Note: This page contains sample records for the topic zirconium 97 from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Zirconium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zirconium is the 20th most abundant element in the Earths crust. It occurs in a variety of rock types and geologic environments but most often in igneous rocks in the form of zircon (ZrSiO4). Zircon is recovered as a coproduct of the mining and processing of heavy mineral sands for the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile. The sands are formed by the weathering and erosion of rock containing zircon and titanium heavy minerals and their subsequent concentration in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. A small quantity of zirconium, less than 10 kt/a (11,000 stpy), compared with total world production of 1.4 Mt (1.5 million st) in 2012, was derived from the mineral baddeleyite (ZrO2), produced from a single source in Kovdor, Russia.

Bedinger, G. M.

2013-01-01

2

Corrosion of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The influence of alloying elements and heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in water and steam; Theories on the mechanism of corrosion of zirconium and its alloys; Factors influencing hydrogen pick-up by zirconium alloys; The ...

B. G. Parfenov V. V. Gerasimov G. I. Venediktova

1969-01-01

3

Zirconium Esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting results recorded recently by Speer1, and by Cullinane and Chard2, on the conditions for the preparation of titanium ortho-esters prompt us to mention our experience in preparing ortho-esters of zirconium. The literature contains little information on this subject. Meerwein and Bersin3 have recorded that zirconium ethoxide can be prepared by the following reactions: We find, however, that a

W. Wardlaw; D. C. Bradley

1950-01-01

4

Zirconium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium is a more commonly occurring element than is widely recognized: it ranks as the 20th most abundant element in the Earth's crust at 220 ppm. In fact, zirconium is present in over 37 different mineral forms; examples are schists, gneiss, iron ore beds, and even granite. The two commercially most important sources of zirconium are zircon and baddeleyite. Both baddeleyite and zircon contain a small amount (about 2% by weight on an oxide basis) of hafnium. Structurally and chemically hafnia is so similar to zirconia that its presence has little effect on the properties of the zirconia. For the purpose of the article, the 98:2 ZrO{sub 2} {center dot} HfO{sub 2} will be referred to as zirconia.

Heathcote, R. (Magnesium Elektron, Ltd., Swinton, Manchester (GB))

1992-05-01

5

ZIRCONIUM-HAFNIUM SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 33 months of operation the purification plant at Albany, Oreg., ; processed 2,500,000 pounds of commercial zirconium tetrachloride to produce ; lowhafnium zirconium oxide and low-zirconium hafnium oxide. TMe average hafnium ; content of the zirconium oxide was about 40 ppm and the hafnium oxide contained ; less than 2% zirconium. The separate oxides were converted to sponge metal

Stickney

1959-01-01

6

M97  

Microsoft Academic Search

M97 is a planetary nebula in Ursa Major, lying just south of the bowl of the Big Dipper, 2.25 degrees from Beta Ursae Majoris. This nebula was discovered in February 1781 by Mechain, who noted it was difficult to see; modern observers estimate it as either tenth or eleventh magnitude, placing it among the faintest objects in Messier's catalog. Lord

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

7

COMADEM '97.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

COMADEM 97 took place at Helsinki University of Technology from 9th to 11th June 1997. This was the tenth in a series of international Congresses on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management. The large number of research contributions, al...

E. Jantunen K. Holmberg R. B. K. Rao

1997-01-01

8

Separation of Zirconium and Uranium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to separation and recovery of zirconium from aqueous solutions containing zirconium and uranium. Separation of zirconium from uranium is, however, difficult since the uranium tends to accompany the zirconium in the solvent extractio...

H. G. Henry

1981-01-01

9

Zirconium - an Imported Mineral Commodity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Can...

1983-01-01

10

PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to ; about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance ; plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. ; Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and ; has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion

F. W. Schonfeld; J. T. Waber

1960-01-01

11

Laser ablated zirconium plasma: A source of neutral zirconium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report spectroscopic investigations of laser produced zirconium (Zr) plasma at moderate laser fluence. At low laser fluence the neutral zirconium species are observed to dominate over the higher species of zirconium. Laser induced fluorescence technique is used to study the velocity distribution of ground state neutral zirconium species. Two-dimensional time-resolved density distributions of ground state zirconium is mapped

Dheerendra Yadav; Raj K. Thareja

2010-01-01

12

Separation of Zirconium and Uranium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zirconium- and uranium-containing hydrocarbon-amine solutions are treated for separation of zirconium and uranium by means of a process comprising: (1) selctive stripping of zirconium with an aqueous chloride solution, and (2) scrubbing the resulting aque...

D. J. MacDonald H. G. Henry

1982-01-01

13

Electrowinning of zirconium from zirconium tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines has produced ductile zirconium dendrites at 800C in an electrolyte containing NaCl-NaF-ZrCl4. Sublimed zirconium tetrachloride was fed into NaCl containing a slight excess of NaF above that required to complex 2 pct\\u000a Zr as Na2ZrF6. The chlorine gas generated at the graphite anode during electrolysis was confined in and vented out of the cell through\\u000a a

G. M. Martinez; D. E. Couch

1972-01-01

14

SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

A dilute aqueous solution of zirconyl chloride which is 1N to 2N in HCl is passed through a column of a cation exchange resin in acid form thereby absorbing both zirconium and associated hafnium impurity in the mesin. The cation exchange material with the absorbate is then eluted with aqueous sulfuric acid of a O.8N to 1.2N strength. The first portion of the eluate contains the zirconium substantially free of hafnium.

Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.

1956-08-21

15

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched

Robert E. Donaghy; Anna H. Sherman

1981-01-01

16

Zirconium for superior corrosion resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium is a transition element located along with sister elements titanium and hafnium in Group IVB of the periodic table. It is grayish white metal, with a density somewhat less than carbon steel. Zirconium is the ninth most common metallic element in the earth`s crust, and is more abundant than zinc, lead, nickel, or even copper. Zirconium is exceptionally resistant

K. W. Bird; K. Richardson

1997-01-01

17

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC); Sherman, Anna H. (Wilmington, NC)

1981-01-01

18

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

Donaghy, R.E.; Sherman, A.H.

1981-08-18

19

Plasma arc melting of zirconium  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming.

Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

1997-12-31

20

Process for purifying zirconium sponge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800{degrees} C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800{degrees} C to below about 300{degrees} C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300{degrees} C.

Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

1992-03-31

21

SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

Substantially complete separation of zirconium from hafnium may be obtained by elution of ion exchange material, on which compounds of the elements are adsorbed, with an approximately normal solution of sulfuric acid. Preferably the acid concentration is between 0.8 N amd 1.2 N, amd should not exceed 1.5 N;. Increasing the concentration of sulfate ion in the eluting solution by addition of a soluble sulfate, such as sodium sulfate, has been found to be advantageous. The preferred ion exchange materials are sulfonated polystyrene resins such as Dowex 50,'' and are preferably arranged in a column through which the solutions are passed.

Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.; Hutcheon, J.M.

1956-08-21

22

Separation of zirconium and uranium. [Patent application  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to separation and recovery of zirconium from aqueous solutions containing zirconium and uranium. Separation of zirconium from uranium is, however, difficult since the uranium tends to accompany the zirconium in the solvent extraction and stripping steps. It is therefore desirable, and an object of the invention, to provide a simple and economical way of removing a major portion of the zirconium from the zirconium and uranium-containing strip solutions, with minimal removal of uranium. It has now been found, according to the present invention, that such a removal of zirconium may be accomplished by means of a process involving precipitation of zirconium from such zirconium and uranium-containing feed solutions by means of tartaric acid or a tartrate.

Henry, H.G.

1981-05-27

23

SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

1960-05-31

24

ARSENATE METHOD OF IODOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental techniques for quantitative precipitation, filtration, ; elution, and solution of prepared zirconium arsenate precipitate in a strong acid ; are discussed. Precipitation of zirconium arsenate was carried out at the ; boiling point in a solution with 10% free sulfuric acid and using sodium arsenate ; as precipitating agent (with 40: 1 ratio to zirconium). Elutions using hot 2%

G. B Shakhtakhtinskii; A. S. Sarkisyan

1962-01-01

25

Localized Deformation of Zirconium-Liner Tube.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes ...

F. Nagase M. Uchida

1988-01-01

26

Mssbauer spectroscopy of zirconium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mssbauer investigations of zirconium alloys were examined. Data about the chemical state of iron atoms in the zirconium alloys of different composition has been provided. Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that small quantities of iron in binary zirconium alloy are in the solid solution ?-Zr (up to 0.02 wt.%). Different iron atoms concentration and thermo-mechanical treatments may lead to formation the intermetallic compounds Zr3Fe, Zr2Fe, ZrFe2. Adding tin atoms does not affect the formation and shape of Mssbauer spectra of these compounds. Adding Cr and Nb atoms makes significant changes in the shape of Mssbauer spectra and leads to the formation of complex intermetallic compounds. Adding Cu and W atoms, the shape of the binary alloys spectra (Zr-Fe) remains unchanged, but a change in the temperature dependence behavior of the spectral parameters occurs and also, changes to the properties of the alloys.

Filippov, V. P.; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A.; Kargin, N. I.

2013-04-01

27

PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

1958-01-21

28

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ZIRCONIUM WITH \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of the colorimetric determination of zirconium with ; phenylfluron (2,3,7-trioxide-9-phenylcompound with its maximum light absorption ; at 535 m mu . The compound is soluble in ethanol, butanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ; isoamyl alcohol, butyl formate, and cyclohexanol. The ions which interfere with ; the determination are listed. The method can be adapted for the determination of ;

F. G. Zharovskiy; A. T. Philipenko

1957-01-01

29

Hydride Formation in Zirconium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingress of hydrogen during corrosion in service can degrade the mechanical properties of zirconium alloy nuclear fuel cladding because of the formation of brittle hydrides. The formation of these hydrides is reviewed in light of recent synchrotron radiation experimental results and phase-field modeling computational results that provide new insight on the process.

Motta, Arthur T.; Chen, Long-Qing

2012-12-01

30

PROCESS OF PREPARING ZIRCONIUM OXYCHLORIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is given for preparing zirconyl chloride by mixing solid zirconyl chloride octahydrate and solid zirconium tetrachloride at room temperature whereby both chlorides are converted to zirconyl chloride trinydrate and hydrogen chloride is formed and volatilized by the reaction heat.

Wilhelm, H.A.; Andrews, M.L.

1960-06-28

31

40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721.9973...Chemical Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

2009-07-01

32

Integrated Utilization of Silicon Tetrafluoride and Zirconium Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of silicon tetrafluoride with zirconium dioxide was studied. A technological scheme was suggested for utilization of silicon tetrafluoride and reprocessing of spent zirconium dioxide to obtain zircon and zirconium tetrafluoride.

V. V. Guzeev; A. N. D'yachenko; V. N. Grishkov

2003-01-01

33

Thermophysical properties of zirconium hydride and uraniumzirconium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal diffusivities of ?-phase Zirconium hydrides (ZrH1.692.00) were measured in the temperature range from 300 to 600 K by means of a laser-flash method. The thermal diffusivity of ?-phase Zr hydrides increased with increasing hydrogen concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. The thermal diffusivities of ?-phase ZrHx with x>1.83 were larger than that of ?-phase Zr. The experimental data on

B. Tsuchiya; J. Huang; K. Konashi; M. Teshigawara; M. Yamawaki

2001-01-01

34

Process for producing zirconium based granules  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the production f amorphous zirconium based granules. It comprises: adding about 2--15 wt % of a suitable phase stabilizer to an aqueous solutio, based upon the total weight of ZrO{sub 2} in solution, to produce an aqueous solution having a pH in the range of about 4 to 7 comprising a zirconium based complex and phase stabilizer and thereafter; drying the aqueous solution comprising the zirconium based complex and the phase stabilizer at a temperature below about 180{degrees} C. for a time sufficient to evaporate the aqueous solution thereby forming amorphous zirconium based granules containing the phase stabilizer.

Jade, S.S.

1990-05-22

35

Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium with xylenol orange  

SciTech Connect

High purity hydride forming metal films are used as hydrogen isotope occluders and function as electrodes in neutron generator tubes. This use of zirconium occluder films requires reliable analytical methods for routine determination of the zirconium film weight in a production environment. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated for the determination of zirconium films. The method is based upon the formation of a highly colored zirconium complex with xylenol orange in a dilute perchloric acid medium. Dilute hydrofluoric acid is used in this procedure to selectively dissolve the zirconium film off the substrate. A perchloric acid fuming step is used to remove hydrofluoric acid from the solution. The zirconium solutions are depolymerized before complex formation by heating in 2 N perchloric acid. The zirconium complex exhibits a maximum absorbance in 0.2 to 0.3 M perchloric acid at a wavelength of 531 nanometers. Beer's law is obeyed for zirconium concentrations through 2.1 parts per million. Molybdenum, at concentrations equal to zirconium, does not interfere with the xylenol orange method.

Antepenko, R.J.

1982-05-14

36

Formation of zirconium metallic glass.  

PubMed

Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over the past decade as a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary to frustrate the crystallization of the liquid melt on cooling, but can also lead to phase separation, which is detrimental to the thermal and mechanical properties of metallic glasses. Here we report, using X-ray diffraction measurements, the formation of a bulk metallic glass from elemental zirconium at high static pressures and low temperatures (relative to its melting temperature at atmospheric pressure). Amorphous zirconium can be recovered at ambient conditions and demonstrates a superior thermal stability compared to amorphous alloys, which could lead to new high-temperature applications of amorphous metals. PMID:15254533

Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng

2004-07-15

37

Zirconium in the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the properties of Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, and Zr-2.5Nb with regard to their use as structural materials in nuclear reactors. Topics considered include refinement and fabrication (extractive metallurgy, zirconium and hafnium separation, electron-beam remelting, pressure tube development, cold working and heat treatments), basic metallurgical studies (etching, strain anisotropy, fuel cladding, anneal hardening, recrystallization, hydrides in zirconium alloy tubes), texture and irradiation creep (microstructure, ultrasonic velocity, in-reactor creep, fuel rods, deformation), irradiation growth (proton and neutron bombardment, high-fluence irradiation growth), corrosion (ZrO/sub 2/ films, aqueous corrosion kinetics, corrosive effects of lithium hydroxide, oxidation films, hydridation), fracture studies (stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen cracking), and high-temperature and transient effects (cladding deformation in LOCA, high-temperature behavior of fuel rods, steam oxidation kinetics, dissolution of solid UO/sub 2/ by molten Zircaloy-4).

Franklin, D.G.; Adamson, R.B.

1984-01-01

38

Yttrium oxide stabilized zirconium oxide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process comprising: (a) forming a solution by mixing yttrium hydroxide and a sufficient amount of an aqueous solution of acetic acid to dissolve the yttrium hydroxide. The solution has a concentration of yttrium ion of about 5% to about 20% by weight of the solution, (b) adding from about 80% to about 95% by weight of zirconium oxide having a particle size range from about 1 to about 5 microns to yield a Zr to Y weight ratio of from about 4:1 to about 19:1 and thereby forming a slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to form spherical agglomerates consisting essentially of zirconium oxide and a relatively uniform distribution of yttrium acetate whereby the agglomerates have a size from about 20 to about 200 micrometers, (d) heating the agglomerates to about 600/sup 0/C to about 700/sup 0/C in a neutral or oxidizing atmosphere to convert yttrium acetate to yttrium oxide to thereby form zirconium oxide yttrium oxide agglomerates with about 5% to about 20% by weight of yttrium oxide.

Ritsko, J.E.; Houck, D.L.; Acla, H.L.R.

1987-09-22

39

Production of zirconium at Y-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general description is given of the permanent zirconium plant at Y-12. Equipment is described and materials of construction are listed. Photographs illustrating principal equipment and reduced construction drawings are also presented. Operating conditions and costs information are listed. Production of purified hafnium-free zirconium was begun at Y-12 in January, 1950. At the request of the Atomic Energy Commission, a

J. W. Ramsey; W. K. Whitson

1951-01-01

40

Pillaring of saponite with zirconium oligomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intercalation of two saponites and a montmorillonite with various zirconium oligomers, prepared from the hydrolysis of zirconyl chloride or zirconium acetate, has been studied. The structure of the intercalated clays strongly depended on the method of preparation and on the nature and crystallinity of the clays studied. In some cases, well-ordered intercalated clays (with basal spacings between 18 and

Ricardo Toranzo; Miguel Angel Vicente; Miguel Angel Baares-Muoz; Luis M Gand??a; Andoni Gil

1998-01-01

41

DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS  

DOEpatents

Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

Horn, F.L.

1961-12-12

42

Modern Methods of Separating Zirconium and Hafnium  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTENTS I. Introduction 522 II. Methods of separating zirconium and hafnium 523 III. Future prospects in the application of the most important methods for separating zirconium and hafnium 532 Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database:

I. V. Vinarov

1967-01-01

43

UPS and EELS study of zirconium oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structures of metallic zirconium, zirconium oxide, and zirconium surfaces with intermediate degrees of oxidation have been studied by photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Both methods are used to analyze the same samples in one experimental cycle. Some specific features of the electronic structures that had not been detected earlier are revealed. The experimental data obtained are explained using the first-principles calculations of the electronic states of hcp metallic zirconium and cubic or monoclinic zirconia. The dielectric function and the electron-energy-loss function are calculated for comparison with the experimental data. Despite certain quantitative differences, the experimental and calculated data on the electronic structures of zirconium and its oxide are in good qualitative agreement.

Mikheeva, M. N.; Nazin, V. G., E-mail: nazin@isssph.kiae.ru; Kuznetsov, M. Yu. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Maksimov, E. G.; Vasilevskii, S. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Magnitskaya, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

44

Zirconium oxide coating improves implant osseointegration in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesZirconium is widely used as material for prosthetic devices because of its good mechanical and chemical properties. When exposed to oxygen, zirconium becomes zirconium oxide (ZO, chemically ZrO2) which is biocompatible. ZO can be also prepared as a colloidal suspension and then used to coat surfaces. Zirconium oxide coating (ZOC) can potentially have specific biologic effects.

Vincenzo Sollazzo; Furio Pezzetti; Antonio Scarano; Adriano Piattelli; Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; Leo Massari; Giorgio Brunelli; Francesco Carinci

2008-01-01

45

URANIUM DECONTAMINATION WITH RESPECT TO ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is given for separating uranium values from a nitric acid aqueous solution containing uranyl values, zirconium values and tetravalent plutonium values. The process comprises contacting said solution with a substantially water-immiscible liquid organic solvent containing alkyl phosphate, separating an organic extract phase containing the uranium, zirconium, and tetravalent plutonium values from an aqueous raffinate, contacting said organic extract phase with an aqueous solution 2M to 7M in nitric acid and also containing an oxalate ion-containing substance, and separating a uranium- containing organic raffinate from aqueous zirconium- and plutonium-containing extract phase.

Vogler, S.; Beederman, M.

1961-05-01

46

Ion implantation of zirconium alloys with hafnium  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for improving the corrosion resistance and hydrogen absorption resistance of zirconium alloy without changing the bulk properties of the alloy. The process consists the steps of ion plating a layer of approximately 300 Angstroms hafnium ions onto the surface of the zirconium alloy by sputtering, and driving the hafnium ions into the zirconium alloy by bombarding the layer with xenon ion doses of approximately 3 X 10/sup 16/ ions/cm/sup 2/ at an incident energy of about 50 keV.

Baty, D.L.; Young, W.C.; Lewis, D.E.

1989-07-18

47

European SEPG '97 Event Planner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Planner is designed to help you find your way around European SEPG'97 conference and tailor the event to your requirements. It contains: (1) a short abstract for each tutorial and conference presentation; (2) profile s of the speakers; and (3) a perm...

1997-01-01

48

47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication...RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or...

2012-10-01

49

47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication...RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or...

2009-10-01

50

47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication...RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or...

2011-10-01

51

47 CFR 97.217 - Telemetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telemetry. 97.217 Section 97.217 Telecommunication...RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or...

2010-10-01

52

21 CFR 808.97 - Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...97 Section 808.97 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS...of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.97...of the act because the Food and Drug...

2013-04-01

53

46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose...

2012-10-01

54

46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose...

2011-10-01

55

Joint Titrimetric Determination of Zirconium and Hafnium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the joint titrimetric determination of zirconium and hafnium, which are elements of similar chemical behaviour, is described. The disodic salt of the ethylendiaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) is used for titration, while xilenol orange serves as f...

C. Vazquez M. Botbol G. N. Bianco de Salas M. I. Cornell de Casas

1980-01-01

56

Process for producing zirconium based granules  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the production of amorphous zirconium based granules. It comprises forming a solution comprising Zr(R){sub 4} or zirconyl halide in an alcohol solvent, adding in either order an acid in an amount sufficient to acidify the solution comprising Zr(R){sub 4} or zirconyl halide to a pH in the range of about 2-5 and water in an amount sufficient to hydrolyze the Zr(R){sub 4} or zirconyl halide thereby forming a solution comprising a zirconium based complex; adding about 1-35 wt % of a suitable phase stabilizer to the resulting solution; and drying the solution comprising the zirconium based complex and phase stabilizer at a temperature below about 250{degrees} C. for a time sufficient to evaporate the solution thereby forming zirconium based granules containing the phase stabilizer.

Jada, S.S.

1991-10-01

57

Investigation of zirconium-containing aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new zirconium foundry alloy increases the physicochemical properties of aluminum due to the structure becoming finer and\\u000a the formation of strengthening phases of doping elements with aluminum.

V. M. Grigorev

2011-01-01

58

Hafnium-Zirconium Separation by Selective Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses an investigation directed toward selective reduction methods to recover most of the hafnium from zircon as hafnium-enriched zirconium-tetrachloride. Successive contacts of batches of mixed tetrachlorides were made with a reductant reg...

J. E. Mauser

1968-01-01

59

CD97 isoform expression in leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different adhesive capacity in interac- tions with CD55 has been ascribed to the isoforms of the leukocyte CD97 antigen, CD97 (EGF 1,2,5), CD97 (EGF 1,2,3,5), and CD97 (EGF 1,2,3,4,5). In the study, coexpression of the three CD97 isoforms and predominance of CD97 (EGF 1,2,5) transcripts in leukocytes are demonstrated. The contribution of CD97 (EGF 1,2,3,5) and CD97 (EGF 1,2,3,4,5) to

Wolfram Eichler

2000-01-01

60

Thermal stability of nanostructurally stabilized zirconium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructurally stabilized zirconium oxide (NSZ) hard transparent films were produced without chemical stabilizers by the ion beam assisted deposition technique (IBAD). A transmission electron microscopy study of the samples produced below 150 C revealed that these films are composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanocrystallites of diameters 7.5 2.3 nm. X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction studies suggested that the as-deposited

Fereydoon Namavar; Gonghua Wang; Chin Li Cheung; Renat F. Sabirianov; Xiao Cheng Zeng; Wai-Ning Mei; Jaeil Bai; Joseph R. Brewer; Hani Haider; Kevin L. Garvin

2007-01-01

61

METHOD OF IMPROVING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

An improved intermediate rinse for zirconium counteracts an anomalous deposit that often results in crevices and outof-the-way places when ordinary water is used to rinse away a strong fluoride etching solution designed to promote passivation of the metal. The intermediate rinse, which is used after the etching solution and before the water, is characterized by a complexing agent for fluoride ions such as aluminum or zirconium nitrates or chlorides.

Shannon, D.W.

1961-03-28

62

DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR  

DOEpatents

The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

Swanson, J.L.

1961-07-11

63

Penta-zirconium copper tribismuth  

PubMed Central

Pentazirconium copper tribismuth, Zr5CuBi3, crystallizes in the hexagonal Hf5CuSn3 structure type. The asymmetric unit contains two Zr sites (site symmetries 3.2 and m2m), one Cu site (site symmetry 3.m) and one Bi site (site symmetry m2m). The environment of the Bi atoms is a tetragonal antiprism with one added atom and a coordination number (CN) of 9. The polyhedron around the Zr1 atom is a defective cubooctahedron with CN = 11. The bicapped hexagonal antiprism (CN= 14) is typical for Zr2 atoms. The Cu atom is enclosed in a eight-vertex polyhedron (octahedron with two centered faces). The metallic type of bonding was indicated by an analysis of the interatomic distances and electronic structure calculation data.

Balinska, Agnieszka; Tarasiuk, Ivan; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr

2013-01-01

64

Electrochemical decomposition of complexes of zirconium or hafnium  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a method for separating hafnium from zirconium where a complex of zirconium and hafnium chlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the complex is subjected to a distillation to produce a hafnium chloride enriched stream of complex and a zirconium enriched chloride stream of complex. The improvement comprising: electrochemical breaking the zirconium or hafnium chloride complex from the distillation in a chloride or fluoride and chloride molten salt bath to produce the metal or a chloride oof zirconium or hafnium.

Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

1989-09-12

65

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Catalytic Activity of alpha-Zirconium Phosphate and Zirconium Phosphate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses were performed on alpha-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) and on an organic derivative of ZrP, zirconium phosphate sulfophenylphosphonate (ZrPS). The XPS results show that the change of half of the phosphate groups...

A. Clearfield C. R. Martin C. Y. Yang D. S. Thakur J. L. Colon

1990-01-01

66

Catalysis of terpene rearrangements by zirconium phosphates and zirconium organo-substituted phosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour phase catalysis of the dehydration of cyclohexanol, nerol and geraniol and of the thermal rearrangement of ?-pinene by unsubstituted zirconium phosphates has been compared with similar catalysis effected by organically pillared zirconium phosphates and with catalysis by alumina. Many of the observed differences in reaction rates can be rationalised by consideration of the acidity and surface area of the

M Conceiao Cruz Costa; Robert A. W. Johnstone; David Whittaker

1998-01-01

67

RECOVERY AND RECRYSTALLIZATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ITS ALLOYS. PART 2. ANNEALING OF COLD-WORKED ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness, x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and metallography ; were used to study the annealing of coldworked zirconium at temperatures from 300 ; to 800 deg C (570 to 1470 deg F). Cold work, annealing time, temperature, and ; furnace atmosphere were chosen as variables. Recrystallization of 25 and 50 per ; cent cold-worked zirconium occurred by nucleation and growth of

Gray

1961-01-01

68

Electrochemical-metallothermic reduction of zirconium in molten salt solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for separating hafnium from zirconium of the type wherein a feed containing zirconium and hafnium chlorides is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the feed is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a hafnium chloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. It comprises: reducing the zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the distillation column to metal by electrochemically reducing an alkaline earth metal in a molten salt bath with the molten salt in the molten salt bath consisting essentially of a mixture of at least one alkali metal chloride and at least one alkaline earth metal chloride and zirconium chloride, with the reduced alkaline earth metal reacting with the zirconium chloride to produce zirconium metal and alkaline earth metal chloride.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Talko, F.

1990-05-08

69

ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

2008-01-01

70

Zirconium Oxide Nanostructures Prepared by Anodic Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic films can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide film to flake off. Further studies are needed to define the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

Dang, Ying Yi [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2008-01-01

71

THE PRODUCTION OF DUCTILE HAFNIUM-FREE ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current processes for the production of zirconium metal from its ores ; are reviewed, particular attention being given to methods for the removal of ; hafnium. Two main routes for the production of ductile hafniumfree zirconium are ; recommended for investigation. A synopsis of the more important chemical and ; physical properties of zirconium is given as an appendix. (auth);

W. E. Dennis; A. F. Adamson

1954-01-01

72

Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon  

DOEpatents

A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

2013-07-02

73

Industrial applications of titanium and zirconium: Fourth volume  

SciTech Connect

This book presents industrial applications of titanium and zirconium. This book also contains information on other reactive and refractory metals, including niobium, tantalum, and hafnium. There are fourteen (14) peer-reviewed papers which target these subjects: the applications of titanium; the applications of zirconium and other reactive metals and the technology of titanium and zirconium.

Young; Durham

1986-01-01

74

ON THE MELTING AND FABRICATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ZIRCALOY2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies were carried out on the melting and fabrication of ; low purity reactor grade zirconium, high purity reactor grade zirconium, Zircaloy-; 2, and commercial zirconium. Sound ingots were obtained and it was recognized ; that hot workability (forging and rolling) was good. Effects of cold rolling, ; anneallng temperature, time, atmosphere, and cooling rate on the mechanical ;

Y. Kondo; S. Suzuki; M. F. Ugori

1959-01-01

75

Organo derivatives of zirconium-phosphate  

SciTech Connect

A series of alkyl and aryl diphosphonic acids in which the size of the alkyl and aryl group is systematically varied has been synthesized. The corresponding zirconium diphosphonates, mixed-component pillared zirconium phosphite/phosphate diphosphonates, mixed-component non-pillared zirconium phosphite phenyl phosphonates and their sulphonated derivatives have been prepared by various synthetic methods. An extensive study of the preparative conditions of these synthetic methods has been carried out. These compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TG analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, titration curves, surface area measurement, pore size distribution, solid state NMR and electron microscopic study. Their various possible applications were also investigated. Since the organic zirconium exchangers readily form membranes which quantitatively adsorb (Ru(bipy)/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ (bipsy = bipsyridyl) and methyl viologen, they serve as a convenient support for photochemically induced charge transfer reactions. The charge-transfer photochemical reaction between (Ru(bipy)/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ and (Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/ Cl)/sup 2 +/ in layered film of zirconium sulphophosphonate undergoes a limited cyclic photolytic water splitting reaction was described.

Yang, C.Y.

1986-01-01

76

Ion flux characteristics and efficiency of the deposition processes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium was investigated at the average target power density of up to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in a pulse. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron with a planar zirconium target of 100 mm diameter at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at duty cycles ranging from 4% to 10%. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at the substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. The increase in the average target power density from 0.97 kW cm{sup -2} to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in shortened voltage pulses (from 200 to 80 {mu}s) at an average target power density of 100 W cm{sup -2} in a period led to high fractions (21%-32%) of doubly charged zirconium ions in total ion fluxes onto the substrate located 100 mm from the target. However, the respective fractions of singly charged zirconium ions decreased from 23% to 3%. It was observed that ion energy distributions were extended to high energies (up to 100 eV relative to the ground potential) under these conditions. The increased target power densities during the shortened voltage pulses resulted in a reduced deposition rate of films from 590 to 440 nm/min and in a weakly decreasing ionized fraction (from 55% to 49%) of the sputtered zirconium atoms in the flux onto the substrate. The doubly charged zirconium ions became strongly predominant (up to 63%) in the total ion flux onto the substrate at the distance of 200 mm from the target. Model calculations were carried out to explain the complicated deposition processes.

Lazar, J.; Vlcek, J.; Rezek, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

2010-09-15

77

Review of zirconium-zircaloy pyrophoricity  

SciTech Connect

Massive zirconium metal scrap can be handled, shipped, and stored with no evidence of combustion or pyrophoricity hazards. Mechanically produced fine scrap such as shavings, turnings, or powders can burn but are not pyrophoric unless the particle diameter is less than 54 ..mu..m. Powders with particle diameters less than 54 ..mu..m can be both pyrophoric and explosive. Pyrophoric powders should be collected and stored underwater or under inert gas cover to reduce the flammability hazard. Opening sealed containers of zirconium stored underwater should be attempted with caution since hydrogen may be present. The factors that influence the ignition temperature have been explored in depth and recommendations are included for the safe handling, shipping, and storage of pyrophoric or flammable zirconium. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Cooper, T.D.

1984-11-01

78

46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.97-1 Section 111.97-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems §...

2012-10-01

79

14 CFR 61.97 - Aeronautical knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical knowledge. 61.97 Section 61... Recreational Pilots § 61.97 Aeronautical knowledge. (a) General...complete a home-study course on the aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph...

2010-01-01

80

47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply...

2012-10-01

81

47 CFR 97.511 - Examinee conduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 97.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.511 Examinee conduct. Each examinee must comply...

2011-10-01

82

28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12...DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport...of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may...

2013-07-01

83

29 CFR 97.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplies. 97.33 Section 97.33 Labor Office...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-07-01

84

28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12...DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport...of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may...

2009-07-01

85

28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12...DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport...of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 97.261 - EPA recordation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.261 Section 97.261 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.261 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as...

2011-07-01

87

40 CFR 97.61 - EPA recordation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.61 Section 97.61 Protection of Environment...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.61 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days of receiving a...

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 97.161 - EPA recordation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA recordation. 97.161 Section 97.161 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.161 EPA recordation. (a) Within 5 business days (except as...

2011-07-01

89

Neutron Resonance Parameters for Zr-93 (Zirconium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Zr-93 (Zirconium).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

90

Neutron Resonance Parameters for Zr93 (Zirconium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Zr-93 (Zirconium).

S. I. Sukhoruchkin; Z. N. Soroko

2009-01-01

91

Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State

M Kruelov; S Vratislav; L Kalvoda; M Dlouh

2012-01-01

92

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Zirconium and Hafnium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Domestic mine production of zircon, the principal ore mineral of zirconium and hafnium, increased in 1988. Zircon was mined by two companies in Florida as a coproduct of the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile and by one company in New Jersey from taili...

J. B. Hedrick

1988-01-01

93

International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

Towner, R. R.

1992-01-01

94

Zirconium oxidation on the atomic scale.  

PubMed

Zirconium alloys are used in the nuclear industry as fuel rod cladding. They are chosen for this role because of their good mechanical properties and low thermal neutron absorption. Oxidation of these alloys by coolant is one of the chief limiting factors of the fuel burn-up efficiency. The aim of the present study is to understand these oxidation mechanisms. As a first step, a fundamental study of the oxidation of commercially pure zirconium has been conducted using the 3D atom probe (3DAP). The current generation of 3DAPs allows both voltage and laser pulsing, providing data sets of many millions of ions. According to the literature the only stable oxide of zirconium is ZrO(2). However, the 3DAP shows that an initial layer a few nanometres thick forms with a composition of ZrO(1-)(x) when subjected to light oxidation. This result confirms and extends the work of Wadman et al. [Colloque de Physique 50 (1989) C8 303; Journal de Physique, 11 (1988) C6 49] and Wadman and Andrn [in: C.M. Euchen, A.M. Garde (Eds.), Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry: Ninth Symposium, ASTM STP 1132, ASTM, USA, 1991, p. 461], who used 1DAP techniques, obtaining reduced data sets. Segregation of hydrogen to the metal-oxide interface and a distinct ZrH phase were observed in this study. A novel kinetics study of the room temperature oxidation of zirconium showed the ZrO layer to be non-protective over the time period investigated (up to 1h). PMID:19101084

Hudson, Daniel; Cerezo, Alfred; Smith, George D W

2008-11-12

95

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...Substances § 721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic...identified generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

2009-07-01

97

40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

2009-01-01

99

40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421...SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

100

40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

2011-07-01

101

40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

2010-07-01

102

40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421...SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

103

40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421...SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of...

2009-07-01

104

Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

1989-10-17

105

Anodic electrodeposition of highly oriented zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate films.  

PubMed

Films of highly oriented alpha-zirconium phosphate and polyaniline-intercalated zirconium phosphate with controllable thickness in the micrometer range were grown anodically on Pt electrodes. To optimize the electrodeposition conditions, the exfoliation of alpha-zirconium phosphate by tetrabutylammonium (TBA) salts was investigated in several nonaqueous solvents. Acetonitrile was found to be the best solvent for making crack-free, oriented films because of its high vapor pressure, low viscosity, and relatively high permittivity. With TBA salts of neutral or weakly acidic anions (TBACl, TBABr, TBAI, TBA(HSO4), or TBA(H2PO4)), full exfoliation did not occur and alpha-zirconium phosphate and/or polyaniline were deposited as rough films. With basic anions (TBAF or TBAOH), dense, adherent films were obtained. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that they were highly oriented along the stacking axis. The thickness could be controlled, up to about 40 microm, by limiting the time of the electrodeposition reaction. At monomer concentrations below 1.0 x 10(-2) mol/dm3, the emeraldine form of the intercalated polymer was obtained. Electrodeposition thus provides a thick film alternative to layer-by-layer assembly for intercalation compounds of alpha-zirconium phosphate with a conducting polymer. PMID:17177412

Takei, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yoji; Hata, Hideo; Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu; Mallouk, Thomas E

2006-12-27

106

BAM Media M97: Mannitol Salt Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M97: Mannitol Salt Agar. January 2001. ... International Programs; News & Events; Training and Continuing Education; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

107

40 CFR 421.97 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid Plants Subcategory § 421.97...

2012-07-01

108

METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES  

DOEpatents

A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

Vetrano, J.B.

1962-01-23

109

Zirconium Bis(Amido) Catalysts for Asymmetric Intramolecular Alkene Hydroamination  

PubMed Central

In situ combination of diphosphinic amides and Zr(NMe2)4 results in the formation of chiral zirconium bis(amido) complexes. The complexes are competent catalysts for intramolecular asymmetric alkene hydroamintion, providing piperidines and pyrrolidines in up to 80% ee and high yield. This system utilizes an inexpensive zirconium precatalyst and readily prepared ligands and is the first asymmetric alkene hydroamination catalyst based upon a neutral zirconium bis(amido) complex.

Watson, Donald A.; Chiu, Melanie

2008-01-01

110

Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl{sub 3} in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl{sub 3} is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system.

Voit, D.O.

1992-01-07

111

XPS studies of zirconium complexes on polymer surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four pure zirconium carboxylate complexes, [Zr(acac) 4], [Zr(acac) 3Cl], [Zr(acac) 2(crotonate) 2] and [Zr(acac) 2(benzoate) 2], hav been prepared and used as "model" surfactants on polythylene surfaces. From XPS spectra of the pure zirconium complexes and the acid-etched polymer surface, before and after treatment with ethanolic zirconium carboxylate solutions, it was concluded that the zirconium species were chemically bound or chemically reacted with the polymer surface and that [Zr(acac) 4] interacted to the greatest extent.

Palmer, D. M.; Straughan, B. P.; Treverton, J. A.

1993-06-01

112

Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys  

DOEpatents

It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

Rosecrans, P.M.

1984-08-01

113

Removal of zirconium from hydrous titanium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed for removing zirconium (Zr) from hydrous titanium dioxide (HTD) by the NaF solution. The effects of main parameters, i.e. pH values, NaF dosage, temperature and retention time, on the removal of zirconium were studied. The optimal conditions were found as the following: pH value, <5.5; molar ratio of NaF to TiO2, 0.6; retention time, 80 min; and temperature, 80C. The removal rate of Zr under the optimized conditions was above 87.7%. The adsorption energy of the preferential absorption of hydrofluoric acid for Zr(OH)2SO4(OH2) on the (001) crystal surface of HTD was determined by theoretical calculation. The possible mechanism of the removal process was also discussed.

Ma, Xue-qin; Liu, Ya-hui; Chu, Jing-long; Li, Jie; Xue, Tian-yan; Wang, Li-na; Qi, Tao

2013-01-01

114

Thermal sprayed zirconium coatings for corrosion resistance  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) is conducted in inert reduced pressures. This results in higher particle velocities than in atmospheric plasma spraying. Reverse arc sputter cleaning and pre-heating of the workpiece lead to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, allowing sintering of the coating and, thus, enhanced densities and bond strengths. Inert Environment Electric Arc Spraying (IEAS) is performed in inert gas chambers, utilizing wire as the feedstock. This leads to lower gas content in the coating, since the initial gas content in wire is lower than that of the powder feedstock used in VPS. Controlled atmosphere sprayed zirconium coatings had inferior mechanical and corrosion properties when compared with bulk zirconium. The VPS coatings displayed higher bond strengths and better cavitation erosion resistance than did the IEAS coatings. The IEAS coatings had lower gas content and showed better electrochemical and corrosion behavior. The lower gas content for IEAS was due to a lower initial gas level in the wire feedstock used in this process. Also, scanning electron microscopy revealed that larger particles result in the IEAS process. Thus, a smaller surface-area-to-volume ratio is available for gas-metal reactions to occur. Improvements in mechanical and corrosion properties for the IEAS coatings were due to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition. Compressive surface stresses induced by post-spray shot-peening enhanced corrosion and cavitation resistance of IEAS coatings. Coating porosity caused failure during immersion testing. Therefore, it was concluded that controlled environment thermal spraying of zirconium is not suitable for forming corrosion resistant coatings on steel. ZrN coatings were formed by electric arc spraying using a nitrogen shroud and post-spray nitriding. Two phases; ZrN and zirconium solid solution, exist in the as-sprayed coating. Nitriding increases the proportion of ZrN.

Bamola, R.K.

1992-01-01

115

Autohydration of Nanosized Cubic Zirconium Tungstate  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticulate zirconium tungstate prepared through hydrothermal methods was found to autohydrate under ambient conditions. This results in positive thermal expansion, limiting its usefulness for controlled thermal expansion composites. TEM and BET studies provided strong evidence that the cause of autohydration is a result of structural defects present in the nanoparticles, while kinetics are governed by surface area, suggesting that processing methods can be used to minimize or overcome this problem.

2010-01-01

116

Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague. Procedures for studying textures with thermal neutrons and procedures for obtaining texture parameters (direct and inverse pole figures, three dimensional orientation distribution function) are also described. Observed data were processed by software packages HEXAL and GSAS. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) All samples of zirconium alloys show the distribution of middle area into two maxima in basal pole figures. This is caused by alloying elements. A characteristic split of the basal pole maxima tilted from the normal direction toward the transverse direction can be observed for all samples, ii) Sheet samples prefer orientation of planes (100) and (110) perpendicular to rolling direction and orientation of planes (002) perpendicular to normal direction, iii) Basal planes of tubes are oriented parallel to tube axis, meanwhile (100) planes are oriented perpendicular to tube axis. Level of resulting texture and maxima position is different for tubes and for sheets. The obtained results are characteristic for zirconium based alloys.

Kruelov, M.; Vratislav, S.; Kalvoda, L.; Dlouh, M.

2012-02-01

117

Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

Alford, W. C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C. E.

1951-01-01

118

40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification...days of recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer under § 97.361...days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to...

2013-07-01

119

40 CFR 97.150 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.150 Section 97.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR...

2013-07-01

120

40 CFR 97.6 - Standard requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...opt-in unit under § 97.86 or § 97.87. (2) Each ton of nitrogen oxides emitted in excess of the NOX Budget... Budget Trading Program is a limited authorization to emit one ton of nitrogen oxides in accordance with the NOX...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification...days of recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer under § 97.361...days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 97.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Maximum potential NO X emission rate means...concentration of NOX under section 2 of appendix A of part 75... Budget units. NO X Budget Trading Program...ozone precursor. NO X Budget unit means a...under §§ 97.22(d)(2) and 97.80,...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 97.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Maximum potential NO X emission rate means...concentration of NOX under section 2 of appendix A of part 75... Budget units. NO X Budget Trading Program...ozone precursor. NO X Budget unit means a...under §§ 97.22(d)(2) and 97.80,...

2009-07-01

124

A0 Photo-Injector: Experiments with Gun A June 97 to December 97  

SciTech Connect

An RF photo-injector was installed at Fermilab between January and June 97. The photo-injector produced its first beam on 4 June 97. This report provides a brief description of the accelerator and a summary of the experiments carried out through December '97.

Carneiro, J.P.; Carrigan, R.A.; Champion, M.S.; Cianchi, A.; Colby, E.R.; Colestock, P.L.; Edwards, H.T.; Fuerst, J.D.; Hartung, W.H.; Koepke, K.P.; Kuchnir, M.; Santucci, J.K.; Spentzouris, L.K.; /Fermilab; Fitch, M.J.; Fry, A.R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Taylor, B.D.; /Rochester U.

1999-01-01

125

SPECIFICATION OF ZIRCONIUM FOR USE IN GASLESS MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to determine the relationship between the ; properties of zirconium powder and the properties of heat powders or delay ; compositions and to arrive at a suitable specification. Seventeen samples were ; examined. The data show that the important points to be specified are the total ; zirconium content, the ignition gain, the hydrogen content, the

R. E. Mcintyre; M. L. Couch

1960-01-01

126

Silver electrowinning from photographic fixing solutions using zirconium cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable electrochemical conditions for using zirconium as a cathode in the electrochemical recovery of silver from photographic fixing solutions were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of the thin, natural zirconium oxide layer was investigated. A flowing system was tested to simulate industrial electrolysis and determine the recovery efficiency, the compactness and purity of the recovered silver. The influence of

M Chatelut; E Gobert; O Vittori

2000-01-01

127

Temperature dependence of lattice parameters of alpha-zirconium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a brief review of X-ray and thermal expansion determination of lattice parameters for (alpha)-Zirconium. Data reported by different authors cover almost all the field of existence of the hexagonal phase of Zirconium, from temperatures a...

R. A. Versaci M. Ipohorski

1991-01-01

128

Molten salt scrubbing of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous process for removing impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both from vaporous zirconium or hafnium chloride or both. It comprises: introducing impure zirconium or hafnium chloride vapor or both into a middle portion of an absorbing column containing a molten salt phase, the molten salt phase absorbing the impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both to produce chloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium chloride; introducing sodium or potassium chloride or both into a top portion of the column; controlling the top portion of the column to between 300--375{degrees} C.; heating a bottom portion of the column to 450--550{degrees} C. To vaporize zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride from the molten salt; withdrawing molten salt substantially free of zirconium and hafnium chloride from the bottom portion of the column; and withdrawing zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride vapor substantially free of impurities of iron and aluminum chloride from the top of the column.

Lee, E.D.; McLaughlin, D.F.

1990-04-03

129

Dissolution of Anodic Zirconium Dioxide Films in Aqueous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium with a low thermal neutron cross section, good corrosion resistance in high-temperature water, and high thermal conductivity is an ideal material for nuclear reactors. Its good resistance to water and steam at reactor temperatures is of the greatest interest to nuclear fuel designers. Dissolution of zirconium dioxide (ZrO) films in aggressive media was investigated. The extent of uniform and

A. Merati; B. Cox

1999-01-01

130

Zirconium-hafnium production in a zero liquid discharge process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a zero liquid discharge, continuous process for separating and purifying zirconium and hafnium which substantially eliminates waste disposal problems. It comprises preparing a concentrated aqueous zirconium and hafnium-containing feed solution; loading the feed solution into a resin medium at a first point on a continuous annular chromatograph; feeding an aqueous acid eluant to the resin medium at

T. S. Snyder; E. D. Lee

1992-01-01

131

Process of precipitating zirconium or hafnium from spent pickling solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for regenerating a spent, fluoride-containing pickle solution used in the pickling of zirconium or hafnium metal or their alloys. It comprises adding to the spent pickle solution a sufficient amount of sodium sulfate to precipitate sodium zirconium or hafnium fluoride.

Aguilar, C.L.; Walker, R.G.

1991-12-31

132

Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase,

D. F. McLaughlin; R. A. Stoltz

1989-01-01

133

Status report and plant proposals for zirconium purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a summary of the latest improvements in zirconium purification as developed by the Y-12 research, pilot plant, production, and engineering groups, all of whom have been generously cooperating in this project. Four distinct plant estimates are also proposed for the construction and operation of permanent zirconium purification facilities.

1950-01-01

134

PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. ; jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 ; to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably ; while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is ; described. (AEC)

A. A. Jonke; J. J. Barghusen; N. M. Levitz

1962-01-01

135

Determination of fracture strength of ?-zirconium hydrides embedded in zirconium matrix at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fracture strength of ?-zirconium hydrides embedded in a zirconium matrix was determined at temperatures between 25 C and 250 C by ring tensile tests using Zircaloy-2 tubes. Essentially all of the present hydrides in the tubes were re-oriented in the radial direction by a temperature cycling treatment and then tensile stress was applied perpendicular to the hydrides to ensure that brittle fracture would occur at the hydrides. The hydrides failed in a brittle manner below 100 C where-as the zirconium matrix itself underwent ductile fracture without hydride cracking at temperatures above 200 C under plane stress condition. Brittle fracture of the hydrides continued to occur at temperatures up to 250 C under plane strain condition, suggesting that the upper limit temperature for hydride fracture, Tupper, was raised by the triaxial stress state under the plane strain condition. The apparent fracture strength of the hydrides, ?hydridef, was determined at temperatures below Tupper from the measured fracture strength of the tubes, making a correction for the compressive transformation stress in the hydrides. ?hydridef was about 710 MPa at temperatures between 25 C and 250 C at both plane stress and plane strain conditions. The temperature dependency was very small in this temperature range. Tupper was almost equivalent to the cross-over temperature between ?hydridef and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which suggests that, at temperatures above Tupper, the zirconium matrix would undergo ductile fracture before the stress in the hydride is raised above ?hydridef, since UTS is smaller than ?hydridef.

Kubo, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Uchikoshi, H.

2013-04-01

136

PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS  

DOEpatents

A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is described. (AEC)

Jonke, A.A.; Barghusen, J.J.; Levitz, N.M.

1962-08-14

137

Zirconium-hafnium production in a zero liquid discharge process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a zero liquid discharge, continuous process for separating and purifying zirconium and hafnium which substantially eliminates waste disposal problems. It comprises preparing a concentrated aqueous zirconium and hafnium-containing feed solution; loading the feed solution into a resin medium at a first point on a continuous annular chromatograph; feeding an aqueous acid eluant to the resin medium at a second point angularly displaced from the first point on the chromatograph to elute the feed solution; continuously rotating the chromatograph; separately collecting a substantially pure zirconium fraction, a substantially pure hafnium fraction and at least one waste fraction at locations on the annular chromatograph angularly and longitudinally displaced from the first point; further separately processing the zirconium fraction and the hafnium fraction to produce nuclear quality zirconium metal and hafnium metal; subjecting the waste fraction to volume reduction and disposing of the waste fraction as a dry solid; and recycling the acid eluant for reuse.

Snyder, T.S.; Lee, E.D.

1992-05-12

138

Uranium-preextraction in zirconium/hafnium separations processs  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process for recovering zirconium values from uranium containing zircon ore. The process comprising a fluidized bed carbochlorination of the zircon ore at 800{degrees}--1250{degrees} C., producing a relatively impure, hafnium-containing zirconium tetrachloride stream and by-product silicon tetrachloride, which silicon tetrachloride by-product is separated by differential condensation, and wherein uranium chloride is volatilized at the ore chlorinator temperature and follows as an impurity in the zirconium-hafnium tetrachloride stream, mixing the zirconium-hafnium tetrachloride with water to produce a zirconium-hafnium oxychloride solution, and removing iron impurities by liquid--liquid iron extraction with a methyl isobutyl ketone extractant.

Feuling, R.J.

1990-04-03

139

40 CFR 97.54 - Compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.54 Compliance. (a) NOX allowance transfer...

2011-07-01

140

30 CFR 7.97 - Application requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...97 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric...lines, radiator, surge tank, temperature sensors, and orifices...subpart. (2) The coolant temperature sensor setting and...

2013-07-01

141

46 CFR 97.10-1 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all vessels carrying...

2012-10-01

142

46 CFR 97.37-3 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-3 General...subpart red letters are specified, letters of a contrasting color on a red background will be...

2012-10-01

143

40 CFR 97.350 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.350...

2011-07-01

144

40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future...section. (b) Any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance that is held in a...

2013-07-01

145

40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.361 EPA...section) of receiving a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer, the Administrator will record a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer by moving each...

2013-07-01

146

47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control...

2011-10-01

147

47 CFR 97.521 - VEC qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97...organization that exists for the purpose of furthering the amateur service; (b) Be capable of serving as a...

2012-10-01

148

47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control...

2012-10-01

149

47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder...

2011-10-01

150

47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician,...

2012-10-01

151

47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder...

2012-10-01

152

46 CFR 111.97-7 - Distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-7 Distribution. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

153

METHOD FOR DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM COMPOSITIONS  

DOEpatents

A method is descrioed for treating a zirconium-- uranium composition to form a stable solution from which uranium and other values may be extracted by contacting the composition with at least a 4 molar aqueous solution of ammonium fluoride at a temperature of about 100 deg C, adding a peroxide, in incremental amounts, to the heated solution throughout the period of dissolution until all of the uranium is converted to soluble uranyl salt, adding nitric acid to the resultant solution to form a solvent extraction feed solution to convert the uranyl salt to a solvent extractable state, and thereafter recovering the uranium and other desired values from the feed solution by solvent extraction.

Gens, T.A.

1961-07-18

154

High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO4 and Zr3GeO8 up to 2300 C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO2 was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO4 and Zr3GeO8 were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO2 product is discussed.

Utkin, A. V.; Baklanova, N. I.; Vasilyeva, I. G.

2013-05-01

155

ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY  

DOEpatents

A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

1962-06-12

156

Shell model description of zirconium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the low-lying spectra and several high-spin states of zirconium isotopes (Z=40) with neutron numbers from N=50 to N=58 using a large valence space with the {sup 78}Ni inert core, which a priori allows one to study the interplay between spherical and deformed configurations, necessary for the description of nuclides in this part of the nuclear chart. The effective interaction is derived by monopole corrections of the realistic G matrix. We reproduce essential nuclear properties, such as subshell closures in {sup 96}Zr and {sup 98}Zr. The spherical-to-deformed shape transition in {sup 100}Zr is addressed as well.

Sieja, K. [GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH., Planckstrasse 1, D-64-220 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nowacki, F. [Institute Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg (France); Langanke, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH., Planckstrasse 1, D-64-220 Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-06-15

157

The irradiation effects on zirconium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure tube samples were irradiated under helium atmosphere in the TRIGA Steady State Research and Material Test Reactor of the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). These samples are made of the Zr 2.5%Nb alloy used as structural material for the CANDU Romanian power reactors. After irradiation, mechanical tests were performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) to study the influence of irradiation on zirconium alloys mechanical behaviour. The tensile test results were used for structural integrity assessment. Results of the tests are presented. The paper presents, also, pressure tube structural integrity assessment.

Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Ionescu, S.; Stefan, V.; Uta, O.; Prisecaru, I.; Danila, N.

2007-05-01

158

Retrospective Reactor Dosimetry with Zirconium Alloy Samples  

SciTech Connect

Retrospective measurements are routinely performed with stainless steel samples. Recent experiments have been successfully conducted using zirconium alloy samples, involving somewhat different neuron activation reactions than are normally encountered with stainless steel samples. The alloy composition consisted of nominally 1% (by weight) niobium, 1% tin, and 0.1% iron, with the balance zirconium. The activation products observed in the samples by gamma spectroscopy included Zr-95, Nb-95, Sn-113, Sb-125, Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, and Ta-182. The niobium was then chemically separated following ASTM procedure E1297 and the Nb-93m activities were measured by x-ray spectroscopy. The thermal neutron fluences, as determined independently by the neutron capture gamma reactions to Zr-95, Sn-113, Nb-94, and Sn/Sb-125, were in excellent agreement. The fast neutron fluences, as determined separately by the Fe-54(n,p)Mn-54 and Nb-93(n,n)Nb-93m reactions, were also in good agreement, thus demonstrating the versatility of the retrospective dosimetry technique.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Foster, John P.

2009-11-01

159

Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

Vykhodets, V. B.; Kurennykh, T. E.; Kesarev, A. G.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kondrat'ev, V. V.; Hlsen, C.; Koester, U.

2011-03-01

160

RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS  

DOEpatents

An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

Gens, T.A.

1962-07-10

161

METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

Angier, R.P.

1958-02-11

162

Ballistic effectiveness of superdense solid composite propellants with zirconium or zirconium hydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ballistic effectiveness of propellants depends not only on the value of specific impulse but also on many other performances, primarily on the density. Despite the density itself does not enter the expression of the rocket velocity (W = Isp ln(Mlaunch/Mfinish) where Mlaunch and Mfinish are the rocket launch mass and its mass after the propellant is burnt, respectively), it inuences the value Mlaunch/Mfinish of the specific rocket. If one charges the construction of fixed volume with a more dense propellant, the ratio Mlaunch/Mfinish increases and, consequently, W increases as well. In this paper, the possibility of creating solid composite propellants (SCP) with zirconium (density 6.49 g/cm3) and zirconium hydride (density 5.61 g/cm3 ) as energetic compounds instead of aluminum is considered. It was found for what kinds of engines these propellants have to be more effective than propellants based on aluminum.

Lempert, D.; Manelis, G.; Nechiporenko, G.

2011-10-01

163

Syntheses and structural characterization of zirconium-tin and zirconium-lead binary and ternary systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The binary zirconium-tin system was reinvestigated. The A15 phase appears to be a line phase with a Zr(sub 4)Sn composition. The Zr(sub 5)Sn(sub 3) (Mn(sub 5)Si(sub 3)-type) and Zr(sub 5)Sn(sub 4) (Ti(sub 5)Ga(sub 4)-type) compounds are line phases below ...

Y. U. Kwon

1991-01-01

164

Erosive Resistance of Zirconium Dioxide, Stabilized by Yttrium Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented from the study of the erosion resistance of zirconium dioxide stabilized by yttrium oxide under conditions corresponding to the function of electrodes in the channel of an open cycle type MHD generator. It is experimentally shown tha...

A. B. Ivanov A. I. Rekov I. S. Mayauskas R. I. Abraitis V. G. Gordon

1971-01-01

165

PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND FLUORIDE IONS FROM SOLUTIONS  

DOEpatents

A process is given for removing zirconium and fluorine ions from aqueous solutions also containing uranium(VI). The precipitation is carried out with sodium formate, and the uranium remains in solution. (AEC)

Newby, B.J.

1963-06-11

166

Extractive separation of uranium and zirconium sulfates by amines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an amine extraction process for zirconium and uranium separation. The behaviour of an extraction system containing uranium (VI) sulfate, zirconium (IV) sulfate, 0.2 and 0.5 M sulfuric acid (as the original aqueous phase), tertiary amine tri-n-lauryl- amine or primary amine Primene JMT in benzene (as the original organic phase) is discussed on the basis of equilibrium data. The measured dependences show that the degree of extraction of zirconium at the sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5 M and above is only slightly affected by a presence of uranium in solution. From this surprising behaviour it follows that zirconium may be employed for the displacement of uranium from the organic phase. This effect is more pronounced with the primary amine Primene JMT than with TLA. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Schroetterova, D.; Nekovar, P.; Mrnka, M. [Prague Inst. of Chemical Technology (Czechoslovakia)

1992-04-01

167

Chemical Tinting of Hafnium and Zirconium Carbides for Metallographic Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An etchant is described that imparts color to the surface of hafnium and to zirconium carbide metallographic specimens. These colors not only provide a sharp delineation of individual grains, but also define the boundaries of eutectic colonies that contai...

R. L. Joyce K. R. Janowski J. H. Richardson

1967-01-01

168

Separation of zirconium from hafnium by solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction with a tertiary amine from sulfuric acid solution is improved by addition of water-soluble alpha -hydroxycarboxylic acid to the aqueous phase.

Macdonald, D.J.

1980-11-04

169

SHORT SURVEY OF THE SEPARATION METHODS FOR ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a discussion of the essential ways to use zircondum as a ; construction material for nuclear reactors, a critical review is given of the ; most common chemical methods for separation of zirconium and hafnium. (auth);

Getoff

1958-01-01

170

Review of Anhydrous Zirconium-Hafnium Separation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen nonaqueous techniques conceived to replace the current aqueous scheme for separating hafnium and zirconium tetrachlorides were reviewed and evaluated by the Bureau of Mines. The methods are divided into two classes: separation by fractional volati...

D. B. Hunter D. T. Rogers R. L. Skaggs

1983-01-01

171

Separation of zirconium from hafnium by solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction with a tertiary amine from sulfuric acid solution is improved by addition of water-soluble alpha -hydroxycarboxylic acid to the aqueous phase.

1980-01-01

172

Zirconium as a Structural Material for Naval Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important basic physical properties and steps in the manufacture of elemental zirconium and several of its important alloys are discussed. Once considered prohibitively expensive for structural uses, its current cost is becoming competitive with other...

W. A. Ferrando

1985-01-01

173

40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

2009-07-01

174

Technology Purchasing Forecast, 1996-97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quality Education Data is an education research firm identifies and tracks the use of technology in education. QED surveyed a selection of all public school districts and schools in the United States about technology trends. This report provides statistics for hardware, software, and network purchases in K-12 schools for 1996-97 as compared to

Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

175

40 CFR 97.6 - Standard requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...paragraph (c) of this section. (c) Nitrogen oxides requirements. (1) The owners...86 or § 97.87. (2) Each ton of nitrogen oxides emitted in excess of the NOX...limited authorization to emit one ton of nitrogen oxides in accordance with the NOX...

2011-07-01

176

40 CFR 97.380 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.380 Applicability. A CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit must be a unit that...establishing procedures concerning CAIR Ozone Season opt-in units; (b) Is not a...

2013-07-01

177

40 CFR 97.381 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.381 General...through HHHH of this part, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit shall be treated as a CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit for purposes of applying such...

2011-07-01

178

40 CFR 97.380 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.380 Applicability. A CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit must be a unit that...establishing procedures concerning CAIR Ozone Season opt-in units; (b) Is not a...

2011-07-01

179

40 CFR 97.308 - Appeal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.308 Appeal procedures...for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78 of this...

2011-07-01

180

40 CFR 97.356 - Account error.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.356 Account error...or her own motion, correct any error in any CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System account. Within 10 business days...

2011-07-01

181

40 CFR 97.301 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.301 Purpose...for the Federal Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) NOX Ozone Season Trading Program, under section 110 of the Clean Air Act...

2011-07-01

182

40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account representative. 97.11 Section 97...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.11 Alternate NOX authorized account representative. (a) An...

2013-07-01

183

47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station. 97.221 Section 97.221 Telecommunication... Special Operations § 97.221 Automatically controlled digital station. (a) This rule section does not apply to...

2012-10-01

184

40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60 Protection...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.60 Submission of NOX allowance transfers. The NOX authorized account...

2013-07-01

185

47 CFR 97.215 - Telecommand of model craft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Telecommand of model craft. 97.215 Section 97.215...Operations § 97.215 Telecommand of model craft. An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model craft may be operated as follows:...

2011-10-01

186

47 CFR 97.215 - Telecommand of model craft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Telecommand of model craft. 97.215 Section 97.215...Operations § 97.215 Telecommand of model craft. An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model craft may be operated as follows:...

2012-10-01

187

Strength of zirconium carbide composites with disperse carbon inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of 0.2- to 6-m carbon particles into zirconium carbide leads to a nonmonotonic variation of the strength, fracture toughness, and thermal fatigue resistance of the resultant zirconium carbide-carbon composites as functions of free carbon content, with maxima at about 2.5 wt. %. Coarser (50-m) carbon particles added in larger quantities have a deleterious effect on the strength properties.

P. V. Gerasimov; V. S. Egorov; A. G. Lanin; L. B. Nezhevenko; V. A. Sokolov

1982-01-01

188

Synthesis of spherical mesostructured zirconium phosphate with acidic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical particles of mesoporous zirconium phosphate with excellent acidic properties have been prepared using a zirconium carbonate complex, diammonium hydrogen phosphate and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTBr) in basic medium through precipitation. EDAX analysis of the calcined product has shown the P\\/Zr ratio 1.93. High specific surface area of 299m2\\/g with narrow pore size distribution has been achieved after the removal of

A. Tarafdar; A. B. Panda; N. C. Pradhan; P. Pramanik

2006-01-01

189

Fabrication and characterization of uraniumthoriumzirconium hydrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two uraniumthoriumzirconium hydrides, (UTh4Zr10)H1.9 and (U4Th2Zr9)H1.5, have been fabricated and characterized. Fabrication involved arc melting of the constituent pure metals to form homogenous alloys, followed by hydriding at elevated temperatures in a hydrogen gas environment. The compounds were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These methods revealed a multi-phase mixture of ?-zirconium hydride

Kurt A. Terrani; G. W. Chinthaka Silva; Charles B. Yeamans; Mehdi Balooch; Donald R. Olander

2009-01-01

190

Zirconium and hafnium with low oxygen and iron  

SciTech Connect

A high purity zirconium sponge or hafnium sponge is described consisting of 250-about 350 ppm of oxygen impurity, 50-350 ppm of iron impurity, total impurities of 500-1,000 ppm, with the remainder being zirconium or hafnium, whereby an inexpensive intermediate product is provided which can be processed for use in applications requiring high purity material, without resorting to expensive crystal bar processing.

Kwon, Y.J.

1988-02-02

191

Computer Simulation of Zirconium-Hafnium Separation by Countercurrent Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carrying out research and development on an improved method for production of reactor-grade zirconium oxide, the Bureau of Mines has prepared a computer program capable of accurately predicting the stage-by-stage performance of a multistage countercurrent solvent extraction system for separation of zirconium from hafnium using a tertiary amine extractant. The results were used to plan laboratory experiments using a

D. J. Mac Donald

1981-01-01

192

Uranium-preextraction in zirconium\\/hafnium separations processs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a process for recovering zirconium values from uranium containing zircon ore. The process comprising a fluidized bed carbochlorination of the zircon ore at 800°--1250° C., producing a relatively impure, hafnium-containing zirconium tetrachloride stream and by-product silicon tetrachloride, which silicon tetrachloride by-product is separated by differential condensation, and wherein uranium chloride is volatilized at the

Feuling

1990-01-01

193

Numerical simulation of irradiation hardening in Zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase field model is developed to simulate interactions between gliding dislocations and irradiation induced damage loops (i.e., vacancy and self-interstitial loops) in Zirconium. Pinning contact interactions and long-range elastic interactions are simulated, with populations of defects generated based on experimental observations of typical damage microstructures in irradiated Zr. The model is employed to simulate irradiation hardening as a function of damage loop density. We find that the stress fields of damage loops contribute significantly to their effective obstacle strength, and that the elastic interactions cause the dependence of critical resolved shear stress on damage loop number density to deviate from analytical predictions of dispersed barrier hardening. The simulation predictions of the yield strength agree well with experimental measurements for different damage loop densities.

Boyne, A.; Shen, C.; Najafabadi, R.; Wang, Y.

2013-07-01

194

Zirconium deformation behavior: insights from EBSD measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The deformation of crystal-bar zirconium was investigated as a function of strain and strain rate through electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) characterization. The resultant data provided spatially resolved information on microstructure and texture evolution, individual twin system activity, and subsequent strain partitioning between twinned volume and parent grains. A range of deformation conditions was represented through quasi-static compression, 4-point beam bend tests at room and cryogenic temperature, and Taylor cylinder impact experiments. Effects from the interplay between slip and twinning deformation modes on anisotropic plasticity are considered in order to address the apparent trend toward isotropy at high rates. The role of various length scales on deformation behavior will be considered, along with the implications of these length scales on the assumptions typically invoked for plasticity modeling.

Bingert, J. F. (John F.); Mason, T. A. (Thomas A.); Kaschner, G. C. (George C.); Maudlin, P. J. (Paul J.); Gray, G. T. (George T.), III

2001-01-01

195

[Preparation and characterization of zirconium hydroxide powder for fluoride adsorption].  

PubMed

The method co-precipitation was applied to preparation the zirconium hydroxide as a type drinking-water defluoridation adsorbent. The effect of the preparation conditions on the adsorptive capacity was studied. The optimization of preparation condition for zirconium hydroxide concludes that co-precipitation time is 10 h, pH value is 7.0, drying time is 72 h, calcination temperature is below 100 degrees C. Also, the adsorbent samples were characterized. SEM measurements reveal that zirconium hydroxide powder are constructed by several small particles, with a diameter about 20-30 microm. XRD and TG/DTA measurements show that the zirconium hydroxide samples have amorphous phase and converse to tetragonal phase when calcined at 600 degrees C. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements show that samples have large surface areas of 138.4 m2/g and a 2 nm average pore size distribution in the mesopore region. The performance of zirconium hydroxide regeneration process was investigated. The results show that the regeneration techniques are very suitable to restore the fluorine-removal ability for zirconium hydroxide. PMID:20825020

Yang, Shuo; Dou, Xiao-min; Liang, Wen-yan; Wang, Yi-li; Lin, Wei

2010-07-01

196

A Zirconium Cermet for Transuranic Isotope Storage and Burning  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) isotopes comprise {approx} 1% of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory from commercial light water reactors and supply the majority of the late-term (>300 years) heat load produced by SNF. These isotopes also have significant potential fission energy content that could be recovered in a fast reactor or accelerator driven system. Estimates by Wigeland, et al. suggest that removal of 99.9% of TRU isotopes and 97% of cesium, strontium, and europium from SNF could increase the linear drift load (i.e. capacity) of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, NV by an order of magnitude. In other words, the waste packing capacity in Yucca Mt. would be increased and the recovered TRU could be used in a fast reactor system for energy production. One of the goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop advanced nuclear technologies to recycle spent nuclear fuel without separating pure plutonium. The UREX+ family of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes can be manipulated to isolate TRU isotopes from uranium and other short-lived isotopes while leaving the Pu intimately mixed with other minor actinides (this corresponds with the UREX+1a process). The product TRU nitrate solution can be converted into oxide microspheres via direct denitration or sol-gel processing, leaving the TRU product in a stable oxide form for further processing. In addition, nuclear-grade zirconium metal can be recovered by recycling Zircaloy from the spent fuel cladding after the fuel has been chopped and dissolved away. The Zircaloy cladding hulls may be processed via a hydride/de-hydride process to produce high purity zirconium powder.These powder products can be combined via powder metallurgy techniques to produce a stable, safe storage form for TRU waste with the possibility of converting a long term waste liability into an advanced energy resource. Previous work by McDeavitt et al. at Argonne National Laboratory analyzed the production of a (Th,U)O-2-Zr cermet fuel using a cold-drawing process. This was a multi-pass process wherein a series of reductions were performed on each individual rod with a high temperature anneal between successive reductions to relieve strain hardening. This process allowed excellent control over the finished product matrix density allowing the user to pre-select the desired density by manipulating the reduction scheme. The final cold-drawn cermet contained a large fraction of damaged oxide particles, though the cause of this damage was not investigated due to project time constraints. It is believed that the high stress profile developed during cold deformation was the primary cause of this damage. The Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory (FCML) at Texas A and M University is currently analyzing a hot extrusion process to fabricate the proposed cermet and provide comparison data with the previous work. Initial studies have been completed and a system redesign is near completion. This paper presents the initial findings of the initial work and describes the new system setup. (authors)

Totemeier, Aaron R.; McDeavitt, Sean M. [Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2007-07-01

197

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 97  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

APEC 97 is the official site for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders and Ministers meeting held in Vancouver, Canada from November 21 to November 25, 1997. It provides a short history of APEC, short biographical notes on the leaders and ministers attending the meeting, in-depth information about the APEC economies, listings of venues and events, and a news section with up-to-date news of APEC 97. APEC is a grouping of 18 Asia-Pacific economies formed in 1989 to promote trade and cooperation in the region. Traditionally, the APEC meeting has focused on trade issues, but this year's focus was the economic crisis in Southeast Asia and South Korea.

198

Vancouver Sun APEC 97 news archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vancouver Sun provides a comprehensive news archive of the issues and events at APEC 97, the APEC Leaders and Ministers meeting held in Vancouver, Canada from November 21 to November 25, 1997. APEC is a grouping of 18 Asia-Pacific economies formed in 1989 to promote trade and cooperation in the region. Traditionally, the APEC meeting has focused on trade issues, but this year's focus was the economic crisis in Southeast Asia and South Korea.

199

New cholescintigraphic agent: ruthenium-97-DISIDA  

SciTech Connect

These studies demonstrate the first application of Ru-97-DISIDA in human subjects. High quality images were obtained. Scintigraphic findings in patients with hepatobiliary disorders were consistent with the biodistribution data obtained in experinmental animals and with other imaging procedures and clinical findings. Administration of Ru-97-DISIDA I.V. and of a solid test meal labeled with Tc-99m-Sulfur Colloid allowed simulateneous detection and quantification of deodenogastric reflux and determination of the gastric emptying rate. This represents an advantage as compared to the currently used techniques which necessitate two separate studies if a solid meal is used, or would mandate a liquid meal for a simultaneous study. The excellent nuclear decay characteristics of Ru-97 (tl/2 69.6 h, gamma 216 keV, 86%, no betas) permit delayed study of the hepatobiliary system with considerably less radiation exposure than I-131 Rose Bengal and with a marked improvement in image quality. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Zanzi, I.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G,E.; Robeson, W.; Mausner, L.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Margouleff, D.

1986-06-01

200

Fluidized Solids Process for Recovery of Uranium from Zirconium-Type Fuel Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium is recovered from uranium bearing zirconium clad nuclear fuel elements. The zirconium is reacted with anhydrous hydrogen chloride. Then the uranium is contacted with gaseous fluorine. The improvement includes immersing the element in a bed of iner...

L. P. Hatch J. J. Reilly W. H. Regan

1964-01-01

201

Study of the Production of Zirconium Tetrachloride by Chlorination of Its Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work describes the studies carried out on the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorianation of pure zirconium oxide with (a) carbon tetrachloride and (b) chlorine in the presence of carbon. In the process of chlorination with carbon tetrachl...

E. S. M. Seo A. Abrao

1987-01-01

202

Co-Rolled U10Mo/Zirconium-Barrier-Layer Monolithic Fuel Foil Fabrication Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foil fabrication for monolithic fuel; Rolling can assembly: material preparation (Preparation of the Low Carbon Steel Canning Materials, Zirconium Foil Preparation, Attachment of Zirconium Foils to Cover Plates, Preparation of the Fuel Alloy Cou...

G. A. Moore M. C. Marshall

2010-01-01

203

PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE  

DOEpatents

A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

Peppard, D.F.

1960-02-01

204

Preparation of complexes of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with phosphorus oxychloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a method for separating hafnium tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride where a complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is prepared from zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and the complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at

1989-01-01

205

Elimination of phosphate and zirconium in the high-activity fraction resulting from TRUEX partitioning of ICPP zirconium calcines  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory testing was undertaken with the aim of developing a TRUEX flowsheet that would efficiently remove actinides from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcine and minimize the glass volume produced from the ensuing high-activity fraction. A TRUEX flowsheet is recommended for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant based on the results from this testing. These laboratory tests show that zirconium recovery in the high activity fraction is minimized by scrubbing with an optimized NHF concentration of 0.2 M. This NH4F concentration in the scrub allowed the HEDPA strip concentration to be reduced from 0.04 M to 0.004 M because HEDPA is not consumed by zirconium. Complete TRU stripping was also achieved in these laboratory tests with 0.004 M HEDPA. Data from the small-scale laboratory batch contact tests were used in the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to evaluate the proposed flowsheet under counter-current conditions. GTM results indicate the raffinate will meet the Class A non-TRU limit of < 10 nCi/g in six extraction stages (O/A = 1), and quantitative actinide recovery will be achieved with the 0.004 M HEDPA in six strip stages (O/A = 1). Only 6.6 % of the initial zirconium concentration is anticipated to be recovered with the actinides, indicating the four scrub stages (O/A = 3) efficiently removes zirconium from the TRUEX solvent. In addition to recommending an improved TRUEX flowsheet for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant, this work has shown that small reductions in zirconium extraction drastically improves flowsheet performance. These small changes in zirconium extraction can be accomplished by modifying the calcine dissolution parameters. Therefore, further calcine dissolution testing followed by TRUEX testing with the resulting feed solutions is also recommended.

Brewer, K.N.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A. [and others

1997-07-01

206

Electrochemical studies of zirconium and hafnium in alkali chloride and alkali fluoride-chloride molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical reduction of zirconium and hafnium in alkali chloride or fluoride-chloride molten salts on platinum electrodes has been investigated by means of linear and cyclic voltammetry. It has been found that fluoride ions greatly influenced the reduction of zirconium and hafnium in fluoride-chloride melts. It has been proposed that the mechanism for reduction of zirconium and hafnium in baths

Chen Guang-Sen; Masazumi Okido; Takeo Oki

1990-01-01

207

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM BY TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The removal of hafnium from zirconium is one of a number of ; operations required to produce high purity zirconium metal for use in nuclear ; reactors. Since the metallurgical operations involved in the production of ; zirconium must use the products of hafnium-removal processes, the choice of a ; process for hafnium removal must be integrated with subsequent metallurgical

G. H. Beyer; H. C. Peterson

1951-01-01

208

Laboratory production of zirconium carbide compacts for use in inert matrix fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium carbide is being actively considered for use as an inert matrix material in composite nuclear fuel for gas-cooled fast reactors. ZrC can be produced either by the endothermic carbothermal reduction of zirconium dioxide or by the direct exothermic reaction of pure zirconium and graphite powder mixtures. The exothermic reaction is classified as combustion synthesis or self heating synthesis. Experiments

Gokul Vasudevamurthy; Travis W. Knight; Elwyn Roberts; Thad M. Adams

2008-01-01

209

RELATIVE DATA OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA GOVERNING THE SEPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM FROM HAFNIUM. PARTS II AND III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical equilibria governing the separation of zirconium from ; hafnium are considered with particular reference to the solvent. The conditions ; of separation of a mixture of tributylphosphate, diluent, and zirconium were ; studied as well as the interacUon of tributylphosphate and zirconium. The latter ; results in the formation of dibutylphosphate which has a strong complexing ; capacity

J. Hure; M. Rastoix; R. Saint-James

1961-01-01

210

Equilibrium and kinetic data of adsorption and separation for zirconium and hafnium onto MIBK extraction resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium and kinetics of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction resin for adsorption and separation of zirconium and hafnium were studied under the different conditions of acidity, initial total concentrations of zirconium and hafnium and temperature. The equilibrium data of both zirconium and hafnium are found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and the Freundlich isotherm constants (KF) are 3.53

Zhi-gao XU; Yan-ke WU; Jian-dong ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Li-jun WANG

2010-01-01

211

Extraction chromatography of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution  

SciTech Connect

Liquid ion exchangers such as tri-n-octyl amine (TOA), tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Aliquat 336 have been used in this laboratory for analytical separation of vanadium(V) and niobium(V), indium(III), thalium(III), thorium(IV), cerium(IV) from succinate solutions. Extension of this study has revealed that benzene solutions of TOA, TIOA and Aliquat 336 could be used for anion exchange extraction of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution. The metal ions from the organic phase are stripped and determined spectrophotometrically. Solvent extraction methods for titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) have been reviewed by De et al. and Korkisch in their monographs. Diethylamine, tri-ethylamine and tributylamine have been used for extraction of titanium from thiocyanate and citrate solution. Similarly high molecular weight amines such as TOA and TIOA have been used for the extraction of zirconium from mineral acids, but systematic solvent extraction separation of titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) is lacking. In this communication we propose a new method for selective extraction and separation of titaium(IV) and zirconium(IV) from metal ions such as Mn, Cr, Mo, V, U, La, Ta, Th and Hf. The proposed method is comparatively free from drawbacks such as pre-equilibration of phases, multiple scrubbing, multiple extraction and coextraction of a large number of cations and anions.

Shete, S.D.; Shinde, V.M.

1982-01-01

212

The organometallic chemistry of cycloheptatrienyl zirconium complexes.  

PubMed

This tutorial review summarizes the organometallic chemistry derived from the half-sandwich complex [(?(7)-C(7)H(7))ZrCl(tmeda)], which was used as an efficient and versatile starting material for the incorporation of monoanionic ligands into the cycloheptatrienyl zirconium coordination sphere by conventional salt metathesis reactions. A broad variety of ligands was employed, affording novel and previously inaccessible cycloheptatrienyl (sandwich) complexes of the type [(?(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(Y)]; Y comprises pentadienyl, cyclopentadienyl, allyl, phospholyl, boratabenzene, imidazolin-2-iminato and amido systems. The cycloheptatrienyl ring in these systems usually acts as an "innocent spectator ligand", but reactivity can arise from the second ligand Y or the Lewis acidity of the, formally, Zr(+iv) center, which was probed in selected examples and put in perspective to related studies. The corresponding results emphasize why the use of [(?(7)-C(7)H(7))ZrCl(tmeda)] is clearly an advancement in the chemistry of the still fairly unexplored area of cycloheptatrienyl transition metal complexes. PMID:23027385

Glckner, Andreas; Tamm, Matthias

2012-10-01

213

Dissolved zirconium in the north Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect

Picomolar levels of dissolved Zr in seawater were measured using an analytical technique developed with a Chelex-100 extraction/concentration step and subsequent detection by isotope-dilution inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Here the authors present the first vertical profile of Zr in the oceans, from the central-North Pacific, and a horizontal surface transect across the western Pacific. Dissolved Zr ranges from 12--95 pmol/kg in the surface waters then increases linearly with depth to a maximum of 300 pmol/kg in the deep water. The vertical profile shows a strong correlation with Si in the mid-waters, with higher Zr/Si ratios in the surface and bottom waters. There is evidence of both a bottom source and a coastal source of dissolved Zr to the oceans. A comparison with dissolved Ti and Be shows similar depth dependence, but an enrichment in Zr/Ti and a depletion in Zr/Be ratios in seawater relative to average crustal materials. Zirconium appears to have a reactivity intermediate between these two elements. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

McKelvey, B.A.; Orians, K.J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1993-08-01

214

Dissolved zirconium in the North Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picomolar levels of dissolved Zr in seawater were measured using an analytical technique developed with a Chelex-100 extraction/concentration step and subsequent detection by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Here we present the first vertical profile of Zr in the oceans, from the central-North Pacific, and a horizontal surface transect across the western Pacific. Dissolved Zr ranges from 12-95 pmol/kg in the surface waters then increases linearly with depth to a maximum of 300 pmol/kg in the deep water. The vertical profile shows a strong correlation with Si in the mid-waters, with higher Zr/Si ratios in the surface and bottom waters. There is evidence of both a bottom source and a coastal source of dissolved Zr to the oceans. A comparison with dissolved Ti and Be shows similar depth dependence, but an enrichment in Zr/Ti and a depletion in Zr/Be ratios in seawater relative to average crustal materials. Zirconium appears to have a reactivity intermediate between these two elements.

McKelvey, Brad A.; Orians, Kristin J.

1993-08-01

215

Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

2013-01-01

216

Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials  

DOEpatents

A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC)

1978-01-01

217

METHOD OF FABRICATING A URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE REACTOR CORE  

DOEpatents

A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.

1960-03-22

218

Proof-of-Principle Measurements on Unirradiated Zirconium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The ability to determine fuel assembly burnup has important non-proliferation implications since proliferation activities involve either irradiating fuel assemblies to a much lower level of burnup than is normal in commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) practice, and/or irradiation of separate targets. Similarly, a method of determining burnup could be used to confirm declared operation for a reactor that is operating under IAEA safeguards. It is possible to determine fuel assembly burnup by measuring gamma radiation from specific fission products; however this technique is only useable after the fuel assembly has been out of the reactor for at least a year, and is not very useful after the assembly has been out of the reactor for 10 years or more. The use of isotope ratio measurements to measure the level of neutron exposure that material has received is well-known for graphite applications. The current project is an attempt to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be performed on zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers proof-of-principle measurements done on unirradiated zirconium alloys, these measurements show that: Titanium 48/Titanium 49 ratios can be measured in zirconium alloys using a Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) - enough Titanium was present in each of 6 samples tried to allow resolving the peaks associated with each isotope, and correction of interfering ions. The Ti 48/49 ratio measured in unirradiated zirconium alloy is, within a narrow error band, the same as that found in natural, unirradiated zirconium.

Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

2007-04-18

219

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOEpatents

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

Hess, C.C.

1999-08-31

220

A new conducting nanocomposite -- PPy-zirconium (IV) oxide  

SciTech Connect

Pyrrole was polymerized in the presence of ultrafine zirconium (IV) oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles which act as a dispersant for pyrrole. Room temperature conductivities of the resulting polypyrrole-zirconium (IV) oxide nanocomposites having different ZrO{sub 2} particle concentrations were measured and were compared with that of bare polypyrrole. It was observed that the conductivities of the nanocomposites were higher than that of the polypyrrole without ZrO{sub 2} and increased with ZrO{sub 2} concentration up to a certain limit. From transmission electron microscope studies, particle size and morphology of the nanocomposites and ZrO{sub 2} particles were obtained.

Bhattacharya, A.; De, A.; Sarkar, S. [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Ganguly, K.M. [Nabadwip Vidyasagar Coll., Nadia (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-05-01

221

Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of zirconium and its common alloys to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitric acid was investigated by slow strain-rate and constant deflection techniques. Cracking occurred at 25/sup 0/C over a wide range of acid concentrations and electrochemical potentials. The crack velocity increased slightly with increasing temperature. The failure mode was transgranular and the morphology was similar to SCC failures of zirconium alloys in other environments. The fracture was very orientation-dependent suggesting that it occurs on a single crystallographic plane in the material. The results of the study are not consistent with a hydrogen mechanism for cracking.

Beavers, J.A.; Griess, J.C.; Boyd, W.K.

1980-01-01

222

Temperature dependence of lattice parameters of alpha-zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a brief review of X-ray and thermal expansion determination of lattice parameters for alpha-zirconium. Data reported by different authors cover almost all the field of existence of the hexagonal phase of Zirconium, from temperatures as low as 4.2 K up to about 1130 K, near the alpha to beta transformation temperature. Polynomial expressions based on a least squares fitting of experimental data are also presented. The expressions obtained by Goldak et al. are considered to be the most complete. The influence of impurities on the lattice parameters is also discussed.

Versaci, R. A.; Ipohorski, M.

223

Radiochemical separation of zirconium and hafnium from other radionuclides.  

PubMed

Radiozirconium and radiohafnium may be separated from all other radionuclides except scandium and protactinium by precipitation with mandelic acid from 5-10 M hydrochloric acid, using commercial zirconyl chloride as carrier. Scandium and protactinium are removed by dissolving the precipitate in sodium carbonate, then adding barium nitrate to precipitate barium carbonate which acts as a scavenger. Zirconium mandelate is finally reprecipitated and the sample weighed and counted in this form. The method was checked by analysing commercial zirconyl chloride and standard rock samples for zirconium and hafnium by neutron-activation analysis. PMID:18961201

Hahn, R B

1972-11-01

224

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOEpatents

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

Hess, Clay C.

1997-12-01

225

Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms  

SciTech Connect

An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ``noble`` nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation.

McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

1996-07-01

226

Preparation of complexes of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with phosphorus oxychloride  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a method for separating hafnium tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride where a complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is prepared from zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and the complex of zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides and phosphorus oxychloride is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and where a hafnium tetrachloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched tetrachloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. The improvement comprising: prepurifying the zirconium-hafnium tetrachlorides, prior to preparation of the complex and introduction of the complex into a distillation column, to substantially eliminate iron chloride from the zirconium hafnium tetrachlorides, whereby buildup or iron chloride in the distillation column and in the reboiler is substantially eliminated and the column can be operated in a continuous, stable and efficient manner.

McLaughlin, D.F.

1989-09-12

227

40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

2011-07-01

229

40 CFR 97.13 - Account certificate of representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Account certificate of representation. 97...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.13 Account certificate of representation....

2013-07-01

230

46 CFR 111.97-3 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.97-3 Section 111.97-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems §...

2012-10-01

231

30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. 18.97...Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in § 18.95, all machines approved under the...

2013-07-01

232

22 CFR 9.7 - Identification and marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification and marking. 9.7 Section 9.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ...Subpart B; and internal Department guidance in 12 Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM). (b) Foreign government information shall retain...

2013-04-01

233

47 CFR 97.519 - Coordinating examination sessions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 97.519 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.519 Coordinating examination sessions. (a) A...

2012-10-01

234

47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

2010-10-01

235

47 CFR 97.519 - Coordinating examination sessions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 97.519 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.519 Coordinating examination sessions. (a) A...

2011-10-01

236

47 CFR 97.513 - VE session manager requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 97.513 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.513 VE session manager requirements. (a)...

2011-10-01

237

47 CFR 97.105 - Control operator duties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 97.105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.105 Control operator duties. (a) The control...

2011-10-01

238

47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

2009-10-01

239

47 CFR 97.513 - VE session manager requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 97.513 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.513 VE session manager requirements. (a)...

2012-10-01

240

47 CFR 97.105 - Control operator duties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 97.105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.105 Control operator duties. (a) The control...

2012-10-01

241

40 CFR 179.97 - Conferences during hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conferences during hearing. 179.97 Section...Hearing Procedures § 179.97 Conferences during hearing. The presiding officer may schedule and hold conferences as needed to monitor the...

2011-07-01

242

10 CFR 52.97 - Issuance of combined licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...97 Section 52.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52...and security or to the health and safety of the public; and (vi)...

2013-01-01

243

40 CFR 97.13 - Account certificate of representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Account certificate of representation. 97...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.13 Account certificate of representation....

2011-07-01

244

7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are...

2013-01-01

245

7 CFR 97.700 - Public interest in wide usage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Public interest in wide usage. 97.700 Section 97...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Public...700 Public interest in wide usage. (a) If the Secretary...shall refer the matter to the Plant Variety Protection Board...

2010-01-01

246

7 CFR 97.700 - Public interest in wide usage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Public interest in wide usage. 97.700 Section 97...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Public...700 Public interest in wide usage. (a) If the Secretary...shall refer the matter to the Plant Variety Protection Board...

2009-01-01

247

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section... COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board....

2013-01-01

248

The Indigenous World, 1996-97 = El Mundo Indigena, 1996-97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1996-97. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries. In North America, these include threats of proposed oil drilling on sacred sites

Erni, Christian, Ed.

249

Coexistence features in the spherical-deformed A approx 100 transition region: Picosecond lifetime measurements in sup 97 Sr, sup 97 Y, and sup 97 Zr  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed technique for fast timing measurements using {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences with plastic, BaF{sub 2} and Ge detectors, respectively, has been used to measure lifetimes in the range 5--1500 ps in the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 97}Sr, {sup 97}Y, and {sup 97}Zr. The results for {sup 97}Y are interpreted in terms of quadrupole vibrational excitations. For {sup 97}Sr the experimental data suggest the coexistence of spherical/vibrational and deformed states and allow the extraction of mixing matrix elements between them. A quadrupole moment of {vert bar}{ital Q}{sub 0}{vert bar}=3.5(4) {ital e} b for the deformed states in {sup 97}Sr has been deduced.

Buescher, M. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA) Institut fuer Kernphysik, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H., D-5170 Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany); Casten, R.F.; Gill, R.L. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA)); Schuhmann, R. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA) Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610); Winger, J.A. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA) Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (USA)); Mach, H. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA)); Moszynski, M. (Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400, Swierk-Otwock, Poland (PL)); Sistemich, K. (Institut fuer Kernphysik, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H., D-5170 Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

1990-03-01

250

Zirconium nanoparticles prepared by the reduction of zirconium oxide using the RAPET method  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of the current work is the synthesis and characterization of metallic Zr nanoparticles. The preparation is carried out by using the RAPET method (Reaction under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperatures) developed in our lab. The RAPET reaction of commercial ZrO2 with Mg powder was carried out in a closed stainless steel cell, at 750 C. On completion of the reaction, the additionally formed MgO is removed by treatment with acid. The characterization of the product was performed by XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and elemental analysis. The XRD pattern reveals that the product is composed of pure metallic zirconium, without any traces of the MgO by-product.

Eshed, Michal; Pol, Swati; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

2011-01-01

251

40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24...

2011-07-01

252

40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23...

2011-07-01

253

46 CFR 97.37-25 - Emergency lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency lights. 97.37-25 Section 97.37-25 Shipping...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-25 Emergency lights. (a) All emergency lights shall be marked with a letter E at least...

2012-10-01

254

4 CFR 28.97 - Class actions in EEO cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Class actions in EEO cases. 28.97 Section 28.97 Accounts GOVERNMENT...Procedures; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Cases § 28.97 Class actions in EEO cases. (a) Prior to invoking the Board's...

2012-01-01

255

46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of...the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board, stating the...

2012-10-01

256

28 CFR 2.97 - Withdrawal of order of release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...release. 2.97 Section 2.97 Judicial Administration...Prisoners and Parolees § 2.97 Withdrawal of order...supervision under former § 2.95 has been issued...amended at 74 FR 28605, June 17, 2009; 75 FR 9520, Mar....

2013-07-01

257

46 CFR 97.37-23 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 97.37-23 Section 97.37-23...Etc. § 97.37-23 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and...

2012-10-01

258

46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR...

2010-10-01

259

46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR...

2009-10-01

260

47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

2011-10-01

261

47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

2012-10-01

262

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2009-10-01

263

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97...Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2010-10-01

264

46 CFR 97.15-17 - Loading doors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loading doors. 97.15-17 Section 97.15-17...and Inspections § 97.15-17 Loading doors. (a) The master of a vessel fitted with loading doors shall assure that all loading doors are...

2012-10-01

265

46 CFR 97.37-60 - Watertight doors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watertight doors. 97.37-60 Section 97.37-60 Shipping...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-60 Watertight doors. Quick-acting Class I watertight doors fitted in accordance with the requirements...

2012-10-01

266

Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

267

Ion beam mixing of chromium or zirconium films with sapphire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion beam mixing of thin metallic films deposited on sapphire substrates was studied for chromium or zirconium films deposited on single crystalline (alpha)-Al(sub 2)0(sub 3) substrates. Evidence for the influence of equilibrium thermodynamic factors was s...

C. J. McHargue D. L. Joslin C. W. White M. F. daSilva E. Alves

1995-01-01

268

Physical and mechanical properties of chromium zirconium nitride thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the physical, chemical, mechanical, and tribological properties of reactively sputtered chromium zirconium nitride deposited on Si (111) substrates using Cr and Zr targets. These films were grown using a fixed power to the Zr target (70 W), a fixed flow of nitrogen (1.5 sccm), but with a variable power to the Cr target (013 W). The

S. M. Aouadi; T. Maeruf; R. D. Twesten; D. M. Mihut; S. L. Rohde

2006-01-01

269

Wood surface protection with some titanium, zirconium and manganese compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin radiata pine veneers were treated with a range of titanium, zirconium and manganese compounds and exposed to natural weathering. Veneer weight and tensile strength losses were used to assess the protective efficacy of the compounds. The oxidative manganese compounds potassium permanganate and manganic acetate restricted both weight and tensile strength loss of treated wood veneers during weathering. FTIR internal

K. J. Schmalzl; P. D. Evans

2003-01-01

270

Evidence for an ideal transparent anodic oxide film on zirconium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of a transparent oxide formed on zirconium by anodic oxidation in carbonate buffer are described. The transparent oxide has all the properties of an ideal valve-metal oxide. The film grows via a high field conduction mechanism. The potential and film thickness both increase linearly with time under constant-current growth conditions to well over 100 V with no sign

J. L. Ord; D. J. De Smet

1995-01-01

271

Extraction of Zirconium from Zircon (A New Process).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new process has been used for the extraction of zirconium from zircon. Caustic fritting was done in the presence of magnesium hydroxide carbonate and magnesium oxide. These additives decrease the amount of nitric acid soluble silica less than 1000 ppm. ...

K. A. Shahid D. Saeed S. Jan A. Masood J. Akhtar

1985-01-01

272

THE DETERMINATION OF MAGNESIUM IN ZIRCONIUM USING ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method is based upon the ability of zirconium to form an easily ; soluble oxalate complex compound which is not adsorbed by a cation exchanger ; (catfonite). The magnesium in the solution is, however, adsorbed by the ; cationite and can then be eluted with hydrochloric acid. An ion exchange resin ; with SOH as the active group was

S. V. Yelinson; M. S. Limonik

1958-01-01

273

Electrochemical Deoxidation of Solid Zirconium Dioxide in Molten Calcium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of zirconium dioxide pellets by electro-deoxidation in molten calcium chloride-calcium oxide (900 C) has been studied. In this technique, the solid oxide is cathodically polarized against a graphite counter electrode under a constant applied potential. Unlike other metal oxides that have been reduced by this technique, only a small area around the cathodic current-collector wire was reduced to zirconium metal with zirconia pellets sintered at ~1100 C; the rest of the sample was largely calcium zirconate. Pellets sintered above 1200 C showed better reduction near the cathode wire and the reduction extended to the entire surface of the pellet with the passage of time. However, reduction of the inner core was found to be increasingly difficult, because the surface metal layer thickened on continuous electro-deoxidation. An analysis of the experimental results showed that the poor electrical conductivity of the intermediate compound, CaZrO3 and its blocky morphology inhibited the electro-deoxidation process. The increase in the sintering temperature of the pellet made it better conducting. However, the pores formed in the thick zirconium metal layer in such samples were too small for an ideal contact between the inner core and the molten electrolyte and hence the reduction of the inner core remained incomplete. Within the scope of this study, it is concluded that preforms with good grain growth and porosity are necessary for the electro-deoxidation of solid zirconium oxide.

Mohandas, K. S.; Fray, D. J.

2009-10-01

274

40 CFR 721.10602 - Lead niobium titanium zirconium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3); Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1); Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS...

2013-07-01

275

40 CFR 721.10601 - Lanthanum lead titanium zirconium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3); Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1); Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS...

2013-07-01

276

40 CFR 721.10598 - Lead strontium titanium zirconium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...zirconium oxide (PMN P-11-270; CAS No. 61461-40-3); Calcium cobalt lead titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-271; CAS No. 1262279-31-1); Calcium cobalt lead strontium titanium tungsten oxide (PMN P-11-272; CAS...

2013-07-01

277

Relative isotopic abundances of zirconium in S-type stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative abundances of the six stable or nearly stable isotopes of zirconium were measured for three S stars, R Cyg, V Cnc, and R Gem. The method of analysis is described with the abundances determined by comparing the observed stellar profile of intensity vs wavelength with synthetic spectra calculated by the Minnaert interpolation scheme for a single slab LTE

A. C. Zook

1978-01-01

278

Surface characterization of anodized zirconium for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of zirconium make this material suitable for biomedical implants. Its good in vivo performance is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer that minimizes corrosion rate, diminishes the amount of metallic ions released to the biological media and facilitates the osseointegration process. Since the implant surface is the region in contact with living tissues, the characteristics of the surface film are of great interest. Surface modification is a route to enhance both biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of permanent implant materials. Anodizing is presented as an interesting process to modify metal surfaces with good reproducibility and independence of the geometry. In this work the surface of zirconium before and after anodizing in 1 mol/L phosphoric acid solution at a fixed potential between 3 and 30 V, was characterized by means of several surface techniques. It was found that during anodization the surface oxide grows with an inhomogeneous coverage on zirconium surface, modifying the topography. The incorporation of P from the electrolyte to the surface oxide during the anodizing process changes the surface chemistry. After 30 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution, Ca-P rich compounds were present on anodized zirconium.

Sanchez, A. Gomez; Schreiner, W.; Duff, G.; Cer, S.

2011-05-01

279

The Ion-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a rather cursory examination of the elution of tetra-positive ions from the cation exchange resin Dowex 50 with hydrochloric acid solutions, the authors have discovered a very effective method of separating zirconium from hafnimu. In view of the great labor involved in preparing even reasonably pure hafnium compounds by existing methods, they feel that this procedure

Glenn T. Seaborg

1948-01-01

280

Method for calcining nuclear waste solutions containing zirconium and halides  

DOEpatents

A reduction in the quantity of gelatinous solids which are formed in aqueous zirconium-fluoride nuclear reprocessing waste solutions by calcium nitrate added to suppress halide volatility during calcination of the solution while further suppressing chloride volatility is achieved by increasing the aluminum to fluoride mole ratio in the waste solution prior to adding the calcium nitrate.

Newby, Billie J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1979-01-01

281

Zirconium and hafnium in meteorites by activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium and hafnium have been determined in 28 chondrites and 7 achondritea by the use of thermal and 14 MeV neutron activation analyses. The distribution pattern of these elements in the three major classes of chondrites showed that the order of atomic abundances for both elements relative to silicon (Si = 10 6 atoms) was: carbonaceous chondrites > ordinary chondrites

W. D. Ehmann; T. V. Rebagay

1970-01-01

282

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, AND HAFNIUM AT HIGH PRESSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

At high pressures, as determined by x-ray analysis, titanium and ; zirconium metal have a distorted, bodycentered-cubic structure. This phase ; persists on pressure release. The normal hexagonal close-packed structures are ; recovered when the metals are heated. An electronic shift must occur in the ; transition. Hafnium metal showed no such transition. (auth);

J. C. Jamieson

1963-01-01

283

The undercooling and nucleation of zirconium by bulk containerless processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undercooling and nucleation kinetics of pure zirconium have been measured using several bulk containerless processing techniques. The experiments reported herein are the first in which distributions of undercoolings were obtained by direct temperature measurement of bulk samples. The results for the nucleation kinetics as determined from the undercooling distributions are also the first such measurements of their kind. The

Craig William Morton

1998-01-01

284

Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

Gambogi, Joseph

2007-01-01

285

Zirconium-hafnium separation: Mixer-settler studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the mixer-settler apparatus as a rapid means of determining improved conditions for plant operation is described including the experimental details. The preparation of highly purified samples of both zirconium oxide and hafnium oxide is discussed. This document is concerned almost entirely with explorations of small scale continuous systems. Another document dealing with this general problem using small scale

F. B. Waldrop; W. T. Ward; W. M. Leaders

1950-01-01

286

Separation of zirconium and hafnium using hollow fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supported liquid membrane system using hollow fiber membranes as supports (HFSLM) has been studied for the separation of zirconium and hafnium, which are typical metal pairs with extreme similarity in chemistry. Tri-n-octylamine (TNOA) and trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) were used as carriers. The effect on the transport and separation of Zr and Hf of HCl concentrations in the

X. J. Yang; A. G. Fane; C. Pin

2002-01-01

287

Separation of zirconium and hafnium using hollow fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatography system using hollow fibre membranes as supports is reported for separation of zirconium and hafnium. The effects of flow rate and flow mode, stationary phase concentration loaded on the hollow fibre membranes and fibre length on the separation were investigated. The separation performance of hollow fibre membrane chromatography can be analysed from existing theories of conventional

X. J Yang; A. G Fane; C Pin

2002-01-01

288

Screw dislocation in zirconium: An ab initio study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasticity in zirconium is controlled by 1/3<1210> screw dislocations gliding in the prism planes of the hexagonal close-packed structure. This prismatic and not basal glide is observed for a given set of transition metals like zirconium and is known to be related to the number of valence electrons in the d band. We use ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory to study the core structure of screw dislocations in zirconium. Dislocations are found to dissociate in the prism plane in two partial dislocations, each with a pure screw character. Ab initio calculations also show that the dissociation in the basal plane is unstable. We calculate then the Peierls barrier for a screw dislocation gliding in the prism plane and obtain a small barrier. The Peierls stress deduced from this barrier is lower than 21 MPa, which is in agreement with experimental data. The ability of an empirical potential relying on the embedded atom method (EAM) to model dislocations in zirconium is also tested against these ab initio calculations.

Clouet, Emmanuel

2012-10-01

289

Removal of Zirconium in Electrometallurgical Treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor II Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

During electrorefining of irradiated, binary U-Zr Experimental Breeder Reactor II fuel, a portion of zirconium is found to dissolve along with uranium. It accumulates in the cadmium pool both as dissolved zirconium and as a zirconium-cadmium intermetallic precipitate. Two electrochemical methods of removing zirconium from the electrorefiner have been evaluated. The first is a three-step method consisting of chemical oxidation of zirconium by CdCl{sub 2} addition, depletion of zirconium from the cadmium pool by electrotransport, and drawdown of zirconium from the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt by using a different electrorefiner configuration. A transport model is employed to determine the cell operating conditions for growing pure zirconium deposits and the throughput rate. The second method eliminates the chemical oxidation step and permits codeposition of uranium and zirconium onto the solid cathode. The transport model is used to assess the level of uranium impurity in the cathode product; an additional step is proposed to reoxidize uranium in the deposit. The two methods are compared from the standpoints of throughput, deposit composition, deposit adherence to a solid cathode mandrel, and the underlying uncertainties. A brief review is given of the related past laboratory work on removal of zirconium from the electrorefiner.

Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.; Geyer, Howard K. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2001-01-15

290

The mechanism of gas-phase dehydration of cyclohexanol and the methylcyclohexanols catalysed by zirconium phosphate and zirconium phosphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of deuterium labelling experiments, the mechanism of the gas-phase dehydration of cyclohexanol over a solid zirconium phosphate catalyst has been shown to involve a carbocation with a long lifetime. Product distribution studies have been used to show that the corresponding dehydrations of the 4-methylcyclohexanols also proceed through a carbocation mechanism, but have shown that the 2-methylcyclohexanols react partly

M. Conceiao Cruz Costa; Lisa F. Hodson; Robert A. W. Johnstone; Jun-Yao Liu; David Whittaker

1999-01-01

291

Zirconium and Hafnium Separation, Part 3. Ligand?Enhanced Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium from Aqueous Solution using Nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane filtration equipment was used to evaluate zirconium and hafnium separation efficiency by a membrane separation process. High rejection of Zr and Hf species in aqueous solution were obtained with nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membranes. This high rejection could be explained by the formation of high molecular weight polynuclear species. Enhanced transportation across the nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membranes was observed when

L. Poriel; F. Chitry; M. Lemaire

2006-01-01

292

THE SEPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM FROM HAFNIUM. II. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF THE ADDITION COMPOUNDS FORMED BY PHOSPHORUS OXYCHLORIDE WITH THE TETRACHLORIDES OF HAFNIUM AND ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of the addition compounds formed by phoshorus ; oxychloride with hafnium and zirconium tetrachlorides is described. Partial ; separation of the addition compounds is effected in a specially constructed ; apparatus which is sultable for the fractionation of highmelting and high-boiling ; compounds. Zirconium oxide, containing less than 0.1% by weight of hafnium ; oxide, is recovered by

F. Hudswell; K. L. Wilkinson; L. J. Wyatt; J. S. Nairn

1950-01-01

293

Investigation of methods for producing reactor-grade zirconium oxide from a zirconium-bearing chloride-sulfate strip liquor solution. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines investigated two alternative methods for treating a zirconium-bearing chloride-sulfate strip liquor to obtain reactor-grade ZrO2. One method involves neutralization with NH3 and the other hydrothermal precipitation. The strip liquor was derived from zircon sand by a Bureau of Mines method for separating zirconium and hafnium via solvent extraction with a tertiary amine. Neutralization with NH3 to precipitate hydrous zirconium oxide required 0.9 to 1.1 g NH3 per gram of zirconium. The NH3 can be recovered for recycle. ZrO2 that met reactor-grade specifications was produced by precipitation with NH3. Hydrothermal precipitation of ZrO2 from strip liquor required that the solution be maintained at 260C and 680 psi for 10 min and in a noncorrodible pressure vessel. In bench-scale experiments both methods gave zirconium recoveries greater than 99 pct.

MacDonald, D.J.; Defilippi, C.E.; Henry, H.G.

1984-02-01

294

Syntheses and structural characterization of zirconium-tin and zirconium-lead binary and ternary systems  

SciTech Connect

The binary zirconium-tin system was reinvestigated. The A15 phase appears to be a line phase with a Zr{sub 4}Sn composition. The Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) compounds are line phases below 1000{degree}C, the latter being a self-interstitial phase of the former. ZrSn{sub 2} is the tin-richest phase. There is an one-phase region between these phases with partial self-interstitials at high temperatures. The zirconium-lead system behaves similarly: there are an A15 phase with a Zr{sub {approximately}5.8}Pb composition, Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4-type}) compounds, and a high temperature solid solution between Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub >3.5} and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} from below 1000{degree}C; however, the ZrSn{sub 2} analogue is not formed. The Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phases in these systems can accommodate third elements interstitially to form stoichiometric compounds Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}Z (Z = B, C, N, O, Al, Si, P, S, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and As and Se) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}Z (Z = Al, Si, P, S, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te) as well as their self-interstitial derivatives. The systems Zr-Sn-T, T = Fe, Co and Ni, did not produce stoichiometric interstitial phases Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}T. Instead, the interstitial phases for these elements are formed only with excess tin that partially occupies the interstitial site together with a T element. Reducing the amount of tin in these systems yields two new phases; Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 2+x}Fe{sub 1-x} (0 {le} {times} {le} 0.28) (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 6}Sn{sub 2}Fe (Zr{sub 6}Al{sub 2}Co-type) as characterized by X-ray single crystal analyses. A cobalt analogue for the latter was also synthesized.

Kwon, Y.U.

1991-01-28

295

Method of purifying zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride in a vapor stream  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of purifying zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride in a vapor stream from a sand chlorinator in which the silicon and metals present in sand fed to the chlorinator are converted to chlorides at temperatures over about 800{degrees} C. It comprises cooling a vapor stream from a sand chlorinator, the vapor stream containing principally silicon tetrachloride, zirconium tetrachloride, and hafnium tetrachloride contaminated with ferric chloride, to a temperature of from about 335{degrees} C to about 600{degrees} C; flowing the vapor stream through a gaseous diffusion separative barrier to produce a silicon tetrachloride-containing vapor stream concentrated in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride and a silicon tetrachloride-containing vapor stream depleted in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride; adsorbing the ferric chloride in the separative barrier; and recovering the silicon tetrachloride stream concentrated in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride separately from the silicon tetrachloride stream depleted in zirconium tetrachloride and hafnium tetrachloride.

Snyder, T.S.; Stolz, R.A.

1992-04-07

296

Microstructural investigations on zirconium oxidecarbon nanotube composites synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium oxide (ZrO2)\\/carbon nanotube composites were prepared by hydrothermal crystallization at 200 C for 8 h of zirconium hydroxide [(Zr(OH)4nH2O; n=816] in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The hydrothermal crystallization of zirconium oxide, under autoclave conditions, occurred on the walls of the tubes. The process yielded a homogeneous composite powder consisting of microcrystalline ZrO2 and multi-walled nanotubes, hence representing an

F Lupo; R Kamalakaran; C Scheu; N Grobert; M Rhle

2004-01-01

297

Behavior of atomic reactor zirconium cladding fuel rod tubes under extreme operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of zirconium alloy strength on stress corrosion cracking for cladding tubes prepared from these materials is studied.\\u000a Structure-phase transformations and the nature of failure during high-temperature oxidation, i.e. simulation of critical situations\\u000a with loss of heat carrier (LOCA) for zirconium cladding tubes, are studied. Areas are analyzed for improving zirconium cladding\\u000a tubes for fuel rods intended for a

S. A. Nikulin; V. G. Khanzhin; A. B. Rozhnov; V. A. Belov

2009-01-01

298

Nuclear-grade zirconium prepared by combining combustion synthesis with molten-salt electrorefining technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium has a low absorption cross-section for neutrons, which makes it an ideal material for use in nuclear reactor applications. However, hafnium typically contained in zirconium causes it to be far less useful for nuclear reactor materials because of its high neutron-absorbing properties. In the present study, a novel effective method has been developed for the production of hafnium-free zirconium.

Hui Li; Hayk H. Nersisyan; Kyung-Tae Park; Sung-Bin Park; Jeong-Guk Kim; Jeong-Min Lee; Jong-Hyeon Lee

2011-01-01

299

Flame propagation characteristics and flame structures of zirconium particle cloud in a small-scale chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame propagating through zirconium particle cloud in a small-scale vertical rectangle chamber was investigated experimentally.\\u000a In the experiments, the zirconium quoted 99% purity was used and the diameter of particles was distributed 122 ?m. The zirconium\\u000a dust was dispersed into the chamber by air flow and ignited by an electrode spark. A high-speed video camera was used to record\\u000a the

YiBin Ding; JinHua Sun; XueChao He; QiuHong Wang; Yi Yin; Yao Xu; XianFeng Chen

2010-01-01

300

High cycle fatigue properties and microstructure of zirconium and zircaloy-4 under reversal bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue lifetime curves of a commercial-purity zirconium and zircaloy-4 were measured under reversal bending. Scanning electron microscopic examination on surfaces of fatigued specimens shows that zirconium displays planar slip, whereas zircaloy-4 displays wavy slip. Fracture surface analysis shows that many fatigue striations with a considerable number of micro-cracks are the primary characters in zirconium and zircaloy-4. Fatigue crack generally nucleates

Xiao Lin; Gu Haicheng

1998-01-01

301

Stoichiometric relation for extraction of zirconium and hafnium from acidic chloride solutions with Versatic Acid 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric relation for the extraction of zirconium and hafnium from acidic chloride solutions was investigated with Versatic Acid 10. Extraction runs were carried out batchwise at ambient temperature in the pH range from 1.4 to 2.3 for zirconium and from 2.3 to 2.9 for hafnium. The results showed that zirconium was extracted in the form of ZrO2+ rather than

Hwa Young Lee; Sung Gyu Kim; Jong Kee Oh

2004-01-01

302

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON ZIRCONIUM PYROPHOSPHATE  

DOEpatents

A method is given for separating plutonium in its reduced, phosphate- insoluble state from other substances. It involves contacting a solution containing the plutonium with granular zirconium pyrophosphate.

Stoughton, R.W.

1961-01-31

303

Radioactivity in zirconium oxide powders used in industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

Recent work involving the decommissioning of a former ceramic manufacturing facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for activities involving depleted uranium oxide has uncovered the presence of unexpected high levels of natural radioactivity in non-licensed zirconium oxide powders also used in the same facility. A comparison between the levels of source material found in samples of this material and the current regulatory guidance for licensed activities and decommissioning has been conducted. It has been determined that the radioactivity in the zirconium oxide is of a high enough magnitude to raise health physics concerns in the areas of licensing and regulatory compliance, decontamination criteria, and worker health and safety. An examination of these areas has been conducted and the implications associated with our findings are presented.

Lischinsky, J.; Vigliani, M.A.; Allard, D.J. (Applied Consultants, Inc., Woburn, MA (USA))

1991-06-01

304

Corrosion behavior of stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms.  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The baseline waste form for spent fuels from the EBR-II reactor is a stainless steel-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article briefly reviews the microstructure of various SS-Zr waste form alloys and presents results of immersion corrosion and electrochemical corrosion tests performed on these alloys. The electrochemical tests show that the corrosion behavior of SS-Zr alloys is comparable to those of other alloys being considered for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The immersion tests demonstrate that the SS-Zr alloys are resistant to selective leaching of fission product elements and, hence, suitable as candidates for high-level nuclear waste forms.

Abraham, D. P.

1999-01-13

305

Corrosion testing of stainless steel-zirconium metal waste form.  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure and some of the corrosion studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical corrosion, immersion corrosion, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate corrosion behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms are successful at the immobilization and retention of fission products and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms.

Abraham, D. P.

1998-12-14

306

Modelling zirconium hydrides using the special quasirandom structure approach.  

PubMed

The study of the structure and properties of zirconium hydrides is important for understanding the embrittlement of zirconium alloys used as cladding in light water nuclear reactors. Simulation of the defect processes is complicated due to the random distribution of the hydrogen atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure approach as a computationally efficient way to describe this random distribution. We have generated six special quasirandom structure cells based on face centered cubic and face centered tetragonal unit cells to describe ZrH(2-x) (x = 0.25-0.5). Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the mechanical properties, stability, and electronic structure of the alloys. PMID:23588997

Wang, H; Chroneos, A; Jiang, C; Schwingenschlgl, U

2013-04-15

307

Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium used in the reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

We investigated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium by constant load test and the small-scale mock-up test simulated the fuel dissolve. These tests operated in the simulated solution, which substituted non-radioactive elements, i.e. V with radioactive elements such as Pu and Np. From the results of constant load test, the cracks were not observed on 150 MPa after 908 hours in approximately 3 % strain. However a lot of cracks caused by SCC were observed over 20 % strain under high tensile stress in the simulated solution and the heat-transfer condition having more corrosive circumstance and noble potential accelerated the susceptibility of SCC. The cracking behavior would be caused by the creep phenomena. The small-scale mock-up test had been operated for about 50000 hours during 7 year. From the results, zirconium showed excellent corrosion resistance and no SCC was observed during these long-term operations. (authors)

Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

308

Voltammetric determination of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium (IV) and hafnium (IV) do not form coordination compounds with 8-mercaptoquinoline and its alkyl derivatives. For determination of these elements in various samples, the most appropriate reagent appears to be 2-carboxy-8-mercaptoquinoline. A new metal-oxygen bond is formed in the complexes with 2-carboxy-8-mercaptoquinoline, in contrast to the complexes with its alkyl derivatives. Moreover, this reagent a reveals the properties of a bi- and tridentate ligand. From the data of redox potentiometry, zirconium (IV) and hafnium (IV) form the complexes of composition 1:2 and 1:3 with 2-carboxy-8-mercaptoquinoline; which were isolated in the form of red crystals. The aim of this work is to develop procedures for the direct voltammetric determination of Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) in the form of their complexes with 2-carboxy-8-mercaptoquinoline in aqueous solutions and extracts using a stationary mercury film electrode (SMFE) in dimethylformamide (DMFA) and dichloroethane (DCE).

Shaidarova, L.G.; Ulakhovich, N.A.; Fedorova, I.K. [Kazan State Univ., Tatarstan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-08-01

309

Charge-optimized many-body (COMB) potential for zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interatomic potential for zirconium is developed within the charge-optimized many-body (COMB) formalism. The potential correctly predicts the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure as the ground state with cohesive energy, lattice parameters, and elastic constants matching experiment well. The most stable interstitial position is the basal octahedral followed by basal split, in agreement with recent first principles calculations. Stacking fault energies within the prism and basal planes satisfactorily match first principles calculations. A tensile test using nanocrystalline zirconium exhibits both prismatic {1010}<1120> slip and pyramidal {1122}<1123> slip, showing the model is capable of reproducing the mechanical deformation modes observed in experiments.

Noordhoek, Mark J.; Liang, Tao; Lu, Zizhe; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Sinnott, Susan B.; Phillpot, Simon R.

2013-10-01

310

Process for producing high purity zirconium and hafnium  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing zirconium or hafnium. The process is of the type wherein a tetrachloride of zirconium or hafnium is reduced by magnesium and the resulting metal is subjected to a distillation treatment. The improvement comprises: introducing magnesium chloride into a combination reduction-distillation vessel. An inner liner with at least one bottom drain opening with the drain opening providing fluid communication between the vessel and the liner. The magnesium chloride is added in a quantity to fill the vessel and the inner liner to a level above the liner bottom drain opening, whereby the magnesium chloride provides a seal which prevents magnesium in the inner liner from flowing out of the inner liner.

Kwon, Y.J.

1987-05-26

311

Preparation and ion-exchange properties of zirconium sulphosphosphonates  

SciTech Connect

A number of layered zirconium phosphite arylphosphonate and zirconium phosphate arylphosphonate mixed derivatives were prepared. These compounds were readily sulfonated in fuming sulfuric acid and the resultant sulfonates behaved as strong-acid ion exchangers. In the case where the aryl group bridged across layers, a non-swelling exchanger resulted, and these solids showed ion exclusion towards large complexes. They also exhibited the selectivity sequences lithium + greater than sodium + less than potassium + and magnesium + greater than calcium + less than barium +. In the exchanger in which the layers were not connected, large degrees of swelling to the point of colloid formation, were observed. As a consequence, the rates of exchange were very high. The non-crosslinked exchanger showed increased selectivity was remarkable and may stem from a combination of favorable electrostatic and steric factors.

Yang, C.Y.; Clearfield, A.

1987-01-01

312

Sorption of europium on zirconium oxide from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of europium on zirconium oxide has been studies as a function of shaking time, concentration and nature of electrolyte. The effect of initial europium concentration and the amount of adsorbent has been investigated in the range from 6.61010 to 6.6108 moldm3 and between 10 to 200 mg of the oxide. Maximum sorption (>99.8%) from pH 10 buffer and low

S. M. Hasany; M. H. Chaudhary

1994-01-01

313

Reaction of graphite and pyrographite with titanium and zirconium nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the reaction of titanium and zirconium nitrides with graphite and pyrographite in a vacuum (0.1 N\\/m2) over the temperature range 16732473K at contact periods from 1 to 5 h.2.It was established that the reaction yields carbide phases which change to a MeC-MeN solid solution in an intermediate zone at the nitride interface.3.It is shown that

A. L. Burykina; T. M. Evtushok

1969-01-01

314

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Zr-85 (Zirconium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Zr-85 (Zirconium, atomic number Z = 40, mass number A = 85).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

315

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Zr-93 (Zirconium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Zr-93 (Zirconium, atomic number Z = 40, mass number A = 93).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

316

A theoretical and experimental study of hydrides in zirconium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method developed for computing the critical length and thickness of hydride plates formed in delayed hydride cracking (DHC)\\u000a in zirconium alloys is considered. The model is based on analyzing the distribution of tensile stresses in the plane of a\\u000a sharp normal tensile crack. The characteristics of hydrides formed due to DHC in reactor tubes produced from alloy Zr-2.5%\\u000a Nb

A. A. Shmakov; D. Yan; R. L. Eadie

2006-01-01

317

Calculation of the vibrational frequencies and structure of zirconium tetrahydroborate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of zirconium tetrahydroborate (Zr(BH4)4) in T symmetry are examined theoretically using the Gaussian98 set of quantum chemistry codes. All normal modes were successfully assigned to one of the six types of motion (B?H stretch, Zr?B stretch, B?Zr?B bend, H?B?H bend, BH4 wag, and BH4 twist) predicted by a group theoretical analysis. By

James O Jensen

2003-01-01

318

Thermal diffusivity measurement of uraniumthoriumzirconium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uraniumthorium mixed zirconium hydrides of UTh4Zr10Hx (x=20, 24, 27) have been successfully fabricated without large crack by means of a Sieverts apparatus. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that UTh4Zr10Hx consist of ?-U, ThZr2Hx, and (?, ?)-ZrHx. The thermal diffusivity measurements of UTh4Zr10Hx have been performed over the temperature ranges to around 773 K

B Tsuchiya; J Huang; K Konashi; W Saiki; T Onoue; M Yamawaki

2000-01-01

319

Pressureless Sintering of Zirconium Diboride: Particle Size and Additive Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) was densified by pressureless sinte- ring using o4-wt% boron carbide and\\/or carbon as sintering aids. As-received ZrB2 with an average particle size of B2 lm could be sintered to B100% density at 19001C using a combi- nation of boron carbide and carbon to react with and remove the surface oxide impurities. Even though particle size reduction in-

William G. Fahrenholtz; Gregory E. Hilmas; Shi C. Zhang; Sumin Zhu

2008-01-01

320

Powder metallurgical fabrication of zirconium matrix cermet nuclear fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two powder metallurgical fabrication methods for a zirconium-based cermet nuclear dispersion fuel with oxide microspheres\\u000a have been demonstrated. A multi-pass, cold-drawing process is shown to have excellent capability to control the final matrix\\u000a density, though it requires several high-temperature anneals during fabrication to relieve strain hardening and increase matrixparticle\\u000a bonding. Severe oxide particle damage was observed in the cold-drawn fuel

Aaron R. Totemeier; Sean M. McDeavitt

2009-01-01

321

Zirconium umbelliferonephosphate A luminescent organicinorganic hybrid nanomaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium umbelliferonephosphate (ZrO(UFP)) is prepared by nucleation in the ionic liquid [MeBu3N][NTf2]. According to electron microscopy the resulting nanoparticles exhibit mean particle diameters of about 50nm. The organicinorganic hybrid material ZrO(UFP) shows blue emission upon UV-excitation. Luminescence originates from the organic dye and is highly intense due to the molar amount of luminescent centers per nanoparticle. The as-prepared material turns

Marcus Roming; Claus Feldmann

2011-01-01

322

Raman spectra of zirconium oxychloride crystalline hydrate and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra of zirconium oxychloride crystalline hydrate and its deuteroanalogs in the 50-4000 cm⁻¹ region have been obtained and examined. They have been compared with the spectra of solutions. In the region of nu\\/sub Zr-O\\/ vibrations the Raman spectrum of the solution has been resolved into its components with the aid of a computer. Spectral properties of the nu\\/sub Zr-OH\\/

G. V. Kozhevnikova; L. A. Myund; K. A. Burkov

1988-01-01

323

Stable supported lipid bilayers on zirconium phosphonate surfaces.  

PubMed

Supported lipid bilayers that can fully represent biological cell membranes are attractive biomimetic models for biophysical and biomedical applications. In this study, we develop a new approach to engineering stable supported lipid membranes and demonstrate their utility for the study of protein-membrane interactions. This system uses a zirconium phosphonate monolayer to modify a substrate and generate a reactive surface that tethers the lipid membrane via a highly covalent bond between surface zirconium ions and divalent phosphate groups in the lipid assembly, for example, from phosphatidic acid. An advantage of the approach is that the zirconium phosphonate modifier can be applied to nearly any surface, allowing the same methods to be used on glass, gold, silicon, or plastic supports. The lipid bilayers are formed by vesicle fusion, either directly on the zirconated surface to form symmetric bilayers or following deposition of a Langmuir-Blodgett lipid layer to generate asymmetric bilayers. The membrane formation was studied by surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometry (SPREE) as the phosphatidic acid composition was varied. We found that 10% of phosphatidic acid generates supported lipid bilayers stable to dehydration. The two-dimensional fluidity of these systems was characterized by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements. Uniform, mobile supported lipid bilayers with lipid diffusion coefficients of approximately 4 mum(2)/s were obtained. SPREE was also used to measure kinetic parameters of the binding of melittin, a bee venom peptide, to asymmetric lipid bilayers with different electrostatic properties. The results are comparable to those obtained by other research groups, confirming that the model membranes behave as expected. Overall, the results of this study prove that supported lipid bilayers on zirconium phosphonate inorganic surfaces make up an attractive biomimetic system that is highly stable, can be used with multiple substrates, and does not require any biomolecule synthetic modifications. PMID:19711922

Fabre, Roxane M; Talham, Daniel R

2009-11-01

324

Wear Analysis in THA Utilizing Oxidized Zirconium and Crosslinked Polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidized zirconium, a material with a ceramic surface on a metal substrate, and highly cross-linked polyethylene are two materials\\u000a developed to reduce wear. We measured in vivo femoral head penetration in patients with these advanced bearings. We hypothesized\\u000a the linear wear rates would be lower than those published for cobalt-chrome and standard polyethylene. We retrospectively\\u000a reviewed a select series of

Kevin L. Garvin; Curtis W. Hartman; Jimmi Mangla MBBS; Nathan Murdoch; John M. Martell

2009-01-01

325

The abundances of zirconium and hafnium in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of zirconium and hafnium have been determined in the Orgueil, Murchison, Allende, Bruderheim, and Alais meteorites by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The mean Zr\\/Hf weight ratio in the first four of these meteorites is 31.3 (plus or minus 2.2), indicating no major fractionation of Zr from Hf. Alais contains anomalously high amounts of many refractory lithophile elements, including

R. Ganapathy; G. M. Papia; LAWRENCE GROSSMAN

1976-01-01

326

Synthesis, formation and characterization of zirconium titanate (ZT) powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium titanate (ZrTiO4) powders have been prepared and characterised by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The effect of calcination temperature, dwell time and heating\\/cooling rates on phase formation, morphology and particle size distribution of the powders are examined. The calcination temperature and dwell time have been found to have

S. Ananta; R. Tipakontitikul; T. Tunkasiri

2003-01-01

327

Separation of zirconium--hafnium by nitride precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the separation of a light reactive metal (e.g., zirconium) from a heavy reactive metal (e.g., hafnium) by forming insoluble nitrides of the metals in a molten metal solvent (e.g., copper) inert to nitrogen and having a suitable density for the light metal nitride to form a separate phase in the upper portion of the solvent

R. N. Anderson; N. A. Parlee

1977-01-01

328

Electrochemical separation of zirconium from hafnium using chloraluminate melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the electroreduction of Hf(IV) in chloraluminate melts of similar compositions and on the electrochemical separation of zirconium from hafnium using low-melting chloraluminate melts. Results indicated that the addition of HfCl to AlCl-NaCl melts (ranging in composition from 50.3 to 52 mol % AlCl) resulted in a poorly defined voltammetric reduction wave that occurs at potentials somewhat

M. Katabua; P. Rolland; G. Mamantov; L. Hulett

1982-01-01

329

Computer simulation of zirconium-hafnium separation by countercurrent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carrying out research and development on an improved method for production of reactor-grade zirconium oxide, the Bureau of Mines has prepared a computer program capable of accurately predicting the stage-by-stage performance of a multistage countercurrent solvent extraction system for extractant. The results were used to plan laboratory experiments using a multistage countercurrent mixer-settler unit. The number of extractor stages,

1981-01-01

330

Continuous ion exchange separation of zirconium and hafnium  

SciTech Connect

A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) has been developed for truly continuous ion exchange preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam by 60-cm-long CAC, but a larger model has recently been designed and constructed. A detailed study has been made of the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a simulated carbonate leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Recent studies have investigated the ion exchange separation of zirconium and hafnium from a sulfate feed solution. Nuclear reactor-grade zirconium, containing < 0.01 wt % hafnium, and hafnium, containing < 1% zirconium, have been continuously prepared using cation exchange resin in the pressurized CAC. This device, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to largescale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

1981-01-01

331

Review of the oxidation rate of zirconium alloys.  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of zirconium alloys is one of the most studied processes in the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to provide in a concise form a review of the oxidation process of zirconium alloys in the moderate temperature regime. In the initial ''pre-transition'' phase, the surface oxide is dense and protective. After the oxide layer has grown to a thickness of 2 to 3 {micro}m's, the oxidation process enters the ''post-transition'' phase where the density of the layer decreases and becomes less protective. A compilation of relevant data suggests a single expression can be used to describe the post-transition oxidation rate of most zirconium alloys during exposure to oxygen, air, or water vapor. That expression is: Oxidation Rate = 13.9 g/(cm{sup 2}-s-atm{sup -1/6}) exp(-1.47 eV/kT) x P{sup 1/6} (atm{sup 1/6}).

Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-11-01

332

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section...SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a...

2011-10-01

333

47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section...SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a...

2012-10-01

334

7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance...Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an...only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may...

2013-01-01

335

7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Marking...Provisions § 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing...amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be...

2013-01-01

336

Role of p97/VCP (Cdc48) in genome stability  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitin-dependent molecular chaperone p97, also known as valosin-containing protein (VCP) or Cdc48, is an AAA ATPase involved in protein turnover and degradation. p97 converts its own ATPase hydrolysis into remodeling activity on a myriad of ubiquitinated substrates from different cellular locations and pathways. In this way, p97 mediates extraction of targeted protein from cellular compartments or protein complexes. p97-dependent protein extraction from various cellular environments maintains cellular protein homeostasis. In recent years, p97-dependent protein extraction from chromatin has emerged as an essential evolutionarily conserved process for maintaining genome stability. Inactivation of p97 segregase activity leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated substrates on chromatin, consequently leading to protein-induced chromatin stress (PICHROS). PICHROS directly and negatively affects multiple DNA metabolic processes, including replication, damage responses, mitosis, and transcription, leading to genotoxic stress and genome instability. By summarizing and critically evaluating recent data on p97 function in various chromatin-associated protein degradation processes, we propose establishing p97 as a genome caretaker.

Vaz, Bruno; Halder, Swagata; Ramadan, Kristijan

2013-01-01

337

7 CFR 29.97 - Who shall pass upon appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who shall pass upon appeals. 29.97 Section 29...Regulations Appeal § 29.97 Who shall pass upon appeals. Appeals shall be passed...two or more appeal inspectors may jointly pass upon an appeal. The Division may...

2013-01-01

338

40 CFR 97.387 - Change in regulatory status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.387 Change in regulatory...a) Notification. If a CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit becomes a CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit under § 97.304, then the CAIR...

2013-07-01

339

40 CFR 97.357 - Closing of general accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.357...and 97.361 for any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances in the account to one or more other CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System...

2013-07-01

340

40 CFR 97.384 - Opt-in process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.384 Opt-in...is withdrawn from the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program in accordance with § 97...which the unit enters the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program under §...

2013-07-01

341

Crimes against Persons Age 65 or Older, 1992-97.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Highlights; Measuring crime against persons age 65 or older; Prevalence of crime, 1992-97; Declining rates of crime for persons age 65 or older, 1973-97; Comparing rates of nonlethal violence; Comparing rates of property crime; Victims of murder...

P. A. Klaus

2000-01-01

342

46 CFR 97.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reference in this part and the sections affected are as follows: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor...93-97, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester97.15-55 ASTM Adjunct F 1626,...

2012-10-01

343

Zirconium oxides formed by hydrolytic condensation of alkoxides and parameters that affect their morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

When zirconium oxides are formed via hydrolytic condensation of zirconium alkoxides, the particle size and morphology of the resultant zirconia is strongly affected by certain parameters during the condensation. These parameters include: the type of alkyl group in the alkoxide, water\\/alkoxide ratio, molecular separation of species, and the reaction temperature. The particle size and the morphology in turn affect the

Bulent E. Yoldas

1986-01-01

344

Corrosion Cracking of Zirconium Cladding Tubes (A Review). I. Methods of Study and Mechanisms of Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of study and criteria of evaluation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium alloys are generalized as applied to cladding tubes of nuclear reactors. Mechanisms of SCC in zirconium cladding tubes in iodine-bearing media (iodine vapors, solution of iodine in methanol, etc.) are described. Metallographic and fracture features of damage in these media are analyzed. Data on cracking rates

S. A. Nikulin; A. B. Rozhnov

2005-01-01

345

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has

K. Kapoor; C. Padmaprabu; D. Nandi

2008-01-01

346

Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium  

DOEpatents

A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear reactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

1984-10-09

347

ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF ZINC-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS IN THE PRESENCE OF FUSED CHLORIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of zinc-zirconium alloys was studied by ; determinating the electromotive force of galvanic cells which comprise an alloy ; electrode, a pure metal electrode (zinc or zirconium), and an electrolyte made up ; of a eutectic mixture of potassium chloride and lithium chloride. When the ; galvanic chain comprises an alloy electrode and a pure zinc electrcde,

C. Decroly; R. Vaghar

1961-01-01

348

Rheological study of the gelation kinetics of the scleroglucanzirconium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation kinetics of scleroglucan-zirconium gels was studied using rheological measurements. It was possible to determine such kinetics by following the change in solution elastic modulus as a function of time. Gelation kinetics was found to increase vs. polymer concentration according to a power law function. In contrast, when zirconium concentration was increased, gelation kinetics was found to increase, reaching

Abdelaziz Omari

1995-01-01

349

Microprobe study of the surface of a zeolite-containing zirconium-silicate catalyst  

SciTech Connect

X-ray microprobe techniques have been used to study the chemical and phase compositions of a zeolite-containing zirconium-silicate catalyst synthesized by introducing crystallites of the zeolite into the hydrosol and hydrogel of the zirconium silicate. It is shown that dispersion of the zeolite crystallites occurs in this process.

Mel'nikov, V.B.; Chukin, G.D.; Nefedov, B.K.

1987-02-01

350

Ultrasonic Estimation of Hydride Degradation of Zirconium Pressure Tubes of RBMK Fuel Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel channels of nuclear reactors, which are major structural elements of a reactor core, have to meet strict requirements in terms of operational reliability. The middle part of the fuel channel, located in a graphite stack, is a tube made of a zirconium-2.5% niobium alloy. However, zirconium alloys can pick up hydrogen during operation as a consequence of corrosion reaction

Rymantas KAZYS; Reimondas SLITERIS; Liudas MAZEIKA; Algirdas VOLEISIS

351

Inorganic ion-exchangers for the removal of zirconium, hafnium and niobium radioisotopes from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were made on the uptake of zirconium, hafnium and niobium isotopes onto zeolites and amorphous zirconium phosphate. Ion exchange capacities and distribution coefficients were determined and the influence of pH examined. Kinetic experiments were made to determine the rates of uptake of the radioisotopes on the exchangers and to measure the leaching of isotopes from preloaded exchangers by synthetic

A. Dyer; F. H. Kadhim

1989-01-01

352

SEPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM USING ANIONEXCHANGE RESINS. PART II. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of some factors on the differential elution of hafnium and ; zirconium on Amberlite IRA 400 anionexchange resin was investigated to ascertain ; the optimum conditions for the separation of hafnium from zirconium. The data ; obtained from experiments on 200 mg mixed oxide were successfully applied to 5 g ; mixed oxide loads on Amberlite IRA 400

K. S. Rajan; J. Gupta

1957-01-01

353

SEPARATION OP ZIRCONIUM \\/IV\\/ FROM HAFNIUM \\/IV\\/ ON VARIOUS TYPES OF SELECTIVE ION-EXCHANGERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the studies on separation of hefnium \\/IV\\/ from zirconium \\/IV\\/ by frontal analysis on chelating ion-exchangers of different types have been presented. The phosphonic ion-exchanger Duolite ES-63 proved to be the best in zirconium sulphate purification from hafnium \\/IV\\/ among the examined chelating ion-exchangers.

Z. HUBICKI

1988-01-01

354

THE NITROPHOS EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several possible processes for separating zirconium and hafnium are ; reviewed briefly and the reasons for selecting the Nitrophos liquid-liquid ; extraction process, by means of a nitric acid-tributyl phosphate system, are ; given. The laboratory and pilot plant experiments are described and the data ; presented. Under the conditions studied, reactor-grade zirconium can be prepared ; in a

W. H. Keller; I. S. Zonis

1959-01-01

355

Reactions of powders of zirconium and niobium carbides in their homogeneity ranges with some acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work described below a study was made of the reactions of zirconium and niobium carbides in their homogeneity ranges with some mineral acids. It was considered of great interest also to investigate the gaseous products of acid decomposition of the carbides. Experiments were carried out, using hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids as reactants, on powders of the zirconium

V. P. Kopylova; V. I. Kornilova; T. N. Nazarchuk; V. B. Fedorus

1980-01-01

356

Hierarchical binding of cofactors to the AAA ATPase p97.  

PubMed

The hexameric AAA ATPase p97 is involved in several human proteinopathies and mediates ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation among other essential cellular processes. Via its N-terminal domain (N domain), p97 interacts with multiple regulatory cofactors including the UFD1/NPL4 heterodimer and members of the "ubiquitin regulatory X" (UBX) domain protein family; however, the principles governing cofactor selectivity remain to be deciphered. Our crystal structure of the FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1)UBX domain in complex with the p97N domain reveals that the signature Phe-Pro-Arg motif known to be crucial for interactions of UBX domains with p97 adopts a cis-proline configuration, in contrast to a cis-trans mixture we derive for the isolated FAF1UBX domain. Biochemical studies confirm that binding critically depends on a proline at this position. Furthermore, we observe that the UBX proteins FAF1 and UBXD7 only bind to p97-UFD1/NPL4, but not free p97, thus demonstrating for the first time a hierarchy in p97-cofactor interactions. PMID:21645854

Hnzelmann, Petra; Buchberger, Alexander; Schindelin, Hermann

2011-06-01

357

Preparation and properties of uniform mixed and coated colloidal particles. Part 5. Zirconium compounds  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal dispersions of uniform spherical particles by zirconium basic sulphate and zirconium oxy-basic carbonate were prepared by ageing zirconium sulphate solutions at elevated temperatures in the presence of urea. Different chemical compositions of the above products resulted when the ageing temperature was altered. Depending on the nature of the original solids, calcination at 800 C resulted in the formation of tetragonal or monoclinic zirconia. Under certain conditions a mixed phase, including cubic zirconia, has also been identified. The particle morphology was retained during these transformations. Coprecipitation in mixed solutions of zirconium and yttrium salts aged at 80 C yielded composite spherical particles of basic carbonate with a zirconium to yttrium ratio of the solid similar to that used in the initial solution.

Alken, B.; Hsu, W.P.; Matijevic, E.

1990-01-01

358

Preparation of complexes of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with phosphorus oxychloride  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a method for separating hafnium chloride from zirconium chloride using a distillation column, with a hafnium chloride enriched vapor stream taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the bottom of the column. The improvement comprising: purifying the zirconium-hafnium chloride in a molten salt purification vessel prior to or after introduction into the distillation column to substantially eliminate iron chloride from the zirconium-hafnium chloride by at least periodically removing iron chloride from the molten salt purification vessel by electrochemically plating iron onto an electrode in the molten salt purification vessel. The molten salt in the molten salt purification vessel consisting essentially of a mixture of chlorides selected from the group consisting of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, zirconium, hafnium, aluminum, manganese, and zinc.

Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

1989-09-12

359

Determination of zirconium and hafnium in the presence of one another  

SciTech Connect

The prospective uses of zirconium and hafnium in present day technology are important and varied; these metals find their greatest use in nuclear power engineering. Because of the well-known difference between zirconium and hafnium in the absorption of thermal neutrons, it is very important to obtain pure zirconium with minimum hafnium content and vice versa. The separation of these elements that are so similar in chemical properties is exceedingly complicated. There are difficulties in the analytical monitoring of the separation processes, and in the determination of the elements in the presence of one another in various materials, viz. zirconium against a hafnium background and vice versa. In the present review they describe the present state of the problem of zirconium and hafnium determination in presence of one another, and they note the advances and the unsolved problems in this field of analytical chemistry.

Serbinovich, V.V.; Antonovich, V.P.; Pshetakovskaya, N.A.

1986-12-20

360

Fused salt process for purifying zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachlorides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fused salt process for continuously purifying zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride dissolved in a molten bath in a vessel. It comprises: maintaining a mass of a suitable mixture of salts, including zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride; heating the mixture of salts to a temperature at or immediately below the vaporization temperature of the zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride at which temperature the mixture of salts is fused to form a molten, tetrachloride-dissolving bath; continuously introducing into the dissolving bath a zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride powder; heating a portion of the dissolving bath in situ to a temperature higher than the vaporization temperature of the zirconium and/or hafnium tetrachloride so as to vaporize the tetrachloride; internally circulating the dissolving bath whereby the portion of the dissolving bath at the high temperature circulate with the bath at the lower temperature.

Lee, E.D.

1991-04-23

361

Effect of Sulfur and Zirconium on the Machinability and Mechanical Properties of AISI 1045 Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of small increases of sulfur and addition of zirconium in conjunction with sulfur on the machinability and mechanical properties of laboratory-produced AISI 1045 steels have been investigated. Machinability was measured in terms of cutting energy per unit volume of metal machined. With increasing sulfur, there is a linear increase in sulfide volume fraction and improvement in machinability. Ductility parameters such as tensile reduction in area and impact shelf energy, however, significantly decrease with sulfur, particularly in the transverse direction. Addition of zirconium causes formation of manganese-zirconium sulfides and increased globularity. Although further improvement in machinability by zirconium addition is not evident, there is a significant improvement in transverse impact properties by zirconium addition for steels containing high sulfur. The study suggests that an optimum combination of higher sulfur for improved machinability and zironium for better impact properties yields a steel with acceptable machining and ductility criteria.

Bhattacharya, Debanshu

1981-06-01

362

Excited states of /sup 97/Ru and /sup 103/Ru  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 97/Ru and /sup 103/Ru nuclei have been studied via in-beam gamma ray spectroscopy through the /sup 94/Mo(..cap alpha..,n)/sup 97/Ru, /sup 94/Mo(/sup 6/Li,p2n)/sup 97/Ru, and /sup 100/Mo(..cap alpha..,n)/sup 103/Ru reactions. Partial levels schemes can be proposed from ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidence data, whereas excitation function and angular distribution measurements were used to determine the spins of several excited levels. The results are compared to previous work carried out on these nuclei.

Kajrys, G.; Dubuc, J.; Lariviere, P.; Pilotte, S.; Del Bianco, W.; Monaro, S.

1986-11-01

363

40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account representative. 97.11 ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 97.82 - NOX authorized account representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative. 97.82 ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit...

2011-07-01

366

97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

367

40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3...Btu-British thermal unit. CO2 -carbon dioxide. hr-hour....

2011-07-01

368

29 CFR 1952.97 - Changes to approved plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS South Carolina § 1952.97 Changes to approved...1994, the Assistant Secretary approved South Carolina's revised statutory penalty...1994, the Assistant Secretary approved South Carolina's plan supplement, which...

2013-07-01

369

46 CFR 97.10-5 - Persons excluded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-5 Persons excluded...exclude from the pilothouse and navigation bridge while underway, all persons not...the pilothouse or upon the navigation bridge upon the responsibility of the...

2012-10-01

370

37 CFR 1.97 - Filing of information disclosure statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Filing of information disclosure statement...Section 1.97 Patents, Trademarks...OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...Processing Provisions Information Disclosure Statement...a reissue of a patent to have an information disclosure...

2013-07-01

371

46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-97 Nondestructive testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet §...

2012-10-01

372

40 CFR 97.311 - Alternate CAIR designated representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.311 Alternate CAIR designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation...

2011-07-01

373

97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

374

40 CFR 97.351 - Establishment of accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.351...compliance account for the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source for which the certificate of...holding and transferring CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances. An application...

2013-07-01

375

40 CFR 97.313 - Certificate of representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.313 Certificate of representation...1) Identification of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source, and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit at the source, for which the...

2013-07-01

376

40 CFR 97.516 - Certificate of representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.516 Certificate of... (1) Identification of the TR NOX Ozone Season source, and each TR NOX Ozone Season unit at the source, for which...

2013-07-01

377

47 CFR 97.7 - Control operation required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.7 Control operation required. When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control operator. The...

2012-10-01

378

47 CFR 97.9 - Operator license grant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.9 Operator license grant. (a) The classes of amateur operator license grants are: Novice,...

2011-10-01

379

47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station...at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur service communications. (State and local...

2012-10-01

380

47 CFR 97.15 - Station antenna structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.15 Station...at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur service communications. (State and local...

2011-10-01

381

47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103...FCC Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

2012-10-01

382

47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost,...

2012-10-01

383

47 CFR 97.7 - Control operation required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.7 Control operation required. When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control operator. The...

2011-10-01

384

47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97...administering, or coordinating an examination for an amateur operator license. [66 FR 20752, Apr....

2011-10-01

385

47 CFR 97.9 - Operator license grant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.9 Operator license grant. (a) The classes of amateur operator license grants are: Novice,...

2012-10-01

386

47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost,...

2011-10-01

387

47 CFR 97.527 - Reimbursement for expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97...administering, or coordinating an examination for an amateur operator license. [66 FR 20752, Apr....

2012-10-01

388

47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are authorized only for communications...

2012-10-01

389

97. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF ELEVATION AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF ELEVATION AND UNDERSIDE OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT BETWEEN FIFTH AND FOURTH STREETS, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

390

46 CFR 111.97-9 - Overcurrent protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-9 Overcurrent protection....

2012-10-01

391

40 CFR 165.97 - States with existing containment programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01... Section 165.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for...

2011-07-01

392

Enhanced surveillance program FY97 accomplishments. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This annual report is one volume of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) FY97 Accomplishments. The complete accomplishments report consists of 11 volumes. Volume 1 includes an ESP overview and a summary of selected unclassified FY97 program highlights. Volume 1 specifically targets a general audience, reflecting about half of the tasks conducted in FY97 and emphasizing key program accomplishments and contributions. The remaining volumes of the accomplishments report are classified, organized by program focus area, and present in technical detail the progress achieved in each of the 104 FY97 program tasks. Focus areas are as follows: pits; high explosives; organics; dynamics; diagnostics; systems; secondaries; nonnuclear materials; nonnuclear components; and Surveillance Test Program upgrades.

Mauzy, A. [ed.; Laake, B. [comp.

1997-10-01

393

97. (Credit BLV) View north from site of booster station. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. (Credit BLV) View north from site of booster station. Kansas City Southern railroad embankment and bridge abutment at left. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

394

97. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF 'LAPHAM OAK,' NEW CANAAN, CA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF 'LAPHAM OAK,' NEW CANAAN, CA. 1940. FROM PUBLIC WORKS COMMISSIONER'S REPORT. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

395

40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 ...complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos Ombudsman, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,...

2013-07-01

396

40 CFR 97.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.314 Objections concerning...Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the...concerning the proceeds of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

2011-07-01

397

97. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY TRAVELING HOIST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - TRAVELING HOIST - AMERICAN TYPE ASSEMBLY (ML-4-55/111-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 4, Alma, Buffalo County, WI

398

40 CFR 98.97 - Records that must be retained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.97 Records that must be retained. In addition to the information required by §...

2011-07-01

399

49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically...

2012-10-01

400

Circular autowave pacemakers in thin-layered zirconium oxyhydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic nature of the rheological property variation of zirconium oxyhydrate is determined by the microheterogeneous variability of the precipitate structure which changes with time. This effect is interpreted as the autowave manifestation of polymer-peptization processes in forming gel matrix. The work considers new experimental and theoretical approaches to the formation of discrete features of the oxyhydrate gel system structure, which interpret the processes of self-organization of such compounds. The effect of the quantization of circular pacemaker diameters in forming oxyhydrate gels of heavy metals far from the equilibrium state is found experimentally and described mathematically.

Sukharev, Yu. I.; Markov, B. A.; Antonenko, I. V.

2002-04-01

401

Rapid and cost-effective method for synthesizing zirconium silicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the preparation of zirconium silicides was conducted using ZrSiO4Mg, ZrSiO4SiO2Mg and ZrSiO4ZrO2Mg powder mixtures by the combustion synthesis (CS) technique. Test specimens having different composition ratios including Zr:Si=1:2, 1:1, 5:4, 5:3, 2:1, and 3:1 were employed in this study. Temperature profiles relative to all the starting compositions were measured using thermocouples, and the values of the

Il-Je Cho; Kyung-Tae Park; Sang-Ki Lee; Hayk H. Nersisyan; Yong-Soo Kim; Jong-Hyeon Lee

2010-01-01

402

METHOD FOR ANNEALING AND ROLLING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS  

DOEpatents

A fabrication procedure is presented for alpha-stabilized zirconium-base alloys, and in particular Zircaloy-2. The alloy is initially worked at a temperature outside the alpha-plus-beta range (810 to 970 deg ), held at a temperature above 970 deg C for 30 minutes and cooled rapidly. The alloy is then cold-worked to reduce the size at least 20% and annealed at a temperature from 700 to 810 deg C. This procedure serves both to prevent the formation of stringers and to provide a randomly oriented crystal structure.

Picklesimer, M.L.

1959-07-14

403

Identification and characterization of a new zirconium hydride.  

PubMed

Zirconium alloys are currently used in nuclear power plants where they are susceptible to hydrogen pick-up. Hydride precipitation may occur when the hydrogen solubility limit is reached. Various Zr hydride phases, gamma, delta and epsilon have been identified since the 1950s. Combining electron precession microdiffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy and ab initio electronic calculations, a new Zr hydride named zeta has been identified and characterized. It belongs to the trigonal crystal system with space group P3 m1 and it is fully coherent with the alphaZr matrix. PMID:19094018

Zhao, Z; Morniroli, J-P; Legris, A; Ambard, A; Khin, Y; Legras, L; Blat-Yrieix, M

2008-12-01

404

Pion induced interactions in tantalum, europium, antimony and zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of 80 and 100 MeV ?+ with targets of tantalum, europium, antimony and zirconium have been studied using muscovite mica and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. These studies yielded information regarding the binary and ternary fission cross-sections. Emission of heavy and light reaction products has also been studied. The results indicate that besides the emission of heavy charged particles like fission fragments, a large fraction of light charged particles such as alpha particles and protons are emitted. The angular distributions of both fission fragments and light reaction products have been found to be slightly peaked in the direction of the incidence beam.

Khan, Hameed A.; Khan, Naeem A.; Peterson, R. J.

1990-10-01

405

Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys  

SciTech Connect

Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent {beta} (bcc) and the product {alpha} (hcp) or {gamma}-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables.

Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D. [Bhabba Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India). Materials Science Div.; Ranganathan, S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)

1997-11-01

406

Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution by hydrous zirconium oxide.  

PubMed

Synthetic ZrO2 x nH2O was used for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The optimum adsorbent dose obtained for phosphate adsorption on to hydrous zirconium oxide was 0.1 g. The kinetic process was described very well by a pseudo-second-order rate model. The phosphate adsorption tended to increase with the decrease in pH. The adsorption capacity increased from 61 to 66 mg g(-1) when the temperature was increased from 298 to 338 K. A phosphate desorption of approximately 74% was obtained using water at pH 12. PMID:22856308

Rodrigues, Liana Alvares; Maschio, Leandro Jos; Coppio, Luciana de Simone Cividanes; Thim, Gilmar Patrocnio; da Silva, Maria Lcia Caetano Pinto

2012-06-01

407

Structure and thermal stability of mesostructured zirconium oxophosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly ordered mesoporous zirconium oxophosphates (designated as ZOP) with hexagonal P63\\/mmc and cubic Fm3m symmetries were firstly prepared by using gemini cationic surfactants as templates. It has been found that the thermal stability was elevated with the structure curvature order: cubic Ia3d2D-hexagonalp6mmcubicFm3m, hexagonal P63\\/mmc and cubic Pm3n. The ZOP mesoporous materials with cubic Fm3m and hexagonal P63\\/mmc structures were stable

Yifeng Zhang; Yongsheng Li; Yasuhiro Sakamoto; Osamu Terasaki; Shunai Che

2007-01-01

408

Minerals yearbook, 1991: Zirconium and hafnium. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Mr. Templeton is a physical scientist with the Branch of Industrial Minerals. He has covered zirconium and hafnium for about 4 years. Domestic survey data were prepared by the Section of Metals Data. World production data are provided by country specialists in the Division of International Minerals, and the data were compiled by Mr. Harold D. Willis. Data in the report are collected from an assortment of sources. U.S. mine production of zircon sand is obtained by directly surveying the three producing mines, all of which responded.

Templeton, D.A.

1993-03-01

409

Analysis of uranium-zirconium-carbon-oxygen quaternary system for applications in advanced zirconium carbide coated TRISO particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of ZrC for use in oxide TRISO particles for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) conditions to prevent kernel overpressurization and kernel migration has been proposed by several researchers. Analysis is performed incorporating first-principles thermodynamics along with out-of-pile experimental work. UO2+x-U4O9 powders are created and used for in-vacuo thermogravimetric testing with both carbon and zirconium carbide powders to evaluate the efficiency of ZrC for usage as an oxygen getter in oxide TRISO fuels.

Degange, Jonathan Lee

410

Cobalt cluster effects in zirconium promoted Co/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The effect of zirconium addition to the catalyst formulation of Co/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalysts was investigated. With increasing zirconium content the strong interaction between silica and cobalt is reduced and a somewhat weaker cobalt-zirconium interaction is observed. Therefore the degree of reduction of catalysts, which were reduced at 400 C for 16 h, increases strongly. The cobalt crystallite size increases with increasing zirconium content, leading to smaller cobalt metal surface areas for the freshly reduced catalyst. Cobalt particles can be found in clusters on the silica support. The size of cobalt clusters decreases and thus the number of cobalt particles within a cluster decreases with increasing zirconium content. At steady-state conditions the CO-conversion of the promoted catalyst in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis increases with increasing zirconium content. The C{sub 5+}-selectivity and the secondary hydrogenation activity pass a maximum with increasing zirconium content. The observed changes in activity and selectivity are explained in terms of an increase in the amount of metallic cobalt available under reaction conditions, leading to an increased activity, and a decrease in the cobalt cluster size, which diminishes the probability for secondary reactions. Furthermore, it was concluded that secondary double bond isomerization can be catalyzed to some extent by zirconia.

Feller, A.; Claeys, M.; Steen, E. van [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-07-01

411

Further evidence for a male-selective genetic association of synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97) gene with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background The synapse-associated protein 97 gene (SAP97) encodes a regulatory scaffold protein for the localization of L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. We have recently demonstrated nominally significant associations between SAP97 gene and schizophrenia among Japanese males. The present study aimed to replicate these findings using an independent and larger sample. Methods We investigated seven SAP97 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that displayed a significant association with schizophrenia in our preceding study in an independent Japanese population consisting of a total of 393 unrelated patients with schizophrenia (232 males and 161 females) and 393 unrelated control subjects (211 males and 182 females). Results The SNP rs9843659 showed a significant genotypic association with male patients in a recessive model (p = 0.037). The analysis of the combined data from the current and prior studies also demonstrated a significant association of this SNP (p = 0.0039). The meta-analysis for the allele frequency covering the two studies yielded an odds ratio of 1.38. Conclusions The present study replicated the previously reported male-selective genetic association between the SAP97 polymorphism and schizophrenia. These findings further support the possible involvement of the SAP97 gene variation in the susceptibility to schizophrenia in males and in the genetic basis for sex differences in the disorder.

2012-01-01

412

Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

Balakrishna, Palanki [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)], E-mail: bpalanki@rediffmail.com; Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

2008-07-15

413

Characterization of SAES St198 zirconium-iron-tin alloy  

SciTech Connect

A waste minimization program to develop a non-oxidative stripper system based on metallic getters is being conducted. Initial development is being performed using a Zr-Fe-Sn intermetallic alloy getter procured as Stl98 from SAES Gefters/USA., Inc. This memorandum describes characterizations of physical and compositional properties of SAES Stl98. SAES Stl98 getter was supplied as very durable, cylindrical pellets made by compaction of. granules of Zr-Fe-Sn alloy up to 150 [mu]m in size. Pellet density was 5.2 g/mL corresponding to 24.8% open porosity and very little closed porosity. Bulk composition of Stl98 was 73.6 weight percent (w/o) Zr, 23.3 w/o Fe and 1.2 w/o Sn. Stl98 consists of Zr[sub 2]Fe primary phase along with four secondary phases (ZrFe[sub 2], Zr[sub 5]FeSn, [alpha]-zirconium, and [eta]-Zr[sub 4]Fe[sub 2]O[sub 0.6]). Hydriding characteristics of Stl98 are expected to differ slightly from those of Zr[sub 2]Fe because [alpha]-zirconium and, possibly, Zr[sub 5]FeSn also react with hydrogen.

Mosley, W.C.

1992-10-13

414

MOCVD of zirconium oxide thin films: Synthesis and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of thin films of zirconia often produces tetragonal or cubic phases, which are stable at high temperatures, but that can be transformed into the monoclinic form by cooling. In the present study, we report the deposition of thin zirconium dioxide films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using zirconium (IV)-acetylacetonate as precursor. Colorless, porous, homogeneous and well adherent ZrO 2 thin films in the cubic phase were obtained within the temperature range going from 873 to 973 K. The deposits presented a preferential orientation towards the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes as the substrate temperature was increased, and a crystal size ranging between 20 and 25 nm. The kinetics is believed to result from film growth involving the deposition and aggregation of nanosized primary particles produced during the CVD process. A mismatch between the experimental results obtained here and the thermodynamic prediction was found, which can be associated with the intrinsic nature of the nanostructured materials, which present a high density of interfaces.

Torres-Huerta, A. M.; Domnguez-Crespo, M. A.; Ramrez-Meneses, E.; Vargas-Garca, J. R.

2009-02-01

415

Zirconium complexes with lactic acid in the solution and solid states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid complexes of zirconium are used in a great number of industrial applications. Among these is their use as crosslinking agents for hydraulic fracturing fluids used in secondary oil recovery operations. Because of a poor understanding of zirconium lactate complex chemistry and crosslinking reactions, however, the design of superior fluid systems is often not guided by sound chemical principles and leads to empirical guesswork. Zirconium lactate solutions were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C, and 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and potentiometry. The results indicate that lactic acid is coordinated bidentate to zirconium via the alcohol and carboxylate groups. The average number of lactate ligands per zirconium ion is approximately 2 and is demonstrated to be relatively constant from pH 4--9. The lability of the lactate complexes increases as the pH is decreased. The NMR data reveal that there are both large and small complex molecules present in solution, with the size of the complex depending on the extent of zirconium hydrolysis. Large complexes consist of lactic acid coordinated to polynuclear zirconium hydroxy ions. The molecular size of these complexes is sufficient to hinder their tumbling in solution and cause broadening of the measured NMR signals. Small complexes involve lactic acid coordinated to hydroxylated species containing fewer zirconium ions, such that the rotational motion in solution is sufficiently rapid to result in narrow NMR signals. Zirconium lactate complexes were precipitated from solution and analyzed in the solid state using FT-IR spectroscopy, 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermal gravitational analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Two distinct types of crystalline compounds were synthesized with four lactate ligands per zirconium ion. The coordination of lactic acid to zirconium is different in the two compounds, with one showing evidence of at least two distinct lactate environments. This investigation has shown that the method of preparing a zirconium lactate solution can significantly affect the nature of the aqueous complex. A new preparation technique that produces solutions with significantly different properties than those available commercially has been demonstrated.

Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

416

Histopathological and microanalytical study of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in bone cement.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To report the appearances of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in interface membranes, synovium, and other tissues around joint prostheses. METHODS: Histological sections from 23 specimens were reviewed by light microscopy and polarisation. Scanning electron microscopy and x ray microanalysis were performed on routinely processed paraffin wax sections. RESULTS: Polyethylene, metals, and polymethylmethacrylate cement debris were easily recognisable. Almost all the cement remnants contained either zirconium dioxide or barium sulphate, confirmed by microanalysis. The contrast media had characteristic light microscopic appearances. Zirconium was identified in macrophages away from cement remnants. CONCLUSION: The presence of radiographic contrast media in tissues around prosthetic joints is common but not widely recognised. Images

Keen, C. E.; Philip, G.; Brady, K.; Spencer, J. D.; Levison, D. A.

1992-01-01

417

High-spin states in {sup 97,98}Rh  

SciTech Connect

High-spin states in {sup 97,98}Rh (Z=45) were populated via the {sup 65}Cu({sup 36}S,xn){sup 97,98}Rh (x=4,3) fusion-evaporation reactions. More than 40 additional transitions have been identified and placed in the decay schemes of these nuclei. The level scheme of {sup 97}Rh has been extended up to tentative spins of J{sup {pi}}=39/2{sup +},37/2{sup {minus}}, and the placement of some of the previously known transitions has been revised. The level structure of {sup 97}Rh indicates a single-particle nature and the observed levels are reproduced well by spherical shell-model calculations. The level scheme of {sup 98}Rh has been extended up to spins J{approximately}20{h_bar} and up to an excitation energy of {approximately}10 MeV. The low-spin structure of {sup 98}Rh (J{le}10{h_bar}), appears to indicate also a single-particle structure, as supported by the stretched coupling scheme [{sup 97}Rh(J{sup {prime}}){circle_times}{nu}(d{sub 5/2})={sup 98}Rh (J)]. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Ghugre, S.S.; Kharraja, B.; Garg, U. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Crowell, B.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Mueller, W.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Kaczarowski, R. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk (Poland)

1998-12-01

418

Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine  

SciTech Connect

The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Vero cells; genetically stable, maintaining high temperature sensitivity after ten successive passages in CE cells at 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C; and M proteins of this virus about 1 KD slower in mobility in SDS-PAGE than that of the Tanabe strain. The TD97 strain was further confirmed to be attenuated by an inoculation test into primate brain. In field trials, 752 healthy children were inoculated with a live virus vaccine prepared with this strain, and the following results were obtained: the seroconversion rate was 97% (517/533), and the average HI antibody titer was 2(5.2). An antibody-increasing effect was also observed in children who were initially seropositive. In children who seroconverted, the rates of fever were 15.7% (55/351) for 37.5 degrees C or higher and 4.0% (14/351) for 39 degrees C or higher. The rash rate was 7.7% (27/351), and the incidence of local reaction was 5.4% (19/351). The TD97 strain is thus considered to be suitable in use for an attenuated measles vaccine.

Suzuki, K.; Morita, M.; Katoh, M.; Kidokoro, M.; Saika, S.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hashizume, S.; Horiuchi, K.; Okabe, N.; Shinozaki, T. (Chiba Serum Institute (Japan))

1990-11-01

419

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

Steen, F.H.

1997-12-22

420

Tank 241-S-302 grab samples 302S-97-1, 302S-97-2 and 302S-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-S-302 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected on January 30, 1998. Analyses were performed on samples 302-S-97-1, 302-S-97-2 and 302-S-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information. Visual observation indicated that the sample was a clear, light-yellow liquid with less than one percent solids. No organic layer was observed. The 125 mL sample was submitted to the laboratory for analysis of inorganic analytes and radionuclides.

Diaz, L.A.

1998-03-20

421

Titrimetric Determination of Thiocyanate in Solutions of the Hafnium-Zirconium Separation Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control of the thiocyanate concentration is necessary during the process of separating hafnium from zirconium by the hexone-thiocyanate method. Said control is carried out by titrimetric determination of thiocyanate in aqueous and organic solutions co...

C. Vazquez M. Botbol M. H. Hernandez

1980-01-01

422

21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol...

2009-04-01

423

21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol...

2010-04-01

424

21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol...

2013-04-01

425

21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol...

2011-04-01

426

Electrical conductivity and viscosity of melts of products of the reaction of zirconium with potassium halides  

SciTech Connect

The authors report results of a study of the electrical conductivity and viscosity of melts of products of the reaction of zirconium with potassium chloride and fluoride in binary and ternary mixtures composed of these substances.

Trifonov, K.I.; Zagidulin, S.M.; Katyshev, S.F.; Desyatnik, V.N.

1986-12-20

427

Thermally Activated Deformation of Alpha-Zirconium and Alpha-Zircaloy (LWBR/Lsbr Development Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dislocation mechanism associated with the deformation dynamics of alpha-zirconium and Zircaloy at low temperatures (below 600F) was evaluated from data available in the literature using the thermal activation analysis and Fleischer's model for solute ...

J. Hull H. Conrad

1967-01-01

428

Stabilization of high-temperature phases of zirconium and hafnium dioxides by carbon and boron  

SciTech Connect

Previous papers have shown that the cubic form of ZrO/sub 2/ and tetragonal HfO/sub 2/ are stabilized by films being doped with carbon and boron during production by the pyrolysis of zirconium and hafnium acetylacetonates and zirconium borohydride correspondingly. With reference to ZrO/sub 2/, the authors estimate the changes in the effective charges in the presence of carbon required to produce the stabilization effect. The effective charges on Zr and O in zirconium dioxide are + or - 1.68 and -0.84, while the ionic radii are 0.82 and 1.4 A, correspondingly. The well-known stabilization mechanisms for zirconium and hafnium dioxides may in some cases be accompanied by stabilization by interstitial impurities such as carbon or boron.

Vodzinskii, V.Y.

1986-06-01

429

Cation-exchange separation of hafnium and zirconium from accompanying ions.  

PubMed

Hafnium and zirconium are not retained on the strongly acidic cation-exchange resin Dowex 50 from a mixture consisting of methanol and 12M nitric acid (19:1) which is 0.1M in trioctylphosphine oxide. On the other hand most other elements investigated are strongly adsorbed on the resin from this medium so that they are readily separated from hafnium and zirconium. These elements include titanium, rare earths, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, iron, cobalt, manganese and zinc. This separation technique has been found to be suitable for the separation of tracer and milligram amounts of hafnium and zirconium from accompanying metal ions. If in place of methanol other organic solvents such as acetone, tetrahydrofuran and methyl glycol are used the selectivity of the separation of zirconium and hafnium from the other elements is decreased. The same effect is observed when hydrochloric acid is used in the mixtures instead of nitric acid. PMID:18960465

Korkisch, J; Orlandini, K A

1969-01-01

430

Anomalous Phenomena in Zirconium, Hafnium, and Titanium Salt Solutions, Studied by Capillary Isotachophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary isotachophoresis was used to separate mixtures of solutions containing zirconium, hafnium, titanium, and aluminum salts with various anions. Anomalous phenomena occurring in separation of mixtures in solutions with medium and high concentrations are described and analyzed.

O. V. Oshurkova; A. I. Gorshkov; V. P. Nesterov

2001-01-01

431

Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent  

SciTech Connect

In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

1988-04-12

432

Solvent Extraction Separation of Zirconium (iv) With Anberlite LA - 1 From Citrate Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium was quantitatively extracted with 8 10 M of Amberlite LA-1 or LA-2 xylene from 0.001 M citric acid at pH 3.5 and it was stripped from the organic phase with 2 M hydrochloric acid and was determined spectrophotometrically at 665 nm as its complex with arsenazo III. Zirconium was separated from binary as well as tertiary mixtures by

C. P. Vibhute; S. M. Khopkar

1983-01-01

433

Reaction of zirconium fluoride monohydrate and ammonium bifluoride; Its effect on fluoride glass preparation and quality  

SciTech Connect

The products obtained from the room-temperature reaction of ammonium bifluoride and zirconium fluoride monohydrate are ammonium heptafluorozirconate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 3/ZrF/sub 7/), liquid water, and hydrogen fluoride. This paper discusses ammonium bifluoride and zirconium fluoride monohydrate reacted prior to glass batching, producing dry ammonium heptafluorozirconate which was used to prepare a high-quality ZBLAN fluoride glass.

Ewing, K.J.; Sanghera, J.S.; Miklos, R.E.; Sachon, M.G.; Pietersen, L.; Hart, P.; Aggarwal, I. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA). Optical Sciences Div.)

1989-08-01

434

Interfacial and microstructural properties of zirconium oxide thin films prepared directly on silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium oxide thin films were deposited directly on Si by ultra high vacuum electron beam evaporation (UHV-EBE) and rapid thermal annealed (RTA) in O2 ambient at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 800C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed zirconium is in the fully oxidized state of Zr4+. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that as-deposited thin films were amorphous. When the

N. L Zhang; Z. T Song; Q Wan; Q. W Shen; C. L Lin

2002-01-01

435

Self-organized high-aspect-ratio nanoporous zirconium oxides prepared by electrochemical anodization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of self-organized high-aspect-ratio nanoporous zirconium oxides by the Electrochemical anodization was analyzed. The self-organized pore formation on Ti under optimized electrochemical conditions was achieved to grow Ti nanotubes with aspect ratio of more than 20. The electrochemical fabrication of highly ordered porous zirconium oxide layers of nanotubular shape with high aspect ratio was also reported. Result shows that

Hiroaki Tsuchiya; Irina Sieber; Patrik Schmuki

2005-01-01

436

Synthesis and characterization of novel aramid-zirconium oxide micro-composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

New micro-composites containing different proportions of zirconium oxide in aromatic polyamide have been prepared via a sol-gel process. Poly(phenyleneterephthalamide) chains with carbonyl chloride end groups were synthesized by reacting a mixture of p- and m-phenylene diamines with terephthaloyl chloride. The chain ends were endcapped with aminophenyltrimethoxysilane. Appropriate amount of zirconium propoxide solution (82.3 wt.%) in propanol was mixed in the

H. U. Rehman; M. I. Sarwar; Z. Ahmad; H. Krug; H. Schmidt

1997-01-01

437

THE ''CLEAN-UP'' PROCESS: A CHEMICAL CHOP PROCESS. (I. Application to Zirconium-Clad Fuel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new head-end process for zirconium-clad fuel. Essentially, this consists of an electrochemical pre-treatment of the oxide-protected zirconium-canning, followed by chemical attack, based on the 'Zirflex' decanning concept. Such a pre-treatment may be carried out either on the whole can surface or on local peripheral bands. The first leads to a faster 'Zirflex' decanning operation; the second

R. Kroebel; E. Lopez-Menchero; J. M. Pivato

1968-01-01

438

Trace determination of iron, cobalt, nickel and copper in zirconium fluoride by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of transition elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) in zirconium fluoride and NBS SRM's were determined by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The contents of impurities in sublimed sample were less than those of high-purity material and of reagent grade. The detection limits of these elements in zirconium fluoride were 10 ng\\/g for iron, 0.01 ng\\/g for cobalt, 1 ng\\/g

K. Kobayashi; T. Shigematsu

1987-01-01

439

Thermal analysis studies on the zirconium\\/nickel alloy-potassium perchlorate-nitrocellulose pyrotechnic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zirconium\\/nickel alloy-potassium perchlorate-nitrocellulose pyrotechnic system has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, simultaneous TG-DTA-mass spectrometry and chemical analysis using ion-specific electrodes. Quantitative measurements on the solid state reaction, in the region of 400C, between zirconium\\/nickel alloy and potassium perchlorate have shown that a major component of the solid state reaction may be represented by the equation 9Zr + 14Ni

B. Berger; E. L. Charsley; J. J. Rooney; S. B. Warrington

1995-01-01

440

AN EVALUATION OF THE PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a survey of the literature and other available information on ;\\u000a zirconium--uranium alloys have been reviewed for the purpose of obtaining a ;\\u000a coherent picture of current knowledge about the properties and behavior of ;\\u000a zirconium--uranium alloys. The results of the survey were used to revise and ;\\u000a extend the presentation of material gathered earlier in a similar

A. A. ed

1959-01-01

441

Mechanical response of zirconiumII. Experimental and finite element analysis of bent beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a companion paper [Acta mater. 2001, 49(15), 30853096] we develop a polycrystal constitutive law that incorporates the deformation mechanisms operating in high purity zirconium (Zr) at liquid nitrogen (LN) and room temperature (RT). In this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on beams of highly textured zirconium. These tests have been performed at LN and RT,

G. C. Kaschner; J. F. Bingert; C. Liu; M. L. Lovato; P. J. Maudlin; M. G. Stout; C. N. Tom

2001-01-01

442

The separation of zirconium and hafnium in a molten salt-molten zinc system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial separation of zirconium and hafniumvia aqueous\\/organic extraction procedures is both difficult and expensive. The principal objective of the present work was to\\u000a study an alternative procedure involving the oxidation-reduction equilibria of zir-conium and hafnium between a molten salt\\u000a phase and molten zincvia the displacement reaction: Zr(IV)molten salt + Hfmolten zink ? Hf(IV)molten salt + Zrmolten zink The reaction

Joseph A. Megy; Harry Freund

1979-01-01

443

Co-Rolled U10Mo/Zirconium-Barrier-Layer Monolithic Fuel Foil Fabrication Process  

SciTech Connect

Integral to the current UMo fuel foil processing scheme being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the incorporation of a zirconium barrier layer for the purpose of controlling UMo-Al interdiffusion at the fuel-meat/cladding interface. A hot co-rolling process is employed to establish a ~25-m-thick zirconium barrier layer on each face of the ~0.3-mm-thick U10Mo fuel foil.

G. A. Moore; M. C. Marshall

2010-01-01

444

Enthalpies of solution of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium in liquid copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard enthalpies of solution of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium in liquid copper were measured directly by high temperature calorimetry at 1873 K. Solution of solid metals was accompanied with exothermic effects approaching the values ?15.0 3.9 kJ mol?1 for titanium, ?44.4 6.6 kJ mol?1 for zirconium, and ?36.8 5.4 kJ mol?1 for hafnium at infinite dilution.Concentration dependence

M. A. Turchanin; I. V. Nikolaenko

1996-01-01

445

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and\\/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared

Johnson Jr. A. Burtron; Ira S. Levy; Dennis J. Trimble; Donald D. Lanning; Franna S. Gerber

1990-01-01

446

Actinide partitioning studies using dihexyl-N,N-diethycarbamolymehtyl phosphonate and dissolved zirconium calcine  

SciTech Connect

A baseline flowsheet capable of partitioning the transuranic (TRU) elements from dissolved zirconium calcines has been developed. The goal of the TRU partitioning process is to remove the TRUs from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcines to below the 10 CFR 61.55 Class A waste limit of 10 nCi/g. Extraction, scrub, strip, and wash distribution coefficients for several elements, including the actinides, were measured in the laboratory by performing equal volume batch contacts. A solvent containing diheyl-N, N- diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate (CMP), tributylphosphate (TBP), and a branched chain hydrocarbon as the diluent were used to develop this process. A non-radioactive zirconium pilot-plant calcine was spiked with the TRUs, U, Tc, or a radioactive isotope of zirconium to simulate the behavior of these elements in actual dissolved zirconium calcine feed. Distribution coefficient data obtained from laboratory testing were used to recommend: (1) solvent composition, (2) scrub solutions capable of selectively removing extracted zirconium while minimizing actinide recycle, (3) optimized strip solutions which quantitatively recover extracted actinides, and (4) feed adjustments necessary for flowsheet efficiency. Laboratory distribution coefficients were used in conjunction with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to develop and recommend a flowsheet for testing in the 5.5-cm Centrifugal Contractor Mockup. GTM results indicate that the recommended flowsheet should remove the actinides from dissolved zirconium calcine feed to below the Class A waste limit of 10 nCi/g. Less than 0.01 wt% of the extracted zirconium will report to the high- activity waste (HAW) fraction using the 0.05 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} in 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} scrub, and greater than 99% of the extracted actinides are recovered with 0.001 M HEDPA.

Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Garn, T.G.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

1996-01-01

447

Features of Preparing Nano-Size Powders of Tetragonal Zirconium Dioxide Stabilized with Yttrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of wet chemical synthesis parameters on the properties of nano-powders of zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium is studied. Features of nano-powder synthesis by the oxalate, hydroxide and thermal hydrolysis of a sol methods are determined. Nano-size zirconium dioxide powder stabilized with 3 mole% yttrium is prepared by hydrothermal coprecipitation from a sol of metal chlorides and urea followed

O. O. Vasylkiv; Y. Sakka; V. V. Skorokhod

2005-01-01

448

Reversed phase chromatographic separation of zirconium, niobium and hafnium tracers with HDEHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective separation of the congeneric pair of elements, zirconium and hafnium and also niobium which was in admixtures with zirconium as daughter in its isotopic form were achieved through reversed phase column and paper extraction chromatographic procedures using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as the liquid exchanger. In reversed phase column chromatographic separation, the tracers,95Zr,95Nb and175,181Hf, were extracted by HDEHP impregnated on

N. R. Das; Susanta Lahiri

1992-01-01

449

Simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys.  

PubMed

A simple analytical procedure is described for determining zirconium or hafnium in molybdenum-base alloys by formation of the Arsenazo III complex of zirconium or hafnium in 9 M hydrochloric acid medium. The absorbance is measured at 670 nm. Molybdenum (10 mg), titanium (1 mg), and rhenium (10 mg) have no adverse effect. No prior separation is needed. The relative standard deviation is 1.3-2.7%. PMID:18961121

Dupraw, W A

1972-06-01

450

XUV spectra of laser-produced zirconium plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XUV spectra of laser-produced zirconium plasmas in the 20 to 65 wavelength range, where 3d-4p and 3d-4f transitions dominate the observed emission, were studied experimentally and theoretically. Atomic structure calculations were performed with the Cowan and flexible atomic codes. Spectator satellite transitions, especially 3dn-14s-3dn-24s4f, where the 4s electron acts as a real spectator, in Mn-, Fe-, Co-, Ni- and Cu-like ions have been found to play an important role. The resulting emission causes arrays resulting from 3dn-3dn4f transitions to broaden and must be included in spectral simulations in order to reproduce the overall spectral profile.

Li, Bowen; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang, Weihua; Endo, Akira; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

2012-12-01

451

Improved tribology of tool steel by zirconium ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

AISI D3 tool steel was ion implanted with zirconium and the improvement in surface tribological properties investigated. The Zr ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc broad-beam ion source, with a mean ion energy of 130 keV and at doses of 3.6 x 10(sup 16), 5 x 10(sup 16) and 1 x 10(sup 17) ions/cm2. Wear, friction and hardness of the implanted samples were measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted steel. The wear resistance was increased by about a factor of two, the friction remained about the same or was possibly increased by a small amount, and the hardness was improved by a factor of five or more by the ion implantation. We also investigated the effect on the Zr implantation profile of the multi-component energy distribution of the ion beam used here.

Akbas, N.; Oztarhan, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

2001-02-01

452

Computer simulation of zirconium-hafnium separation by countercurrent extraction  

SciTech Connect

In carrying out research and development on an improved method for production of reactor-grade zirconium oxide, the Bureau of Mines has prepared a computer program capable of accurately predicting the stage-by-stage performance of a multistage countercurrent solvent extraction system for extractant. The results were used to plan laboratory experiments using a multistage countercurrent mixer-settler unit. The number of extractor stages, number of scrubber stages, feed solution concentrations, scrubber solution concentration, feed flow, scrubber flow, and organic-phase flow are the significant variables. The computer simulation indicates the effects of changes in the pertinent variables and makes it possible to locate the best combination of variables without a prohibitively large number of time-consuming experiments. 7 figures, 3 tables.

MacDonald, D.J.

1981-01-01

453

VOC RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS DURING SCOS97 AND EMISSIONS INVENTORY VALIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. In September 1997 during SCOS97 a series of 3-h canister samples of ambient air were collected at the Azusa air monitoring station during morning and afternoon periods. ...

454

On the accuracy of statistical distributions in Microsoft Excel 97  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the numerical accuracy of some statistical functions in Microsoft Excel (Excel version in Microsoft Office 97 for Windows). It is shown that the computation of some discrete distributions (Binomial, Poisson, Hypergeometric) fails even for probabilities in the central range between 0.01 and 0.99 and even for parameter values that cannot be judged as too extreme. Furthermore

Leo Knsel

1998-01-01

455

Planetary ephemeris program for HP 67\\/97 Calculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a calculator program and its use in determining the ephemeris of the nine planets in heliocentric space. The program is written for a hand-held Hewlett Packard Model 67 (or 97) calculator but could be adapted to other comparable calculators. The program enables the analyst to quickly determine the heliocentric longitude (the two-dimensional program assumes all

G. R. Greenfield

1979-01-01

456

Federal Tort Trials and Verdicts, 1996-97.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During each fiscal year, 1996 and 1997, U.S. district courts terminated an average of 296,000 cases. Approximately 84% of these cases were civil, and 16% were criminal cases. Of the nearly 500,000 civil cases terminated during fiscal years 1996-97, 19% (9...

C. J. DeFrances M. F. X. Litras

1999-01-01

457

40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State...annual allocations of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances for the control periods in...for the inclusion in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program of all units that...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 97.528 - Administrator's action on submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.528 Administrator's...any submission under the TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program and make appropriate...Administrator may deduct TR NOX Ozone Season allowances from or transfer TR NOX...

2013-07-01

459

40 CFR 97.534 - Recordkeeping and reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.534 Recordkeeping...owner or operator of a TR NOX Ozone Season unit shall comply with requirements of...follows: (1) If the TR NOX Ozone Season unit is subject to the Acid Rain...

2013-07-01

460

40 CFR 97.382 - CAIR designated representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.382 CAIR designated...representative. Any CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in unit, and any unit for...source as one or more CAIR NOX Ozone Season units shall have the same CAIR...

2013-07-01

461

National Geodetic Survey Equations for Transforming ITRF97 Positional Coordinates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, posted October 23, 2000, lists equations for transforming ITRF97 positional coordinates (XI, YI, ZI) at a specified epoch date (denoted t) to their corresponding NAD 83 values (XN, YN, ZN) at this same epoch date and gives a short explanation with hypertext references. Both the United States' National Geodetic Survey and Canada's Geodetic Survey Division have adopted the equations.

2000-01-01

462

Public School Personnel 1996-97 State Salary Schedule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual gives 1996-97 state salary levels as set by North Carolina for its public school employees. Definitions are given for each type of certified personnel, noncertified personnel, licensure class level, and for terms such as pay level, schedule, and school. Special provisions affecting salary are listed such as summer school and other

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

463

4 CFR 28.97 - Class actions in EEO cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Cases § 28.97 Class actions in EEO cases...discrimination on behalf of a class of GAO employees or applicants...employment, a complaint must first be filed with GAO in accordance...disposition of any EEO class complaint may be submitted...record, may direct that a new hearing be...

2011-01-01

464

Running Start Annual Progress Report, 1996-97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Running Start program was created by the 1990 Washington State Legislature to expand educational options for public school students. Running Start allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college-level courses, tuition-free, at the 32 community and technical colleges in Washington. This annual progress report for 1996-97

Crossland, Ron

465

97. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 180, May 20, 1908) LOADING BEAMS OF WILLAMETTE BRIDGE DRAW SPAN - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

466

46 CFR 97.12-3 - Guidance for the master.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-3 Guidance for...loading and stowage information for each bulk solid cargo that vessel will carry. (b) The shipper of a bulk solid cargo, as defined in § 148.3 of...

2012-10-01

467

97. Photocopied August 1978. COMPENSATING GATES SITE, SEPTEMBER 7, 1915, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Photocopied August 1978. COMPENSATING GATES SITE, SEPTEMBER 7, 1915, LOOKING NORTH AT EAST END. THIS PHOTO GIVES A GOOD VIEW OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE COFFER DAM AS WELL AS THE COMPLETED PIERS OF THE COMPENSATING GATES PRIOR TO THE INSTALLATION OF THE SUPER-STRUCTURE. (627) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

468

97. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 23, 1940. TOP PEDIMENT - 'GOD THE FATHER'. UPPER NICHE - 'OUR LADY' (B.V.M.) LOWER NICHE - 'ST. FRANCIS XAVIER'. (SOUTH ELEVATION). HIGH ALTAR - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

469

[Dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of Zirconium-95 in the maize/soil and soybean/soil ecosystem].  

PubMed

The dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr in two kinds crop-soil ecosystem was studied by using isotope-tracer techniques for simulated pollutants, and the fitting equation was confirmed by application of the closed tow-compartment model and nonlinear regression method. The results showed: 1. The Zirconium-95 absorbed from soil main retention in root of the maize and soybean, and the specific activity of 95Zr in root increased with time slowly, then tended dynamics balance gradually after a period of time. The specific activity of rest parts was lower, and biggish parts were background activity level, which indicated that the 95Zr absorbed by roots was difficult of transference and transportation in the maize and soybean. 2. The 95Zr in soil main retention in surface layer soil(0-8 cm), and the rate of it's activity and total activity > 97.5%, which indicated that the 95Zr absorbed by surface soil could not readily move downwards with percolating water. 3. The regression equation of accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr in the maize and soybean were Cm(t) = 3.2067(1 - e-0.1582t) and Cb(t) = 3.0925(1- e -0.1363t) by analyzing the experiment data with exponential regression method. The results of squared deviations analyzing indicated that each regression equation could describe the dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr in the maize-soil and soybean-soil ecosystems preferably. PMID:12145947

Shi, Jianjun; Chen, Hui

2002-05-01

470

46 CFR 97.37-10 - Fire extinguishing system branch lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system branch lines. 97.37-10 Section 97.37-10 ...Etc. § 97.37-10 Fire extinguishing system branch lines. (a) The branch line valves of all fire extinguishing...

2012-10-01

471

40 CFR 97.260 - Submission of CAIR SO2 allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Submission of CAIR SO2 allowance transfers. 97.260 Section 97.260 Protection...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.260 Submission of CAIR SO2 allowance transfers. (a) A CAIR authorized...

2013-07-01

472

40 CFR 97.160 - Submission of CAIR NOX allowance transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Submission of CAIR NOX allowance transfers. 97.160 Section 97.160 Protection...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Transfers § 97.160 Submission of CAIR NOX allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account...

2013-07-01

473

15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 ...APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of...

2013-01-01

474

Zirconium Copper - a New Material for Use at Low Temperatures?  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic instruments usually require components with high thermal conductivity. Pure (non alloyed) copper offers very high conductivity, but is soft and not thus always suitable structurally. High conductivity beryllium copper (BeCu) alloys are a common choice when copper is unsuitable since they offer a good compromise between hardness and thermal conductivity. These alloys contain a small (<1%) amount of beryllium (along with a few percent of nickel or cobalt), with strength being obtained by precipitation hardening. An alternative precipitation hardened copper alloy is C15000 zirconium copper (ZrCu), which contains < 0.2% zirconium with the remainder being copper. This material does not seem to be generally used in cryogenic systems, though hardness and strength are comparable to BeCu. Moreover, the lower impurity content suggests that the thermal conductivity should be higher than for BeCu. I present residual resistivity measurements suggesting that ZrCu does indeed possess considerably higher conductivity than BeCu (19 Wm-1K-1 at 1 K compared to approximately 2 Wm-1K-1), and should therefore be a very useful material. A method is given for extrapolating the low temperature thermal conductivity values to temperatures up to 300 K; good agreement is seen with room temperature data-sheet values. This extrapolation method is shown to also be applicable to BeCu and thus presumably other dilute copper alloys, and is used to give recommended values for coin silver and various BeCu alloy types, including C17510 and C17200.

Woodcraft, Adam L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB (United Kingdom)

2006-09-07

475

Ion beam mixing of chromium or zirconium films with sapphire  

SciTech Connect

Ion beam mixing of thin metallic films deposited on sapphire substrates was studied for chromium or zirconium films deposited on single crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} substrates. Evidence for the influence of equilibrium thermodynamic factors was sought by comparing the effects of bombarding with oxygen ions (300 and 1073 K) with those of neon ions (300 K). Thermodynamic calculations indicate that mixing might occur for Zr/sapphire at 1073 K but not at 300 K. Chromium/sapphire should not be mixed at either temperature. The implantation energy placed the peak oxygen concentration at the metal/sapphire interface in an attempt to maintain an equilibrium ratio of cations/anions and promote a radiation-induced chemical reaction across the interface. Rutherford backscattering-ion channeling measurements indicated that the widths of ``mixed`` regions were consistent with those predicted from ballistic considerations. Other experiments employed a heavier ion (krypton) as the mixing ion (300 K) in order to increase the mixing efficiency. Rutherford backscattering-ion channeling and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the extent and nature of any interface modification. XPS results indicated that only metallic chromium (Cr{sup 0}) was present near the interface before and after irradiation with Kr at 300 K. Zirconium exhibited only the metallic state (Zr{sup 0}) in the as-deposited film but was present as both Zr{sup 0} and Zr{sup 4{plus}} after irradiation. Some metallic aluminum (AI{sup O}) was detected near the Zr/sapphire interface, suggesting that a local chemical reaction between Zr and the sapphire occurred during bombardment. No long-range material transport was detected for any experimental condition examined; the width of the ``mixed` region in each case was consistent with that expected for ballistic effects.

McHargue, C.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Joslin, D.L.; White, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); daSilva, M.F.; Alves, E. [National Inst. for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal); Soares, J.C. [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal)

1995-12-31

476

Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of novel N donor ligands-chelated zirconium(IV) complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel zirconium complexes have been synthesized by using a mixture of zirconium nitrate, 1,2,4,5-benzen tetracarboxylic acid (H4btec), 1,10-phenanthroline(phen) and potassium thiocyanate. Monodentate coordination mode of btec acid for all complexes was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The complexes were also characterized by UV-Vis, 1H NMR, CHN, ICP-AES. The reaction details and features were described and discussed. The photoluminescence emission of seven zirconium complexes was shown two series peaks: first, sharp and intense bands from 300 to 500 nm and broadened with less intensity from 650 to 750 nm for the second bands. Each of the zirconium compounds were doped in PVK:PBD blend as host. The ratio of zirconium complexes for each type were modified 8 wt.% in PVK:PBD(100:40). The electroluminescence spectra of zirconium complexes were indicated a red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. We suggest that the electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complex interface.

Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir

2012-11-01

477

Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium and hafnium with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol  

SciTech Connect

Reaction behavior of zirconium and hafnium with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol is established under various conditions. Optimum conditions for a very sensitive spectrophotometric procedure are outlined for the determination of zirconium and hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium react quantitatively with the reagent in alkaline pH from 8 to 9.2 and 8 to 9.8, respectively, to form 1:2 water-soluble complexes. The molar absorptivity for zirconium and hafnium is 66,000 and 77,400, respectively. The order of addition of the reagent, metal ion, and buffer solution is evaluated. It is concluded that both zirconium and hafnium solutions must be maintained at higher acidities to react quantitatively with the reagent. A number of foreign ions are tested for their interference and the use of masking agents and selective extractive agents is outlined. The relative standard deviations are +/-0.5% and +/-0.7 for the determination of 30 ..mu..g of zirconium and 40 ..mu..g of hafnium, respectively. 3 figures, 3 tables.

Kalyanaraman, S.; Fukasawa, T.

1983-12-01

478

THE HEAT TREATMENT, TRANSFORMATION REACTIONS, AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME HIGH-STRENGTH ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium alpha-beta alloys were found to respond to solution and aging ; heat treatmeats very similarly to titanium alpha-beta alloys. A zirconium-5 wt.% ; molybderum-2 wt.%fl tin alloy was heat treated to a L68,500-psi tensile strength ; and a 153,500-psi yield strength, with 11.5% elongation in 1 in. In addition, a ; zirconium-5 wt.% niobinm-2 wt.% tin alloy was heat

H. A. Robinson; J. R. Doig; M. W. Mote; P. D. Frost

1956-01-01

479

Preparation of porous resin loaded with crystalline hydrous zirconium oxide and its application to the removal of arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A porous resin loaded with monoclinic or cubic hydrous zirconium oxide was prepared by incorporation of ZrOCl28H2O into porous spherical polymer beads followed by hydrolysis and hydrothermal treatment of the zirconium salt. Hydrous zirconium oxide appeared to deposit inside the pores with relatively large diameter. The adsorption capacity and distribution coefficients for As(III) and As(V) were determined by batch procedures.

Toshishige M. Suzuki; John O. Bomani; Hideyuki Matsunaga; Toshiro Yokoyama

2000-01-01

480

Preparation and characterization of three-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced zirconium carbide composite by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced zirconium carbide composite (3D C\\/ZrC) was fabricated for ultra high temperature applications by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) process using the mixture of zirconium butoxide (Zr(OC4H9)4) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as precursor of zirconium carbide. The micro-structural, mechanical and ablative properties of the 3D C\\/ZrC composite were studied. The flexural strength of the composite was 107.6MPa, the

Dan Zhao; Changrui Zhang; Haifeng Hu; Yudi Zhang

2011-01-01

481

Solvent extraction and separation of zirconium, niobium and tantalum by 2-carbethoxy-5-hydroxy-1-(4-tolyl)-4-pyridone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Extraction of zirconium, niobium and tantalum from oxalic and hydrofluoric acid solutions, by 2-carbethoxy-5-hydroxy-1-(4-tolyl)-4-pyridone (HA) dissolved in chloroform was studied. Extraction mechanism for the extraction of zirconium from oxalate solutions and of niobium from fluoride solutions is proposed. Separation of zirconium and niobium from oxalate solution as well as from fluoride solution and tantalum and niobium from fluoride solution

M. Janko; M. J. Herak

1972-01-01

482

Synthesis and characterization of pure cubic zirconium oxide nanocrystals by decomposition of bis-aqua, tris-acetylacetonato zirconium(IV) nitrate as new precursor complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanocrystals with diameters 1030nm are fabricated from bis-aqua, tris-acetylacetonato zirconium(IV) nitrate; [Zr(acac)3(H2O)2](NO3); by thermal decomposition. The different combinations of oleylamine, or polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and triphenylphosphine, were added as surfactants to control the particle size. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultravioletvisible (UVVis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)

Masoud Salavati-Niasari; Mahnaz Dadkhah; Fatemeh Davar

2009-01-01

483

Zirconium(IV) chloride catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1 H)-ones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium tetrachloride catalyzes efficiently the three component condensation reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, a ?-ketoester and urea in refluxing ethanol to afford the corresponding dihydropyrimidinone in high yield.

Ch. Venkateshwar Reddy; M Mahesh; P. V. K Raju; T. Ramesh Babu; V. V. Narayana Reddy

2002-01-01

484

Topologically linked protein rings in the bacteriophage HK97 capsid.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage HK97 mature empty capsid was determined at 3.6 angstrom resolution. The 660 angstrom diameter icosahedral particle contains 420 subunits with a new fold. The final capsid maturation step is an autocatalytic reaction that creates 420 isopeptide bonds between proteins. Each subunit is joined to two of its neighbors by ligation of the side-chain lysine 169 to asparagine 356. This generates 12 pentameric and 60 hexameric rings of covalently joined subunits that loop through each other, creating protein chainmail: topologically linked protein catenanes arranged with icosahedral symmetry. Catenanes have not been previously observed in proteins and provide a stabilization mechanism for the very thin HK97 capsid. PMID:11000116

Wikoff, W R; Liljas, L; Duda, R L; Tsuruta, H; Hendrix, R W; Johnson, J E

2000-09-22

485

CASES-97 : Diurnal variation of the fair-weather PBL.  

SciTech Connect

The CASES-97 dataset, supplemented by data from the surrounding area and from satellite, will enable us to isolate the effects of soil moisture on boundary layer evolution.Our initial approach will be to use the integrated dataset to determine (a) the factors that contribute to PBL growth, and (b) the factors that determine the wind, temperature, and wind profiles in the growing PBL. This process will help us to consolidate the dataset and tease out remaining inconsistencies. As soon as reasonable, we want to use the dataset in mesoscale numerical models, to test and refine our conclusions. Further detail on the CASES-97 field program can be found at the World Wide Web site at: http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/cases/cases.html.

Coulter, R. L.; Grossman, R. L.; Hicks, B.; Horst, T.; Klazura, G.; LeMone, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; McMillen, R.; Oncley, S.

1997-11-18

486

Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 1996-97  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 1996-97_, published by the Economic Research Service of the Department of Agriculture, "identifies trends in land, water, and commercial input use; reports on the condition of natural resources used in the agricultural sector; and describes and assesses public policies that affect conservation and environmental quality in agriculture." The full report is available for download in Adobe Acrobat format.

Magleby, Richard.; Anderson, Margot.

1997-01-01

487

Topologically Linked Protein Rings in the Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage HK97 mature empty capsid was determined at 3.6 angstrom resolution. The 660 angstrom diameter icosahedral particle contains 420 subunits with a new fold. The final capsid maturation step is an autocatalytic reaction that creates 420 isopeptide bonds between proteins. Each subunit is joined to two of its neighbors by ligation of the

William R. Wikoff; Lars Liljas; Robert L. Duda; Hiro Tsuruta; Roger W. Hendrix; John E. Johnson

2000-01-01

488

{sup 100}Sn core excitations in {sup 97}Ag  

SciTech Connect

Excited states of {sup 97}Ag, which has three protons less than doubly magic {sup 100}Sn, were identified up to 7 MeV excitation energy and J=(33/2). The reaction {sup 46}Ti+{sup 58}Ni was employed together with the Gammasphere Ge detector array coupled with Microball and Neutron Shell auxiliary detectors. The measured states are compared with a large-scale shell-model calculation.

Lipoglavsek, M.; Vencelj, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Baktash, C.; Hausladen, P.A.; Yu, C.-H. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Likar, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2005-12-15

489

Epidemiology of carcinoid neoplasms in Vaud, Switzerland, 1974-97  

PubMed Central

In Vaud, Switzerland, the incidence of carcinoids based on 218 malignant and 215 benign cases rose from 19.6/106in 197485 to 28.2/106in 198697, more so among males and malignant neoplasms. Lung was the commonest site for malignant and large intestine for benign carcinoids. Sixty-eight (16%) carcinoids had another neoplasm. 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Levi, F; Te, V-C; Randimbison, L; Rindi, G; La Vecchia, C

2000-01-01

490

97. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY CEILING DESIGNED BY GEORGE BRECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. 451 MADISON AVENUE, LIBRARY CEILING DESIGNED BY GEORGE BRECK (The photographs are arranged sequentially with NY-5635-91 in the southwest corner proceeding eastward to NY-5635-98 in the southeast corner; the sequence begins again with NY-5635-99 in the northwest corner and ends with NY-5635-106 in the northeast corner; all photographs overlap) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

491

97. View of International Business Machine (IBM) digital computer model ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. View of International Business Machine (IBM) digital computer model 7090 magnetic core installation, international telephone and telegraph (ITT) Artic Services Inc., Official photograph BMEWS site II, Clear, AK, by unknown photographer, 17 September 1965, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-6604. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

492

Crystallization Behavior of M97 Series Silicone Cushions  

SciTech Connect

M97 series siloxanes are poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes that are reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers which are blended in through the addition of a short chain polydimethylsiloxane processing aid. M97 silicones exhibit crystallization at -80.25 C by thermal (modulated differential scanning calorimetry) and mechanical (dynamic mechanical analysis) techniques. Isothermal dynamic mechanical analysis experiments illustrated that crystallization occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.8 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30 minute incubation/nucleation period. {gamma}-radiation caused the crystallization rate to decrease proportionally with dosage, but did not decrease the amount of crystallization that ultimately occurred. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in slower overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation due to increased crosslinking of the polymer matrix under vacuum. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the M97 base polymer and helped determine which component of the composite was the origin of the crystallization phenomena.

Chien, A.; DeTeresa, S.; Cohenour, R.; Schnieder, J.; LeMay, J.; Balazs, B.

2000-09-07

493

High-spin states in {sup 96,97}Nb  

SciTech Connect

The high-spin level structures of the {sup 96,97}Nb isotopes have been studied. The isotopes were produced in the fission of the compound systems formed in two heavy-ion-induced reactions, {sup 24}Mg (134.5 MeV) + {sup 173}Yb and {sup 23}Na (129 MeV) + {sup 176}Yb. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was accomplished with the Gammasphere array. High-spin states are observed for the first time in both isotopes with excitation energies up to 5.2 and 6.6 MeV in {sup 96,97}Nb, respectively. The coupling of the odd proton occupying the g{sub 9/2} orbital to the yrast states in the subshell closure nucleus of {sup 96}Zr can account for the first excited states of {sup 97}Nb. A comparison with the first excited states in {sup 95}Zr is also attempted. The addition of a neutron hole in {sup 96}Nb results in a much more fragmented level scheme.

Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J. A.; Kruecken, R.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Becker, J. A.; Younes, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2010-10-15

494

Extraction of Zirconium and Hafnium Thiocyanates by CH/sub 3/COCH/sub 2/CH.(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/-HSCN Solvent from Chloride Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A zirconium-hafnium separation process for application in nuclear industry is presented. The extraction of zirconium and hafnium thiocyanates in chloride medium by hexone-HSCN solvent was studied. The extraction process was developed, varying the paramete...

A. T. Okada

1982-01-01

495

Actinide partitioning from actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine using the TRUEX solvent  

SciTech Connect

The TRansUranic EXtraction process (TRUEX), as developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is being evaluated as a TRU extraction process for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) wastes. A criteria that must be met during this evaluation, is that the aqueous raffinate must be below the 10 nCi/g limit specified in 10 CFR 61.55. A test was performed where the TRUEX solvent (0.2 M octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), and 1.4 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in an Isopar-L diluent) was contacted with actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine. Two experimental flowsheets were used to determine TRU decontamination factors, and TRU, Zr, Fe, Cr, and Tc extraction, scrub, and strip distribution coefficients. Results from these two flowsheets show that >99.99% of the TRU alpha activity was removed from the acidic feed after three contacts with the TRUEX solvent (fresh solvent being used for each contact). The resulting aqueous raffinate solution contained an approximate TRU alpha activity of 0.02 nCi/g, which is well below the non-TRU waste limit of 10 nCi/g specified in 10 CFR 61.55. Favorable scrub and strip distribution coefficients were also observed for Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239, indicating the feasibility of recovering these isotopes from the TRUTEX solvent. A solution of 0.04 M 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} was used to successfully strip the TRUs from the TRUEX solvent. The results of the test using actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine, and subsequent GTM evaluation, show the feasibility of removing TRUs from the dissolved zirconium calcine with the TRUEX solvent and the deleterious effects zirconium poses with the ICPP zirconium calcine waste. Test results using actual ICPP zirconium calcine reveal the necessity of preventing zirconium from following the TRUs.

Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

1995-05-01

496

Emulsions stabilized by precipitates of zirconium and tributyl phosphate degradation products  

SciTech Connect

In the Purex process, a solvent extraction method of nuclear fuel reprocessing, a stable emulsion called crud forms at the interface between the oil and water phases. This paper reports that crud is an emulsion stabilized by finely dispersed solids. Insoluble residues and precipitates of zirconium and radiation-degraded products of tributyl phosphate (TBP) are key materials in crud formation. Cruds formed by precipitates of zirconium and TBP degradation products, such as di-n-butyl phosphate (HDBP), mono-n-butyl phosphate (H{sub 2}MBP), and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) are studied. Experimental results show that the precipitate of zirconium and HDBP is not effective in stabilizing emulsions. However, the refractory complex of zirconium and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is an important material for stabilizing an oil-in-water emulsion in a solution with or without uranium. Moreover, it is shown that the complex of zirconium and H{sub 2}MBP has a significant role in stabilizing a water-in-oil emulsion, especially when uranium is also present.

Sugai, H.; Munakata, K. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Tokai Research Center 2600, Ishigamitojuku, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP)); Miyachi, S.; Yasu, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai Works Reprocessing Plant, Analysis Section, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP))

1992-05-01

497

Separation of hafnium from zirconium in sulfuric acid solutions using pressurized ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution pressurized ion exchange has been used successfully to study and separate hafnium and zirconium sulfate complexes by chromatographic elution from Dowex 50W-X8 (15 to 25 ..mu..m) resin with sulfuric acid solutions. Techniques were developed to continuously monitor the column effluents for zirconium and hafnium by reaction with fluorometric and colorimetric reagents. Since neither reagent was specific for either metal ion, peak patterns were initially identified by using the stable isotopes /sup 90/Zr and /sup 180/Hf as fingerprints of their elution position. Distribution ratios for both zirconium and hafnium decrease as the inverse fourth power of the sulfuric acid concentration below 2N and as the inverse second power at higher acid concentration. The hafnium-to-zirconium separation factor is approximately constant (approx. 8) over the 0.5 to 3N range. Under certain conditions, an unseparated fraction was observed that was not retained by the resin. The amount of this fraction which is thought to be a polymeric hydrolysis product appears to be a function of metal and sulfuric acid concentrations. Conditions are being sought to give the highest zirconium concentration and the lowest acid concentration that can be used as a feed material for commercial scale-up in the continuous annular chromatographic (CAC) unit without formation of the polymer.

Hurst, F.J.

1981-01-01

498

The effect of zirconium implantation on the structure of sapphire  

SciTech Connect

The effect of zirconium implantation on the structure of sapphire was investigated by 175 keV Zr implantation at room temperature to a fluence of 4 1016 ions/cm2 into sapphire single crystals. Samples were examined by several experimental techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy along a channeling direction (RBS-C), electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and Z-contrast images obtained in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Range and deposited energy were simulated with SRIM-2008.04. The Z-contrast images from transmission electron microscope indicated: a near surface damaged layer ~30 nm thick, a subsurface region exhibiting "random" de-channeling ~52 nm thick, and a deeper damaged, crystalline zone ~64 nm thick. The RBS-C spectra confirmed the presence of these three regions. The two damaged regions contained high concentrations of as yet unresolved defect clusters. The intermediate region contained Zr-clusters embedded in an "amorphous" matrix that exhibited short-range order corresponding to -Al2O3, i.e., a defective spinel structure. The EELS measurements show that the amorphous region is deficient in oxygen.

Sina, Younes [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); McHargue, Carl J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL

2012-01-01

499

Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing bidentate diarylamido-phosphine ligands.  

PubMed

The first examples of mononuclear, structurally characterized triarylphosphine complexes of zirconium and hafnium are reported. The metathetical reactions of MCl4(THF)2 (M = Zr, Hf) with [iPrNP]Li(THF)2 ([iPrNP]- = N-(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)-2,6-diisopropylanilide) or [MeNP]Li(THF)2 ([MeNP]- = N-(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)-2,6-dimethylanilide) in toluene at -35 degrees C produced the corresponding [iPrNP]MCl3(THF) and [MeNP]2MCl2, respectively, in high yield. In contrast, attempts to prepare [MeNP]MCl3(THF) and [iPrNP]2MCl2 led to the concomitant formation of mono- and bis-ligated complexes, from which purification proved rather ineffective. The solution and solid-state structures of [iPrNP]MCl3(THF) and [MeNP]2MCl2 were studied by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The geometry of these six-coordinate complexes is best described as a distorted octahedron in which the chloride ligands in [iPrNP]MCl3(THF) adopt a virtually meridional coordination mode whereas those in [MeNP]2MCl2 are trans to each other. PMID:15998044

Chien, Pin-Shu; Liang, Lan-Chang

2005-07-11

500

Zirconium and hafnium Salalen complexes in isospecific polymerisation of propylene.  

PubMed

The activity of dibenzylzirconium and dibenzylhafnium Salalen complexes in polymerisation of propylene with MAO as a cocatalyst is described. Three Salalen ligand precursors combining a bulky alkyl group (1-adamantyl) on the imine-side phenol and electron withdrawing halo groups of different sizes on the amine-side phenol were explored. All metal complexes were obtained as single diastereomers. An X-ray crystallographic structure of a hafnium complex of an additional ligand carrying the combination of tert-butyl and chloro substituted phenolates, 4-Hf, revealed a fac-mer wrapping of the Salalen ligand around the metal centre. All complexes led to active catalysts in propylene polymerisation and to isotactic polypropylene of high regioregularity. The zirconium complexes led to polypropylene having molecular weights of Mw = 132,000-200,000 and isotacticities of [mmmm] = 65.7-75.0%. The hafnium complexes led to polypropylene of higher molecular weights of Mw = 375,000-520,000 and higher stereoregularities of [mmmm] = 80.6-89.3%, the highest isotacticity obtained with 3-Hf. PMID:23471354

Press, Konstantin; Venditto, Vincenzo; Goldberg, Israel; Kol, Moshe

2013-03-07