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Sample records for zirconate titanate pzt

  1. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Young Hun; Shokri Kojori, Hossein; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-01

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe <100 nm of PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind.

  2. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paik, Young Hun; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-19

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe <100 nm of PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind. PMID:26788984

  3. Sonochemical preparation of net-lead zirconate titanate (PZT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junzhong; Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Song, Lei; Chen, Zuyao

    2004-03-01

    Perovskite lead zirconate titanate (PZT) microstalline phase with a net (porous) morphology was obtained by the sonochemical method. The gel was prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation on lead acetate (Pb(OOCCH3)2·3H2O), zirconium nitrate (Zr(NO3)4) and tetrabutyl titanate (Ti(Obu-n)4) as the precursors. Phase evolution of the sonochemical gel was monitored by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, FTIR spectra and TEM. The results confirmed that the PZT fluorite phase transformed to the perovskite phase when calcined at high temperature. Sonochemical irradiation has an important effect on further phase evolution and the crystallization morphology of the gel as compared to the reflux method.

  4. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PZT cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZ0.52T0.48 crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Thin Films by Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. F.; Miglioli, L.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, thin lead zirconate titanate, Pb[Zr0.52Ti0.48]O3 (PZT) films have been developed from a novel sol-gel route. The sol-gel films were deposited by spin coating method. Isopropanol-based solution was used for its less toxic property. Gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were used as substrates. Homogeneous polycrystalline films with (110) preferred orientation were obtained from all the films. The films behaved as ferroelectric material where dielectric constant at 0V for the films obtained from Au, Pt and ITO substrates were 484, 770 and 655, respectively. The coercive field values were around 10-15KV/cm which revealed that the films were soft ferroelectric.

  6. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

  7. Dielectric properties of rare earth (Sm and La) substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipti, Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we are reporting the studies on dielectric properties of Lanthanum (La) and Samarium (Sm) substituted Lead Zirconate Titanate with compositional formula Pb(1.02-x)SmxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 and Pb(1.02-x)LaxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 with x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03. The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction route. XRD analysis shows that all the samples be in single phase with tetragonal structure. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature.

  8. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.E. Jr.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

  9. Wafer-scale fabrication of self-actuated piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical resonators based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezest, D.; Thomas, O.; Mathieu, F.; Mazenq, L.; Soyer, C.; Costecalde, J.; Remiens, D.; Deü, J. F.; Nicu, L.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we report an unprecedented level of integration of self-actuated nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a 150 nm thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film at the wafer-scale. A top-down approach combining ultraviolet (UV) lithography with other standard planar processing technologies allows us to achieve high-throughput manufacturing. Multilayer stack cantilevers with different geometries have been implemented with measured fundamental resonant frequencies in the megahertz range and Q-factor values ranging from ~130 in air up to ~900 in a vacuum at room temperature. A refined finite element model taking into account the exact configuration of the piezoelectric stack is proposed and demonstrates the importance of considering the dependence of the beam’s cross-section upon the axial coordinate. We extensively investigate both experimentally and theoretically the transduction efficiency of the implemented piezoelectric layer and report for the first time at this integration level a piezoelectric constant of {{d}31}=15  fm V-1. Finally, we discuss the current limitations to achieve piezoelectric detection.

  10. Residual stress development and effect on the piezoelectric performance of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berfield, Thomas A.

    Ferroelectric thin films have higher energy densities, larger strain capabilities and more rapid response times than their bulk counterparts. Typical applications include micro-actuators, micro-sensors and ultrasonic motors for MEMs applications, as well as, nonvolatile computer memories and switching capacitors for integrated circuitry. The electro-mechanical performance of ceramic thin films is greatly influenced by many factors, including grain size, orientation, film thickness, and residual stress level. Residual stresses which arise during the various processing phases of thin film manufacturing can be quite high due to substantial mismatches in substrate-film thermal properties, intrinsic sources (such as grain boundary interactions, etc.), and other external factors. This dissertation examines the relationship between field-induced displacement response and residual stress level for lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films. The film piezoelectric properties are characterized via interferometric measurements for two different loading cases, while the residual stress is determined experimentally from wafer curvature measurements. Additionally two patterning methods, traditional chemical wet-etching and a novel soft lithographic technique, are explored as a means to reduce residual stress within film features. For the soft lithographic technique, film features are created by selective film cracking, a result of poor substrate adhesion promoted by a mediated, self-assembled monolayer. Wafer curvature stress measurements and DIC-based strain measurements of mediated monolayer patterned features reveal that the in-plane stress/strain development is reduced compared to the blanket film case. Critical in-plane strains at crack initiation are also measured using a new digital image correlation technique, in which fluorescent nanoparticles (c.a. 140 nm) provide the speckle pattern. A corresponding increase in the field induced displacements is observed for the film features with reduced residual stress. Overall, the piezoelectric performance of the films is highly dependent on the residual stress in the films and can be enhanced significantly by a reduction in this stress through film patterning.

  11. Sound velocity variation as function of polarization state in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essolaani, W.; Farhat, N.

    2012-02-01

    There are several ultrasonic techniques to measure the sound velocity, for example, the pulse-echo method. In such method, the size of transducer used to measure the sound velocity must be in the same order of the sample size. If not, the incompatibility of sizes becomes an error source of the sound velocity measurement. In this work, the Laser Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) method is used as ultrasonic method. This method has been very useful for studying the spatial distribution of charges and polarization in dielectrics. We take advantage of the fact that the method allows the sound velocity measurement, to study its variation as function of polarization state in (PZT) ceramics. In a sample with a known thickness e, the sound velocity ν is deduced from the measurement of the transit time T. The sound velocity depends on the elastic constants which in turn they depend on poling conditions. Thus, the variation of the sound velocity is related to the direction and the amplitude of the polarization.

  12. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of RF MEMS series switches using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcawich, Ronald G.

    The aim of this thesis was to design and prototype a robust, low voltage RF MEMS switch for use in military phased arrays. The frequencies of interest for this work include very low frequencies down to DC operation with the upper limit extending to at least 40 GHz. This broad frequency requirement requires a robust high frequency design and simulation using microwave transmission lines. With the aid of researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory, co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines were chosen and designed to provide a low loss, 50 ohm impedance transmission line for the switch. CPW designs allow for both series and shunt switch configuration with this work focusing on a series switch. Furthermore, a series switch an ohmic contact was chosen as opposed to capacitive contacts. Piezoelectric actuation is chosen for the switch to enable operating voltages less than 10 volts while still maintaining a restoring force to prevent stiction. To meet these demands, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been chosen for the piezoelectric actuator. Mechanical modeling of cantilevers comprised of an elastic layer and a Pt-PZT-Pt actuator were used to demonstrate feasibility of closing large gaps between switch contacts. Placement of the actuator to minimize perturbations to the RF transmission line is critical for broadband performance. Using fabrication design rules, electro-mechanical modeling, and high frequency design, the actuators were designed to fit with the RF gap between the RF conductor and ground planes of the CPW transmission line. Optimal performance was obtained with the actuators mechanically isolated from a majority of the RF transmission except for a small section that provides the contact pad to enable switch closure. The resulting switch is the first demonstrated first surface micromachined RF MEMS switch operating from DC to 65 GHz. This switch has a median actuation voltage below 5 volts with operation as low as 2 volts. Isolation in the off state is better than -20 dB across the frequency band with values better than -60 dB observed for frequency below 1 GHz. The insertion loss in the on state is less than 1 dB below 40 GHz and remains below 2 dB up to 65 GHz. Switching time was demonstrated at 40 mus and was limited by bouncing between the contacts, with initial contact observed at less than 10 mus. The cycle reliability of this switch has been tested with high contact resistance failures observed in the low 106 cycles range. The reliability appears to be limited by organic contamination between the contacting surfaces, possibly the result of resist residue and/or the development of a frictional polymer on the platinum coated contact surface. With one application of this RF MEMS switch targeted for military phased arrays, temperature sensitivity is an extremely important characteristic. The PZT SW5.1 design exhibited excellent off state performance with no change in the isolation characteristics from -25°C to 100°C. However, in the on state, the actuation voltage is required to increase to 20 volts to ensure operation at 100°C. The temperature sensitivity was improved by redesigning the RF contact pad to enable co-linear contact between the RF input and output sides of the transmission. This redesign, PZT SW5.2, successfully enables operation of the PZT RF MEMS switch from -25°C to 100°C with an actuation voltage less than 10 volts. The isolation of the newer design remains similar to the earlier design with values better than -20 dB up through 50 GHz. The insertion loss of this design exhibited a slight improvement compared to the earlier design with values less than 0.3 dB below 40 GHz and rising to 0.5 dB up through 50 GHz. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. A smart, intermittent driven particle sensor with an airflow change trigger using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Tomimatsu, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Isozaki, Akihiro; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on a smart, intermittent driven particle sensor with an airflow trigger. A lead zirconate titanate cantilever functions as the trigger, which detects an airflow change without requiring a power supply to drive the sensing element. Because an airflow change indicates that the particle concentration has changed, the trigger switches the optical particle counter from sleep mode to active mode only when the particle concentration surrounding the sensor changes. The sensor power consumption in sleep mode is 100 times less than that in the active mode. Thus, this intermittent driven method significantly reduces the total power consumption of the particle sensor. In this paper, we fabricate a prototype of the particle sensor and demonstrate that the optical particle counter can be switched on by the fabricated trigger and thus that the particle concentration can be measured.

  14. Improved pyroelectric performance for thin film lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitors with IrO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, B.; Sanchez, L.; Waits, C. M.; Polcawich, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    A four orders-of-magnitude reduction in high temperature leakage current was realized through the use of IrO2 top electrodes in thin film lead zirconate titanate capacitors which has been shown to directly impact the performance of future energy conversion applications. Pyroelectric energy conversion is enhanced near the material Curie temperature, but elevated leakage current in this temperature range hinders current applications. Conductivity experiments varying temperature, composition, and applied bias showed that oxygen vacancy hopping dominates the leakage current in the thin film capacitors above 200 °C. IrO2 top electrodes allow for a reduction in vacancy concentration by allowing for oxygen to be reintroduced during a post-processing annealing step for the thin film. The power lost to leakage current through the pyroelectric conversion cycle is explored. Improvements in remnant polarization and pyroelectric constant are also realized.

  15. Symmetries and multiferroic properties of novel room-temperature magnetoelectrics: Lead iron tantalate – lead zirconate titanate (PFT/PZT)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Roque-Malherbe, R.; Polanco, R.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing 60-70% lead zirconate titanate with 40-30% lead iron tantalate produces a single-phase, low-loss, room-temperature multiferroic with magnetoelectric coupling: (PbZr₀.₅₃Ti₀.₄₇O₃) (1-x)- (PbFe₀.₅Ta₀.₅O₃)x. The present study combines x-ray scattering, magnetic and polarization hysteresis in both phases, plus a second-order dielectric divergence (to epsilon = 6000 at 475 K for 0.4 PFT; to 4000 at 520 K for 0.3 PFT) for an unambiguous assignment as a C2v-C4v (Pmm2-P4mm) transition. The material exhibits square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops with 0.1 emu/g at 295 K and saturation polarization Pr = 25 μC/cm², which actually increases (to 40 μC/cm²) in the high-T tetragonal phase, representingmore » an exciting new room temperature oxide multiferroic to compete with BiFeO₃. Additional transitions at high temperatures (cubic at T>1300 K) and low temperatures (rhombohedral or monoclinic at T<250 K) are found. These are the lowest-loss room-temperature multiferroics known, which is a great advantage for magnetoelectric devices.« less

  16. Theoretical and numerical predictions of the electromechanical behavior of spiral-shaped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoxing; Cheeseman, Bryan A; Safari, Ahmad; Danforth, Stephen C; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional analytical model of a spiral-shaped PZT ceramic actuator. Developed using elasticity theory and a zero-stress assumption, the theoretical analysis has been formulated for a piecewise semicircular representation of the spiral-shaped actuator. Closed-form solutions of the tangential displacement of the equivalent spiral under applied electrical field in the poling direction have been obtained. To develop confidence in the theoretical model, results are compared with those obtained using finite element analysis (FEA). Results from both are then compared with previously reported experimental findings, and reasonable agreement is achieved. PMID:12322880

  17. Nonlinear properties of lead zirconate-titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2000-12-01

    Nonlinear properties of lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoceramics are investigated using ultrasonic second harmonic generation technique. When a sinusoidal ultrasonic wave of frequency ω0 is sent into a nonlinear material, the second harmonic wave with frequency 2ω0 is generated. Through measuring the absolute amplitude of the fundamental (ω0) and of the second harmonic (2ω0) waves, the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter β can be determined, which involves certain combinations of the third-order elastic constants and piezoelectric coefficients. We report the measured nonlinear parameters for four types of doped PZT ceramics, PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PZT-5H HD, which are widely used in practice. We found that the nonlinear parameter is much more sensitive than the linear parameter in responding to microstructural changes in piezoceramics. It could be used to distinguish unpoled samples from depoled samples, which are undistinguishable in terms of the linear parameters.

  18. Response of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate to high-energy xenon ion beam pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Seiji; Miura, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu; Shibata, Hiromi; Fujii, Masayuki; Okada, Nagaya; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    To develop a new radiation detector, the characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are currently being studied using a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. In this study, the response of the PZT element to the pulsed beam was investigated by changing the beam intensity. It was found that the time distribution of the Xe ions in the pulse duration must be taken into account to understand the formation of the output signal that appeared on the PZT element.

  19. Plasma-sprayed lead zirconate titanate-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrit, S.; Savin, C.R.; Wiederick, H.D.; Mukherjee, B.K. . Dept. of Physics); Prasad, S.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A plasma-spray process was used to produce piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-glass composite thick films. The films were found to have the same crystal structure as the PZT (Navy-type V) and lead-based glass starting powder mixture. The films showed good adhesion to stainless steel and silver-coated glass slides and poor adhesion to aluminum substrates. The dielectric constant of the films varied between 58 and 20 with dissipations between 0.019 and 0.032. The films were poled, and their piezoelectric charge coefficient, d[sub 33], was 1.1 pC/N.

  20. Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions.

  1. Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nogami, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho; Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Okada, Nagaya

    2008-04-15

    A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

  2. Dependence of Thickness of Lead Zirconate Titanate Material Used as Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Seiji; Morinaga, Shin-ya; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Hiromi; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Okada, Nagaya

    2009-10-01

    The characteristics of a radiation detector fabricated with stacks of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements were studied by irradiation with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. The detector was designed to monitor the output voltage formed on the surface of each element. Three additional PZT elements were placed in front of the detector to increase the thickness of the PZT target. It seemed that the individual output voltage observed at a position beyond the range was dependent on the amount of strain generated by the ionization loss energy of Xe ions within the range.

  3. Properties of ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate thin films prepared by ozone jet reactive evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Hirosi; Miki, Hiroshi; Kushida, Keiko; Fujisaki, Yoshihisa

    1997-03-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared by reactive coevaporation with high-concentration ozone. PZT thin films that demonstrate the highest charge storage density (280 fC/μm2 at 1.5 V for 75-nm-thick film) yet reported have been fabricated. No fatigue was observed after 1011 polarization switching cycles even though a Pt electrode is used. A low leakage current of <10-7 A/cm2 at 1.5 V was attained. These PZT films are promising candidates of an alternative capacitor dielectric for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and ferroelectric nonvolatile memories.

  4. Relationship between orientation factor of lead zirconate titanate nanowires and dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Haixiong E-mail: hsodano@ufl.edu; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A. E-mail: hsodano@ufl.edu

    2013-11-25

    The relationship between the orientation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanowires dispersed in nanocomposites and the resulting dielectric constants are quantified. The orientation of the PZT nanowires embedded in a polymer matrix is controlled by varying the draw ratio and subsequently quantified using Herman's Orientation Factor. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the dielectric constants of nanocomposites are improved by increasing the orientation factor of the PZT nanowires. This technique is proposed to improve the dielectric constant of the nanocomposites without the need for additional filler volume fraction since the nanocomposites are utilized in a wide range of high dielectric permittivity electronic components.

  5. Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/polyurethane composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, K.S.; Wong, Y.W.; Tai, L.S.; Poon, Y.M.; Shin, F.G.

    2004-10-01

    0-3 composite ranging between 0 and 3, of ferroelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and thermoplastic elastomer polyurethane (PU) were fabricated. The pyroelectric and dielectric properties of the hot-pressed thin film samples of various PZT volume fractions were measured. The experimental dielectric permittivities and losses agreed reasonably well with the Bruggeman model. The room temperature pyroelectric coefficients of the composites were found to increase linearly with PZT volume fraction and substantially larger than expected. For example, for a composite with 30% PZT, its pyroelectric coefficient is about 90 {mu}C/m{sup 2}K at room temperature, which is more than tenfold of a PZT/PVDF composite of the same ceramic volume fraction. We propose a model in which the electrical conductivity of the composite system is taken into consideration to explain the linear relationship and the extraordinarily large pyroelectric coefficients obtained.

  6. Electrostriction of lead zirconate titanate/polyurethane composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, K.S.; Zhou, Y.; Wong, Y.W.; Shin, F.G.

    2005-05-15

    Electrostriction of a ferroelectric inclusion/nonferroelectric matrix composite system was studied. The samples were prepared by blending the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles with the thermoplastic polyurethane through extrusion and subsequently by hot pressing. Quasistatic cyclic electric fields were applied across the samples while strains and currents were monitored simultaneously. It was found that the electrostriction of the composites depended on the applied electric field in a hysteretic manner. In particular at the high-field regime, the samples exhibited a reversal in the electrostrictive strain. This switching effect occurred at a critical field which was inversely proportional to the PZT content. An associated increase in the displacement current with the critical field was also observed. It indicates that the switching in strain of the composites was mainly due to the flipping of the PZT dipoles in the nonferroelectric polymer matrix. A model was developed for describing the electrostriction behavior of this composite system and the calculated results are comparable to the experimental curves. The success of this theoretical model encourages its application further to the ferroelectric-ferroelectric composite systems.

  7. Simulation and calculation of the piezoelectric modulus of a lead zirconate-titanate thin film in a test microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Amelichev, V. V.; Saikin, D. A.; Roshchin, V. M.; Silibin, M. V.

    2010-12-15

    Results of simulation of stresses in the test structure of a silicon beam and analytical calculation of piezoelectric modulus d{sub 31} of a lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film arranged in the region of an elastic element are presented. The characteristics of the sensitive element of acceleration are calculated based on a PZT thin film with an inertial mass made of silicon.

  8. Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-07-12

    Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

  9. Niobium doped lead zirconate titanate films for infrared sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hui

    Nb-doped lead zirconate titanate with formula Pb1-x/2 Nbx(Zr0.2Ti0.8)1-xO 3 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and abbreviated as PNZT) films with two thicknesses: one of approximately 200 nm and the other of 1 mum, were grown on platinized silicon (Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si) substrates using the method of chemical solution deposition. These chemical precursors were prepared in-house, and through careful control of the processing procedures high quality films were grown. All the films exhibit highly preferred (111) orientation without any presence of the impurity phase. We systematically investigated the Nb doping effect on the electrical properties of PZT films. Results indicate that Nb belongs to a class of soft dopants for lead zirconate titanate films, and as a result it increases the ferroelectric polarization, pyroelectric coefficient, dielectric constant and tan delta loss. In the capacitors with the configuration of Pt/PNZT/Pt, the leakage current at low electric fields is dominated by the interface-controlled Schottky emission, whereas bulk-controlled Frenkel-Poole emission dominates at high electric fields. Nb-doping up to 2 atomic % can remarkably suppress the Frenkel-Poole emission process. The suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies by Nb donor dopants lowered the leakage current and increases the domain wall mobility. Study also shows that 1% Nb doped PZT films exhibit the highest pyroelectric coefficient, figure of merit and voltage response among all the samples. Therefore these films with such superior properties are potential candidates for applications, especially for fabrication of uncooled pyroelectric IR sensors with better performance.

  10. Resonance magnetoelectric interactions due to bending modes in a nickel-lead zirconate titanate bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashin, D. V.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-03-01

    Resonance magnetoelectric (ME) effects due to bending oscillations have been investigated in bilayers of Ni and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). For nominal sample dimensions, such oscillations occur at a few kilohertz that are much smaller than radial or thickness acoustic modes and result in ME voltage coefficients of 1V/cmOe for tangential magnetization. The mode frequencies can be controlled with proper choice for thicknesses of Ni and PZT. Theoretical estimates of mode frequencies are in very good agreement with the data. The resonator is potentially useful for realizing low-loss ME sensor networks for ac fields as low as 10μOe.

  11. Detection of high-energy heavy ions using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Takechi, Seiji; Morinaga, Shin-ya; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Hiromi; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Okada, Nagaya

    2009-04-15

    The characteristics of a radiation detector fabricated with stacks of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements were studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam for various beam pulse durations. This detector is referred to as the multilayered detector (MD). To understand the production mechanism behind the output voltage obtained from the MD, measurement of the spatial distribution of the output signals generated in the MD was attempted. It was found that the amplitude observed was dependent on the number of Xe ions per unit time and the amount of ionization loss energy of Xe ions in PZT.

  12. Enhanced piezoelectric property of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics with one dimensional ordered pore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Rui; Wang Changan; Yang Ankun; Fu Juntao

    2010-12-15

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with one dimensional ordered pore structure (1-3 type porous PZT ceramics) were fabricated in this study. The special structure not only enhanced the piezoelectric and dielectric properties effectively but also further decreased the acoustic impedance. All samples exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties despite high porosities. The d{sub 33} value was 608 pC /N (remained 88% that of dense PZT) when the porosity was up to 68.7%. The d{sub 33} value was 690 pC /N (same as dense PZT) when the porosity was 41.7%. The lowest acoustic impedance (Z) reached 1.3 MRayls. These results are promising for improving performance in hydrophones applications.

  13. Gas Flow Sputtered Thick Layers of Columnar Lead Zirconate Titanate on Silicon Wafers for High Frequency Ultrasound Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiefensee, F.; Kaden, D.; Jakob, A.; Quenzer, H. J.; Jung, Th.

    The piezoelectric ceramic PZT, lead zirconate titanate, is the most spread material to generate ultrasound in medical and technical applications. Thereby frequencies between 30 MHz and 100 MHz require ceramic thicknesses between 50 μm and 20 μm. The presented gas flow sputtering process permits to deposit PZT of this thickness with a sputtering rate of 100 nm/min at temperatures between 520 °C and 550 °C. The PZT shows a typical columnar structure with a piezoelectric coefficient d33f of about 500 pm/V. An example for the fabrication ultrasound arrays with this sputtering process and lithographic structuring is given.

  14. Pyroelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films on silicon: Effect of thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J.; Alpay, S. P.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Mantese, J. V.; Whatmore, R. W.

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O){sub 3}, (PZT x:1-x)] has received considerable interest for applications related to uncooled infrared devices due to its large pyroelectric figures of merit near room temperature, and the fact that such devices are inherently ac coupled, allowing for simplified image post processing. For ferroelectric films made by industry-standard deposition techniques, stresses develop in the PZT layer upon cooling from the processing/growth temperature due to thermal mismatch between the film and the substrate. In this study, we use a non-linear thermodynamic model to investigate the pyroelectric properties of polycrystalline PZT thin films for five different compositions (PZT 40:60, PZT 30:70, PZT 20:80, PZT 10:90, PZT 0:100) on silicon as a function of processing temperature (25–800 °C). It is shown that the in-plane thermal stresses in PZT thin films alter the out-of-plane polarization and the ferroelectric phase transformation temperature, with profound effect on the pyroelectric properties. PZT 30:70 is found to have the largest pyroelectric coefficient (0.042 μC cm{sup −2} °C{sup −1}, comparable to bulk values) at a growth temperature of 550 °C; typical to what is currently used for many deposition processes. Our results indicate that it is possible to optimize the pyroelectric response of PZT thin films by adjusting the Ti composition and the processing temperature, thereby, enabling the tailoring of material properties for optimization relative to a specific deposition process.

  15. Hot-Pressed Ferrite-Lead Zirconate Titanate Magnetoelectric Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devreugd, C. P.; Srinivasan, G.; Micheli, A. L.; Mantese, J. V.

    2004-03-01

    The electromagnetic coupling in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric is mediated by mechanical stress: magnetostriction induced mechanical deformation and piezoelectric effect induced electric fields. Composites studied so far include ferrite-lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and manganite-PZT [1-3]. Bulk or layered composites are usually synthesized by conventional sintering of mixture of powders or laminated thick films. This study is concerned with the fabrication of novel ferromagnetic-ferroelectric bulk and thin film layered composites by hot pressing together with studies on the nature of magnetoelectric interactions. The objective is to obtain defect free samples with good interface coupling. Systems studied includes Ni-Zn, Co-Zn and Co-Ni ferrites that are predicted to show high piezomagnetic and magnetomechanical couplings and PZT. Samples were prepared using aluminum oxide or high temperature alloy dies. Sintering was done at 1300 K at a pressure of 5000-7000 psi. Measurements of transverse and longitudinal ME coefficients are performed at low frequencies (10 Hz-1kHz), and at electromechanical resonance (100-300 kHz). Important results of our studies are follows. (1) Hot-pressed samples show an order of magnitude improvement in ME voltage coefficient compared to samples processed by conventional sintering. The enhancement is attributed to an increase in density, sample resistivity, and interface coupling. (2) The longitudinal coupling is stronger than the transverse effect. (3) There is a significant increase in ME interactions at electromechanical resonance. (4) Samples with Ni-Zn ferrites show the highest ME coefficients. The results are analysed using our model for a bulk composite. - supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0322254) 1. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, J. Gallegos, Yu. I. Bokhan, and V. M. Laletin, Phys. Rev. B, 64, 214408 (2001). 2. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, B. J. Levin, and R. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 65, 134402 (2002). 3. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, and R. Hayes, Phy. Rev. B 67, 014418 (2003).

  16. Fabrication of lead zirconate titanate actuator via suspension polymerization casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Weiguo

    2000-10-01

    The research presented herein has focused on the fabrication of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) telescopic actuator from Suspension Polymerization Casting (SPC). Two systems were studied: an acrylamide-based hydrogel, and an acrylate-based nonaqueous system. Analytical tools such as thermomechanical analysis (TMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), chemorheology, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to investigate the polymerization and burnout processes. The acrylamide hydrogel polymerization casting process used hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAM) monofunctional monomer with methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM) difunctional monomer, or used methacrylamide (MAM) as monofunctional monomer. High solid loading PZT slurries with low viscosities were obtained by optimizing the amounts of dispersant and the PZT powders. The overall activation energy of gelation was calculated to be 60--76 kJ/mol for the monomer solution, this energy was increased to 91 kJ/mol with the addition of PZT powder. The results show that the PZT powder has a retardation effect on gelation. Although several PZT tubes were made using the acrylamide-based system, the demolding and drying difficulties made this process unsuitable for building internal structures, such as the telescopic actuator. The acrylate-based system was used successfully to build telescopic actuator. Efforts were made to study the influence of composition and experimental conditions on the polymerization process. Temperature was found to have the largest impact on polymerization. To adjust the polymerization temperature and time, initiator and/or catalyst were used. PZT powder has a catalytic effect on the polymerization process. Compared with acrylamide systems, acrylate provided a strong polymer network to support the ceramic green body. This high strength is beneficial for the demolding process, but it can easily cause cracks during the burnout process. To solve the burnout issue, non-reactive decalin was used as a solvent to lower the stress inside the green body. The addition of decalin has no large impact on the polymerization process. With 15 wt% decalin in the monomer solution, the burnout process was successfully solved. The burnout process was monitored by TGA/DTA and TMA. A 51 vol% PZT filled acrylate slurry was cast into a mold made by Stereolithography (SLA), and after curing, the telescopic actuator was removed from the mold. This indirect SLA method provides an efficient way to build ceramic parts. PZT samples were sintered at 1275°C for 4 hours, with density over 98%. SEM analysis showed the sample made by SPC has a uniform microstructure, which may be beneficial to the electric properties. The sample made by polymerization has a d33 value about 680 pm/V, which is better than the literature value (580 pm/V). The electric tests showed this telescopic actuator produced a maximum deflection of 24.7 mum at 250 kV/m, in line with theoretical calculations. Compared with actuators made by other methods, the actuator made by SPC provides a comparable structural factor (187.5). The distortion in actuators is caused by fabrication and sintering.

  17. Effect of microwave annealing temperatures on lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Ankam; Chang, H. Y.; Chang, T. H.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (Pb1.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3) thin films of thickness 260 nm on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates were densified by 2.45 GHz microwave annealing. The PZT thin films were annealed at various annealing temperatures from 400 to 700 °C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction showed that the pyrochlore phase was transformed to the perovskite phase at 450 °C and the film was fully crystallized. The secondary (again pyrochlore) phase was observed in the PZT thin films, which were annealed above 550 °C. The surface morphologies were changed above 550 °C of the PZT thin films due to the secondary phase. Higher dielectric constant (ɛr) and lower dielectric loss coercive field (Ec) were achieved for the 450 °C film than for the other annealed films.

  18. Effect of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) co-doping on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, E.; Guyomar, D.; Lebrun, L.; Guiffard, B.; Grange, G.

    2002-11-01

    The influence of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) dopants on the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary is investigated. PZT ceramics are prepared by a chemical route based on co-precipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The acceptor is incorporated into the B site of the materials and the fluorine ion is introduced into anionic sites. The d33 coefficient, the mechanical quality factor Qm and other properties are measured. Scanning electron microscopy is used to determine the grain size of the materials. Electron spin resonance is used to determine the valency state of Mn in fluorinated PZT ceramics. In Mn doped PZT, the introduction of a fluorine ion makes the poling process easier and increases the piezoelectric coefficients whereas the fluorination of Mg doped PZT constantly leads to hard materials with a lower piezoelectric response. This study shows that (Mn, F) co-doping produces semihard materials with high piezoelectric coefficients.

  19. Phase separation in lead zirconate titanate and bismuth titanate during electrical shorting and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xiaojie; Hu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Ming; Morrison, F. D.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Scott, J. F.

    2006-02-01

    Micro-Raman and electron microprobe techniques are used to show that lead zirconate titanate and samarium-doped bismuth titanate undergo local phase transformations and separation during electrical shorting and in the dendritic precursors to microshorts caused by bipolar fatigue. These precursors for shorts, consisting of dark filaments, were studied just before they completely shorted the sample. The aim of the study was to compare electrical breakdown and breakdown precursors in ABO3 perovskite oxides and related Aurivillius phase layer structures with Bi (A site) substitution and with B-site substitution (e.g., Ti for Zr in PZT). The observation of phase separation and decomposition is related to congruent and incongruent meltings in these materials. Dendritelike shorts and short precursors of a few microns in diameter, produced by extreme bipolar voltage cycling fatigue, are mapped spectroscopically in 1 μm2 areas and exhibit almost pure regions of α-PbO, β-PbO, and rutile TiO2. The α-β PbO phase boundary runs from 500 °C at 1 atm to room temperature at 0.4 GPa, easily accessible temperatures and pressures in the dynamical process. Similarly, under large dc voltages the Sm-doped bismuth titanate transforms from a layered-perovskite structure to a pyrochlore structure during filamentary electrical breakdown, with the loss of Bi. The interfacial phase separation has been attributed to the combination of defect aggregation and thermal decomposition effects.

  20. Effects of Electric Field and Biaxial Flexure on the Failure of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    Reliable design of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezo stack actuators demands that a number of issues, including electromechanical coupling and ceramic strength-size scaling, be scrutinized. This study addresses those through the use of ball-on-ring (BoR) biaxial flexure strength tests of a PZT piezoelectric material that is concurrently subjected to an electric field. The Weibull strength distributions and fracture surfaces were examined. The mechanical failures were further analyzed in terms of internal stress, energy release rate, and domain-switching toughening. Both the sign and the magnitude of an electric field had a significant effect on the strength of poled PZT within the tested range. A surface flaw type with a depth of ~18 m was identified to be the strength limiter and responsible for the failure of the tested PZT under both mechanical and electromechanical loadings. With ~0.74 in the absence of electric field, the fracture toughness of the poled PZT was affected by an applied electric field just as the strength was affected. These results and observations have the potential to serve probabilistic reliability analysis and design optimization of multilayer PZT piezo actuators.

  1. Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

    2012-04-01

    The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide reliable stress sensing under dynamic loadings.

  2. Structural and electrical properties of Nd ion modified lead zirconate titanate nanopowders and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, De-Qing; Yuan, Jie; Zhao, Quan-Liang; Liu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    A modified sol-gel method is used for synthesizing Nd ion doped lead zirconate titanate nanopowders Pb1-3x/2NdxZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PNZT) in an ethylene glycol system with zirconium nitrate as zirconium source. The results show that it is critical to add lead acetate after the reaction of zirconium nitrate with tetrabutyl titanate in the ethylene glycol system for preparing PNZT with an exact fraction of titanium content. It has been observed that the dopant of excess Nd ions can effectively improve the sintered densification and activity of the PNZT ceramics. Piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the PNZT ceramics are remarkably enhanced as compared with those of monolithic lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Especially, the supreme values of piezoelectric constant (d33) and dielectric constant (in) for the PNZT are both about two times that of the monolithic PZT and moreover, the remnant polarization (Pr) also increases by 30%. According to the analysis of the structures and properties, we attribute the improvement in electrical properties to the lead vacancies caused by the doping of Nd ions.

  3. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  4. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  5. Lead zirconate titanate-nickel zink ferrite thick-film composites: obtaining by the screen printing technique and magnetoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, A. A.; Shkuratov, V. Ya.; Chernykh, I. A.; Fetisov, Y. K.

    2010-03-01

    Layered thick-film composites containing one lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer, one nickel zinc ferrite (NZF) layer, two PZT-NZF layers, or three PZT-NZF-PZT layers each 40-50 μm thick are prepared. The layers are applied by screen printing on a ceramic aluminum oxide substrate with a preformed contact (conducting) layer. The dielectric properties of the composites are studied in the temperature interval 80-900 K and the frequency interval 25 Hz-1 MHz. Polarized samples exhibit piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and magnetoelectric effects. In tangentially magnetized two- and three-layer composites, the magnetoelectric conversion factor equals 57 kV/(m T) at low frequencies and reaches 2000 kV/(m T) at the mechanical resonance frequency.

  6. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-01-01

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  7. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong Lee, Sung-Min; Wang, James L.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-12-21

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10{sup 8} cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  8. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-01-01

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and themore » fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.« less

  9. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ∼32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  10. Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

    2010-06-01

    Structural phase transformations between ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE), and paraelectric (FE) phases are frequently observed in the zirconia-rich phase region on the lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) phase diagram. Since the free energy difference among these phases is small, phase transformation can be easily induced by temperature, pressure and electric field. These induced transformation characteristics have been used for many practical applications. This study focuses on a hydrostatic pressure induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation in a tin modified PZT ceramic (PSZT). The relative phase stability between FE and AFE phases is determined by the dielectric permittivity measurement as a function of temperature from -60 C to 125 C. A pressure-temperature phase diagram for the PSZT system will be presented.

  11. Micromachined Silicon Disk Resonator Transduced by Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian Lu,; Tadatomo Suga,; Yi Zhang,; Toshihiro Itoh,; Ryutaro Maeda,; Takashi Mihara,

    2010-06-01

    Piezoelectrically transduced microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices are promising candidates for use in distributed wireless sensor networks (WSN) to their low driving voltage and various sensing actuation capabilities. In this paper, we present a micromachined silicon disk resonator with on-disk piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films as both the actuator and sensor for human healthcare and safety applications. The resonator shows preferred system integration compatibilities, and the negative effects of the PZT-electrode stacks were compressed. A high quality factor was achieved both in air (˜1{,}300) and under vacuum (˜5{,}000). The effects of through-hole and other parameters on device sensitivity were examined and discussed in this paper.

  12. Micromachined Silicon Disk Resonator Transduced by Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Suga, Tadatomo; Zhang, Yi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    Piezoelectrically transduced microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices are promising candidates for use in distributed wireless sensor networks (WSN) to their low driving voltage and various sensing actuation capabilities. In this paper, we present a micromachined silicon disk resonator with on-disk piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films as both the actuator and sensor for human healthcare and safety applications. The resonator shows preferred system integration compatibilities, and the negative effects of the PZT-electrode stacks were compressed. A high quality factor was achieved both in air (˜1,300) and under vacuum (˜5,000). The effects of through-hole and other parameters on device sensitivity were examined and discussed in this paper.

  13. Biaxial Flexural Strength of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate under High Electric Field with Extended Field Range

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kewei; Zeng, Fan W; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, as-received poled lead zirconate titanate, or PZT 5A, was examined using ball-on-ring (BoR) mechanical testing coupled with an electric field. Electric fields in the range of 4Ec (Ec, coercive field) with controlled loading paths were applied, and mechanical tests at a substantial number of characteristic electric field levels were conducted. Commercial electronic liquid FC-40 was used to prevent the setup from dielectric breakdown under a high electric field. Weibull strength distribution was used to interpret the mechanical strength data. The data showed that the strength levels of the PZT-5A tested under OC (open circuit) in air and in FC-40 were almost the same. It was further revealed that , for the studied cases, the effect of loading history on the biaxial flexural strength of the PZT was significant in -Ec, but not in OC or zero field as well as 4Ec . An asymmetry V curve was observed for the characteristic strength-electric field graph, and the bottom of V curve was located near the negative coercive field. Microscopy analysis showed that surface-located volume-distributed flaws were the strength limiter and responsible for the failure of the tested PZT under electromechanical loadings.

  14. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Thomas, J.-C.; Seveno, R.

    2015-05-01

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d31 was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO2 coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO2 and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr0.57Ti0.43)O3. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO2 substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (˜8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (˜180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO2 interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d31 coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d31 value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  15. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  16. Strain-Induced Electrical Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films on a Si wafer with Controlled Oxide Electrode Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Tomoya; Ishiduka, Masaaki; Arai, Takashi; Yanagida, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Naonori; Wakiya, Naoki; Suzuki, Hisao

    2012-09-01

    This paper shows the electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with large compressive residual stress. In this study, the large compressive strain was applied to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films by designing the bottom electrode structure on a Si wafer. The materials selected for the bottom electrode were lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) and lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide [LSCO; (La0.5Sr0.5)CoO3] from the viewpoint of thermal expansion coefficients. As a result, the PZT thin films with morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition received compressive residual stress up to approximately 0.8 GPa from the bottom electrode even on a Si wafer. The compressive residual stress concomitantly increased with increasing LSCO layer thickness. In addition, the remanent polarization of the PZT thin films increased with increasing compressive residual stress.

  17. Study of pinched loop characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (65/35)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. K.; Thakur, O. P.; Kumar, Anand; Prakash, Chandra; Chatterjee, Ratnamala; Goel, T. C.

    2006-07-01

    We report the effect of processing parameters such as (1) uniaxial and (2) isostatic pressings on ferroelectric behavior of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) having Zr /Ti ratio 65/35. The effect of temperature (-125-250°C) on pinched loop characteristics of uniaxially pressed PZT is also reported. Polycrystalline ceramic samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique and sintered at 1250°C. The density was estimated to be 7.63 and 7.58g/cc for the uniaxially and isostatically pressed samples, respectively, prepared by conventional ball milling. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed single phase formation with rhombohedral structure. All samples pressed uniaxially and isostatically showed pinched hysteresis loops at room temperature that disappear at higher temperatures. The remnant polarization (Pr) and coercive field (Eo) for the uniaxially pressed samples become well defined in magnitude and shape at higher measurement temperatures below phase transition temperature (Tc), but at low temperatures a distorted-loop-like structure was observed indicating low polarization properties. The effect of ferroelectric switching cycles on the PZT samples with and without annealing in oxygen is also discussed.

  18. Strength Properties of Aged Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electromechanical Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kewei; Zeng, Fan W; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2012-01-01

    Electric field and aging time are two important factors that affect the mechanical strength and long-term reliability of lead zirconate titanate or PZT actuators. In the present work, a commercial PZT-5A aged four years was examined using ball-on-ring (BoR) mechanical testing under coupled electric fields. The electric field range of -3E{sub c} to +3E{sub c} (E{sub c}, coercive electric field) was studied (i.e., -3E{sub c}, -E{sub c}, 0, +E{sub c}, +2E{sub c}, and +3E{sub c}) with a controlled electric loading path. A Weibull distribution was used to interpret the mechanical strength data. With an electric field preloaded from 0 to -3E{sub c}, it was found that subsequent increases in the electric field resulted in an asymmetrical V-shaped curve of mechanical strength against the electric field. The bottom of the V curve was located near the zero electric field level. Microscopy analysis showed that pores were the strength limiter for the tested PZT under electromechanical loadings.

  19. Microwave emission from lead zirconate titanate induced by impulsive mechanical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, A.; Majcherek, S.; Hirsch, S.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper focuses on microwave emission from Lead zirconate titanate Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3 (PZT) induced by mechanical stressing. The mechanical stress was initiated by impact of a sharp tungsten indenter on the upper surface of PZT ceramic. The sequences of microwave and current impulses, which flew from indenter to electric ground, were detected simultaneously. The voltage between the upper and lower surface of ceramic was measured to obtain the behavior of mechanical force acting on ceramic during the impact. It was found that the amplitude, form, and frequency of measured microwave impulses were different by compression and restitution phase of impact. Two different mechanisms of electron emission, responsible for microwave impulse generation, were proposed based on the dissimilar impulse behavior. The field emission from tungsten indenter is dominant during compression, whereas ferroemission dominates during restitution phase. Indeed, it was observed that the direction of the current flow, i.e., sign of current impulses is changed by transitions from compression to restitution phase of impact. The observed dissimilar behavior of microwave impulses, caused by increasing and decreasing applied force, can be used to calculate the contact time and behavior of mechanical force during mechanical impact on ceramic surface. It is shown that the generation of microwave impulses exhibits high reproducibility, impulse intensity, a low damping factor, and high mechanical failure resistance. Based on these microwave emission properties of PZT, the development of new type of stress sensor with spatial resolution of few microns becomes possible.

  20. A statistical model approximation for perovskite solid-solutions: a Raman study of lead-zirconate- titanate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y; Puretzky, Alexander A; Xie, Y; Glazer, A

    2013-01-01

    Lead titanate (PbTiO3) is a classical example of a ferroelectric perovskite oxide illustrating a displacive phase transition accompanied by a softening of a symmetry-breaking mode. The underlying assumption justifying the soft-mode theory is that the crystal is macroscopically sufficiently uniform so that a meaningful free energy function can be formed. In contrast to PbTiO3, experimental studies show that the phase transition behaviour of lead-zirconate-titanate solid solution (PZT) is far more subtle. Most of the studies on the PZT system have been dedicated to ceramic or powder samples, in which case an unambiguous soft-mode study is not possible, as modes with different symmetries appear together. Our Raman scattering study on titanium-rich PZT single crystal shows that the phase transitions in PZT cannot be described by a simple soft-mode theory. In strong contrast to PbTiO3, splitting of transverse E-symmetry modes reveals that there are different locally-ordered regions. The role of crystal defects, random distribution of Ti and Zr at the B- cation site and Pb ions shifted away from their ideal positions, dictates the phase transition mechanism. A statistical model explaining the observed peak splitting and phase transformation to a complex state with spatially varying local order in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is given.

  1. Internal Friction and Dielectric Measurements in Lead Zirconate Titanate Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Gabbay, Maurice; Fantozzi, Gilbert

    2000-09-01

    Elastic modulus (Young’s modulus M and shear modulus G) and internal friction Q-1 are measured as a function of temperature from {-}180{\\degC} to 500°C in undoped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ferroelectric ceramics in the range of kHz and low frequencies (0.1 to 1 Hz). New phase transition temperatures at the morphotropic zone at low temperatures are determined from the elastic modulus minimum. Permittivity \\varepsilon and dielectric loss \\tan(δ) are measured in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 10 kHz. Both mechanical and electrical measurements allow the observation of relaxation peaks in the ferroelectric phase. The Arrhenius plots of all these results show that it is possible to investigate these relaxation processes using both experimental techniques.

  2. Substrate Clamping Effects on Irreversible Domain Wall Dynamics in Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Griggio, Flavio; Jesse, Stephen; Kumar, Amit; Ovchinnikov, Oleg S; Kim, H.; Jackson, T. N.; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kalinin, Sergei V; Trolier-Mckinstry, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    The role of long-range strain interactions on domain wall dynamics is explored through macroscopic and local measurements of nonlinear behavior in mechanically clamped and released polycrystalline lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. Released films show a dramatic change in the global dielectric nonlinearity and its frequency dependence as a function of mechanical clamping. Furthermore, we observe a transition from strong clustering of the nonlinear response for the clamped case to almost uniform nonlinearity for the released film. This behavior is ascribed to increased mobility of domain walls. These results suggest the dominant role of collective strain interactions mediated by the local and global mechanical boundary conditions on the domain wall dynamics. The work presented in this Letter demonstrates that measurements on clamped films may considerably underestimate the piezoelectric coefficients and coupling constants of released structures used in microelectromechanical systems, energy harvesting systems, and microrobots.

  3. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Performance of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electric Cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Their responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. Mechanical strain and charge density or polarization loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled to more than 10^8 cycles. Important quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, coercive field have been characterized accordingly under corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement condition also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications to the application of interest have been discussed.

  4. Internal field and self-polarization in lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kaptelov, E. Yu.; Senkevich, S. V.; Pronin, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    It has been shown that 300-nm-thick polycrystalline films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), the compositions of which correspond to the region of morphotropic phase boundary, undergo anomalous changes in the composition and the microstructure as the annealing temperature increases. This causes substantial variations in the dielectric and piezoelectric responses, the spontaneous polarization and the internal field value. It has been demonstrated that the self-polarization varies nonmonotonically with increasing the internal field and is characterized by a threshold effect. The role of excess lead oxide and its influence on the formation of the self-polarization and the change in the effective permittivity of the ferroelectric layer has been discussed.

  5. Fatigue and failure responses of lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuator under unipolar high-field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Fan W; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode design were studied under high electric fields (3 and 6 kV/mm) in a unipolar cycling mode. A 100 Hz sine wave was used in cycling. Five specimens tested under 6 kV/mm failed from 3.8 10^5 to 7 10^5 cycles, whereas three other specimens tested under 3 kV/mm were found to be still functional after 10^8 cycles. Variations in piezoelectric and dielectric responses of the tested specimens were observed during the fatigue test, depending on the measuring and cycling conditions. Selected fatigued and damaged actuators were characterized using an impedance analyzer or small signal measurement. A scanning acoustic microscope also was employed as a nondestructive tool to detect the presence of defects. Failed plates were subsequently sectioned, and the extensive cracks and porous regions were observed to be across the PZT layers. The results from this study have demonstrated that the high-field cycling can accelerate the fatigue of PZT stacks as long as the partial discharge is controlled. The small signal measurement can also be integrated into the large signal measurement to characterize the fatigue response of PZT stacks in a more comprehensive basis. The former can further serve as an experimental method to monitor the behavior of PZT stacks.

  6. Patterned growth of Au nanoparticles on polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hun; Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul

    2014-10-01

    We report the patterned growth of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on polarity-patterned polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as a template through photochemical reaction. The photochemical deposition of the Au NPs includes ultraviolet (UV) light illumination of the patterned PZT while immersed in a HAuCl4 solution. In particular, the influence of the UV wavelength, and the influence of the solution with the stabilizer and reducer on the growth selectivity of the Au NPs on the polarity-patterned regions was investigated. For a UV light of 365 nm wavelength, corresponding to a band-gap excitation of the PZT, more Au NPs were deposited on the + z polar region than on the other non-polar regions. However, no deposition of the Au NPs was observed for UV light wave-lengths longer than - 365 nm. When ascorbic acid (AA) as a reducer and cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a stabilizer were added to the HAuCl4 solution, the Au NPs on the + z polar region were observed to be deposited with a UV light of 435 nm, which is larger than the optical band gap wavelength of the PZT. Also, the growth selectivity and size uniformity on the + z region was significantly improved. These results could be due to the defect-induced photo-excitation of electrons and enhanced reduction process of Au+ ions by adding the reducer and the stabilizer in the photo-chemical process. This study suggests the possibility of the patterned growth of Au NPs on a ferroelectric surface through polarity patterning and photochemical reaction by optimizing the UV wavelength and employing reduction potential agents in a metal salt solution. PMID:25942907

  7. EPDM composite membranes modified with cerium doped lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, T.; Dumitru, A.; Lungulescu, M. E.; Velciu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed on ?-irradiated ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) loaded with lead zirconate titanate. The inorganic phase has a perovskite structure with general formula Pb(Zr0.65-xCexTi0.35)O3. The three composites with different Ce dopant concentrations revealed the stabilization activity of filler against oxidation proved by chemiluminescence investigation in respect to pristine polymer. The presence of cerium low concentrations in the solid lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles causes significant slowing of oxidation rate during radiation exposure. The improvement in the stabilization feature of filler is correlated with the existence of traps, whose interaction with free radicals assumes medium energy due to their convenient depth.

  8. Study of the characteristics of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate radiation detector using a pulsed xenon source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okudaira, Osamu; Takechi, Seiji; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Morinaga, Shinya; Uno, Takefumi; Shibata, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Okada, Nagaya

    2010-05-15

    The detector characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were studied by directly irradiating a multilayered PZT detector with 400 MeV/n xenon ions. An extracted beam was processed with a rotating slit. Thus, passed through {approx}10{sup 3} xenon ions were available for 50 to 250 {mu}s. The effect of polarization on the output signal was discussed, and the optimal electrode configuration was determined. The output signal appeared as an isolated pulse whose amplitude was qualitatively understood by the Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the calculated and the observed values differed depending on the rotation speed of the slit. A process that can explain the differences is presented here. The output signal appearing beyond the range of 400 MeV/n xenon ion beam was discussed. The sensitivity was compared with that obtained with hypervelocity collision of dust.

  9. A circular array transducer for photoacoustic imaging by using piezoelectric single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yonggang; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon; Kang, Hyunwook; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jungsoon

    2015-07-01

    The ultrasound transducers of which center frequencies are lower than 10 MHz are commonly used in low frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging systems. However, the improvement of their sensitivity is still needed to detect weak PA signals. In this study, a circular array transducer was constructed by using 120 needle hydrophones made of piezoelectric single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT). The needle hydrophone was designed to have high sensitivity and wide bandwidth through the Krimtholz-Leedom-Matthaei (KLM) simulation of receiving impulse response. The sensitivity of the fabricated PMN-PZT hydrophone was compared with a commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) needle hydrophone. The usefulness of the circular array transducer was demonstrated by applying it to a PA system for obtaining images.

  10. Effects of fluorine-oxygen substitution on the dielectric and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiffard, B.; Audigier, D.; Lebrun, L.; Troccaz, M.; Pleska, E.

    1999-11-01

    In this study, a fluorine-oxygen substitution in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with a nominal composition of Pb0.89(Ba, Sr)0.11(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) doped with 1% MgO is proposed. The evolution of four dielectric and electromechanical coefficients—ɛr, tgδ, d33, and Qm—with increasing fluorine concentration showed that (MgO and F)-doped PZT ceramics are harder than only MgO-doped PZT (0 at. % F). The influence of the F-O substitution on the temperature dependence of the frequency constant N33 and the stress dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was investigated. A hysteretic free response of N33 and the lowest stress dependence of d33 were obtained for the (MgO and 4 at. % F)-doped PZT specimen. This material also exhibits the highest Qm in the (MgO and F)-doped PZT family and seems to be stoichiometric and without oxygen vacancies. For comparison, both the temperature and stress dependences of two commercial PZT ceramics are shown. The study of the influence of the Zr/Ti ratio on the temperature dependence of N33 revealed that fluorine stabilizes the rhombohedral phase/tetragonal phase interface. Both types of stability, versus temperature and uniaxial mechanical stress, may be linked to the domain wall configuration stabilization by Mg2+-F- dipoles which are less mobile than Mg2+-VO ones.

  11. Investigation of the additive induced doping effects in gelcast soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dong; Cai Kai; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2009-09-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of the electrical properties of electronic ceramics to various factors, knowledge about the possible influence of the processing procedure on their electrical performance is critical for applying a new technique to the fabrication of the materials. In this study, various electrical parameters, complex impedance spectra, ferroelectric hysteresis loops, and microstructures of soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics formed by the gelcasting technique from suspensions with various dispersants were investigated in comparison with those of the conventional dry pressed ones. We found that the sodium ion, which is the main cation in many commercial surfactants, exhibited obvious hard doping effects; thus causing deteriorated performance of the gelcast PZT ceramics. While a certain impurity ion introduced by a dispersant was also found to induce soft doping characteristics and improve the electrical performance of the materials. The results suggest that the doping effects of the metal ions or impurities introduced by the dispersants, or other additives, should be generally considered for applying a wet processing technique to forming multicomponent electronic ceramics.

  12. AC Poling study of lead zirconate titanate/vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, K. W.; Wong, C. K.; Zeng, R.; Shin, F. G.

    2005-06-01

    It is experimentally known that a polymer matrix phase in a composite of ferroelectric particles dispersed in a ferroelectric polymer can be polarized by using a few cycles of an ac field, without causing much disturbance to the state of polarization of the inclusion particles. This paper attempts to investigate this special poling process for a typical ferroelectric composite system of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles in a vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer matrix, upon the application of 10 Hz ac fields of various amplitudes. Compared to a copolymer sample, the composite samples can be polarized at a lower field, and hence show a larger “remanent” polarization at the same poling field. Among the composites, the observed “remanent” polarization increases with increasing ceramic volume fraction. These experimental observations can be understood by a simple model, in which space charges are allowed to accumulate at the particle-matrix interfaces because of the electrical conductivity of the constituents. At a fast switching poling field of 10 Hz, the calculation shows that conductivity and charge accumulation effects in the composite are only minimal. Accordingly, although the PZT phase as well as the copolymer phase are both polarized under the ac field, the ceramic phase is only polarized to about 10% when the copolymer phase is almost fully polarized. Thus, one can still use an ac field to polarize only the copolymer phase of the composite without altering the polarization state of the ceramic phase significantly.

  13. Structural health monitoring of multi-spot welded joints using a lead zirconate titanate based active sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ping; Kong, Qingzhao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Tianyong; Huo, Lin-sheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Failures of spot welded joints directly reduce the load capacity of adjacent structures. Due to their complexity and invisibility, real-time health monitoring of spot welded joints is still a challenge. In this paper, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based active sensing approach was proposed to monitor the structural health of multi-spot welded joints in real time. In the active sensing approach, one PZT transducer was used as an actuator to generate a guided stress wave, while another one, as a sensor, detected the wave response. Failure of a spot welded joint reduces the stress wave paths and attenuates the wave propagation energy from the actuator to the sensor. A total of four specimens made of dual phase steel with spot welds, including two specimens with 20 mm intervals of spot welded joints and two with 25 mm intervals, were designed and fabricated for this research. Under tensile tests, the spot welded joints successively failed, resulting in the PZT sensor reporting decreased received energy. The energy attenuations due to the failures of joints were clearly observed by the PZT sensor signal in both the time domain and frequency domain. In addition, a wavelet packet-based spot-weld failure indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the failure condition corresponding to the number of failed joints.

  14. Influence of the Niobium or Fluorine Dopant Concentration on the Properties of Mn-Doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Eric; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Guyomar, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the effect of donor addition (Nb5+ or F-) on the electrical and piezoelectric properties and crystallographic characteristics of Mn-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Samples were prepared chemically by coprecipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The niobium ion was incorporated in the B site whereas the fluorine ion was introduced in the anionic site. Structural analysis (XRD) and measurement of electrical properties were carried out. Electron spin resonance was used to determined the valency states of manganese in PZT ceramics. From the experimental results, the F-O substitution decreases the amount of oxygen vacancies in the Mn-doped PZT, and the valency states remain unchanged. However, a small number of oxygen vacancies may exist in PZT doped with 1 at.% manganese and 2 at.% fluorine. In the (Mn,Nb) co-doping case, the valency states vary from 4+ to 2+ and the number of oxygen vacancies is lower or even almost equal to zero. Thus the electroneutrality is achieved by lead vacancies.

  15. Local origin of macroscopic properties and patterning in Lead zirconate titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bintachitt, Patamas

    This thesis describes the preparation of high quality lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films, the nonlinearity in their dielectric and piezoelectric responses, as well as their patterning by reactive ion etching. One goal of the research was to obtain {001} oriented PZT films on Pt-coated Si substrates. In this work, PbTiO3 buffer layers were chosen due to good lattice matching with PZT films, and the strong propensity for development of {001} orientation. The pyrolysis, crystallization steps, and lead excess addition of PbTiO3 buffer layers deposition were investigated. Using a thin PbTiO3 buffer layer and controlled pyrolysis conditions allowed {100} oriented PZT films to be prepared. The PbTiO3 buffer layer can be used over a full wafer to provide orientation. Higher piezoelectric coefficients, e31,f of -14 and -10 C/m2 were achieved for {001} PZT thin films of 1.0 mum and 0.24 mum thickness, respectively using appropriate poling conditions. The local and global domain wall contributions were studied by piezoelectric nonlinearity and dielectric nonlinearity in both {001}-textured PZT films and PZT films with mixed {001} and {111} orientation. It was found that films over the thickness range probed showed Rayleigh-like behavior. 4 mum thick films were nearly uniform in their Rayleigh coefficient, suggesting that any heterogeneities in the response developed at lateral length scales below the resolution of the PFM measurement. In contrast, thinner films showed significantly more patchiness in their response, so that fluctuations in behavior developed at a lateral length scale on the order of 0.6 to 2.5 micron. These variations did not appear to be correlated directly with the surface topology. Finally, it is hypothesized that the same population of domain wall contributes to the local and global nonlinearity. Nanoindentation measurements were conducted in an attempt to distinguish 180° and non-180° domain wall motion in these films. Non-180° domain walls can be moved by both electrical and mechanical fields. In contrast, 180° domain walls can be moved by electric fields, but not by uniform stresses. In PZT films with mixed {111} and {001} orientation, some ferroelastic wall motion took place during loading, at stress levels on the order of GPa. The reduced elastic modulus is much higher on the unloading curve. Thus, on unloading, it is believed that there is no contribution from mechanical softening associated with ferroelasticity. The global polarization switching in polycrystalline, {001}-textured films on Si, and {001}-films on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 was studied through first order reversal curves (FORC) in order to assess the Preisach distribution governing the switching behavior. Acquisition of multiple hysteresis loops allows polarization switching parameters including nucleation biases, coercive biases, and the amount of switchable response to be mapped in real space. SS-PFM was studied on both bare PZT film surfaces and in capacitor structures (metal/PZT film/metal). The capacitor structure shows the evolution of correlated switching of 102 - 10 3 grain clusters with well-defined imprint and nucleation biases. A transition from a regime where the domain wall motion is over a short range to the formation of clusters to complete switching is observed. The switchable polarization as a function of bias window allows the voltage dependence and spatial distribution of regions with reversible and irreversible wall motions to be mapped. The final chapter of experimental work describes the patterning of PZT films for MEMS. The ability to dry etch large depths of ferroelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate is important in both microelectromechanical systems and in high frequency medical ultrasound transducers. Dense Pb(Zr 0.52Ti0.48)O3 films (≥1 mum) were used to study the etching characteristics. The variation of the etch rate with gas flow rate, source power, substrate holder power, and operation pressure and the uniformity of etching were investigated. The maximum etch rate achieved was 0.31 mum/min. The electrical properties of PZT films directly exposed to the plasma after etching are similar to the electrical properties of PZT before etching. Small changes in the minor hysteresis loops were found, suggesting that there may be a small change in the internal field induced by the patterning process. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Lead zirconate titanate cantilever for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Y.; Fujii, T.; Watanabe, S.; Tonoli, A.; Carabelli, S.; Yamada, H.; Bleuler, H.

    1999-02-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy with frequency modulation detection is a promising technique for surface observation with true atomic resolution. The piezoelectric material itself can be an actuator and sensor of the oscillating probe simultaneously, without the need for additional electro-mechanical transducers or other measurement systems. A vertical resolution of 0.01 nm rms has been achieved using a microfabricated cantilever with lead zirconate titanate thin film in noncontact mode frequency modulation detection. The cantilever also has a sharpened pyramidal stylus with a radius of about 10 nm for noncontact atomic force microscopy.

  17. Effect of neodymium (Nd) doping on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate (53/47) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, S. B.; Roy, B.; Katiyar, R. S.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2001-09-01

    The results of the studies on the effect of rare earth Nd doping on the phase formation behavior and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Pb1.05(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) thin films are presented. The perovskite phase is obtained up to 5 at. % doping and beyond that pyrochlore phase was found to coexist with the perovskite phase in all the films. The transition temperature of undoped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film was found to be reduced with Nd doping. The Nd doped films also exhibited typical relaxor-type behavior and a diffuse phase transition, similar to that observed in relaxor materials. The introduction of Nd into the PZT lattice probably introduces disorder in the B site of ABO3 lattice, which causes the observed dielectric relaxation. Efforts were made to isolate the irreversible component contributions in low field dielectric and high field polarization switching behavior.

  18. Lead zirconate titanate-based thick films for high-frequency focused ultrasound transducers prepared by electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Abellard, André-Pierre; Kuscer, Danjela; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Lethiecq, Marc; Malic, Barbara; Levassort, Franck

    2014-03-01

    An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process with high deposition rate was used to fabricate a curved piezoelectric thick film devoted to high-frequency transducers for medical imaging. Niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZTNb) powder was stabilized in ethanol to prepare a suspension with high zeta potential and low conductivity. A gold layer, pad-printed and fired on a curved porous PZT substrate, was used as the working electrode for the deposition of the PZTNb thick film. This substrate was chosen because it has the required properties (acoustic impedance and attenuation) to be used directly as a backing for the high-frequency transducer, leading to a simplified process for transducer assembly with this integrated structure. PZT-Nb thick films were also deposited by EPD on flat gold-coated alumina substrates as a reference. The thickness of the films was between 20 and 35 μm, and their electromechanical performance was comparable to standard PZT bulk ceramics with a thickness coupling factor of 48%. For the curved thick film, the thickness coupling factor was slightly lower. The corresponding integrated structure was used to fabricate a transducer with a center frequency of 40 MHz and an f-number of 2.8. It was integrated into a realtime ultrasound scanner and used to image human forearm skin; the resulting images showed, for the first time, the efficacy of the EPD process for these imaging applications. PMID:24569258

  19. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microelecronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound ─ morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) ─ are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm−2 is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics. PMID:26837240

  20. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microelecronic devices.

    PubMed

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M; Calzada, M Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound ─ morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) ─ are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm(-2) is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics. PMID:26837240

  1. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microelecronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound - morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) - are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm-2 is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics.

  2. Effect of poling procedure on the properties of lead zirconate titanate/vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H. L. W.; Ng, P. K. L.; Choy, C. L.

    1999-05-01

    Lead zirconate titanate/vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene [PZT/P(VDF-TrFE)] 0-3 composites for pyroelectric sensor and piezoelectric transducer applications have been fabricated by incorporating PZT powder into a P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix. The properties of these composites can be tailored to suit designated applications by varying the ceramic volume fraction and by using different poling procedures. As both phases in the composite are ferroelectric, and the piezoelectric coefficients of the ceramic and copolymer phases have opposite signs while the pyroelectric coefficients have like signs, special ways can be used to produce three groups of samples with (1) only the ceramic phase poled, (2) two phases poled in the same direction to achieve reinforced pyroelectric activity and reduced piezoelectric activity, and (3) two phases poled in opposite directions to obtain reinforced piezoelectric activity and reduced pyroelectric activity. In this work, original experimental results on the properties of PZT/P(VDF-TrFE) composites poled under different conditions are presented and possible reasons behind the reinforcement and cancellation of piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties are discussed.

  3. Converse mode piezoelectric coefficient for lead zirconate titanate thin film with interdigitated electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, N.; Balma, D.; Nigon, R.; Mazzalai, A.; Matloub, R.; Sandu, C. S.; Muralt, P.

    2015-04-01

    The use of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) in conjunction with ferroelectric thin films shows many attractive features for piezoelectric MEMS applications. In this work, growth of {1 0 0}-textured lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films was achieved on insulating MgO buffered, oxidized silicon substrates. IDEs were fabricated by lift-off techniques and cantilevers were formed by dicing. The deflection upon application of a sweeping voltage was measured as large signal response in parallel to the ferroelectric polarization (PV loop). Likewise, the small signal piezoelectric response was measured in parallel to the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement. In this way, a complete picture of the ferroelectric-piezoelectric element was obtained. From the deflection, the in-plane piezoelectric stress in the PZT thin film was derived and, from this, the effective piezoelectric coefficients. For the latter, two types were defined: an engineering type corresponding to the average value along the IDE, which can directly be compared to coefficient of a parallel plate electrode (PPE) capacitor and a second one that approximately yields the idealized coefficient governing between the electrode fingers. The IDE structures were experimentally compared with PPE structures of identical film thickness. The resulting coefficients were of opposite sign, as expected. In spite of a much better polarization loop, the IDE device showed a lower average piezoelectric stress. The estimated peak value between the fingers was about the same as in the PPE device, corresponding to about 20 C m-2. Nevertheless, the result is very promising for cases where compressive piezoelectric stresses are required and for preventing cracking due to large piezoelectric tensile stresses in PPE systems.

  4. Formation and properties of porous films of lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.; Zubkova, E. N.; Abdullaev, D. A.; Kotova, N. M.; Vishnevskiy, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    The processes of formation and the properties of porous ceramic lead zirconate titanate films have been considered. The porous structure formed by thermal destruction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with the molecular weight 29000 makes it possible to increase the cracking-free film thickness (by a factor of approximately two for one deposition at 20 wt % PVP; in this case, the volume porosity is 33%). An increase in the porosity decreases the permittivity ɛ; at 20 wt % PVP, ɛ = 432-456 depending on the film thickness. These values are less than those in nonporous films by a factor of more than two. An increase in the porosity is accompanied by an increase in the remanent polarization in the films. However, the hysteresis loop shape changes in the region of saturation polarization.

  5. Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate by Fluid Flow in Intravascular Oxygenator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi‑Beum; Hong, Chul‑Un; Kwon, Tae‑Kyu

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the enhancement in oxygen transfer rate in hollow-fiber-membrane (HFM) modules using a plumbum piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a piezoelectric poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor. We developed a vibrating intravascular lung assist device (VIVLAD) for patients having chronic respiratory problems and performed experiments on hydrodynamic flow through a bundle of sinusoidal vibrating hollow fibers. These modules were used to provide some insight into how wall vibrations might enhance the performance of an intravascular lung assist device. The experimental design and procedure are then applied to the fabrication of a device used to assess the effectiveness of membrane vibrations. The test section was a cylindrical duct with an inner diameter of 30 mm. The flow rate was controlled by a pump and monitored by a built-in flowmeter. The vibration apparatus was composed of a piezovibrator, a function generator, and a power amplifier. The direction of vibration was radial to the fluid flow. Gas flow rates of up to 6 L/min through 120-cm-long hollow fibers were achieved by exciting the piezovibrator. The time and frequency responses of PVDF sensors were investigated through various frequencies in VIVLAD. In these devices, the flow of blood and the source of oxygen were separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into and out of the fluid, respectively. Results of the experiments have shown that a vibrating intravascular lung assist device performs effectively.

  6. Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Joseph T.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Ferreira, Paulo; Small, Leo; Duquette, David; Apblett, Christopher; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2013-03-28

    The effects of neutron-induced damage on the ferroelectric properties of thin film lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were investigated. Two sets of PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} films of varying initial quality were irradiated in a research nuclear reactor up to a maximum 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of (5.16 {+-} 0.03) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. Changes in domain wall mobility and reversibility were characterized by polarization-electric field measurements, Rayleigh analysis, and analysis of first order reversal curves (FORC). With increasing fluence, extrinsic contributions to the small-signal permittivity diminished. Additionally, redistribution of irreversible hysterons towards higher coercive fields was observed accompanied by the formation of a secondary hysteron peak following exposure to high fluence levels. The changes are attributed to the radiation-induced formation of defect dipoles and other charged defects, which serve as effective domain wall pinning sites. Differences in damage accumulation rates with initial film quality were observed between the film sets suggesting a dominance of pre-irradiation microstructure on changes in macroscopic switching behavior.

  7. In situ neutron diffraction studies of a commercial, soft lead zirconate titanate ceramic: response to electric fields and mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Cottrell, Michelle A.; Lee, Wayne; Studer, Andrew J.; An, Ke; Hubbard, Camden R.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-06-01

    Structural changes in commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics (EC-65) under the application of electric fields and mechanical stress were measured using neutron diffraction instruments at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural changes during electric-field application were measured on the WOMBAT beamline at ANSTO and include non-180° domain switching, lattice strains and field-induced phase transformations. Using time-resolved data acquisition capabilities, lattice strains were measured under cyclic electric fields at times as short as 30 μs. Structural changes including the (002) and (200) lattice strains and non-180° domain switching were measured during uniaxial mechanical compression on the NRSF2 instrument at ORNL. Contraction of the crystallographic polarization axis, (002), and reorientation of non-180° domains occur at lowest stresses, followed by (200) elastic strains at higher stresses.

  8. Evolution of Linear Moduli and Remanent State Variables during Polarization Reversal in a Lead Zirconate Titanate Wafer at Various Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Sang-Joo

    2011-03-01

    A poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafer is subjected to electric field loading of pulse type whose magnitude is increasing until polarization direction is completely reversed. Then it is subjected to the same type of electric field loading in the opposite direction to return to initial state. During the complete cycle of polarization reversal, electric displacement in thickness direction and in-plane strain are measured in both loaded and unloaded states. The same measurement is made at four different temperatures. From the measured data, permittivity and piezoelectric coefficient are evaluated and fitted as linear functions of remanent polarization and temperature. Reference remanent polarization-reference remanent in-plane strain plots are drawn and switching processes at different temperatures are compared with each other. The present observations will be helpful in constructing constitutive models for nonlinear thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of ferroelectric ceramics.

  9. Time-Dependent Behavior of a Lead Titanate Zirconate Wafer under Constant Electric Fields at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju Hong; Lee, Chang-Hoan; Lee, Seungje; Lee, Se Jung; Kim, Sang-Joo

    2009-10-01

    A commercially available lead titanate zirconate (PZT) wafer that is poled in thickness direction is subjected to various constant magnitudes of through thickness electric field for about 1800 s and a subsequent zero electric field for about 1000 s at four different high temperatures. During the whole period of loading time, the variations of the electric displacement in thickness direction and the in-plane strain are measured and discussed in terms of mesoscopic domain switching and macroscopic polarization vector. It is found that the magnitude of the electric field needed for switching decreases with increase in temperature. The values of various material properties at high temperatures are also estimated. Finally, the linear relation between remanent through thickness polarization and remanent in-plane strain near the two opposite poled states is obtained and the role of the remanent polarization in thickness direction as a single macroscopic state variable is discussed.

  10. Lead zirconate titanate nanoscale patterning by ultraviolet-based lithography lift-off technique for nano-electromechanical system applications.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Costecalde, Jean; Rèmiens, Denis; Soyer, Caroline; Nicu, Liviu

    2012-09-01

    The advantage of using lead zirconate titanate (PbZr(0.54)Ti(0.46)O(3)) ceramics as an active material in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comes from its relatively high piezoelectric coefficients. However, its integration within a technological process is limited by the difficulty of structuring this material with submicrometer resolution at the wafer scale. In this work, we develop a specific patterning method based on optical lithography coupled with a dual-layer resist process. The main objective is to obtain sub-micrometer features by lifting off a 100-nm-thick PZT layer while preserving the material's piezoelectric properties. A subsequent result of the developed method is the ability to stack several layers with a lateral resolution of few tens of nanometers, which is mandatory for the fabrication of NEMS with integrated actuation and read-out capabilities. PMID:23007767

  11. Effects of Pb5Ge3O11 on pyroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate thick films deposited on silicon substrate by electrophoresis deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui Wu, Chuan; Peng, Qiang Xiang; Sun, Xiang Yu; Meng, Jia; Yao, Shuai; Luo, Wen Bo; Li Zhang, Wan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of Pb5Ge3O11 (PGO) sintering additive on the sintering temperature (Ts) and pyroelectric properties of 1 × 1 mm2 lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thick films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates were studied. The pattern of PGO-added PZT thick films were formed directly by electrophoresis deposition (EPD). The PGO percentage and Ts were optimized at the range from 0 to 9 wt % and 700 to 900 °C, respectively. The energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) results showed that the diffusion between Si and PZT were weaken gradually as the Ts decreased. The sintered PZT films sintered at 800 °C with 3 wt % PGO exhibited room-temperature pyroelectric coefficient (Pc) of 1.73 × 10-8 C/(cm2·K), figure of merit for detectivity (FD) of 1.9 × 10-5 Pa-0.5, permittivity of 330 and dielectric loss of 1.5% (1 kHz), respectively. These results demonstrate that the directly patterned PGO-added PZT thick films fabricated by EPD show potential application in MEMS detectors.

  12. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-09-01

    Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring, and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZT crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

  13. Electrostriction in lead lanthanum zirconate-titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Z.Y.; Cross, L.E.; Kumar, U.

    1985-08-01

    Electric polarizations and elastic strain were measured simultaneously for several lead lanthanum zirconate-titanate (PLZT) compositions cycled around their high-field electric hysteresis loops. Using the accepted symbolism for compositions, where the first number gives the mole percent of La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the second two numbers give the ratio of PbZrO/sub 3/ to PbTiO/sub 3/ in the composition, data were taken for (7, 7.5, 8, 8.8, 9.5)/65/35 and 8/70/30 compositions. The results show that for all compositions in which the base state is macroscopically nonpolar, the strains are dominantly electrostrictive in nature. Both of the polarization-related constants, Q/sub 11/ and Q/sub 12/ are almost independent of temperature and of the same order as in other perovskites but decrease slightly in magnitude with increasing La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content.

  14. Promotion of piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics with (Zr,Ti) partially replaced by Nb 2O 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Huei; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Long

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the correlation of sintering effects on piezoelectric properties of Nb modified lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics produced by the conventional solid reaction sintering. Samples were prepared at a composition Zr/Ti=53/47, contiguous to a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) for 1 mol% Nb2O5. Replacement of Ti+4 by Nb+5 in such perovskite type solid solutions was accomplished by the creation of cation vacancies. These created vacancies seemed to facilitate material transport and benefit sintering. Calcined at 850 °C/2 h and sintered at 1250 °C/2 h, the PZT ceramics yielded a minimum value of the mechanical quality factor (Qm) 50, and exhibited a maximum electromechanical coupling factor κp 0.62, in accordance with the relationship between the mechanical quality factor and electromechanical coupling factor. In addition, during the sintering process a piezoelectric charge constant at d33 was found to be of 385 pC/N. It was noted that the fundamental resonance frequency was around 200 kHz, which was suitable for piezoelectric nebulizer (fluid atomizer), ultrasonic cleaning transducer applications.

  15. Pressure, temperature, and electric field dependence of phase transformations in niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wen D.; Carlos Valadez, J.; Gallagher, John A.; Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wes

    2015-06-28

    Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops were open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, A.; Sreemany, M.; Halder, S. K.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; Sen, Suchitra

    2008-07-01

    In analogy with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (PWAS), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films also seem to be promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) due to a number of reasons. Firstly, PZT thin films with well oriented domains show enhanced piezoelectric response. Secondly, PWAS requires comparatively large voltage leading to a demand for thin PZT films (≪ μm in thickness) for low voltage operation at ⩽10 V. This work focuses on two different aspects: (a) growing oriented PZT thin films in ferroelectric perovskite phase in the range of (80-150) nm thickness on epitaxial Si/Pt without a seed layer and (b) synthesizing perovskite phase in PZT thin films on Corning glass 1737 using a seed layer of TiOx (TiOx thickness ranging between 30 nm to 500 nm).

  17. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Sreemany, M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; Sen, Suchitra; Halder, S. K.

    2008-07-29

    In analogy with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (PWAS), Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films also seem to be promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) due to a number of reasons. Firstly, PZT thin films with well oriented domains show enhanced piezoelectric response. Secondly, PWAS requires comparatively large voltage leading to a demand for thin PZT films (<< {mu}m in thickness) for low voltage operation at {<=}10 V. This work focuses on two different aspects: (a) growing oriented PZT thin films in ferroelectric perovskite phase in the range of (80-150) nm thickness on epitaxial Si/Pt without a seed layer and (b) synthesizing perovskite phase in PZT thin films on Corning glass 1737 using a seed layer of TiO{sub x} (TiO{sub x} thickness ranging between 30 nm to 500 nm)

  18. Domain wall motion effect on the anelastic behavior in lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Gabbay, Maurice; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Cheng, Bo Lin

    2002-05-01

    Three undoped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were prepared with compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary: Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, and Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3. Internal friction Q-1 and shear modulus G were measured versus temperature from 20 °C to 500 °C. Experiments were performed on an inverted torsional pendulum at low frequencies (0.1, 0.3, and 1 Hz). The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition results in a peak (P1) of Q-1 correlated with a sharp minimum M1 of G. Moreover the Q-1(T) curves show two relaxation peaks called R1 and R2 respectively, correlated with two shear modulus anomalies called A1 and A2 on the G(T) curves. The main features of the transition P1 peak are studied, they suggest that its behavior is similar to the internal friction peaks associated with martensitic transformation. The relaxation peak, R1 and R2 are both attributed to motion of domain walls (DWs), and can be analyzed by thermal activated process described by Arrhenius law. The R2 peak is demonstrated to be due to the interaction of domain walls and oxygen vacancies because it depends on oxygen vacancy concentration and electrical polarization. However, the R1 peak is more complex; its height is found to be increased as stress amplitude and heating rate increase. It seems that the R1 peak is influenced by three mechanisms: (i) relaxation due to DW-point defects interaction, (ii) variation of domain wall density, and (iii) domain wall depinning from point defect clusters.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle. PMID:25763046

  20. Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P.; Shin, Junsoo; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei; Juliano, Thomas F.

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  1. Local ferroelectric properties in polyvinylidene fluoride/barium lead zirconate titanate nanocomposites: Interface effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silibin, M. V.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Malinkovich, M. D.; Lupascu, D. C.; Shvartsman, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    The local piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric composites consisting of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix with barium lead zirconate titanate ceramic inclusions were addressed both experimentally using piezoresponse force microscopy technique and theoretically applying the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formalism. A transient region with a width of approximately 40 nm has been found at the interface between the two constituents. It is shown that the piezoresponse in the vicinity of the interface is strongly affected by inhomogeneous stresses originating from an incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients of PVDF and lead zirconate titanate.

  2. Development of a straightness measurement and compensation system with multiple right-angle reflectors and a lead zirconate titanate-based compensation stage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jui-Hung; Teng, Yun-Feng

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a real-time straightness measurement and compensation system with an optical straightness measurement system and a single-axis flexure-hinge type lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based compensation stage. The optical straightness measurement system consists of a He-Ne laser, a quadrant photodiode detector, and five right-angle reflectors. Multiple laser beam reflections between the right-angle reflectors increase the sensitivity of the straightness measurement by a factor of 6. The right-angle reflectors can be moved by the flexure-hinge type PZT-based compensation stage that is actuated by a PZT actuator to ensure that the laser beam is always projected onto the center of the quadrant detector. These two systems are integrated and fixed on a scanning stage. The resolution of the straightness measurement system is 0.1 {mu}m. Using the real-time straightness compensation system, the straightness error of the scanning stage is fed back to the control system. The compensated straightness error of the scanning stage system was reduced from 6.5 {mu}m to less than 1 {mu}m.

  3. Influence of combined external stress and electric field on electric properties of 0.5% Fe-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanicz, J.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T. H.; Konieczny, K.; Jankowska-Sumara, I.; Sitko, D.; Goc-Jaglo, D.; Balogh, A. G.

    2009-11-01

    Influence of uniaxial pressure (0-1000 bars) applied parallel to or perpendicularly to the ac or dc electric field (in one-dimensional or two-dimensional manner) on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were investigated. The experimental results revealed that applying uniaxial pressure leads to a reduction in the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (epsilon), of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. Moreover, with increasing pressure the peak intensity of epsilon becomes diffused and shifts to a higher temperature. It was also found that simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and electric field (perpendicular to each other) in the poling process improves the ferroelectric properties. This indeed indicates new possibility for poling materials with a high coercive field and/or high electric conductivity. The effects of uniaxial load are weaker than that obtained for soft PZT ceramics. It was concluded that applying uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. The obtained results were interpreted through Cochran soft mode and domain switching processes under applying of pressure.

  4. Electrical property evaluation of manganese-fluorine codoping of lead zirconate titanate thin films: Compatibility between hard material and piezoelectric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detalle, M.; Rémiens, D.; Lebrun, L.; Guyomar, D.

    2006-11-01

    For some microelectromechanical system (MEMS) applications, the conditions of operation, high temperature, high stress, etc., can be very severe. Under these conditions the piezoelectric performance of polar material can decrease due to a partial (or a total) depoling induced by external excitations. So, it is important to have a piezoelectric active material that presents a good stability versus external parameters which can modify the spatial distribution of the dipolar moment and so the macroscopic polarization state (temperature, stress, etc.). In this context, we have studied the influence of some dopant introduction on barium (Ba)-strontium (Sr) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films: manganese (Mn) and fluorine-manganese (F-Mn) codoped. (Ba, Sr) doping is used to increase the PZT piezoelectric activities; Mn doping, depending on the Mn content, can induce hardening effect that leads to an increase of stability but a decrease of piezoelectric activities and (Mn, F) codoping to keep the piezoelectric performances with low nonlinear and low hysteretic behavior versus external excitations. Thin films have been deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on platinized silicon substrates. Their dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties have been systematically measured as a function of Mn and F contents. The best composition in order to have a hard material without degradation of the piezoelectric activity is Mn(1%)-F(1%) (Ba, Sr) PZT. With this material, MEMS applications in special environment can be developed.

  5. Phase Formation in PZT Phosphorus-Doped Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Celi, L. A.; Caballero, A. C.; Villegas, M.; Moure, C.; Fernandez, J. F.; Eiras, J. A.

    2009-04-19

    The surface modification of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with phosphate ester leaves a phosphorus residue absorbed onto the particle surface. During the sintering processes, this surface layer reacts with the PZT to form lead-rich compounds, such as Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Pb{sub 4}(P{sub 2}O{sub 9}). The formation of such a compounds may be the responsible for the grain growth inhibition observed in PZT-modified ceramics, as well as the lead loss reduction.

  6. Dielectric Properties of PVDF/PZT

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, A. Khorsand; Chen, Gan Wee; Majid, W. H. Abd.

    2011-03-30

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/ lead zirconate titanate nanocomposite (PVDF/PZT-NPs) were successfully prepared by mixing fine Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}, Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} nanoparticles (PZT-NPs) into a PVDF solution under ultrasonication. The mixture was spin coated onto glass substrate and then annealed at 80 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and properties of the obtained thin-film nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited good dielectric stability over a wide frequency range.

  7. Longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients of lead zirconate titanate/vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene composites with different polarization states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, R.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.

    2002-09-01

    Composite films comprising lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles dispersed in a vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer matrix have been prepared by compression molding. The ceramic and copolymer phases of the composite films are polarized separately, resulting in samples with three different polarization states: only the ceramic phase polarized, both phases polarized in the same direction, and two phases polarized in opposite directions. The effect of polarization state on the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients (d33 and d31) of the composite film has been investigated as functions of ceramic volume fraction phic. When the ceramic and copolymer phases of a composite film are polarized in the same direction, their piezoelectric activities partially cancel each other, thereby giving almost zero piezoelectric activity at phi]c[approx0.4. On the other hand, when the phases of a composite film are polarized in opposite directions, their piezoelectric activities reinforce. However, depolarization of the ceramic phase is observed at high phic, leading to a decrease in the piezoelectric activity. The observed d33 and d31 values for the composite films agree well with theoretical predictions.

  8. Lead zirconate titanate nanowire textile nanogenerator for wearable energy-harvesting and self-powered devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Yuan, Miaomiao; Qin, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Jing, Tao

    2012-07-24

    Wearable nanogenerators are of vital importance to portable energy-harvesting and personal electronics. Here we report a method to synthesize a lead zirconate titanate textile in which nanowires are parallel with each other and a procedure to make it into flexible and wearable nanogenerators. The nanogenerator can generate 6 V output voltage and 45 nA output current, which are large enough to power a liquid crystal display and a UV sensor. PMID:22713250

  9. Sol-gel preparation of single-layer, 0.75 μm thick lead zirconate titanate films from lead nitrate-titanium and zirconium alkoxide solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Shinsuke; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2001-11-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films were deposited on nesa silica glass substrates by spin coating using a Pb(NO3)2-Zr(OC3H7n)4-Ti(OC3H7i)4 solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and acetylacetone. The coating solution had stable viscosity for over 1300 h at room temperature. Single-layer PZT films as thick as 0.75 μm could be obtained via single-step spin coating with successive gel film heat treatments at 80, 300, and 700 °C. The fired films were optically transparent and crack free, exhibiting P-E hysteresis loops with remanent polarization of 24.6±1.6 μC cm-2 and coercive field of 95.6±9.8 kV cm-1.

  10. Phase and texture evolution in solution deposited lead zirconate titanate thin films: Formation and role of the Pt3Pb intermetallic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittala, Krishna; Mhin, Sungwook; Dunnigan, Katherine M.; Robinson, Douglas S.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Kotula, Paul G.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2013-06-01

    Solution deposition is widely used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films on platinized silicon substrates. However, phase and texture evolution during the crystallization process is not well understood, particularly due to the difficulty in tracking changes in the thin films in situ during heating. In this work, we characterized phase and texture evolution in situ during heating and crystallization of PZT thin films using high-energy X-ray diffraction. Films were pyrolyzed at either 300 °C or 400 °C and heated at various rates between 0.5 °C/s and ˜150 °C/s. For films that were pyrolyzed at 300 °C, the most rapid heating rates first induced strong intensities from a transient Pt3Pb phase. The Pt3Pb phase inherited the texture of the pre-existing platinum layer. Combined with other observations, the results suggest the conversion of the platinum to the intermetallic phase near the interface due to the interdiffusion of lead. In all experimental variations, the pyrochlore phase was observed to form concurrently with the disappearance of the Pt3Pb phase after which the perovskite phase ultimately crystallized. For films that were pyrolyzed at 400 °C, the Pt3Pb phase was not observed at any of the heating rates; instead, the pyrochlore phase was first observed, followed by the perovskite phase. Independent of the pyrolysis temperature or observation of Pt3Pb, a 111-dominant crystallographic texture formed in the perovskite phase when crystallized using fast heating rates. These results demonstrate that 111 textures in solution-derived PZT thin films are not correlated with the observation of Pt3Pb or other intermetallic or transient phases.

  11. Microstructural and optical characterization of PZT nanopowder prepared at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemifard, M.; Hosseini, S. M.; Khorsand Zak, A.; Khorrami, Gh. H.

    2009-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanopowders were synthesized by the metal organic and salt precursor's sol-gel combustion technique. Single-phase perovskite PZT powders were obtained after heat treatment at temperature of 500 °C. The effects of calcination temperature on lattice parameters and tetragonality of PZT powders have been discussed. The average particles size is estimated to be around 70-80 nm by SEM observations. The absorption coefficient ( α) and the band-gap energy ( Eg) of the perovskite oxide have been estimated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  12. Dielectric loss peak due to platinum electrode porosity in lead zirconate titanate thin-film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, D. J.; Dawber, M.; Ruediger, A.; Scott, J. F.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, Kinam

    2002-09-01

    Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out in situ on lead zirconate titanate capacitors 1.2×1.2 μm2 in size on a Samsung 4 Mbit 6 in, wafer. We show here that large dielectric loss appears at low frequencies, which is a constriction effect due to the porosity of the platinum electrode. Porous platinum electrodes facilitate an oxygen electrode reaction. The effect may be removed by annealing the platinum electrode at moderate temperature (300 °C). Such an anneal should thus be considered an essential step in the fabrication of a ferroelectric thin-film capacitor on Pt.

  13. Compact piezoelectric micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Lan, Hua; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The advance of micro/nanotechnology promotes the development of micromotors in recent years. In this article, a compact piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator is proposed. A traveling wave is generated by superposition of bending modes with 90° phase difference excited by d15 inverse piezoelectric effects. The operating principle simplifies the system structure significantly, and provides a miniaturization solution. A research prototype with the size of 0.75× 0.75×1.55 mm is developed. It can produce start-up torque of 0.27μNmand maximum speed of 2760 r/min at 14RMS.

  14. Low Temperature Sintering of PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medesi, A.; Greiner, T.; Benkler, M.; Megnin, C.; Hanemann, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films fired in a liquid-phase sintering process at 900 °C in air. In detail the manufacturing of piezoelectric multilayers with internal pure silver (Tm = 961 °C) electrodes are reported. The feasibility of ten sintering aids in two different volume fractions was investigated for a commercial hard PZT powder (PIC 181, PI Ceramics) with respect to density, microstructure, mechanical behaviour, and piezoelectric properties. Li2O, Li2CO3, PbO, MnO2, V2O5, CuO, Bi2O3, the eutectic mixtures Cu2O·PbO and PbO·WO3 and the ternary system Li2CO3·Bi2O3·CuO (LBCu) have been tested as liquid phase sintering aids. The combination of PZT with LBCu showed the best results. With 5 vol.% LBCu an average relative density of 97% and a characteristic breaking strength of 77 MPa was achieved. Composition of PZT with 2 vol.% LBCu exhibits the highest averaged piezoelectrical charge constant (d33) of 181 pC/N.

  15. Barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate ceramics via sol-gel process: novel high-energy-density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivas Puli, Venkata; Kumar, Ashok; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Tomozawa, M.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-10-01

    Lead-free barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate, [(BaZr0.2Ti0.80)O3]1-x-[(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3]x (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) (BZT-BCT) ceramics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and moderate electric breakdown field were prepared by the sol-gel synthesis technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed tetragonal crystal structure and this was further confirmed by Raman spectra. Well-behaved ferroelectric hysteresis loops and moderate polarizations (spontaneous polarization, Ps ~ 3-6 µC cm-2) were obtained in these BZT-BCT ceramics. Frequency-dependent dielectric spectra confirmed that ferroelectric diffuse phase transition (DPT) exists near room temperature. Scanning electron microscope images revealed monolithic grain growth in samples sintered at 1280 °C. 1000/ɛ versus (T) plots revealed ferroelectric DPT behaviour with estimated γ values of ~1.52, 1.51 and 1.88, respectively, for the studied BZT-BCT compositions. All three compositions showed packing-limited breakdown fields of ~47-73 kV cm-1 with an energy density of 0.05-0.6 J cm-3 for thick ceramics (>1 mm). Therefore these compositions might be useful in Y5V-type capacitor applications.

  16. EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC FIELD ON THE BIAXIAL STRENGTH OF POLED PZT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of piezoelectric ceramics plays a crucial role in the performance and design of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezo stack actuators especially as PZT actuators become physically larger and are sought to operate under harsher conditions. The reliable design of such systems demands additional consideration of a number of issues that include electro-mechanical coupling as well as strength-size scaling. This study addresses some of those issues through the use of ball-on-ring (BoR) equibiaxial flexure strength tests of two PZT piezo ceramics. The BoR biaxial flexure tests were conducted with two PZT materials under different electric fields. Fracture surfaces and failure initiations were analyzed using optical and scanning electronic microscopy. The effects of electric fields on the two-parameter Weibull distribution are discussed. These results will serve as input data for future probabilistic reliability analysis of multilayer PZT piezo actuators.

  17. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-01

    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is 0.010 ?A h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (0.004 ?A h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  18. Preparation of a high-quality PZT thick film with performance comparable to those of bulk materials for applications in MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Hui; Chu, Jia-Ru

    2008-06-01

    High-quality lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films have been prepared on silicon substrates by combining PZT-Si bonding and wet-etching technology. The bulk PZT wafer was first bonded to the silicon substrate using a 2 µm thick intermediate layer of epoxy resin with a bonding strength higher than 10 MPa. Then the bulk PZT was thinned by a wet-etching method. The thickness of the final PZT films depends on the etching time. The PZT thick films after being polished showed a surface roughness of about 20 nm (RMS), which can satisfy most of the requirements in MEMS. The prepared PZT thick films show a dielectric constant as high as 2400 below 100 kHz, remnant polarization of 13 µC cm-2, piezoelectric constant d31 of about -280 pm V-1 and Young's modulus of about 63 GPa. The measured electromechanical properties of the PZT thick films were comparable to those of the corresponding bulk ceramics. This approach makes it possible to obtain high-quality PZT films because it separates the PZT wafer fabrication from the target substrate and consequently allows integration of the PZT thick films onto many kinds of substrates. Finally, a self-sensing bulk PZT thick film actuator was fabricated as an example of a basic PZT-Si diaphragm structure that can be used in piezoelectric micropumps, and its sensing and actuating performances were also demonstrated.

  19. A role of BNLT compound addition on structure and properties of PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaita, P.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2010-09-01

    In this research, effects of lead-free bismuth sodium lanthanum titanate (BNLT) addition on structure and properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were investigated. PZT ceramics with addition of 0.1-3.0 wt%BNLT were fabricated by a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintering at 1050-1200 °C for 2 h to obtain dense ceramics with at least 96% of theoretical density. X-ray diffraction indicated that complete solid solution occurred for all compositions. Phase identification showed both tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite structure of PZT with no BNLT phase detected. Scanning electron micrographs of fractured PZT/BNLT ceramics showed equiaxed grain shape with both transgranular and intergranular fracture modes. Addition of BNLT was also found to reduce densification and effectively limited grain growth of PZT ceramic. Optimum Hv and KIC values were found to be 4.85 GPa and 1.56 MPa.m 1/2 for PZT/0.5 wt%BNLT sample. Among PZT/BNLT samples, room temperature dielectric constant seemed to be improved with increasing BNLT content. The maximum piezoelectric coefficient values were observed in pure PZT ceramic and were slightly decreased in BNLT-added samples. Small reduction of remanent polarization and coercive field in hysteresis loops was observed in BNLT-added samples, indicating a slightly suppressed ferroelectric interaction in this material system.

  20. Luminescence of transparent glass ceramics containing Er3+ and Yb3+ zirconate-titanate nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoptsov, N. A.; Denisov, I. A.; Malyarevich, A. M.; Yumashev, K. V.; Dymshits, O. S.; Zhilin, A. A.; Alekseeva, I. P.

    2011-11-01

    Luminescence regularities have been studied in new erbium/ytterbium materials based on glasses and glass ceramics of a magnesium-aluminosilicate system containing nanoscale erbium/ytterbium zirconate titanate crystals with the pyrochlore structure. Lifetimes of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions in the 2 F5/2 state and in the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 states, respectively, and the efficiency of Yb3+ → Er3+ energy transfer have been evaluated. The identified spectral-luminescent characteristics of the studied glasses and glass ceramics co-doped with erbium and ytterbium ions show that these materials are promising media for producing laser generation in the spectral range around 1.5 μm.

  1. Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yongan; Damadoran, Anoop R.; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005 Pa) and fast response times (~0.1 ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

  2. Effects of porosity on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ankun; Wang Changan; Guo Rui; Huang Yong

    2011-04-11

    We report porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics fabricated by tert-butyl alcohol-based gel-casting process which show a very high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient (0.77), high hydrostatic figure of merit (9594x10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/N), and low acoustic impedance (3.7 Mrayls). We show that the porosity effectively affects the performance of the samples in two ways: (1) a higher porosity simplifies the resonance behavior, leading to more efficient energy transduction; (2) its replacement of active ceramic phase leads to low relative permittivity, high hydrostatic figure of merit, and low acoustic impedance. It was confirmed the properties could be tailored by controlling the porosity.

  3. Photoluminescence of barium titanate and barium zirconate in multilayer disordered thin films at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M L; Gurgel, M F C; Mambrini, G P; Leite, E R; Pizani, P S; Varela, J A; Longo, E

    2008-09-25

    The emission of wide band photoluminescence showed a synergic effect on barium zirconate and barium titanate thin films in alternate multilayer system at room temperature by 488 nm exiting wavelength. The thin films obtained by spin-coating were annealed at 350, 450, and 550 degrees C for 2 h. The X-ray patterns revealed the complete separation among the BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 phases in the adjacent films. Visible and intense photoluminescence was governed by BaZrO3 thin films in the multilayer system. Quantum mechanics calculations were used in order to simulate ordered and disordered thin films structures. The disordered models, which were built by using the displacement of formers and modifier networks, showed a different symmetry in each system, which is in accordance with experimental photoluminescence emission, thus allowing to establish a correlation among the structural and optical properties of these multilayered systems. PMID:18593105

  4. Deposition of sol-gel derived lanthanum zirconate titanate thin films on copper substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Kwon, D. K.; Ma, B.; Balchandran, U.; Energy Systems

    2008-06-23

    Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films were directly deposited on copper substrates by chemical solution deposition and crystallized at temperatures of {approx_equal} 650 C under low pO{sub 2} conditions. Although the crystallization conditions used are conducive for copper oxidation, a thin layer ({approx}115 nm) of PLZT was sufficient to protect the underlying copper from oxidation. Films exhibited well saturated hysteresis loops with remanent polarization {approx}24 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} and dielectric constants {approx}730. Indirect evidence suggests that the oxygen vacancies created during the high temperature processing are responsible for the degradation of the electrical properties of these thin films. Techniques for avoiding this problem are proposed.

  5. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticle PZT Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiriyan, M.; Nemati, Z. A.; Rahmanifar, M. S.; Ramesh, S.; Meenaloshini, S.; Tolouei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders have been synthesized using microemulsion processing route. Microemulsion is one of the major processing techniques to synthesize a nanosize, homogenous, and almost agglomerate free ceramic powders. The ternary microemulsion system is consisted of cyclohexane as the oil phase, Triton X100 as the nonionic surfactant phase, and an aqueous phase containing 0.619 M Pb2+, 0.325 M Zr4+, and 0.3 M Ti4+, representing a Pb2+: Zr4+: Ti4+ molar ratio of 1:0.52:0.48. The ratio of these cations has been adjusted using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique. After coprecipitation of metallic hydroxides by adding ammonia solution in microemulsion system, the PZT precursor was obtained. PZT powders have been prepared upon calcination of precursor at 800° C. Prepared powders was characterised using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of microemulsion processed powder is discussed, with emphasis on the presence of nano scaled PZT powder with a composition near to morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) without formation of any intermediate phases.

  6. Piezoelectric properties and applications of PZT nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guitao

    1D piezoelectric nano structures, such as nanofibers, nanowires, nanobelts, etc., attracted great research interest recently. Because of their active properties which can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy, or vice versa, nano piezoelectric materials become building blocks for novel nanoelectronics and nanosensors. Pursuing higher piezoelectric response is the main driving force for developing nano piezoelectric materials. Several different theories have predicted a positive size effect that the piezoelectric property would be enhanced by reducing the feature size. But until now, there is no strong experimental proof due to difficulties in measurement of nanoscale material's piezoelectric constant. In this thesis, a resonant Piezo Force Microscopy (PFM) method was employed to accurately measure the piezoelectric deformation of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanofibers. During the experiment, the AFM probe was brought into contact with piezoelectric samples and worked at the first resonant mode. AC voltages with a DC offset were applied to the PZT nanofibers. A lock-in amplifier was used to pick up the sample's deformation signal at the resonant frequency. By using this method, small piezoelectric deformation was detected. Further, influences from electrostatic force and testing equipment can be eliminated by a special calibration process. With this technique, piezoelectric constant d33 of PZT nanofibers with diameters ranging from 9 nm to 270 nm were measured. The results showed that the d33 ranged from 65 pm/V to 380 pm/V depending on diameters of nanofibers. A positive size effect was observed. Next, PZT nanofiber polarization was studied using AFM lithography method. Piezoelectric domain switching process and piezoelectric property enhancement phenomena were observed. After fully polarization, the piezoelectric constant d33 can achieve 721.4 pm/V, which was significantly higher than that of PZT bulk material (~220 pm/V), PZT thin film (~60 to 130 pm/V) and PZT micro fibers (~260 pm/V). Feature size as well as the substrate constraint showed a great influence on the polarization of these PZT nanofibers. Finally, applications of PZT nanofibers for making MEMS actuators, leaf generators, and ultrasound transducers were demonstrated. These devices showed the vast application potentials of the PZT nanofibers that have great piezoelectric property and excellent mechanical property.

  7. Estimate of the changes in the characteristics of a PZT vibrator under a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Moojoon

    2015-03-01

    To utilize lead zirconate titanate (PZT) vibrators in the aerospace industry, we formulate the changes in the characteristics of the vibrator for the transverse mode and the thickness mode as functions of the temperature. For practical use, we adopted a few linear functions and a square function as regression functions in order to estimate the characteristics of the commercialized PZT-5 series of ceramics. The input admittance characteristics were calculated using the characteristic functions suggested in this study, and the results showed good agreement with the measured ones.

  8. Converse magnetoelectric effects in a galfenol and lead zirconate titanate bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Chashin, D. V.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Srinivasan, G.

    2009-06-01

    Polycrystalline samples of galfenol Fe1-xGax (x=0.17-0.3) have been prepared and used in a bilayer with lead zirconate titanate for studies on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect. The converse ME effect which is the magnetic response of the sample to an applied ac electric field has been investigated. Piezoelectric deformations due the electric field result in an induced magnetization in galfenol that is measured as a voltage U in a pick-up coil wound on the bilayer. A resonance enhancement in the magnitude of U is evident for bending oscillations and longitudinal acoustic oscillations in the bilayer. Data on U as a function of the strength and orientation of bias field H show a maximum in ME coupling strength for in-plane component of H ≈250Oe. The data have been analyzed in terms of H dependence of the magnetostriction for galfenol. The converse ME coupling is strong enough for use of the bilayer as a sensor of magnetic and electric fields.

  9. Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000°C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition. PMID:22221595

  10. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT (lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate) for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Brimhall, J.L.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Stahl, K.A.; Toburen, L.H.

    1987-07-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop high photosensitivity adaptive optical elements utilizing ion implanted lanthanum-doped lead-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). One centimeter square samples were prepared by implanting ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric PLZT with a variety of species or combinations of species. These included Ne, O, Ni, Ne/Cr, Ne/Al, Ne/Ni, Ne/O, and Ni/O, at a variety of energies and fluences. An indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode coating was designed to give a balance of high conductivity and optical transmission at near uv to near ir wavelengths. Samples were characterized for photosensitivity; implanted layer thickness, index of refraction, and density; electrode (ITO) conductivity; and in some cases, residual stress curvature. Thin film anti-ferroelectric PLZT was deposited in a preliminary experiment. The structure was amorphous with x-ray diffraction showing the beginnings of a structure at substrate temperatures of approximately 550/sup 0/C. This report summarizes the research and provides a sampling of the data taken during the report period.

  11. Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of calcium zirconate and calcium titanate powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fine powders of calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}, CZ) and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}, CT) were synthesized using a nonaqueous oxalate co-precipitation route from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O and group(IV) n-butoxides (Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} or Zr(OBu{sup n}){sub 4}). Several reaction conditions and batch sizes (2-35 g) were explored to determine their influence on final particle size, morphology, and phase. Characterization of the as-prepared oxalate precursors, oven dried oxalate precursors (60-90 C), and calcined powders (635-900 C) were analyzed with TGA/DTA, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Densification and sintering studies on pressed CZ pellets at 1375 and 1400 C were also performed. Through the developed oxalate co-precipitation route, densification temperatures for CZ were lowered by 125 C from the 1500 C firing temperature required for conventional mixed oxide powders. Low field electrical tests of the CZ pellets indicated excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of {approx}30 and a dissipation factor of 0.0004 were measured at 1 kHz.

  12. Improved dielectric properties of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin films on copper substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Ma, B.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) were directly deposited on copper substrates by chemical solution deposition and crystallized at temperatures of {approx} 650 C under low oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) to create film-on-foil capacitor sheets. The dielectric properties of the capacitors formed have much improved dielectric properties compared to those reported previously. The key to the enhanced properties is a reduction in the time that the film is exposed to lower pO{sub 2} by employing a direct insertion strategy to crystallize the films together with the solution chemistry employed. Films exhibited well-saturated hysteresis loops with remanent polarization of {approx} 20 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, dielectric constant of > 1100, and dielectric loss of < 0.07. Energy densities of {approx} 32 J/cm{sup 3} were obtained at a field of {approx} 1.9 MV/cm on a {approx} 1 {micro}m thick film with 250 {micro}m Pt electrodes.

  13. Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rachakom, Ampika; Jaiban, Panupong; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000°C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition. PMID:22221595

  14. Directed colloidal assembly and characterization of PZT-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smay, James Earl

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based layers and 3-D structures were directly assembled using two colloidal routes: (1) tape casting and (2) a layer-by-layer robotic deposition technique, known as robocasting. First, concentrated (φsolids > 0.45) suspensions of PZT-5H and a latex emulsion were tape cast with the aid of viscosifier and surfactant additions. Drying stress evolved to a maximum at φ PZT ˜ 0.49, followed by a reduction and a secondary stress rise attributed to latex coalescence. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sintered PZT multilayer laminates exhibited good agreement with those for isostatically pressed and sintered samples. Concentrated, weakly gelled suspensions of PZT 95/5 and poly(ethylene) (PE) latices, a fugitive species, were developed as inks for the robotic deposition of monolithic and tri-layered composite structures. Monoliths, with densities of 93.6% and 96.1%, and composites with a 96.1% dense layer between 93.6% regions were fabricated. The structures displayed equivalent electrical properties to cold isostatically pressed parts. The composites withstood repeated saturation polarization switching as well as a 500 MPa hydrostatic pressure-induced poled ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transformation. Concentrated (φPZT = 0.47) PZT-5H gels were developed as inks for the robotic deposition of 3-D, mesoscale periodic structures with self-supporting features such as lattices of rod-like elements and v-shaped test structures. The gels exhibited pH dependent viscoelastic properties and Hershel-Bulkley flow behavior. The deflection of as-deposited spanning elements was measured using laser profilometry. Flow modeling and shape evolution data indicated a core-shell architecture as the ink exited the deposition nozzle, which simultaneously provided strength to form spanning elements and good bonding between layers. The core grew rapidly (˜1s) due to the quick recovery of gel structure in these inks. 3-X type PZT-polymer composites consisting of PZT lattices in a polymer matrix (3-3), a lattice/polymer matrix with PZT faceplates (3-2), or a lattice/polymer matrix with faceplates and encircled by a solid PZT ring (3-1) were formed and their piezoelectric properties were characterized. The PZT:polymer ratio was controlled by the lattice spacing in these thin composites (˜1 mm). Lattice rod intersections formed high permittivity, low compliance PZT pillars that concentrated stress and electric flux, leading to improved hydrostatic figures of merit.

  15. Microstrain in tetragonal lead-zirconate-titanate: The effect of pressure on the ionic displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, J. Fujioka, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, J.; Vogel, S. C.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-08-15

    Piezoelectric materials respond to external stimuli by adjusting atomic positions. In solid-solutions, the changes occurring in atomic scale are very complex since the short- and long-range order are different. Standard methods used in diffraction data analysis fail to model the short-range order accurately. Pressure-induced cation displacements in ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.45}Ti{sub 0.55})O{sub 3} perovskite oxide are modeled by starting from a short-range order. We show that the model gives the average structure correctly and properly describes the local structure. The origin of the microstrain in lead zirconate titanate is the spatially varying Zr and Ti concentration and atomic distances, which is taken into account in the simulation. High-pressure neutron powder diffraction and simulation techniques are applied for the determination of atomic positions and bond-valences as a function of pressure. Under hydrostatic pressure, the material loses its piezoelectric properties far before the transition to the cubic phase takes place. The total cation valence +6 is preserved up to 3.31 GPa by compensating the increasing B-cation valence by decreasing Pb-displacement from the high-symmetry position. At 3.31 GPa, Pb-displacement is zero and the material is no more ferroelectric. This is also the pressure at which the Pb-valence is minimized. The average structure is still tetragonal. The model for microstrain predicts that the transition occurs over a finite pressure range: Pb-displacements are spatially varying and follow the distribution of Zr and Ti ions.

  16. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Thin Films for Capacitive Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Sheng

    As the increasing requirement of alternative energy with less pollution influence and higher energy efficient, new energy source and related storage methods are hot topic nowadays. Capacitors that supply high instant power are one of the keys in this application for both economic and functional design aspects. To lower the cost and increases the volumetric efficiency and reliability, relaxor thin films are considered as one of the candidates of the next generation capacitors. The research mainly focuses on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate or Pb1-xLax(ZryTi1-y)O3 (PLZT, x/y/1-y) relaxor thin films deposited on silicon (Si) and nickel (Ni) substrates in a range of thickness with different bottom electrodes, e.g. Platinum (Pt) and LaNiO3 (LNO). The final fabricated PLZT film capacitors will show strong potential for the energy storage application. The method adopted is the acetic acid assisted sol-gel deposition for the PLZT thin films. The wet chemical process is cost-effective and easily to scale up for plant/industrial products. We investigated the different bottom electrode/substrate influence in structure, microstructure, phases/defects, and heat-treatment conditions to achieve the optimized PLZT thin films. Issues of basic physical size effects in the PLZT thin films were also investigated, including thickness effects in the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films in a wide range of temperatures, the phase transition of the thin-film relaxors, lanthanum content effect, electrode-dielectric junction, misfit strain effect, etc. Based on the results and analysis, optimum PLZT film capacitors can be determined of proper substrate/electrode/dielectric that achieves the desired dielectric properties required for different applications, especially a more cost-effective method to develop volumetrically efficient capacitors with high charge density, energy density, dielectric breakdown strength, energy storage efficiency, and low dielectric loss, leakage current density.

  17. Chemical solution deposition of ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films on base-metal foils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, B.; Kwon, D.-K.; Narayanan, M.; Balachandran, U.

    2009-01-01

    Development of electronic devices with better performance and smaller size requires the passive components to be embedded within a printed wire board (PWB). The 'film-on-foil' approach is the most viable method for embedding these components within a PWB. We have deposited high-permittivity ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub x}, PLZT 8/52/48) films on base metal foils by chemical solution deposition. These prefabricated capacitor sheets can be embedded into PWBs for power electronic applications. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was applied by chemical solution deposition on nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. With a {approx} 0.7-{micro}m-thick ferroelectric PLZT film grown on LNO-buffered nickel foil, we measured capacitance densities of 1.5 {micro}F/cm{sup 2}, breakdown field strength E{sub b} > 1.2 MV/cm, and leakage current density of 2 x 10{sup -8}A/cm{sup 2}. The dielectric relaxation current decay obeys the Curie-von Schweidler law, with exponent n = 0.85 and 0.94 for PLZT grown directly on Ni and that grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils, respectively. When compared with samples deposited directly on Ni substrate, PLZT grown on LNO buffered Ni substrates exhibit slimmer hysteresis loop and better energy storage capability. With these desirable characters, PLZT film-on-foil capacitors hold particular promise for use in high-voltage embedded passives.

  18. FTIR analysis of PZT damage during wafer level transfer of thermo-piezoelectric SI3N4 cantilevers on the CMOS-wafer for nano data storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-sik; Hyeok Jin, Won; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Degradation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) during wafer level bonding of thermo-piezoelectric cantilevers with a CMOS-wafer was investigated. It was found that the polyimide film which serves as a height adjustment during wafer level bonding between cantilevers and the CMOS-wafer caused significant damage in the PZT sensor when polyimide was coated entirely on the PZT capacitor followed by heating to 300 °C for the bonding process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the reaction product that caused PZT capacitor damage. Three different types of samples were analyzed using FTIR: a sample with coated polyimide only, a sample with a PZT capacitor with no polyimide exposed and a sample with a PZT capacitor where the polyimide has been coated, heated and then removed. NH2 or NH3+ peaks from the sample with the polyimide exposed PZT capacitor were found and these peaks were not detected on the sample with the PZT capacitor or on the polyimide coated sample only. These hydrogen ions contained in the NH2 or NH3 stretch during heating can lead to hydrogen atmosphere annealing which can attack PZT significantly. FTIR analysis therefore confirmed that polyimide reacted with the PZT capacitor to damage its piezoelectric properties.

  19. A combination of PZT and EMAT transducers for interface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram

    2002-05-01

    A PZT (Lead Zirconate-Titanate) transducer requires a couplant to send and receive mechanical waves. This requirement is a major shortcoming of the PZT technique for use in field applications. In the laboratory environment careful considerations and surface treatments are required to use PZT because the couplant can affect the consistency of experimental results. One alternative to overcome this shortcoming is the use of EMAT (ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducer). However, EMAT gives relatively low transmitted ultrasonic energy, with low signal to noise ratio, and the induced energy is critically dependent on the probe proximity to the test object. These are not desirable properties for NDT (nondestructive testing) of civil infrastructures. That is why, in this paper, a combination of PZT and EMAT is introduced for investigating reinforced concrete structures. Interface defects between steel bars and concrete are investigated by this technique. It is shown that the PZT-EMAT combination is very effective for steel bar-concrete interface inspection and the guided waves are useful for nondestructive testing of civil infrastructures.

  20. A combination of PZT and EMAT transducers for interface inspection.

    PubMed

    Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram

    2002-05-01

    A PZT (Lead Zirconate-Titanate) transducer requires a couplant to send and receive mechanical waves. This requirement is a major shortcoming of the PZT technique for use in field applications. In the laboratory environment careful considerations and surface treatments are required to use PZT because the couplant can affect the consistency of experimental results. One alternative to overcome this shortcoming is the use of EMAT (ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducer). However, EMAT gives relatively low transmitted ultrasonic energy, with low signal to noise ratio, and the induced energy is critically dependent on the probe proximity to the test object. These are not desirable properties for NDT (nondestructive testing) of civil infrastructures. That is why, in this paper, a combination of PZT and EMAT is introduced for investigating reinforced concrete structures. Interface defects between steel bars and concrete are investigated by this technique. It is shown that the PZT-EMAT combination is very effective for steel bar-concrete interface inspection and the guided waves are useful for nondestructive testing of civil infrastructures. PMID:12051433

  1. Thermally induced modifications of the optic properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films obtained on different substrates by sol-gel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Stefano; Castriota, Marco; Policicchio, Alfonso; Scaramuzza, Nicola; Versace, Carlo; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe; Vena, Carlo; Strangi, Giuseppe; Bartolino, Roberto

    2008-12-01

    Lead zirconium titanate PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) thin films have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis, deposited on different substrates [float glass, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated float glass, and intrinsic silicon wafer], and later subjected to different thermal treatments. The morphologic and the structural properties of both PZT thin films and substrates have been investigated by scanning electron microscope and their composition was determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Moreover, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry provides relevant information on the electronic and optical properties of the samples. In particular, the optical constant dispersion of PZT deposited on ITO-coated float glasses shows a small absorption resonance in the near IR region, not observed in PZT films deposited on the other substrates, so that such absorption resonance can be explained by interfacial effects between ITO and PZT layers. This hypothesis is also supported by EDX measurements, showing an interdiffusion of lead and indium ions, across the PZT-ITO interface, that can generate a peculiar charge distribution in this region.

  2. Thermally induced modifications of the optic properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films obtained on different substrates by sol-gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    D'Elia, Stefano; Castriota, Marco; Scaramuzza, Nicola; Versace, Carlo; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Vena, Carlo; Strangi, Giuseppe; Bartolino, Roberto; Policicchio, Alfonso; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2008-12-15

    Lead zirconium titanate PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis, deposited on different substrates [float glass, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated float glass, and intrinsic silicon wafer], and later subjected to different thermal treatments. The morphologic and the structural properties of both PZT thin films and substrates have been investigated by scanning electron microscope and their composition was determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Moreover, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry provides relevant information on the electronic and optical properties of the samples. In particular, the optical constant dispersion of PZT deposited on ITO-coated float glasses shows a small absorption resonance in the near IR region, not observed in PZT films deposited on the other substrates, so that such absorption resonance can be explained by interfacial effects between ITO and PZT layers. This hypothesis is also supported by EDX measurements, showing an interdiffusion of lead and indium ions, across the PZT-ITO interface, that can generate a peculiar charge distribution in this region.

  3. NOVEL LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE COMPOSITE VIA FREEZING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSDUCER APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, B. P.; ZHOU, Q. F.; HU, C. H.; SHUNG, K. K.; GORZKOWSKI, E. P.; PAN, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel PZT-5A ceramic-polymer composite was prepared via freezing technology. This composite exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric behaviors. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 546 and 0.046, respectively, while the remnant polarization was 13.0 μC/cm2 at room temperature. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of PZT-5A composite was measured to be 0.54, which is similar to that of PZT piezoelectric ceramic. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of PZT-5A composite was determined to be ~250 pC/N. Using this composite, a 58MHz single element transducer with the bandwidth of 70% at −6dB was built, and the insertion loss was tested to be −29dB around the central frequency. PMID:21785672

  4. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using PZT Bimorphs and Multilayered Stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Prasanta Kumar; Sahoo, Benudhar; Chandraiah, M.; Raghavan, Sreekumari; Manoj, Bindu; Ramakrishna, J.; Kiran, P.

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric materials have a unique ability to interchange electrical and mechanical energy. This property allows the absorption of mechanical energy such as ambient vibration and its transformation into electrical energy. The electrical energy generated can be used to power low-power electronic devices. In the present study, energy harvesting by lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer (ML) stacks and bimorphs is presented. The devices were fabricated by a tape casting technique and were poled at 2 kV/mm for 30 min immersed in a silicone oil bath maintained at 60°C. The energy harvesting characteristics of the fabricated devices were measured in a suitably assembled test setup. The output voltage obtained from the PZT bimorphs and ML stacks was 450 mV and 125 mV, respectively. The higher output voltage from the bimorph is due to its low capacitance.

  5. PZT transduction of high-overtone contour-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Bhave, Sunil A; Polcawich, Ronald G; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Kaul, Roger

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Butterworth-van Dyke model and quantitative comparison that explore the design space of lead zirconate titanate-only (PZT) and PZT on 3-, 5-, and 10-μm single-crystal silicon (SCS) high-overtone width-extensional mode (WEM) resonators with identical lateral dimensions for incorporation into radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) filters and oscillators. A novel fabrication technique was developed to fabricate the resonators with and without a silicon carrier layer using the same mask set on the same wafer. The air-bridge metal routings were implemented to carry electrical signals while avoiding large capacitances from the bond-pads. We theoretically derived and experimentally measured the correlation of motional impedance (RX), quality factor (Q), and resonance frequency (f) with the resonators' silicon layer thickness (tSi) up to frequencies of operation above 1 GHz. PMID:20875993

  6. Temperature Dependent Mechanical Property of PZT Film: An Investigation by Nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains. PMID:25768957

  7. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains. PMID:25768957

  8. Domain pinning near a single-grain boundary in tetragonal and rhombohedral lead zirconate titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marincel, D. M.; Zhang, H. R.; Britson, J.; Belianinov, A.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Chen, L. Q.; Rainforth, W. M.; Reaney, I. M.; Randall, C. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of grain boundaries with ferroelectric domain walls strongly influences the extrinsic contribution to piezoelectric activity in Pb Zr1 -x,TixO3 (PZT), ubiquitous in modern transducers and actuators. However, the fundamental understanding of these phenomena has been limited by complex mechanisms originating from the interplay of atomic-level domain wall pinning, collective domain wall dynamics, and emergent mesoscopic behavior. This contribution utilizes engineered grain boundaries created by depositing epitaxial PZT films with various Zr:Ti ratios onto 24 tilt SrTi O3 bicrystals. The nonlinear piezoelectric response and surface domain structure across the boundary are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy while the cross-sectional domain structure is studied using transmission electron microscopy. The grain boundary reduces domain wall motion over a width of 800 70 nm for PZT 45:55 and 450 30 nm for PZT 52:48. Phase field modeling provides an understanding of the elastic and electric fields associated with the grain boundary and local domain configurations. This study demonstrates that complex mesoscopic behaviors can be explored to complement atomic-level pictures of the material system.

  9. Grain growth kinetics and electrical properties of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (9/65/35) based ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, R. Alvarez; Botero, E. R.; Guerrero, F.; Guerra, J. D. S.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the microstructural characteristics on the dielectric and electrical properties has been investigated for Nd3+ doped lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method, by taking into account different sintering conditions. The grain growth mechanism has been investigated and a cubic-type grain growth law was observed for samples with grain size varying from 1.00 up to 2.35 μm. The porosity and grain size dependences of the phase transition parameters, such as the maximum dielectric permittivity and its corresponding temperature (ɛm and Tm, respectively) were also investigated. The ac conductivity analyses followed the universal Jonscher law. The behavior of the frequency exponent (s) was analyzed through the correlated barrier hopping model. Both ac and dc conductivity results have been correlated with the observed microstructural features.

  10. Grain growth kinetics and electrical properties of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (9/65/35) based ferroelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Roca, R. Alvarez; Guerrero, F.; Botero, E. R.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Guerra, J. D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the microstructural characteristics on the dielectric and electrical properties has been investigated for Nd{sup 3+} doped lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method, by taking into account different sintering conditions. The grain growth mechanism has been investigated and a cubic-type grain growth law was observed for samples with grain size varying from 1.00 up to 2.35 {mu}m. The porosity and grain size dependences of the phase transition parameters, such as the maximum dielectric permittivity and its corresponding temperature ({epsilon}{sub m} and T{sub m}, respectively) were also investigated. The ac conductivity analyses followed the universal Jonscher law. The behavior of the frequency exponent (s) was analyzed through the correlated barrier hopping model. Both ac and dc conductivity results have been correlated with the observed microstructural features.

  11. Modified Johnson model for ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate at very high fields and below Curie temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Ma, B.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.

    2012-01-01

    A modified Johnson model is proposed to describe the nonlinear field dependence of the dielectric constant ({var_epsilon}-E loop) in ferroelectric materials below the Curie temperature. This model describes the characteristic ferroelectric 'butterfly' shape observed in typical {var_epsilon}-E loops. The predicted nonlinear behavior agreed well with the measured values in both the low- and high-field regions for lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films. The proposed model was also validated at different temperatures below the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric Curie point. The anharmonic coefficient in the model decreased from 6.142 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} to 2.039 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} when the temperature increased from 25 C to 250 C.

  12. Deformation in lead zirconate titanate ceramics under large signal electric field loading measured by digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Kamlah, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Digital image correlation, a noncontact and nondestructive method, was employed to monitor the deformation of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics. This method is based on imaging a speckle pattern on the specimen surface during the test and subsequently correlating each image of the deformed pattern to that in the reference state. In our work, both longitudinal and transverse strains were calculated from imaging a bulk sample under a ±2 kV/mm electric field. Compared with linear variable displacement transducer data, the results from this correlation method were validated. At the same time, based on this optical technique, different strain-electric field butterfly loops can be drawn from correspondingly selected regions of interest. Combined with contour plots of strain on the surface of the sample, the deformation of bulk ceramic sample under uniaxial electric field loading without any mechanical constraints is proven to be highly homogenous under macro-observing scale.

  13. Deformation in lead zirconate titanate ceramics under large signal electric field loading measured by digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Kamlah, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Digital image correlation, a noncontact and nondestructive method, was employed to monitor the deformation of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics. This method is based on imaging a speckle pattern on the specimen surface during the test and subsequently correlating each image of the deformed pattern to that in the reference state. In our work, both longitudinal and transverse strains were calculated from imaging a bulk sample under a 2 kV/mm electric field. Compared with linear variable displacement transducer data, the results from this correlation method were validated. At the same time, based on this optical technique, different strain-electric field butterfly loops can be drawn from correspondingly selected regions of interest. Combined with contour plots of strain on the surface of the sample, the deformation of bulk ceramic sample under uniaxial electric field loading without any mechanical constraints is proven to be highly homogenous under macro-observing scale. PMID:26628144

  14. Optimizing Pt/TiO2 templates for textured PZT growth and MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potrepka, Daniel; Fox, Glenn; Sanchez, Luz; Polcawich, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    Crystallographic texture of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films strongly influences piezoelectric properties used in MEMS applications. Textured growth can be achieved by relying on crystal growth habit and can also be initiated by the use of a seed-layer heteroepitaxial template. Template choice and the process used to form it determine structural quality, ultimately influencing performance and reliability of MEMS PZT devices such as switches, filters, and actuators. This study focuses on how 111-textured PZT is generated by a combination of crystal habit and templating mechanisms that occur in the PZT/bottom-electrode stack. The sequence begins with 0001-textured Ti deposited on thermally grown SiO2 on a Si wafer. The Ti is converted to 100-textured TiO2 (rutile) through thermal oxidation. Then 111-textured Pt can be grown to act as a template for 111-textured PZT. Ti and Pt are deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. TiO2 and Pt film textures and structure were optimized by variation of sputtering deposition times, temperatures and power levels, and post-deposition anneal conditions. The relationship between Ti, TiO2, and Pt texture and their impact on PZT growth will be presented. Also affiliated with U.S. Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA

  15. Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, E.E.

    2000-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of a project sponsored by Honeywell Corporation (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.) Federal Manufacturing and Technologies/Kansas City (FM and T/KC) and conducted jointly with the University of Missouri, Rolla, titled ''Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements.'' In this three-month research project, a series of experiments was performed on soft and hard lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) structures to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic measurements as a nondestructive method of evaluating poling quality and uniformity. The study revealed that acoustic velocity correlates well with the degree of poling of PZT structures, as predicted by elastic theory. Additionally, time-of-flight (TOF) imaging was shown to be an ideal tool for viewing the spatial distribution of poled material and of material affected by the electric field beyond the edge of electroded regions. Finally, the effectiveness of ultrasonic methods for flaw detection and evaluation of PZT/stainless steel bonds was also demonstrated.

  16. Microfabrication of PZT force sensors for minimally invasive surgical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhilvalavan, S.; Zhang, Zaoli; Loh, Jeremy; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2006-04-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is the most exciting and rapidly developing area where force sensing is actually of central importance. Micromachined piezoelectric sensors can be integrated onto MIS tools for improved diagnosis and treatment monitoring. A micro-machined freestanding lead zirconate titanate (PZT) force sensor is fabricated using five masks process incorporating deep reactive ion, ion beam and wet-chemical etching techniques. The PZT sensor is designed as a parallel plate capacitor structure in which the sol-gel prepared 1-µm thick PZT film is sandwiched between top (Au/Cr) and bottom (Pt/Ti) metal electrodes mounted on a thin Si membrane. This paper also describes a new wet chemical approach for patterning PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films. The etch recipe provided excellent etch control, minimized undercut, preserved the photoresist mask, and effectively removed the residues on the etched surfaces. A high etch rate (200 nm/min), high selectivity with respect to photoresist, and limited under-cutting (1.5:1, lateral : thickness) were obtained. The fabricated force sensor exhibited good ferroelectric properties. The current fabrication procedure and electrical analysis can be considered as a breakthrough for fabricating freestanding PZT force sensor in any desired shape and dimensions, as well as a good example of ferroelectric microdevices.

  17. Stress-optic modulator in TriPleX platform using a ezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Naser; Dekker, Ronald; Hoekman, Marcel; Dekkers, Matthijn; Bos, Jan; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene

    2015-06-01

    We will demonstrate a stress-optic phase modulator in the passive SiN-based TriPleX platform using a layer of piezoelectric material. Regarding the stress-optic effect, the piezoelectric layer deposited on top of an optical waveguide is employed to control the phase of propagating light in the structure by applying an electrical field across the layer. In this work, it is demonstrated that the stress-optic effect lowers the power consumption by a factor of one million for quasi-DC operation and increases the modulation speed by three orders of magnitude, compared to currently used thermo-optic modulation in the TriPleX platform. PMID:26072771

  18. Polar-axis-oriented crystal growth of tetragonal PZT films on stainless steel substrate using pseudo-perovskite nanosheet buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Ichinose, Daichi; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kim, Jin Woon; Shima, Hiromi; Nishida, Ken; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Oshima, Naoya; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film with polar axis orientation was grown on a SUS 316L stainless steel substrate with the help of a Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet (ns-CN) layer that had a pseudo-perovskite-type crystal structure. The ns-CN buffer layer was supported on a platinized SUS 316L (Pt/SUS) substrate, followed by chemical solution deposition (CSD) of the PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti =40/60). The PZT films consisting of c-domain, with [001]-axis orientation of the perovskite unit cell, were deposited on the ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate owing to (i) epitaxial lattice matching between the unit cell of PZT and substrate surface and (ii) in-plane thermal stress applied to the PZT film during cooling-down step of CSD procedure. The c-domain-oriented PZT film on ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate exhibited enhanced remanent polarization of approximately 52 μC/cm2 and lowered dielectric permittivity of approximately 230, which are superior to those of conventional PZT films with random crystal orientation and comparable to those of epitaxial PZT films grown on (100)SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates.

  19. Dynamic pyroelectric response of composite based on ferroelectric copolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solnyshkin, A. V.; Morsakov, I. M.; Bogomolov, A. A.; Belov, A. N.; Vorobiev, M. I.; Shevyakov, V. I.; Silibin, M. V.; Shvartsman, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, pyroelectric properties of composite films on the basis of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer with a various level of ferroelectric ceramics inclusions of barium lead zirconate titanate solid solution were investigated by the dynamic method. The composite films were prepared by the solvent cast method. The unusual spike-like dynamic response with a quasi-stationary component was observed. It is supposed that composite films may be effectively used for pyroelectric applications.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of PZT Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, A.; Rao, B. S. S. Chandra; Kamath, S. V.; Sen, A.; Maiti, H. S.

    2008-07-01

    Piezoelectric materials have recently attracted a lot of attention for ultrasonic structural health monitoring (shm) in aerospace, defence and civilian sectors, where they can act as both actuators and sensors. Incidentally, piezoelectric materials in the form of wafers (pwas-piezoelectric wafer active sensor, approx. 5-10 mm square and 0.2-0.3 mm thickness) are inexpensive, non intrusive and non-resonant wide band devices that can be surface-mounted on existing structures, inserted between the layers of lap joints or embedded inside composite materials. The material of choice for piezoelectric wafers is lead zirconate titanate (PZT) of composition close to morphotropic phase boundary [pb(zr0.52 ti0.48)o3]. However, an excess pbo is normally added to pzt as a densification aid and also to make up for the lead loss during high temperature sintering. Hence, it is of paramount importance to know how the shift of the lead content from the morphotropic composition affects the piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the sintered wafers, keeping in view the importance of mechanical properties of wafers in shm. In the present study, we observed that with the increase in the lead content of the sintered wafers, the dielectric and piezoelectric constants decreased. However, the elastic modulus, hardness and fracture toughness of the wafers increased with increasing lead content in the composition. Hence, the lead content in the sintered wafers should be optimized to get acceptable piezoelectric and mechanical

  1. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  2. Influence of crystal phase and transparent substrates on electro-optic properties of lead zirconate titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, M. M.; Du, Z. H.; Ma, J.

    2010-12-01

    Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3}[x=0.52, PZT(52) near morphotropic phase boundary], tetragonal PZT(65), and rhombohedral PZT(20) thin films have been fabricated on different transparent substrates by radio frequency sputtering. The optical studies show that the band gap energies and refractive indices of the PZT thin films are crystal phase dependent. The largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 219.6 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the PZT thin films. The linear EO coefficients of PZT(52) films on the (Pb{sub 0.86}La{sub 0.14})TiO{sub 3}-coated glass, indium tin oxides, and MgO substrates are also studied. Such study could contribute to the crystal phase and substrate dependent PZT films for electro-optic devices and multifunctional integrated circuits.

  3. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  4. Application of reusable PZT sensors for monitoring initial hydration of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet Divsholi, Bahador; Yang, Yaowen

    2009-03-01

    To increase the efficiency of in-situ casting or precast of concrete, determining the optimal time of demolding is very important for concrete suppliers. In the first few hours after mixing, the fresh concrete gradually achieves solid properties with reasonable compressive strength. Due to different type and amount of cementitious materials, concrete additives (e.g. retarders) and curing temperature, different rates of hardening are expected. In addition, some other factors like the quality of the cementitious materials further increase the uncertainty in determining appropriate time for demolding of concrete. Electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) based lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors have been used for damage detection and structural identification for various engineering structures. In this work, a reusable PZT sensor for monitoring initial hydration of concrete is developed, where a piece of PZT is bonded to a piece of metal with two bolts tightened inside of the holes drilled in the metal. An impedance analyzer is used to acquire the signature of this reusable sensor. During the concrete casting, the bolts and the bottom surface of the metal is set to penetrate part of the fresh concrete. At different stages of the first 48 hours after casting, the PZT signatures are acquired. A statistical analysis technique is employed to associate the change in concrete strength with the changes in the PZT admittance signatures. The results show that the developed sensor is able to effectively monitor the initial hydration of concrete, and can be detached from the concrete for future use.

  5. A Reusable PZT Transducer for Monitoring Initial Hydration and Structural Health of Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaowen; Divsholi, Bahador Sabet; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2010-01-01

    During the construction of a concrete structure, strength monitoring is important to ensure the safety of both personnel and the structure. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency of in situ casting or precast of concrete, determining the optimal time of demolding is important for concrete suppliers. Surface bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been used for damage detection and parameter identification for various engineering structures over the last two decades. In this work, a reusable PZT transducer setup for monitoring initial hydration of concrete and structural health is developed, where a piece of PZT is bonded to an enclosure with two bolts tightened inside the holes drilled in the enclosure. An impedance analyzer is used to acquire the admittance signatures of the PZT. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to associate the change in concrete strength with changes in the PZT admittance signatures. The results show that the reusable setup is able to effectively monitor the initial hydration of concrete and the structural health. It can also be detached from the concrete for future re-use. PMID:22399929

  6. Depolarization and Electrical Response of Porous PZT 95/5 Ferroelectric Ceramics under Shock Wave Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Zhu; Jiang, Yi-Xuan; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Xing-Zhe; He, Hong-Liang

    2014-07-01

    The release of bound charges by shock wave loading of poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT 95/5) ferroelectric ceramics can result in a high-power electrical energy output. In this study, a theoretical formulation describing the depolarization and electrical response of porous PZT 95/5 ceramics in the normal mode to shock wave compression loading perpendicular to the polarization direction is developed. The depoling process in porous poled PZT 95/5 ceramics is analyzed by using a parallel circuit consisting of a current source, capacitance, conductance and a circuit load. This modeling takes the effects of porosity on wave velocity and remanent polarization and dielectric constant into account, and the effects of variations in dielectric constant and conductivity in the shocked region are assessed. The output current characteristics of porous PZT 95/5 ceramics under short-circuit and resistive load conditions are analyzed and compared with the experiment, with the results showing that theoretical predictions taking into consideration the porosity of ferroelectric ceramics are in close agreement with the experimentally measured electrical response of porous PZT 95/5 under shock wave compression loading.

  7. Bolted joint looseness damage detection using electromechanical impedance measurements by PZT sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mengqi; Xu, Bin

    2012-04-01

    Bolted joints are of great importance in steel structures. Any levels of looseness or even failure in the bolted joints if not earlier be found in time, will continuously change the connection strength and stiffness, causing cumulative damage to the structure, or even resulting in a sudden structural failure. Thus, it is crucial to develop efficient detection approach for early looseness in bolted joint. In particular, electro-mechanical impedance (EMI)-based damage detection technique which uses smart piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) patches has emerged as a potential tool for local damage detection of engineering structures. This paper presents a feasibility study on the application of an EMI-based bolted joint looseness detection with PZT patches. One steel specimen and an aluminum specimen were designed and the bolt looseness damage was introduced by loosening some connection bolts. Impedance measurement for each PZT sensor on the two sides of bolted joint with different distances from the loosened bolts was carried out on. A quantitative identification method based on a statistical damage index, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the EMI over different frequency bands, was proposed to assess the presence of damage. Results showed the RMSD can detect the existence of looseness damage and the sensitivity of the PZT sensors are investigated for the bolted joint structure. Also, the sensitive region of the PZT patches in different frequency ranges for both specimens were discussed. The proposed approaches have great potential to be applied in practice for the looseness detection in bolted joints.

  8. Bolted joint looseness damage detection using electromechanical impedance measurements by PZT sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mengqi; Xu, Bin

    2011-11-01

    Bolted joints are of great importance in steel structures. Any levels of looseness or even failure in the bolted joints if not earlier be found in time, will continuously change the connection strength and stiffness, causing cumulative damage to the structure, or even resulting in a sudden structural failure. Thus, it is crucial to develop efficient detection approach for early looseness in bolted joint. In particular, electro-mechanical impedance (EMI)-based damage detection technique which uses smart piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) patches has emerged as a potential tool for local damage detection of engineering structures. This paper presents a feasibility study on the application of an EMI-based bolted joint looseness detection with PZT patches. One steel specimen and an aluminum specimen were designed and the bolt looseness damage was introduced by loosening some connection bolts. Impedance measurement for each PZT sensor on the two sides of bolted joint with different distances from the loosened bolts was carried out on. A quantitative identification method based on a statistical damage index, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the EMI over different frequency bands, was proposed to assess the presence of damage. Results showed the RMSD can detect the existence of looseness damage and the sensitivity of the PZT sensors are investigated for the bolted joint structure. Also, the sensitive region of the PZT patches in different frequency ranges for both specimens were discussed. The proposed approaches have great potential to be applied in practice for the looseness detection in bolted joints.

  9. Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Cravens, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg, C. A. Griffith, E. Lellouch and T. E. Cravens; Prologue 1: the genesis of Cassini-Huygens W.-H. Ip, T. Owen and D. Gautier; Prologue 2: building a space flight instrument: a P.I.'s perspective M. Tomasko; 1. The origin and evolution of Titan G. Tobie, J. I. Lunine, J. Monteux, O. Mousis and F. Nimmo; 2. Titan's surface geology O. Aharonson, A. G. Hayes, P. O. Hayne, R. M. Lopes, A. Lucas and J. T. Perron; 3. Thermal structure of Titan's troposphere and middle atmosphere F. M. Flasar, R. K. Achterberg and P. J. Schinder; 4. The general circulation of Titan's lower and middle atmosphere S. Lebonnois, F. M. Flasar, T. Tokano and C. E. Newman; 5. The composition of Titan's atmosphere B. Bézard, R. V. Yelle and C. A. Nixon; 6. Storms, clouds, and weather C. A. Griffith, S. Rafkin, P. Rannou and C. P. McKay; 7. Chemistry of Titan's atmosphere V. Vuitton, O. Dutuit, M. A. Smith and N. Balucani; 8. Titan's haze R. West, P. Lavvas, C. Anderson and H. Imanaka; 9. Titan's upper atmosphere: thermal structure, dynamics, and energetics R. V. Yelle and I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg; 10. Titan's upper atmosphere/exosphere, escape processes, and rates D. F. Strobel and J. Cui; 11. Titan's ionosphere M. Galand, A. J. Coates, T. E. Cravens and J.-E. Wahlund; 12. Titan's magnetospheric and plasma environment J.-E. Wahlund, R. Modolo, C. Bertucci and A. J. Coates.

  10. Phase field simulation of domain switching dynamics in multiaxial lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britson, Jason

    The defining characteristic of ferroelectric materials is their ability to be switched between energetically equivalent polarization states. This behavior has led to an interest in ferroelectrics for a wide range of bulk and thin film applications such as mechanical actuators and ferroelectric random access memory devices. Ferroelectric switching depends on domain wall motion, however, and is critically influenced by the existence of defects such as dislocations and preexisting domains. Domain wall motion in thin film applications can be controlled by individual local defects due to the reduced length scale of the system. This dissertation describes the impact of preexisting ferroelastic domains and misfits dislocations in coherent (001)-oriented Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films on the switching response and domain structure. A phase field model based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory that accounts for the electrostatic and mechanical interactions is used to describe domain structures in ferroelectric PZT thin films. To solve the governing equations a semi-implicit Fourier-Spectral scheme is developed that accommodates boundary conditions appropriate to the thin film geometry. Errors are reduced in the solutions at the film edges through extensions to the model developed to correct the Fourier transform around stationary discontinuities at the thin film edges. This correction is shown to result in increased accuracy of the phase field model needed to appropriately describe dynamic switching responses in the thin film. Investigation of switching around preexisting ferroelastic domains showed these defects are strong obstacles to switching in PZT thin films. Directly above the ferroelastic domain the magnitude of the required nucleation bias underneath a tip-like electrode was found to be elevated compared to the required bias far from the domain. Locally both the piezoelectric and dielectric responses of the thin film were found to be suppressed, which is in agreement with previously reported experimental results. Modeling results also showed that built in electric fields and long range strains around the ferroelastic domains were responsible for the observed property changes. During switching embedded ferroelastic domains were shown to arrest 180° ferroelectric switching by forming partially stabilized charged 90° domain walls in which the local bound charge was accommodated by substantial broadening of the domain wall. This led to the charged interface remaining stable over a modest range of applied biases and necessitated a larger switching bias than required far from the ferroelastic domain. This result may explain previously observed experimental difficulty poling PZT thin films around ferroelastic domain structures. Ferroelastic domains were then modeled around misfit dislocations in coherent thin films to better quantify interactions between two common types of elastic defects. Isolated misfit dislocations relieving compressive strain in the thin film were found to locally stabilize ferroelastic domains due to the creation of in-plane tensile stresses around the dislocations. Ferroelastic domains in thinner films extended completely to the free surface of the thin film, while in films with larger thicknesses only small, wedge-shaped domains were observed. The transition between the two domain structures with film thickness is shown to be well reproduced with transmission electron microscopy results. Calculations of the total free energy and its derivatives in the system show the transition has the characteristics of a first order transition at the critical thickness. These results show how dislocations may stabilize the wide range of observed domain structures based on the local stress environment around the dislocation. Dynamic responses of ferroelastic domains around dislocations were found to be reduced through elastic interactions. Inclusions of dislocations near the substrate interface reduced both the real part of the dielectric response and the loss tangent, indicating misfit dislocations are strong pinning centers in thin films. A method to separate the domain wall and lattice contributions to the total response is proposed and used to show that the reduction in response is due to decreases in the domain wall mobility around the dislocations caused by the local nonuniform stress state. This provides insight into the causes of reduced responses in ferroelectric thin films that is then used to demonstrate a film geometry that maximizes the local dielectric response in the system. This work provides insight into switching in ferroelectric thin films around specific common elastic defects and provides a basis for investigating the impact of other classes of defects that are difficult to isolate and study experimentally. For instance, point defects such as oxygen vacancies around moving domain walls could be more easily studied with phase field models. Further, phase field modeling creates a method to quantitatively rank the impact of various defect types on ferroelectric switching. By studying common defects, efforts to produce high quality devices by minimizing defect concentration can be focused on eliminating the most critical defects.

  11. Effects of O + irradiation on infrared sensing characteristics of modified PZT ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, Padmaja; Aggarwal, Mohan; Lal, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Perovskite ceramics of modified lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) type have been extensively studied because of their excellent dielectric, electro-optical, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. Oxygen ions with 200 keV energy and doses of 1.0 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 were irradiated onto a commercially available modified PZT sample having good pyroelectric properties for use in infrared detectors. Its response was studied in terms of dielectric and pyroelectric properties before and after irradiation; a decrease in dielectric constants ( ɛ', ɛ″) and pyroelectric coefficient is observed. Results are explained on the basis of structural defects such as oxygen vacancies, radiation-induced charges trapped at structural defects and domain dynamics. The material figure-of-merits for their use in infrared sensing devices are calculated and compared with un-irradiated sample.

  12. A method to decrease the harmonic distortion in Mn-Zn ferrite/PZT and Ni-Zn ferrite/PZT layered composite rings exhibiting high magnetoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, V.; Morin, V.; Fortineau, J.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in layered composite rings subjected to circumferential AC magnetic fields and DC magnetic fields in radial, axial, or circumferential directions. Bilayer samples were obtained combining different grades of commercial Mn-Zn ferrites or Ni-Zn ferrites with commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Mn-Zn ferrites with low magnetostriction saturation ( λs<10-6 ) and low magneto-crystalline anisotropy constants show high ME capabilities when associated with PZT in ring structures. In certain conditions, these ME effects are higher than those obtained with Terfenol-D/PZT composites in the same layered ring structure. Magnetostrictive and mechanical characterizations have given results that explain these high ME performances. Nevertheless, Mn-Zn ferrite/PZT composites exhibit voltages responses with low linearity especially at high signal level. Based on the particular structure of the ME device, a method to decrease the nonlinear harmonic distortion of the ME voltages is proposed. Harmonic distortion analysis of ME voltages measured in different configurations allows us to explain the phenomenon.

  13. Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.

    1982-02-01

    Historical data and data from the Voyager spacecraft are reviewed in an attempt to model the atmospheric processes of Saturn moon Titan. Earth based IR astronomy established that Titan has a CH4 atmosphere, Voyager I UV spectrometer readings revealed the presence of nitrogen, and IR readings suggested the existence of hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. A model is proposed in which methane on Titan behaves much like water does on earth and in the same relative abundance. Further modelling is suggested for the formation of methane hydrate on Titan by the accretion of gases after the formation of the moon, and the subsequent heating of the planetary interior by the decay of radioactive elements freed the ice-trapped gases into the atmosphere. It is noted that an alternative explanation of a greenhouse effect having raised the temperature to 150 K is also possible.

  14. Structural and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (Nd3+, Er3+, and Yb3+) doped transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, Andrea S. S.; de O. Nunes, Luiz Antonio; Santos, Ivair A.; Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, José Antonio

    2004-02-01

    This work presents the structural and spectroscopic characterization of transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics doped with Nd3+, Er3+, or Yb3+ ions. High optical quality samples presenting the perovskite structure were prepared through a mixed oxides method followed by conventional sintering or uniaxial hot pressing. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured, and radiative emission parameters were calculated for Nd3+- and Er3+-doped samples. The results indicate the potential of these polycrystalline host-ion combinations for the construction of diode-pumped lasers in the near-infrared region.

  15. Detection of disbonding in a repair patch by means of an array of lead zirconate titanate and polyvinylidene fluoride sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y. L.; Chiu, W. K.; Marshall, I. H.; Rajic, N.; Galea, S. C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reports on a numerical study in which an array of surface mounted lead zirconate titanate and polyvinylidene fluoride sensors was used for the detection of disbond under a repair patch. The two techniques used for detecting these disbonds were an impedance method and the transfer function method. It was found that an array of smart materials could locate and determine the extent of damage. The results also showed that the location and size of the sensor used are dependent on the location and size of the disbond to be detected or monitored.

  16. Characterisation of static actuation behaviour of encapsulated PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Conrad J.; Butler, Raymond J.

    1994-09-01

    Within the field of 'smart' structures considerable interest has been shown in the use of piezoelectric materials both as sensors and actuators. One of the best characterized of these materials is the family of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based ceramics. The use of PZT in intelligent systems has been fairly widespread, the high modulus of the material give high authority actuation, coupled with a wide operational bandwidth and relative ease of control by the application of an applied voltage. The linearity of the actuation response over a limited range has made PZT a popular choice for high precision, relatively low displacement applications. A number of attempts have been made to utilize such actuators for aerospace, using both surface mounting [1] and embedding techniques [2,3]. The effects of actuators on aeroelastic performance has also been investigated for aerospace applications [4,5]. The current practical solution to this problem appears to be the use of spatially distributed actuators [6]. One of the practical limitations of this problem are the large number of actuators required to produce the required degree of static control. In order to ensure accurate shape control, measurements must be taken to ensure there are no significant difference in the actuator element properties due to factors such as batch processing variation. In the past this has proved difficult due to the extremely brittle nature of the actuator material. More specifically the requirement for thinner elements for use in embedded applications has increased this problem. A method by which the static performance of electroceramic actuators could be quickly established would therefore be desirable. This paper presents the results of recent work to develop a test method to define the static electromechanical properties of encapsulated actuator materials in order to assess their suitability as static actuators for aerospace applications. Preliminary results using a standard PZT material are described.

  17. Y3Fe5O12/Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT particulate magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.; Agamirzoeva, M. R.; Myagkaya, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites of Na, Bi, Sr substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet having representative formula (100-х) wt% Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT (PZTNB-1)+х wt% Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) with х=10-90 were manufactured using powdered components obtained through sol-gel processes. It is shown that the decrease in sintering temperature provided by the use of finely dispersed PZTNB-1 and YIG powders allows to significantly reduce content of fluorite-like foreign phase based on zirconium oxide, which forms due to the interfacial interaction during heat treatment and becomes stabilized by yttrium oxide. Connectivity has considerable effect on the value of ME coefficient of composite ceramics. With the same x value, ΔЕ/ΔН characteristic decreases when changing from 0-3-type structured composites (PZT grains embedded in ferrite matrix) to 3-3-(interpenetrating network of two phases) and especially 3-0-type samples (YIG grains embedded in PZT matrix); in the last case this can be attributed to the substrate clamping effect when ferrite grains are clamped with piezoelectric matrix. ΔЕ/ΔН value of 0-3 composites with х=40-60 wt% was found to be ∼1.6 mV/(cm Oe).

  18. Static/dynamic trade-off performance of PZT thick film micro-actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Alex; Chalvet, Vincent; Clévy, Cédric; Gauthier-Manuel, Ludovic; Baron, Thomas; Rakotondrabe, Micky

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are widespread in the design of micro/nanorobotic tools and microsystems. Studies toward the integration of such actuators in complex micromechatronic systems require the size reduction of these actuators while retaining a wide range of performance. Two main fabrication processes are currently used for the fabrication of piezoelectric actuators, providing very different behaviors: (i) the use of a bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer and (ii) the use of thin film growth. In this paper, we propose a trade-off between these two extreme processes and technologies in order to explore the performance of new actuators. This resulted in the design and fabrication of thick film PZT unimorph cantilevers. They allowed a high level of performance, both in the static (displacement) and dynamic (first resonance frequency) regimes, in addition to being small in size. Such cantilever sizes are obtained through the wafer scale bonding and thinning of a PZT plate onto a silicon on insulator wafer. The piezoelectric cantilevers have a 26 μm thick PZT layer with a 5 μm thick silicon layer, over a length of 4 mm and a width of 150 μm. Experimental characterization has shown that the static displacements obtained are in excess of 4.8 μm V-1 and the resonance frequencies are up to 1103 Hz, which are useful for large displacements and low voltage actuators.

  19. High-pressure neutron study of the morphotropic lead-zirconate-titanate: Phase transitions in a two-phase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantti, J.; Fujioka, Y.; Zhang, J.; Wang, S.; Vogel, S. C.; Nieminen, R. M.; Asiri, A. M.; Zhao, Y.; Obaid, A. Y.; Mkhalid, I. A.

    2012-07-01

    The present study was dedicated to the classical piezoelectric, lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic with composition Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 at the Zr-rich side of the morphotropic phase boundary at which two phases co-exists. The pressure-induced changes in the phase fractions were studied by high-pressure neutron powder diffraction technique up to 3 GPa and 773 K. The two co-existing phases were rhombohedral R3c and monoclinic Cm at room temperature and R3c and P4mm above 1 GPa and 400 K. The experiments show that pressure favors the R3c phase over the Cm and P4mm phases, whereas at elevated temperatures entropy favours the P4mm phase. At 1 GPa pressure, the transition to the cubic Pm3¯m phase occurred at around 600 K. Pressure lowers the Cm →P4mm transition temperature. The Cm phase was found to continuously transform to the P4mm phase with increasing pressure, which is inline with the usual notion that the hydrostatic pressure favours higher symmetry structures. At the same time, the phase fraction of the R3c phase was increasing, implying discontinuous Cm →R3c phase transition. This is in clear contrast to the polarization rotation model according to which the Cm would link the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases by being a phase in which the polarization would, more or less continuously, rotate from the tetragonal polarization direction to the rhombohedral direction. Pressure induces large changes in phase fractions contributing to the extrinsic piezoelectricity. The changes are not entirely reversible, as was revealed by noting that after high-pressure experiments the amount of rhombohedral phase was larger than initially, suggesting that on the Zr-rich side of the phase boundary the monoclinic phase is metastable. An important contribution to the intrinsic piezoelectricity was revealed: a large displacement of the B cations (Zr and Ti) with respect to the oxygen anions is induced by pressure.

  20. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths should be less than 3 mm in order to guarantee the first resonant frequency above 60 kHz. Finally, a package for the PZT thin-film micro probe device is developed to ensure its proper function in an aqueous environment, such as inside of cochlea. The package is an insulation layer of parylene coating on the probe. A finite element analysis indicates that a coating thickness of less than 1 mum will reduce the PZT diaphragm displacement by less than 10%. A special fixture is designed to hold a large number of probes for parylene deposition of a thickness of 250 nm. A packaged probe is then submerged in deionized water and functions properly for at least 55 hours. Displacement and impedance of the probe are measured via a laser Doppler vibrometer and an impedance analyzer, respectively. Experimental results show that displacement of the PZT diaphragm increases about 30% in two hours, after the probe is submerged in the deionized water. The impedance measurement shows consistent trends. A hypothesis to explain this unusual phenomenon is diffusion of water molecules into the PZT thin film. High-resolution SEM images of the probe indicate presence of numerous nano-pores in the surface of the PZT thin film, indirectly confirming the hypothesis. Keywords: PZT, Thin-Film, Dual Electrodes, Parylene Coating, Aqueous Environment, Cochlear Implant

  1. Aerosol deposited PZT actuated 2D scanner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipf, David R.; Chen, Chao-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Liang; Chu, Kang-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2015-04-01

    A new lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) actuator design for a micro scanning illuminating device is being developed. The thin PZT film is deposited directly on stainless steel by using an aerosol deposition machine. The aerosol deposition method enables inexpensive, quick, room temperature fabrication while producing high quality PZT films. The presented scanners would be attractive for endoscopic device applications, where inexpensive systems with high resolution would be a move toward disposal endoscopes. The design of this scanning illuminator and fabrication method are presented. Measurements of the PZT layer surface roughness and the aerosol deposited PZT powder particle diameter are presented. Ongoing work and fabrication challenges are discussed.

  2. An in situ diffraction study of domain wall motion contributions to the frequency dispersion of the piezoelectric coefficient in lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, Shruti B.; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Jones, Jacob L.; Studer, Andrew J.; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2013-01-28

    The contribution of non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall displacement to the frequency dependence of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient has been determined experimentally in lead zirconate titanate using time-resolved, in situ neutron diffraction. Under subcoercive electric fields of low frequencies, approximately 3% to 4% of the volume fraction of non-180 Degree-Sign domains parallel to the field experienced polarization reorientation. This subtle non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion directly contributes to 64% to 75% of the magnitude of the piezoelectric coefficient. Moreover, part of the 33 pm/V decrease in piezoelectric coefficient across 2 orders of magnitude in frequency is quantitatively attributed to non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion effects.

  3. Miniature cryogenic valves for a Titan Lake sampling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

  4. Miniature Cryogenic Valves for a Titan Lake Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS Ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

  5. Structural vibration suppression using PZT patches and higher-order saturation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Perngjin F.; Rommel, Bernd; Schulz, Mark J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the study of controlling steady-state vibrations of a cantilevered skew isotropic plate using higher-order saturation phenomena. PZT (lead zirconate titanate) patches are used as control actuators, and a laser vibrometer (measuring velocities) or PZT patches (measuring displacements) are used as sensors. Modal testing, finite element analysis, and a scanning laser vibrometer are used to reveal the plate's bending-torsional dynamic characteristics due to non-rectangular geometry. Results show that a mode shape can be significantly different from the corresponding operational deflection shape under the excitation of a PZT patch at the modal frequency. The control method uses linear second-order controllers coupled to the plate via different low-order nonlinear terms to establish energy bridges between the plate and controllers. Each linear second-order controller is designed to have a 1:2 or 1:3 or 1:4 internal resonance with one of the plate vibration modes and hence is able to exchange energy with the plate at or around the specific modal frequency. Because of nonlinearities and internal resonances, different orders of saturation phenomena exist and are used to suppress modal vibrations. Several nonlinear saturation controllers are designed and analyzed to show their feasibility and efficiency. Both perturbation analysis and direct numerical integration are used, and some experiments are performed to validate these saturation controllers.

  6. Design Optimization of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Cantilever Beam by Using Computational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Park, Sanghyun; Lim, Woochul; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Seong Kwang; Song, Yewon; Sung, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting is gaining huge research interest since it provides high power density and has real-life applicability. However, investigative research for the mechanical-electrical coupling phenomenon remains challenging. Many researchers depend on physical experiments to choose devices with the best performance which meet design objectives through case analysis; this involves high design costs. This study aims to develop a practical model using computer simulations and to propose an optimized design for a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based piezoelectric cantilever beam which is widely used in energy harvesting. In this study, the commercial finite element (FE) software is used to predict the voltage generated from vibrations of the PZT-based piezoelectric cantilever beam. Because the initial FE model differs from physical experiments, the model is calibrated by multi-objective optimization to increase the accuracy of the predictions. We collect data from physical experiments using the cantilever beam and use these experimental results in the calibration process. Since dynamic analysis in the FE analysis of the piezoelectric cantilever beam with a dense step size is considerably time-consuming, a surrogate model is employed for efficient optimization. Through the design optimization of the PZT-based piezoelectric cantilever beam, a high-performance piezoelectric device was developed. The sensitivity of the variables at the optimum design is analyzed to suggest a further improved device.

  7. Lanthanide-Assisted Deposition of Strongly Electro-optic PZT Thin Films on Silicon: Toward Integrated Active Nanophotonic Devices.

    PubMed

    George, J P; Smet, P F; Botterman, J; Bliznuk, V; Woestenborghs, W; Van Thourhout, D; Neyts, K; Beeckman, J

    2015-06-24

    The electro-optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films depend strongly on the quality and crystallographic orientation of the thin films. We demonstrate a novel method to grow highly textured PZT thin films on silicon using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. We report the use of ultrathin (5-15 nm) lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sm) based intermediate layers for obtaining preferentially (100) oriented PZT thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate preferentially oriented intermediate Ln2O2CO3 layers providing an excellent lattice match with the PZT thin films grown on top. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the annealed layers are dense, uniform, crack-free and highly oriented (>99.8%) without apparent defects or secondary phases. The EDX and HRTEM characterization confirm that the template layers act as an efficient diffusion barrier and form a sharp interface between the substrate and the PZT. The electrical measurements indicate a dielectric constant of ∼650, low dielectric loss of ∼0.02, coercive field of 70 kV/cm, remnant polarization of 25 μC/cm(2), and large breakdown electric field of 1000 kV/cm. Finally, the effective electro-optic coefficients of the films are estimated with a spectroscopic ellipsometer measurement, considering the electric field induced variations in the phase reflectance ratio. The electro-optic measurements reveal excellent linear effective pockels coefficients of 110 to 240 pm/V, which makes the CSD deposited PZT thin film an ideal candidate for Si-based active integrated nanophotonic devices. PMID:26043103

  8. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti's reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map. PMID:24463430

  9. Large Stroke Vertical PZT Microactuator With High-Speed Rotational Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Choi, Jongsoo; Wang, Thomas D.; Oldham, Kenn R.

    2014-01-01

    A thin-film piezoelectric microactuator using a novel combination of active vertical translational scanning and passive resonant rotational scanning is presented. Thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate unimorph bending beams surrounding a central platform provide nearly 200-μm displacement at 18 V with bandwidth greater than 200 Hz. Inside the platform, a mirror mount, or mirror surface, supported by silicon dioxide spring beams can be excited to resonance by low-voltage; high-frequency excitation of the outer PZT beams. Over ±5.5° mechanical resonance is obtained at 3.8 kHz and ±2 V. The combination of large translational vertical displacements and high-speed rotational scanning is intended to support real-time cross-sectional imaging in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope. PMID:25506187

  10. Identification of crystalline elastic anisotropy in PZT ceramics from in-situ blocking stress measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Withers, P. J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.

    2014-05-07

    High energy x-ray diffraction measurements of lattice strains were performed on a rhombohedral Lead Zirconate Titanate ceramic (PZT 55-45) under combinations of applied electric field and compressive stress. These measurements allow the construction of blocking stress curves for different sets of crystallographic orientations which reflect the single crystal elastic anisotropy. A micro-mechanical interpretation of the results is then proposed. Assuming cubic symmetry for the crystalline elastic stiffness tensor and isotropy for the macroscopic elastic properties, the elastic properties of the single crystal are extracted from the measured data. An anisotropy ratio close to 0.3 is found (compared to 1 for isotropic materials). The high level of anisotropy found in this work suggests that crystalline elastic anisotropy should not be neglected in the modelling of ferroelectric materials.

  11. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Marquez, Vanessa; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2012-10-01

    The direct deposition of piezoelectric thin films on thin substrates offers an appealing technology for the realization of lightweight adjustable mirrors capable of sub-arcsecond resolution. This solution will make it possible to realize X-ray telescopes with both large effective area and exceptional angular resolution and, in particular, it will enable the realization of the adjustable optics for the proposed mission Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution X-ray Telescope (SMART-X). In the past years we demonstrated for the first time the possibility of depositing a working piezoelectric thin film (1-5 um) made of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on glass. Here we review the recent progress in film deposition and influence function characterization and comparison with finite element models. The suitability of the deposited films is analyzed and some constrains on the piezoelectric film performances are derived. The future steps in the development of the technology are described.

  12. Effects of high energy x ray and proton irradiation on lead zirconate titanate thin films' dielectric and piezoelectric response

    SciTech Connect

    Bastani, Y.; Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Wilson, A. D.; Gerardin, S.; Bagatin, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

    2013-05-13

    The effects of irradiation by X rays and protons on the dielectric and piezoelectric response of highly (100)-textured polycrystalline Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been studied. Low-field dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric d{sub 33,f} response all degraded with exposure to radiation, for doses higher than 300 krad. At first approximation, the degradation increased at higher radiation doses, and was stronger in samples exposed to X rays, compared to the proton-irradiated ones. Nonlinear and high-field dielectric characterization suggest a radiation-induced reduction of the extrinsic contributions to the response, attributed to increased pinning of the domain walls by the radiation-induced point defects.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of micromachined high-frequency tonpilz transducers derived by PZT thick films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Cannata, Jonathan M; Meyer, Richard J; van Tol, David J; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Hughes, W Jack; Shung, K Kirk; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2005-03-01

    Miniaturized tonpilz transducers are potentially useful for ultrasonic imaging in the 10 to 100 MHz frequency range due to their higher efficiency and output capabilities. In this work, 4 to 10-microm thick piezoelectric thin films were used as the active element in the construction of miniaturized tonpilz structures. The tonpilz stack consisted of silver/lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO3)/silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates. First, conductive LaNiO3 thin films, approximately 300 nm in thickness, were grown on SOI substrates by a metalorganic decomposition (MOD) method. The room temperature resistivity of the LaNiO3 was 6.5 x 10(-6) omega x m. Randomly oriented PZT (52/48) films up to 7-microm thick were then deposited using a sol-gel process on the LaNiO3-coated SOI substrates. The PZT films with LaNiO3 bottom electrodes showed good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The relative dielectric permittivity (at 1 kHz) was about 1030. The remanent polarization of PZT films was larger than 26 microC/cm2. The effective transverse piezoelectric e31,f coefficient of PZT thick films was about -6.5 C/m2 when poled at -75 kV/cm for 15 minutes at room temperature. Enhanced piezoelectric properties were obtained on poling the PZT films at higher temperatures. A silver layer about 40-microm thick was prepared by silver powder dispersed in epoxy and deposited onto the PZT film to form the tail mass of the tonpilz structure. The top layers of this wafer were subsequently diced with a saw, and the structure was bonded to a second wafer. The original silicon carrier wafer was polished and etched using a Xenon difluoride (XeF2) etching system. The resulting structures showed good piezoelectric activity. This process flow should enable integration of the piezoelectric elements with drive/receive electronics. PMID:15857042

  14. Development of dual PZT transducers for reference-free crack detection in thin plate structures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hoon; Kim, Seuno Bum

    2010-01-01

    A new Lamb-wave-based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique, which does not rely on previously stored baseline data, is developed for crack monitoring in plate structures. Commonly, the presence of damage is identified by comparing "current data" measured from a potentially damaged stage of a structure with "baseline data" previously obtained at the intact condition of the structure. In practice, structural defects typically take place long after collection of the baseline data, and the baseline data can be also affected by external loading, temperature variations, and changing boundary conditions. To eliminate the dependence on the baseline data comparison, the authors previously developed a reference-free NDT technique using 2 pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers placed on both sides of a plate. This reference-free technique is further advanced in the present study by the necessity of attaching transducers only on a single surface of a structure for certain applications such as aircraft. To achieve this goal, a new design of PZT transducers called dual PZT transducers is proposed. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden thickness change of the structure. This crack appearance is instantly detected from the measured Lamb wave signals using the dual PZT transducers. This study also suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the currently measured data set. Numerical simulations and experiments were conducted using an aluminum plate with uniform thickness and fundamental Lamb waves modes to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to reference-free crack detection. PMID:20040449

  15. The Physics of Sol-Gel Derived Ferroelectric Thin Film PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Bradley Michael

    Initial examination of a simple Auger depth profile reveals that thin film, pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is intrinsically a layered structure. Oxygen vacancies at the electrode interfaces create an n-type region in a normally p-type material by contributing electrons into the conduction band. Therefore, such measurable effects as the polarization versus applied field (hysteresis), and the dielectric constant versus applied field are all thickness dependent via a space charge effect on the surface of the material. M. E. Lines has suggested that the decay in switching polarization (fatigue) of barium titanate is linked to a build up of a space charge layer near the surface region. Although no specifics as to the source of the space charge layer (electronic or ionic) are given, it is implied that the space charge layer does inhibit switching due to an interaction with the domain nuclei. Therefore, it is plausible that degradation of the remnant polarization in PZT may also be connected with a surface layer. The implication from the above discussion is that thin film ferroelectric materials, such as sol-gel derived PZT, are intrinsically layered structures. This thesis involves the study of ferroelectric PZT synthesized via a solution-gelation technique (sol -gel). Using a reproducible and stable liquid solution, thin films are made by spinning droplets of the metalorganic liquid onto a substrate. The thin layers are then dried and annealed in order to form perovskite phase ferroelectric PZT capacitors for testing. A testing methodology is presented in order to test the capacitors unambiguous of artifacts due to the integration process. Capacitance versus voltage (CV), true DC leakage current, switching curve and hysteresis curve data is analyzed in order to examine the unique properties of the thin film ferroelectric. CV analysis indicates that a depletion region exists near the surface of the ferroelectric capacitor. The depletion region is found to dominate the nonswitching portion of the CV curves. True DC leakage current measurements indicate that electronic transport within the ferroelectric oxide is space charge limited, displaying a quadratic dependence on the applied voltage according to a modified Childs law.

  16. Enhancing the dielectric property of 0.69PZT-0.31PZNN thick films by optimizing the poling condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daniel; Woo, Min Sik; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Sung, Tae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    We investigated how the applied electric-field's magnitude and the poling time affected, respectively, the dielectric property and the microstructure of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate/lead zirconate nickel niobate (PZT-PZNN) thick films in order to apply the films to piezoelectric energy harvesters. Several 300-µm-thick, 10 × 10-mm2 PZT-PZNN squares were tape cast, laminated, sintered, and poled under 2-, 4-, 6-, 10-, 14-, and 15-kV/mm electric fields for 30 min. The 10-kV/mm electric field produced the highest d 33 × g 33 without mechanically damaging the sample. Further, samples were sintered at 950, 1000, and 1020 °C and subsequently poled at 10 kV/mm (previously determined as the magnitude of the optimal poling electric field) for 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min to investigate how the poling time affected the piezoelectric ceramic's microstructure. The optimal poling time for all the sintered samples was 60 min. Further, the piezoelectric ceramics composed of small grains and poled longer than 60 min showed higher dielectric constants. However, those composed of large grains and poled for times shorter than 60 min showed higher dielectric constants because the element mobility of the piezoelectric ceramics increased with increasing poling time.

  17. Effect of Mn doping on structures and properties of chemical solution deposited lead zirconate titanate thick films with (100) preferential orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hong; Ren, Wei; Wu, Xiaoqing; Shi, Peng

    2013-07-01

    Mn doped PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thick films with highly (100) preferential orientation have been prepared by chemical solution deposition according to doping concentration of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mol. %. The effect of Mn-doping on structures and electrical properties of PZT thick films has been investigated. With increasing Mn doping concentration, the dielectric constant first increases and then decreases. PZT film with 0.5 mol. % Mn doping has a maximum value of 2252 and a dielectric loss of 0.011 at 1 kHz. Mn doping below 3 mol. % could effectively reduce the leakage current density of PZT films. The mechanism of Mn doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thick films has been investigated and discussed.

  18. Emission, plasma formation, and brightness of a PZT ferroelectric cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Trimble, D.; Westenskow, G.

    1995-04-27

    We have measured an 36-A-cm{sup {minus}2} current emission density over the surface area of an 11.4-cm{sup 2}-area Lead-Titanate- Zirconate (PZT) ferroelectric cathode with a pulsed anode-cathode (A-K) potential of 50 kV. We have also observed currents above those predicted by classical Child-Langmuir formula for a wide variety of cases. Since a plasma within the A-K gap could also lead to increase current emission we are attempting to measure the properties of the plasma near the cathode surface at emission time. In other measurements, we have observed strong gap currents in the absence of an A-K potential. Further, we continue to make brightness measurements of the emitted beam and observe spatially non-uniform emission and large shot-to-shot variation. Measurements show individual beamlets with a brightness as high 10{sup 11} Am{sup {minus}2} rad{sup {minus}2}.

  19. Vibration suppression of a skew cantilever plate using PZT patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Perngjin F.; Rommel, Bernd; Naser, Ahmad S.; Schulz, Mark J.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate the control of steady-state vibrations of a cantilevered skew isotropic plate by using nonlinear saturation phenomena and PZT (lead zirconate titanate) patches as sensors and actuators. Modal testing and finite- element analysis are performed to study the bending- torsional dynamic characteristics due to the non-rectangular plate geometry. The control method uses linear second-order controllers coupled to the plate via quadratic terms to establish energy bridges between the plate and controllers. Each linear second-order controller is designed to have a 1:2 internal resonance with one of the plate vibration modes and hence is able to exchange energy with the plate at or around the specific modal frequency. Because of quadratic nonlinearities and 1:2 internal resonances, saturation phenomena exist and are used to suppress modal vibrations. To test this control technique in an efficient and systematic way, we built a digital control system that consists of SIMULINK modeling software and a dSPACE DS1102 controller in a pentium computer. Both numerical and experimental results show that this nonlinear control method is robust in suppression steady-state resonant vibrations without significant spill-over effects.

  20. High-precision impedance spectroscopy: a strategy demonstrated on PZT.

    PubMed

    Boukamp, Bernard A; Blank, Dave H A

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been recognized as a very powerful tool for studying charge and mass transport and transfer in a wide variety of electrically or electrochemically active systems. Sophisticated modeling programs make it possible to extract parameters from the impedance data, thus contributing to a better understanding of the system or material properties. For an accurate analysis, a correct modeling function is needed; this is often in the form of an equivalent circuit. It is not always possible to define the modeling function from visual inspection of the impedance dispersion. Small contributions to the overall dispersion can be masked, and hence overlooked. In this publication, a strategy is presented for high-precision impedance data analysis. A Kramers-Kronig test is used for the essential data validation. An iterative process of partial analysis and subtraction assists in deconvoluting the impedance spectrum, yielding both a vi- able model function and a set of necessary starting values for the full complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) modeling. The advantage and possibilities of this strategy are demonstrated with an analysis of the ionic and electronic conductivity of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as functions of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. PMID:23443688

  1. Optical amplification in disordered electrooptic Tm{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics and study of spectroscopy and communication between cations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Long; Sun, Fankui; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Xuesheng; Li, Kewen K.

    2014-02-21

    Rare earth doped electro-optic (EO) ceramics of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) are promising in building multifunctional optical devices, by taking advantage of both EO effect and optical activity. In this work, the combination of the measured spectra of absorption and photoluminescence, the fluorescent decay, the calculated Judd-Ofelt parameters, and measured single pass gain in Tm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} codoped PLZT ceramics have marked them out as promising gain media in building electrically controllable lasers/optical amplifiers and other multifunctional devices. Optical energy storage was also observed in the optical amplification dynamics.

  2. Fatigue Response of a PZT Multilayer Actuator under High-Field Electric Cycling with Mechanical Preload

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2009-01-01

    An electric fatigue test system has been developed for piezoelectric actuator with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator (MLA) with a plate-through electrode configuration have been studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of a coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 1.0x10^9 cycles were carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under a high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized by using FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). It has been observed that both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients underwent a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86x10^8 cycles under the relevant preload, and then fluctuated to a certain extent. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also exhibited the fluctuations after a certain amount of drop but at different levels relative to the pre-fatigue. And finally, the results were discussed with respect to domain wall mobility, microcracking, and other pre-existing anomalies.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of thick PZT films via sol-gel dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Amid; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Thick films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) offer possibilities for micro-electro-mechanical systems such as high frequency ultrasonic transducers. In this paper, crack-free thick films of PZT have been prepared up to 45 μm thickness via modified sol-gel dip coating method. In this procedure, acetic acid-alcoholic based sol is used by applying diethanolamine (DEA) and deionized water as additives. The effects of DEA and water on the crystal structure and surface morphology of the films are investigated. The mechanisms of acetic acid and DEA complexations are introduced by using FTIR spectrometer which illustrates suitable substitution of complexing agents with alkoxide groups. DEA/(Ti + Zr) = 0.5 or water/(Ti + Zr) = 0.5 are determined as the optimum molar ratio of additives, which lead to the formation of almost pure perovskite phase with the tetragonal lattice parameters of ct = 4.16 Ǻ and at = 4.02 Ǻ and a distortion of 2%. Values of remanent polarization and dielectric constant of 7.8 μC cm-2 and 1630 were obtained for 45 μm thick films, respectively.

  4. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  5. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the <011> Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be twice as large as for PPE structures, for PZT-5H properties. The experiments yielded an FOM of the IDE structures of 1.25 × 10(10) J/m(3) and 14 mV/μ strain. PMID:22899110

  6. Optimization of a 0.69PZT-0.31PZNN thick film by controlling slurry viscosity and tape-casting blade height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daniel; Woo, Min Sik; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Sung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Bum

    2014-12-01

    We investigated how the viscosities of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate/lead zirconate nickel niobate (PZT-PZNN) slurry samples affect the laminated-film densities based on various conditions of degassing time for 0, 30, and 60 min. PZT-PZNN slurries with different viscosities were tape casted into green sheets by adjusting the comma blade height to 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm. As a result the slurry viscosity linearly increased with increasing slurry degassing time, and the thickness of the green sheet increased with increasing comma blade height. The density and the dielectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic films with the same thicknesses, but composed of different numbers of layers, were compared. The laminated-film density and the dielectric property d33 × g33 increased with decreasing number of laminated layers. However, when the viscosity of the slurry was too high (degassing time > 60 min) and the comma blade height was too high (comma blade height > 300 μm), the tape-casted green sheet was too thick to have enough time to dry. By controlling the slurry viscosity by adjusting the degassing time and the comma blade height, we were able to optimize the thickness of the green sheet in a tape-casting. The optimal green sheet thickness was < 70 μm, and the number of sheets laminated should be minimized to increase the film's density and dielectric constant.

  7. PZT piezoelectric films on glass for Gen-X imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The proposed adaptive optics system for the Gen-X telescope uses piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. The low softening transition of the glass substrates imposes several processing challenges that require the development of new approaches to deposit high quality PZT thin films. Synthesis and optimization of chemical solution deposited 1 μm thick films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 on small area (1 in2) and large area (16 in2) Pt/Ti/glass substrates has been performed. In order to avoid warping of the glass at temperatures typically used to crystallize PZT films ({700°C), a lower temperature, two-step crystallization process was employed. An {80 nm thick seed layer of PbZr0.30Ti0.70O3 was deposited to promote the growth of the perovskite phase. After the deposition of the seed layer, the films were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) furnace at 550°C for 3 minutes to nucleate the perovskite phase. This was followed by isothermal annealing at 550°C for 1 hour to complete crystallization. For the subsequent PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layers, the same RTA protocol was performed, with the isothermal crystallization implemented following the deposition of three PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 spin-coated layers. Over the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz, films exhibit relative permittivity values near 800 with loss tangents below 0.07. Hysteresis loops show low levels of imprint with coercive fields of 40-50 kV/cm in the forward direction and 50-70 kV/cm in the reverse direction. The remanent polarization varied from 25-35 μC/cm2 and e31,f values were approximately -5.0 C/m2. In scaling up the growth procedure to large area films, where warping becomes more pronounced due to the increased size of the substrate, the pyrolysis and crystallization conditions were performed in a box furnace to improve the temperature uniformity. By depositing films on both sides of the glass substrate, the tensile stresses are balanced, providing a sufficiently flat surface to continue PZT deposition. The properties of the large area film are comparable to those obtained on small substrates. While sol-gel processing is a viable approach to the deposition of high quality PZT thin films on glass substrates, preliminary results using RF magnetron sputter deposition demonstrate comparable properties with a significantly simpler process that offers a superior route for large scale production.

  8. Real-Time, Label-Free, All-Electrical Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Zirconate Titanate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2007-01-01

    We have examined non-insulated PZT/gold-coated glass cantilevers for real-time, label-free detection of Salmonella t. by partial dipping at any relative humidity. The PZT/gold-coated glass cantilevers were consisted of a 0.127 mm thick PZT layer about 0.8 mm long, 2 mm wide bonded to a 0.15 mm thick gold-coated glass layer with a 3.0 mm long gold-coated glass tip for detection. We showed that by placing the water level at the nodal point, about 0.8 mm from the free end of the gold-glass tip, there was a 1-hr window in which the resonance frequency was stable despite the water level change by evaporation at 20% relative humidity or higher. By dipping the cantilevers to their nodal point, we were able to do real-time, label-free detection without background resonance frequency corrections at any relative humidity. The partially dipped PZT/gold-coated glass cantilever exhibited mass detection sensitivity, Δm/Δf = −5×10−11g/Hz, and a detection concentration sensitivity, 5×103 cells/ml in 2 ml of liquid, which was about two orders of magnitude lower than that of a 5 MHz QCM. It was also about two orders of magnitude lower than the infection dosage and one order of magnitude lower that the detection limit of a commercial Raptor sensor. PMID:22872784

  9. Local piezoelectric behavior in PZT-based thin films for ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggio, Flavio

    Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are currently used in inkjet printers and precision resonators; numerous additional applications are being investigated for sensors, low-voltage actuators, and transducers. This work was aimed at improving piezoelectric MEMS by taking two approaches: 1) identifying factors affecting the piezoelectric response of ferroelectric thin films and 2) demonstrating integration of these films into a high frequency array transducer. It was found that there are several key factors influencing the piezoelectric response of thin films for a given material composition. First, large grain size improves the piezoelectric response. This was demonstrated using chemical solution deposited lead nickel niobate -- lead zirconate titanate (0.3)Pb(Ni 0.33Nb0.67)O3 - (0.7)Pb(Zr0.45Ti 0.55O3), (PNN-PZT) ferroelectric thin films. It was shown that this composition allows greater microstructural control than does PZT. Dielectric permittivities ranging from 1350 to 1520 and a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f as high as -- 9.7 C/m 2 were observed for films of about 0.25 mum in thickness. The permittivity and piezoelectric response as well as extrinsic contributions to the dielectric constant increased by 14 and 12 % respectively for samples with grain sizes ranging from 110 to 270 nm. A second factor influencing the piezoelectric response is film composition with respect to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The composition dependence of the dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities was characterized in epitaxially grown (0.3)Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-(0.7)Pb(Zr xTi1-xO3) thin films deposited on SrTiO 3 to minimize the influence of large-angle grain boundaries. Tetragonal, MPB and rhombohedral films were prepared by changing the Zr/Ti ratio. The largest dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities were observed for the rhombohedral sample; this resulted from a higher domain wall mobility due to a smaller ferroelectric distortion and superior crystal quality. Thirdly, changes in the mechanical boundary conditions experienced by a ferroelectric thin film were found to influence both the properties and the length scale for correlated motion of domain walls. Microfabrication was employed to release the PZT films from the Si substrate. Nonlinear piezoelectric maps, by band excitation piezoforce microscopy, showed formation of clusters of higher nonlinear activities of similar size for clamped PZT films with different microstructures. However PZT films that had been released from the Si substrate showed a distinct increase in the correlation length associated with coupled domain wall motion, suggesting that the local mechanical boundary conditions, more than microstructure or composition govern the domain wall dynamics. Release of both the local and the global stress states in films produced dielectric nonlinearities comparable to those of bulk ceramics. The second research direction was targeted at demonstrating the functionality of a one dimensional transducer array. A diaphragm geometry was used for the transducer arrays in order to benefit from the unimorph-type displacement of the PZT-SiO2 layers. For this purpose, the PZT and remaining films in the stack were patterned using reactive ion etching and partially released from the underlying silicon substrate by XeF2 etching from the top. Admittance measurements on the fabricated structures showed resonance frequencies at ˜40 MHz for a 80 mum diameter-wide diaphragms with a PZT thickness of 1.74 mum. In-water transmit and receive functionalities were demonstrated. A bandwidth on receive of 80 % centered at 40 MHz was determined during pitch-mode tests.

  10. Quick response PZT/P(VDF-TrFE) composite film pyroelectric infrared sensor with patterned polyimide thermal isolation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. G.; Li, P.; Cai, G. Q.; Luo, W. B.; Sun, X. Y.; Peng, Q. X.; Zhang, W. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication method and the pyroelectric response of a single element infrared sensor based lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles and polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer composite thick film is reported in this paper. A special thermal insulation structure, including polyimide (PI) thermal insulation layer and thermal insulation tanks, was used in this device. The thermal insulation tanks were fabricated by laser micro-etching technique. Voltage responsivity (RV), noise voltage (Vnoise), noise equivalent power (NEP), and detectivity (D*) of the PZT/P(VDF-TrFE) based infrared sensor are 1.2 × 103 V/W, 1.25 × 10-6 V Hz1/2, 1.1 × 10-9 W and 1.9 × 108 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at 137.3 Hz modulation frequency, respectively. The thermal time constant of the infrared sensor τT was about 15 ms. The results demonstrate that the composite infrared sensor show a high detectivity at high chopper frequency, which is an essential advantage in infrared detectors and some other devices.

  11. Accurate modeling of PZT-induced Lamb wave propagation in structures by using a novel spectral finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Luyao; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation problems in plate-like structures. Based on the simple plate theory with six variables and extended Chebyshev nodes, a novel formulation of two-dimensional spectral finite elements (2D SFEs) with and without a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer is proposed. A simple technique is used in the formulations to avoid inherent thickness locking, which exists in the simple plate theory. Contrary to the existing methods, only one voltage degree of freedom is introduced for each PZT element. Formulations have been worked out in detail, and analysis of the base plates with and without PZTs has been carried out. The accuracy of the proposed 2D SFE is verified by comparing the simulations to data obtained by the finite element method-base commercial software ANSYS with very fine meshes and with existing experimental data. Numerical results indicate that the proposed method is efficient in simulating Lamb wave propagation in plate-like structures.

  12. Damage Detection Based on Power Dissipation Measured with PZT Sensors through the Combination of Electro-Mechanical Impedances and Guided Waves.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Enrique; Sun, Rui; Perera, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric ceramic transducers (such as Lead-Zirconate-Titanate-PZT) has become more and more widespread for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Among all the techniques that are based on this smart sensing solution, guided waves and electro-mechanical impedance techniques have found wider acceptance, and so more studies and experimental works can be found containing these applications. However, even though these two techniques can be considered as complementary to each other, little work can be found focused on the combination of them in order to define a new and integrated damage detection procedure. In this work, this combination of techniques has been studied by proposing a new integrated damage indicator based on Electro-Mechanical Power Dissipation (EMPD). The applicability of this proposed technique has been tested through different experimental tests, with both lab-scale and real-scale structures. PMID:27164104

  13. Characterization of PZT Capacitor Structures with Various Electrode Materials Processed In-Situ Using AN Automated, Rotating Elemental Target, Ion Beam Deposition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Kenneth Douglas

    Ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures containing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as the dielectric, with the chemical formula Pb(rm Zr_{x }Ti_{1-x})O_3, were synthesized in-situ with an automated ion beam sputter deposition system. Platinum (Pt), conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO_2), and two types of Pt-RuO_2 hybrid electrodes were used as the electrode materials. The capacitor structures are characterized in terms of microstructure and electrical characteristics. Reduction or elimination of non-ferroelectric phases, that nucleate during PZT processing on Pt/TiO _2/MgO and RuO_2/MgO substrates, is achieved by reducing the thickness of the individually deposited layers and by interposing a buffer layer (~100-200A) of PbTiO _3 (PT) between the bottom electrode and the PZT film. Capacitor structures containing a Pt electrode exhibit poor fatigue resistance, irregardless of the PZT microstructure or the use of a PT buffer layer. From these results, and results from similar capacitors synthesized with sol-gel and laser ablation, PZT-based capacitor structures containing Pt electrodes are considered to be unsuitable for use in memory devices. Using a PT buffer layer, in capacitor structures containing RuO_2 top and bottom electrodes and polycrystalline, highly (101) oriented PZT, reduces or eliminates the nucleation of zirconium-titanium oxide, non-ferroelectric species at the bottom electrode interface during processing. This results in good fatigue resistance up to ~2times10^ {10} switching cycles. DC leakage current density vs. time measurements follow the Curie-von Schweidler law, J(t) ~ t^ {rm -n}. Identification of the high electric field current conduction mechanism is inconclusive. The good fatigue resistance, low dc leakage current, and excellent retention, qualifies the use of these capacitor structures in non-volatile random access (NVRAM) and dynamic random access (DRAM) memory devices. Excellent fatigue resistance (10% loss in remanent polarization up to ~2times10^ {10} switching cycles), low dc leakage current, and excellent retention are observed in capacitor structures containing polycrystalline PZT (exhibiting dominant (001) and (100) XRD reflections), a Pt-RuO_2 hybrid bottom electrode (Type IA), and an RuO _2 top electrode. These results, and electrical characterization results on capacitors containing co-deposited Pt-RuO_2 hybrid electrodes (Type II), show potential for application of these capacitor structures in NVRAM and DRAM memory devices.

  14. In situ growth of lead zirconate titanate thin films by hybrid process: sol-gel method and pulsed-laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.J. . E-mail: wangzj@argon.material.tohoku.ac.jp; Kokawa, H.; Maeda, R.

    2005-02-01

    Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were grown in situ on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a hybrid process consisting of the sol-gel method and pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The deposition temperature to obtain the perovskite phase in the hybrid process is 460 deg C, significantly lower than in the case of direct film deposition by PLD on a Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of PZT films can be controlled using the layer deposited by the sol-gel method and highly (1 1 1)- or (1 0 0)-oriented PZT films were obtained. A transmission electron microscope image showed that the film had a polycrystalline columnar microstructure extending through its thickness, and no sharp boundary was observed between the layers deposited by the sol-gel method and PLD. A high-resolution electron microscope image and electron diffraction analysis revealed that the crystalline lattice of the layers deposited by the sol-gel method and PLD was continuous and there was no difference in crystalline orientation between the layers. These results indicate that the solid-phase epitaxial effect between the PZT layers deposited by the sol-gel method and PLD reduces the deposition temperature to obtain the perovskite phase during PLD, and causes the films to exhibit the same preferred orientation as that of the layer deposited by the sol-gel method. The dielectric constant and remanent polarization of the films deposited in situ at 460 deg C were approximately 900 and 15 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of Low-Temperature Processing of Lead Zirconate Titanate (53/47) Ceramics Derived from 1-Propanol-Based Sol-Gel Stock Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Long; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chang, Ten-Yi; Huang, Jow-Lay; Huag, Cheng-Liang

    2002-11-01

    Nanoscale technology will lead to the next material revolution, particularly in terms of sol-gel method assembly in nanostructured devices. In this research, PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) ceramics with gel powder synthesized by the chemical solution deposition (CSD) method utilizing less hazardous propyl alcohol as a solvent were developed. The PZT solutions were transparent and no precipitates were formed with a reflux time ratio of Pb:Zr:Ti=2:1:2, and the composition similar to PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3. Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry (DTA/TG) analyzed mass fluctuations of the gel powders. Altering the firing conditions, X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation of the crystal phase and domain microstructure observation by transmission emission microscopy (TEM), were carried out. From the analysis results, the PZT ceramic calcinations at 900°C for 30 min, and sintering at 1100°C for 2 h had uniform grain size distribution; furthermore, the sample was found to possess piezoelectric properties. In this study the processing temperatures scaling down by 100°C-200°C compared to the solid-state reaction.

  16. Micromachined bulk PZT tissue contrast sensor for fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Roma Y; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a micromachined piezoelectric sensor, integrated into a cavity at the tip of a biopsy needle, and preliminary experiments to determine if such a device can be used for real-time tissue differentiation, which is needed for needle positioning guidance during fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. The sensor is fabricated from bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT), using a customized process in which micro electro-discharge machining is used to form a steel tool that is subsequently used for batch-mode ultrasonic micromachining of bulk PZT ceramic. The resulting sensor is 50 microm thick and 200 microm in diameter. It is placed in the biopsy needle cavity, against a steel diaphragm which is 300 microm diameter and has an average thickness of 23 microm. Devices were tested in materials that mimic the ultrasound characteristics of human tissue, used in the training of physicians, and with porcine fat and muscle tissue. In both schemes, the magnitude and frequency of an electrical impedance resonance peak showed tissue-specific characteristics as the needle was inserted. For example, in the porcine tissue, the impedance peak frequency changed approximately 13 MHz from the initial 163 MHz, and the magnitude changed approximately 1600 Omega from the initial 2100 Omega, as the needle moved from fat to muscle. Samples including oils and saline solution were tested for calibration, and an empirical tissue contrast model shows an approximately proportional relationship between measured frequency shift and sample acoustic impedance. These results suggest that the device can complement existing methods for guidance during biopsies. PMID:17268619

  17. Out-of-Plane Translational PZT Bimorph Actuator with Archimedes’ Spiral Actuating Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenye; Liu, Sanwei; Livermore, Carol

    2015-12-01

    The design, finite element analysis (FEA), and experimental characterization of a MEMS out-of-plane (vertical) translational lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) bimorph actuator supported on Archimedes’ spiral tethers are presented. Two types of bimorph actuators with different electrode patterns (with spiral tethers half actuated or fully actuated) are designed and fabricated. Both designs are fabricated by commercial processes and are compatible with integration into more complex MEMS systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to analyze and predict the displacements of both types of actuators. The deflections of both fully- actuated and half-actuated devices were measured experimentally to validate the design. At an applied voltage of 110V, the out-of-plane deflections of the actuators with half-actuated and fully-actuated tethers were measured at about 17 μm and 29 μm respectively, in good agreement with FEA predictions of 17.1 μm and 25.8 μm. The corresponding blocking forces are predicted as 10 mN and 17 mN by FEA.

  18. Development of a thick film PZT foil sensor for use in structural health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Pickwell, Andrew J; Dorey, Robert A; Mba, David

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is a technique of growing interest in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). The use of AE devices to monitor the health of structural components is currently limited by the cost of AE equipment, which prohibits the permanent placement of AE devices on structures for the purposes of continuous monitoring and the monitoring of areas with limited access. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can provide solutions to these problems. We present the manufacture of a 4.4-μm-thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film on a 110-μm-thick titanium foil substrate for use as an AE sensor. The thick-film sensor is benchmarked against commercially available AE sensors in static and dynamic monitoring applications. The thick-film AE device is found to perform well in the detection of AE in static applications. A low signal-to-noise ratio is found to prohibit the detection of AE in a dynamic application. PMID:23357911

  19. Detection of cancer biomarkers by piezoelectric biosensor using PZT ceramic resonator as the transducer.

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Zou, Lan; Fong, Chi-Chun; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wei, Fan; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

    2013-08-15

    A novel piezoelectric biosensor using lead titanate zirconate (PZT) ceramic resonator as transducer was developed for label-free, cost-effective, and direct detection of cancer biomarkers. We designed a dual sensing scheme where two ceramic resonators were connected in parallel, in which one resonator was used as the sensing unit and the other as the control unit, in order to minimize environment influences including temperature fluctuation and to achieve the required frequency stability for biosensing applications. Detection of selected cancer biomarkers, such as prostate specific antigen (PSA) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) was carried out to evaluate the performance of the biosensor. The device showed high sensitivity (0.25 ng/ml) and fast detection (within 30 min) with small amount of sample (1 ?l), which is compatible to that required by clinical measurements. The results also showed that the ceramic resonator-based piezoelectric biosensor platform could be utilized with different chemical interfaces, and the miniaturized size of the ceramic resonators makes it suitable for fabricating sensor arrays for multiplex detection. PMID:23542085

  20. Optical tuning of electrical properties of PZT thin film deposited on STO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    Present report deals with the optical tuning of electrical properties of PZT thin film based photodetector (PD). Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin film has been fabricated over epitaxially matched Strontium Titanate (STO) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Fine aluminium inter digital electrodes were patterned over PZT film to study the response of the PD. The photo response has been investigated by tuning the optical properties of the incident laser beam. The response was found to be modified according to the incident laser intensity and the distance between sample and laser. Moreover, PZT based photo detector was found to be highly sensitive towards small variation in the optical properties of the incident light. The intrinsic properties of the PZT thin film including its ferroelectric properties make it a novel material for the fabrication of UV based photo detector. The response of the PZT based Photodetector was found to be about 152 at a distance of 10cm between the PD and the UV laser of wavelength 365nm. The response time and recovery time were found to be 60 msec each which are much faster for UV detection as compared to other photodetectors. Moreover, a stable response was also observed on the repetitive UV sensing for the fabricated PZT based Photodetector.

  1. In-Situ phase and texture characterization of solution deposited PZT thin films during crystallization.

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Nittala, Krishna; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films are used for integrated capacitors, ferroelectric memory, and piezoelectric actuators. Solution deposition is routinely used to fabricate these thin films. During the solution deposition process, the precursor solutions are spin coated onto the substrate and then pyrolyzed to form an amorphous film. The amorphous film is then heated at a higher temperature (650-700 C) to crystallize the film into the desired perovskite phase. Phase purity is critical in achieving high ferroelectric properties. Moreover, due to the anisotropy in the structure and properties of PZT, it is desirable to control the texture obtained in these thin films. The heating rate during crystallization process is known to affect the sequence of phase evolution and texture obtained in these thin films. However, to date, a comprehensive understanding of how phase and texture evolution takes place is still lacking. To understand the effects of heating rate on phase and texture evolution, in-situ diffraction experiments during the crystallization of solution deposited PZT thin films were carried out at beamline 6-ID-B, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The high X-ray flux coupled with the sophisticated detectors available at the APS synchrotron source allow for in-situ characterization of phase and texture evolution at the high ramp rates that are commonly used during processing of PZT thin films. A PZT solution of nominal composition 52/48 (Zr/Ti) was spin coated onto a platinum-coated Si substrate (Pt//TiO{sub x}//SiO{sub 2}//Si). The films were crystallized using an infrared lamp, similar to a rapid thermal annealing furnace. The ramp rate was adjusted by controlling the voltage applied to the infrared lamp and increasing the voltage by a constant step with every acquisition. Four different ramp rates, ranging from {approx}1000 C/s to {approx}1 C/s, were investigated. The sample was aligned in grazing incidence to maximize the signal from the thin films. Successive diffraction patterns were acquired with a 1s acquisition time using a MAR SX-165 CCD detector during crystallization. The sample to detector distance and the tilt rotations of the detector were determined in Fit2D{copyright} by using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the calibrant. These corrections were applied to the patterns when binning the data into radial (2{theta}) and azimuthal bins. The texture observed in the thin film was qualitatively analyzed by fitting the intensity peaks along the azimuthal direction with a gaussian profile function to obtain the integrated intensity of the peaks. Data analysis and peak fitting was done using the curve fitting toolbox in MATLAB{copyright}. A fluorite-type phase was observed to form before the perovskite phase for all ramp rates. PtxPb is a transient intermetallic formed due to the interaction of the thin film and the bottom electrode during crystallization. Ramp rate was observed to significantly affect the amount of PtxPb observed in the thin films during crystallization. Ramp rate was also observed to affect the final texture obtained in the thin films. These results will be discussed in the poster in view of the current understanding of these materials.

  2. Magnetoelectric effect in layered ferrite/PZT composites. Study of the demagnetizing effect on the magnetoelectric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, V.; Morin, V.; Chaplier, G.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2015-05-01

    We report the use of high magnetomechanical coupling ferrites in magnetoelectric (ME) layered composites. Bilayer samples combining (Ni0.973 Co0.027)1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrites (x = 0-0.5) synthesized by non conventional reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were characterized in term of ME voltage coefficients measured at sub-resonant frequency. Strong ME effects are obtained and we show that an annealing at 1000 °C and a quenching in air improve the piezomagnetic behavior of Zn-rich compositions. A theoretical model that predicts the ME behavior was developed, focusing our work on the demagnetizing effects in the transversal mode as well as the longitudinal mode. The model shows that: (i) high ME coefficients are obtained when ferrites with high magnetomechanical coupling are used in bilayer ME composites, (ii) the ME behavior in transversal and longitudinal modes is quite similar, and differences in the shapes of the ME curves are mainly due the demagnetizing effects, (iii) in the transversal mode, the magnetic field penetration depends on the ferrite layer thickness and the ME coefficient is affected accordingly. The two later points are confirmed by measurements on ME samples and calculations. Performances of the ME composites made with high magnetomechanical coupling ferrites are compared to those obtained using Terfenol-D materials in the same conditions of size, shape, and volume ratio. It appears that a ferrite with an optimized composition has performances comparable to those obtained with Terfenol-D material. Nevertheless, the fabrication processes of ferrites are quite simpler. Finally, a ferrite/PZT based ME composite was used as a current sensor.

  3. A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, θx, θy) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 μm of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 μm of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 μm, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 μm, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system. PMID:25506131

  4. Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality SrRuO{sub 3} thin film electrodes suppressing the formation of detrimental RuO{sub 2} and the dielectric properties of integrated lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Koritala, R.; Ma, B.; Pol, V.; Balachandran, U.

    2011-01-01

    A facile solution chemistry is demonstrated to fabricate high-quality polycrystalline strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO{sub 3}) thin film electrodes on silicon substrates suppressing the formation of undesired ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) for the deposition of dielectric and ferroelectric materials like lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). The robust, highly crystalline SrRuO{sub 3} film fabrication process does not favor the formation of RuO{sub 2} because of molecular level modification of the precursors possessing analogous melting points, yielding homogeneous films. This chemistry is further understood and complemented by kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the DTA data under nonisothermal conditions, with which the activation energies to form RuO{sub 2} and SrRuO{sub 3} were calculated to be 156 {+-} 17 and 96 {+-} 10 kJ/mol, respectively. The room-temperature resistivity of the SrRuO{sub 3} film was measured to be 850 {+-} 50 {mu}{Omega} cm on silicon (100) substrates. The dielectric properties of sol-gel-derived PLZT thin film capacitors on polycrystalline SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes were also measured to illustrate the high quality of the formed SrRuO{sub 3} bottom electrode. These results have broad implications for the expanded use of these conductive oxide electrodes in many applications that require low thermal budgets. The PLZT (8/52/48) films exhibited well-defined hysteresis loops with remanent polarization of {approx}10.5 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, dielectric constant of >1450, dielectric loss of <0.06, and leakage current density of {approx}3.8 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2}. These dielectric properties are similar to those of PLZT on platinized silicon, indicating the high quality of the bottom conductive oxide layer. In addition, the PLZT capacitors were essentially fatigue free for >1 x 10{sup 9} cycles when deposited over an oxide electrode.

  5. Meteoritic Zircon.

    PubMed

    Marvin, U B; Klein, C

    1964-11-13

    Zircon (ZrSiO(5)) has been identified as an accessory mineral in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and in the troilite nodules of the Toluca iron meteorite. The occurrence in Vaca Muerta is a new discovery confirmned by electron-probe nmicroanalysis of a grain in a polished section of the meteorite. Our identification of zircon in Toluca substantiates an occurrence in this meteorite reported in 1895 by Laspeyres and Kaiser. PMID:17777058

  6. A large-scan-angle piezoelectric MEMS optical scanner actuated by a Nb-doped PZT thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naono, Takayuki; Fujii, Takamichi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Resonant 1D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners actuated by piezoelectric unimorph actuators with a Nb-doped lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) thin film were developed for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) application. The MEMS scanners were designed as the resonance frequency was less than 125 Hz to obtain enough pixels per frame in OCT images. The device size was within 3.4 mm × 2.5 mm, which is compact enough to be installed in a side-imaging probe with 4 mm inner diameter. The fabrication process started with a silicon-on-insulator wafer, followed by PNZT deposition by the Rf sputtering and Si bulk micromachining process. The fabricated MEMS scanners showed maximum optical scan angles of 146° at 90 Hz, 148° at 124 Hz, 162° at 180 Hz, and 152° at 394 Hz at resonance in atmospheric pressure. Such wide scan angles were obtained by a drive voltage below 1.3 Vpp, ensuring intrinsic safety in in vivo uses. The scanner with the unpoled PNZT film showed three times as large a scan angle as that with a poled PZT films. A swept-source OCT system was constructed using the fabricated MEMS scanner, and cross-sectional images of a fingertip with image widths of 4.6 and 2.3 mm were acquired. In addition, a PNZT-based angle sensor was studied for feedback operation.

  7. Chem-prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applicatios : powder preparation characterization utilizing design of experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Steven John; Rodman-Gonzales, Emily Diane; Voigt, James A.; Moore, Diana Lynn

    2003-07-01

    Niobium doped PZT 95/5 (lead zirconate-lead titanate) is the material used in voltage bars for all ferroelectric neutron generator power supplies. In June of 1999, the transfer and scale-up of the Sandia Process from Department 1846 to Department 14192 was initiated. The laboratory-scale process of 1.6 kg has been successfully scaled to a production batch quantity of 10 kg. This report documents efforts to characterize and optimize the production-scale process utilizing Design of Experiments methodology. Of the 34 factors identified in the powder preparation sub-process, 11 were initially selected for the screening design. Additional experiments and safety analysis subsequently reduced the screening design to six factors. Three of the six factors (Milling Time, Media Size, and Pyrolysis Air Flow) were identified as statistically significant for one or more responses and were further investigated through a full factorial interaction design. Analysis of the interaction design resulted in developing models for Powder Bulk Density, Powder Tap Density, and +20 Mesh Fraction. Subsequent batches validated the models. The initial baseline powder preparation conditions were modified, resulting in improved powder yield by significantly reducing the +20 mesh waste fraction. Response variation analysis indicated additional investigation of the powder preparation sub-process steps was necessary to identify and reduce the sources of variation to further optimize the process.

  8. Dynamic Electromechanical Characterization of Axially Poled PZT 95/5

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Furnish, Michael D.; Montgomery, Stephen T.; Setchell, Robert E.

    1999-06-25

    We are conducting a comprehensive experimental study of the electromechanical behavior of poled PZT 95/5 (lead zirconate titattate). As part of this study, eight plane-wave tests have been conducted on axially poled PZT 95/5 at stress levels ranging from 0.9 to 4.6 GPa, using VISAR and electrical diagnos- tics. Observed wave velocities were slightly decreased from ultrasonic vahtes, by contrast' with unpoled samples. Compression waveforms show a step at 0.6 GPa more marked than for normally poled or unpoled samples; this may correspond to a poling effect on the ferroelectric/antiferroelectric transition. A similar step is observed on release. The released charge upon loading to 0.9 GPa is consistent with nearly complete depoling. Loading to higher stresses gave lower currents (factor of 10), suggesting shock-induced conduc- tivity or electrical breakdown.

  9. Processing of PZT ceramics: aqueous mixing procedures for powder consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, B.C.; Lamppa, D.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1986-02-01

    Inhomogeneities in chemical compositions and microstructures can result in lot-to-lot variations in the charge release characteristics of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate ceramics. One source of inhomogeneity is agglomeration and selective sedimentation which occurs during aqueous mixing of the constituent oxides. Procedures using electrostatic and steric stabilization of oxide powders were developed for fabricating homogeneous powder compacts. Use of lead carbonate instead of lead oxide minimizes problems encountered using various slurry stabilization techniques.

  10. Scalable synthesis of morphotropic phase boundary lead zirconium titanate nanowires for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A

    2014-12-01

    Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) nanowires are synthesized using a scalable two-step hydrothermal reaction. The piezo-electric coupling coefficient of the PZT NWs shows the highest value for PZT nano-wires in the literature (80 ± 5 pm/V). A PZT-NW-based nanocomposite is fabri-cated to demonstrate an energy-harvesting application with an open-circuit voltage up to 7 V and a power density up to 2.4 μW/cm(3) . PMID:25312483

  11. Study of magnetic properties and magnetoelectric effect in ( x) Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4+(1- x)PZT composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bammannavar, B. K.; Naik, L. R.

    2012-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites consisting of ferrite phase (x) Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4+ferroelectric phase (1-x)Pb Zr0.8Ti0.2O3 (Lead Zirconate Titanate-PZT) in which x (mol%) varies between 0 and 1 (0.0≤x≤1.0) was synthesized by double sintering ceramic method. The presence of constituent phases of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The hysteresis measurement was used to study magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (MS) and magnetic moment (μB). The existence of single domain (SD) particle in the ferrite phase and mixed (SD+MD) particle in the composites was studied from AC susceptibility measurements. ME voltage coefficient for each mol% of ferrite phase was measured as a function of applied DC magnetic field and at the same time influence of magnetic field on ME response and resistivity of composites was studied. The maximum ME voltage coefficient of 0.84 mV/cm Oe was observed for 15% of ferrite phase and 85% of ferroelectric phase in the composites.

  12. Role of epitaxy in controlling the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of cobalt ferrite-PZT bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Dhakal, T.; Hyde, R.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Witanachchi, S.

    2010-12-01

    Epitaxial thin films of cobalt ferrite (CFO) single layer and CFO-lead zirconium titanate (PZT) bilayers were deposited on single crystal MgO (1 0 0) and SrTiO3 (STO) (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The structural properties were characterized using x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The magnetic properties of the as-grown thin films were measured at 10 and 300 K in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. The CFO-PZT bilayer films showed enhanced or reduced values of magnetization as compared with those of the CFO single layer films depending on the substrate of deposition. A strain compression-relaxation mechanism was proposed in order to explain the structure-property relationships in the CFO-PZT bilayer thin films.

  13. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti. PMID:25585390

  14. Biologically functionalized nanochannels on ferroelectric lead zirconium titanate surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Ocola, L. E.; Pan, W. C.; Kuo, M.; Tirumala, V. R.; Reiss, B. D.; Firestone, M. A.; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

    2005-01-01

    We recently started a program at Argonne to exploit patterned, polarizable ferroelectric surfaces, such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT), as a means to create field-responsive inorganic-biomolecule interfaces to study and manipulate biomatter on surfaces. In this paper we will discuss the integration of nanochannels on the surface of PZT films and their selective functionalization to create nanovalves to control nanofluidic flow. Microfluidic devices have been fabricated using a variety of methods, ranging from thermal decomposition of buried patterned channels, to fabricating trenches via plasma etch or hot embossing followed by trench capping. Our work focuses on an alternative method by using a bilayer resist in an inverted configuration normally used for T- and Gamma- gate fabrication. This method is capable of yielding sub-100 nm nanochannels with high aspect ratios and sub-500nm alignment. We have recently demonstrated that the polarization hysteresis loop of PZT is the same before and after exposure to an aqueous environment. This opens the possibility of selective surface modification of PZT via coupling of a wide range of biomolecules (e.g., peptides, proteins) and the use of the electric-field-responsive properties of PZT to manipulate the function (e.g., orientation) of the tethered biomolecules. We have used phage display techniques to evolve specific peptide motifs that selectively bind to PZT. The optimum heptapeptide that facilitates both the attachment of functional biological molecules to the surface of PZT has been identified.

  15. Explosive crystallization of PZT microstructures by femtosecond infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshin, A. S.; Firsova, N. Yu; Emelianov, V. I.; Pronin, I. P.; Senkevich, S. V.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Mishina, E. D.; Sigov, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The features of microstructure crystallization into perovskite phase in lead zirconate titanate film by femtosecond laser radiation of near-infrared range were discussed. In-situ crystallization kinetics by method of second harmonic generation (SHG) was studied. The presence of several types of crystallization was shown, including ultra-fast (explosive) crystallization occurring immediately after the start of exposure, and slow (self-sustaining) crystallization, occurring after termination of exposure. The advantage of the second-harmonic generation microscopy for the study of annealed microstructures was shown. The morphology of microstructures was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  16. Structural Properties of Ferroelectric Lead(Zirconium0.5,Titanium0.5)Oxygen3 Nanotube Array and Electronic Structure of Lao delta-doped strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Rajendra P.

    In this Dissertation we begin with two introductions on: 1) ferroelectricity and related phenomena, and 2) novel properties of Oxide electronics and the generation of two dimensional electron gas. We then give theoretical background of density functional theory (including LDA+U) and pseudopotentials. The first part of research work is about structural, polarization, and dielectric properties of ferroelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) solid solution in the form of a nanotube array, embedded in a matrix medium of different ferroelectric strengths. We use the effective Hamiltonian derived from first-principles and finite-temperature Monte Carlo methods to determine the various properties. We revealed different polarization phases of the system in the absence of an external electric field and explained these properties in microscopic detail. In the second part, we study the effects of compressive biaxial inplane strains on the electronic and structural properties of Lanthanum Oxide delta-doped Strontium Titanate supercell. We use first-principles density functional calculations within the local density approximation including also on-site Coulomb interaction energy. We approached the problem by comparing the band structures, localization of electronic states, and cation-anion displacements of unstrained and strained systems. We found a critical strain above which there are abrupt changes in conduction band dispersions and cation-anion displacements, indicating that inplane biaxial strain can drastically tune the properties of this system, which may have potential technological applications.

  17. Gas line PZT power transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kude, W. B.; Gossler, A. A.

    1981-08-01

    An evaluation of power requirements for automatic or remote gas meter reading and a study of the possible sources of power generation to meet those requirements were conducted. The study found that employing lead zirconium titanium (PZT) needs to convert acoustic energy accompanying gas lines to electrical power is infeasible. Insufficient power is generated by this method due to the incompatible characteristics of broadband acoustic energy and frequency specific PZT efficiency. Only the mechanical energy stored in the compressed gas is found to be sufficient to power meter reading systems. This mechanical energy can be tapped at two locations. A small turbine or piston engine placed upstream of or in lieu of the final pressure regulators would generate ample power for meter reading. Using gas meters as engines to generate power also is sufficient.

  18. The effects of non-hydrostatic compression and applied electric field on the electromechanical behavior of poled PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic during the F{sub R1} {yields} A{sub 0} polymorphic phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeuch, D.H.; Montgomery, S.T.; Zimmerer, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    We conducted hydrostatic and constant-stress-difference (CSD) experiments at room temperature on two different sintered batches of poled, niobium-doped lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic (PZT 95/5-2Nb). The objective of this test plan was to quantify the effects of nonhydrostatic stress on the electromechanical behavior of the ceramic during the ferroelectric, rhombohedral {yields} antiferroelectric, orthorhombic (FE {yields} AFE) phase transformation. We also performed a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression experiments in which a 1000 V potential was applied to poled specimens to evaluate any effect of a sustained bias on the transformation. As we predicted from earlier tests on unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb, increasing the stress difference up to 200 MPa (corresponding to a maximum resolved shear stress of 100 MPa) decreases the mean stress and confining pressure at which the transformation occurs by 25--33%, for both biased and unbiased conditions. This same stress difference also retards the rate of transformation at constant pressurization rate, resulting in reductions of up to an order of magnitude in the rate of charge release and peak voltage attained in our tests. This shear stress-voltage effect offers a plausible, though qualitative explanation for certain systematic failures that have occurred in neutron generator power supplies when seemingly minor design changes have been made. Transformation strains in poled ceramic are anisotropic (differing by up to 33%) in hydrostatic compression, and even more anisotropic under non-hydrostatic stress states. Application of a 1000 V bias appears to slightly increase (by {le}2%) the transformation pressure for poled ceramic, but evidence for this conclusion is weak.

  19. Titan Karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, M. J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Hodyss, R.; Nerenberg, P. S.; Hayes, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    The morphological evidence, theoretical calculations, and laboratory simulation are all consistent with the concept that karst could be a viable explanation for the features and closed depressions observed on Titan.

  20. Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic fibers by extrusion of PZT powder and PZT sol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Um, Tae Y.; Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji; Takahashi, Hirofumi

    2001-07-01

    This study aims to fabricate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic fibers by extrusion with mixture of PZT powder and PZT sol. The added PZT sol in this study played a role as a binder; the sol changed into PZT crystalline during sintering, and removal process of additives before sintering was not required. To obtain PZT fibers, the condition of sol viscosity adjustment, the mixture ratio of powder and sol for fiber extrusion, and the sintering condition for obtaining polycrystalline fibers were investigated. PZT precursor solution was synthesized from lead acetate trihydrate, zirconium n-propoxide and titanium isopropoxide by reflux at 120 degree(s)C for 3 hours with 2-methoxyethanol. The appropriate adjustment of spinnable sol was achieved by the addition of acetic acid for suppressing the hydrolysis reaction and the curing sol at 80 degree(s)C for promoting the condensation of sol. Green fibers with diameter of about 300micrometers were successfully extruded from the mixture of PZT powder and sol. The extruded fibers sintered at 1200 degree(s)C had the microstructure with 2-6micrometers grains and had no pores or cracks. From the result of displacement behavior measurement, PZT fibers fabricated by firing at 1200 degree(s)C in this study were considered to have desired piezoelectric properties.

  1. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect

    Eydam, Agnes Suchaneck, Gunnar Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-11-05

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes.

  2. Ceramic with zircon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  3. Radiation Effects in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Meldrum, Alkiviathes; Wang, L. M.; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.

    2003-12-11

    The widespread distribution of zircon in the continental crust, its tendency to concentrate trace elements, particularly lanthanides and actinides, its use in age-dating, and its resistance to chemical and physical degradation have made zircon the most important accessory mineral in geologic studies. Because zircon is highly refractory, it also has important industrial applications, including its use as a lining material in high-temperature furnaces. However, during the past decade, zircon has also been proposed for advanced technology applications, such as a durable material for the immobilization of plutonium or, when modified by ion-beam irradiation, as an optic waveguide material. In all of these applications, the change in properties as a function of increasing radiation dose is of critical importance. In this chapter, we summarize the state-of-knowledge on the radiation damage accumulation process in zircon.

  4. Very High Frequency (Beyond 100 MHz) PZT Kerfless Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-µm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-µm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss). PMID:19942516

  5. Epitaxial growth of lead zirconium titanate thin films on Ag buffered Si substrates using rf sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chun; Laughlin, David E.; Kryder, Mark H.

    2007-04-23

    Epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) (001) thin films with a Pt bottom electrode were deposited by rf sputtering onto Si(001) single crystal substrates with a Ag buffer layer. Both PZT(20/80) and PZT(53/47) samples were shown to consist of a single perovskite phase and to have the (001) orientation. The orientation relationship was determined to be PZT(001)[110](parallel sign)Pt(001)[110](parallel sign)Ag(001)[110](parallel sign)Si(001)[110]. The microstructure of the multilayer was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electron diffraction pattern confirmed the epitaxial relationship between each layer. The measured remanent polarization P{sub r} and coercive field E{sub c} of the PZT(20/80) thin film were 26 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and 110 kV/cm, respectively. For PZT(53/47), P{sub r} was 10 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and E{sub c} was 80 kV/cm.

  6. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern hemisphere summer.

  7. Manufacturing of PZT-nickel functionally graded piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo M.; Silva, Emílio C. N.; Buiochi, Flávio

    2012-05-01

    A recent approach for designing and manufacturing piezoelectric ceramics consists of using the functionally graded materials (FGM) concept. In this work, nickel (Ni) is used to generate a new PZT-Ni graded ceramic and its dynamic behavior is experimentally explored. The PZT-Ni graded ceramic is manufactured by using the technique of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The ceramic is graded from the top to the bottom surface (along 6 mm of thickness). Specifically, five layers of green powders are sintered: 100 wt% PZT-5A, 90 wt% PZT-5A and 10 wt% Ni, 80 wt% PZT-5A and 20 wt% Ni, 70 wt% PZT-5A and 30 wt% Ni, 60 wt% PZT-5A and 40 wt% Ni. Thus, Ni is used as a second phase, which is added to a PZT-5A matrix, changing its concentration. No manufacturing defects or cracks or exfoliated layers are observed. However, graphite diffusion is observed from the graphite die into the graded ceramic, which does not affect its performance; hence, the ceramic contains enough piezoelectric properties, which allows its polarization and dynamic characterization by determining the impedance curve of the PZT-Ni graded ceramic. The PZT-Ni graded ceramic vibrates at 1.04 MHz, 1.55 MHz and 2.07 MHz.

  8. Electrolytic deposition of PZT on carbon fibers for fabricating multifunctional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Shaffer, J. W.; Sodano, H. A.

    2010-12-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) have been developed in order to overcome the fragile nature of monolithic piezoelectric materials by embedding piezoceramic inclusions into a polymer matrix. The flexible nature of the polymer matrix protects the piezoelectric fiber from damage or fracture under mechanical loading and allows the composites to be easily conformed to curved surfaces for use in many applications. Although PFCs have many useful properties, they still suffer from several drawbacks, namely the required separate electrodes make it impossible to embed the composites into the host structure, and the relatively low tensile modulus of the piezoelectric inclusion means that it contributes little to structural properties. To resolve the inadequacies of current PFCs, a novel active structural fiber (ASF) was developed that can be embedded into a composite structure to perform sensing and actuation, and provide load bearing functionality. The concept and feasibility of this ASF has been validated by coating a silicon carbide (SiC) fiber with a barium titanate (BaTiO3) shell using electrophoresis deposition techniques. However, lead based ceramics react with SiC fiber during high temperature sintering and thus the use of these highly coupled piezoceramics requires alternative deposition approaches. This paper will introduce a new ASF fabricated by coating a single carbon fiber with a concentric PZT (PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3) shell using electrolytic deposition (ELD). ELD quickly and uniformly coats the fiber and, since the PZT precursor has a low crystallization temperature, the carbon fiber is not exposed to high sintering temperatures which typically degrade the in-plane material properties of the fiber and composite. Carbon fiber has been widely used in industry and studied in academia due to its excellent mechanical properties, while PZT has been extensively used for sensing or actuation because of its high piezoelectric coupling. Crystal structures of the PZT before and after annealing are characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, and a pure perovskite structure of the PZT after annealing is shown.

  9. Genetic Adaptive Control for PZT Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeongwook; Stover, Shelley K.; Madisetti, Vijay K.

    1995-01-01

    A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) is capable of providing linear motion if controlled correctly and could provide a replacement for traditional heavy and large servo systems using motors. This paper focuses on a genetic model reference adaptive control technique (GMRAC) for a PZT which is moving a mirror where the goal is to keep the mirror velocity constant. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are an integral part of the GMRAC technique acting as the search engine for an optimal PID controller. Two methods are suggested to control the actuator in this research. The first one is to change the PID parameters and the other is to add an additional reference input in the system. The simulation results of these two methods are compared. Simulated Annealing (SA) is also used to solve the problem. Simulation results of GAs and SA are compared after simulation. GAs show the best result according to the simulation results. The entire model is designed using the Mathworks' Simulink tool.

  10. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  11. Titan Haze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie M.; West, Robert; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2011-01-01

    The Titan haze exerts a dominating influence on surface visibility and atmospheric radiative heating at optical and near-infrared wavelengths and our desire to understand surface composition and atmospheric dynamics provides a strong motivation to study the properties of the haze. Prior to the Cassini/Huygens missions the haze was known to be global in extent, with a hemispheric contrast asymmetry, with a complicated structure in the polar vortex region poleward of about 55 deg latitude, and with a distinct layer near 370 km altitude outside of the polar vortex at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby. The haze particles measured by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft were both highly polarizing and strongly forward scattering, a combination that seems to require an aggregation of small (several tens of nm radius) primary particles. These same properties were seen in the Cassini orbiter and Huygens Probe data. The most extensive set of optical measurements were made inside the atmosphere by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens Probe. At the probe location as determined by the DISR measurements the average haze particle contained about 3000 primary particles whose radius is about 40 nm. Three distinct vertical regions were seen in the DISR data with differing particle properties. Refractive indices of the particles in the main haze layer resemble those reported by Khare et al. between O.3S and about 0.7 micron but are more absorbing than the Khare et al. results between 0.7 micron and the long-wavelength limit of the DISR spectra at 1.6 micron. These and other results are described by Tomasko et al., and a broader summary of results was given by Tomasko and West,. New data continue to stream in from the Cassini spacecraft. New data analyses and new laboratory and model results continue to move the field forward. Titan's 'detached' haze layer suffered a dramatic drop in altitude near equinox in 2009 with implications for the circulation and seasonal change in the stratosphere. The book chapter associated with this talk will also present new material on thermal-infrared data analysis and on new developments in laboratory work and haze microphysical modeling.

  12. Does Titan have oceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1994-04-01

    Titan is one of the few worlds in the solar system whose essential nature remains hidden. Satellite data from Voyager are examined. Remote sensing investigations from Earth are explored. Possible models of Titan's surface are reviewed. A closer look at Titan would provide useful information. The data to be gathered by the planetary mission Cassini is discussed.

  13. Tides in Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, Nicole J.

    1997-01-01

    Tides raised in Titan by Saturn give rise to a static and a periodic deformation; both will be measured with Doppler tracking during the CASSINI Tour of the Saturnian System. The latter deformation is due to the significant eccentricity of Titan's orbit and has a frequency equal to the orbital angular velocity of Titan.

  14. Interior of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1992-01-01

    General principles of Titan formation and evolution are addressed. Attention is focused on the volatile reservoir (defined as all constituents more volatile than water) of Titan's interior. Volatile poor models, in which Titan is like Granymede or Callisto with a thin (observed) volatile veneer are discussed and discarded. Volatile rich models in which the present Titan consists of a methane clathrate shell overlying a deep water ammonia ocean and solid ammonia hydrate are discussed. Titan has a central core of rock which is about one half of the total mass, and a superficial hydrocarbon 'ocean' stored in subsurface caverns and pore space.

  15. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure maymore » be investigated.« less

  16. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-15

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure may be investigated.

  17. Polarization switching process of soft lead zirconate titanate bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. F.; Dong, X. L.; Zhang, H. L.; Yu, G.; Cao, F.; Wang, G. S.

    2010-05-01

    The domain switching dynamics was investigated in Nb-doped Pb(Zr 0.52Ti 0.48)O 3 bulk ceramics through observing systematically the evolution of the hysteresis loops at frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz and in a field of 7.5-35 kV/cm. The experimental results indicate that the hysteresis loops are remarkably dependent on the fields and the frequencies. The data are analyzed by the Merz equation. The analysis results reveal that the requirement to satisfy the Merz equation is saturated loops. Based on these results, we divided the polarization switching process into three regions.

  18. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure may be investigated.

  19. Titan: an exogenic world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Howard, Alan D.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2010-04-01

    Titan's may be a world whose landscape is shaped by exogenic processes, with a relatively inactive interior and minor or negligible endogenic activity. Those landforms on Titan that are unambiguously identifiable can all be explained by exogenic processes (aeolian, fluvial, impact cratering, and mass wasting). Previous suggestions of endogenically produced cryovolcanic constructs and flows have been, without exception, lack conclusive diagnostic evidence. Minor tectonic activity could be driven by global thermal evolution or external forcing, rather than by active interior processes. A geologically quiescent interior is consistent with geophysical inferences. Titan might be most akin to Callisto with weather. We do not aim to disprove the existence of any and all endogenic activity on Titan, but instead to inject a necessary level of caution into the discussion. The hypothesis of Titan as a predominantly exogenic world can be tested through additional Cassini observations and analyses of putative cryovolcanic features, geophysical and thermal modeling of Titan's interior evolution, modeling of icy satellite landscape evolution that is shaped by exogenic processes alone, and consideration of possible means for replenishing Titan's atmospheric methane that do not rely on cryovolcanism. If Titan displays regions of degraded ancient cratered terrain (such as may be the case in Xanadu around 90°W), then this would have significant implications for Titan's history. Martian fluvially degraded cratered terrain still exhibits craters because fluvial activity largely ceased soon after the curtailment of heavy bombardment. For Titan to have such terrains and ongoing fluvial activity would imply at least three possible explanations: (1) alkane fluvial erosion on Titan is extremely inefficient relative to that by water on the Earth and Mars, or (2) fluvial erosion very rarely occurs on some regions on Titan; or (3) it has started raining on Titan only in geologically recent times.

  20. Ti site occupancy in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N. D.; Walker, A. M.; Berry, A. J.; Hermann, J.; Evans, K. A.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Rodina, I. S.; Soldatov, A. V.; Rubatto, D.; Sutton, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Ti site occupancy in zircon (ZrSiO 4) is fundamental to thermobarometry because substitution mechanisms control Ti content-temperature relations. Here we describe the results of three independent methods used to demonstrate that Ti substitutes for Si and not Zr in zircon. Zircon grains were synthesized from oxide powders held in a Na 2WO 4 flux at 1 bar and 1300 °C. Zircon grains equilibrated with rutile + cristobalite show Ti contents (1201 ppm) nearly half that of zircon grains equilibrated with srilankite ((Ti,Zr)O 2) + tetragonal zirconia (2640 ppm). The lower Ti content of zircon grains produced at silica-saturated conditions indicates that Ti substitution predominately occurs on the Si site. Moreover, the higher Ti contents of silica-saturated experiments at 1 bar (1201 ppm), relative to those at 1 GPa (457 ppm, Ferry and Watson, 2007), indicates a substantial pressure effect on Ti solubility in zircon. Measured Ti K-α edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of synthetic zircon grains show energies and normalized intensities akin to those seen among tetrahedrally coordinated Ti-bearing standard minerals, strongly suggesting that Ti occupies the Si site. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that Ti substitution is most likely to occur on the Si site and predict a Ti-O bond length of 1.797 Å (compared to an average of 2.160 Å for substitution on the Zr site), in excellent agreement with X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra of experimentally grown zircon grains which indicate a value of 1.76(1) Å. The software FEFF 8.4 was used to simulate XANES spectra from the defect structures determined by DFT for Ti substituting on both the Si and Zr sites. The predicted spectrum for Ti on the Si site reproduces all the key features of the experimental zircon spectra, whereas Ti on the Zr site is markedly different. All applied methods confirm that Ti substitutes for Si in zircon. Consequently, the Ti content of zircon at a given pressure is not only a function of temperature, but will increase with decreasing silica activity. Because elements that activate or quench cathodoluminescence (CL) in zircon are incorporated into the Zr site, a decoupling of CL from Ti contents - incorporated on the Si site in zircon is expected. This hypothesis has been verified by a systematic CL-trace element study of natural and experimental zircon.

  1. Etching fission tracks in zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.

    1969-01-01

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  2. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  3. Future Titan Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Stofan, E.

    2012-04-01

    New discoveries about Titan from the Cassini-Huygens mission have led to a broad range of mission class studies for future missions, ranging from NASA Discovery class to International Flagship class. Three consistent science themes emerge and serve as a framework for discussing the various mission concepts: Goal A: Explore Titan, an Earth-Like System - How does Titan function as a system? How are the similarities and differences with Earth, and other solar system bodies, a result of the interplay of the geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy present in the Titan system?; Goal B: Examine Titan’s Organic Inventory—A Path to Prebiological Molecules - What is the complexity of Titan’s organic chemistry in the atmosphere, within its lakes, on its surface, and in its putative subsurface water ocean and how does this inventory differ from known abiotic organic material in meteorites and therefore contribute to our understanding of the origin of life in the Solar System?; and Goal C: Explore Enceladus and Saturn’s magnetosphere—clues to Titan’s origin and evolution - What is the exchange of energy and material with the Saturn magnetosphere and solar wind? What is the source of geysers on Enceladus? Does complex chemistry occur in the geyser source? Within this scientific framework the presentation will overview the Titan Explorer, Titan AND Enceladus Mission, Titan Saturn System Mission, Titan Mare Explorer, and Titan Submersible. Future timelines and plans will be discussed.

  4. Low Power PZT Exciter for Thermosonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B.; Cawley, P.

    2007-03-01

    An ultrasonic horn originally designed for welding has generally been used for thermosonic testing. However, it is difficult to obtain reproducible and controllable excitation with the existing horn system because of nonlinearity in the coupling; surface damage can also be produced by hammering caused by loss of contact between the tip of the horn and the structure. Therefore, this research was conducted to develop a simple excitation system that should excite sufficient strain for the detection of the defects of interest at all relevant positions in the structure, and should also be easy to attach to and remove from the structure. It must also avoid surface damage. Test results suggest that a simple, small wax coupled PZT exciter may provide a convenient, reliable thermosonic test system in applications where relatively low strain levels are required for damage detection.

  5. Clash of the Titans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"

  6. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]<150 ppm) and thus low calculated zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrnsat). Within the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak, TzrnTi values are predominantly at or below average Tzrnsat, and there is no apparent correlation between age and TzrnTi. At temperatures appropriate for granodiorite/tonalite melt generation (at or above biotite dehydration; >825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically <200 ppm and frequently 100-150 ppm for individual large intrusions or intrusive suites). We infer from this that [Zr] in anatectic melts is probably not limited by zircon supply and is primarily controlled by melting parameters. Comparison of the data from TIS with one of these intrusions, the smaller but otherwise similar Late Cretaceous Bear Lake Intrusive Suite (BLIS) in the San Bernardino Mountains (CA), is especially illuminating. Like the TIS the BLIS zircons also have low TzrnTi values (at or below Tzrnsat). However, unlike in the TIS, inherited zircons (or zircon cores) are common (BLIS is intruded into Paleoproterozoic basement). This comparison suggests that lack of abundant inherited or xenocrystic zircon in TIS rocks may be a function of whether they are in high abundance in the melt source or host rocks rather than strong initial undersaturation, and that low [Zr] might reflect melting at temperatures below biotite or amphibole dehydration. The high abundance of zircons with low TzrnTi could also reflect low anatectic temperatures as intermediate-felsic magmas that are initially undersaturated should be dominated by zircons with TzrnTi > Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  7. Zircons from the Stannern Eucrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Bukovanska, M.

    1992-07-01

    Zircons are becoming increasingly apparent in meteorites of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite association. The zircons generally occur as small (<=30 micrometers) inclusions closely associated with ilmenite and chromite. We have previously analyzed zircons from eucritic enclaves from Vaca Muerta [1], zircons from the brecciated eucrite Padvarninkai [2], and from the Yamato 791438 eucrite [3]. Here we report on our continued studies of meteoritic zircons with ion probe U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics and REE abundances of zircons from the Stannern eucrite. Eighteen zircons were identified and analyzed by electron probe in a polished section of the Stannern eucrite. An average composition is SiO2 31.78, TiO2 0.73, FeO 1.45, ZrO2 64.26, HfO2 1.04, total 99.26. The mean Zr/Hf ratio of 63 (range 21-129) is similar to the range observed in lunar zircons 30-60. Most of these zircons were not suitable for analysis (too small, proximity to cracks) and only four were analyzed for U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace-element abundances with the SHRIMP ion microprobe. All of these zircons occur in close association with ilmenite. The ilmenite grains range in size up to several hundred micrometers, but the zircons are at most only 20 micrometers in diameter. The analytical techniques for ion microprobe analysis are described in [1]. The U concentrations ranged from 30-80 ppm and the mean ^207Pb/^206Pb age of the four grains is 4550 +- 10 Ma (2 sigma); these values are very similar to the range in U concentrations (30-60 ppm) and the age (4553 +- 13 Ma) of the zircons analyzed from Padvarninkai [2]. The zircon age is compatible with the Sm-Nd age of Stannern (4.48 +- 0.07 Ga [4]) and the zircons have not been affected by the event(s) that disturbed the Rb-Sr system (3.1 +- 0.5 Ga [5]). The REE patterns (Fig. 1) are also very similar to the range shown in Padvarninkai. The LREE patterns are flat but the absolute abundances are different in the four grains ranging from chondritic to over 100 x chondritic. Europium is depleted in all zircons relative to the trend of the other REE. The HREE abundances are smoothly fractionated with overall absolute abundances that vary sympathetically with the overall LREE abundances. The similarity of the REE in zircons from Padvarninkai is noteworthy since the absolute abundances of REE in Stannern are 20 x CI compared with 10 x CI in Padvarninka. Therefore the zircon compositions do not appear to be controlled solely by the total REE inventory. References: [1] Ireland and Wlotzka (1992) EPSL 109, 1. [2] Bukovanska et al. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 325. [3] Ireland et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 569. [5] Birck and Allegre (1978) EPSL 39, 37. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows Stannern REE.

  8. Ferroelectric capped magnetization in multiferroic PZT/LSMO tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashok Shukla, A. K.; Barrionuevo, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Shannigrahi, Santiranjan; Scott, J. F.

    2015-03-30

    Self-poled ultra-thin ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) (5 and 7 nm) films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) (30 nm) to check the effect of polar capping on magnetization for ferroelectric tunnel junction devices. PZT/LSMO heterostructures with thick polar PZT (7 nm) capping show nearly 100% enhancement in magnetization compared with thin polar PZT (5 nm) films, probably due to excess hole transfer from the ferroelectric to the ferromagnetic layers. Core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of larger Mn 3s exchange splitting and higher Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio in the LSMO with 7 nm polar capping.

  9. Magnetoelectric effects in a bilayer of PZT and magnetostriction-graded ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Petrov, V. M.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) effects in a piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite are mediated by mechanical stresses. The effect, in particular, will be enhanced in the electromechanical resonance region (EMR) where the electrical subsystem shows resonance. We show here that further enhancement of the strength of ME interaction is possible with the use of magnetostriction-graded ferromagnet. A material with the grading axis perpendicular to the sample plane is considered. In this case, the thickness dependence of the piezomagnetic coefficients leads to an additional bending strain, resulting in an increase in the ME voltage. Estimates are provided for a bilayer of Zn-doped nickel ferrite and lead zirconate titanate, length 12 mm in length and 2 mm in thickness. The ME voltage coefficient is predicted to increase by a factor of two compared to bilayers with homogeneous ferrite compositions.

  10. The astrobiology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Hebrard, E.; Israel, G.; Nguyen, M.-J.; Szopa, C.; Gpcos Team

    Largest satellite of Saturn and the only satellite in the solar system having a dense atmosphere, Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies, due to several aspects: Its analogies with planet Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures, The Cassini-Huygens data have largely confirmed the many analogies between Titan and our own planet. Both have similar vertical temperature profiles, (although much colder, of course, on Titan). Both have condensable and non condensable greenhouse gases in their atmosphere. Both are geologically very active. Furthermore, the data also suggest strongly the presence of a methane cycle on Titan analogous to the water cycle on Earth. The presence of an active organic chemistry, involving several of the key compounds of prebiotic chemistry. The recent data obtained from the Huygens instruments show that the organic matter in Titan low atmosphere (stratosphere and troposphere) is mainly concentrated in the aerosol particles. Because of the vertical temperature profile in this part of the atmosphere, most of the volatile organics are probably mainly condensed on the aerosol particles. The nucleus of these particles seems to be made of complex macromolecular organic matter, well mimicked in the laboratory by the "Titan's tholins". Now, laboratory tholins are known to release many organic compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases, when they are in contact with liquid water. Such hydrolysis may have occurred on the surface of Titan, in the bodies of liquid water which episodically may form on Titan's surface from meteoritic and cometary impacts. The formation of biologically interesting compounds may also occur in the deep water ocean, from the hydrolysis of complex organic material included in the chrondritic matter accreted during the formation of Titan. The possible emergence and persistence of Life on Titan 1 All ingredients which seems necessary for Life are present on Titan : • liquid water : permanently as a deep sub-surface ocean, and even episodically on the surface, • organic matter : in the internal structure, from chondritic materials, and in the atmosphere and on the surface, from the atmospheric organic chemistry • and energy : in the atmosphere (solar UV photons, energetic electrons from Saturn magnetosphere and cosmic rays) and, probably, in the environment of the sub-surface ocean (radioactive nuclei in the deep interior and tidal energy dissipation) as also supported by the likely presence of cryovolcanism on the surface Thus, it cannot be excluded that life may have emerged on or in Titan. In spite of the extreme conditions in this environment life may have been able to adapt and to persist. Many data are still expected from the Cassini-Huygens mission and future astrobiological exploration mission of Titan are now under consideration. Nevertheless, Titan already looks like another word, with an active prebiotic-like chemistry, but in the absence of permanent liquid water, on the surface: a natural laboratory for prebiotic-like chemistry. References. Fortes, A.D. (2000), `Exobiological implications of a possible ammonia-water ocean inside Titan', Icarus 146, 444-452 Raulin, F. (2005), `Exo-Astrobiological Aspects of Europa and Titan: From Observations to Speculations', Space Science Review 116 (1-2), 471-496. Nature, (2005), `The Huygens probe on Titan', 8 News & Views, Articles and Letters 438, 756-802 Schulze-Makuch, D., and Grinspoon D.H. (2005), `Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan?',Astrobiology 5, 560-567. 2

  11. Titan's organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  12. Titan's thick haze layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Titan's thick haze layer is shown in this enhanced Voyager 1 image taken Nov. 12, 1980 at a distance of 435,000 kilometers (270,000 miles). Voyager images of Saturn's largest moon show Titan completely enveloped by haze that merges with a darker 'hood' or cloud layer over the north pole. Such a mantle is not present at the south pole. At Voyager's closest approach to Titan on Nov. 11, 1980, spacecraft instruments found that the moon has a substantial atmosphere, far denser than that of Mars and possibly denser than Earth's. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  13. Dielectric and ferroelectric analysis of nanoparticle/nanocrystalline barium titanate and PLZT.

    SciTech Connect

    DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William

    2010-07-01

    Attractive for numerous technological applications, ferroelectronic oxides constitute an important class of multifunctional compounds. Intense experimental efforts have been made recently in synthesizing, processing and understanding ferroelectric nanostructures. This work will present the systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate nanoparticle based ceramics. The nanoparticles have been synthesized using several solution and pH-based synthesis processing routes and employed to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic and nanocomposite based components. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of these various components have been gauged by impedance analysis and electromechanical response and will be discussed.

  14. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  15. Raising the Titanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  16. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  17. Titan - Some new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Gautier, D.

    New analyses of Voyager spectra of Titan have led to improvements in the determination of abundances of minor constituents as a function of latitude and altitude. Ground-based microwave observations have extended the Voyager results for HCN, and have demonstrated that CO is mysteriously deficient in the stratosphere. The origin of the CH4, CO, and N2 in Titan's atmosphere is still unresolved. Both primordial and evolutionary sources are compatible with the available evidence.

  18. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  19. Clash of the Titans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  20. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  1. Titan's surface and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2016-05-01

    Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With atmospheric pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated atmosphere and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of atmospheric/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor physical models.

  2. Witnessing Springtime on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Have you ever wondered what springtime is like on Saturns largest moon, Titan? A team of researchers has analyzed a decade of data from the Cassini spacecraft to determine how Titans gradual progression through seasons has affected its temperatures.Observing the Saturn SystemThough Titan orbits Saturn once every ~16 days, it is Saturns ~30-year march around the Sun that sets Titans seasons: each traditional season on Titan spans roughly 7.5 years. Thus, when the Cassini spacecraft first arrived at Saturn in 2004 to study the giant planet and its ring system and moons, Titans northern hemisphere was in early winter. A decade later, the season in the northern hemisphere had advanced to late spring.A team scientists led by Donald Jennings (Goddard Space Flight Center) has now used data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on board Cassini to analyze the evolution of Titans surface temperature between 2004 and 2014.Changing of SeasonsSurface brightness temperatures (with errors) on Titan are shown in blue for five time periods between 2004 and 2014. The location of maximum temperature migrates from 19S to 16N over the decade. Two climate models are also shown in green (high thermal inertia) and red (low thermal inertia). [Jennings et al. 2016]CIRS uses the decreased opacity of Titans atmosphere at 19 m to detect infrared emission from Titans surface at this wavelength. From this data, Jennings and collaborators determine Titans surface temperature for five time intervals between 2004 and 2014. They bin the data into 10 latitude bins that span from the south pole (90S) to the north pole (90N).The authors find that the maximum temperature on the moon stays stable over the ten-year period at 94 K, or a chilly -240F). But as time passes, the latitude with the warmest temperature shifts from 19S to 16N, marking the transition from early winter to late spring. Over the decade of monitoring, the surface temperature near the south pole decreased by ~2 K, and that near the north pole increased by ~1 K.Climate ModelingThough Titans overall temperature trend is expected, the rate of change of its surface temperature doesnt quite match theoretical climate models: the northern hemisphere lags slightly behind the predicted temperature curve. The authors speculate that this may be due to the effects of seas in Titans northern hemisphere. Seas of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane) are thought to account for ~10% of the moons surface area at latitudes of 5590N. Since the seas have a higher thermal inertia than land, this could explain why temperatures in Titans northern hemisphere lag behind the models predictions.The authors hope to gain additional data in the future, as CIRS has another two years of operation planned before the Cassini mission ends. This time span will take us all the way up to Titans northern summer solstice; it will be exciting to see what more we can learn from this data!CitationD. E. Jennings et al 2016 ApJ 816 L17. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L17

  3. Lunar Zircons: What's the Big Picture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, C. A.; McKeegan, K. D.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-02-01

    An extensive U-Pb, REE, and microstructural survey of Apollo zircons from which we can draw constraints regarding the duration of KREEP magmatism, zircon formation mechanisms, and possibly the early impact history of the Moon.

  4. Effect of Pb content and solution concentration of Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} seed layer on (100)-texture and ferroelectric/dielectric behavior of PZT (52/48) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Jian; Batra, Vaishali; Han, Hui; Kotru, Sushma; Pandey, Raghvendar K.

    2015-09-15

    The effect of Pb content and solution concentration of lead titanate (Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) seed layer on the texture and electric properties of Pb{sub 1.1}(Zr{sub 0.52},Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated. A variety of seed layers (y Pb{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) with varying solution concentration (y = 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and Pb content (x = 1.0, 1.05, 1.1, and 1.2) was deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical-solution deposition method. PZT films were then deposited on these seed layers using the same process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the seed layers confirm change in crystal structure with variation in the solution properties. XRD studies of PZT films deposited on seed layers demonstrate that the seed layer helps in enhancing (100)-texture and suppressing (111)-texture. It was observed that PZT films prepared on seed layers with lower solution concentrations results in highly (100)-textured films, which further helps to improve the electric properties. The polarization and dielectric constant of the PZT films were seen to increase while the coercive field decreased with increase in (100)-texture. Irrespective of the seed layer solution concentration, higher Pb content in the seed layer deteriorates the PZT film properties. Ninety-five percent to ninety-six percent (100)-texture was obtained from thin PZT films deposited on seed layers of 0.02 M solution concentration with 1.05 and 1.10 Pb contents, which is higher than the values reported for thick PZT films. Optimization of both Pb content and solution concentration of the seed layer is a promising route to achieve highly (100)-textured PZT films with improved electric properties.

  5. Li isotopes in archean zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Ushikubo, T.; Kita, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Li is a fluid mobile, moderately incompatible element with a large mass difference between its two stable isotopes. Different processes can fractionate 7Li/6Li (fluid-rock interaction, metamorphic reactions, and Li diffusion), leading to variation by over 50‰ of δ7Li for common crustal material. These large variations make δ7Li a potential tracer of continental weathering and of the fluids affecting magma sources. Here, we report δ7Li and trace elements in Archean igneous zircons from TTG and sanukitoid granitoids from the Superior Province (Canada) in order to characterize Li in Archean zircons from well-described samples. These data are compared to detrital zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) for which parent rock-type is uncertain. This study aims to better understand Li substitution in zircon and to evaluate the utility of δ7Li and [Li] for Archean petrogenesis. Zircons (n=71) were analyzed for δ7Li and trace elements (Li, P, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Y, REE, U, Th) using an IMS-1280 ion microprobe. Most of the zircons display typical igneous REE patterns and zoning by CL. [Li] averages 13.1 ± 9 for TTG, 25.7 ± 19 for Sanukitoid and 31.0 ± 14 ppm for Jack Hills zircons, which are distinct from mantle-related zircons (<0.1 ppm). Values of δ7Li average 1.0 ± 4.5‰ for TTGs, 6.3 ± 4.4‰ for sanukitoids and -2.6 ± 8.8‰ for Jack Hills samples. Trace elements were analyzed from single spots in order to evaluate coupled substitutions. Atomic ratios (3Li+Y+REE)/P average 2.6, showing that Li and trivalent atoms are not charge-balanced by P, and suggesting that Li does not replace Zr, according to the xenotime substitution. However, (Y+REE)/(Li+P) atomic ratios average 1.0 ± 0.6, supporting the hypothesis that Li is interstitial and partly compensates trivalent cations. Several observations in this study suggest that [Li] is primary in the studied zircons: i) if Li is interstitial, charge-balance and slow diffusion of REE would control Li mobility, ii) core-rim or oscillatory zoning is observed for [Li] in many high T zircons, iii) CL zoning and low Ca+Fe, U+Th and U/Th imply little radiation damage. Values of δ7Li become erratic at [Li] < ~5 ppm and low values are not interpreted. We suggest that small amounts of non-ionic substitution could be significant for small [Li], whereas interstitial substitution dominates at > ~5 ppm. Li content and isotopic compositions of TTG zircons suggest genesis from mantle-like material, as suggested by δ18O(Zrc) (5.5 ± 0.4‰, King et al., 1998). Sanukitoids are commonly thought to be derived from the melting of peridotite metasomatized by seawater-like slab-dehydration fluids, (supported by the high δ7Li(Zrc)), followed by extensive fractional crystallization, explaining the high sanukitoid [Li]. [Li] and δ7Li thus reflect petrogenetic processes. The Jack Hills detrital zircons are consistent with crustal sources including TTG, sanukitoid and sediment-contaminated granitoid magmas.

  6. Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g. PMID:23698262

  7. The environment of Titan, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the physical characteristics of Titan and atmospheric models necessary to support design and mission planning of spacecraft that are to orbit Titan, enter its atmosphere or land on its surface is given.

  8. Determination of uranium in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Daniels, G.J.

    1959-01-01

    A routine fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in zircon. It employs the direct extraction of uranyl nitrate with ethyl acetate using phosphate as a retainer for zirconium. Submicrogram amounts or uranium are separated in the presence of 100,000 times the amount of zirconium. The modified procedure has been worked out using synthetic mixtures of known composition and zircon. Results of analyses have an accuracy of 97-98% of the contained uranium and a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. ?? 1959.

  9. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  10. Hypsometry of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Stiles, Bryan; Le Gall, Alice; Hayes, Alexander; Aharonson, Oded; Wood, Charles A.; Stofan, Ellen; Kirk, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR topography data are used to evaluate Titan's hypsometric profile, and to make comparisons with other planetary bodies. Titan's hypsogram is unimodal and strikingly narrow compared with the terrestrial planets. To investigate topographic extremes, a novel variant on the classic hypsogram is introduced, with a logarithmic abscissa to highlight mountainous terrain. In such a plot, the top of the terrestrial hypsogram is quite distinct from those of Mars and Venus due to the 'glacial buzz-saw' that clips terrestrial topography above the snowline. In contrast to the positive skew seen in other hypsograms, with a long tail of positive relief due to mountains, there is an indication (weak, given the limited data for Titan so far) that the Titan hypsogram appears slightly negatively skewed, suggesting a significant population of unfilled depressions. Limited data permit only a simplistic comparison of Titan topography with other icy satellites but we find that the standard deviation of terrain height (albeit at different scales) is similar to those of Ganymede and Europa.

  11. Optical characterization of ferroelectric PZT thin films by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Shafiqur; Garcia, Carlos D.; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2014-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films are used as high dielectric constant capacitors, infrared detectors, piezoelectric transducers, optical modulators, optical waveguides, and nonvolatile memory chips for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) etc. While ferroelectric and dielectric properties of these films have been extensively investigated, their optical properties have been comparatively less studied and of limited use in quantitative evaluation of multilayer thin films. In this work we explored the variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) technique for its effectiveness in physical property characterization. The VASE combined with its computer modeling tool enables nondestructive, nonintrusive, and contactless optical means for optical characterization. Crystalline Lead Zirconium Titanate PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films, fabricated on SrTiO3 layer atop of Si substrates, were characterized using VASE (J.A. Woollam; Lincoln, NE, USA) by determining the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ as a function of wavelengths (200-1000 nm) and incident angles (65°, 70°,75°) at room temperature. A physical representation of the multilayer system was constructed by a six layer model (analysis software WVASE32, J.A. Woollam) through a step-by-step method. Other physical properties characterized by several well-known techniques on structure, morphology and topographical features correspond well with the models developed using VASE alone. The technique and the methodology developed have shown promises in identifying the respective thickness and optical properties of multilayer thin film system, with limited input of processing or composition information.

  12. Sol-gel derived PZT films doped with vanadium pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Hongfang; Guo Qing; Zhao Zhiman; Cao Guozhong

    2009-11-15

    The present research investigated the sol-gel preparation, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT films doped with 5 mol% vanadium oxide. Stable PZTV sols can be readily formed, and homogeneous, micrometer thick and pinhole-free PZTV films were obtained by using spin coating followed with rapid annealing. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that no parasitic or secondary phases were formed in the sol-gel PZT films with the addition of vanadium oxide. The material doped with vanadium pentoxide showed enhanced dielectric constant and remanent polarization with reduced loss tangent and coercive field.

  13. The oldest zircons in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Wlotzka, F.

    1992-03-01

    The occurrence, chemistry, and U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of three meteoritic zircon assemblages, two from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and one from the Simmern H5 chondrite, are presented. Like terrestrial zircons, the meteoritic zircons are enriched in the heavy rare-earth elements, but unlike terrestrial zircons, they do not show a positive Ce anomaly. This feature is also absent in one lunar zircon analyzed and probably reflects the oxidation state of the formation environment: under oxidizing conditions Ce(4+) is stabilized, whereas under relatively reducing conditions Ce(3+) is stable. The zircon from Simmern has depletions in the relative abundances of Tm and Yb, a characteristic of the volatility fractionation of the REE. The Simmern zircon has an exceptionally low U concentration (around 180 ppb), and only a poorly constrained Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4100 +/- 700 Ma could be obtained.

  14. Titan's hydrogen torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A model of Titan's hydrogen torus, capable of describing its time evolution under the influence of the gravitational fields of both the satellite and the planet, is presented. Estimated lifetimes for hydrogen atoms near Titan's orbit of the order of 10 to the 7th s, based on recent Pioneer 11 measurements, suggest that the torus completely encircles Saturn and is angularly unsymmetric, having an enhanced gas density near the satellite. New model calculations confirm this and provide an explanation for the torus detected by the Copernicus satellite and the UV instrument of Pioneer 11. Agreement between calculated and observed Lyman alpha intensities suggests a hydrogen escape flux between 1 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm-s and 3 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm-s should be operative at Titan. This produces a torus containing some 10 to the 34th hydrogen atoms.

  15. Diurnal variations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  16. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; Cassini RADAR Team

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  17. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.A.; Lorenz, R.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Mitchell, Ken; Stofan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Titanic Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New Detailed VLT Images of Saturn's Largest Moon Optimizing space missions Titan, the largest moon of Saturn was discovered by Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens in 1655 and certainly deserves its name. With a diameter of no less than 5,150 km, it is larger than Mercury and twice as large as Pluto. It is unique in having a hazy atmosphere of nitrogen, methane and oily hydrocarbons. Although it was explored in some detail by the NASA Voyager missions, many aspects of the atmosphere and surface still remain unknown. Thus, the existence of seasonal or diurnal phenomena, the presence of clouds, the surface composition and topography are still under debate. There have even been speculations that some kind of primitive life (now possibly extinct) may be found on Titan. Titan is the main target of the NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission, launched in 1997 and scheduled to arrive at Saturn on July 1, 2004. The ESA Huygens probe is designed to enter the atmosphere of Titan, and to descend by parachute to the surface. Ground-based observations are essential to optimize the return of this space mission, because they will complement the information gained from space and add confidence to the interpretation of the data. Hence, the advent of the adaptive optics system NAOS-CONICA (NACO) [1] in combination with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile now offers a unique opportunity to study the resolved disc of Titan with high sensitivity and increased spatial resolution. Adaptive Optics (AO) systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a special camera at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second (see e.g. ESO Press Release 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 21a-c/02, ESO Press Release 17/02, and ESO Press Release 26/03 for earlier NACO images, and ESO Press Release 11/03 for MACAO-VLTI results.) The southern smile ESO PR Photo 08a/04 ESO PR Photo 08a/04 Images of Titan on November 20, 25 and 26, 2002 Through Five Filters (VLT YEPUN + NACO) [Preview - JPEG: 522 x 400 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 1043 x 800 pix - 340k] [Hires - JPEG: 2875 x 2205 pix - 1.2M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 08a/04 shows Titan (apparent visual magnitude 8.05, apparent diameter 0.87 arcsec) as observed with the NAOS/CONICA instrument at VLT Yepun (Paranal Observatory, Chile) on November 20, 25 and 26, 2003, between 6.00 UT and 9.00 UT. The median seeing values were 1.1 arcsec and 1.5 arcsec respectively for the 20th and 25th. Deconvoluted ("sharpened") images of Titan are shown through 5 different narrow-band filters - they allow to probe in some detail structures at different altitudes and on the surface. Depending on the filter, the integration time varies from 10 to 100 seconds. While Titan shows its leading hemisphere (i.e. the one observed when Titan moves towards us) on Nov. 20, the trailing side (i.e the one we see when Titan moves away from us in its course around Saturn) - which displays less bright surface features - is observed on the last two dates. ESO PR Photo 08b/04 ESO PR Photo 08b/04 Titan Observed Through Nine Different Filters on November 26, 2002 [Preview - JPEG: 480 x 400 pix - 36k] [Normal - JPEG: 960 x 800 pix - 284k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 08b/04: Images of Titan taken on November 26, 2002 through nine different filters to probe different altitudes, ranging from the stratosphere to the surface. On this night, a stable "seeing" (image quality before adaptive optics correction) of 0.9 arcsec allowed the astronomers to attain the diffraction limit of the telescope (0.032 arcsec resolution). Due to these good observing conditions, Titan's trailing hemisphere was observed with contrasts of about 40%, allowing the detection of several bright features on this surface region, once thought to be quite dark and featureless. ESO PR Photo 08c/04 ESO PR Photo 08c/04 Titan Surface Projections [Preview - JPEG: 601 x 400 pix - 64k] [Normal - JPEG: 1201 x 800 pix - 544k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 08c/04 : Titan images obtained with NACO on November 26th, 2002. Left: Titan's surface projection on the trailing hemisphere as observed at 1.3 μm, revealing a complex brightness structure thanks to the high image contrast of about 40%. Right: a new, possibly meteorological, phenomenon observed at 2.12 μm in Titan's atmosphere, in the form of a bright feature revolving around the South Pole. A team of French astronomers [2] have recently used the NACO state-of-the-art adaptive optics system on the fourth 8.2-m VLT unit telescope, Yepun, to map the surface of Titan by means of near-infrared images and to search for changes in the dense atmosphere. These extraordinary images have a nominal resolution of 1/30th arcsec and show details of the order of 200 km on the surface of Titan. To provide the best possible views, the raw data from the instrument were subjected to deconvolution (image sharpening). Images of Titan were obtained through 9 narrow-band filters, sampling near-infrared wavelengths with large variations in methane opacity. This permits sounding of different altitudes ranging from the stratosphere to the surface. Titan harbours at 1.24 and 2.12 μm a "southern smile", that is a north-south asymmetry, while the opposite situation is observed with filters probing higher altitudes, such as 1.64, 1.75 and 2.17 μm. A high-contrast bright feature is observed at the South Pole and is apparently caused by a phenomenon in the atmosphere, at an altitude below 140 km or so. This feature was found to change its location on the images from one side of the south polar axis to the other during the week of observations. Outlook An additional series of NACO observations of Titan is foreseen later this month (April 2004). These will be a great asset in helping optimize the return of the Cassini/Huygens mission. Several of the instruments aboard the spacecraft depend on such ground-based data to better infer the properties of Titan's surface and lower atmosphere. Although the astronomers have yet to model and interpret the physical and geophysical phenomena now observed and to produce a full cartography of the surface, this first analysis provides a clear demonstration of the marvellous capabilities of the NACO imaging system. More examples of the exciting science possible with this facility will be found in a series of five papers published today in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (Vol. 47, L1 to L24).

  19. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

  20. Radar reflectivity of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Grossman, A. W.; Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.

    1990-05-01

    The low dielectric constant of the liquid hydrocarbon and ethane-methane surface mixture of Titan has as a direct consequence a set of unique microwave-reflection properties which were sought out at 3.5-cm wavelength, using a 70-m transmitting antenna in conjunction with the VLA as a receiving instrument. The statistically significant echoes obtained indicate that Titan is not covered with a deep global ocean of ethane. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 m would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the experiment's detection limit.

  1. Titan's Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This Voyager 2 photograph of Titan, taken Aug. 23 from a range of 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), shows some detail in the cloud systems on this Saturnian moon. The southern hemisphere appears lighter in contrast, a well-defined band is seen near the equator, and a dark collar is evident at the north pole. All these bands are associated with cloud circulation in Titan's atmosphere. The extended haze, composed of submicron-size particles, is seen clearly around the satellite's limb. This image was composed from blue, green and violet frames.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  2. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  3. Titan's "Hot Cross Bun": A Titan Laccolith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lunine, J. I.; Turtle, E. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Malaska, M.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s RADAR instrument acquired Synthetic Aperture Radar data during the T83 flyby on May 22, 2012. The data showed a feature centered at 38.5N, 203W that resembles a “hot cross bun”. This type of feature has not been seen on Titan before, even though 52% of Titan’s surface has been imaged using SAR. The feature, approximately 100 km across, is mostly radar bright but the cross pattern, interpreted to be extensional fractures, located roughly at the center of the brighter area, appears darker at radar wavelengths (2.3 cm). Radar illumination of the image indicates that the fractures are lower in elevation than the surrounding bright region. The morphology of the region is markedly similar to that of a 30-km dome-shaped feature on Venus that lies at the summit of the Kunapipi volcano. The Venus feature is interpreted to be the result of intrusion of magma at the summit of the volcano [1]. A similar feature, interpreted as a laccolith, is seen on the Moon near the crater Ramsden [2]. The lunar feature, imaged by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the cross-shaped depression over a 300 m high rise. No topographic data for the feature on Titan are available at this time, but the morphology seen by the SAR data suggests that the feature may have been formed by material pushing up from below. Laccoliths form when an igneous intrusion splits apart two strata, resulting in a domeline structure. This previously unknown type of structure on Titan may be yet another indication of cryovolcanism. [1] Stofan, E.R., et al, Icarus, 152, 75-95, 2001. [2] Wichman, R.W. and Schultz, P. H. (1996). Icarus, 122, Issue 1, July 1996, pages 193-199. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0118

  4. A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoyu; Li, Yan; Yang, Kang; Liu, Mingsheng

    2013-02-01

    A linearity tunable fiber laser based on closed-loop piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The cavity of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser is fixed on the PZT, and the displacement sensor attached on the PZT is monitoring and compensating the nonlinear hysteresis of the PZT real-timely. Experimental results show that the tuning curve of the DBR fiber laser is linear with the tuning range nearly 0.8 nm. Furthermore, the automatic tuning DBR fiber laser driven by the sawtooth wave is realized in closed-loop PZT operation.

  5. Torsional actuator motor using solid freeform fabricated PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulho; Wu, Carl C. M.; Bender, Barry

    2004-07-01

    A torsional actuator has been developed at NRL utilizing the high piezoelectric shear coefficient, d15. This torsional actuator uses an even number of alternately poled segments of electroactive PZT. Under an applied electric field, the torsional actuator produces large angular displacement and a high torque. The solid freeform fabrication technique of the laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is used for rapid prototyping of torsional actuator with potential cost and time saving. First step to demonstrate the feasibility of the LOM technique for the torsional actuator device fabrication is to make near net shape segments. We report a prototype PZT torsional actuator using LOM prepared PZT-5A segments. Fabrication processes and test results are described. The torsional actuator PZT-5A tube has dimensions of 13 cm long, 2.54 cm OD and 1.9 cm ID. Although the piezoelectric strain is small, it may be converted into large displacement via accumulation of the small single cycle displacements over many cycles using AC driving voltage such as with a rotary 'inchworm' actuator or an ultrasonic rotary motor. A working prototype of a full-cycle motor driven by the piezoelectric torsional actuator has been achieved. The rotational speed is 1,200 rpm under 200 V/cm field at the resonant frequency of 4.5 kHz.

  6. A study of integrated position sensors for PZT resonant micromirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu-Stoppel, S.; Quenzer, H. J.; Heinrich, F.; Janes, J.; Benecke, W.

    2015-02-01

    PZT driven resonant micromirrors offer advantages of large scan angles and decreasing power consumption due to the benefits of resonant driving and high torque delivered by PZT actuators. Therefore they are entering into different application fields recently, for example as laser projection or head-up displays. For many uses position sensing of the micromirrors is necessary to set up closed loop controls. Thus, the development of integrated position sensors is aimed in this work. Investigation and evaluation of different position sensing principles have been performed. In previous works 1D and 2D PZT driven resonant micromirrors have been presented, which feature various spring suspensions and thinfilm PZT actuators as drivers. Due to the considerably different motion modes and resonant frequencies, which vary from 100 Hz up to 64 kHz, various position detection methods have been investigated. This work presents primarily fabrication and characterization results of the position sensors based on the direct piezoelectric effect, which will be compared to the position sensors using metallic strain gauge realized by the same fabrication technology. Analyses of the sensitivity, linearity and dynamic behavior of the sensors have been performed, by means of comparing the sensor signals and the micromirror position signals measured by a Position-Sensitive-Device. Advantages and drawbacks of the sensors are discussed and methods for eliminating the drawbacks are proposed.

  7. Presentation and characterization of novel thick-film PZT microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalvet, Vincent; Habineza, Didace; Rakotondrabe, Micky; Clévy, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    We propose in this paper the characterization of a new generation of piezoelectric cantilevers called thick-films piezoelectric actuators. Based on the bonding and thinning process of a bulk PZT layer onto a silicon layer, these cantilevers can provide better static and dynamic performances compared to traditional piezocantilevers, additionally to the small dimensions.

  8. Modeling and identification of nonlinear electroelastic and dissipative parameters for PZT-5A and PZT-5H bimorphs: a dynamical systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Ferri, Brian; Erturk, Alper

    2015-04-01

    Electroelastic and dissipative nonlinearities of commonly used soft piezoelectrics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H) are pronounced in various engineering applications such as actuation, sensing, vibration control, and most recently, in energy harvesting from dynamical systems. The present work investigates the nonlinear nonconservative dynamic behavior of bimorph piezoelectric cantilevers under low-to-high excitation levels with a focus on most popular soft piezoceramics: PZT-5A and PZT-5H. A unified mathematical framework we recently developed is analyzed by using the method of harmonic balance to identify and validate nonlinear system parameters based on a set of rigorous experiments for different samples.

  9. Sinking with the Titanic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2015-03-01

    In the Titanic movie, when the rear part of the ship is about to sink, Jack Dawson (Leonardo DiCaprio) says to Rose DeWitt Bukater (Kate Winslet) to get ready to swim, because the sinking body will suck them into the abysses. Is this sucking phenomenon really happening? And, if so, why?

  10. Titan Plumes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, R.; Young, D. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    At the time of the Voyager 1 close encounter with Titan, enhancements of density and sharp decreases of electron temperature were observed by the PLS instrument. A few smaller plumes were identified inside and outside Titan orbit and their displacements correlated with variations in solar wind dynamic pressure observed by Voyager PLS one and two corotation periods earlier. At the time, two conflicting interpretations of this phenomenon were proposed. In one interpretation (Eviatar et al., JGR, 87, 8091, 1982, the enhancements were regarded as plumes drawn out of the ionosphere of Titan by the corotation electric field. The secondary enhancements were taken to be old plumes that had been wrapped around Saturn, had begun to decay and to merge into the magnetosphere environment. An alternative interpretation, proposed by Goertz (GRL, 1983, 10, 455), viewed them as blobs of plasmas detached by flute or Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from the central body of Saturn plasma in the inner magnetosphere. The Voyager PLS instrument was unable to make a firm composition determination which would have resolved the question. In this study, we use Cassini/CAPS data to identify plumes and blobs of plasma and classify them by source by means of composition and temperature. We find that all three types of plasma bodies, primary plumes, secondary wrapped around plumes and sloughed off blobs exist in the Titan-dominated region of the magnetosphere.

  11. Radar reflectivity of titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Grossman, A W; Butler, B J; Slade, M A

    1990-05-25

    The present understanding of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, including the stability of methane, and an application of thermodynamics leads to a strong prediction of liquid hydrocarbons in an ethane-methane mixture on the surface. Such a surface would have nearly unique microwave reflection properties due to the low dielectric constant. Attempts were made to obtain reflections at a wavelength of 3.5 centimeters by means of a 70-meter antenna in California as the transmitter and the Very Large Array in New Mexico as the receiving instrument. Statistically significant echoes were obtained that show Titan is not covered with a deep, global ocean of ethane, as previously thought. The experiment yielded radar cross sections normalized by the Titan disk of 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.78 +/- 0.15, and 0.25 +/- 0.15 on three consecutive nights during which the sub-Earth longitude on Titan moved 50 degrees. The result for the combined data for the entire experiment is 0.35 +/- 0.08. The cross sections are very high, most consistent with those of the Galilean satellites; no evidence of the putative liquid ethane was seen in the reflection data. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 meters would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the detection limit of the experiment. The measured emissivity at similar wavelengths of about 0.9 is somewhat inconsistent with the high reflectivity. PMID:17745402

  12. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Future Titan Mission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuda, R.; Spilker, T.; Baines, K.; Lorenz, R.

    Exploration of Titan will remain a solar system science priority even (or especially) after Cassini. Not only does Titan offer an array of meteorological, oceanographical and geological phenomena richer than anywhere except Earth, but Titan's importance as an astrobiological target with a rich organic inventory has been long recognized. In-situ surface chemistry studies, meteorological and seismological monitoring and high-resolution geomorphological investigations are beyond Cassini's capabilities. Concepts for future missions involve a mobile airborne platform able to access sur- face materials at a number of locations, and an orbiter for communications support and survey observations. Detailed studies at JPL have evaluated mission options in- cluding a lander or a blimp (airship) supported by an orbiter, with launch in the 2010- 2015 timeframe, allowing early Cassini results to refine the mission science goals and implementation strategies. After a 10 year cruise and aerocapture, the mission would provide an enormous bounty of data from a 1-3 year tour of Titan. International col- laboration would broaden the scope of the mission and would build on the successful Cassini-Huygens experience.

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering from zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Nipko, J.C.; Loong, C.K.

    1997-07-14

    A lattice dynamical investigation of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) has been carried out to obtain a microscopic understanding of its thermodynamic properties, as well as to examine possible soft modes that may contribute to the phase transformation to scheelite type under high pressure. We have measured the neutron weighted phonon density of states of zircon from a polycrystalline sample. The neutron spectra reveal one-phonon excitations extending to 1130 cm{sup -1}, with phonon bands centered at 226, 298, 363, 540, 661, 726, 945, and 1081 cm{sup -1}. A quantitative analysis of the neutron results was carried out using a lattice dynamical rigid-ion model. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Titanates and Titanate-Metal Compounds in Biological Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Drury, Jeanie L.; Chung, Whasun Oh; Hobbs, David T.; Wataha, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Metal ions are notorious environmental contaminants, some causing toxicity at exquisitely low (ppm-level) concentrations. Yet, the redox properties of metal ions make them attractive candidates for bio-therapeutics. Titanates are insoluble particulate compounds of titanium and oxygen with crystalline surfaces that bind metal ions; these compounds offer a means to scavenge metal ions in environmental contexts or deliver them in therapeutic contexts while limiting systemic exposure and toxicity. In either application, the toxicological properties of titanates are crucial. To date, the accurate measurement of the in vitro toxicity of titanates has been complicated by their particulate nature, which interferes with many assays that are optical density (OD)-dependent, and at present, little to no in vivo titanate toxicity data exist. Compatibility data garnered thus far for native titanates in vitro are inconsistent and lacking in mechanistic understanding. These data suggest that native titanates have little toxicity toward several oral and skin bacteria species, but do suppress mammalian cell metabolism in a cells-pecific manner. Titanate compounds bind several types of metal ions, including some common environmental toxins, and enhance delivery to bacteria or cells. Substantial work remains to address the practical applicability of titanates. Nevertheless, titanates have promise to serve as novel vehicles for metal-based therapeutics or as a new class of metal scavengers for environmental applications. PMID:26430701

  16. Trace element chemistry of zircons from oceanic crust: A method for distinguishing detrital zircon provenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Hanghoj, K.; Schwartz, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present newly acquired trace element compositions for more than 300 zircon grains in 36 gabbros formed at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. Rare earth element patterns for zircon from modern oceanic crust completely overlap with those for zircon crystallized in continental granitoids. However, plots of U versus Yb and U/Yb versus Hf or Y discriminate zircons crystallized in oceanic crust from continental zircon, and provide a relatively robust method for distinguishing zircons from these environments. Approximately 80% of the modern ocean crust zircons are distinct from the field defined by more than 1700 continental zircons from Archean and Phanerozoic samples. These discrimination diagrams provide a new tool for fingerprinting ocean crust zircons derived from reservoirs like that of modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) in both modern and ancient detrital zircon populations. Hadean detrital zircons previously reported from the Acasta Gneiss, Canada, and the Narryer Gneiss terrane, Western Australia, plot in the continental granitoid field, supporting hypotheses that at least some Hadean detrital zircons crystallized in continental crust forming magmas and not from a reservoir like modern MORB. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Metallic lead nanospheres discovered in ancient zircons

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, Monika A.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Wirth, Richard; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Marquardt, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is the most commonly used geochronometer, preserving age and geochemical information through a wide range of geological processes. However, zircon U–Pb geochronology can be affected by redistribution of radiogenic Pb, which is incompatible in the crystal structure. This phenomenon is particularly common in zircon that has experienced ultra-high temperature metamorphism, where ion imaging has revealed submicrometer domains that are sufficiently heterogeneously distributed to severely perturb ages, in some cases yielding apparent Hadean (>4 Ga) ages from younger zircons. Documenting the composition and mineralogy of these Pb-enriched domains is essential for understanding the processes of Pb redistribution in zircon and its effects on geochronology. Using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that Pb-rich domains previously identified in zircons from East Antarctic granulites are 5–30 nm nanospheres of metallic Pb. They are randomly distributed with respect to zircon crystallinity, and their association with a Ti- and Al-rich silica melt suggests that they represent melt inclusions generated during ultra-high temperature metamorphism. Metallic Pb is exceedingly rare in nature and previously has not been reported in association with high-grade metamorphism. Formation of these metallic nanospheres within annealed zircon effectively halts the loss of radiogenic Pb from zircon. Both the redistribution and phase separation of radiogenic Pb in this manner can compromise the precision and accuracy of U–Pb ages obtained by high spatial resolution methods. PMID:25848043

  18. Metallic lead nanospheres discovered in ancient zircons.

    PubMed

    Kusiak, Monika A; Dunkley, Daniel J; Wirth, Richard; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wilde, Simon A; Marquardt, Katharina

    2015-04-21

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is the most commonly used geochronometer, preserving age and geochemical information through a wide range of geological processes. However, zircon U-Pb geochronology can be affected by redistribution of radiogenic Pb, which is incompatible in the crystal structure. This phenomenon is particularly common in zircon that has experienced ultra-high temperature metamorphism, where ion imaging has revealed submicrometer domains that are sufficiently heterogeneously distributed to severely perturb ages, in some cases yielding apparent Hadean (>4 Ga) ages from younger zircons. Documenting the composition and mineralogy of these Pb-enriched domains is essential for understanding the processes of Pb redistribution in zircon and its effects on geochronology. Using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that Pb-rich domains previously identified in zircons from East Antarctic granulites are 5-30 nm nanospheres of metallic Pb. They are randomly distributed with respect to zircon crystallinity, and their association with a Ti- and Al-rich silica melt suggests that they represent melt inclusions generated during ultra-high temperature metamorphism. Metallic Pb is exceedingly rare in nature and previously has not been reported in association with high-grade metamorphism. Formation of these metallic nanospheres within annealed zircon effectively halts the loss of radiogenic Pb from zircon. Both the redistribution and phase separation of radiogenic Pb in this manner can compromise the precision and accuracy of U-Pb ages obtained by high spatial resolution methods. PMID:25848043

  19. Titan Mare Explorer (TiME): A Discovery Mission to Titans Hydrocarbon Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Bierhaus, B.; Aharonson, O.; Clark, B. C.; Kantsiper, B.; Ravine, M. A.; Waite, J. H.; Harri, A.; Griffith, C. A.; Trainer, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of lakes in Titans high latitudes confirmed the expectation that liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface of the haze-shrouded moon. The lakes fill through drainage of subsurface runoff and/or intersection with the subsurface alkanofer, providing the first evidence for an active condensable-liquid hydrological cycle on another planetary body. The unique nature of Titans methane cycle, along with the prebiotic chemistry and implications for habitability of Titans lakes, make the lakes of the highest scientific priority for in situ investigation. The Titan Mare Explorer mission is an ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator)-powered mission to a lake on Titan. The mission would be the first exploration of a planetary sea beyond Earth, would demonstrate the ASRG both in deep space and a non-terrestrial atmosphere environment, and pioneer low-cost outer planet missions. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: determine the chemistry of a Titan lake to constrain Titans methane cycle; determine the depth of a Titan lake; characterize physical properties of liquids; determine how the local meteorology over the lakes ties to the global cycling of methane; and analyze the morphology of lake surfaces, and if possible, shorelines, in order to constrain the kinetics of liquids and better understand the origin and evolution of Titan lakes. The focused scientific goals, combined with the new ASRG technology and the unique mission design, allows for a new class of mission at much lower cost than previous outer planet exploration has required.

  20. Radiation damage effects in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachenko, Kostya; Dove, Martin; Salje, Ekhard

    2002-03-01

    Zircon, ZrSiO_4, is important for geology and geochronology, and has been proposed as a host material to immobilize highly radioactive materials from dismantled weapons and nuclear waste from power stations [1]. In these applications zircon is exposed to alpha-irradiation. Computer simulations have started to be employed to simulate radiation damage in zircon [2], but the origin and microscopic mechanisms of the most important structural changes in zircon - unit cell expansion and large macroscopic swelling at higher doses, strong shear deformation of the crystalline lattice, and polymerization of SiOn units [3], remain unknown. Here, we perform the molecular dynamics simulation of highly energetic recoils in zircon. Basing on the simulation results, we propose the simple picture of the density change in the damaged region that consists of the depleted and densified matter. We find that the experimentally observed structural changes originate from the interaction of the damaged region with the surrounding crystalline lattice: the shear of the lattice around the damaged region causes shear deformation and expansion of the unit cells. The polymers of connected SiOn polyhedra are most commonly present in the densified shell at the periphery of the damaged region. [1] R C Ewing et al, J. Mater. Res. 10, 243 (1995); W J Weber et al, B E Burakov et al, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIX, 25-32 and 33-40 (Plenum, New York, 1996); R C Ewing, et al in Crystalline Ceramics: Waste Forms for the Disposal of Weapons Plutonium, NATO Workshop Proceedings 65 (Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996). [2] B Park et al, Phys. Rev. B, 64, 174108 (1-16) (2001); J P Crocombette and D Ghaleb, J. Nucl. Mater., 295, 167 (2001); K Trachenko et al, J. Appl. Phys., 87, 7702 (2000); K Trachenko et al, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 13, 1947 (2001). [3] T Murakami et al, Am. Min., 76, 1510 (1991); H D Holland and D Gottfried, Acta Cryst. 8, 291 (1955).; W J Weber, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 76, 1729 (1993); W J Weber et al, J. Mater. Res. 9, 688 (1994); S Rios and E K H Salje, J.Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 8947 (1999); I Farnan, Phase Trans. 69, 47 (1999); I Farnan and E K H Salje, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2084 (2001).

  1. Temperature dependent XAFS studies of local atomic structure of the perovskite-type zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Vedrinskii, R. V.; Lemeshko, M. P.; Novakovich, A. A.; Nazarenko, E. S.; Nassif, V.; Proux, O.; Joly, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Temperature dependent preedge and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Zr K edge for the perovskite-type zirconates PbZr{sub 0.515}Ti{sub 0.485}O{sub 3} (PZT), PbZrO{sub 3} (PZ), and BaZrO{sub 3} are performed. To carry out a more accurate study of the weak reconstruction of the local atomic structure we employed a combination of two techniques: (i) analysis of the preedge fine structure, and (ii) analysis of the Fourier transform of the difference between {chi}(k) functions obtained at different temperatures. A detailed investigation of local atomic structure in the cubic phase for all the crystals is also performed. It is shown that neither the displacive nor the order-disorder model can describe correctly the changes of local atomic structure during phase transitions in PZ and PZT. A spherical model describing the local atomic structure of perovskite-type crystals suffering structural phase transitions is proposed.

  2. PZT thin films for piezoelectric MEMS mechanical energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Charles

    This thesis describes the optimization of piezoelectric Pb(ZrxTi 1-x)O3 (PZT) thin films for energy generation by mechanical energy harvesting, and self-powered micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). For this purpose, optimization of the material was studied, as was the incorporation of piezoelectric films into low frequency mechanical harvesters. A systematic analysis of the energy harvesting figure of merit was made. As a figure of merit (e31,ƒ)2/epsilon r (transverse piezoelectric coefficient squared over relative permittivity) was utilized. PZT films of several tetragonal compositions were grown on CaF2, MgO, SrTiO3, and Si substrates, thereby separating the dependence of composition on domain orientation. To minimize artifacts associated with composition gradients, and to extend the temperature growth window, PZT films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Using this method, epitaxial {001} films achieved c-domain textures above 90% on single crystal MgO and CaF2 substrates. This could be tailored via the thermal stresses established by the differences in thermal expansion coefficients of the film and the substrate. The single-domain e31,ƒ for PZT thin films was determined to exceed -12 C/m2 in the tetragonal phase field for x ≥ 0.19, nearly twice the phenomenologically modeled value. The utilization of c-domain PZT films is motivated by a figure of merit above 0.8 C2/m4 for (001) PZT thin films. Increases to the FoM via doping and hot poling were also quantified; a 1% Mn doping reduced epsilonr by 20% without decreasing the piezoelectric coefficient. Hot poling a device for one hour above 120°C also resulted in a 20% reduction in epsilonr ; furthermore, 1% Mn doping reduced epsilonr by another 12% upon hot poling. Two methods for fabricating thin film mechanical energy harvesting devices were investigated. It was found that phosphoric acid solutions could be used to pattern MgO crystals, but this was typically accompanied by damage to the PZT film. An energy harvester was fabricated by etching the MgO substrate down to 10-20 mum under a circular diaphragm device; this structure had a natural frequency of 2.7 kHz and was estimated to provide a maximum RMS power of 8.8 muW/cm2-g2. Due to the lack of selectivity in the patterning, MgO was not as versatile as silicon substrates, which can be etched rapidly by wet and dry methods. To successfully release a PZT film onto a polymer passive elastic layer, dry (gas) etch methods were preferable. This protected the interfacial bonding between PZT films and Parylene. A 2 cm2 thin film membrane (15 mum Parylene/ 3 mum Cyclotene 4022/ 0.1 mum Pt-Ti/ 1.4 mum PZT (52/48)/ 0.14 mum Pt-Ti/ 1 mum SiO2) was released from a silicon substrate and operated with a 5 Hz natural frequency, the lowest reported for a thin film energy harvester operating in resonant excitation. Though problems existed with buckling of the beam due to tension in the Cyclotene 4022 (a benzocyclobutene, BCB, resin) from curing on a silicon substrate, the cantilevered device was calculated to output up to RMS 0.53 muW/cm2 when swept through an arc >30°. Silicon substrates facilitated scaling in size and quantity of devices compared to MgO substrates, which motivated an investigation into the reduction of 90° domain walls for thin films released from substrate clamping conditions. Circular test structures were designed to produce systematic changes in the clamping condition of {001} PZT thin films. The stiffness of the substrate interface was modified either by using a PZT buffer layer on the substrate or by removing the substrate completely. Films allowed to stress relax upon release, via curling, had reduced domain wall restoring force compared to fully clamped structures, leading to a 72% increase in irreversible domain wall contributions for freestanding 300 mum features. The irreversible dielectric Raleigh coefficient, alpha, for a 1.64 mum {001} PZT film measured at 20 Hz increased from 40 cm/kV to 71 cm/kV in this way. Griggio et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 108, no. 15 (2012) 157604 reported alpha of 148 cm/kV at 100 Hz for broken sections of 70 mum diaphragms. To understand the relationship between alpha reported in those experiments and the results of this thesis, the size dependence of alpha was investigated by partitioning 300 mum diaphragms into wedges. Both alpha and the frequency dispersion of alpha increased as the membrane was sectioned. This was attributed to a decrease in the elastic restoring force for domain walls. Interface (local) stresses were found to have a smaller impact on domain wall mobility, even after the domain structure was annealed above the Curie temperature post release.

  3. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  4. Titanic exploration with GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  5. Ethane ocean on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  6. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  7. Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L.

    2011-10-26

    The macroscopic electromechanical coupling properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are composed of linear and nonlinear contributions. The nonlinear contribution is typically associated with the extrinsic effects related to the creation and motion of domain walls. To quantitatively compare the macroscopic nonlinear properties of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic and the degree of domain orientation, in-situ neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments are performed and they provide the domain orientation density as a function of the external electric field and mechanical compression. Furthermore, the macroscopic strain under the application of external electrical and mechanical loads is measured and the nonlinear strain is calculated by means of the linear intrinsic piezoelectric effect and the linear intrinsic elasticity. The domain orientation density and the nonlinear strain show the same dependence on the external load. The scaling factor that relates to the two values is constant and is the same for both electrical and mechanical loadings.

  8. Damage Detection Based on Power Dissipation Measured with PZT Sensors through the Combination of Electro-Mechanical Impedances and Guided Waves

    PubMed Central

    Sevillano, Enrique; Sun, Rui; Perera, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric ceramic transducers (such as Lead-Zirconate-Titanate—PZT) has become more and more widespread for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Among all the techniques that are based on this smart sensing solution, guided waves and electro-mechanical impedance techniques have found wider acceptance, and so more studies and experimental works can be found containing these applications. However, even though these two techniques can be considered as complementary to each other, little work can be found focused on the combination of them in order to define a new and integrated damage detection procedure. In this work, this combination of techniques has been studied by proposing a new integrated damage indicator based on Electro-Mechanical Power Dissipation (EMPD). The applicability of this proposed technique has been tested through different experimental tests, with both lab-scale and real-scale structures. PMID:27164104

  9. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  10. Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Showman, Adam P.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2007-02-01

    The Huygens Probe detected dendritic drainage-like features, methane clouds and a high surface relative humidity (∼50% ) on Titan in the vicinity of its landing site [Tomasko, M.G., and 39 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 765-778; Niemann, H.B., and 17 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 779-784], suggesting sources of methane that replenish this gas against photo- and charged-particle chemical loss on short (10-100) million year timescales [Atreya, S.K., Adams, E.Y., Niemann, H.B., Demick-Montelara, J.E., Owen, T.C., Fulchignoni, M., Ferri, F., Wilson, E.H., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. In press]. On the other hand, Cassini Orbiter remote sensing shows dry and even desert-like landscapes with dunes [Lorenz, R.D., and 39 colleagues, 2006a. Science 312, 724-727], some areas worked by fluvial erosion, but no large-scale bodies of liquid [Elachi, C., and 34 colleagues, 2005. Science 308, 970-974]. Either the atmospheric methane relative humidity is declining in a steady fashion over time, or the sources that maintain the relative humidity are geographically restricted, small, or hidden within the crust itself. In this paper we explore the hypothesis that the present-day methane relative humidity is maintained entirely by lakes that cover a small part of the surface area of Titan. We calculate the required minimum surface area coverage of such lakes, assess the stabilizing influence of ethane, and the implications for moist convection in the atmosphere. We show that, under Titan's surface conditions, methane evaporates rapidly enough that shorelines of any existing lakes could potentially migrate by several hundred m to tens of km per year, rates that could be detected by the Cassini orbiter. We furthermore show that the high relative humidity of methane in Titan's lower atmosphere could be maintained by evaporation from lakes covering only 0.002-0.02 of the whole surface.

  11. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  12. Oceans on titan?

    PubMed

    Flasar, F M

    1983-07-01

    If global oceans of methane exist on Titan, the atmosphere above them must be within 2 percent of saturation. The two Voyager radio occultation soundings, made at low latitudes, probably occurred over land, since they imply a relative humidity less, similar 70 percent near the surface. Oceans might exist at other low-latitude locations if the zonal wind velocities in the lowest 3 kilometers are

  13. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  14. Magnetoelectric Effects in hexagonal ferrite-PZT bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) bilayers consisting of magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric layer are of interest for studies on the nature of ME interactions and useful technologies. Co2Z and Zn2Y are well known hexagonal ferrites with easy plane or uniaxial anisotropy. PZT has high piezoelectric coefficient. This study is on samples with Co2Z or Zn2Y as a magnetostrictive layer and PZT as a piezoelectric layer to form magnetoelectric bilayers. Low frequency (100 Hz) ME coefficient was measured over 0-17 kOe for various orientations of bilayers in a plane parallel to ac and bias magnetic fields. We measured a strong dependence of the ME voltage coefficients on magneitude and orientation of the bias field. The data are compared with theory. VLM gratefully acknowledge the award of a BOYSCAST fellowship and a FAST TRACK fellowship by DST, India. The research was supported by NSF grants.

  15. Dielectric properties of the multicomponent PZT-type solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Niemiec, Przemysław; Adamczyk, Małgorzata; Machnik, Zbigniew; Dercz, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the multicomponent PZT-type solid solution doped by barium, calcium, strontium, bismuth and germanium with composition: Pb0.975Ba0.01Ca0.01Sr0.005(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 + 1.4 wt.% Bi2O3 + 0.3 wt.% GeO obtained by hot uniaxial pressing method is described. The results of structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical studies of these ceramics are presented. It has been stated that introduction to the basic composition PZT admixtures of the barium, calcium, strontium, bismuth and germanium has a positive effect on the electro-physic parameters of obtained ceramic samples. This material has good microstructure, with high value of the dielectric permittivity (with the high temperature of phase transition) as well as low dielectric losses. It allows considering this material as elements for low frequency and high temperature electromechanical transducers.

  16. Titan ballute aerocapture using the stochastic TitanGRAM model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.

    2004-01-01

    Aerocapture using a towed, inflatable ballute system has been shown to provide a sifnificatn performance advantages compared to traditional technologies, including lower heating rates and accomodation of larger navigational uncertainties. This paper extends previous results by designing a ballute aerocapture separation algorithm that can operate in a more realistic Titan atmospheric model based on TitanGRAM.

  17. Laboratory Simulations Of Titans Atmospheric Chemistry With The NASA Ames Titan Haze Simulation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Contreras, C. S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2012-05-01

    Solar UV radiation and electron bombardment from Saturns magnetosphere dissociate nitrogen and methane in Titans atmosphere, leading to the production of heavier molecules and solid organic aerosols that contribute to the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. The detection of benzene and toluene, critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), in Titans ionosphere, by the Cassini INMS suggests that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titans aerosols. The Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment has been developed at NASA Ames Cosmic Simulation facility (COSmIC) to study the chemical pathways that link the simple molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN..) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols. In the THS experiment, Titans atmospheric chemistry is simulated by plasma in the stream of a supersonic jet expansion. With this unique design, the gas mixture is cooled to Titan-like temperature ( 150K) before inducing the chemistry by plasma discharge. Different gas mixtures containing the first products of Titans N2-CH4 chemistry, but also much heavier molecules like PAHs or PANHs can be injected to study specific chemical reactions. The products of the chemistry are detected and studied using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Thin tholin (Titan aerosol analogs) deposits are also produced in the THS experiment and can be analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We present the results of mass spectrometry studies using different gas mixtures, and discuss their relevance for the study of specific pathways in Titans atmospheric chemistry. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by NASA PATM. E.S.O., C.S.C. and C.L.R acknowledge the support of the NASA Postdoctoral Program. The authors acknowledge the collaboration of H. Imanaka, C. McKay and S. Lebonnois.

  18. Geometry adaptive control of a composite reflector using PZT actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Lan; Jiang, Shuidong; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Houfei; Tan, Shujun; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining geometrical high precision for a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) reflector is a challenging task. Although great efforts have been placed to improve the fabrication precision, geometry adaptive control for a reflector is becoming more and more necessary. This paper studied geometry adaptive control for a GFRC reflector with piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) actuators assembled on the ribs. In order to model the piezoelectric effect in finite element analysis (FEA), a thermal analogy was used in which the temperature was applied to simulate the actuation voltage, and the piezoelectric constant was mimicked by a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). PZT actuator's equivalent model was validated by an experiment. The deformations of a triangular GFRC specimen with three PZT actuators were also measured experimentally and compared with that of simulation. This study developed a multidisciplinary analytical model, which includes the composite structure, thermal, thermal deformation and control system, to perform an optimization analysis and design for the adaptive GFRC reflector by considering the free vibration, gravity deformation and geometry controllability.

  19. Truss structure integrity identification using PZT sensor-actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, F.P.; Chaudhry, Z.; Liang, C.; Rogers, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a frequency domain impedance-signature-based technique for health monitoring of an assembled truss structure. Unlike conventional modal analysis approaches, the technique uses piezoceramic (PZT) elements as integrated sensor-actuators for acquisition of signature pattern of the truss. The concept of the localization of sensing/actuation area for damage detection of an assembled structure is presented for the first time. Through a PZT patch bonded to a truss node and the measurement of its electric admittance, which is coupled with the mechanical impedance of the truss, the signature pattern of a truss is monitored. The admittance of a truss in question is compared with that of the original healthy truss. Statistic algorithm is then applied to extract a damage index of the truss based on the signature pattern difference. Experimental proof that over a selected band, the detection range of a bonded PZT sensor on a truss is highly constrained to its immediate neighborhood is presented. This characteristic allows accurate determination of the damage location in a complex real-world structure with a minimum mathematical modeling and numerical computation.

  20. Titan's neutral atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D.; Jolly, A.; Bénilan, Y.; Vinatier, S.; Nixon, C.; Gautier, D.; Bjoraker, G.; Romani, P.; Flasar, M.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemical composition has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini instruments. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been processed from the Titan flybys spanning three years now since SOI (Flasar et al., 2005; Teanby et al., 2006, Vinatier et al., 2006; Nixon et al., 2006; Coustenis et al., 2007). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 80°N with a variety of emission angles. We have studied the emission observed in the CIRS detector arrays (covering the 10-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1). We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane v4 band at 1304 cm-1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere (Coustenis et al., 2007a). The composite spectra show several signatures of previously identified molecules: hydrocarbons, nitriles, H2O and CO2. Besides these well-known trace species, a firm detection of benzene (C6H6) is provided by CIRS at 674 cm-1 and allows for the study of its latitudinal variations. No longitudinal variations were found for any of the gases. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamicalphotochemical models (Hourdin et al., 2004; Lavvas et al., 2007). Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). The D/H ratio on Titan was also determined from the CH3D band at 8.6 micron and found to be about 1.3 ±0.2 10-4. We have also identified the presence of C2HD at 678 cm-1 for the first time (Coustenis et al., 2007b, in preparation). Constraints are also set on the vertical distribution of C2H2. References : Coustenis et al., 2007a, Icarus, in press; Flasar et al., 2005, Science 308, 975 ; Hourdin et al., 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109, E1205; Nixon et al., 2006, BAAS 38; Lavvas et al., 2007, Plan. Space Sci., in press; Teanby et al., 2006, Icarus 181, 243; Vinatier et al., 2006, Icarus, 188, 120.

  1. Atmospheric Dynamics of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard K.; Schinder, Paul J.

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation in the solar system, but one with a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10° S, indicate that the zonal winds are generally in the sense of the satellite's rotation. They become cyclostrophic ˜35 km above the surface and generally increase with altitude, with the exception of a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from the temperature field retrieved from Cassini measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds of 190 m s-1 near 300 km at mid-northern latitudes. One of the most intriguing findings is that the pole of stratospheric temperatures and winds appears to be offset from the IAU definition of Titan's pole by ˜4° . The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field, and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggest subsidence in the north polar region during winter and early spring. Both nearand thermal-infrared spectra from Cassini indicate that stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50° N. Additionally, Cassini radio occultations indicate that temperature profiles at high northern latitudes have a markedly reduced static stability in the lower stratosphere, perhaps from a cloud that is optically thick in the infrared. Although there are differences, Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of winter vortices on Earth—the ozone holes. The radio-occultation profiles in Titan's lower troposphere exhibit little thermal contrast between low and high latitudes, ˜3 K or less, indicating the effectiveness of meridional heat transport. Temperature profiles at high latitudes in both hemispheres are more stable near the surface, and they exhibit an isothermal layer or inversion in the north.

  2. New experimental constraints for Hadean zircon source melts from Ce and Eu anomalies in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.; Tailby, N.

    2010-12-01

    A common feature of zircon rare earth element profiles is that they often have enriched chondrite normalized Ce abundances relative to bracketing rare earth elements (REEs) La and Pr. The magnitude of a zircon Ce anomaly is generally attributed to an increase in Ce4+/Ce3+ of the crystallizing medium (Ce4+ is more compatible than Ce3+ in zircon), which is associated with more oxidizing environments. Zircons may also have depleted chondrite normalized Eu abundances relative to Sm and Gd. A negative Eu anomaly may be indicative of more reducing conditions (Eu2+ is incompatible in zircon) or depletion of Eu in the melt from plagioclase prior to or during zircon crystallization. We report experimental data from zircons crystallized in hydrous peralkaline, metaluminous, and peraluminous melts (800-1300oC; 10 kbar) with the oxygen fugacity buffered from ~IW to HM+1 in order to constrain magnitude of zircon Ce and Eu anomalies. Zircon Ce anomalies increase in magnitude with higher oxygen fugacities and lower crystallization temperatures; Eu anomalies are more negative at ~IW vs. NNO for the same temperature and melt composition. Our experiments also show that with the oxygen fugacity buffered at NNO, zircons may have both positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies. Thus, Eu2+ and Ce4+ may co-exist in terrestrial melts; furthermore, melt depletion of Eu by plagioclase fractionation prior to (or during) zircon crystallization may not be a requisite for the presence of zircon Eu anomalies in (Hadean) zircons. The magnitude of the anomalies is also a function of the melt composition; peraluminous melts yield the largest positive Ce (or negative Eu) anomalies at a given oxygen fugacity and temperature. Extrapolation of our preliminary empirical calibration to the crystallization temperatures of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons (~700oC) suggests the magnitude of Ce anomalies in approximately half of the Hadean zircons cannot be produced in metaluminous or peralkaline melts, even at oxygen fugacities as high as HM+1. However, the magnitude of Ce anomalies in Hadean zircons is within the range of predicted anomalies of our experiments for peraluminous melts, implying that a significant portion of the Hadean zircon population may be derived from peraluminous melts. This result is consistent with muscovite inclusion mineralogy in Hadean zircons (e.g., Hopkins et al., 2008), but does not preclude the possibility of other, less evolved peraluminous source rocks, or some process which leads to significant Ce enrichment (relative to La and/or Pr) in the melt at the time of zircon crystallization.

  3. Advances in Zircon Geochronology: Understanding Zircon Growth and Modification During Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.

    2004-05-01

    The interpretation of zircon ages has long relied on the qualitative interpretation of external shape and internal zoning patterns. Common assumptions for metamorphic zircons were that they date the peak of metamorphism, have low Th/U, and that granulite facies zircon is multifaceted. Whereas these may be useful rules of thumb, progress is now made in several areas by in-situ analyses e.g. i) balancing zircon forming reactions by in-situ trace element analyses of Zr-bearing minerals (providing evidence for the potential of prograde as well as retrograde zircon growth), iii) linking metamorphic textures and thermobarometry to U-Pb geochronology results, iii) linking zircon geochemistry to different growth mechanisms, and processes of zircon modification (recognising that low Th/U in zircon requires presence of a fluid phase or a mineral competing for Th, e.g. monazite). Modification mechanisms other than the classic hypotheses (volume diffusion, metamictisation) can be proposed to account for 'resetting' of zircon U-Pb ages: e.g. fluid-related or fluid-absent recrystallization, lattice strain reduction by purging of trace elements. Examples from high grade metamorphic areas in Norway, Brazil and Uganda are used to illustrate that in-situ analysis, relating inclusion textures to trace elements in zircon help provide constraints on the P-T-t evolution. Tracking geochemical characteristics through time provides constraints on the mechanisms of zircon growth or modification. Multifaceted, equant and sector-zoned zircon for example characteristically crystallizes from anatectic melts. Whether these are prograde, peak or retrograde melts depends on the particular P-T history of the host rock. Solid-state recrystallized zircon typically inherits the Th/U characteristics of its parent. It can be shown by textural as well as trace element evidence that without dissolution or recrystallization of pre-existing zircon, metamorphic reactions consuming Zr-bearing minerals may trigger new zircon growth (e.g. garnet, ilmenite, rutile). Breakdown of garnet for example may produce high-Y zircon or trigger xenotime growth. Rare earth element patterns can be used to test growth of zircon in equilibrium with important metamorphic minerals (garnet, orthopyroxene). Ultimately, whether zircon has the potential to record certain stages of the P-T history and how depends on the reaction history of a particular rock, its P-T path and its pre-metamorphic history (previous melting and melt-extraction may prevent new zircon growth).

  4. Modeling Zircon Saturation Within Simulated Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, M. M.; Harrison, M.; Boehnke, P.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the impact flux in the early inner solar system is fundamental to understanding the near surface conditions on the terrestrial planets during this formative period. However the lack of preserved >2.0 Ga craters precludes direct sampling of such events over the first 55% of Earth history. We do, however, have preserved crustal materials in the form of detrital zircons with ages up to 4.38 Ga that can potentially act as environmental monitors. In order to interpret zircon growth features in terms of impact events, such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), we developed a zircon saturation model that estimates the zircon crystallization temperature spectrum and the fraction of Zr in the continental crust expected to be processed through impact melting. Such modeling results can then be compared to the crystallization temperature spectrum of detrital Hadean zircons to estimate the fraction that were impact-produced. Magmatic zircon growth during an impact event is controlled by ambient temperature, Zr content and composition of the target material, and impact energy. Impacts need to be sufficiently large to permit decompression melting of uplifted middle to upper crust (i.e., low energy bolides will not produce melt sheets and thus impact zircons). We modeled the LHB using the thermal model and hypothesized bolide flux of Abramov and Mojzsis (Nature 459, 419, 2009). Target compositions for modern and Archean crust were estimated from large geochemical databases and selected using a Monte Carlo process by which the full spectrum of compositions were randomly chosen. Model results for impact produced zircon from a target of Archean composition yield a zircon crystallization temperature distribution significantly higher than that observed for detrital Hadean zircons from Western Australia. We take this as evidence that impact produced zircons are not a significant source for this population. Modeled results from impacts on modern crust yield temperatures remarkably similar to Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures of recent large impact events (i.e., Morokweng, Manicouagan). Refinements of the model include: reduction of sampling bias in compositional databases and development of hypothetical crustal compositions to simulate Hadean crystallization temperatures. This model can be used as an analog to predict zircon abundance and crystallization temperature spectrum for other planetary bodies (i.e. Moon, Mars, Vesta) where surface compositions are known or estimated. When rocks are in hand, in the form of meteorites or from sample return missions, modeled results can be compared to extracted zircons to estimate the contribution of impacts and provide insights into ancient impact histories.

  5. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  6. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwi-Il; Son, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jungho; Koo, Min; Choi, Insung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-04-23

    A highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator is demonstrated using a laser lift-off (LLO) process. The PZT thin film nanogenerator harvests the highest output performance of ∼200 V and ∼150 μA·cm(-2) from regular bending motions. Furthermore, power sources generated from a PZT thin film nanogenerator, driven by slight human finger bending motions, successfully operate over 100 LEDs. PMID:24523251

  7. Comparative face-shear piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hairong; Li, Faxin

    2015-12-01

    The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode may be the most practical shear mode in piezoelectrics, while theoretically this mode cannot appear in piezoelectric ceramics because of its transversally isotropic symmetry. Recently, we realized piezoelectric coefficient d 36 up to 206pC/N in soft PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering [H. C. Miao and F. X. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 122902 (2015)]. In this work, we further realized the face-shear mode in both hard and soft PZT ceramics including PZT-4 (hard), PZT-51(soft), and PZT-5H (soft) and investigated the electric properties systematically. The resonance methods are derived to measure the d 36 coefficients using both square patches and narrow bar samples, and the obtained values are consistent with that measured by a modified d 33 meter previously. For all samples, the pure d 36 mode can only appear near the resonance frequency, and the coupled d 36 - d 31 mode dominates off resonance. It is found that both the piezoelectric coefficient d 36 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 36 of soft PZT ceramics (PZT-5H and PZT-51) are considerably larger than those of the hard PZT ceramics (PZT-4). The obtained d 36 of 160-275pC/N, k 36 ˜ 0.24, and the mechanical quality factor Q 36 of 60-90 in soft PZT ceramics are comparable with the corresponding properties of the d 31 mode sample. Therefore, the d 36 mode in modified soft PZT ceramics is more promising for industrial applications such as face-shear resonators and shear horizontal wave generators.

  8. Zircon-rutile-ilmenite froth flotation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.; Denham, D.L. Jr.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a method for separating a mixture of minerals comprising at least zircon, ilmenite and rutile. It comprises adding an acid solution to the mixture to acidify to a pH of between about 2.0 and 6.0; adding starch to the mixture to depress the ilmenite and the rutile; adding a source of fluoride ions to the mixture to provide a negative surface charge on the zircon surface to activate the zircon; adding an amine cationic collector to the mixture to float the activated zircon; subjecting the mixture containing the added acid solution, the fluoride ions, the starch and the cationic collector, to froth flotation; and withdrawing a float product comprising the zircon and a sink product comprising the ilmenite and rutile.

  9. Synthesis of nanosized sodium titanates

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Elvington, Mark C.

    2015-09-29

    Methods directed to the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosized monosodium titanate are described. Methods include combination of reactants at a low concentration to a solution including a nonionic surfactant. The nanosized monosodium titanate can exhibit high selectivity for sorbing various metallic ions.

  10. Chem-prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applications : effects of lead stoichiometry on the microstructure and mechanical properties of PZT 95/5.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pin; Watson, Chad Samuel

    2004-09-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) 95/5 ceramics, where 95/5 refers to the ratio of lead zirconate to lead titanate, were evaluated as a function of lead (Pb) stoichiometry. Chemically-prepared PNZT 95/5 is produced at Sandia National Laboratories by the Ceramics and Glass Processing Department (14154) for use as voltage elements in ferroelectric neutron generator power supplies. PNZT 95/5 was prepared according to the nominal formulation of Pb{sub 0.991+x}(Zr{sub 0.955}Ti{sub 0.045}){sub 0.982}Nb{sub 0.018}O{sub 3+x}, where x (-0.0274 {approx}< x {approx}< 0.0297) refers to the mole fraction of Pb and O that deviated from the stoichiometric value. The Pb concentrations were determined from calcined powders; no adjustments were made to Pb compositions due to weight loss during sintering. The microstructure (second phases, fracture mode and grain size) varied appreciably with Pb stoichiometry, whereas the mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness, strength and Weibull parameters) exhibited modest variation. Specimens deficient in Pb, 2.74% (x = -0.0274) and 2.15% (x = -0.02150), had a high area fraction of a zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) second phase on the order of 0.02. As the Pb content in solid solution increased the ZrO{sub 2} content decreased; no ZrO{sub 2} was observed for the specimen containing 2.97% excess Pb (x = 0.0297). Over the range of Pb stoichiometry most specimens fractured predominately transgranularly; however, 2.97% Pb excess PNZT 95/5 fractured predominately intergranularly. No systematic changes in hardness or Weibull modulus were observed as a function of Pb content. Fracture toughness decreased slightly from 1.8 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2} for Pb deficient specimens to 1.6 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2} for specimens with excess Pb. Although there are microstructural differences with changes in Pb content, the mechanical properties did not vary substantially. However, the average failure stress and fracture toughness for PNZT 95/5 containing 2.97% excess Pb decreased slightly. It is expected that additional increases in Pb content would result in further mechanical property degradation. The decrease in mechanical properties for the 2.97% Pb excess ceramics could be the result of a weaker PbO-rich grain boundary phase present in the material. If better mechanical properties are desired, it is recommended that PNZT 95/5 ceramics are processed by a method whereby any excess Pb is depleted from the final sintered ceramic so that near-stoichiometric values of Pb concentration are reached. Otherwise, a PbO-rich grain boundary phase may exist in the ceramic which could potentially be detrimental to the mechanical properties of PNZT 95/5 ceramics.

  11. High-Tc/high-coupling relaxed PZT-based single crystal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, K.; Matsushima, T.; Adachi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Yanagitani, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2015-03-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)-based ferroelectric ceramics exhibit high piezoelectricity, however, their Curie temperature (Tc) values are not so high, i.e., Tc < 400 °C. PZT-based piezoelectric thin films with higher Tc would be beneficial for improved micro actuators, sensors, memories, and piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems. In-plane biaxial strained PZT thin films in a laminated composite structure are known to exhibit enhanced Tc; however, the thickness of PZT-based thin films is limited to below a critical thickness typically <50 nm. The Tc of relaxed PZT-based thin films with thicknesses greater than the critical thickness is the same as bulk Tc. However, a sort of relaxed PZT-based single-crystal thin films exhibit extraordinary high Tc, Tc = ˜600 °C. In addition, the films show extremely low dielectric constant, ɛ/ɛo ˜ 100 with high coupling factor, kt ˜ 0.7, and large remnant polarization, Pr ˜ 100 μC/cm2. These exotic properties would result from the single-domain/single-crystal structure. The enhanced Tc is possibly caused by the highly stable interface between the PZT-based thin films and substrates. Their ferroelectric performances are beyond those of conventional PZT. The high-Tc/high-coupling performances are demonstrated, and the possible mechanisms of the high Tc behavior in relaxed PZT-based single-crystal thin films are discussed.

  12. Titan impacts and escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on hydrodynamic calculations of impacts of large (multi-kilometer) objects on Saturn's moon Titan. We assess escape from Titan, and evaluate the hypothesis that escaping ejecta blackened the leading hemisphere of Iapetus and peppered the surface of Hyperion. We carried out two- and three-dimensional simulations of impactors ranging in size from 4 to 100 km diameter, impact velocities between 7 and 15 km s -1, and impact angles from 0° to 75° from the vertical. We used the ZEUSMP2 hydrocode for the calculations. Simulations were made using three different geometries: three-dimensional Cartesian, two-dimensional axisymmetric spherical polar, and two-dimensional plane polar. Three-dimensional Cartesian geometry calculations were carried out over a limited domain (e.g. 240 km on a side for an impactor of size di = 10 km), and the results compared to ones with the same parameters done by Artemieva and Lunine (2005); in general the comparison was good. Being computationally less demanding, two-dimensional calculations were possible for much larger domains, covering global regions of the satellite (from 800 km below Titan's surface to the exobase altitude 1700 km above the surface). Axisymmetric spherical polar calculations were carried out for vertical impacts. Two-dimensional plane-polar geometry calculations were made for both vertical and oblique impacts. In general, calculations among all three geometries gave consistent results. Our basic result is that the amount of escaping material is less than or approximately equal to the impactor mass even for the most favorable cases. Amounts of escaping material scaled most strongly as a function of velocity, with high-velocity impacts generating the largest amount, as expected. Dependence of the relative amount of escaping mass fesc = mesc/ Mi on impactor diameter di was weak. Oblique impacts (impact angle θi > 45°) were more effective than vertical or near-vertical impacts; ratios of mesc/ Mi ˜ 1-2 were found in the simulations.

  13. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  14. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  15. Synthesis and electrical analysis of nano-crystalline barium titanate nanocomposites for use in high-energy density applications.

    SciTech Connect

    DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Huber, Dale L.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William

    2010-10-01

    Ceramic based nanocomposites have recently demonstrated the ability to provide enhanced permittivity, increased dielectric breakdown strength, and reduced electromechanical strain making them potential materials systems for high energy density applications. A systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and PLZT based nanoparticle composites employing a glass or polymer matrix to yield a high energy density component will be presented. This work will present the systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate nanoparticle based ceramics. The nanoparticles have been synthesized using solution and pH-based synthesis processing routes and employed to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic and nanocomposite based components. The dielectric/ferroelectric properties of these various components have been gauged by impedance analysis and electromechanical response and will be discussed.

  16. Titan Airship Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Yavrouian, A.; Cutts, J.; Colozza, A.; Fairbrother, D.

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan is considered to be one of the prime candidates for studying prebiotic materials - the substances that precede the formation of life but have disappeared from the Earth as a result of the evolution of life. A unique combination of a dense, predominantly nitrogen, atmosphere (more than four times that of the Earth), low gravity (six times less than on the Earth) and small temperature variations makes Titan the almost ideal planet for studies with lighter-than-air aerial platforms (aerobots). Moreover, since methane clouds and photochemical haze obscure the surface, low-altitude aerial platforms are the only practical means that can provide global mapping of the Titan surface at visible and infrared wavelengths. One major challenge in Titan exploration is the extremely cold atmosphere (approx. 90 K). However, current material technology the capability to operate aerobots at these very low temperatures. A second challenge is the remoteness from the Sun (10 AU) that makes the nuclear (radioisotopic) energy the only practical source of power. A third challenge is remoteness from the Earth (approx. 10 AU, two-way light-time approx. 160 min) which imposes restrictions on data rates and makes impractical any meaningful real-time control. A small-size airship (approx. 25 cu m) can carry a payload approximately 100 kg. A Stirling engine coupled to a radioisotope heat source would be the prime choice for producing both mechanical and electrical power for sensing, control, and communications. The cold atmospheric temperature makes Stirling machines especially effective. With the radioisotope power source the airship may fly with speed approximately 5 m/s for a year or more providing an excellent platform for in situ atmosphere measurements and a high-resolution remote sensing with unlimited access on a global scale. In a station-keeping mode the airship can be used for in situ studies on the surface by winching down an instrument package. Floating above the surface allows relatively simple means for flight control. Mission requirements and possible methods of navigation, control, data acquisition, and communications are discussed. The presentation describes also the state-of-the art and current progress in aerial deployed aerobots.

  17. Titan's Carbon Conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Teanby, N. A.; Vinatier, S.; BÉ Zard, B.; Coustenis, A.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Cassini Cirs Team

    2010-12-01

    As recently as a year ago, a consensus was emerging that carbon-13 in Titan's methane was enriched by some ~10% over the terrestrial value (12C/13C = ~77-82 on Titan versus 89 on Earth, Niemann et al 2005, Nixon et al 2008). At the same time, several measurements of 12C/13C in ethane, the main product of methane photolysis, appeared to show no enrichment (Nixon et al 2008, Jennings et al 2009). This led to the suggestion that a steady state equilibrium was being reached, with a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE) in a key reaction (C2H + CH4 → C2H2 + CH3) responsible for the slight enrichment in the atmospheric reservoir relative to both the incoming flux of methane and outgoing flux of ethane (Jennings et al 2009). This paradigm was overturned earlier this year when the Huygens GCMS team revised their measurement of 12CH4/13CH4 upwards to agree with the terrestrial value (Niemann et al, in preparation), eliminating any need for the KIE fractionation. However, this presents a new problem in the sense that the KIE effect is probably real - it is confirmed for the CH3D and 12CH4 reactions with ethynyl (Opansky and Leone 1996), so almost certainly for 13CH4-12CH4 pair as well - and so some fractionation of methane should be occurring. This is true regardless as to whether the atmospheric methane is being replenished or not - differing only in degree - provided the ethynyl abstraction reaction is the dominant path for methane loss as predicted by current models (Lavvas et al. 2008). In this forum we will present updated measurements by the CIRS team of the 12CH4/13CH4 derived from recent high signal-to-noise Titan observations, and discuss the degree of agreement with both the earlier published ratios, and the newer revised GCMS results. We will also discuss the implications for Titan's methane evolution over geologic time including clues from the D/H ratio. We conclude by highlighting the currently open questions and avenues for future work. Jennings, D.E. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 113(42), 11101-11106, 2009. Lavvas, P.P. et al., Plan. Space Science, 56, 27-66, 2008. Niemann, H.B. et al., Nature, 438, 779-784, 2005. Nixon, C.A. et al., Icarus, 195, 778-791, 2008. Opansky, B.J and S.R. Leone, J. Phys. Chem., 100, 4888-4892, 1996.

  18. Electric properties and phase transition behavior in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics with low zirconate content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Lou, Qi-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Dong, Xian-Lin; Wang, Gen-Shui

    2015-11-01

    The phase transitions, dielectric properties, and polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.42Sn0.58-xTix)O3 (0.13≤ x ≤0.18) (PLZST) bulk ceramics were systematically investigated. This study exhibited a sequence of phase transitions by analyzing the change of the P-E hysteresis loops with increasing temperature. The antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary of PLZST with the Zr content of 0.42 was found to locate at the Ti content between 0.14 and 0.15. This work is aimed to improve the ternary phase diagram of lanthanum-doped PZST with the Zr content of 0.42 and will be a good reference for seeking high energy storage density in the PLZST system with low-Zr content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51202273, 11204304, and 11304334) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261000).

  19. Titan's astrobiology: some new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Francois; Coll, Patrice; Buch, Arnaud; Cloix, Megane; Guan, Yuan Yong; Jerome, Murielle; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Szopa, Cyril; Cottin, Hervé

    The Cassini-Huygens observations of Titan have strongly strengthened its astrobiological impor-tance, clearly showing that Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies. Indeed the Cassini-Huygens data show that there are many similarities which can be found when comparing Titan and the early Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures for Titan. One of these similarities is the presence of an active and complex organic chemistry in Titan's environment, which occurs from the high atmosphere to the surface and very likely in the sub-surface. This organic chemistry involves several of the key compounds of terrestrial prebiotic chemistry, and it represents, by itself, a major astrobiological aspect of Titan. Moreover, the potential presence of an internal water-ocean makes Titan a potential habitable environment, of obvious astrobiological importance. In fact, after five years of close observation by remote sensing and in situ instrumentations from the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan does not look any more like a frozen primitive Earth, but it looks like an evolving planet, geologically active, with cryo-volcanism, eolian erosion, clouds and precipitations, and a methane cycle analogous to the water cycle on Earth. But the new data also show that a complex organic chemistry is taking place in the very high atmospheric layers of the satellite, with the formation in the ionosphere of high molecular weight (up about 10 000 Daltons) ions. Are these ions abundant enough in the lower atmosphere zones to act as organic monomers which then grow by aggregation, sedimentation and condensation down to the surface? This is one of the key questions that chemical models have now to answer. Cassini-Huygens observations have shown that there is no large surface ocean on Titan, but large regional lakes which behave like evolving liquid media. Those lakes are probably accumulating complex organics of astrobiological interest, including organic aerosols, and could be a prime astrobiologically oriented target for future exploration of Saturn's largest satellite. Cassini-Huygens has shown that the chemical composition of Titan's aerosols is similar to that of laboratory Titan's tholins. The behavior of those tholins when sub-mitted to high solar UV radiation has recently been studied in Earth orbit. The results show a slight but complex photodegradation in some cases. Moreover, recent laboratory studies of the interaction between Titan's tholins and simulated Titan's surface strongly suggests that many compounds of biological interest, including amino-acids, could be produced on Titan's surface. These new data will be presented together with a general description of Titan's astrobiological aspects as seen from Cassini-Huygens data. References F. Raulin. Astrobiology and habitability of Titan. Space Science Reviews 135, 37-48 (2008) F. Raulin , C. P. McKay , J. I. Lunine and T. Owen. Titan's Astrobiology. In "Titan from Cassini-Huygens" R. Brown, J-P Lebreton H.Waite Eds, Springer, pp. 215-233 (2009) F. Raulin, K. P. Hand, C. P. McKay and M. Viso. Exobiology and planetary protection. In "Moons of the outer solar system: exchange processes involving the interiors", O. Grasset et al. Eds, Space Science Review, in press (Feb. 2010).

  20. Titan: A Place with Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of the planet Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen and has a pressure one and a half times larger than sea level pressure on Earth. In these respects Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. Methane is found in Titan's atmosphere and results in the formation of a organic smog layer in the atmosphere via chemistry that is similar to the current theories for the origin of life on Earth. Unfortunately, Titan is much too cold for water to be liquid and life is therefore unlikely, earth-like life that is. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's. However the organic smog layer produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane or maybe just lakes. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini/Huygens reaches Saturn in a few years it will launch a probe that to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  1. Elastic softening of zircon by radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2006-09-25

    The bulk modulus and the shear modulus of zircon soften by ca. 50% when zircon is amorphized by radiation damage. A theoretical description of the experimental findings is presented which shows that the elastic response on a zircon ceramics with radiation damage follows Hashin-Shtrikman [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 11, 127 (1963)] behavior with very narrow bounds. The elastic response depends, in good approximation, on the square of the volume fraction f{sub a} of the amorphized regions. In a slightly coarser approximation one finds an almost linear interpolation of the bulk and the shear modulus between those of the crystalline state and those of the fully amorphous state.

  2. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion.

    PubMed

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine

    2009-02-20

    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks. PMID:19179492

  3. Titan's Surface By Radarlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elachi, Charles; Wall, S.; Lopes, R.; Soderblom, L.; Lunine, J.; Lorenz, R.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2006-09-01

    Titan's surface is characterized at highest resolution by the Cassini Radar operating in synthetic-aperture (SAR) mode, and at larger scales in other radar modes and by other sensors. To date, about 10% of the surface has been imaged by SAR, enabling the classification of surface units based on radar backscatter, shape and texture. Further classification is possible through correlation with infrared data. Of particular note are dark features interpreted as methane or methane/ethane lakes that seem to prefer high latitudes. Other surprisingly earthlike surface units are interpreted as impact craters, longitudinal dunes, cryovolcanics and channels. Other radar data suggest that at global scales, Titan's surface is predominantly a low dielectric material, variably penetrable by radar, with low (100 m to 1 km) relief. Overall, a young surface is revealed, with ample evidence of modification by wind, impact, moving liquid, and (probably) tectonics. In this talk we will review the available data, discuss correlations and differences with data from other sensors, and summarize work to date that relates observed phenomena to understanding the processes at work on the surface of this fascinating moon. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  5. Monosodium Titanate Sludge Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    2000-11-07

    Good filterability of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurry is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of crystalline organic TPB that forms a firm but porous filter cake, allowing salt solution to pass through without unduly compressing the cake. Addition of inorganic sludge or monosodium titanate (MST) has an adverse effect on filtration, but the overall filtration rate with TPB is satisfactory. Poor cross-flow filtration performance for the Salt Disposition Alternatives requiring MST filtration is attributed primarily to the difficulty in filtering the residual inorganic sludge rich in iron and aluminum precipitates. Ferric hydrolysis products and colloids form a bulky and sticky filter cake significantly reducing filtration rate. Similarly poor filtration rates were observed in the BNFL ferric/ferrous precipitation process, necessitating a change to permanganate precipitation. This report, based on a few sludge settling observations, does not resolve the MST/Sludge filterability issue. However, it does identify the need for a change in emphasis from cross-flow optimization to understanding and controlling the chemistry and physics of alkaline inorganic particle suspensions and filterability. Promising potential exists to identify or develop surfactants or flocculants to enhance filterability of SRS sludge and monosodium titanate. Additional work is needed to provide a basic understanding of the nature of caustic sludge filter cake formation.

  6. Touchdown on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Europe's Huygens probe is on target for a Dec. 25 separation from the Cassini Saturn orbiter that has carried it like a baby for more than seven years. The probe will spend three weeks coasting to a plunge into Titan's thick atmosphere on the morning of Jan. 14. If all goes as planned, the 349-kg. Huygens will spend more than 2 hr. descending by parachute to the mysterious surface of the planet-sized moon, and hopefully devote yet more time to broadcasting data after it lands. Before the day is over, Huygens is programmed to beam about 30 megabytes of data - including some 1,100 images-back to Earth through Cassini, a trip that will take some 75 min. to complete over the 1- billion-km. distance that separates the two planets. Within that data should be answers to questions that date back to 1655, when Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens found the moon with a homemade telescope and named it for the family of giants the ancient Greeks believed once ruled the earth. In the Solar System, there is no other world like Titan, with a nitrogen and methane atmospheric and a cold, hidden surface darker than Earth under the full Moon.

  7. Refractory Materials of Zirconate. Part 2: Synthesis and some properties of strontium, zirconate, calcium zirconate and barium zirconate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okubo, Tsutomo; Yonemochi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuo; Maeda, Minoru

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compounds SrZrO3, CaZrO3, and BaZrO3 were synthesized by solid reaction and arc fusion, and their properties examined. Results were as follows: (1) in the synthesis of CaZrO3 by solid reaction, ZrO2 solid solution with cubic form was produced, which then changed into CaZrO3; (2) the BaZrO3 was a cubic form and did not show any transformation, while SrZrO3 and CaZrO3 with an orthorhombic form transformed to a cubic form at high temperature; and (3) the solubility of BaZrO3 in acid and its vaporization rate at a high temperature were greater than those of zirconates.

  8. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuxiang; Gao, Fei; Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicate that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  9. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, F. X.; Gao, Fei; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J.

    2010-07-12

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicates that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  10. Micro-motion exposure method based on PZT piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjun; Zhang, Mei-heng; Meng, Zhong

    2009-07-01

    There mainly is laser digital photofinishing technique and digital photofinishing technique based on LCD consisting of TFT and LCOS in the digital photofinishing field at the present time. The former have a good many merit such as wide color gamut, high processing rate, large output size and high brightness, but his cost is very high, his maintain technique being comparatively complex, that result in difficult use for people. The utilization ratio of the latter is low because of lower resolution and lower aperture ratio for LCD, but the digital photofinishing based on LCD have lower cost and higher utilization ration, being suitable for people's current standard of living. Considering above mentioned problem, a micro-motion exposure method based on PZT piezoelectric ceramics used in digital image photofinishing is presented. The two-dimension micro-motion exposure system consisting of PZT piezoelectric ceramics, LCD panel, polarizing film and spring strip is designed. By means of PZT piezoelectric ceramics the LCD panel is removed about the one half of the pixel size of the LCD panel for four times from the original place, at the same time imaging system is exposed four times at the printing paper. The software is used to control the time synchronization, the exposure time and motion range of the LCD panel. The system has advantages such as shorter response time than 0.1seconds, lesser motion error than 0.01 microns, high stability and repeatability. Experimental results show that the proposed micro-motion exposure method improve the picture brightness and enlarge output size, at the meantime reducing the cost of the system.

  11. Mapping products of Titan's surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Karkoschka, Erich; Barnes, Jason W.; Tomasko, Martin G.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Le Corre, Lucille; Langhans, Mirjam; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Lorenz, Ralf D.; Perry, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been observed the surface of Titan globally in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens instruments revealing a wealth of new morphological features indicating a geologically active surface. We present a summary of mapping products of Titan's surface derived from data of the remote sensing instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (ISS, VIMS, RADAR) as well as the Huygens probe (DISR) that were achieved during the nominal Cassini mission including an overview of Titan's recent nomenclature.

  12. Grenville Zircon Fertility, Baby Boom, and Baby Boom Echo; Natural Bias in the Detrital Zircon Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moecher, D. P.; Samson, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Grenville-aged (~1150-1050 Ma) granitoids of eastern Laurentia exposed in Appalachian basement massifs are as much as 20 times more Zr-rich and much more fertile for crystallizing zircon compared to Paleozoic Laurentian granitoids of the Eastern Blue Ridge, Inner Piedmont, and Carolina terranes. Erosion of Grenville source rocks generates disproportionately large numbers and/or sizes of detrital zircon compared to less fertile magmatic sources. The latter are essentially undetectable by standard detrital zircon provenance methods (SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS analysis of magmatic cores of >100 micron grains). Grenvillian zircon fertility biased the Neoproterozoic to Recent detrital record as a result of: (1) zircon durability and insolubility in aqueous fluids means detrital zircons eroded from Grenville basement terranes are recycled during repeated orogenesis; (2) inertness of zircon below upper amphibolite facies (onset of anatexis), and high Zr resulting from concentration of detrital zircon in sedimentary protoliths, means dominantly metasedimentary terranes will fail to generate sufficient new zircon corresponding in age to the time of accretion of those terranes to Laurentia. Zircon growth under incipient anatectic conditions generates new zircon as overgrowths on detrital magmatic cores; overgrowths are often too thin to analyze by ion or laser beam. In this case, metasedimentary terranes may be rendered essentially undetectable. New `magmatic' zircon may be generated with greater degrees of anatexis, but might be inferred to be of plutonic, not metamorphic, parentage. Grenville modes dominate detrital zircon age distributions for: Laurentian Neoproterozoic rift basins; Neoproterozoic to Lower Ordovician passive margin sequences; Appalachian Paleozoic syn-orogenic clastic sequences; Appalachian metasedimentary terranes; and modern rivers. The latter is surprising since Grenville terranes comprise <15% of exposed crust in the southern Appalachians, and were not exposed during Paleozoic orogenesis. Synorogenic magmatic or metamorphic detritus is absent from late Paleozoic (Alleghanian) clastic wedges: formation of a Himalayan-scale orogen during continent-continent collision and assembly of Pangea never occurred in eastern Laurentia, from the perspective of detrital zircon. The dominance of the Grenville age mode is primarily an artifact of the Grenville zircon `baby boom' that echoed through later orogenies. The natural Grenville bias in the detrital zircon record is further amplified by sampling biases (crystals 100-300 microns are usually selected) and analytical biases (e.g. cores are much more frequently analyzed).

  13. Design, modeling, and fabrication techniques of bulk PZT actuators for MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Chu, Jiaru

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the design, modeling and fabrication techniques of bulk PZT actuators for MEMS deformable mirrors. Both the analytical model and finite element method are employed for performance simulation and structure optimization of the bulk PZT actuator. According to the simulation results, thick PZT films with high d 31 piezoelectric coefficient are necessary for the deformable mirrors to obtain both high stiffness and large stroke at low voltage for applications in astronomical observation and retina imaging. The fabrication techniques for bulk PZT actuators for MEMS deformable mirrors are investigated, incorporating the bonding of bulk PZT ceramics to Si single crystals with epoxy resin, the thinning and patterning of bulk PZT ceramics using wet-etching method. 1BHF:2HCl:4NH 4Cl:4H IIO solution was used as the etchant. Using the fabrication techniques, we have successfully demonstrated a 44 prototype array of 2.5mm-diameter bulk PZT actuators for MEMS deformable mirrors. The bulk PZT actuators show a stroke of 3 ?m at +/-25V and displacement hysteresis of 15%. The displacement hysteresis was largely eliminated by using the method of staying on the same segment.

  14. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. PMID:26540683

  15. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Enhanced Fatigue Property through the Control of Interfacial Layer in Pt/PZT/Pt Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Woo Sik; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2000-12-01

    Ferroelectric Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 PZT thin film capacitors with Pt(111)/SiO2/Si substrate were fabricated by sol-gel method. Ultrathin PZT layer containing various contents of excess Pb was adopted as an interfacial layer to investigate the role of excess Pb on the formation of interfacial region between PZT film and Pt bottom electrode. An improvement of electrical properties was observed according to the content of excess Pb in interfacial PZT layer due to the inhibition of inter-diffusion at film-substrate interface as well as defect formation. The formation of Ti-rich PZT at the initial stage of anneal due to excess Pb was responsible for the excellent ferroelectric characteristic. This implied that the role of excess Pb in film-substrate interface was of significance to the long-term reliability.

  17. STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF POLED PZT SUBJECTED TO BIAXIAL FLEXURAL LOADING IN HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Failure of poled PZT has been experimentally studied using ball-on-ring (BoR) biaxial flexure strength tests with an electric field concurrently applied. The as-received and aged PZTs were tested in high electric fields of -3 to 4 times the coercive field. Both the sign and the magnitude of electric field had a significant effect on the strength of poled PZT. A surface flaw type with a depth of around 18 m was identified as the strength limiter and responsible for the failure of the tested PZT. With a value of 0.76 MPa m1/2 in the open circle condition, the fracture toughness of the poled PZT was affected by an applied electric field just as the strength was affected. These results and observations have the potential to serve probabilistic reliability analysis and design optimization of multilayer PZT piezo actuators.

  18. Detrital Zircon Geochronology Applied to Basin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    During the past ~15 years, detrital zircon geochronology has developed into a powerful tool for analyzing sedimentary features and processes. One of the most common applications is to use the ages of the youngest detrital zircons in a sample to constrain the maximum age of deposition. In an ideal case, for example in a region with active volcanism, the youngest zircon grains would have crystallized immediately prior to deposition and the lag time between crystallization and deposition is negligible. Such ages provide opportunities for reconstructing the chrono-stratigraphy of a sedimentary sequence, and establishing the chrono-correlation of sedimentary units and surfaces across broad regions. Most sedimentary units also yield detrital zircon grains that significantly predate deposition (because of the extreme durability of zircon). The ages of these grains provide a fingerprint (or chrono-facies) that can be used for comparison of sedimentary units. Such comparisons have traditionally been based on the presence/absence of age populations, but with larger data sets it is becoming possible to determine proportions of ages in a robust fashion, and thereby compare strata much more quantitatively. Common methodology for conducting these types of analyses is to determine ages for several hundred detrital zircon grains from each sample, with random selection of grains to generate a robust age distribution. If necessary, additional analyses are conducted on "young-looking" grains to improve precision on the max depo age. Such analyses commonly yield max depo ages that are reliable to 1-2%. Determining whether a max depo age approximates true depo age commonly requires geologic arguments (e.g., presence of volcanic lithic fragments, size/shape of the youngest zircon crystals, order of youngest ages in a sedimentary sequence). In addition to these chronologic applications, detrital zircon ages provide powerful tools for determining provenance, reconstructing dispersal pathways (commonly involving episodes of recycling), characterizing source regions, establishing connections between drainage areas and offshore basins, and evaluating reservoir characteristics.

  19. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  20. Ices in Titan's Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of Cassini CIRS far-infrared limb spectra of Titan at 15N, 15S, and 58S reveal a broad emission feature between 70 and 270/cm, restricted to altitudes between 60 and 100 km. This emission feature is chemically different from Titan's photochemical aerosol, which has an emission feature peak around 145 cm-1. The shape of the observed broad emission feature resembles a mixture of the solid component of the two most abundant nitrites in Titan's stratosphere, that of HCN and HC3N. Following the saturation vapor pressure vertical profiles of HCN and HC3N, the 60 to 100 km altitude range corresponds closely to the vertical location where these nitriles are expected to condense out and form small, suspended ice particles. This is the first time ices in Titan's stratosphere have been identified at latitudes south of 50N. Results and physical implications will be discussed.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  2. Anatomy of a low temperature zircon outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Duncan C.; Dempster, Tim J.; Lee, Martin R.; Brown, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Outgrowths of zircon and xenotime are abundant on detrital zircon in a greenschist facies regional metamorphic slate from the Scottish Highlands. Back-scattered electron images reveal that ca. 3-μm wide zircon outgrowths are porous, inclusion-rich and contain fine-grained intergrowths with xenotime. Focused ion beam milling, transmission electron microscopy and low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy show that the outgrowth microstructure is complex, composed of mis-orientated nano-crystalline zircon and a poorly crystalline zircon-xenotime complex. Well-defined micron-sized xenotime is also present within the outgrowth. Micro-textures show that the outgrowth developed in a polyphase history during cooling and exhumation. Accommodation space for the outgrowth is probably generated by a combination of thermal decompaction and the migration of defects in adjacent quartz driven by the force of crystallisation. Zircon may be unique in its ability to record textural evidence of events during uplift and exhumation that are not recorded in major silicate phases.

  3. Titan atmospheric models intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernot, P.

    2008-09-01

    Several groups over the world have developed independently models of the photochemistry of Titan. The Cassini mission reveals daily that the chemical complexity is beyond our expectations e. g. observation of heavy positive and negative ions..., and the models are updated accordingly. At this stage, there is no consensus on the various input parameters, and it becomes increasingly difficult to compare outputs form different models. An ISSI team of experts of those models will be gathered shortly to proceed to an intercomparison, i.e. to assess how the models behave, given identical sets of inputs (collectively defined). Expected discrepancies will have to be elucidated and reduced. This intercomparison will also be an occasion to estimate explicitly the importance of various physicalchemical processes on model predictions versus observations. More robust and validated models are expected from this study for the interpretation of Titanrelated data.

  4. The thermosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedson, A. J.; Yung, Y. L.

    1984-01-01

    The vertical structure of Titan's thermosphere is calculated down to the mesopause as a function of local time based on Voyager 1 occultation data. The thermal time scales that characterize the diurnal behavior of the thermosphere are discussed, the input model atmosphere used to calculate the temperature profile is presented, and the dominant heating and cooling mechanisms in the thermosphere are examined. The temperature profiles obtained by integrating the heat transfer equation with and without electron heating are presented and discussed. The implications that derived exospheric temperatures have for the neutral hydrogen torus are investigated. The diurnal exospheric temperature is unlikely to exceed 225 K, averages between 187 and 197 K, and has a variational amplitude of 28 K or less. The vertical extent of the hydrogen cloud is too large to be explained in terms of simple thermal escape of hydrogen from the exosphere.

  5. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. The crust of a planet of the Earth group is formed at the outer edge of the body. The planets after asteroid belt like Jupiter or Saturn probably form their “crusts” in the centre of the body. Due to we may see internal kitchen of element forming in detail. This processes lead to the organic life, which we may detect at the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. But their satellites look like earth planet group - with outer crust. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. “Huygens” helps find life on Titan

  6. Methane rain on Titan

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Courtin, R.; Ackerman, T.P.

    1988-08-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is characterized by means of model computations based on Voyager IRIS IR spectra and published data from laboratory determinations of absorption coefficients and cloud refractive indices. The results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is pointed out that the presence of Ar is not required in the model. Particular attention is given to the role of CH4, which is found to form patchy clouds (with particle radii of 50 microns or greater and visible/IR optical depths of 2-5) at altitudes up to about 30 km. The mechanisms by which such rain-sized particles could form are discussed, and it is suggested that the observed 500-600/cm spectrum is affected much less by the CH4 clouds than by H2 or variations in the temperature of the high-altitude haze. 42 references.

  7. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.

  8. Crack detection of railway turnouts using PZT sensors (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yiqing; Li, Z. G.; Wu, F.

    2014-05-01

    Railway turnouts (railroad switches) are the weakest components of a rail track system. Cracks may occur in the railway turnouts due to cyclic loadings and impact loadings imposed by passing trains. It is of great significance to continuously monitor the health condition of the railway turnouts and promptly detect crack once it initiates. It is well-known that acoustic emission (AE) signals are generated when a crack initiates and propagates. Detecting the high-frequency AE signals by piezoelectric sensors can help identify the crack and its location. This paper reports the design and implementation of a PZT-based system for crack monitoring of railway turnouts. This online monitoring system is activated for signal collection by a trigger system when a train is arriving to pass through the instrumented railway turnout. It mainly detects the AE signals generated when a crack initiates during the train passage or when the initiated crack expands during the passage of a heavy haul wagon. This system has been installed on a railroad line for over one year and has successfully detected the damage occurring at a railroad switch during its service period. This paper also briefs a guided-wave-based system for monitoring of micro-cracks in rail tracks by integrating FBG and PZT sensors.

  9. Poling process optimization of piezo nano composite PZT/polimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridlo, M. Rosyid; Lestari, Titik; Mardiyanto, Oemry, Achiar

    2013-09-01

    The objective of poling process is to make the electric dipole directions to be parallel in the inside perovskite crystal of piezo materials. In simply way, poling was carried out by giving the two sides of a piezo material by highly electrical potential. More parallel of electrical dipoles, it is more strength the piezo characteristics. The optimization involved control of temperature, time depth and the electrical voltage. The samples was prepared by solgel method with precursor tetrabutyl titanat Ti(OC4H9)4, zirconium nitrat Zr(NO3)4ṡ5H2O, Pb(CH3COO)2ṡ3H2O and solution ethylene glycol. Molar ratio Pb:Zr:Ti = 1,1:0,52:0,48 with concidering lossed Pb. Result of solgel process is nano powder PZT. The formed nano powder PZT was then mixed with polimer PVDF and pressed 10 MPa at 150 °C with the size 15 mm in diameter. After poling, piezoelectric constant d33 was measured. The highest d33 = 45 pC/N was found at poling parameters V = 5 kV/ mm, T = 120 °C dan time depth = 1 hours.

  10. A biaxial PZT optical scanner for pico-projector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, K.; Koyama, T.; Saito, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Toshiyoshi, H.

    2015-02-01

    We report a newly developed two-dimensional MEMS optical scanner based on the ADRIP (Arc Discharge Reactive Ion-Plating) deposited piezoelectric PZT film of typical 4 μm. A circular mirror of 1.2 mm in diameter is suspended within a pair of resonant mechanism that oscillates at 25 kHz for ±12° mechanical angle with a typical voltage of 10 V. A gimbal plate including the mirror is supported with another pair of meandering suspensions to tilt the plate in the orthogonal direction at 60 Hz for the off-resonant vertical motion of ±8° mechanical. Overall power consumption of the piezoelectric actuation was 100 mW or less. As a mechanical reinforce, a rib-structure was designed on the backside of the mirror by using a structural optimization tool TOSCA to suppress the dynamic curvature to 100 nm or less. A piezoelectric sensor was also integrated in the identical PZT film after optimizing the electrode shape to pick up the mechanical angle of the scanner and to give a trigger signal to the control system. A plug-in type pico-projector optics and electronics has been assembled in a 7.5 cm × 12 cm × 5 cm volume with RGB lasers to demonstrate a HD (high definition) class image projection of 720 horizontal lines. The fundamental resonance of the entire scanner mechanism was made to be 1 kHz or higher, thereby exhibiting a compatibility with vehicle applications.

  11. From Titan's chemistry and exobiology to Titan's astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, François

    2015-04-01

    When the IDS proposal « Titan's chemistry and exobiology » was submitted to ESA 25 years ago, in the frame of what will become the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan was already seen as a quite interesting planetary object in the solar system for Exobiology. Several organic compounds of prebiotic interest were identified in its atmosphere, which was thus was expected to be chemically very active, especially in term of organic processes. Atmospheric aerosols seemed to play a key role in this chemistry. Moreover, the presence of an internal aqueous ocean, compatible with life was suspected. A few years later, when astrobiology was (re)invented, Titan became one of the most interesting planetary target for this new (but very similar to exobiology) field. With the Cassini-Huygens mission, the exo/astrobiological interest of Titan has become more and more important. However, the mission has been providing a vision of Titan quite different from what it was supposed. Its atmospheric organic chemistry is very complex and starts in much higher zones than it was believed before, involving high molecular weight species in the ionosphere. Titan's surface appears to be far from homogeneous: instead of been covered by a global methane-ethane ocean, it is very diversified, with dunes, lakes, bright and dark areas, impact and volcanic craters with potential cryovolcanic activity. These various geological areas are continuously feeded by atmospheric aerosols, which represent an important step in the complexity of Titan's organic chemistry, but probably not the final one. Indeed, after being deposited on the surface, in the potential cryovolvanic zones, these particles may react with water ice and form compounds of exo/astrobiological interest, such as amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases. Moreover, The Cassini-Huygens data strongly support the potential presence of an internal water ocean, which becomes less and less hypothetical and of great interest for exobiology. These various exobiological aspects of Titan, revealed from Cassini-Huygens observations, especially from the data of the Huygens instruments, coupled to laboratory works, both experimental simulations and modeling, will be quickely reviewed and summarized. References : Raulin, F. (2008), Astrobiology and habitability of Titan, Space Science Reviews 135 (1-4), 37-48 ; Raulin, F. et al. (2012), Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393 Acknowledgement: Supports from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the French Space Agency (CNES) is deeply acknowledged.

  12. Internal structures of zircons from Archaean granites from the Darling Range batholith: implications for zircon stability and the interpretation of zircon U-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Hitchen, G. J.

    Internal structures in zircons from granitoids from the late Archaean Darling Range Batholith show secondary features revealed by HF etching, which record reconstitution of the zircons and modification of the distribution of trace elements during post crystallisation cooling of the granitoid. Zircons from the granites commonly contain unzoned to weakly zoned cores surrounded by rims showing oscillatory zoning which has been modified by recrystallisation. The most striking feature is the development of high trace element concentration areas found in zircons from a number of granites. These structures range from enhanced trace element concentrations in primary zones to a single accumulation of most trace elements in one band, about half way between the outer edge and the centre of the zircon. In any zircon the extent of the concentration of trace elements towards the formation of a single trace element band appears to be inversely related to the fading and broadening of primary oscillatory zones in the outer rim. This suggests that the trace element bands formed by migration of trace elements from the outer primary zones to new concentration sites on an inner set of primary zones. This explanation is supported by the formation of multiple curved trace element bands that transgress primary zoning and the determination of younger SHRIMP ages on depleted zircon outer rims compared to remnant primary oscillatory zoned areas of the zircon and unzoned centres. Also observed in some granite zircons is a finely convoluted zoning which overprints oscillatory zoning in parts of a zoned zircon and in rare cases occurs throughout the zircon. This structure is explained in terms of secondary migration and reconcentration of trace elements in curved bands. All structures can be transgressed by generally rounded lobes and patches of low U, weakly nebulously zoned zircon. This is interpreted as a late stage interaction between the zircon and fluids formed during cooling and crystallisation of the granitoid, resulting in recrystallisation of affected parts of the zircon with accompanying loss of trace elements from the zircon.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Disordered Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin

    2004-02-27

    The melting of zircon and the amorphous state produced by quenching from the melt were simulated by molecular dynamics using a new partial charge model combined with the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential. The model has been established for the description of the crystalline and aperiodic structures of zircon in order to be used for the simulation of displacement cascades. It provides an excellent fit to the structure, and accounts with convenient precision the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of zircon. The calculated melting temperature is about 2100 K. The activation energy for self-diffusion of ions in the liquid state was determined to be 190-200 kJ/mole. Melt quenching was employed to produce two different disordered states with distinct densities and structures. In the high density disordered state, the zircon structure is intact but the bond angle distributions are broader, 4% of the Si units are polymerized, and the volume swelling is about 8%. In the low density amorphous state, the Zr and Si coordination numbers are lower, and the Zr-O and Si-O bond lengths are shorter than corresponding values for the crystal. In addition, a highly polymerized Si network, with average connectivity of two, is observed in the low density amorphous state. These features have all been experimentally observed in natural metamict zircon. The present findings, when considered in light of experimental radiation effects studies, suggest that the swelling in zircon arises initially from disorder in the zircon crystal, and at high doses the disordered crystal is unable to accommodate the volume expansion and transforms to the amorphous state.

  14. The Surface Composition of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. N.; Pearson, N.; Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barnes, J. W.; Jaumann, R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Rodriguez, S.; Le Mouelic, S.; Lunine, J.; Sotin, C.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Nicholson, P. D.; Nelson, R.; Stephan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the surface composition of Titan has been inhibited by the lack of spectral properties of potential compounds. We have measured the 0.35 to 5-micron spectral reflectance of a wide range of compounds that might be relevant to Titan and trends are now coming to light with possible spectral matches for classes of materials. While some compounds have been identified and mapped on Titan's surface, such as liquid ethane + methane lakes and benzene, the compounds responsible for the main spectral properties have remained elusive (Clark et al, JGR 2010). Titan's surface is seen in the near infrared in only a few spectral windows, near 0.94, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 2.0, 2.68-2.78, and 4.9-5.1 microns in the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) spectral range. At shorter wavelengths, UV absorption in the spectra of Titan's haze constrains the surface composition because haze particles settle onto Titan's surface. The average apparent reflectance in the IR windows generally decreases with increasing wavelength except for the 2.7 and 5-micron windows which are at similar levels. The decrease has led researchers to infer a number of compounds responsible for the observed decreasing spectral shape; the most common being water ice. But ice is incompatible with the 2.78/2.68 micron I/F ratio. Many organic compounds have absorptions that are not seen in spectra of Titan, eliminating them as possible major components at the surface, including many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) previously thought to be compatible with parts of Titan's spectrum. We find that ring compounds similar to benzene rings, but with some C-H bonds replaced by NH have a closer match to Titan's overall spectrum and can explain the relative intensities observed in the spectral windows, including the 2.68 and 2.78-micron double window, the low 3-5 micron reflectance, and increased absorption near 2.1-microns. Key among these compounds that show general properties that match Titan are Cytosine (C4H5N3O), Uracil (C4H4N2O2), Guanine (C5H5N5O), and Adenine (C5H5N5). These compounds are the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA. If these compounds can be confirmed to be on Titan, their formation pathways may have implications for the formation of life. Other compounds that match features in Titan's spectra include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene, consisting of 6 benzene rings. Coronene is also a naturally occurring mineral on Earth, known as karpatite. Combinations of coronene, phenanthene (C14H12), pentacene (C22H14), indole (C8H7N), Cytosine, Uracil, Guanine, and Adenine match the overall spectral structure of Titan spectra. Indole, Cytosine, and Uracil, have 1.5-micron bands that can explain the feature observed in DISR spectra of Titan's surface. These compounds can also help explain the pyrolysis results from the Huygens probe.

  15. Mapping of Titan: Results from the first Titan radar passes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.; Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Ostro, S.; Janssen, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    The first two swaths collected by Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper were obtained in October of 2004 (Ta) and February of 2005 (T3). The Ta swath provides evidence for cryovolcanic processes, the possible occurrence of fluvial channels and lakes, and some tectonic activity. The T3 swath has extensive areas of dunes and two large impact craters. We interpret the brightness variations in much of the swaths to result from roughness variations caused by fracturing and erosion of Titan's icy surface, with additional contributions from a combination of volume scattering and compositional variations. Despite the small amount of Titan mapped to date, the significant differences between the terrains of the two swaths suggest that Titan is geologically complex. The overall scarcity of impact craters provides evidence that the surface imaged to date is relatively young, with resurfacing by cryovolcanism, fluvial erosion, aeolian erosion, and likely atmospheric deposition of materials. Future radar swaths will help to further define the nature of and extent to which internal and external processes have shaped Titan's surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Economical Nanoactuator Alternatives to Lead Zirconium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Elghoul, Gabe; Peters, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes using inexpensive commercially available ceramic capacitors as a substitute for the lead containing and relatively expensive PZT based nano actuators. A sample PZT actuator is compared with actuators made from both X5R and Y5V type ceramic dielectric capacitors using white light interferometry and a spectrometer. This work is useful in that it can provide nano-motion capability to budget constrained undergraduate and graduate level research laboratories. Additionally, unlike the PZT material the alternative ceramic materials do not contain lead which is needed to create products compliant with the European Rohs (Restriction On Hazardous Substances) initiative.

  17. Geochemical signatures and magmatic stability of terrestrial impact produced zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, Matthew M.; Harrison, T. Mark; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the role of impacts on early Earth has major implications to near surface conditions, but the apparent lack of preserved terrestrial craters > 2 Ga does not allow a direct sampling of such events. Ion microprobe U-Pb ages, REE abundances and Ti-in-zircon thermometry for impact produced zircon are reported here. These results from terrestrial impactites, ranging in age from ~ 35 Ma to ~ 2 Ga, are compared with the detrital Hadean zircon population from Western Australia. Such comparisons may provide the only terrestrial constraints on the role of impacts during the Hadean and early Archean, a time predicted to have a high bolide flux. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates an average of 773 °C for impact-produced zircon, ~ 100 °C higher than the average for Hadean zircon crystals. The agreement between whole-rock based zircon saturation temperatures for impactites and Ti-in-zircon thermometry (at aTiO2 = 1) implies that Ti-in-zircon thermometry record actual crystallization temperatures for impact melts. Zircon saturation modeling of Archean crustal rock compositions undergoing thermal excursions associated with the Late Heavy Bombardment predicts equally high zircon crystallization temperatures. The lack of such thermal signatures in the Hadean zircon record implies that impacts were not a dominant mechanism of producing the preserved Hadean detrital zircon record.

  18. Peculiarities of Electrical Characteristics of Ferroelectric Memory Elements Based on PZT-Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delimova, L. A.; Gushchina, E. V.; Yuferev, V. S.; Ratnikov, V. V.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Sharenkova, N. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Self-polarization directed from the top electrode to the bottom one is found in the ferroelectric Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor using the method of depolarizing hysteresis loops. We attribute the self-polarization to the flexoelectric effect caused by the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the bottom Pt film and PZT-film. This result is consistent with the measurements of photocurrent in the short-circuited structure that also indicate the presence of the downward polarization in the PZT-film.

  19. Radiation damage in zircon and monazite

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L.A.; Weber, W.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    Monazite and zircon respond differently to ion irradiation and to thermal and irradiation-enhanced annealing. The damage process (i.e., elastic interactions leading to amorphization) in radioactive minerals (metamictization) is basically the same as for the ion-beam-irradiated samples with the exception of the dose rate which is much lower in the case of natural samples. The crystalline-to-metamict transition in natural samples with different degrees of damage, from almost fully crystalline to completely metamict, is compared to the sequence of microstructures observed for ion-beam-irradiated monazite and zircon. The damage accumulation process, representing the competing effects of radiation-induced structural disorder and subsequent annealing mechanisms (irradiation-enhanced and thermal) occurs at much higher temperatures for zircon than for monazite. The amorphization dose, expressed as displacements per atom, is considerably higher in the natural samples, and the atomic-scale process leading to metamictization appears to develop differently. Ion-beam-induced amorphization data were used to calculate the {alpha}-decay-event dose required for amorphization in terms of a critical radionuclide concentration, i.e., the concentration above which a sample of a given age will become metamict at a specific temperature. This equation was applied to estimate the reliability of U-Pb ages, to provide a qualitative estimate of the thermal history of high-U natural zircons, and to predict whether actinide-bearing zircon or monazite nuclear waste forms will become amorphous (metamict) over long timescales.

  20. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7-+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from-2.3 to-4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins. PMID:27185575

  1. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  2. Physical properties of inorganic PMW-PNN-PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Sang-Hoon; Yoo, Ju-hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Baek, Sam-ki; Ha, Jun-Soo; No, Chung-Han; Song, Hyun-Seon; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2015-07-01

    In this work, inorganic Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)0.03(Ni1/3Nb2/3)x(Zr0.5Ti0.5)0.97-xO3 (x = 0.02 ∼ 0.12) composition ceramics were fabricated by the conventional solid state reaction method. And then their micro structure and ferroelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of PNN substitution. Small amounts of Li2CO3 and CaCO3 were used in order to decrease the sintering temperature of the ceramics. The 0.10 mol PNN-substituted PMW-PNN- PZT ceramics sintered at 920°C showed the excellent physical properties of piezoelectric constant (d33), electromechanical coupling factor (kp), mechanical quality coefficient (Qm), and dielectric constant of 566 pC/N, 0.61, 73, and 2183, respectively.

  3. The dynamic meteorology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    1998-10-01

    Current understanding of Titans atmospheric circulation and thermal structure is reviewed. Knowledge of Titans zonal winds derives from temperatures retrieved from Voyager infrared measurements and geopotential heights retrieved from stellar occultation observations. The inferred stratospheric winds are cyclostrophic, like those of Venus. Radiative response times are long in the lower troposphere, but decline to values small compared to a season in the upper stratosphere. Given Titans effective obliquity of 27°, stratospheric temperatures and zonal winds should vary seasonally, requiring a cross-equatorial Lagrangian circulation to transport angular momentum and heat to maintain the thermal wind balance. Atmospheric waves may play an important role in transporting and depositing angular momentum, but they are as yet constrained by few observations. General circulation models of Titans winds are still in their infancy, but suggest much of the troposphere must be stably stratified, so that the cyclostrophic zonal winds aloft are isolated from surface drag. The vertical structure of temperature, above the lowest 4 km, is consistent with a radiatively balanced atmosphere. However, moist convection could still be very efficient, and updrafts covering only <10 -4 of the surface area can balance the flux of sunlight absorbed at the surface. The review concludes with a summary of the meteorological capabilities of the scientific payload of Cassini-Huygens, providing observations of winds, temperatures, and composition that should transform ones conceptual understanding of Titans atmospheric circulation and thermal structure.

  4. Probing Titan's Atmosphere with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serigano, J., IV; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Teanby, N. A.; Palmer, M.; Milam, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Achterberg, R. K.; Kuan, Y. J.; Kisiel, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. Previously, observatories such as the Sub Millimeter Array (SMA) and IRAM (30-m and Plateau de Bure Interferometer) have demonstrated the detection of molecules such as CO, HCN, HC3N and CH3CN in Titan's atmosphere, allowing the determination of vertical abundance gradients, and isotopic ratios of 13C/12C, 15N/14N and 18O/16O. More recently, the Herschel observatory made the first detection of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) in Titan's atmosphere. However, to date all these observations have not resolved Titan's disk, and measured only disk-averaged abundances. ALMA changes this picture dramatically, since the full ALMA will eventually achieve a resolution of 0.004" at the shortest wavelengths, compared to Titan's angular size of 0.800". We will discuss early Titan science using ALMA, including the re-observation of species seen previously by SMA, IRAM and Herschel, and the search for new species and isotopes. We will also show the capability of ALMA to spatially map the emissions of stronger molecular species, and measure winds by using resolved spectral line profiles.

  5. Mass determination of hypervelocity microparticles using a piezoelectric PZT element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Kawachi, Yuya; Shibata, Hiromi; Okudaira, Osamu; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakamura, Maki; Iwai, Takeo; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    A mass observed with a piezoelectric element is discussed using hypervelocity particles accel-erated by the Van de Graaff accelerator. Since the response of the PZT element is velocity-dependent, the particle mass can be derived using calibration formulas that depend on the velocity. When the velocity during collision exceeds 20 km/s, the piezoelectric element produces a pulsed signal. Then, the rise time and the amplitude of the pulsed signal are well correlated. If the rise time and the amplitude are measured pair off, the response to the collision is classified into three groups [1]. If the calibration formulas can be established in each group, the mass is determined. Let define the deviation by (1) (mm-m0)/m0 (1) where mm is the mass value obtained using the calibration formulas of each group and m0 is that by the time of flight method, respectively. The deviation distributes like a Gaussian form. The mass can be reproduced within 40 When the velocity is less than 10 km/s, the output is of a characteristic form, with which the collision time is exactly determined. The amplitude is subject not only to the particle momentum p but also to the charge q of particle. Then, the PZT element is sensitive to q before the particle arrives at the element during flight time t, if q ∼ 50 fC. Since the sensitive distance d is calibrated with respect to q, the velocity v and the mass m are obtained; v = d /t, and m = p/v. The deviation defined by (1) distributes like a Gaussian form. The mass can be reproduced described above. Reference [1] T.Miyachi et al., submitted for publication in Adv. Space Res.

  6. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  7. Structure of Titan's evaporites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Cornet, T.; Barnes, J. W.; MacKenzie, S. M.; Le Bahers, T.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Rannou, P.; Ferreira, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    Numerous geological features that could be evaporitic in origin have been identified on the surface of Titan. Although they seem to be water-ice poor, their main properties - chemical composition, thickness, stratification - are essentially unknown. In this paper, which follows on a previous one focusing on the surface composition (Cordier, D., Barnes, J.W., Ferreira, A.G. [2013b]. Icarus 226(2),1431-1437), we provide some answers to these questions derived from a new model. This model, based on the up-to-date thermodynamic theory known as "PC-SAFT", has been validated with available laboratory measurements and specifically developed for our purpose. 1-D models confirm the possibility of an acetylene and/or butane enriched central layer of evaporitic deposit. The estimated thickness of this acetylene-butane layer could explain the strong RADAR brightness of the evaporites. The 2-D computations indicate an accumulation of poorly soluble species at the deposit's margin. Among these species, HCN or aerosols similar to tholins could play a dominant role. Our model predicts the existence of chemically trimodal "bathtub rings" which is consistent with what it is observed at the south polar lake Ontario Lacus. This work also provides plausible explanations to the lack of evaporites in the south polar region and to the high radar reflectivity of dry lakebeds.

  8. Fabrication of Barium Zirconate Coated Crucibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wayne

    2000-05-01

    Erb et al. have shown that barium zirconate crucibles are inert to the YBCO molten flux during the crystal growth process. Since these crucibles are not commercially available and they are costly and time-consuming to fabricate, a barium zirconate coating process on inexpensive and commerically available crucibles was developed to replicate the properties of actual barium zirconate crucibles. Specifically, the coating process entailed barium zirconium isopropoxide being painted onto an alumina crucible and a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) crucible. Then the alumina crucible was fired at 1385 degrees Celcius for 53 hours and the YSZ crucible was fired at 1200 degrees Celsius for 24 hours. After the firing process, crystals were grown in these coated crucibles. The crystals were analyzed with the SQUID magnetometer to determine the transition temperature and with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the crystal composition.

  9. Is titan wet or dry?

    PubMed

    Eshleman, V R; Lindal, G F; Tyler, G L

    1983-07-01

    Titan's dense and cold nitrogen atmosphere contains a small amount of methane under conditions at least approaching those at which one or both constituents would condense. The possibility of methane and nitrogen rain clouds and global methane oceans has been discussed widely. From specific features of radio occultation and other Voyager results, however, it is concluded that nitrogen does not condense on Titan and that Titan has neither global methane oceans nor a global cloud of liquid methane droplets. Certain results indirectly support the conjecture that methane does not condense at any location. However, other considerations favor a methane ice haze high in the troposphere, and liquid and solid methane might exist on the surface and as low clouds at polar latitudes. PMID:17738013

  10. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

  11. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  12. Formation and Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena

    2005-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Titans enigmatic atmosphere is reviewed. Starting with the present-day volatile inventory, the question of what was the original composition on Titan and how a satellite of similar size to other Galilean moons managed to acquire and hold on to the required material is discussed. In particular the possible sources and sinks of the main mother molecules (nitrogen, methane and oxygen) are investigated in view of the most recent models and laboratory experiments. The answers expected to be provided by the instruments aboard the Cassini-Huygens mission to some of the most prominent current questions regarding Titans atmosphere are defined.

  13. Trace Elements in Young Oceanic Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, A.; Hellebrand, E.; Whitehouse, M.; Cannat, M.

    2006-12-01

    Zircon is a common accessory minerals in gabbroic rocks collected from the ocean floor. We obtained in-situ U-Pb ages and REE compositions of well-documented (BSE, color-CL imaging) zircons from three locations: MARK area (ODP Leg 153: 4 samples, 12 grains), MAR 15.20N area (Faranaut: 2 samples, 8 grains), and the Ascension double FZ near MAR 7S (2 samples, 3 grains). In contrast to previous studies that extracted the zircons from hand-picked mineral separates, we only used zircons found in-situ, within polished petrographic thin sections, in order to avoid contamination. The zircons are medium to coarse grained, exceeding 1 mm. They are generally subhedral to perfectly euhedral in shape, and appear homogeneous in BSE images. Color-CL reveals a dominant sector zoning in dark and bright blueish-grey. Within the individual sectors, a fine oscillatory zoning can be generally resolved as well. Few complex grains have several agglomerated nuclei, but are overgrown to form a single euhedral grain. All near-ridge zircons have low-U and yield ages of approx. 1 Ma and younger. This is in contrast with paleozoic-proterozoic ages reported on similar samples from the same locations, which may have resulted from contamination during sample preparation. Due to the low-U concentrations and their young age, differences between individual zones could not be resolved, consistent with forming a single trend in Th/U. The REE patterns of all samples are very similar: low LREE and very high (up to 7000x CI-chondrite) HREE with pronounced positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies, as is common for crustal zircons growing after significant plagioclase crystallization. Their absolute REE abundances are bimodal. The CL-bright sectors have a factor 2 to 3 times lower REE concentrations than the associated darker sectors. Average CL-dark zones from all samples are chemically virtually indistinguishable. Significant core-rim zoning is absent. These features are consistent with a cumulate-type origin from nearly identical highly evolved melts. This seems very fortuitous and counterintuitive, since this would require large melt volumes, that would not change composition during zircon formation.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thin-Film on Bulk Micromachined Si Motion Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, P.; Garino, T.J.; Laguna, G.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-01-07

    Motion detectors consisting of Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub (1{minus}x)})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films, between platinum electrodes, on micromachined silicon compound clamped-clamped or cantilever beam structures were fabricated using either hot KOH or High Aspect Ratio Silicon Etching (HARSE) to micromachine the silicon. The beams were designed such that a thicker region served as a test mass that produced stress at the top of the membrane springs that supported it when the object to which the detector was mounted moved. The PZT film devices were placed on these membranes to generate a charge or a voltage in response to the stress through the piezoelectric effect. Issues of integration of the PZT device fabrication process with the two etching processes are discussed. The effects of PZT composition and device geometry on the response of the detectors to motion is reported and discussed.

  15. Micro-Machined High-Frequency (80 MHz) PZT Thick Film Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a micro-machined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT solgel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (−6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of −41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of −21 dB were found at the center frequency. PMID:20889407

  16. Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

  17. Enhanced Output Power of PZT Nanogenerator by Controlling Surface Morphology of Electrode.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Lee, Won-Hee; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric power generation using Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) nanowires grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3(nb:STO) substrate has been demonstrated. The epitaxial PZT nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal method, with a diameter and length of approximately 300 nm and 7 μm, respecively, were vertically aligned on the substrate. An embossed Au top electrode was applied to maximize the effective power generation area for non-uniform PZT nanowires. The PZT nanogenerator produced output power density of 0.56 μW/cm2 with a voltage of 0.9 V and current of 75 nA. This research suggests that the morphology control of top electrode can be useful to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric power generation. PMID:26726616

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLED SINGLE-LAYER PZT FOR PIEZO STACK IN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2010-01-01

    Poled single-layer PZT has been characterized in as-extracted and as-received states. PZT plate specimens in the former were extracted from a stack. Flexure strength of PZT was evaluated by using ball-on-ring and 4-point bend tests. Fractography showed that intergranular fractures dominated the fracture surface and that volume pores were the primary strength-limiting flaws. The electric field effect was investigated by testing the PZT in open circuit and coercive field levels. An asymmetrical response on the biaxial flexure strength with respect to the electric field direction was observed. These experimental results will assist reliability design of the piezo stack that is being considered in fuel injection system.

  19. Active buckling control of smart plate as diaphragm with PZT5 sensor/actuator patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viliani, N. S.; Pourrostami, H.; Mostafavi, S. M.; Hashemizadeh, F.; Safian, M. R.; Hashemi, M.

    2014-12-01

    In current study, buckling analyses of smart plate is presented. The various types of piezoelectric materials are under investigation for petrochemical industry and other applications. The PZT sensor output is used to determine the input to the PZT actuator using the feedback control algorithm for buckling control of FG plate. This study investigated the governing differential equations of motion of smart plate which includes FG plate as the membrane and PZT5 patches as actuator and sensor. The Fourier series method adopted to obtain the solution for the equation of motion. Also the effects of feedback gain and FGM volume fraction exponent on the critical buckling load for PZT-5A are studied. The potential application of current study can be found in optimal design of sensor's diaphragm. The variation of critical buckling load vs. feedback gain indicates that by increasing the feedback gain, the buckling load increases.

  20. Airflow energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films by self-excited vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, E.; Tsujiura, Y.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    We developed self-excited vibration energy harvesters of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films using airflow. To enhance the self-excited vibration, we used 30-μm-thick stainless steel (SS304) foils as base cantilevers on which PZT thin films were deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering. To compensate for the initial bending of PZT/SS304 unimorph cantilever due to the thermal stress, we deposited counter PZT thin films on the back of the SS304 cantilever. We evaluated power-generation performance and vibration mode of the energy harvester in the airflow. When the angle of attack (AOA) was 20° to 30°, large vibration was generated at wind speeds over 8 m/s. By FFT analysis, we confirmed that stable self-excited vibration was generated. At the AOA of 30°, the output power reached 19 μW at wind speeds of 12 m/s.

  1. Electrical Properties of Tetragonal-PZT Thin Film Capacitors from 5 K to 300 K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, D. R.; Evans, J. T.; Chapman, S. P.

    2015-03-01

    Rapid assessment of ferroelectric device characteristics is critical to improving ferroelectric materials processing as well as developing accurate ferroelectric device models. Here, we demonstrate automated electrical testing of thin PZT and Nb-doped PZT thin film devices at temperatures ranging from 300 K down to 5 K in a cryogenic probing environment. In this configuration, temperature-dependent dielectric constant, remanent polarization, coercive voltage, switching speed, and leakage are measured in a single pass on a single sample. From these measurements, it appears that tetragonal PZT does not have a phase boundary from room temperature down to 5 K. Retention tests conducted on several capacitors while transitioning from room temperature to 200 K, 100 K, and 6.5 K showed no loss of remanent polarization indicating 20/80 PZT and its niobium-doped cousins remain fully functional as memory devices down to 5 K.

  2. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    Methane CH4 is the only highly reactive and short-lived background component in Titan's atmosphere, so its overall reserve predetermines both features and duration of atmospheric chemical activity. Titan's global chemical activity is considered in terms of methane cycle. One cycle is defined as a period T0=7.0.1014s of complete photochemical destruction of methane's observable atmospheric content CH04 = 2.33.1017 kg. Cycle duration T0, number of the past NP =200±20, future NF =500±50 and total Nmax=NP+NF =700±70 cycles are the main quantitative indices of the global chemical activity [2]. The fact that the period T0 is much less than Titan's lifetime TT =1.42*1017s implies that the current content CH04 is continuously replenishing by methane global circulation. There are two sources of this replenishment, i.e. the outgassing of primordial methane reserve trapped in Titan's interior as the clathrate, and the (sub)ground liquidphase reduction of non-saturated final products of the atmospheric photochemical process. Internal reserve provides the dominant portion (>95%) of general recycling, while reducing reconversion is the minor constituent of the global balance. Yet, there is the problem of the availability of the off-the-shelf trapped methane. Overall admissible stock of the trapped methane depends on its internal allocation and falls in the range (CH4)max1,2=(15.3÷33.3).1020 kg, while continuous atmospheric activity during the whole Titan's life TSun 5.0.1017s needs only (CH4)crit=(CH04 ).Nmax = .(CH4)max 1.65.1020 kg. In turn, this bulk (CH4)crit depends on the clathrate cage-filling efficiency (molecular packing index) {kg CH4/kg clathrate} and can be provided if equals respectively to [1] crit1= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max1] = 5.45.10-3 crit2= (TSun/T0).[(CH4)0/[(CH4)max2] = 2.51.10-3 Thus, the interrelation of overall trapped stock (CH4)max and crucial -values assigns the critical value (CH4)crit that in turn predetermines the very fate of Titan's veil. If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

  3. Titan and Enceladus mission (TANDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmosphere and surface has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini orbiter will continue to be operational for about 3 more years during its extended mission. After this mission, any unanswered questions will forever remain unknown, unless we go back with an optimized orbital tour and advanced instrumentation. Considering the complementary nature of the geological, chemical and evolutionary history of Titan and Enceladus, we propose to carry out studies for a mission to perform an in situ exploration of these two objects in tandem. In our proposal we determine key science measurements, the types of samples that would be needed and the instrument suites for achieving the science goals. In particular, we develop conceptual designs for delivering the science payload, including orbiters, aerial platforms and probes, and define a launch/delivery/communication management architecture. This mission will require new technologies and capabilities so that the science goals can be achieved within the cost cap and acceptable risks. International participation will play a key role in achieving all the science goals of this mission. We will build this mission concept around a central core of single orbiter, a single Titan aerial probe and a core group of category 1 instruments. Aerobraking with Titan's atmosphere will be given serious consideration to minimize resource requirements and risk. This approach will allow a single orbiter to be used for both Enceladus science and Titan science with final orbit around Titan and later release of aerial probe(s) into Titan's atmosphere. The Titan aerial probe may be a Montgolfière balloon concept that will use the waster heat ~ 1000 watts from a single RTG power system. There will be a release of penetrator(s) on Enceladus also. This proposal addresses directly several of the scientific questions highlighted in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call, particularly: 1.3 "Life and habitability in the Solar System" and 2.2 "The giant planets and their environments", but also 2.1 "From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". The suggested launch date is about or beyond 2020.

  4. Characterization of Bi and Fe co-doped PZT capacitors for FeRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Jeffrey S.; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Wada, Satoshi; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been in mass production for over 15 years. Higher polarization ferroelectric materials are needed for future devices which can operate above about 100 °C. With this goal in mind, co-doping of thin Pb(Zr40,Ti60)O3 (PZT) films with 1 at.% Bi and 1 at.% Fe was examined in order to enhance the ferroelectric properties as well as characterize the doped material. The XRD patterns of PZT-5% BiFeO3 (BF) and PZT 140-nm thick films showed (111) orientation on (111) platinized Si wafers and a 30 °C increase in the tetragonal to cubic phase transition temperature, often called the Curie temperature, from 350 to 380 °C with co-doping, indicating that Bi and Fe are substituting into the PZT lattice. Raman spectra revealed decreased band intensity with Bi and Fe co-doping of PZT compared to PZT. Polarization hysteresis loops show similar values of remanent polarization, but square-shaped voltage pulse-measured net polarization values of PZT-BF were higher and showed higher endurance to repeated cycling up to 1010 cycles. It is proposed that Bi and Fe are both in the +3 oxidation state and substituting into the perovskite A and B sites, respectively. Substitution of Bi and Fe into the PZT lattice likely creates defect dipoles, which increase the net polarization when measured by the short voltage pulse positive-up-negative-down (PUND) method.

  5. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2014-09-21

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}~55 μC/cm² obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290 K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ~123 emu/cm³. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  6. Design, fabrication and characterization of a bulk-PZT-actuated MEMS deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Bao-Qing; Feng, Yan; Chu, Jia-Ru

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a bulk-PZT-actuated MEMS deformable mirror (DM). An analytical model was employed to optimize the DM's structure. The fabrication techniques for PZT thick film actuators were also experimentally explored, including the bonding of bulk PZT ceramics and a silicon wafer by epoxy resin, and the thinning of the bulk PZT ceramics using a wet-etching method. A 10 × 10 array of 1.75 mm × 1.75 mm PZT thick film actuators was successfully fabricated. The PZT actuators showed a stroke of about 4.5 µm at 100 V. When a 36 µm thick silicon membrane mirror was assembled, the measured mirror deflection at 100 V was approximately 3.8 µm. The assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 21 kHz and an influence function of approximately 30%. The displacement hysteresis was greatly eliminated by using the method of staying on the same segment.

  7. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

    Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

    Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

    Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker.

    Smith's group used the Hubble Space Telescope's WideField/Planetary Camera 2 at near-infrared wavelengths (between .85 and 1.05 microns). Titan's haze is transparent enough in this wavelength range to allow mapping of surface features according to their reflectivity. Only Titan's polar regions could not be mapped this way, due to the telescope's viewing angle of the poles and the thick haze near the edge of the disk. Their image-resolution (that is, the smallest distance seen in detail) with the WFPC2 at the near-infrared wavelength is 360 miles. The 14 images processed and compiled into the Titan surface map were as 'noise' free, or as free of signal interference, as the space telescope allows, Smith said.

    Titan makes one complete orbit around Saturn in 16 days, roughly the duration of the imaging project. Scientists have suspected that Titan's rotation also takes 16 days, so that the same hemisphere of Titan always faces Saturn, just as the same hemisphere of the Earth's moon always faces the Earth. Recent observations by Lemmon and colleagues at the University of Arizona confirm this true.

    It's too soon to conclude much about what the dark and bright areas in the Hubble Space Telescope images are -- continents, oceans, impact craters or other features, Smith said. Scientists have long suspected that Titan's surface was covered with a global ehtane-methane ocean. The new images show that there is at least some solid surface.

    Smith's team made a total 50 images of Titan last month in their program, a project to search for small scale features in Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. They have yet to analyze images for information about Titan's clouds and winds. That analysis could help explain if the bright areas are major impact craters in the frozen water ice-and-rock or higher-altitude features.

    The images are important information for the Cassini mission, which is to launch a robotic spacecraft on a 7-year journey to Saturn in October 1997. About three weeks before Cassini's first flyby of Titan, the spacecraft is to release the European Space Agency's Huygens Probe to parachute to Titan's surface. Images like Smith's team has taken of Titan can be used to identify choice landing spots - - and help engineers and scientists understand how Titan's winds will blow the parachute through the satellite's atmosphere.

    UA scientists play major roles in the Cassini mission: Carolyn C. Porco, an associate professor at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, leads the 14-member Cassini Imaging Team. Jonathan I. Lunine, also an associate professor at the lab, is the only American selected by the European Space Agency to be on the three-member Huygens Probe interdisciplinary science team. Smith is a member of research professor Martin G. Tomasko's international team of scientists who will image the surface of Titan in visible light and in color with the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer, one of five instruments in the Huygens Probe's French, German, Italian and U.S. experiment payload. Senior research associate Lyn R. Doose is also on Tomasko's team. Lunine and LPL professor Donald M. Hunten are members of the science team for another U.S. instrument on that payload, the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Hunten was on the original Cassini mission science definition team back in 1983.

    PHOTO CAPTION: Four global projections of the HST Titan data, separated in longitude by 90 degrees. Upper left: hemisphere facing Saturn. Upper right: leading hemisphere (brightest region). Lower left: the hemisphere which never faces Saturn. Lower right: trailing hemisphere. Not that these assignments assume that the rotation is synchronous. The imaging team says its data strongly support this assumption -- a longer time baseline is needed for proof. The surface near the poles is never visible to an observer in Titan's equatorial plane because of the large optical path.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  8. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  9. The organic aerosols of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Arakawa, E. T.; Suits, F.; Calcott, T. A.; Williams, M. W.; Shrader, S.; Ogino, H.; Willingham, T. O.

    1986-01-01

    A dark reddish organic solid, called tholin, is synthesized from simulated Titanian atmospheres by irradiation with high energy electrons in a plasma discharge. The visible reflection spectrum of this tholin is found to be similar to that of high altitude aerosols responsible for the albedo and reddish color of Titan. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex refractive index of thin films of Titan prepared by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mb is determined from X-ray to microwave frequencies. Values of n (approx. 1.65) and k (approx. 0.004 to 0.08) in the visible are consistent with deductions made by groundbased and spaceborne observations of Titan. Many infrared absorption features are present in k(lambda), including the 4.6 micrometer nitrile band. Molecular analysis of the volatile components of this tholin was performed by sequential and nonsequential pyrolytic gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than one hundred organic compounds are released; tentative identifications include saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, substituted polycylic aromatics, nitriles, amines, pyrroles, pyrazines, pyridines, pyrimidines, and the purine, adenine. In addition,acid hydrolysis produces a racemic mixture of biological and nonbiological amino acids. Many of these molecules are implicated in the origin of life on Earth, suggesting Titan as a contemporary laboratory environment for prebiological organic chemistry on a planetary scale.

  10. Photoelectrical properties of strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedyk, A. I.; Semenov, A. A.; Pavlova, Yu. V.; Belyavskii, P. Yu.; Nikitin, A. A.; Pakhomov, O. V.; Myl'nikov, I. L.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of UV and visible radiations on the insulating properties of metal-insulator-metal structures based on single-crystalline strontium titanate is investigated. It is found that the capacitance of the structure stably grows under irradiation by light with a wavelength from the intrinsic absorption range both at low temperatures and at room temperature. Mechanisms underlying this effect are discussed.

  11. Ti-in-zircon thermometry: applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Page, F. Zeb; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Fournelle, John; Kita, Noriko T.; Lackey, Jade Star; Wilde, Simon A.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    The titanium concentrations of 484 zircons with U-Pb ages of ˜1 Ma to 4.4 Ga were measured by ion microprobe. Samples come from 45 different igneous rocks (365 zircons), as well as zircon megacrysts (84) from kimberlite, Early Archean detrital zircons (32), and zircon reference materials (3). Samples were chosen to represent a large range of igneous rock compositions. Most of the zircons contain less than 20 ppm Ti. Apparent temperatures for zircon crystallization were calculated using the Ti-in-zircon thermometer (Watson et al. 2006, Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:413-433) without making corrections for reduced oxide activities (e.g., TiO2 or SiO2), or variable pressure. Average apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures range from 500° to 850°C, and are lower than either zircon saturation temperatures (for granitic rocks) or predicted crystallization temperatures of evolved melts (˜15% melt residue for mafic rocks). Temperatures average: 653 ± 124°C (2 standard deviations, 60 zircons) for felsic to intermediate igneous rocks, 758 ± 111°C (261 zircons) for mafic rocks, and 758 ± 98°C (84 zircons) for mantle megacrysts from kimberlite. Individually, the effects of reduced a_{TiO2} or a_{SiO2}, variable pressure, deviations from Henry’s Law, and subsolidus Ti exchange are insufficient to explain the seemingly low temperatures for zircon crystallization in igneous rocks. MELTs calculations show that mafic magmas can evolve to hydrous melts with significantly lower crystallization temperature for the last 10-15% melt residue than that of the main rock. While some magmatic zircons surely form in such late hydrous melts, low apparent temperatures are found in zircons that are included within phenocrysts or glass showing that those zircons are not from evolved residue melts. Intracrystalline variability in Ti concentration, in excess of analytical precision, is observed for nearly all zircons that were analyzed more than once. However, there is no systematic change in Ti content from core to rim, or correlation with zoning, age, U content, Th/U ratio, or concordance in U-Pb age. Thus, it is likely that other variables, in addition to temperature and a_{TiO2}, are important in controlling the Ti content of zircon. The Ti contents of igneous zircons from different rock types worldwide overlap significantly. However, on a more restricted regional scale, apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures correlate with whole-rock SiO2 and HfO2 for plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith, averaging 750°C at 50 wt.% SiO2 and 600°C at 75 wt.%. Among felsic plutons in the Sierra, peraluminous granites average 610 ± 88°C, while metaluminous rocks average 694 ± 94°C. Detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia with ages from 4.4 to 4.0 Ga have apparent temperatures of 717 ± 108°C, which are intermediate between values for felsic rocks and those for mafic rocks. Although some mafic zircons have higher Ti content, values for Early Archean detrital zircons from a proposed granitic provenance are similar to zircons from many mafic rocks, including anorthosites from the Adirondack Mts (709 ± 76°C). Furthermore, the Jack Hills zircon apparent Ti-temperatures are significantly higher than measured values for peraluminous granites (610 ± 88°C). Thus the Ti concentration in detrital zircons and apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures are not sufficient to independently identify parent melt composition.

  12. Plutonium Stabilization in Zircon: Effects of Self-Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Begg, Bruce D.; Conradson, Steven D.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2000-07-10

    Zircon is the most thoroughly studied of all candidate ceramic phases for the stabilization of plutonium. Self-radiation damage from alpha-decay of the Pu can significantly affect the structure and properties of zircon. Two types of synthetic Pu-containing zircons, prepared in 1981, have provided an opportunity to characterize in detail the effects of Pu decay on the structure and properties of zircon and to make unique comparisons to observations of radiation effects in natural zircons. One set of zircon samples contained Pu-238; while the other set of samples contained Pu-239. In both instances, the Pu was substituted directly for Zr. The zircons containing Pu-238, with its 87.7 year half-life, provided a means of accelerating the alpha-decay rate by a factor of 250 when compared to the zircons containing Pu-239. Self-radiation from Pu decay in zircon results in the simultaneous accumulation of point defects and amorphous domains that eventually lead to a completely amorphous state. The swelling in zircon increases sigmoidally with dose and is well saturated at the highest dose. In all cases, the swelling can be accur-ately modeled based on the contributions from crystalline and amorphous components. Detailed X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods have characterized the short-range and long-range structures of each zircon type. The amorphous state of zircon is consistent with the loss of long-range order and edge-sharing relationships between silica and zirconia polyhedra. Despite this, a distorted zircon structure and stoichiometry, which consists of silica and zirconia polyhedra that have rotated relative to each other, is retained over length scales up to 0.5 nm. Atomic-scale computer simulations have also been used to study defect accumulation and amorphization in zircon. The simulation results for the amorphous fraction as a function of alpha-decay dose are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a lake.

  14. Nitrogen compounds in Titan's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Cirs Investigation Team

    Titan's atmosphere is essentially composed of molecular nitrogen (N2). The chemistry between the two mother molecules (N2 and CH4) leads to the formation of a certain number of nitriles observed in Titan's stratosphere as early as at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter in 1980. In the spectra taken by the Infrared Radiometer Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) the signatures of HCN, HC3N, C2N2 and C4N2 (in solid form) were found and reported. Subsequent observations from the ground better described the vertical profiles of these constituents and allowed for the detection of CH3CN (acetonitrile) in the mm range [3,4]. Recent data recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft during the Titan flybys (October 2004 - June 2006) give a handle on the temporal and latitudinal variations of these constituents. The nadir spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 75°N with a variety of emission angles. We study the emission observed in the mid-infrared CIRS detector arrays (covering roughly the 600-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1 ). The composite spectrum shows several molecular signatures of nitriles. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models [1,2,5]. The nitriles show a significant enhancement at high northern latitudes albeit not as marked as at the time of the Voyager encounter. We will give a review of our current understanding of the minor nitrile chemistry on Titan. References : [1] Coustenis et al., 2006. Icarus, in press. [2] Flasar et al., 2005. Science 308, 975. [3] Marten, A., et al., 2002, Icarus, 158, 532-544. [4] Marten, A. & Moreno, R., 2003. 35th Annual DPS Meeting, Monterey, Ca, BAAS, 35, 952. [5] Teanby et al., 2006. Icarus, 181, 243-255.

  15. Titan's Spectacular Volte-Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.

    2013-10-01

    Like Earth, Titan sports lakes, storms and rainfall. These features derive from a methane cycle, reminiscent of Earth's hydrological cycle; methane exists as an ice, liquid and gas and transfers between the surface and atmosphere, according to the seasonal weather. Titan's seasons contrast Earth’s. Imagine a summer trip to 70 latitude, where hurricane-sized storms burst forth out of a clear sky every few months for about 15 years. Then they vanish for another 15 years. Envision a trip to the winter polar region. Here the sky is perhaps clear except that the high haze, which filters sunlight like a translucent globe, is somewhat thicker than it is in the summer. Imperceptibly, you are blocking the diffuse organic matter, which is slowly settling out of the hazy orb, and accumulating on the polar surface. These effects are a few of the many that derive from Titan’s circulation and its seasonal changes during the satellite's 29.5 Earth year orbit about the Sun. In particular, and as indicated in recent observations, Titan's circulation flip-flopped. Before equinox in 2009, on average, air rose in the southern polar region and downwelled in the northern polar region. Now the reverse appears to be happening. Here we discuss the observations ranging from the surface to ~500 km altitude that reveal the symphony of responses of Titan's surface and atmosphere to this dramatic shift. In addition we discuss the syntheses of these effects, from theoretical efforts involving microphysical models, local cloud models and general circulation models, with the question of why Titan's seasonal changes are so much more spectacular compared to those of Earth.

  16. Cryovolcanism and activity on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe

    2010-04-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been observing the Saturn system for almost 6 years. After more than 60 Titan flybys, several observations suggest that cryovolcanism has been operating in a geologically recent past. First, the lifetime of methane in Titan's atmosphere is on the order of 10 Myrs. Even though lakes, potentially filled with liquid hydrocarbons, have been identified on Titan's north and south poles (Stofan et al., Nature 2007, Brown et al., Nature, 2008), they do not constitute a large enough reservoir able to replenish the atmosphere over 100s of Myrs (Lorenz et al., PSS, 2008). Second the presence of 40Ar, which is a product of the decay of 40K, associated to the small amount of 36Ar suggests exchange between the interior and the surface. Third, the isotopic ratio of 13C/12C in CH4 and 15N/14N in N2 suggest that nitrogen has escaped and was present very early in Titan's atmosphere whereas Carbon was recently released in the atmosphere. Fourth, radar and optical observations by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) of the Titan's surface have revealed features resembling volcanic constructs and volcanic flows such as the large areas of Tui region and Hotei region at the southern edge of Xanadu. Another construct, much smaller in size, has been observed by both radar and the VIMS (LeCorre et al., PSS, 2009). Finally, both the radar and the VIMS have detected mountains which are related to geological activity in the lithosphere. This paper addresses several processes related to cryovolcanism and activity including convection processes in the ice crust, melting of ice and formation of cryovolcanic magmas, and cooling of cryovolcanic flows. It also describes relationships between the convection processes and the formation of mountains. Finally, it discusses the observations suggesting present day activity. Acknowledgments: This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  17. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOEpatents

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  18. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOEpatents

    Voigt, James A.; Sipola, Diana L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Anderson, Mark T.

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  19. Thin film crystal growth template removal: Application to stress reduction in lead zirconate titanate microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkotsis, P.; Kirby, P. B.; Saharil, F.; Oberhammer, J.; Stemme, G.

    2007-10-01

    A key issue for the design and reliability of microdevices is process related; residual stresses in the thin films from which they are composed, especially for sol-gel deposited Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 ceramics, where use of Pt as a template layer, though essential for the nucleation of the perovskite phase, results in structures with high levels of stress largely fixed by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Pt and Si. Here a technique for the elimination of this stress is presented, involving the use of adhesive wafer bonding and bulk micromachining procedures to remove the Pt layer following the Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 deposition.

  20. Lead zirconate titanate on base metal foils: An approach for embedded high-K passive components

    SciTech Connect

    Maria, J.-P.; Cheek, K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Dunn, G.; Kingon, A. I.

    2000-01-26

    An approach for embedding high-K dielectric thin films into polymer packages has been developed. Pb{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.96}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition on 50 {micro}m thick Ni-coated Cu foils. Sputter deposited Ni top electrodes completed the all base-metal capacitor stack. After high temperature N{sub 2} crystallization anneals, the PLZT composition showed reduction resistance while the base-metal foils remained flexible. Capacitance density and Loss tangent values range between 300 and 400 nF/cm{sup 2} and 0.01 and 0.02 from 1 to 1,000 kHz respectively. These properties represent a 2 to 3 order of magnitude improvement over available embedded capacitor technologies for polymeric packages.

  1. Severity evaluation of the transverse crack in a cylindrical part using a PZT wafer based on an interval energy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Zheng, Jiajia; Song, Gangbing

    2016-03-01

    Transverse cracks in cylindrical parts can be detected by using the ultrasound based pulse-echo method, which has been widely used in industrial applications. However, it is still a challenge to identify the echoes reflected by a crack and bottom surfaces of a cylindrical part due to the multi-path propagation and wave mode conversion. In this paper, an interval energy approach is proposed to evaluate the severity of the transverse crack in a cylindrical part. Lead zirconate titanate patch transducers are used to generate the ultrasound pulse and to detect the echoes. The echo signals are preprocessed and divided into two zones, the normal reflection zone and the crack reflection zone. Two energy factors evaluating the severity of the crack are computed based on the interval energy. When using this proposed method, it is not necessary to identify the echo sources since all the crack and boundary echoes are automatically taken into consideration by using the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that proposed approach is more suitable and sensitive to evaluate the transverse crack severity of cylindrical part than the traditional method.

  2. Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-10-06

    A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

  3. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  4. Crustal Zircons from the Podiform Chromitites in Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Komiya, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2004-12-01

    For the past decade, diamonds and unusual mineral asemblages were reported in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, China (Bai 1993, Bai 2000, Yan 2001) by heavy mineral separation. These include (1) native elements, (2) alloys, (3) carbide, (4) platinium group elements (PGE) and arsenides, (5) silicates (6) oxide, (7) carbonates, (8) minerals with unusual compositons. Despite many questions as to these minerals above still remain open, these mineral inclusions would provide us the important infomation on the formation of the podiform chromitites. In this study, over 100 zircons were discovered by heavy mineral separation of podiform chromitite in Luobusa ophiolite. The discovery of accessory zircons in chromitites allowed us to date the formation of the chromitite and history of tectonic evolutions. Here we report the U-Pb age and mineral inclusions of zircons and discuss with unusually old age zircons. 20 zircon grains in chromitites from No. 1 site were analyzed. Zircons from the chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite are usually euhedral-subhedral and some are rounded. Cathodoluminescence images of these zircons indicate that some zircons have clear oscillatory zoning, whereas other zircons show apparent homogeneous overgrowth. U-Pb dating of these zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded two different ages. One group has relatively younger age, 107-534Ma, which plots nearly on a concordia line. Another group has older age 1460-1822Ma, which plots off the concordia line. There is insignificant difference of apparent ages within a single zircon grain. For example, a zircon has 1650 Ma in the core, whereas does 1654 Ma in the rim. We identified several mineral inclusions, quartz, feldspar, mica, apatite, within both yonger and older zircons using laser-Raman spectrometry and EPMA. No high-pressure minerals or mantle minerals were identified. This means that these unusually old zircons were formed in low-pressure crustal emvironment. Where did the zircons in chromitites come from? It has been recognized that this ophiolite was formed at 110-120 Ma based on radiolaria in cherts overlying the pillow lavas (ALLEGRE et al., 1984; ZIABREV et al., 2003). In this study, the minimum age of 107 Ma, which we obtained from zircon in chromitites, is consistent to the age of the ophiolite. But, all other ages of zircons are much older than that of ophiolite. Yang et al. (2001) also reported U-Pb zircon ages of 450-910 Ma and Re-Os iridosmine age of 400 Ma from chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite. Mineral inclusions within zircons are crustal materials, which means that these zircons were crystallized in the low pressure crustal condition. Thus these zircons within chromitites are interpreted as xenocrysts from old crustal materials. Recently, old-age zircons (330 to 1600 Ma) were also reported from the Mid Atlantic Ridge MORBs (PILOT et al., 1998). They suggest one possibility that these old-age zircons may have derived from old continental crustal material, which have assimilated with the MORB magma during ascent. Moreover, Archean zircons were reported from pyroxenite dikes in Jormua ophiolite (PETRI et al., 2003). YU et al. (2001) reported that zircons from chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite have shorter inter-atomic distances of Zr-O and Si-O bonds. As a result, they concluded that Tibetan-zircons were derived from the high-pressure mantle environment. Judging from the line of evidence mentioned above, it is highly possible that these zircons captured by chromitites were originated from recycled crustal materials, convecting through upper mantle.

  5. Influence of processing conditions on the structure, composition and ferroelectric properties of sputtered PZT thin films on Ti-substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ankita; Sreemany, Monjoy

    2014-01-01

    PZT thin (∼500 nm) films are synthesized on titanium (Ti) substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering under various processing conditions. Present work aims to investigate the influence of working pressure and post-annealing temperature on the quality of the films. Phase evolution, surface morphology with local chemical composition and dielectric/ferroelectric properties of PZT films have been studied as the functions of working pressure and post-annealing temperature. A working pressure of ∼0.7 Pa and a post-crystallization temperature of ∼650 °C are found to be the optimum processing conditions for growing perovskite PZT films on Ti-substrates. Irrespective of processing conditions, however, all PZT films on Ti-substrates show poor electrical response. Depth dependent change in the chemical states of Pb, Zr, Ti and oxygen within the PZT films and across the PZT/Ti interfaces has also been scrutinized by XPS depth profiling. It is observed that within PZT films, Pb exists both in Pb2+ and Pb0 (metallic-Pb) states. Surfaces of the PZT films are found to be enriched with a thin (∼60 nm) Pb-deficient and Zr-rich pyrochlore/fluorite (Py/Fl) phase. Existence of a thin titanium oxide layer in the form of a TiO2/TiO stack has also been confirmed at the PZT/Ti interface. Processing conditions dependant structural modifications have been correlated with the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films.

  6. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Manson, Robert; Robbins, Carol; Oesterle, Elizabeth C.; Cao, Guo Zhong; Hume, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT). This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays. PMID:26631107

  7. Measurement and calculation of PZT thin film longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, J. A.; Kim, S.-H.; Kingon, A. I.; Maiwa, H.; Maria, J.-P.; Streiffer, S. K.

    1999-04-26

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of 2000 {angstrom} thick chemical solution deposited Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1{minus}x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated. Several Zr/Ti ratios were studied: 30/70, 50/50 and 65/35, which correspond to tetragonal, near-morphotropic, and rhombohedral symmetries. In all samples, a {l_brace}111{r_brace}-texture is predominant. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients and their dc field dependence were measured using the contact AFM method. The expected trend of a maximum piezoelectric coefficient at or near to the MPB was not observed. The composition dependence was small, with the maximum d{sub 33} occurring in the tetragonal material. To explain the results, crystallographic texture and film thickness effects are suggested. Using a modified phenomenological approach, derived electrostrictive coefficients, and experimental data, d{sub 33} values were calculated. Qualitative agreement was observed between the measured and calculated coefficients. Justifications of modifications to the calculations are discussed.

  8. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Manson, Robert; Robbins, Carol; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Cao, Guo Zhong; Shen, I Y; Hume, Clifford R

    2015-01-01

    Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT). This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays. PMID:26631107

  9. Octahedral tilting, monoclinic phase and the phase diagram of PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, F.; Trequattrini, F.; Craciun, F.; Galassi, C.

    2011-10-01

    Anelastic and dielectric spectroscopy measurements on PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) close to the morphotropic (MPB) and antiferroelectric boundaries provide new insight into some controversial aspects of its phase diagram. No evidence is found of a border separating monoclinic (M) from rhombohedral (R) phases, in agreement with recent structural studies supporting a coexistence of the two phases over a broad composition range x < 0.5, with the fraction of M increasing toward the MPB. It is also discussed why the observed maximum of elastic compliance appears to be due to a rotational instability of the polarization linearly coupled to shear strain. Therefore it cannot be explained by extrinsic softening from finely twinned R phase alone, but indicates the presence also of M phase, not necessarily homogeneous. A new diffuse transition is found within the ferroelectric phase near x ˜ 0.1, at a temperature TIT higher than the well established boundary TT to the phase with tilted octahedra. It is proposed that around TIT the octahedra start rotating in a disordered manner and finally become ordered below TT. In this interpretation, the onset temperature for octahedral tilting monotonically increases up to the antiferroelectric transition of PbZrO3, and the depression of TT(x) below x = 0.18 would be a consequence of the partial relief of the mismatch between the average cation radii with the initial stage of tilting below TIT.

  10. Dissolution on Titan and on Earth: Towards the age of Titan's karstic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, T.; Cordier, D.; Le Bahers, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Fleurant, C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    The morphology of Titan's lacustrine depressions led to comparisons with terrestrial depressions developed by karstic dissolution. We tested this hypothesis by computing dissolution rates of Titan's solids in liquid methane. We inferred from these rates the timescales needed to create dissolution landforms of a given depth. Dissolution would be a very efficient geological process to shape Titan's surface, on timescales generally shorter than 100 Myrs, consistent with the youth of Titan's surface (<1 Gyr).

  11. Nitrogen Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In Titan's upper atmosphere N2 is dissociated to N by solar UV and high energy electrons. This flux of N provides for interesting organic chemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan. Previously the main pathway for the loss of this N was thought to be the formation of HCN, followed by diffusion of this HCN to lower altitudes leading ultimately to condensation. However, recent laboratory simulations of organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere suggest that formation of the organic haze may be an important sink for atmospheric N. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere. This and other implications of this sink for the N balance on Titan are considered.

  12. Zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2015-10-01

    Multiple thermochronometric methods are often required to constrain time-continuous rock exhumation for studying tectonic processes or development of km-scale topography at Earth's surface. Here, we explore 4He/3He thermochronometry of zircon as a method for constraining continuous time-temperature (t-T) paths of individual samples through a temperature range that is complementary to methods such as 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of K-feldspar and 4He/3He thermochronometry of apatite. For different cooling rates and diffusion domain size, the temperature sensitivity of zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry ranges from slightly less than 100 °C to slightly greater than 250 °C; a typical sample provides continuous thermal constraints over ∼100 °C within that range. Outside these temperatures, 4He in zircon will either be quantitatively retained or completely lost by volume diffusion. As proof-of-concept, we present stepwise release 4He/3He spectra and associated U and Th concentration maps measured by laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of individual crystal aliquots of Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) zircon and of a more complex setting in the Sierra Nevada batholith that experienced reheating from a proximal basaltic intrusion, the Little Devil's Postpile (LDP). The FCT zircon 4He/3He release spectra are consistent with a 4He spatial distribution dominated by alpha-ejection from crystal surfaces. The spatial distributions of U and Th measured in the same crystals do not substantially influence 4He/3He release spectra that are predicted for the known thermal history, even when incorporating spatially variable diffusivity due to accumulation of radiation damage. Conversely, the LDP 4He/3He release spectra are strongly influenced by the observed parent nuclide zonation. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of 4He production and diffusion, which incorporates crystal geometry, U and Th zonation, and spatially variable He diffusion kinetics, substantially improves the fit between measured and modeled 4He/3He release spectra for the independently known thermal history of the sample. We conclude that zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry provides accurate thermal constraints through geologic time, but certain applications of this technique may require 3D numerical modeling approaches.

  13. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  14. The magnetic memory of Titan's ionized atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, C; Achilleos, N; Dougherty, M K; Modolo, R; Coates, A J; Szego, K; Masters, A; Ma, Y; Neubauer, F M; Garnier, P; Wahlund, J-E; Young, D T

    2008-09-12

    After 3 years and 31 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini Orbiter, Titan was finally observed in the shocked solar wind, outside of Saturn's magnetosphere. These observations revealed that Titan's flow-induced magnetosphere was populated by "fossil" fields originating from Saturn, to which the satellite was exposed before its excursion through the magnetopause. In addition, strong magnetic shear observed at the edge of Titan's induced magnetosphere suggests that reconnection may have been involved in the replacement of the fossil fields by the interplanetary magnetic field. PMID:18787164

  15. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Baines, Kevin H.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  16. Titan's Complex Atmospheric Chemistry Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Nixon, C. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Charnley, S. B.; Serigano, J.; Mumma, M. J.; Milam, S. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Kisiel, Z.; Remijan, A. J.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Lis, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present spatially-resolved maps of emission from C2H5CN, HNC and HC3N in Titan's atmosphere, observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 2012-2013. These data show previously-undetected spatial structures for the observed molecules and provide the first spectroscopic detection of etcn\\ on Titan. Our maps show spatially-resolved peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres, consistent with photochemical production and transport in the upper atmosphere followed by subsidence over the poles. The HNC emission peaks are asymmetric with respect to the polar axis, indicating that Titan's mesosphere may be more longitudinally variable than previously thought.

  17. Can Titan generate tori in Saturn's magnetosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.; Rymer, A. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Prior to Cassini's arrival at Saturn, nitrogen ions were thought to dominate heavy plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere and that Titan's atmosphere was the source of this nitrogen. Therefore, the presence of a Titan nitrogen torus was anticipated. However, it is now known water-group ions dominate Saturn's heavy ion plasma. While nitrogen ions have been detected beyond the orbit of Rhea, they appear to be originating from the Enceladus plumes with little nitrogen plasma detected in the magnetosphere near Titan's orbit. These results appear inconsistent with the expectation that Titan's dense relatively unprotected atmosphere should provide a significant source of heavy particles to Saturn's magnetosphere. This inconsistency suggests that the plasma environment at Titan's orbit is much more complex than originally anticipated. In this talk, we expand on our previous research that categorizes the plasma environments near Titan to include all locations along Titan's orbit. Using these categories, we develop characteristic plasma spectra of each type of environment and use these results in a 3D Monte Carlo model to more accurately examine fate of nitrogen and methane escaping Titan's atmosphere. These results are compared to Cassini observations to determine if Titan is capable of generating tori.

  18. Hafnium isotopic heterogeneity in zircons from granitic rocks: Geochemical evaluation and modeling of “zircon effect” in crustal anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Shu, Xu-Jie; Wang, Di; Yang, Tao; Gopon, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    We carried out a geochemical evaluation and modeled the mechanism responsible for varied Hf isotopic ratios in magmatic zircons of a single granitic rock specimen. Five representative granitic samples were selected from southern China based on preliminary Hf isotopic data. Our new dataset of zircon Hf isotopes confirmed significant Hf-isotope variations (5-9 epsilon units) for each sample, and these zircons show roughly positive Th/U versus T (crystallizing temperature) correlations, while the Lu/Hf variation is independent from T. In addition, some zircons show significantly higher Ti concentrations in the rims compared to the interiors, implying reverse thermal zonation based on the Ti-in-zircon thermometry. These geochemical features in zircons suggest open-system processes which may have resulted from frequent replenishment. We modeled zircon dissolution during crustal anatexis to reveal the Hf isotopic evolution in the extracted melts. The model suggests that the extracted melts may have extremely variable Hf isotope compositions (>20 epsilon units) if the bulk Zr concentration in the source is initially above 100 ppm and the melting is rapid (>10-4 yr-1). The decoupled release of zircon Hf and non-zircon Hf from a single crust-derived magma source can lead to significant Hf-isotope variations in a solidified granitic body. This work provides an alternative explanation for the Hf isotopic heterogeneity in magmatic zircons of granitic rocks, which is in contrast to the common interpretation by mixing with mantle-derived magmas.

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE: The development of a PZT-based microdrive for neural signal recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangkyu; Yoon, Euisung; Lee, Sukchan; Shin, Hee-sup; Park, Hyunjun; Kim, Byungkyu; Kim, Daesoo; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2008-04-01

    A hand-controlled microdrive has been used to obtain neural signals from rodents such as rats and mice. However, it places severe physical stress on the rodents during its manipulation, and this stress leads to alertness in the mice and low efficiency in obtaining neural signals from the mice. To overcome this issue, we developed a novel microdrive, which allows one to adjust the electrodes by a piezoelectric device (PZT) with high precision. Its mass is light enough to install on the mouse's head. The proposed microdrive has three H-type PZT actuators and their guiding structure. The operation principle of the microdrive is based on the well known inchworm mechanism. When the three PZT actuators are synchronized, linear motion of the electrode is produced along the guiding structure. The electrodes used for the recording of the neural signals from neuron cells were fixed at one of the PZT actuators. Our proposed microdrive has an accuracy of about 400 nm and a long stroke of about 5 mm. In response to formalin-induced pain, single unit activities are robustly measured at the thalamus with electrodes whose vertical depth is adjusted by the microdrive under urethane anesthesia. In addition, the microdrive was efficient in detecting neural signals from mice that were moving freely. Thus, the present study suggests that the PZT-based microdrive could be an alternative for the efficient detection of neural signals from mice during behavioral states without any stress to the mice.

  20. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT Composite Thick Films with Variable Solution to Powder Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dawei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, Koping Kirk.; Bharadwaja, Srowthi N.; Zhang, Dongshe; Zheng, Haixing

    2010-01-01

    The use of PZT films in sliver-mode high-frequency ultrasonic transducers applications requires thick, dense, and crack-free films with excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. In this work, PZT composite solutions were used to deposit PZT films >10 μm in thickness. It was found that the functional properties depend strongly on the mass ratio of PZT sol–gel solution to PZT powder in the composite solution. Both the remanent polarization, Pr, and transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e31,f, increase with increasing proportion of the sol–gel solution in the precursor. Films prepared using a solution-to-powder mass ratio of 0.5 have a remanent polarization of 8 μC/cm2, a dielectric constant of 450 (at 1 kHz), and e31,f = −2.8 C/m2. Increasing the solution-to-powder mass ratio to 6, the films were found to have remanent polarizations as large as 37 μC/cm2, a dielectric constant of 1250 (at 1 kHz) and e31,f = −5.8 C/m2. PMID:20376196

  1. PMN-PT–PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated x(0.65PMN-0.35PT)–(1 − x)PZT (xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT–0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a −6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB. PMID:23750072

  2. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2. PMID:22221519

  3. Large electric-field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in strained [Co/Ni] / PZT heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, Daniel; Dennis, Cindi; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Yury; Shull, Robert

    We present a piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructure with PMA - a Co/Ni multilayer sputtered directly onto a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) substrate. Chemical-mechanical polishing was used to reduce the roughness of PZT plates to below 2 nm rms, enabling optimal magnetoelectric coupling via the direct interface between PZT and sputtered Co/Ni films with large PMA (Keff = (95 +/-9 kJ/m3)) . We grew the following layer stack: Ta(3)/Pt(2)/[Co(0.15)/Ni(0.6)]x4/Co(0.15)/Pt(2)/Ta(3); numbers in parentheses indicate thicknesses in nm. Applied electric fields up to +/- 2 MV/m to the PZT generated 0.05% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayer, enabling a large electric-field reduction of the PMA (ΔKeff >= 103 J/m3) and of the coercive field (35%). Our results demonstrate that: (i) heterostructures combining PZT and [Co/Ni] exhibit larger PMA (Keff ~105 J/m3) than previous magnetoelectric heterostructures based on Co/Pt and CoFeB, enabling thermally stable hybrid magnetoelectric/spintronic devices only tens of nm in diameter and (ii) electric-field control of the PMA is promising for more energy efficient switching of spintronic devices.

  4. Development of valve-less tube-type micropump with PZT actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Morishima, Akifumi; Takamata, Atsushi; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    The medical devices such as a micropump to extract blood through a tube have a structure which needle and pump part are mutually separated. Therefore, it is not easy to make smaller than the conventional pump. In this research, we aim to develop the pump combined with a tube as a final purpose. In this study, ring type PZT elements are mounted on the surface of the silicone tube, and the stationary waves are generated in the tube by the vibration of those PZT on the tube verified by changing the AC voltage. The waves generated by the collision of large and small stationary waves are synthesized, and then the wave becomes a progressive wave with an elliptic motion in the tube. The flow function demonstrated by the tube type micropump was evaluated and the flow velocities were increased 2.78% and decreased 1.79%. On the other hand, we have a technique to produce a titanium microtube by using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique. A Titanium micro tube with the size of a female mosquito's labium (60µm external and 25μm internal diameter) was produced by the sputter deposition method. In order to deposit PZT thin film on the titanium micro tube, the thin film process is used. The thin film deposition conditions of the PZT thin film are investigated and the characteristic of the PZT thin films are evaluated.

  5. Titan's geoid and hydrology: implications for Titan's geological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Seignovert, Benoit; Lawrence, Kenneth; MacKenzie, Shannon; Barnes, Jason; Brown, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A 1x1 degree altitude map of Titan is constructed from the degree 4 gravity potential [1] and Titan's shape [2] determined by the Radio Science measurements and RADAR observations of the Cassini mission. The amplitude of the latitudinal altitude variations is equal to 300 m compared to 600 m for the amplitude of the latitudinal shape variations. The two polar caps form marked depressions with an abrupt change in topography at exactly 60 degrees at both caps. Three models are envisaged to explain the low altitude of the polar caps: (i) thinner ice crust due to higher heat flux at the poles, (ii) fossil shape acquired if Titan had higher spin rate in the past, and (iii) subsidence of the crust following the formation of a denser layer of clathrates as ethane rain reacts with the H2O ice crust [3]. The later model is favored because of the strong correlation between the location of the cloud system during the winter season and the latitude of the abrupt change in altitude. Low altitude polar caps would be the place where liquids would run to and eventually form large seas. Indeed, the large seas of Titan are found at the deepest locations at the North Pole. However, the lakes and terrains considered to be evaporite candidates due to their spectral characteristics in the infrared [4,5] seem to be perched. Lakes may have been filled during Titan's winter and then slowly evaporated leaving material on the surface. Interestingly, the largest evaporite deposits are located at the equator in a deep depression 150 m below the altitude of the northern seas. This observation seems to rule out the presence of a global subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir unless the evaporation rate at the equator is faster than the transport of fluids from the North Pole to the equator. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science, doi 10.1126/science.1219631. [2] Lorenz R.D. (2013) Icarus, 225, 367-377. [3] Choukroun M. and C. Sotin (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L0420. [4] Barnes J.W. et al. (2011) Icarus, 216, 136-140. [5] MacKenzie S.M. et al. (2014) submitted to JGR.

  6. The crystallization age of eucrite zircon.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, G; Whitehouse, M J; Weber, I; Yamaguchi, A

    2007-07-20

    Eucrites are a group of meteorites that represent the first planetary igneous activity following metal-silicate differentiation on an early planetesimal, similar to Asteroid 4 Vesta, and, thus, help date geophysical processes occurring on such bodies in the early solar system. Using the short-lived radionuclide (182)Hf as a relative chronometer, we demonstrate that eucrite zircon crystallized quickly within 6.8 million years of metal-silicate differentiation. This implies that mantle differentiation on the eucrite parent body occurred during a period when internal heat from the decay of (26)Al and (60)Fe was still available. Later metamorphism of eucrites took place at least 8.9 million years after the zircons crystallized and was likely caused by heating from impacts, or by burial under hot material excavated by impacts, rather than from lava flows. Thus, the timing of eucrite formation and of mantle differentiation is constrained. PMID:17641194

  7. Atomistic Simulation of Collision Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin

    2006-09-01

    Defect production in energetic collision cascades in zircon has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a partial charge model combined with the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential. Energy dissipation, defect accumulation, Si-O-Si polymerization, and Zr coordination number were examined for 10 keV and 30 keV U recoils simulated in the constant NVE ensemble. For both energies an amorphous core was produced with features similar to that of melt quenched zircon. Disordered Si ions in this core were polymerized with an average degree of polymerization of 1.5, while disordered Zr ions showed a coordination number of about 6 in agreement with EXAFS results. These results suggest that nano-scale phase separation into silica- and zirconia-rich regions occurs in the amorphous core.

  8. Processing of Fine-Scale Piezoelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composites for Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janas, V. F.; Safari, A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research effort at Rutgers is the development of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic/polymer composites with different designs for transducer applications including hydrophones, biomedical imaging, non-destructive testing, and air imaging. In this review, methods for processing both large area and multifunctional ceramic/polymer composites for acoustic transducers were discussed.

  9. Cassini Imaging Results at Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A.; Turtle, E.; Perry J.; Fussner, S.; Porco, C.; West, R.; Johnson, T.; Collins, G.; DelGenio, T.; Barbara, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images show striking albedo markings on the surface of Titan. In equatorial regions the albedo patterns have high contrast and exhibit prominent lineaments and linear/angular boundaries suggestive of tectonic influences or fracturing of brittle surficial materials. There are intriguing dark curving lines near the south pole. Here we present several working hypotheses to explain these patterns. We also briefly summarize atmospheric science results.

  10. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Karim, Julia Abdul

    2011-03-30

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

  11. Nitrile Compounds Observed on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marten, A.; Moreno, R.

    2003-05-01

    Heterodyne millimeter observations were performed on Titan with the IRAM Plateau-de-Bure Interferometer array in February-March 2003 near greatest eastern elongations. The most extended configuration of the array was used. The Titan's angular diameter, corresponding to the solid body value, was 0.8 arc sec. However, a larger diameter of about 1 arc sec needs to be considered in the analysis of emitted flux measurements. Two dual frequency receivers were utilized at 3- and 1.2-mm wavelengths, giving access to the 82-116 and 210-245 GHz spectral ranges. Therefore, to optimize our mapping program, observations were carried out in the HCN(1-0), HC3N(12-11), CH3CN(12-11), HC3N(25-24) and CO(2-1) transitions, near 88.6, 109.2, 220.7, 227.4 and 230.5 GHz, respectively. An angular resolution of 0.6 arc sec was obtained at shorter wavelengths, yielding disk-resolved spectra of Titan. Most of the HCN(1-0) and HC3N(12-11) data correspond to full-disk measurements since the equivalent synthesized beam of the array was larger than 1.3 arc sec at longer wavelengths. Narrow isolated lines of HC3N and CH3CN as well as the three components of HCN(1-0) were analyzed at a very high spectral resolution of 40 kHz. Lower values of 160 kHz and 2.5 MHz were chosen for recording broad-band spectra of HCN, CH3CN and CO. Disk-averaged spectra taken at the same frequencies with the IRAM single-dish 30-m telescope (Marten et al., 2002, Icarus, 158, 532) have been used for comparison. The vertical distributions of nitrile abundances inferred from those data served as a preliminary basis for radiative transfer computations considering a spherical geometry for Titan's atmosphere and an elliptical gaussian synthesized beam. Numerical calculations of HCN and CO spectra are found in remarkable agreement with the interferometric data. Significant differences exist for HC3N in the northern latitudes and CH3CN in midlatitude regions. Measured maps are presented at all observing frequencies along with representative cases for well-fit synthetic computations, with an emphasis on the nitrile composition variations across Titan's disk.

  12. Temperature Field Analysis for PZT Pyroelectric Cells for Thermal Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jing-Chih; Siao, An-Shen; Lee, Chi-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the idea of etching PZT to improve the temperature variation rate of a thicker PZT sheet in order to enhance the energy conversion efficiency when used as pyroelectric cells. A partially covered electrode was proven to display a higher output response than a fully covered electrode did. A mesh top electrode monitored the temperature variation rate and the electrode area. The mesh electrode width affected the distribution of the temperature variation rate in a thinner pyroelectric material. However, a pyroelectric cell with a thicker pyroelectric material was beneficial in generating electricity pyroelectrically. The PZT sheet was further etched to produce deeper cavities and a smaller electrode width to induce lateral temperature gradients on the sidewalls of cavities under homogeneous heat irradiation, enhancing the temperature variation rate. PMID:22346652

  13. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

  14. Temperature field analysis for PZT pyroelectric cells for thermal energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jing-Chih; Siao, An-Shen; Lee, Chi-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the idea of etching PZT to improve the temperature variation rate of a thicker PZT sheet in order to enhance the energy conversion efficiency when used as pyroelectric cells. A partially covered electrode was proven to display a higher output response than a fully covered electrode did. A mesh top electrode monitored the temperature variation rate and the electrode area. The mesh electrode width affected the distribution of the temperature variation rate in a thinner pyroelectric material. However, a pyroelectric cell with a thicker pyroelectric material was beneficial in generating electricity pyroelectrically. The PZT sheet was further etched to produce deeper cavities and a smaller electrode width to induce lateral temperature gradients on the sidewalls of cavities under homogeneous heat irradiation, enhancing the temperature variation rate. PMID:22346652

  15. Enhanced ferroelectric polarization and potential morphotrophic phase boundary in PZT-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David; McGuire, Michael; Singh, David

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of alloys of the high performance piezoelectric PZT (PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3) with BZnT (BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3) and BZnZr (BiZn0.5Zr0.5O3), focussing on lattice instabilities, atomic displacements and ferroelectric polarization. From theory we find that the 75 - 25 PZT - BZnT alloy has substantially larger cation displacements, and hence ferroelectric polarization than the PZT base material, on the tetragonal side of the phase diagram. We also find a possible morphotrophic phase boundary in this system by comparing displacement patterns and optimized c/a ratios. Experiments indicate the feasibility of sample synthesis within this alloy system.

  16. A flexible ultrasound transducer array with micro-machined bulk PZT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

  17. An optimized strain demodulation method for PZT driven fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wenjuan; Peng, G. D.; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    An optimized strain-demodulation-method based on piezo-electrical transducer (PZT) driven fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using a parallel processing mode to drive the PZT continuously, the hysteresis effect is eliminated, and the system demodulation rate is increased. Furthermore, an AC-DC compensation method is developed to address the intrinsic nonlinear relationship between the displacement and voltage of PZT. The experimental results show that the actual demodulation rate is improved from 15 Hz to 30 Hz, the random error of the strain measurement is decreased by 95%, and the deviation between the test values after compensation and the theoretical values is less than 1 pm/??.

  18. Role of zircon in tracing crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Claoue-Long, J. C.; Kinny, P. D.; Foster, J. J.; Kroener, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Myers, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal ion probe ages of zircons is discussed, which allow much better time resolution compared to other geochronological methods, although the technique is not without problems. Rocks from two areas that contain composite zircon populations, including true magmatic zircons as well as a variety of xenocrystic types are described. It is often difficult to distinguish these; xenocrystic zircons, for example, cannot always be identified on the basis of morphology alone. Additional evidence is needed before making age interpretations. Evidence is also presented of zircon growth long after the original time of crystallization, in some cases apparently at temperatures less than 300 C. The spectacular discovery of 4.1 to 4.2 Ga detrital zircons in metaquartzites from the Mount Narryer area of Western Australia is described. Similar zircons with ages as old as 4276 Ma have been found in the nearby Jack Hills area. The source areas or parent lithologies of these zircons have not yet been determined, but the author expects that they may be unrecognized or buried antecedents of the K rich Narryer gneisses. U or Th concentrations of zircon cannot be used to discriminate between felsic and mafic source rocks.

  19. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The surface age of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    So far five impact craters have been confirmed on Titan's surface and 42 possible impact-like features have been identified [1-9]. In general, they are circular and appear to have elevated rims and interiors. Many of the larger of these features show evidence of having been significantly eroded. Others are partially or nearly completely covered by dunes, fluvial channels have cut a few, and many are surrounded by talus. As on Earth there are multiple processes on Titan that can erode craters and significantly alter their appearance. The overall shape of the frequency distribution of both, the confirmed and putative ones, is relatively flat compared to those of other icy satellites, especially at smaller crater diameters. However, the cumulative crater frequency for larger diameters remarkably fits that of the basins on Iapetus for craters down to about 80 km diameter, although the number of craters is lower by about an order of magnitude. The crater frequency at sizes < 80 km is far lower by about a factor of up to 200. Compared to the crater frequency distribution on Earth, Titan shows a similar shape, however, the density is about 5 to 10 times higher. The absolute age models according to [10,11] assumes a lunar-like impactor flux mainly of main-belt asteroids, whereas [12,13] assume a constant impactor flux of cometary objects, either with a size distribution of Jupiter family comets (JFC) (case A), or with a size distribution of small comets in the Neptunian System (case B). According to the [10,11]-age model Titan's surface is as old as 3.9 Ga as derived from the larger-crater (> 80 km) frequencies. The [12,13]-age model yields surface ages of 3.5 Ga in case A and 1.4 Ga in case B. If only smaller craters, e.g. 10 km-sized craters, are taken into account for age determination, surface ages are 100 Ma according to the [10,11]-age model, 8 Ma according to [12,13]-age model case A, and 2 Ma for case B. Although the statistical precision of the Titan cratering results is not very high and cratering models for absolute ages are controversial, it is obvious that Titan's surface is partly as old as the other Saturnian satellites reflecting an early crust, still preserved, and has been partly modified and heavily resurfaced even in recent times. References: [1] Porco, C.C. et al., (2005) Nature, 434, 159-168. [2] Elachi, C. et al., (2005) Science, 308, 970-974. [3] Wood C.A., et al., (2006), LPSC XXXVII,#1659. [4] Lorenz R., et al., (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., 34. [5] Jaumann R., et al., (2009), in Titan after Cassini-Huygens (R.H. Brown et al. (eds)), Springer, London, subm.. [6] Perry et., Sat. of the Outer Solar System, #6064. [7] Lorenz, R.D. et. Al., Sat. of the Outer Solar System, #6012. [8] Soderblom, L., et al., PSS 44, 2035-2036. [9] Rodrigues, S., et al., PSS 54, 1510-1523. [10] Neukum, G., (1985), Adv. Space Res. 5, 107-116. [11] Neukum, G., et al., (2005), Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 36th, abstract 2034. [12] Zahnle, K., et al., (2003), Icarus 163, 263-289. [13] Korycansky, D.G., and Zahnle, K.J., (2005), Planet. Space Sci. 52, 695-710.

  1. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The large magnetoelectric effect in Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers derived by electroless deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, K.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, W.; Pan, D. A.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure and magnetic properties of the electroless deposited Ni layers with different pH values are characterized by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The influence of the bias magnetic field and the magnetic field frequency (f) on ME coupling is discussed. It is seen that αE,31 depends strongly on Hdc and f. The value of the ME coefficient increases as the thickness of the Ni layer and the pH of the bath increase. A maximum of the ME voltage coefficient αE,31 = 5.77 V cm-1 Oe-1 at resonance frequency with a deposited Ni layer thickness tNi = 302 µm is obtained. The large ME coefficient makes these Ni-PZT-Ni trilayers suitable for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers.

  2. Annealing effects on cathodoluminescence of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Nishido, H.; Noumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    U-Pb zircon dating (e. g., SHRIMP) is an important tool to interpret a history of the minerals at a micrometer-scale, where cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging allows us to recognize internal zones and domains with different chemical compositions and structural disorder at high spatial resolution. The CL of zircon is attributed by various types of emission centers, which are extrinsic ones such as REE impurities and intrinsic ones such as structural defects. Metamictization resulted from radiation damage to the lattice by alpha particles from the decay of U and Th mostly causes an effect on the CL features of zircon as a defect center. However, slightly radiation-damaged zircon, which is almost nondetectable by XRD, has not been characterized using CL method. In this study, annealing effects on CL of zircon has been investigated to clarify a recovery process of the damaged lattice at low radiation dose. A single crystal of zircon from Malawi was selected for CL measurements. It contains HfO2: 2.30 w.t %, U: 241 ppm and Th: 177 ppm. Two plate samples perpendicular to c and a axes were prepared for annealing experiments during 12 hours from room temperature to 1400 degree C. Color CL images were captured using a cold-cathode microscope (Luminoscope: Nuclide ELM-3R). CL spectral measurements were conducted using an SEM (JEOL: JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Oxford: Mono CL2) to measure CL spectra ranging from 300 to 800 nm in 1 nm steps with a temperature controlled stage. The dispersed CL was collected by a photoncounting method using a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu: R2228) and converted to digital data. All CL spectra were corrected for the total instrumental response. Spectral analysis reveals an anisotropy of the CL emission bands related to intrinsic defect center in blue region, radiation-induced defect center from 500 to 700 nm, and trivalent Dy impurity center at 480 and 580 nm, but their relative intensities are almost constant. CL on the surface perpendicular to c-axis, at which direction its intensity is maximum, was characterized in this study. Color CL imaging indicates yellow emission below 300 degree C, white to pale blue between 400 ~ 800 degree C and blue above 900 degree C. The broad band emission assigned to radiation-induced defect center in metamict state decreases in an increase of annealed temperature and disappeared above 700 degree C, whereas any change in XRD patterns was not detected. The blue CL emission caused by intrinsic defect center gradually increases in heating due to a recovery of its crystal field. Furthermore, the emission bands of trace amounts of trivalent Gd at 320 nm and Er at 400nm become to be appeared in response to a recrystallization by annealing. Therefore, CL analysis provides useful information on characteristics of the nature of metamict zircon rather than other conventional methods.

  3. A mechanical method to tuning a FBG-PZT voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Bessie A.; Werneck, Marcelo M.

    2015-09-01

    When using a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) for strain measurements it is always necessary to compensate the FBG against temperature fluctuations. In this paper it is shown an innovative method for mechanically compensating an FBG in a high voltage measurement application using an FBG-PZT sensor. The system takes advantage of a mechanical assembly that, as the PZT displaces, the screw where the FBG is bonded on displace in the opposite direction, keeping the FBG length constant. A theoretical analysis is done and experimental results are shown.

  4. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  5. Reactive sintering of plutonium-bearing titanates.

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, M. C.

    1999-06-24

    Titanate ceramics are being developed for the immobilization of weapons-grade plutonium. These multi-phase ceramics are intended to be both corrosion and proliferation resistant. Reactive sintering techniques were refined to reproducibly provide titanate ceramics for further characterization and testing. Plutonium-bearing pyrochlore-rich composites were consolidated to greater than 90% of their theoretical density.

  6. Titan aerover all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary design for a Titan mobility system is a modified blimp that can operate in Titan's thick, cold atmosphere as well as drive on its solid surfaces and anticipated liquid hydrocarbon oceans. Testing with models has begun and technology focus areas have been identified as materials, control, navigation, deployment, and power. .

  7. Activity and stability studies of titanates and titanate-carbon nanotubes supported Ag anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar; Khairy, M.; Eid, Salah

    2016-02-01

    Titanate-SWCNT; synthesized via exploiting the interaction between TiO2 anatase with oxygen functionalized SWCNT, supported Ag nanoparticles and Ag/titanate are characterized using XRD, TEM-EDX-SAED, N2 adsorption, Photoluminescence, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. These samples are tested for methanol electrooxidation via using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance measurements. It is shown that Ag/titanate nanotubes exhibited superior electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation (4.2 mA cm-2) than titanate-SWCNT, Ag/titanate-SWCNT and titanate. This study reveals the existence of a strong metal-support interaction in Ag/titanate as explored via formation of Ti-O-Ag bond at 896 cm-1 and increasing surface area and pore volume (103 m2 g-1, 0.21 cm3 g-1) compared to Ag/titanate-SWCNT (71 m2 g-1, 0.175 cm3 g-1) that suffers perturbation and defects following incorporation of SWCNT and Ag. Embedding Ag preferably in SWCNT rather than titanate in Ag/titanate-SWCNT disturbs the electron transfer compared to Ag/titanate. Charge transfer resistance depicted from Nyquist impedance plots is found in the order of titanate > Ag/titanate-SWCNT > titanate-SWCNT > Ag/titanate. Accordingly, Ag/titanate indicates a slower current degradation over time compared to rest of catalysts. Conductivity measurements indicate that it follows the order Ag/titanate > Ag/titanate-SWCNT > titanate > titanate-SWCNT declaring that SWCNT affects seriously the conductivity of Ag(titanate) due to perturbations caused in titanate and sinking of electrons committed by Ago through SWCNT.

  8. Piezoelectric transducer self-diagnosis under changing environmental and structural conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Surface-mountable wafer-type piezoelectric transducers using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are widely used to generate and sense guided waves for nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring applications. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring PZT transducer integrity, despite possibly being the weakest link in the entire monitoring system. In this study, PZT transducer self-diagnostic techniques, which enable a single PZT transducer to examine its own integrity, are developed based on a time-reversal process; the effects of temperature and structural condition variations are explicitly considered. Two PZT self-diagnosis indices are proposed which allow debonded and cracked PZT conditions to be identified and distinguished from changing environmental and structural conditions. First, the proposed self-diagnosis schemes are theoretically formulated, and then the feasibility of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations and experimental tests under varying temperature and structural conditions. PMID:20875991

  9. Size and shape of Saturn's moon Titan.

    PubMed

    Zebker, Howard A; Stiles, Bryan; Hensley, Scott; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randolph L; Lunine, Jonathan

    2009-05-15

    Cassini observations show that Saturn's moon Titan is slightly oblate. A fourth-order spherical harmonic expansion yields north polar, south polar, and mean equatorial radii of 2574.32 +/- 0.05 kilometers (km), 2574.36 +/- 0.03 km, and 2574.91 +/- 0.11 km, respectively; its mean radius is 2574.73 +/- 0.09 km. Titan's shape approximates a hydrostatic, synchronously rotating triaxial ellipsoid but is best fit by such a body orbiting closer to Saturn than Titan presently does. Titan's lack of high relief implies that most--but not all--of the surface features observed with the Cassini imaging subsystem and synthetic aperture radar are uncorrelated with topography and elevation. Titan's depressed polar radii suggest that a constant geopotential hydrocarbon table could explain the confinement of the hydrocarbon lakes to high latitudes. PMID:19342551

  10. Size and shape of Saturn's moon Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zebker, Howard A.; Stiles, Bryan; Hensley, Scott; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lunine, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Cassini observations show that Saturn's moon Titan is slightly oblate. A fourth-order spherical harmonic expansion yields north polar, south polar, and mean equatorial radii of 2574.32 ± 0.05 kilometers (km), 2574.36 ± 0.03 km, and 2574.91 ± 0.11 km, respectively; its mean radius is 2574.73 ± 0.09 km. Titan's shape approximates a hydrostatic, synchronously rotating triaxial ellipsoid but is best fit by such a body orbiting closer to Saturn than Titan presently does. Titan's lack of high relief implies that most—but not all—of the surface features observed with the Cassini imaging subsystem and synthetic aperture radar are uncorrelated with topography and elevation. Titan's depressed polar radii suggest that a constant geopotential hydrocarbon table could explain the confinement of the hydrocarbon lakes to high latitudes.

  11. Interaction of Titan's ionosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Coates, Andrew J

    2009-02-28

    Titan is the only Moon in the Solar System with a significant permanent atmosphere. Within this nitrogen-methane atmosphere, an ionosphere forms. Titan has no significant magnetic dipole moment, and is usually located inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Atmospheric particles are ionized both by sunlight and by particles from Saturn's magnetosphere, mainly electrons, which reach the top of the atmosphere. So far, the Cassini spacecraft has made over 45 close flybys of Titan, allowing measurements in the ionosphere and the surrounding magnetosphere under different conditions. Here we review how Titan's ionosphere and Saturn's magnetosphere interact, using measurements from Cassini low-energy particle detectors. In particular, we discuss ionization processes and ionospheric photoelectrons, including their effect on ion escape from the ionosphere. We also discuss one of the unexpected discoveries in Titan's ionosphere, the existence of extremely heavy negative ions up to 10000amu at 950km altitude. PMID:19073464

  12. On the origin of Titan's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Owen, T C

    2000-01-01

    The present atmosphere of Titan exhibits evidence of extensive evolution, in the form of rapid photochemical destruction of methane and a large fractionation of the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. Attempts to recover the initial inventory of volatiles lead toward a model in which nitrogen was originally supplied as NH3, essentially unmodified from its relative abundance in the outer solar nebula. Titan's atmospheric methane, in contrast, appears to have been formed from carbon and other carbon compounds, either by gas phase reactions in the subnebula or by accretional heating during the formation of Titan. These conclusions can be tested by further studies of abundances and isotope ratios in Titan's atmosphere, augmented by studies of comets. The possible similarity of carbon and nitrogen inventories on Titan to those on the inner planets makes this investigation particularly intriguing. PMID:11543520

  13. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has important implications for the studies of detrital populations, suggesting that even zircon from a supposedly single population can form a complex age distribution pattern. Notably, the age groups are also very similar to those identified at this time interval in the zircon population from Jack Hills in Western Australia. Interestingly 18O in zircon from the Greenland tonalite sample is very consistent at the mantle value and independent of the behavior of the U-Pb system, suggesting general stability of even metamict zircon as related to the O isotope exchange. At least it indicates that if this exchange takes place as it appears to be the case for the Hadean zircon, factors other than just the radiation damage have to play a role in the zircon modification.

  14. Titan as the Abode of Life.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Titan is the only world we know, other than Earth, that has a liquid on its surface. It also has a thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane with a thick organic haze. There are lakes, rain, and clouds of methane and ethane. Here, we address the question of carbon-based life living in Titan liquids. Photochemically produced organics, particularly acetylene, in Titan's atmosphere could be a source of biological energy when reacted with atmospheric hydrogen. Light levels on the surface of Titan are more than adequate for photosynthesis, but the biochemical limitations due to the few elements available in the environment may lead only to simple ecosystems that only consume atmospheric nutrients. Life on Titan may make use of the trace metals and other inorganic elements produced by meteorites as they ablate in its atmosphere. It is conceivable that H₂O molecules on Titan could be used in a biochemistry that is rooted in hydrogen bonds in a way that metals are used in enzymes by life on Earth. Previous theoretical work has shown possible membrane structures, azotosomes, in Titan liquids, azotosomes, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds, such as acrylonitrile. The search for a plausible information molecule for life in Titan liquids remains an open research topic-polyethers have been considered and shown to be insoluble at Titan temperatures. Possible search strategies for life on Titan include looking for unusual concentrations of certain molecules reflecting biological selection. Homochirality is a special and powerful example of such biology selection. Environmentally, a depletion of hydrogen in the lower atmosphere may be a sign of metabolism. A discovery of life in liquid methane and ethane would be our first compelling indication that the universe is full of diverse and wondrous life forms. PMID:26848689

  15. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffy, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Acuna, M.; Allen, M.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Farrell, W.; Burchell, M. J.; Burger, M.; Chin, G.; Coates, A. J.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Gerlach, B.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Im, Eastwood; Jennings, D.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  16. Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of sediments and potential sources of methane.

  17. The energetics of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roboz, A.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to study the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere of Titan. We solved the one-dimensional, time-dependent, coupled continuity and momentum equations for several ion species, together with single ion and electron energy equations, in order to calculate density, velocity, and temperature profiles. Calculations were carried out for several cases corresponding to different local times and configurations of the Titan-Saturn system. In our model the effects of horizontal magnetic fields were assumed to be negligible, except for their effect on reducing the electron and ion thermal conductivities and inhibiting vertical transport in the subram region. The ionospheric density peak was found to be at an altitude of about 1100 km, in accordance with earlier model calculations. The ionosphere is chemically controlled below an altitude of about 1500 km. Above this level, ion densities differ significantly from their chemical equilibrium values due to strong upward ion velocities. Heat is deposited in a narrow region around the ionospheric peak, resulting in temperature profiles increasing sharply and reaching nearly constant values of 800-1000 deg K for electrons and 300 deg K for ions in the topside, assuming conditions appropriate for the wake region. In the subram region magnetic correction factors make the electron heat conductivities negligible, resulting in electron temperatures increasing strongly with altitude and reaching values in the order of 5000 deg K at our upper boundary located at 2200 km. Ion chemical heating is found to play an important role in shaping the ion energy balance in Titan's ionosphere.

  18. The energetics of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roboz, A.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-02-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to study the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere of Titan. We solved the one-dimensional, time-dependent, coupled continuity and momentum equations for several ion species, together with single ion and electron energy equations, in order to calculate density, velocity, and temperature profiles. Calculations were carried out for several cases corresponding to different local times and configurations of the Titan-Saturn system. In our model the effects of horizontal magnetic fields were assumed to be negligible, except for their effect on reducing the electron and ion thermal conductivities and inhibiting vertical transport in the subram region. The ionospheric density peak was found to be at an altitude of about 1100 km, in accordance with earlier model calculations. The ionosphere is chemically controlled below an altitude of about 1500 km. Above this level, ion densities differ significantly from their chemical equilibrium values due to strong upward ion velocities. Heat is deposited in a narrow region around the ionospheric peak, resulting in temperature profiles increasing sharply and reaching nearly constant values of 800-1000 deg K for electrons and 300 deg K for ions in the topside, assuming conditions appropriate for the wake region. In the subram region magnetic correction factors make the electron heat conductivities negligible, resulting in electron temperatures increasing strongly with altitude and reaching values in the order of 5000 deg K at our upper boundary located at 2200 km. Ion chemical heating is found to play an important role in shaping the ion energy balance in Titan's ionosphere.

  19. Gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1994-01-01

    Scintillations (high frequency variations) observed in the radio signal during the occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan (Hinson and Tyler, 1983) provide information concerning neutral atmospheric density fluctuations on scales on hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Those seen at altitudes higher than 25 km above the surface were interpreted by Hinson and Tyler as being caused by linear, freely propagating (energy-conserving) gravity waves, but this interpretation was found to be inconsistent with the scintillation data below the 25-km altitude level. Here an attempt is made to interpret the entire scintillation profile between the surface and the 90-km altitude level in terms of gravity waves generated at the surface. Numerical calculations of the density fluctuations caused by two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, finite-amplitude gravity waves propagating vertically through Titan's atmosphere are performed to produce synthetic scintillation profiles for comparison with the observations. The numerical model accurately treats the effects of wave transience, nonlinearity, and breakdown due to convective instability in the overturned part of the wave. The high-altitude scintillation data were accurately recovered with a freely propagating wave solution, confirming the analytic model of Hinson and Tyler. It is found that the low-altitude scintillation data can be fit by a model where a component of the gravity waves becomes convectively unstable and breaks near the 15 km level. The large-scale structure of the observed scintillation profile in the entire altitude range between 5 and 85 km can be simulated by a model where the freely propagating and breaking waves are forced at the surface simultaneously. Further analysis of the Voyager 1 Titan low-altitude scintillation data, using inversion theory appropriate for strong scattering, could potentially remove some of the ambiguities remaining in this analysis and allow a better determination of the strength and source of the waves.

  20. This is Commercial Titan, Inc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    1989-10-01

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan, Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.