and metals from acid wastewaters, such as acid mine drainage. PMID:26561748

  2. Zinc glycine chelate absorption characteristics in Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Yue, M; Fang, S L; Zhuo, Z; Li, D D; Feng, J

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate absorption characteristics of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) by evaluating tissues zinc status and the expression of zinc transporters in rats. A total of 24 male rats were randomly allocated to three treatments and administered either saline or 35 mg Zn/kg body weight from zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 ) or Zn-Gly by feeding tube separately. Four rats per group were slaughtered and tissues were collected at 2 and 6 h after gavage respectively. Our data showed that Zn-Gly did more effectively in increasing (p < 0.05) serum zinc levels, and the activities of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) at 2 and 6 h. By 2 h after the zinc load, the mRNA and protein abundance of intestinal metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were higher (p < 0.05), and zinc transporter SLC39A4 (Zip4) lower (p < 0.05) in ZnSO4 compared to other groups. Zinc transporter SLC39A5 (Zip5) mRNA expression was not zinc responsive, but Zip5 protein abundance was remarkably (p < 0.05) increased in ZnSO4 2 h later. Overall, our results indicated that in short-term periods, Zn-Gly was more effective in improving body zinc status than ZnSO4 , and ZnSO4 did more efficiently on the regulation of zinc transporters in small intestine. PMID:25266789

  3. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  4. Chemical bath deposition growth and characterization of zinc oxide nanostructures on plain and platinum-coated glass substrates for hydrogen peroxide gas sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamasali, Y. D. J.; Alguno, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    Growth of zinc oxide on plain and Pt-coated glass substrate via chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) were studied. Aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) were used as the precursor substances in the synthesis. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) was performed to determine the energy band gap and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to examine crystallinity. Sensitivity measurements were carried out in order to examine its potential to be fabricated as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gas sensor. Experimental results in the sensitivity experiment show that in the presence of H2O2 gas, the resistance of ZnOincrease which can be used as the basis for H2O-2 detection. UV-Vis showed variation of energy band gap values but were all near the generally accepted value. XRD spectra further verify that ZnOwere indeed synthesized.

  5. Removal of Fluorides and Chlorides from Zinc Oxide Fumes by Microwave Sulfating Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chenhui

    2015-10-01

    Dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust by microwave sulfating roasting was investigated in this study. According to proposed reactions in the process, detailed experiments were systematically conducted to study the effect of roasting temperature, holding time, air and steam flow rates on the efficiency of the removal of F and Cl. The results show that 92.3% of F and 90.5% of Cl in the fume could be purified when the condition of the roasting temperature of 650 °C, holding time at 60 min, air flow of 300 L/h and steam flow of 8 ml/min was optimized. Our investigation indicates that microwave sulfating roasting could be a promising new way for the dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust.

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetics of extracting zinc from zinc oxide ore by the ammonium sulfate roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Shen, Xiao-yi; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic analyses and kinetic studies were performed on zinc oxide ore treatment by (NH4)2SO4 roasting technology. The results show that it is theoretically feasible to realize a roasting reaction between the zinc oxide ore and (NH4)2SO4 in a temperature range of 573-723 K. The effects of reaction temperature and particle size on the extraction rate of zinc were also examined. It is found that a surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step in roasting kinetics. The calculated activation energy of this process is about 45.57 kJ/mol, and the kinetic model can be expressed as follows: 1 - (1 - α)1/3 = 30.85 exp(-45.57/ RT)· t. An extraction ratio of zinc as high as 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions.

  7. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. PMID:24953935

  8. Alteration of gene expression by zinc oxide nanoparticles or zinc sulfate in vivo and comparison with in vitro data: A harmonious case.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Wang, Shu-Kun; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Yang, Hong-Di; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2016-08-01

    Granulosa cells (GCs) are those somatic cells closest to the female germ cell. GCs play a vital role in oocyte growth and development, and the oocyte is necessary for multiplication of a species. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) readily cross biologic barriers to be absorbed into biologic systems that make them promising candidates as food additives. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the impact of intact NPs on gene expression and the functional classification of altered genes in hen GCs in vivo, to compare the data from in vivo and in vitro studies, and finally to point out the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on the reproductive system. After a 24-week treatment, hen GCs were isolated and gene expression was quantified. Intact NPs were found in the ovary and other organs. Zn levels were similar in ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg- and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg-treated hen ovaries. ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg regulated the expression of the same sets of genes, and they also altered the expression of different sets of genes individually. The number of genes altered by the ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg treatments was different. Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis reported that different results for the two treatments and, in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, 12 pathways (out of the top 20 pathways) in each treatment were different. These results suggested that intact NPs and Zn(2+) had different effects on gene expression in GCs in vivo. In our recent publication, we noted that intact NPs and Zn(2+) differentially altered gene expression in GCs in vitro. However, GO functional classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed close similarities for the changed genes in vivo and in vitro after ZnO NP treatment. Furthermore, close similarities were observed for the changed genes after ZnSO4 treatments in vivo and in vitro by GO functional classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Therefore

  9. Effect of zinc sulphate on gelling properties of phosphorylated protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-12-01

    Impacts of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) (0-140 μmol/kg) on gel properties of yellow stripe trevally surimi added with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (0.25% and 0.5%, w/w) and protein isolate phosphorylated with STPP at 0.25% and 0.5% (w/w) were studied. Gels from surimi added with 60 μmol ZnSO4/kg in the absence and presence of 0.5% STPP had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 20.9% and 33.3%, and 11.6% and 18.6%, respectively, compared with the control surimi gel (without additives). Gel of protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP containing 100 μmol ZnSO4/kg had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 14.87% and 5.6%, respectively, compared with the gel from non-phosphorylated protein isolate at the same ZnSO4 level, suggesting that the phosphorylated protein isolate was more crosslinked by Zn(2+). The addition of ZnSO4 at the suitable level lowered the expressible moisture content, but increased whiteness of surimi or protein isolate gels (P<0.05). Non-covalent bonds, more likely salt bridge and ionic interactions, played a major role in cross-linking of proteins in both surimi and protein isolate added with ZnSO4, regardless of phosphates incorporated. Microstructure study revealed that a gel having highly interconnected and denser network with smaller voids was formed when protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP was added with ZnSO4 at a level of 100 μmol/kg. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally phosphorylated with STPP in conjunction with addition of ZnSO4 at an appropriate level. PMID:23871033

  10. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  11. Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wallenborn, J. Grace Evansky, Paul; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Vallanat, Beena; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Richards, Judy H.; Gottipolu, Reddy R.; Nyska, Abraham; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2008-10-01

    Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. Most toxicological studies employ high levels of zinc. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation of environmentally relevant levels of zinc would cause cardiac changes in healthy rats. To address this, healthy male WKY rats (12 weeks age) were exposed via nose only inhalation to filtered air or 10, 30 or 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of aerosolized zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}), 5 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. Necropsies occurred 48 h after the last exposure to ensure effects were due to chronic exposure rather than the last exposure. No significant changes were observed in neutrophil or macrophage count, total lavageable cells, or enzyme activity levels (lactate dehydrogenase, n-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, indicating minimal pulmonary effect. In the heart, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity decreased, while mitochondrial ferritin levels increased and succinate dehydrogenase activity decreased, suggesting a mitochondria-specific effect. Although no cardiac pathology was seen, cardiac gene array analysis indicated small changes in genes involved in cell signaling, a pattern concordant with known zinc effects. These data indicate that inhalation of zinc at environmentally relevant levels induces cardiac effects. While changes are small in healthy rats, these may be especially relevant in individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular disease.

  12. Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Twelve Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Their Response to Various Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Dadook, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Salehi, Mitra; Irian, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient used in the form of zinc sulfate in fertilizers in the agriculture production system. Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are also of considerable value in promoting soil fertility. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the degree of sensitivity to varying concentrations of zinc, in the form of ZnSO4, in different strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in a laboratory environment. Materials and Methods: To isolate A. chroococcum strains, soil samples were collected from wheat, corn and asparagus rhizospheres and cultured in media lacking nitrogen at 30˚C for 48 hours. Strains were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The presence of the nitrogenase enzyme system was confirmed by testing for the presence of the nifH gene using PCR analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and optimal zinc concentration for the growth of each strain was determined. Results: A total of 12 bacterial strains were isolated from six different soil samples. A. chroococcum strains were morphologically and biochemically characterized. The presence of the nifH gene was confirmed in all the strains. MIC and the optimal zinc concentration for bacterial growth were 50 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that increasing the concentration of zinc in the agricultural soil is harmful to beneficial microorganisms and reduces the soil fertility. A 20-ppm zinc concentration in soil is suggested to be optimal. PMID:25147702

  13. Changes in diarrhea, nutrients apparent digestibility, digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets in response to chitosan-zinc chelate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lichun; Yue, Xiaojing; Hu, Luansha; Ma, Yuanfei; Han, Xinyan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 120 weanling barrows weighing 6.11 ± 0.20 kg were randomly allotted to four treatments with three replications (i.e. pen) of ten piglets per replicate. Pigs were received corn-soybean basal diet (control) or the same basal diet supplemented with the following sources of zinc: (i) 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 ; (ii) 100 mg/kg of Zn as chitosan-Zn chelate (CS-Zn); and (iii) 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 mixed with chitosan (CS + ZnSO4 ). The results showed that CS-Zn could highly improve average daily gain and average daily feed intake than those of ZnSO4 or CS+ ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The pigs fed dietary CS-Zn had lower diarrhea incidence and higher apparent digestibility of crude protein than those of the pigs fed dietary ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The protease activities in duodenal content of the pigs receiving CS-Zn diets was higher than that of the pigs fed dietary ZnSO4 or CS + ZnSO4 (P < 0.05). The amylase activity in duodenal content of the pigs fed dietary CS-Zn was higher than that of the pigs receiving ZnSO4 diets or basal diets (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary CS-Zn showed different bioactivities from ZnSO4 or CS + ZnSO4 in reducing the incidence of diarrhea, improving activities of digestive enzymes and growth performance of weaned pigs. PMID:26304729

  14. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  15. Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmanova, N. G.; Berdalieva, Zh. I.; Chernaya, T. S.; Resnyanskiĭ, V. F.; Shiitieva, N. K.; Sulaĭmankulov, K. S.

    2009-03-01

    The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [ M(C8H11O3N)2(H2O)2]SO4 · 3H2O ( M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH2OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H2O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

  16. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

  17. Biologically-Induced Precipitation of Minerals in a Medium with Zinc Under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolicka, Dorota; Borkowski, Andrzej; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Stępień, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing microbial communities were enriched from soils collected in areas with crude-oil exploitation. Cultures were grown in modified Postgate C medium and minimal medium, with ethanol or lactate as an electron donor. The batch cultures were grown with addition of zinc in concentrations of 100-700 mg/l. A lack of increased protein concentration in the solutions compared with the control batch, was noted in cultures containing over 200 mg Zn2+/l. The 16S rRNA method was applied to determine the specific composition of the selected microorganism communities. The analysis indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp. in the communities. Diffractometric analysis indicated the presence of biogenic sphalerite in cultures with 100 and 200 mg Zn2+/l and elemental sulfur in cultures with 200 mg Zn2+/l. Other post culture sediments (300-700 mg Zn2+/l) contained only hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O] formed abiotically during the experiment, which was confirmed by studies of the activity of sulfate-reducing microbial communities. PMID:26373175

  18. Zinc-Stabilized Chitosan-Chondroitin Sulfate Nanocomplexes for HIV-1 Infection Inhibition Application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danjun; Ensinas, Agathe; Verrier, Bernard; Primard, Charlotte; Cuvillier, Armelle; Champier, Gaël; Paul, Stephane; Delair, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) constituted of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate (ChonS) were formed by the one-shot addition of default amounts of polyanion to an excess of polycation. Key variables of the formulation process (e.g., degree of depolymerization, charge mixing ratio, the concentration, and pH of polyelectrolyte solutions) were optimized based on the PECs sizes and polydispersities. The PECs maintained their colloidal stability at physiological salt concentration and pH thanks to the complexation of polyelectrolytes with zinc(II) ion during the nanoPECs formation process. The PECs were capable of encapsulating an antiretroviral drug tenofovir (TF) with a minimal alteration on the colloidal stability of the dispersion. Moreover, the particle interfaces could efficiently be functionalized with anti-OVA or anti-α4β7 antibodies with conservation of the antibody biorecognition properties over 1 week of storage in PBS at 4 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that zinc(II) stabilized chitosan-ChonS nanoPECs were noncytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and in vitro antiviral activity test demonstrated that nanoparticles formulations led to a dose-dependent reduction of HIV-1 infection. Using nanoparticles as a drug carrier system decreases the IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) from an aqueous TF of 4.35 μmol·L(-1) to 1.95 μmol·L(-1). Significantly, zinc ions in this system also exhibited a synergistic effect in the antiviral potency. These data suggest that chitosan-ChonS nanoPECs can be promising drug delivery system to improve the antiviral potency of drugs to the viral reservoirs for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:27454202

  19. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. PMID:25987461

  20. Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm.

    PubMed

    Caplat, Christelle; Oral, Rahime; Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Mao, Andrea; Barillier, Daniel; Guida, Marco; Della Rocca, Claudio; Pagano, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results. PMID:20650532

  1. The Clinical Effectiveness of Intralesional Injection of 2% Zinc Sulfate Solution in the Treatment of Common Warts

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Essam-elden Mohamed; Tawfik, Khaled Mohamed; Mahmoud, Asmaa Moneir

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate solution in the treatment of common warts. Patients and Methods. One hundred and twenty patients (78 females and 42 males) aged 5–55 years with 225 common warts participated in this prospective monocentric randomized study. All lesions were treated with intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate. Results. From 225 warts injected, 135 warts (60%) cured from the first session, 51 warts (22.67%) cured from the second session, and 12 warts (5.33%) cured from the third session. There is no significant relation between improvement and patient's ages, duration, or number of warts (P > 0.05). All patients complained from pain during injection, and all treated lesions showed redness, tenderness, and swelling in the first 3 days after injection. Late complications were postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in 90 patients (75%), scaring in 9 patients (7.5%), and ulceration in 3 patients (2.5%). Recurrence occurred in 3 lesions (1.33%). Conclusion. The clinical data indicate that intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate is an effective maneuver in the treatment of common warts; however, its associated complications limit its use. PMID:27123361

  2. Synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds of pyridoxine with zinc and cadmium sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanova, N. G.; Berdalieva, Zh. I.; Chernaya, T. S.; Resnyanskii, V. F.; Shiitieva, N. K.; Sulaimankulov, K. S.

    2009-03-15

    The pyridoxine complexes with zinc and cadmium sulfates are synthesized. The IR absorption spectra and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are described. Crystals of the [M(C{sub 8}H{sub 11}O{sub 3}N){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]SO{sub 4} . 3H{sub 2}O (M = Zn, Cd) compounds are investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the structures of both compounds, the M atoms are coordinated by the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated OH group and the CH{sub 2}OH group retaining its own hydrogen atom, as well as by two H{sub 2}O molecules, and have an octahedral coordination. The nitrogen atom of the heterocycle is protonated, so that the heterocycle acquires a pyridinium character. The cationic complexes form layers separated by the anions and crystallization water molecules located in between. The structural units of the crystals are joined together by a complex system of hydrogen bonds.

  3. Oral Zinc Sulfate as Adjuvant Treatment in Children With Nephrolithiasis: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Cyrus, Ali; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Frohar, Faryar; Safi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis in children is associated with a high rate of complications and recurrence. Objectives: Since some evidences reported that zinc has an important place amongst inhibitors of crystallization and crystal growth, we decided to assess the effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate as adjuvant treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 102 children in the age range 1 month to 11 years with first nephrolithiasis were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (intervention and control groups). Intervention group received conservative measures for stones and 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 20 mg/day) oral zinc sulfate syrup for 3 months. Control group received placebo in addition to conservative measures, also for 3 months. Patients were followed up by ultrasonography for 9 months, in 5 steps (at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment) assessing size and number of stones in the kidneys. Results: Only at the end of the first month, the average number (intervention: 1.15 ± 3.78, control: 1.3 ± 2.84) (P = 0.001) and size (cm) (intervention: 0.51 ± 1.76, control: 0.62 ± 1.39) (P = 0.001) of stones was significantly lower in the intervention group, and in other points there was no significant therapeutic efficacy in oral zinc adjuvant treatment compared to conservative treatment alone. Also, during the 9-month follow-up, the number and size of stones in both groups decreased significantly (both: P < 0.0001) in a way that the decrease in the intervention group showed no difference with the control group. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with zinc is not more effective than consecutive treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. However, further studies are recommended due to the lack of clinical evidence in this field. PMID:26635934

  4. The Mineralogy and Microstructure of Sedimentary Zinc Sulfides Formed by Bacterial Sulfate Reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Webb, R. I.; Banfield, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is considered to be the predominant mechanism for low-temperature conversion of sulfate to sulfide [1] and is inferred to have existed since the early Proterozoic [2, 3]. Because BSR leads to precipitation of abundant metal sulfide minerals, some ancient, low-temperature sedimentary ore deposits are now hypothesized to have biogenic origins [4]. We have studied zinc sulfide minerals produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) living in anoxic, 8 oC waters of a flooded mine near Tennyson, Wisconsin [5]. Our objectives were to characterize the morphology, mineralogy, and microstructure of the biominerals and to look for potential biosignatures. Scanning electron microscope images from cryofixed, freeze-fractured samples and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images from ultramicrotomed samples show a close association between cells and spherical aggregates of ZnS. However, SRB cells are generally not coated by ZnS, implying that the particles form and aggregate in solution after sulfide is expelled from the cell. High-resolution TEM images reveal that the few-micron diameter spheres are comprised of about a billion ZnS particles that are typically 1.5-5 nm in diameter. More coarsely crystalline regions appear to have grown via oriented aggregation of smaller nanoparticles. In some cases, orientation gives rise to twinning on \\{111\\} sphalerite. ZnS particles are primarily sphalerite, but domains of wurtzite are not uncommon. Even some of the smallest particles have periodic structure and well-defined morphologies. Reasons for the formation of wurtzite remain unclear, but may be related to the sulfide concentration during aggregation of multinuclear clusters [6] or size-dependent phase stability. In addition, the ZnS spheres are not of uniform density throughout, but contain concentric zones separated from each other by 5-7 nm-wide (average) regions of low particle density. The number of zones per sphere is variable, as is the

  5. Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon

    2013-01-01

    The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

  6. Effect of aluminum chloride and zinc sulfate on Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ACNPV) replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S A; Smith, G C; Vaughn, J L; Dougherty, E M; Tompkins, G J

    1982-11-01

    When IPL-SF-21AE III continuous insect cell line was grown and maintained in IPL-41 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 16 microM of AlCl3 or 0.24 microM of ZnSO4 . 7H2O, or both metallic salts, and then infected with Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, virus replication was increased significantly. The yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was enhanced up to 121%. Synthesis of cell-free nonoccluded virus was increased to 365% when infectivity was assayed by the plaque method. Newly applied electron microscopic quantitation and stereological techniques also revealed a significant increase in virus particles (VP) and in amount and size of PIB as well as number of VP per PIB. PMID:6759370

  7. Subchronic inhalation of zinc sulfate induces cardiac changes in healthy rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

  8. SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF ZINC SULFATE CAUSES CARDIAC CHANGES IN HEALTHY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc is a common metal in most ambient particulate matter (PM), and has been proposed to be a causative component in PM-induced adverse cardiovascular health effects. Zinc is also an essential metal and has the potential to induce many physiological and nonphysiological changes. ...

  9. Ultrasound-assisted analyte extraction for the determination of sulfate and elemental sulfur in zinc sulfide by different liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dash, K; Thangavel, S; Krishnamurthy, N V; Rao, S V; Karunasagar, D; Arunachalam, J

    2005-04-01

    The speciation and determination of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and elemental sulfur (S degree) in zinc sulfide (ZnS) using ion-chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) respectively is described. Three sample pretreatment approaches were employed with the aim of determining sulfate: (i) conventional water extraction of the analyte; (ii) solid-liquid aqueous extraction with an ultrasonic probe; and (iii) elimination of the zinc sulfide matrix via ion-exchange dissolution (IED). The separation of sulfate was carried out by an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS17), followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Elemental sulfur was extracted ultrasonically from the acid treated sample solution into chloroform and separated on a reversed phase HPLC column equipped with a diode array detector (DAD) at 264 nm. The achievable solid detection limits for sulfate and sulfur were 35 and 10 microg g(-1) respectively. PMID:15776159

  10. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  11. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  12. Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a Highly Copper Resistant, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Effluents of a Zinc Smelter at the Urals

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms. PMID:22072648

  13. Effects of Cadmium and Zinc on the Gamete Viability, Fertilization, and Embryonic Development of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Tualla, Ivan Patrick B.; Bitacura, Jayzon G.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are frequently reported for their mutagenic and teratogenic effects on benthic organisms. Thus, this study aimed to determine the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in the gametes of T. gratilla and to compare its fertilization and embryonic development under the highest nongametotoxic concentrations of these heavy metals. Gamete viability of T. gratilla under CdCl2 and ZnSO4 treatments was assayed through resazurin reduction test (RRT) and was confirmed through gamete morphology assay. ZnSO4 was more toxic to T. gratilla gametes than CdCl2 and egg cells were more sensitive to both than the sperm cells. Higher concentrations of CdCl2 and ZnSO4 induced gamete apoptosis and necrosis while highest nongametotoxic concentrations were determined at 1 × 10−3 M and 1 × 10−4 M, respectively, and were used in an in vitro fertilization and embryonic development experiment. ZnSO4 treatment inhibited fertilization more than CdCl2 and yielded more deformed embryos, while both induced abnormalities and hindered further embryonic development. This study gives the first report on the specific concentrations of Cd and Zn that are toxic to T. gratilla gametes and has confirmed the teratogenic effects of these heavy metals. PMID:27200213

  14. Effect of Magnesium Ion on the Zinc Electrodeposition from Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Xie, Gang; Yu, Xiao-Hua; Li, Rong-Xing; Zeng, Gui-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Mg2+ ion on the zinc electrodeposition were systematically investigated in sulfuric acid solution through the characterizations of current efficiency (CE), power consumption (PC), deposit morphology, cathodic polarization, and cyclic voltammetry. The results demonstrate that there is no significant influence on CE and PC in the Mg2+ concentration range of 1 to 10 g L-1, but with a drastic decrease of the CE and rapid increase of PC at Mg2+ ion concentration above 15 g L-1. Based on the morphology observation and polarization curves, the presence of Mg2+ ions could also induce the coarse surface on the electrodeposited zinc accompanying the enhancement of the cathodic polarization, which becomes more distinct at a high concentration above 15 g L-1. Furthermore, hydrogen evolution could be promoted with the existence of Mg2+ ions according to cyclic voltammograms.

  15. Sulfate-based anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles for efficient occlusion within zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y.; Fielding, L. A.; Andrews, T. S.; Growney, D. J.; Armes, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Occlusion of copolymer particles within inorganic crystalline hosts not only provides a model for understanding the crystallisation process, but also may offer a direct route for the preparation of novel nanocomposite materials with emergent properties. In the present paper, a series of new well-defined anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles are synthesised by polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) aqueous emulsion polymerisation and then evaluated as crystal habit modifiers for the in situ formation of ZnO in aqueous solution. Systematic studies indicate that both the chemical nature (i.e. whether sulfate-based or carboxylate-based) and the mean degree of polymerisation (DP) of the anionic stabiliser block play vital roles in determining the crystal morphology. In particular, sulfate-functionalised nanoparticles are efficiently incorporated within the ZnO crystals whereas carboxylate-functionalised nanoparticles are excluded, thus anionic character is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successful occlusion. Moreover, the extent of nanoparticle occlusion within the ZnO phase can be as high as 23% by mass depending on the sulfate-based nanoparticle concentration. The optical properties, chemical composition and crystal structure of the resulting nanocomposite crystals are evaluated and an occlusion mechanism is proposed based on the observed evolution of the ZnO morphology in the presence of sulfate-based anionic nanoparticles. Finally, controlled deposition of a 5 nm gold sol onto porous ZnO particles (produced after calcination of the organic nanoparticles) significantly enhances the rate of photocatalytic decomposition of a model rhodamine B dye on exposure to a relatively weak UV source.Occlusion of copolymer particles within inorganic crystalline hosts not only provides a model for understanding the crystallisation process, but also may offer a direct route for the preparation of novel

  16. Sulfate-based anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles for efficient occlusion within zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y; Fielding, L A; Andrews, T S; Growney, D J; Armes, S P

    2015-04-21

    Occlusion of copolymer particles within inorganic crystalline hosts not only provides a model for understanding the crystallisation process, but also may offer a direct route for the preparation of novel nanocomposite materials with emergent properties. In the present paper, a series of new well-defined anionic diblock copolymer nanoparticles are synthesised by polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) aqueous emulsion polymerisation and then evaluated as crystal habit modifiers for the in situ formation of ZnO in aqueous solution. Systematic studies indicate that both the chemical nature (i.e. whether sulfate-based or carboxylate-based) and the mean degree of polymerisation (DP) of the anionic stabiliser block play vital roles in determining the crystal morphology. In particular, sulfate-functionalised nanoparticles are efficiently incorporated within the ZnO crystals whereas carboxylate-functionalised nanoparticles are excluded, thus anionic character is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successful occlusion. Moreover, the extent of nanoparticle occlusion within the ZnO phase can be as high as 23% by mass depending on the sulfate-based nanoparticle concentration. The optical properties, chemical composition and crystal structure of the resulting nanocomposite crystals are evaluated and an occlusion mechanism is proposed based on the observed evolution of the ZnO morphology in the presence of sulfate-based anionic nanoparticles. Finally, controlled deposition of a 5 nm gold sol onto porous ZnO particles (produced after calcination of the organic nanoparticles) significantly enhances the rate of photocatalytic decomposition of a model rhodamine B dye on exposure to a relatively weak UV source. PMID:25799462

  17. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg−1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg−1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

  18. Efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate as Zn source for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) under hydroponic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustin

    2009-01-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) as Zn source for wheat and corn plants under hydroponic conditions. The Zn-complexing capacity of three commercial lignosulfonates (byproducts of the paper and pulp industry) was tested, and a LS-NH4, from spruce wood, was selected. Its efficacy as Zn fertilizer for wheat and corn plants was assessed at different pH values (7.0 and 8.0) in comparison with a chelate (ZnEDTA) and an inorganic salt (ZnSO4). For wheat at pH 7.0, it was concluded that the efficacy of the Zn fertilizers followed the sequence Zn-EDTA > Zn-LS approximately ZnSO4 > zero-Zn; and for wheat and corn at pH 8.0, similar results were obtained: Zn-LS > ZnSO4 approximately 0 Zn. These data give evidence that ZnLS could be used as Zn source to the roots of wheat and corn and seems to be more efficient than ZnSO4 to correct Zn deficiency in both plants. PMID:19063638

  19. Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique. PMID:19284803

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  1. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wen, Xing; Wang, Yingxia

    2007-05-01

    Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD analyses demonstrate the typical LDH-like layered structural characteristics of both products. The room temperature MS results reveal the characteristics of both the Fe(II) and Fe(III) species for SO 42--containing product, while only the Fe(III) characteristic for DBS-containing one. The combination characterization results and Rietveld analysis illustrate that the SO 42--containing product possesses the Green Rust two (GR2)-like crystal structure with an approximate chemical composition of [Zn 0.435·Fe II0.094·Fe III0.470·(OH) 2]·(SO 42-) 0.235·1.0H 2O, while the DBS-containing one exhibits the common LDH compound-like structure. The contact angle measurement indicates the evident hydrophobic properties of DBS-containing nanocomposite, compared with SO 42--containing product, due to the modification of the internal and external surface of LDHs by the organic hydrophobic chain of DBS.

  3. A New Type of Metal-Binding Site in Cobalt- And Zinc-Containing Adenylate Kinases Isolated From Sulfate-Reducers D. Gigas And D. Desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, O.Y.; Bursakov, S.A.; Rocco, G.Di; Trincao, J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Calvete, J.J.; Brondino, C.; Pereira, A.S.; Lampreia, J.; Tavares, P.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I.

    2009-05-18

    Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterized in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the 'LID' domain. The sequence {sup 129}Cys-X{sub 5}-His-X{sub 15}-Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain.

  4. Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

  5. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6 years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  6. The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6 years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  7. Oral treatment with zinc sulfate increases the expression of Th1 cytokines mRNA in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Mahsa; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Khaze, Vahid; Bahrami, Fariborz; Ajdary, Soheila; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Leishmaniases consist of a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of Leishmania genus. The outcome of the disease depends on the immune responses of the host as well as the pathogenicity of the strain of the parasite. In murine models, the inoculation of Leishmania major into resistant mice results in Th1 responses and recovery from the infection. However in the susceptible mice, the same inoculation leads to a profile of Th2 responses. Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which is required for the growth and development of the immune responses. In this study, the influence of Zn sulfate on mRNA expression of main cytokines of the immune response was studied in susceptible BALB/c mice infected with L. major. The inoculated mice were divided into 3 groups, namely the untreated (control), the zinc sulfate treated (weeks 2, 4 and 8), and the Glucantime-treated (weeks 4 and 8) mice. During different time points post-infection, the lesion sizes and the parasite burden were measured in all the groups. Moreover, the expression of Ifng, Il4, Il10 and Il12 mRNA levels in the draining lymph nodes of the treated mice were compared to the control mice using real-time PCR. Our data demonstrated significant decreases in lesion sizes and parasite loads in Zn sulfate treated group compared to the untreated group. Moreover, significant fold increases in expression of Ifng transcript were observed in mice treated with Zn sulfate compared to the control. The ratio of Ifng/Il4 mRNA was also higher in Zn sulfate-treated mice compared to Glucantime-treated animals. These results indicate that Zn Sulfate has the ability to induce strong Th1 responses in susceptible BALB/c mice inoculated with L. major. PMID:26896749

  8. Zinc-induced modulation of some biochemical parameters in a high- and a low-zinc-accumulating genotype of Cicer arietinum L. grown under Zn-deficient condition.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shadab Naseer; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparative account of biochemical responses evoked by a high-zinc-accumulating (HZnG) and a low-zinc-accumulating (LZnG) genotype of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under conditions of zinc deficiency (0 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil) and on exogenous zinc supply (2.5, 5, and 10 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil), at different growth stages (pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering) of the crop. Both the genotypes exhibited significant variation in contents of chlorophyll, protein, nitrate, and leghemoglobin, and in the activity of enzymes (nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase), under zinc-limiting condition. The HZnG maintained a significantly higher level of biochemical parameters at deficient zinc levels, while LZnG was more affected by Zn deficiency (with reduced biochemical attributes), compared to HZnG. However, application of soil zinc alleviated the Zn-induced disturbance and improved the biochemical parameters in both genotypes. The differential biochemical response of plants to Zn deficiency indicated existence of genotypic variation in efficient utilization of the available Zn. The HZnG was more effective in overcoming Zn deficiency than the LZnG. This study suggests that metal-dependent biochemical parameters can be used as reliable indices for selection of genotypes with a better Zn utilization capacity, i.e., the Zn-efficient genotypes. PMID:25673554

  9. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... women taking iron and folic acid supplements. Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking zinc along with other vitamins and minerals may prevent prostate cancer in some men. However, other research suggests that ...

  10. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth does not improve sperm count or sperm movement in men with fertility problems. However, other early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile ...

  11. Protective effect of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive swimming-induced testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male rats.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Pravat K; Manna, Indranil; Ghosh, Prasanta; Singh, Narendra; Khetan, Ramawatar P; Ray, Binoy R

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the ameliorative potential of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive-swimming-induced testicular disorders, 48 Wistar male rats (age, 4 months; mass, 146.2 +/- 3.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: the unexercised-control group (n = 12); the exercised group (n = 12); the control supplemented group (n = 12); and the exercised supplemented group (n = 12). For 10 weeks, the exercised rats underwent a protocol that consisted of 4 h.d-1 swimming, for 6 d.week-1; the control rats did not exercise. For 10 weeks, both the supplemented groups received an oral daily dose of a combination of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate (6 and 3 mg.kg body mass-1, respectively). After 10 weeks, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) was seen in rats in the exercised group, compared with rats in both control groups, in paired testicular masses; in epididymal sperm count; in testicular Delta5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD; in plasma levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin; in the numbers of preleptotine spermatocytes, midpachytene spermatocytes, and stage 7 spermatids of the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle; and in fertility performance. As well, a significant increase (p < 0.05) was seen in the exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma corticosterone levels and in testicular content of malondialdehyde and catalase activity. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma concentrations of zinc and selenium; in the testicular content of glutathione (GSH), the glutathione and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) ratio, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol; and in testicular activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in the testes. No significant changes were seen in the number of spermatogonia-A from the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle or

  12. Novel Effects of Nanoparticulate Delivery of Zinc on Growth, Productivity, and Zinc Biofortification in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Layam Venkata; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Krishna, Thimmavajjula Giridhara; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-05-18

    In the present investigation, nanoscale zinc oxide particulates (ZnO-nanoparticulates) were prepared using a modified oxalate decomposition method. Prepared ZnO-nanoparticulates (mean size = 25 nm) were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and zeta potential analyzer. Different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates were examined to reveal their effects on maize crop on overall growth and translocation of zinc along with bulk ZnSO4 and control. Highest germination percentage (80%) and seedling vigor index (1923.20) were observed at 1500 ppm of ZnO-nanoparticulates. The yield was 42% more compared to control and 15% higher compared to 2000 ppm of ZnSO4. Higher accumulation of zinc (35.96 ppm) in grains was recorded with application of 100 ppm followed by 400 ppm (31.05 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates. These results indicate that ZnO-nanoparticulates have significant effects on growth, yield, and zinc content of maize grains, which is an important feature in terms of human health. PMID:27089102

  13. Effects of supplemental zinc concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum values in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Callis, K J; Duff, G C; Gunter, S A; Kegley, E B; Vermeire, D A

    2000-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effects of zinc concentration or source in diets of finishing beef steers. In Exp. 1, 108 (British x Continental) beef steers were supplemented with concentrations of added zinc (as ZnSO4) at 20, 100, or 200 mg/kg of dietary DM. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted among treatments for ADG or gain:feed for the 112-d finishing period. However, a linear (P < 0.10) decrease was noted in daily DMI with increasing zinc concentrations for the overall finishing period. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted in hot carcass weight; dressing percentage; longissimus muscle area; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; or marbling score. There were, however, quadratic increases in s.c. fat thickness (P < 0.05) and yield grade (P < 0.01) with added zinc. In Exp. 2, 12 beef steers were used to examine effects of added dietary zinc on serum concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acid profiles. No differences (P > 0.10) were observed in cholesterol or fatty acids among the supplemental zinc levels. In Exp. 3, 84 Brangus- and Angus-sired steers were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing 30 mg of supplemental zinc per kilogram of dietary DM from one of the following sources: 1) ZnSO4, 2) Zn amino acid complex, or 3) a zinc polysaccharide complex. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted for the overall 126-d trial for ADG, DMI, or gain:feed ratio. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was increased (P < 0.10) in steers supplemented with ZnSO4 vs the average of Zn amino acid and Zn polysaccharide complexes. However, s.c. fat thickness was greater (P < 0.10) in steers supplemented with Zn amino acid and Zn polysaccharide complexes vs ZnSO4. Serum zinc concentration did not differ (P > 0.10) among zinc sources. Supplemental zinc concentration in finishing diets did not seem to influence feedlot performance and had a minimal impact on carcass quality. Either the organic or inorganic source can be included in finishing diets without

  14. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  15. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ya-Wei; Fan, Jun; Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  16. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulfate on growth performance of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Richert, B T

    1997-07-01

    We conducted four experiments to examine the effects of adding zinc oxide (ZnO) and(or) copper sulfate (CuSO4) to diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1 and 2, weanling pigs (initially 5.3 kg and 19 +/- 2 d of age) were fed diets containing 250 ppm of added Cu (CuSO4) and either 110 or 3,110 ppm of added. Zn (ZnO). No differences (P > .10) were observed in either experiment for ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (G:F). In Exp. 3,240 pigs (initially 4.45 kg and 15 +/- 2 d of age) were used to determine the interactive effects of added dietary ZnO and(or) CuSO4. Dietary treatments were in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; Zn (165 or 3,000 ppm) and Cu (16.5 or 250 ppm) were the main effects. Pigs were fed a high nutrient dense diet from d 0 to 14 after weaning and a less complex diet from d 14 to 28 after weaning, both containing the same mineral fortifications. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed 3,000 ppm Zn, with or without 250 ppm Cu, had improved ADG (P < .01) compared with pigs fed the control (16.5 ppm Cu and 165 ppm Zn) or diets with only added Cu. From d 14 to 28, pigs fed the diet containing 3,000 ppm added Zn, without 250 ppm Cu, had greater ADG than pigs fed the other diets (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .01). In Exp. 4, 264 pigs (initially 4.17 kg and 12 +/- 3 d of age) were fed a high nutrient dense diet supplemented with 3,000 ppm of Zn (ZnO) from d 0 to 14 after weaning. On d 14, pigs were switched to the diets containing experimental mineral levels identical to those of Exp. 3. From d 14 to 28 after weaning, added Zn improved ADG but not when the diet contained 250 ppm Cu (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .05). Feeding 3,000 ppm of Zn from ZnO is a viable means of improving nursery pig performance, but additive responses to growth-promotant levels of CuSO4 (250 ppm Cu) were not observed. PMID:9222843

  17. Synthesis and characterization of sulfate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides by one-step coprecipitation route

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui Wen Xing; Wang Yingxia

    2007-05-15

    Inorganic sulfate- and organic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-intercalated zinc-iron layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials were prepared by one-step coprecipitation method from a mixed salt solutions containing Zn(II), Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD analyses demonstrate the typical LDH-like layered structural characteristics of both products. The room temperature MS results reveal the characteristics of both the Fe(II) and Fe(III) species for SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product, while only the Fe(III) characteristic for DBS-containing one. The combination characterization results and Rietveld analysis illustrate that the SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product possesses the Green Rust two (GR2)-like crystal structure with an approximate chemical composition of [Zn{sub 0.435}.Fe{sup II} {sub 0.094}.Fe{sup III} {sub 0.470}.(OH){sub 2}].(SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}){sub 0.235}.1.0H{sub 2}O, while the DBS-containing one exhibits the common LDH compound-like structure. The contact angle measurement indicates the evident hydrophobic properties of DBS-containing nanocomposite, compared with SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}-containing product, due to the modification of the internal and external surface of LDHs by the organic hydrophobic chain of DBS. - Graphical abstract: For Zn{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+} GR2(SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}), according to the derived chemical formula, Fe{sup 3+} was arranged at 1a (0, 0, 0) position, while all Zn{sup 2+} were in 2d position with the occupancy 0.645, and the left part of 2d positions were taken by Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+}.

  18. [Zinc].

    PubMed

    Couinaud, C

    1984-10-01

    Zinc is indispensable for life from bacteria to man. As a trace element it is included in numerous enzymes or serves as their activator (more than 80 zinc metallo-enzymes). It is necessary for nucleic acid and protein synthesis, the formation of sulphated molecules (insulin, growth hormone, keratin, immunoglobulins), and the functioning of carbonic anhydrase, aldolases, many dehydrogenases (including alcohol-dehydrogenase, retinal reductase indispensable for retinal rod function), alkaline phosphatase, T cells and superoxide dismutase. Its lack provokes distinctive signs: anorexia, diarrhea, taste, smell and vision disorders, skin lesions, delayed healing, growth retardation, delayed appearance of sexual characteristics, diminished resistance to infection, and it may be the cause of congenital malformations. Assay is now simplified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in blood or hair. There is a latent lack prior to any disease because of the vices of modern eating habits, and this increases during stress, infections or tissue healing processes. Its lack is accentuated during long-term parenteral feeding or chronic gastrointestinal affections. Correction is as simple as it is innocuous, and zinc supplements should be given more routinely during surgical procedures. PMID:6210294

  19. Combined theoretical and experimental studies on the molecular structure, spectral and Hirshfeld surface studies of NLO tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Rajasekar, M.; Aditya Prasad, A.; Meena, K.; Agilandeshwari, R.; Kanagarajan, V.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

    2015-07-01

    Transparent single crystals of tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulfate (ZTS) were grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature from an aqueous solution containing zinc sulfate and thiourea in the molar ratio 1:3. The experimental and theoretical studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of ZTS were investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and density functional theory (DFT). The recorded X-ray diffraction bond parameters are compared with theoretical values calculated at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. The observed vibrational patterns were compared with the computed wave numbers. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by TD-DFT results complement with the experimental findings. The first-order molecular hyperpolarizability, polarizability, dipole moment and HOMO-LUMO band gap energies were derived. The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) using the same level of basis set. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding was investigated by means of the Hirshfeld surfaces, and the role of the Nsbnd H⋯O interactions as driving force for crystal structure formation has been demonstrated. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  20. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  1. Efficacy of Zinc Sulfate as an Add-on Therapy to Risperidone Versus Risperidone Alone in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Mehran; Farzin, Davood; Zarhghami, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Nateghi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc can modulate fast-excitatory transmission, facilitate the release of amino butyric acid and potentiate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. There are also emerging evidences discussing the implication of these neurotransmitters in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn sulfate as an add-on therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Patients and Methods: Eligible participants were 30 inpatients with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups; one group of patients received risperidone 6 mg/day plus capsules of Zn sulfate (each containing 50 mg elemental Zn) three times a day and another group received risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess the psychotic symptoms and aggression risk at baseline, week 2, 4, and 6 of the study. Results: The results of this study showed that both protocols significantly decreased the scores on all subscales of the PANSS and supplemental aggression risk subscale as well as PANSS total score over the study. However, this improvement was significantly higher in Zn sulfate receiving group compared to the placebo group. No major clinical side-effects were detected. Conclusions: It may be concluded that Zn is an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26576178

  2. Solar Metal Sulfate-Ammonia Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Cunping (Inventor); T-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of hybrid/thermochemical water splitting processes for the production of hydrogen and oxygen have been proposed based on (1) metal sulfate-ammonia cycles (2) metal pyrosulfate-ammonia cycles. Methods and systems for a metal sulfate MSO.sub.4--NH3 cycle for producing H2 and O2 from a closed system including feeding an aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 solution into a photoctalytic reactor to oxidize the aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 into aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 and reduce water to hydrogen, mixing the resulting aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 with metal oxide (e.g. ZnO) to form a slurry, heating the slurry of aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 and ZnO(s) in the low temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of NH3 and H2O and solid ZnSO4(s), heating solid ZnSO4 at a high temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 and solid product ZnO, mixing the gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with an NH3 and H2O stream in an absorber to form aqueous (NH4)(2)SO3 solution and separate O2 for aqueous solution, recycling the resultant solution back to the photoreactor and sending ZnO to mix with aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 solution to close the water splitting cycle wherein gaseous H2 and O2 are the only products output from the closed ZnSO4--NH3 cycle.

  3. In Vitro Antibiofilm Efficacies of Different Antibiotic Combinations with Zinc Sulfate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Recovered from Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Walid; Noreddin, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a serious healthcare dilemma influencing millions of patients every year and represent the second most frequent type of body infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug-resistant pathogen causing numerous chronic biofilm-associated infections including urinary tract, nosocomial, and medical devices-related infections. In the present study, the biofilm of P. aeruginosa CCIN34519, recovered from inpatients with UTIs, was established on polystyrene substratum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was utilized for visualization of the biofilm. A previously described in vitro system for real-time monitoring of biofilm growth/inhibition was utilized to assess the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ertapenem, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and tobramycin as single antibiotics as well as in combinations with zinc sulfate (2.5 mM) against P. aeruginosa CCIN34519 biofilm. Meanwhile, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at 24 h and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) at 96 h were determined for the aforementioned antibiotics. The real-time monitoring data revealed diverse responses of P. aeruginosa CCIN34519 biofilm to the tested antibiotic-zinc sulfate combinations with potential synergisms in cases of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and norfloxacin) and carbapenem (ertapenem) as demonstrated by reduced MIC and MPC values. Conversely, considerable antagonisms were observed with cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) and aminoglycosides (gentamicin, and tobramycin) as shown by substantially increased MICs and MPCs values. Further deliberate in vivo investigations for the promising synergisms are required to evaluate their therapeutic potentials for treatment of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa biofilms as well as for developing preventive strategies. PMID:27025734

  4. USING RESPOROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposed novel method for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) waste uses biologically-generated hydrogen sulfide to precipitate the metals in AMD (principally zinc, iron, aluminum, copper and manganese in the Berkeley Pit). The solids are sequentially removed via settling. ...

  5. USING RESPIROMETRY TO MEASURE HYDROGEN UTILIZATION IN SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A respirometric method has been developed to measure hydrogen utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). One application of this method has been to test inhibitory metals effects on the SRB culture used in a novel acid mine drainage treatment technology. As a control param...

  6. Zinc suppresses apoptosis of U937 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide through an increase of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Y; Karasaki, Y; Sugiura, T; Itoh, H; Abe, T; Yamamura, K; Higashi, K

    1998-05-19

    Treatment of human premonocytic U937 cells with 500 microM H2O2 for 1h followed by 4h incubation in fresh medium to allow the cells to execute apoptotic processes caused DNA fragmentation. However, in the presence of 1mM ZnSO4 throughout the incubation, DNA ladder formation was markedly inhibited. Hydrogen peroxide treatment for 1h with or without zinc increased both Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. However, only Bax protein decreased to basal levels in the presence of zinc during the following 4h incubation, resulting in an increase of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and prevention of apoptosis. Treatment of U937 cells with 1mM ZnSO4 alone also decreased the levels of Bax protein. Furthermore, we observed that zinc completely inhibited the activation of CPP32 by H2O2, while no significant changes of ICE activities occurred with either H2O2 and/or zinc. These results indicate that the suppression of H2O2-induced apoptosis by zinc is mediated through an increase of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which occurs upstream from the activation of CPP32. PMID:9610364

  7. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 μm ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion. PMID

  8. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  9. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    SciTech Connect

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah . E-mail: Jatoi.aminah@mayo.edu; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive {>=}2,000 cGy of external beam RT to {>=}30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. {>=}6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx.

  10. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Carol A; Kartal, S Nami; Arango, Rachel A; Green, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO. PMID:21711491

  11. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO. PMID:21711491

  12. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  13. The sulfated polysaccharide from a marine red microalga as a platform for the incorporation of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Netanel Liberman, Gal; Ochbaum, Guy; Malis Arad, Shoshana; Bitton, Ronit

    2016-11-01

    The cell-wall sulfated polysaccharide of the marine red microalga Porphyridium sp. is a high molecular weight biopolymer that has potential for use as a platform for metal complexation for various applications. This paper describes the structural and rheological characterization and antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide in combination with Zn(2+) (Zn-PS). SAXS and rheology studies indicate that with the addition of ZnCl2 to the sulfated polysaccharide the only change was the increase in viscosity in the entangled regime. The antibacterial activity of Zn-PS solutions was more potent than that of the native polysaccharide against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The synergy between the bioactivities of Zn(2+) (which is a key player in wound healing and is active against variety of pathogens) and the unique bioactivities of the polysaccharide (e.g., anti-inflammatory) indicates promising potential for the development of novel products for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:27516316

  14. Rapid neutron-diffraction data collection for hydrogen-bonding studies: application of the Laue diffractometer (LADI) to the case study zinc (tris)thiourea sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cole, J M; McIntyre, G J; Lehmann, M S; Myles, D A; Wilkinson, C; Howard, J A

    2001-07-01

    The successful application of the newly developed image-plate neutron Laue diffractometer (LADI) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France, for rapid hydrogen-bonding characterization is reported. The case study concerns the promising non-linear optical material zinc (tris)thiourea sulfate (ZTS), which contains 30 atoms in the asymmetric unit and crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group, Pca2(1), a = 11.0616 (9), b = 7.7264 (6), c = 15.558 (1) A [T = 100.0 (1) K]. The results from a 12 h data collection from ZTS on LADI are compared with those obtained over 135 h using the monochromatic four-circle diffractometer D9 at the same reactor source with a crystal 13 times larger in volume. Both studies reveal the extensive hydrogen bonding and other close non-bonded contacts within the material. As expected, the results from D9 are more precise than those obtained from LADI; however, the bond geometry determined from the two experiments is the same within the larger estimated standard deviations. Furthermore, the conclusions drawn from the two studies separately regarding the nature of all supramolecular features are identical. This illustrates that LADI is eminently suitable for rapid characterization of hydrogen-bonded structures by neutron diffraction, with the gain in speed compared with traditional instrumentation being several orders of magnitude. PMID:11418753

  15. Effect of zinc formulations, sodium chloride, and hydroxytyrosol on the growth/no-growth boundaries of table olive related yeasts.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gil, V; Rejano-Zapata, L; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, F N

    2016-08-01

    This study uses a mathematical approach to assessing the inhibitory effect of Zn(2)(+)(0-10 mM, obtained from ZnCl2 and ZnSO4) in presence of NaCl (0-8%) and hydroxytyrosol (0-2588 mg/L), on a yeast cocktail formed by species Pichia galeiformis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia manshurica and Candida thaimueangensis obtained from spoilt green olive packages. The logistic/probabilistic models were built in laboratory medium using a total of 1980 responses (1188 for NaCl and 792 for hydroxytyrosol). ZnCl2 showed significantly higher inhibitory effect than ZnSO4 in the presence of both NaCl (p < 0.033) and hydroxytyrosol (p < 0.009). NaCl did not interfere the effect of Zn(2)(+)while hydroxytyrosol, at high levels, had a slight antagonistic effect. According to models, Zn(2)(+)inhibits (p = 0.01) the yeast cocktail in the range 4.5-5.0 mM for ZnCl2, or 8.5-9.5 mM for ZnSO4. Therefore, this work confirms the fungicidal activity of zinc compounds (mainly ZnCl2) in synthetic medium, and also shows that the loss of zinc effectiveness in real green Spanish-style olive packaging is not due to the presence of NaCl or hydroxytyrosol, two of the most abundant chemical compounds in the product. PMID:27052704

  16. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  17. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  18. Uptake and toxicity of nano-ZnO in the plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi: the role of dissolved zinc and nanoparticle-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Sávoly, Zoltán; Hrács, Krisztina; Pemmer, Bernhard; Streli, Christina; Záray, Gyula; Nagy, Péter István

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticulate ZnO is one of the most commonly applied nanomaterials. As ZnO is more soluble than many other oxide nanoparticles, its toxicity beyond the nanoparticle-specific effects can be attributed to the dissolved ionic zinc. The investigation of uptake and toxicity of nano-ZnO in the plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi, which was used in previous studies as a biological model organism, was aimed. The establishment of the role of dissolved zinc and nanoparticle-specific effects in the toxicity was also the objective of our study. Zn uptake was found to be significantly higher for bulk and nano-ZnO than for ZnSO4 solution; however, treatments caused loss of potassium in the worms in a dissolved-zinc-dependent manner. The toxicity was the lowest for bulk ZnO, and it was very similar for nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 solution. Accordingly, the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles is a combination of dissolved-zinc-caused toxicity and nanoparticle-specific effects. PMID:26846243

  19. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. PMID:26897114

  20. Influence of Long-Term Zinc Administration on Spatial Learning and Exploratory Activity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Animal brain contains a significant amount of zinc, which is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Moreover, it provides the basis for functioning of more than 2000 transcription factors, and it is necessary for memory formation and learning processes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on behavior in 3-month-old rats. For this purpose, the Morris water maze paradigm, hole-board, and T-maze were used. Wistar rats received a solution of ZnSO4 in drinking water at the doses of 16 mg/kg (Zn16 group) and 32 mg/kg (Zn32 group). In rats pretreated with the lower dose of zinc, the improvement of the mean escape latency was observed in comparison to the control group and Zn32 group. During memory task, both ZnSO4-supplemented groups showed an increase in crossings over the previous platform position. Furthermore, the exploratory activity in Zn16 group was improved in comparison to Zn32 and control group. In the brains of zinc-supplemented rats, we observed the higher content of zinc, both in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal zinc level correlated positively with the mean annulus crossings of the Zn16 group during the probe trial. These findings show that the long-term administration of ZnS04 can improve learning, spatial memory, and exploratory activity in rats. Graphical Abstract Improvement of spatial learning, memory, and exploratory behavior. PMID:26740219

  1. Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.; Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

  2. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo; Kim, Woo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  3. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  4. Phytoaccumulation of zinc by the aquatic plant, Lemna gibba L.

    PubMed

    Khellaf, Nabila; Zerdaoui, Mostefa

    2009-12-01

    The uptake of zinc (Zn) by the duckweed Lemna gibba L., native to the north-east region of Algeria, was investigated in quarter Coïc solutions enriched with 6.0, 10.0, 14.0 and 18.0 mg l(-1) of Zn supplied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)). Zinc concentrations were measured in the water daily and in duckweed biomass at the end of the experiments. These results showed that under experimental conditions (pH=6.0+/-0.1, T=21+/-1 degrees C, photoperiod=12 h/j), L. gibba was able to accumulate in its biomass 4.23; 15.62; 23.88 and 25.81 mg g(-1) DM, respectively for the four initial concentrations selected. At these concentrations, the metal removed percentages were 61-71%. The mass balance performed on the system showed that about 49-68% of Zn (depending on the initial concentration in water) was removed by precipitation as zinc phosphate. The results showed that this aquatic plant can be successfully used for Zn removal. PMID:19581083

  5. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect. PMID:25554248

  6. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, S. K.; Goslar, J.; Lijewski, S.

    2011-08-01

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu2+ ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)2Zn(SO4)2 ṡ 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu2+ ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu2+ ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)2Zn(SO4)2 ṡ 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or γ-rays.

  7. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

    2011-08-31

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or γ-rays. PMID:21841228

  8. Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani; Yadav, Vijaya; Singh, S C

    2016-09-10

    In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating zinc acetate dihydrate with the flower extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive). The formation of ZnO NPs was primarily confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectrum in the range of 250-700nm. XRD analysis and DLS particle size analyzer revealed the size of ZnO NPs. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the flower extract mediated ZnO NPs. Moreover, the morphology of the ZnO NPs was determined using SEM. Seeds of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) were separately treated with different concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) salt suspensions (common zinc supplement). The effect of these treatments on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents as well as on the activities of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme were studied. Leaves of plants treated with 6.1mM concentration of ZnO NPs recorded maximum reflectance while it was minimum in plants treated with 1.2mM concentration of NPs. The effect of synthesized ZnO NPs on seedling vigor, pigment, protein and sugar content was found affirmative at lower concentrations contrary to control and ZnSO4 salt. The inhibitory effect at higher concentration of NPs indicated importance in the precise application of NPs, in Zn deficient system, where plant response varies with concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Elaeagnus angustifolia mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs and their effects on germination and physiological activity of tomato. PMID:27422354

  9. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Graham, Robin D; Fenech, Michael

    2011-02-28

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell proliferation were investigated in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. DNA damage was determined by the use of both the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Zn-deficient medium (0μM) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds (i.e. ZnSO(4) and ZnC) were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0μM. Results from an MTT assay showed that cell growth and viability were decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0μM) as well as at 32μM and 100μM for both Zn compounds (P<0.0001). DNA strand-breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P<0.05). The CBMN-Cyt assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P<0.0001). Elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were induced in Zn-depleted cells (P<0.0001), whereas genome damage was reduced in supplemented cultures for both Zn compounds at 4μM and 16μM, possibly suggesting that these concentrations may be optimal for genome stability. The potential protective effect of ZnSO(4) and ZnC was also investigated following exposure to 1.0Gy γ-radiation. Culture in medium containing these compounds at 4-32μM prior to irradiation displayed significantly reduced frequencies of MNi, NPBs and NBuds compared with cells maintained in 0μM medium (P<0.0001). Expression of γ-H2AX and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase measured by western blotting was increased in Zn

  10. Influence of cobalt and zinc exposure on mRNA expression profiles of metallothionein and cytocrome P450 in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Aksakal, Ercüment; Ekinci, Deniz; Erdoğan, Orhan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2011-12-01

    The present research aims to evaluate the effects of cobalt and zinc exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on metallothioneins and cytocrome P450. Mature rainbow trouts were exposed to 10 mg/L CoCl(2).6H(2)O and 1 mg/L ZnSO(4).7H(2)O. After 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of treatment, expressions of muscle MT-A, MT-B, and CYP P4501A1 mRNAs were measured by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. During the exposure experiments, no mortalities occurred. We observed that expression levels of all genes increased with exposure time. Since the organism has not learned how to completely dispose of heavy metals and tends to bioaccumulate them, our results indicate that cobalt and zinc exposure may result in accumulation of the non-eliminated metals which may lead to fish death. PMID:21547398

  11. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  12. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you have asthma, use chondroitin sulfate cautiously. Blood clotting disorders: In theory, administering chondroitin sulfate might increase the risk of bleeding in people with blood clotting disorders. Prostate cancer: Early research suggests that chondroitin ...

  13. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)(sulfato-κO)zinc(II) propane-1,2-diol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Kai-Long

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(SO4)(C12H8N2)2]·C3H8O2, the ZnII ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment composed of four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and one O atom from a monodentate sulfate ligand. The ZnII ion lies on a twofold rotation axis. The sulfate ligand and propane-1,2-diol mol­ecules are disordered across the twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angle between the two chelating N2C2 groups is 83.26 (13)°. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecule and the propane-1,2-diol mol­ecule are connected through a pair of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:24098186

  15. Role of soluble zinc in ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity in Daphnia magna: A morphological approach.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Renato; Maran, Barbara; Marelli, Marcello; Santo, Nadia; Tremolada, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The role of soluble zinc has been determined in Daphnia magna by a morphological approach, integrating a previous paper in which the ultrastructural damages to gut epithelial cells have been studied after ZnO nanoparticles exposure. In the present paper, the toxicity and morphological effects of soluble zinc from ZnSO4 have been determined in a 48-h acute exposure test. Daphnids have been exposed to six nominal zinc concentrations (0.075, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4mg Zn/L) and then fixed for microscopic analyses. Data from the acute toxicity tests gave an EC50 value of 0.99mg/L and showed that no immobilization appeared up to 0.3mg Zn/L. Ultrastructural analyses of samples from the two highest concentrations showed large vacuolar structures, swelling of mitochondria, multilamellar bodies, and a great number of autophagy vacuoles. These findings have been compared to those from our previous study, and similarities and/or differences discussed. Based on the overall results it can be concluded that dissolved zinc ions played a key role in ZnO nanoparticle toxicity and that the morphological approach is an extremely useful tool for comparing toxicological effects as well. A possible common toxic mechanism of soluble zinc and ZnO nanoparticles was also proposed. PMID:27131075

  16. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells. PMID:26420239

  17. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  18. Unusual Recognition and Separation of Hydrated Metal Sulfates [M2(μ-SO4)2(H2O)n, M = Zn(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II)] by a Ditopic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Dutta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2016-04-01

    A ditopic receptor L1, having metal binding bis(2-picolyl) donor and anion binding urea group, is synthesized and explored toward metal sulfate recognition via formation of dinuclear assembly, (L1)2M2(SO4)2. Mass spectrometric analysis, (1)H-DOSY NMR, and crystal structure analysis reveal the existence of a dinuclear assembly of MSO4 with two units of L1. (1)H NMR study reveals significant downfield chemical shift of -NH protons of urea moiety of L1 selectively with metal sulfates (e.g., ZnSO4, CdSO4) due to second-sphere interactions of sulfate with the urea moiety. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR studies suggest the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction toward metal sulfate recognition in solution state, whereas intermolecular H-bonding interactions are observed in solid state. In contrast, anions in their tetrabutylammonium salts fail to interact with the urea -NH probably due to poor acidity of the tertiary butyl urea group of L1. Metal sulfate binding selectivity in solution is further supported by isothermal titration calorimetric studies of L1 with different Zn salts in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), where a binding affinity is observed for ZnSO4 (Ka = 1.23 × 10(6)), which is 30- to 50-fold higher than other Zn salts having other counteranions in DMSO. Sulfate salts of Cd(II)/Co(II) also exhibit binding constants in the order of ∼1 × 10(6) as in the case of ZnSO4. Positive role of the urea unit in the selectivity is confirmed by studying a model ligand L2, which is devoid of anion recognition urea unit. Structural characterization of four MSO4 [M = Zn(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II)] complexes of L1, that is, complex 1, [(L1)2(Zn)2(μ-SO4)2]; complex 2, [(L1)2(H2O)2(Cd)2(μ-SO4)2]; complex 3, [(L1)2(H2O)2(Co)2(μ-SO4)2]; and complex 4, [(L1)2(H2O)2(Mn)2(μ-SO4)2], reveal the formation of sulfate-bridged eight-membered crownlike binuclear complexes, similar to one of the concentration-dependent dimeric forms of MSO4 as observed in solid state

  19. Effects of ferrous sulfate, inoculum history, and anionic form on lead, zinc, and copper toxicity to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Aston; William A. Apel; Brady D. Lee; Brent M. Peyton

    2010-12-01

    The current study reports the single and combined toxicities of Pb, Zn, and Cu to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13. The observed half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50),?±?95% confidence intervals, for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 0.9?±?0.1?mM, 39?±?0.5?mM, and 120?±?8?mM, respectively. The observed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 7.5?mM, 75?mM, and 250?mM, respectively. When metals were presented in binary mixtures, the toxicities were less than additive. For example, when 50% of the Pb MIC and 50% of the Cu MIC were presented together, the specific growth rate was inhibited by only 59?±?3%, rather than 100%. In addition, the presence of ferrous iron in the growth media decreased Pb and Zn toxicity to A. caldus strain BC13. The importance of inoculum history was evaluated by pre-adapting cultures through subsequent transfers in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu at their respective IC50s. After pre-adaptation, cultures had specific growth rates 39?±?11, 32?±?7, and 28?±?12% higher in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu IC50s, respectively, compared with cultures that had not been pre-adapted. In addition, when cells exposed to the MICs of Pb, Zn, and Cu were harvested, washed, and re-inoculated into fresh, metal-free medium, they grew, showing that the cells remained viable with little residual toxicity. Finally, metal chlorides showed more toxicity than metal sulfates, and studies using sodium chloride or a mixture of metal sulfates and sodium chloride suggested that this was attributable to an additive combination of the metal and chloride toxicities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2669–2675. © 2010 SETAC

  20. Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomics revealed diurnal heat stress and zinc supplementation-induced changes in amino acid, lipid, and microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Urriola, Pedro E; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Rambo, Zachary J; Wilson, Mark E; Torrison, Jerry L; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) dramatically disrupts the events in energy and nutrient metabolism, many of which requires zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. In this study, metabolic effects of HS and Zn supplementation were evaluated by examining growth performance, blood chemistry, and metabolomes of crossbred gilts fed with ZnNeg (no Zn supplementation), ZnIO (120 ppm ZnSO4), or ZnAA (60 ppm ZnSO4 + 60 ppm zinc amino acid complex) diets under diurnal HS or thermal-neutral (TN) condition. The results showed that growth performance was reduced by HS but not by Zn supplementation. Among measured serum biochemicals, HS was found to increase creatinine but decrease blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. Metabolomic analysis indicated that HS greatly affected diverse metabolites associated with amino acid, lipid, and microbial metabolism, including urea cycle metabolites, essential amino acids, phospholipids, medium-chain dicarboxylic acids, fatty acid amides, and secondary bile acids. More importantly, many changes in these metabolite markers were correlated with both acute and adaptive responses to HS. Relative to HS-induced metabolic effects, Zn supplementation-associated effects were much more limited. A prominent observation was that ZnIO diet, potentially through its influences on microbial metabolism, yielded different responses to HS compared with two other diets, which included higher levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal fluid and higher levels of lysine in the liver and feces. Overall, comprehensive metabolomic analysis identified novel metabolite markers associated with HS and Zn supplementation, which could guide further investigation on the mechanisms of these metabolic effects. PMID:26755737

  2. Uptake and Distribution of Soil Applied Zinc by Citrus Trees—Addressing Fertilizer Use Efficiency with 68Zn Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

  3. Uptake and distribution of soil applied zinc by citrus trees-addressing fertilizer use efficiency with 68Zn labeling.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

  4. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can cause some mild side effects including nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, and constipation. Uncommon side effects are drowsiness, skin reactions, and headache. These are ...

  5. Effect of Zinc Source on Hematological, Metabolic Parameters and Mineral Balance in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Aliarabi, Hassan; Fadayifar, Amir; Tabatabaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zamani, Pouya; Bahari, Aliasghar; Farahavar, Abbas; Dezfoulian, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different sources of zinc (Zn) on blood metabolites and balances of some minerals in lambs. In the first part, 20 6-7-month-old lambs were randomly allotted to four treatments including (1) basal diet containing 22.47 mg Zn/kg DM without supplementary Zn (control), (2) basal diet + 40 mg Zn/kg DM as ZnSO4 (ZnSO4 40), (3) basal diet + 20 mg Zn/kg DM as Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro 20), and (4) basal diet + 40 mg Zn/kg DM as Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro 40). Blood samples were taken on days 0, 28, and 65 before morning feeding. In the second part, four lambs from each treatment were randomly transferred to metabolic cages to evaluate the effects of different sources of Zn on N, Zn, Fe, and Cu retentions. This trial consisted of 18 days, with the first 12 days as the adaptation period followed by 6 days of sample collection. The results of this study showed that the source of Zinc had no significant effect on the analyzed parameters. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were improved by Zn supplementation (P < 0.05). Daily feed intake, plasma glucose, Fe and Cu concentrations, serum total antioxidant capacity, red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly between treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma Zn concentration, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity, and white blood cell and lymphocyte count differed significantly between control and Zn-supplemented groups (P < 0.05) as Zn supplementation improved these parameters. Nitrogen, Fe, and Cu retentions did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05). Zinc retention showed a significant difference between control and Zn-supplemented groups (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences among the Zn-supplemented groups. The results of this study show that Zn supplementation improved performance and zinc retention in lambs. However, there were no significant

  6. Comparison between intralesional injection of zinc sulfate 2 % solution and intralesional meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of acute old world dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Saeedeh; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Mohebbi, Azadeh; Mohammadi, Saman; Pardakhty, Abbas; Eybpoosh, Sana; Heshmatkhah, Amireh; Vares, Behrooz; Saryazdi, Simin; Fekri, Ali Reza; Mohebbi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Zinc sulfate (ZS) has been used for the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in both forms of in vivo and in vitro recently. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intralesional injection of ZS 2 % solution with intralesional glucantime in the treatment of acute CL. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 80 cases with acute old world dry type CL were enrolled in the study. The treatment protocol in the first group consisted of intralesional injection of ZS 2 % vials once a week for 10 weeks or sooner in case of complete resolution of the lesions. In the second group, intralesional glucantime once a week for 10 weeks or sooner in case of complete resolution of the lesions were used. In both groups cryotherapy was performed once every other week for 10 weeks. In ZS versus second group, partial and complete clinical response was observed with fewer injections although this difference was not statistically significant. In addition, we found that the trend of treatment in second group was faster but again it was not significant [partial treatment: hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95 % CI 0.7-2.9; complete treatment: HR 1.3, 95 % CI 0.6-2.8]. The results of this study showed that the intralesional injection of ZS 2 % solution was as effective as glucantime on the healing of the acute old world dry type CL. PMID:27605813

  7. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhigang; Wen, Chao; Li, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency. PMID:24515449

  8. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen’s Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen’s ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:26460738

  9. Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

    2011-10-01

    Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

  10. Syntheses of vanadyl and zinc(II) complexes of 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-substituted 2(1H)-pyrimidinones and their insulin-mimetic activities.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mika; Wakasugi, Kei; Saito, Ryota; Adachi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sakurai, Hiromu; Katoh, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Control of the glucose level in the blood plasma has been achieved in vitro and in vivo by administration of vanadium and zinc in form of inorganic salts. It has been shown that elements are poorly absorbed in their inorganic forms and required high doses which have been associated with undesirable side effects. Many researchers, therefore, have focused on metal complexes that were prepared from VOSO(4) or ZnSO(4) and low-molecular-weight bidentate ligands. Seven kinds of 1-hydroxy-4,6-disubstituted and 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-trisubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by reaction of N-benzyloxyurea and beta-diketones and subsequent removal of the protecting group. Six kinds of 1-hydroxy-4-(substituted)amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by the substitution reaction of 1-benzyloxy-4-(1',2',4'-triazol-1'-yl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinone with various alkyl amines or amino acids. Treatment with VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) or Zn(OAc)(2) afforded vanadyl(IV) and zinc(II) complexes which were characterized by means of (1)H NMR, IR, EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, and combustion analysis. The in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of these complexes was evaluated from 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) on free fatty acid (FFA) release from isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine. Vanadyl complexes of 4,6-disubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones showed higher insulin-mimetic activities than those of 4,5,6-trisubstituted ones. On the other hand, Zn(II) complexes showed lower insulin-mimetic activities than VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) as positive controls. It was found that the balance of the hydrophilicity and/or hydrophobicity is important for higher insulin-mimetic activity. The in vivo insulin-mimetic activity was evaluated with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were lowered from hyperglycemic to normal levels after the treatment with bis(1,2-dihydro-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrimidinolato)oxovanadium(IV) by daily intraperitoneal injections. The improvement in

  11. 131I induced hematological alterations in rat blood: protection by zinc.

    PubMed

    Dani, Vijayta; Malhotra, Anshoo; Dhawan, D

    2007-01-01

    The present study was planned to determine the potential of zinc in attenuating the toxicity induced by 131I in rat blood. Female wistar rats were segregated into four main groups. Animals in Group I served as normal controls; Group II animals were administered a dose of 3.7 Mbq of 131I (carrier free) intraperitoneally, Group III was supplemented with Zinc in the form of ZnSo4.7H2O (227 mg/l drinking water), and Group IV was given a combined treatment of Zinc as well as 131I, in a similar way as was given to Groups IV and II animals, respectively. The effects of different treatments were studied on various parameters in rat blood including hemoglobin (Hb) levels, % hematocrit, zinc protoporphyrins (ZPP), activities of enzymes which included aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) and Na+ K+ ATPase and uptake of 65Zn in blood. The study revealed an increase in the levels of hemoglobin, % hematocrit, activities of delta-ALAD, Na+ K+ ATPase and uptake of 65Zn, 7 days after the 131I treatment. On the contrary, the levels of ZPP were found to be significantly decreased after 131I treatment. However, zinc treatment to 131I-treated animals significantly attenuated the various biochemical and hematological indices. Moreover, zinc treatment to the 131I-treated animals could significantly decrease the uptake of 65Zn, which was increased after 131I treatment. Based upon these data, the present study suggests that zinc has the potential to attenuate 131I induced toxicity by restoring the altered hematological indices and biochemical changes. PMID:17916974

  12. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2015-02-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.

  13. Metal removal and sulfate reduction in low-sulfate mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.H.; Updegraff, D.M.; Radehaus, P.M.; Bates, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    A treatability study using two continuous upflow bioreactors was conducted to evaluate the potential removal of metal contamination, primarily zinc, from mine drainage with constructed wetlands that incorporate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel in Silver Plume, Colorado, contains low levels of sulfate that may limit the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria, thus limiting metal removal by the system. Total metals, anions, and field parameters in the mine drainage and the bioreactor effluents were routinely analyzed over 8 weeks. In addition, the bioreactor compost packing was analyzed for metals and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Zinc removal in both reactors was in excess of 99% after 8 weeks of operation. Furthermore, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bioreactor compost ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} colony-forming units per gram of compost.

  14. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  15. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  16. Water balance and magnesium control in electrolytic zinc plants using the E.Z. selective zinc precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthew, I. G.; Newman, O. M. G.; Palmer, D. J.

    1980-03-01

    There is an increasing tendency for modern electrolytic zinc plants to experience water balance and magnesium control problems because of the simultaneous need to maximize zinc recovery and produce environmentally acceptable leach residues and precipitates. The Selective Zinc Precipitation process developed by the Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia involves the precipitation of basic zinc sulfate using limestone. Water balance and magnesium control may be achieved by either discarding the process filtrate, or by using it to wash precipitates in a closed circuit operation. The process filter cake is used as a neutralizing agent in the zinc plant. The process can be operated over a wide range of temperatures and calcined zinc concentrate may be preferred to limestone as a zinc precipitant to minimize the discard of sulfate. This paper is particularly concerned with a quantitative assessment of various modes of integrating the process into modern electrolytic zinc plants.

  17. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  18. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely ... The following doses have been studied in scientific research: BY MOUTH: ... dose of chondroitin sulfate is 800-2000 mg taken as a single dose or in two ...

  20. IGF and GH mRNA levels are suppressed upon exposure to micromolar concentrations of cobalt and zinc in rainbow trout white muscle.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Deniz; Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Aksakal, Ercüment; Erdoğan, Orhan

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cobalt and zinc exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on insulin like growth factors (IGF) and growth hormone (GH). Mature rainbow trouts were exposed to 0.42, 2.1, 4.2, 21 and 42μmol/L Co(2+) (added as CoCl(2)·6H(2)O) and 0.34, 1.7, 3.4, 17 and 34μmol/L Zn(2+) (added as ZnSO(4)i·7H(2)O). After 6, 12, 24 and 48h of treatment, expressions of white muscle IGF-I, IGF-II and GH mRNAs were measured by means of quantitative Real Time PCR. During the exposure experiments, no mortalities occurred. The most effective metal concentrations, which caused significant alterations, were determined to be 42μmol/L Co(2+) (10mg CoCl(2)·6H(2)O/L) and 3.4μmol/L Zn(+2) (1mg ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O/L). The following results were obtained for these concentrations. Expression of IGF-I did not change at 6h in zinc treatment while the decrease (p<0.05) was observed at 12h and 24h, and this decrease became stronger at 48h. Cobalt exposure caused a decrease in IGF-I mRNA level at 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h (p<0.05). Both zinc and cobalt exposure resulted in significant decreases in GH expression at 6h. Exposure of trout to Zn resulted in a decrease in expression of IGF-II starting from 6h whereas the significant decrease started at 6h in cobalt exposure and this decrease elevated at 24h. The results indicate that micromolar cobalt and zinc exposure causes significant attenuation in the expressions of these three genes' time dependently. Our findings show that IGF-I is the most resistant and GH is the most sensitive component against cobalt and zinc exposure. We conclude that IGF/GH axis might be strongly affected by the short term exposure to low micromolar concentrations of zinc and cobalt due to alterations of these genes. PMID:21167956

  1. Recycling spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Cui, Ming; Yang, Minjie; Pan, Linmao

    2006-05-20

    A novel process to reclaim spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries (SDBs) through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials is present. Firstly, the dismantling, watering, magnetism, baking and griddling steps were consecutively carried out to obtain iron battery shells, zinc grains and manganese compounds using the collected SDBs, and then these separated substances were dissolved with 4 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) to prepare FeSO(4), ZnSO(4) and MnSO(4) reactant solutions. Secondly, Zn-Mn ferrites with stoichiometric ratio of Mn(0.26)Zn(0.24)FeO(2) were synthesized using chemical co precipitation process with ammonium oxalate precipitator. The XRD results showed that the obtained Zn-Mn ferrites had spinel structure and high purity at the calcining temperatures of 850-1250 degrees C. With the increase of calcining temperature, the finer crystalline structure could be formed, and their intensity of saturation magnetization reached the highest value at 1150 degrees C. The magnetization performances of Zn-Mn ferrites prepared from the SDBs were similar to that of from analysis reagents, suggesting the feasibility to synthesize Zn-Mn ferrites with high properties from SDBs. PMID:16310946

  2. Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huilin; Shao, Yuyan; Yan, Pengfei; Cheng, Yingwen; Han, Kee Sung; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chongmin; Yang, Jihui; Li, Xiaolin; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Mueller, Karl T.; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries such as alkaline zinc/manganese oxide batteries are highly desirable for large-scale energy storage owing to their low cost and high safety; however, cycling stability is a major issue for their applications. Here we demonstrate a highly reversible zinc/manganese oxide system in which optimal mild aqueous ZnSO4-based solution is used as the electrolyte, and nanofibres of a manganese oxide phase, α-MnO2, are used as the cathode. We show that a chemical conversion reaction mechanism between α-MnO2 and H+ is mainly responsible for the good performance of the system. This includes an operating voltage of 1.44 V, a capacity of 285 mAh g‑1 (MnO2), and capacity retention of 92% over 5,000 cycles. The Zn metal anode also shows high stability. This finding opens new opportunities for the development of low-cost, high-performance rechargeable aqueous batteries.

  3. Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll

    1995-12-31

    As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

  4. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  5. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  6. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  7. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  8. [Zinc in patients with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Røijen, S B; Worsaae, U; Zlotnik, G

    1991-03-01

    In a multicenter study, the relation between zinc status and anorexia nervosa was studied in 18 patients (15 females and 3 males in the age range of 11 to 25 years). Analysis of plasma zinc (by atomic absorption), plasma albumin (by electro-immuno diffusion method) and sense of taste (comparing quinine, zinc sulfate and water solutions), showed no significant abnormalities. Thus, the investigation does not support the hypothesis, that zinc status plays a significant role in the symptomatology of anorexia nervosa. PMID:2008719

  9. Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at −20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

  10. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  11. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  12. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  13. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  14. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. PMID:26149719

  15. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty. PMID:27215404

  16. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Chemostat-Cultured Escherichia coli to Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lucy J.; Barrett, Jason A.; Poole, Robert K.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal ion for growth, but an excess of Zn is toxic and microorganisms express diverse resistance mechanisms. To understand global bacterial responses to excess Zn, we conducted transcriptome profiling experiments comparing Escherichia coli MG1655 grown under control conditions and cells grown with a toxic, sublethal ZnSO4 concentration (0.2 mM). Cultures were grown in a defined medium lacking inorganic phosphate, permitting maximum Zn bioavailability, and in glycerol-limited chemostats at a constant growth rate and pH. Sixty-four genes were significantly up-regulated by Zn stress, including genes known to be involved in Zn tolerance, particularly zntA, zraP, and hydG. Microarray transcriptome profiling was confirmed by real-time PCR determinations of cusF (involved in Ag and Cu efflux), ais (an Al-inducible gene), asr (encoding an acid shock-inducible periplasmic protein), cpxP (a periplasmic chaperone gene), and basR. Five up-regulated genes, basR and basS [encoding a sensor-regulator implicated in Salmonella in Fe(III) sensing and antibiotic resistance], fliM (flagellar synthesis), and ycdM and yibD (both with unknown functions), are important for growth resistance to zinc, since mutants with mutations in these genes exhibited zinc sensitivity in liquid media and on metal gradient plates. Fifty-eight genes were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress; notably, several of these genes were involved in protection against acid stress. Since the mdt operon (encoding a multidrug resistance pump) was also up-regulated, these findings have important implications for understanding not only Zn homeostasis but also how bacterial antibiotic resistance is modulated by metal ions. PMID:15659689

  17. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  18. Respiratory response of guinea pigs to zinc oxide fume

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, M.O.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gill, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Zinc has been found enriched in the fine particle fraction of atmospheric aerosols and in the surface layer of fly ash. Experimental combustion studies of coal have demonstrated that zinc is vaporized and recondensed into the submicrometer fraction of the combustion aerosols. This size fraction may contain as much as 1.5% zinc when a coal of high zinc content (Illinois No. 6) is used. Zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate are among the sulfates with demonstrable irritant potency. Zinc oxide was thus chosen as the initial aerosol for studies of biological and chemical interaction of high temperature generated submicrometer metal oxides with sulfur dioxide. This paper reports the respiratory response of guinea pigs to short term exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide fume. These studies of zinc oxide alone have relevance to industrial exposure. The recommended TLV for zinc oxide is 5 mg/m/sup 3/ and the recommended STEL is 10 mg/m/sup 3/. Concentrations used in our studies were below these recommended levels.

  19. Keratan Sulfate Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Funderburgh, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Keratan sulfate was originally identified as the major glycosaminoglycan of cornea but is now known to modify at least a dozen different proteins in a wide variety of tissues. Despite a large body of research documenting keratan sulfate structure, and an increasing interest in the biological functions of keratan sulfate, until recently little was known of the specific enzymes involved in keratan sulfate biosynthesis or of the molecular mechanisms that control keratan sulfate expression. In the last 2 years, however, marked progress has been achieved in identification of genes involved in keratan sulfate biosynthesis and in development of experimental conditions to study keratan sulfate secretion and control in vitro. This review summarizes current understanding of keratan sulfate structure and recent developments in understanding keratan sulfate biosynthesis. PMID:12512857

  20. Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

  1. Zinc deficiency or excess within the physiological range increases genome instability and cytotoxicity, respectively, in human oral keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Fenech, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential component of Zn-finger proteins and acts as a cofactor for enzymes required for cellular metabolism and in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Zn deficiency or excess in a primary human oral keratinocyte cell line and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds (Zn Sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn Carnosine (ZnC)) to minimise DNA damage. Zn-deficient medium (0 μM) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds ZnSO(4) and ZnC were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0 μM. Cell viability was decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0 μM) as well as at 32 μM and 100 μM for both Zn compounds (P < 0.0001) as measured via the MTT assay. DNA strand breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P < 0.05). Furthermore, elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were observed at 0 and 0.4 μM Zn, whereas these biomarkers were minimised for both Zn compounds at 4 and 16 μM Zn (P < 0.05), suggesting these concentrations are optimal to maintain genome stability. Expression of PARP, p53 and OGG1 measured by western blotting was increased in Zn-depleted cells indicating that DNA repair mechanisms are activated. These results suggest that maintaining Zn concentrations within the range of 4-16 μM is essential for DNA damage prevention in cultured human oral keratinocytes. PMID:21935692

  2. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2013-12-02

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specificmore » fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  3. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. PMID:26908885

  4. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Ahmed Nabih; Ibrahim, Soha Abd El-Hady; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Sabry, Jehan H; Sherbini, Nashwa Said

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI) and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc) according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. PMID:26677341

  6. Olfactory bulbectomy disrupts the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Quatrella, L A; Schechter, M D

    1996-01-01

    The role of the olfactory sense in the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was examined in adult male rats (n = 35) of the N/Nih strain. Consistent with the scientific literature, rats were observed to significantly (p < 0.05) increase (double) the seconds spent in their least-preferred chamber following cocaine-chamber pairings. Subsequently, groups of rats underwent one of three treatments: 1) olfactory bulbectomy (BULBX), 2) sham surgery (SHAM), or 3) sham surgery plus intranasal zinc sulfate perfusion (ZnSO4). Zinc sulfate was used to produce a temporary loss of olfaction. In a separate behavioral measure of olfactory acuity, both BULBX and ZnSO4-treated rats performed at an equally deficient level, in contrast to SHAM-treated rats that were not rendered anosmic. A second conditioned place preference test revealed that the ZnSO4-perfused and SHAM groups did not differ from their original postcocaine preference measurements. In contrast, the BULBX group spent significantly fewer seconds in the cocaine-paired chamber. After a 14-day interval, a third preference test revealed that SHAM and ZnSO4-treated rats displayed an equivalent preference for the cocaine-paired chamber (at 2.7 times above baseline). Interestingly, the seconds spent in the cocaine-paired chamber by BULBX rats did not differ from their baseline (e.g., precocaine exposure). These results suggest that bulbectomy disrupts the expression of cocaine-induced place preference. Interpretations of data from BULBX rats involving the production of an anhedonic condition and the relevance of olfactory bulbectomy as an animal model of anhedonic depression are discussed. PMID:8778840

  7. Zinc pyrithione induces ERK- and PKC-dependent necrosis distinct from TPEN-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carraway, Robert E; Dobner, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Zinc dyshomeostasis can induce cell death. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which differ dramatically from normal cells in their zinc handling ability. Here, we studied the effects of the ionophore Zn-pyrithione (ZP) and the chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Both compounds induced cell death at micromolar concentrations when incubated with androgen-dependent (LNCaP), androgen-independent (PC3, DU145) and androgen-sensitive (C4-2) PCa cell-lines. Compared to PCa cells, RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells were less sensitive to ZP and more sensitive to TPEN, but total cellular zinc levels were changed similarly. ZnSO4 enhanced the toxicity of ZP, but inhibited the effects of TPEN as expected. The morphological/biochemical responses to ZP and TPEN differed. ZP decreased ATP levels and stimulated ERK, AKT and PKC phosphorylation. DNA laddering was observed only at low doses of ZP but all doses of TPEN. TPEN activated caspase 3/7 and induced PARP-cleavage, DNA-fragmentation, ROS-formation and apoptotic bodies. PKC and ERK-pathway inhibitors, and antioxidants protected against ZP-induced but not TPEN-induced death. Inhibitors of MPTP-opening protected both. Cell death in response to TPEN (but not ZP) was diminished by a calpain inhibitor and largely prevented by a caspase 3 inhibitor. Overall, the results indicated primarily a necrotic cell death for ZP and an apoptotic cell death for TPEN. The enhanced sensitivity of PCa cells to ZP and the apparent ability of ZP and TPEN to kill quiescent and rapidly dividing cells in a p53-independent manner suggest that ZP/TPEN might be used to develop adjunct treatments for PCa. PMID:22027089

  8. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Alcohol induced hepatitis, which was suspected in this subject, may have caused a predisposition to altered zinc metabolism and possible zinc deficiency which was exacerbated by subsequent zinc deprivation. The report supports the value of neutrophil zinc concentration as an indicator of poor zinc status. PMID:1740525

  9. Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

  10. Measurements of corrosion at defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels using current density mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Thierry, D.; Simpson, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    Current density mapping was used to locate and monitor the early stages of corrosion at defects on painted surfaces in solution. Principles of the technique and methods of analysis were reviewed, and the effects of different scribing techniques were investigated. Results for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces showed corrosion occurred initially at localized sites on the exposed zinc in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions and when zinc was galvanically coupled to or isolated from steel. Current density mapping was shown to locate corrosion-susceptible defects on painted roll-formed materials that were not readily discernible optically.

  11. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  12. A Taste-intensity Visual Analog Scale: An Improved Zinc Taste-test Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zdilla, Matthew J.; Starkey, Leah D.; Saling, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Studies employing methods for measurement of zinc sulfate taste acuity have had diverse results, and although the studies have had limitations in design and implementation, they have suggested salient findings beyond the assessment of taste acuity. These findings have included, but were not limited to, relationships between zinc sulfate taste acuity and weight, levels of serum zinc, diastolic hypertension, levels of salivary carbonic anhydrase 6, and frequency of illness. However, current protocols for zinc sulfate taste assessment are problematic and warrant improvement. Objective The current study intended to compare the ranking scale for the original Bryce-Smith and Simpson zinc taste test (BS-ZTT) with a novel, taste-intensity visual analog scale (TI-VAS) to explore the potential for improved zinc sulfate taste-acuity measurement. Design Participants were administered a 0.1% solution of zinc sulfate and assessed using the 2 scales. Setting The study took place at West Liberty University, in West Liberty, WV, USA. Participants Participants were 500 West Liberty University students who volunteered to participate in the study. Results A strong, statistically significant, positive correlation existed between the BS-ZTT and the TI-VAS scores (rs = 0.79; P < .0001; n = 491). Conclusions The study found that the BS-ZTT offered a limited number of ordinal variable ranks and depended on an examiner’s evaluation. Conversely, the TI-VAS had an expanded range of variables and was independent of the examiner. The TI-VAS can be used as a taste-acuity test for zinc sulfate and as a benchmark for future analyses of zinc sulfate taste acuity and zinc taste tests. PMID:26770137

  13. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  14. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  15. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Zinc interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common and probably the most harmful micronutrient deficiency of commercial pecan enterprises is zinc deficiency. A review is presented of how orchard nutrient element management practices potentially influence tree Zn nutrition. Findings provide background information on how to reduce th...

  17. An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

  18. Zinc-inhibited Electron Transport of Photosynthesis in Isolated Barley Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Baishnab C.; Mohanty, Prasanna

    1980-01-01

    In isolated barley chloroplasts, the presence of 2 millimolar ZnSO4 inhibits the electron transport activity of photosystem II, as measured by photoreduction of dichlorophenolindophenol, O2 evolution, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. The inhibition of photosystem II activity can be restored by the addition of the electron donor hydroxylamine or diphenylcarbazide, but not by benzidine and MnCl2. These observations suggest that Zn inhibits electron flow at the oxidizing side of photosystem II at a site prior to the electron donating site(s) of hydroxylamine and diphenylcarbazide. No inhibition of photosystem I-dependent electron transport by 3 millimolar ZnSO4 is observed. However, with concentrations of ZnSO4 above 5 millimolar, photosystem I activity is partially inactivated. Washing Zn2+-treated chloroplasts partially restores the O2-evolving activity. PMID:16661598

  19. EAF dust as an electrolytic zinc resource

    SciTech Connect

    Zunkel, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two viable options are presently available to the electrolytic zinc producer to supplement the zinc production capability significantly by using electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) or leady ZnO products derived from EAFD: Integrated processing of the materials using the Modified Zincex Process and commingling the zinc sulfate solution from that process with the neutral solution from the calcine leaching circuit; Installing a completely separate circuit for treating the material using technologies such as the Modified Zincex or Esinex Processes. EAFD and halogen-bearing EAFD derived products are a zinc resource which is virtually untapped by new or existing electrolytic zinc producers and which offers them, with the advent of new technologies able to deal with halides, the opportunity to maintain or increase their zinc production from a relatively cheap, if not ``free``, and already mined zinc source. Such an approach would also provide the EAFD producer an alternative, perhaps lower cost, outlet for their material to the currently rather closely held EAFD processing industry.

  20. Oral zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Safai-Kutti, S

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN). In an open study of 20 females, aged 14-26 years, afflicted with AN the effect of oral zinc supplementation was investigated. In each case the diagnosis of AN was based on the criteria of DSM-III-R. After a careful history, complete physical examination and laboratory screening the subjects were started on 45-90 mg of Zn2+, as zinc sulfate, (SolvezinkR, Tika, Sweden) per day. During a follow-up period of 8-56 months 17 patients increased their body weight by more than 15%. The maximum gradual weight gain of 57% was encountered in one patient after 24 months of zinc therapy. The most rapid weight gain was recorded in a patient who increased her body weight by 24% over a period of 3 months. After the institution of zinc, weight loss was not registered in any of our patients. In 13 subjects the menstruation returned 1-17 months after the initiation of zinc therapy. None of our patients developed bulimia. The design of an ongoing multicenter placebo-controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation to patients with AN is described. PMID:2291418

  1. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-02-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake.

  2. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  3. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy. PMID:16933356

  4. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers. PMID:26637494

  5. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Animal proteins are a good source of zinc. Beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The ... use by the body as the zinc from animal proteins. Therefore, low-protein diets and vegetarian diets tend ...

  6. The bioavailability of different zinc compounds used as human dietary supplements in rat prostate: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sapota, Andrzej; Daragó, Adam; Skrzypińska-Gawrysiak, Małgorzata; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Michał; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc (Zn) of any soft tissue in the body. The pool of zinc available to the body is known to significantly decrease with age. It is suggested that dietary Zn supplementation protects against oxidative damage and reduces the risk of cancer. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate were the most frequently mentioned in per os administration in studies on Zn supplementation. The major aim of the study was to compare the bioavailability of different Zn compounds (sulfate, gluconate and citrate) in the prostate after their daily administration to male rats at three different doses (3.0; 15.0; and 50.0 mg Zn/kg b.w.) for 30 days. The results show that bioavailability in the prostate differs significantly between individual zinc preparations. A significantly elevated Zn concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate, compared to controls, was found in the rats supplemented with two compounds only: zinc gluconate and zinc citrate. However, after administration of zinc gluconate, this effect occurred even at the lowest dose. The lowest zinc bioavailability in the prostate was found in the rats administered zinc sulfate: no significant Zn increase was seen in particular zones of the prostate. To sum up, the use of zinc gluconate is worth considering as a possible means of zinc supplementation in men. PMID:24619814

  7. Effect of short term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in breast milk of American and Egyptian women

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, M.V.; Kirksey, A.; Bassily, N.

    1986-03-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effects of short-term maternal oral zinc supplementation on concentration of zinc in milk obtained from American and Egyptian women. Thirty-three American women and 30 Egyptian women were divided into four groups. One group, in each country, was supplemented with 50 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate while the other group did not receive any extra zinc over that obtained from the diet. Milk samples were obtained before supplementation was begun and then again after 10, 15, 20 and 30 days on the supplement and analyzed for zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of zinc in milk among the four groups was not significantly different at the beginning of the study. Concentration of zinc decreased in all four groups during the study. However, the unsupplemented American women had a significantly (p < .05) greater decrease (-24.45 +/- 9.57% Mean +SE) than those who received the 50 mg zinc supplement (-4.35 +/- 9.57%). Between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups in Egypt, however, there was no significant difference in the change in zinc levels during this 34-day period (-9.47 +/- 5.12% and -8.94 +/- 5.23% respectively.

  8. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells need to grow (see Question 3 ). In randomized clinical trials (a type of research study ), hydrazine ... make tumors shrink or go away. In some randomized trials, however, hydrazine sulfate was reported to be ...

  9. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. PMID:23689109

  10. Production of zinc pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  11. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  12. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  13. Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-01-06

    Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

  14. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, zinc accumulation, and gene expression of zinc transporters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z G; Chen, G Y; Li, L F; Wen, C; Wang, T; Zhou, Y M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated Zn-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) as a Zn supplement on performance, organ or tissue development, Zn accumulation in tissues, and gene expression of Zn transporters in the duodenum of broilers. A total of 300 1-d-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per treatment for a 21-d feeding period. The treatments comprised a basal corn–soybean meal diet without supplemental Zn (the control) or similar diets supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4 or 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn- ZCP, respectively. Supplementation of Zn-ZCP had a positive effect on G:F (linear, P < 0.05) and had tendency difference on ADG (linear, P < 0.1) of broilers during 1 to 21 d. Incremental Zn-ZCP inclusion in the diet increased the fresh weight of the pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) in broilers on d 14. The same trend to the fresh weight of the tibia (linear, P < 0.05) and pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) was observed on d 21. Increasing Zn-ZCP level showed a linear response on Zn concentration in the liver (linear, P < 0.001), pancreas (linear, P < 0.05), and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) on d 14. The same trend of Zn concentrations in pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.001) was observed on d 21. The mRNA levels of Zn transporter 2 (ZnT-2) and Zn transporter 5 (ZnT-5) in the duodenum of chicks fed the diet with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP did not differ from those of chicks fed the control diet, but both were lower (P < 0.05) than those of chicks fed ZnSO4 diet. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels of broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP or ZnSO4 was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Dietary treatments did not affect the mRNA expression of Zn transporter 1 (ZnT-1) or metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). In conclusion, as a Zn supplement, Zn-ZCP was comparable to ZnSO4 for enhancing Zn accumulation and growth performance of broilers during 1 to 21 d. Broilers fed the diet with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had different expressions of ZnT-2 and ZnT-5 in the duodenum compared with those fed the ZnSO4 diet. PMID:25548200

  15. Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Liu, Ya; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Xue; Wu, Wenjie; Gao, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn) supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ). After STZ induction, animals with fasting plasma glucose level ≥16.7 mM were considered as diabetic, and randomly assigned to the group receiving physiological saline (control) or ZnSO4 for 56 days. On days 0, 7, 28 and 56 of treatment, animals were weighed, and their blood samples were analyzed. On day 56, hemodynamic assessment was performed right before the sacrifice of animals. Cardiac tissue specimens were collected and subjected to pathologic assessment, metallothionein (MT) concentration measurement and Western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), the marker of autophagy, and glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), an oxidative stress marker. High-fat diet feeding followed by STZ administration resulted in weight loss, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemodynamic anomalies and a significant increase in the myocardial content of LC3 and GRP78 proteins, but not in MT protein. Zn supplementation effectively attenuated all these aberrations induced by high-fat diet and STZ. These findings suggest that Zn might be a protective factor in diabetic cardiomyopathy, acting in two ways: at least partially, through inhibiting autophagy and by endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:25725139

  16. Alteration in the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes in Chironomus riparius exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Prakash M; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are widely used in several commercial products due to their unique physicochemical properties. However, their release into the aquatic environments through various anthropogenic activities will lead to toxic effect in aquatic organisms. Although several investigations have been reported on the effect of ZnONPs in aquatic organisms using traditional end points such as survival, growth, and reproduction, the molecular level end points are faster and sensitive. In this study, the expression of different genes involved in oxidative stress response, detoxification, and cellular defense was studied in an ecotoxicologically important bio-monitoring organism Chironomus riparius in order to understand the subcellular effects of ZnONPs. The fourth instar larvae were exposed to 0, 0.2, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of ZnONPs and Zn ions (in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) for 24 and 48 h period. The expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase 1 and delta-3, sigma-4 and epsilon-1 classes of glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome p4509AT2, and heat shock protein 70 were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Gene expression results showed that the expression of genes related to oxidative stress response was more pronounced as a result of ZnONPs exposure as compared to Zn ions. The mRNA expression of genes involved in detoxification and cellular protection was also modulated. Significantly higher expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes shows that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of toxicity as a result of ZnONPs exposure in C. riparius. PMID:26278375

  17. Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohamad Amin; Firoozrai, Mohsen; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 μM ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 μM CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 μM CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd. PMID:24639783

  18. Thermodynamic Aspects of the Formation of Sulfate Minerals from Hot Gaseous Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giere, R.; Majzlan, J.

    2006-12-01

    Minerals may form by solid-state reactions or by dissolution and precipitation from a fluid phase, be it magma, aqueous medium, or gas. The latter phase was traditionally not considered as important as the other ones, although it may be essential in some geological environments. Components of minerals (e.g., sulfur) are commonly transported by hot gases in volcanoes. Others may form in burning coal dumps or by burning fossil fuels for energy production. We have identified a number of minerals which precipitated from the hot gases escaping into the atmosphere from the smoke stack of a coal-fired power plant. This power plant uses coal or a mixture of coal and used tires to produce electricity. The phases identified by TEM are anglesite (PbSO4), gunningite (ZnSO4?H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2). In addition to these crystalline phases, amorphous sulfate materials and soot have been identified. All these materials were captured by filtering the escaping gases beyond the last filters intended to remove any particles from the gas stream. Therefore, they must have formed by precipitation from the hot gas and may present a significant pollution load in the vicinity of power plants. Verhulst et al. (1996) have shown that several metals are most likely transported as chloride complexes in the gas phase. Their assumption correlates well with the finding that the chloride-richer coal+tire mixture increases considerably amounts of emitted metals. Using thermodynamic data for these and other sulfate minerals, we are trying to understand and model the precipitation process of these minerals from hot gases at ambient pressures. In this contribution, we focus on the mineral mikasaite (trigonal Fe2(SO4)3). This mineral has been reported only from burning coal dumps (Miura et al. 1994). Using acid-solution calorimetry, we have determined the enthalpy of formation of mikasaite from elements at T = 298.15 K. We have further estimated the standard entropy of this

  19. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  20. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  1. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activities of 12 zinc(II) complexes with four thiosemicarbazone and two semicarbazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Noriko Chikaraishi; Sekino, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Motoki; Honda, Ayano; Yokoyama, Masaki; Nakano, Saori; Shimada, Nobuhiro; Koumo, Chisa; Nomiya, Kenji

    2003-08-01

    Twelve zinc(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone ligands were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Seven three-dimensional structures of zinc(II) complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated by MIC against four bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa), two yeasts (C. albicans and S. cerevisiae) and two molds (A. niger and P. citrinum). The 5- and 6-coordinate zinc(II) complexes with a tridentate thiosemicarbazone ligand (Hatsc), ([Zn(atsc)(OAc)](n) 1, [Zn(Hatsc)(2)](NO(3))(2).0.3H(2)O 2, [ZnCl(2)(Hatsc)] 3 and [Zn(SO(4))(Hatsc)(H(2)O)].H(2)O 4 [Hatsc=2-acetylpyridine(thiosemicarbazone)]), showed antimicrobial activities against test organisms, which were different from those of free ligands or the starting zinc(II) compounds. Especially, complex 2 showed effective activities against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and moderate activities against S. cerevisiae and two molds. These facts are in contrast to the results that the 5- or 6-coordinate zinc(II) complexes with a tridentate 2-acetylpyridine-4N-morpholinethiosemicarbazone, ([Zn(mtsc)(2)].0.2EtOH 5, the previously reported catena-poly [Zn(mtsc)-mu-(OAc-O,O')](n) and [Zn(NO(3))(2)(Hmtsc)] [Hmtsc=2-acetylpyridine (4N-morpholyl thiosemicarbazone)]), showed no activities against the test microorganisms. The 5- and 6-coordinate zinc(II) complexes with a tridentate 2-acetylpyridinesemicarbazone, ([Zn(OAc)(2)(Hasc)] 6 and [Zn(Hasc)(2)](NO(3))(2) 7 [Hasc=2-acetylpyridine(semicarbazone)]), showed no antimicrobial activities against bacteria, yeasts and molds. Complex [ZnCl(2)(Hasc)] 8, which was isostructural to complex 3, showed modest activity against Gram-positive bacterium, B. subtilis. The 1:1 complexes of zinc(II) with pentadentate thiosemicarbazone ligands, ([Zn(dmtsc)](n) 9 and [Zn(datsc)](n) 10 [H(2)dmtsc=2

  3. Measurements of plasma zinc

    PubMed Central

    Davies, I. J. T.; Musa, M.; Dormandy, T. L.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element. Previous methods of measuring zinc in clinical material have been difficult and reported findings must be treated with caution. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy it has been established that plasma zinc is one of the most uniform biochemical characteristics of normal adult blood. Sex and age differences in adult life are insignificant. Increased metabolic activity, on the other hand, induces a marked, immediate fall in plasma zinc level. The possible implications of this are discussed. Zinc levels in patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and anaemia due to acute blood loss have been within normal limits. Plasma zinc is low in certain types of liver disease. PMID:5303355

  4. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration

    SciTech Connect

    Hammersley, V.L.

    1995-07-01

    At present, zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio of the molecular weights of zinc to the zinc compound. This percent zinc is subtracted from percent total zinc and the operation is performed for every zinc compound determined. The remaining zinc value after these subtractions represents zinc as the metal. Zinc metal is the charged state on the anode. Percent total zinc is required in all these calculations. The importance of these components cannot be overemphasized. The presence, or absence, of certain components in the zinc electrode can influence its behavior in a zinc-silver oxide primary battery. Passivation layers, tendency to dendritic growth, corrosion rates, voltage rise times, current density, porosity, surface area, electrochemical capacity, and other considerations make it imperative that the chemical composition of the zinc electrode be known. The focus of this project was to evaluate the present method for total zinc and to develop a better method.

  6. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  7. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  8. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Bacitracin zinc is a medicine that is used on cuts and other skin wounds to help prevent infection. Bacitracin ... medicine that kills germs. Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ...

  9. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  10. USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...