Sample records for zirconium 97

  1. Zirconium and zirconium alloy ingots for nuclear application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This specification covers vacuum arc-melted zirconium and zirconium alloy ingots for nuclear application. Four grades, designated as reactor grade zirconium R60001, zirconium-tin alloys R60802 and R60804, and zirconium-niobium alloy R60901, suitable for nuclear application are described.

  2. Manage corrosion with zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L.; Bird, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium has been used to construct process equipment for over three decades. Zirconium offers low maintenance costs, high reliability, and strong environmental protection with several other advantages: (1) it resists attack by strong acids and caustics, as well as by many salt solutions and molten salts; (2) zirconium has adequate strength for process equipment operating at elevated temperatures; (3) it is relatively low in density, high in thermal conductivity, and low in the coefficient of thermal expansion; (4) zirconium can be fabricated into almost any shape by conventional methods; (5) it is nontoxic and biocompatible; and (6) zirconium does not produce colored ions. The paper looks at some of the major applications of zirconium to better understand its use. The corrosives cited include acetic, formic, nitric, sulfuric, and lactic acids, and phenolic resins.

  3. THE KINETICS OF THE CORROSION OF LOW-HAFNIUM ZIRCONIUM IN AQUEOUS SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tennyson Smith

    1960-01-01

    The rates of corrosion of low-hafnium zirconium in aqueous sulfuric acid ; solutions over the concentration range 9 to 97% by weight, were studied. ; Corrosion was detected by measuring the concentration of zirconium in solution ; with a radioactive tracer, Zr⁹⁵. The samples first were etched in an ; aqueous hydrofluoric-nitric acid solution then placed directly into the sulfuric

  4. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM--2000 87.1 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM

    E-print Network

    with mantles of zirconium, lanthanum and yttrium oxides. By 1900, the zirconium oxide mantle mixture had been came into use which used rods or "glowers" made of 25 percent yttrium oxide and 75 percent zirconium baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconium oxide or zirconia (ZrO2), is a distant second to zircon in its

  5. Zirconium and zirconium alloy ingots for nuclear application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The specification covers vacuum arc-melted zirconium and zirconium alloy ingots for nuclear application. Four grades, designated as reactor grade zirconium R60001, zirconium-tin alloys R60802 and R60804, and zirconium-niobium alloy R60901, suitable for nuclear application are described. The specification includes ordering information, manufacture, conditioning, chemical requirements, hardness, ultrasonic test, numerical limits, inspection, certification, packaging, and marking. (JMT)

  6. Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate

    E-print Network

    Fine, Steven Beryl

    1980-01-01

    of y and u- zirconium phosphate 4 A plot of the interlayer spacing versus the number of moles of propylene oxide reactive in y-zirconium 2-hydroxyl-1-propyl phosphate. 5 The proposed interlayer structure of y-zirconium 1-phenyl phosphate, . 6 A... of hydration. Amines can be inter- calated into zirconium phosphate, spreading the layers apart. The success of amine intercalation lead researchers to believe that zirconium phosphate might react with other organic compounds. Because ethylene oxide, 1, 2...

  7. Laser ablated zirconium plasma: A source of neutral zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Dheerendra; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report spectroscopic investigations of laser produced zirconium (Zr) plasma at moderate laser fluence. At low laser fluence the neutral zirconium species are observed to dominate over the higher species of zirconium. Laser induced fluorescence technique is used to study the velocity distribution of ground state neutral zirconium species. Two-dimensional time-resolved density distributions of ground state zirconium is mapped using planner laser induced fluorescence imaging and total ablated mass of neutral zirconium atoms is estimated. Temporal and spatial evolutions of electron density and temperature are discussed by measuring Stark broadened profile and ratio of intensity of emission lines, respectively.

  8. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM--2001 86.1 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM

    E-print Network

    minerals. The principal economic source of zirconium is the zirconium silicate mineral zircon (ZrSiO4 to zircon in its economic significance. Zircon is the primary source of all hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium are contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50:1. Zircon is a coproduct or byproduct of the mining

  9. Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

  10. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, R. E.; Sherman, A. H.

    1981-08-18

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

  11. Superstoichiometric hydride of zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Kupryazhkin, A.Ya.; Shchepetkin, A.A.; Zabolotskaya, E.V.; Pletnev, R.N.; Alyamovskii, S.I.; Kitaev, G.A.

    1987-12-01

    Superstoichiometric hydrides of zirconium have been obtained all the way up to the composition ZrH/sub 2.4/ by additional hydrogenation of ZrH/sub 2/ as a result of redistribution of hydrogen atoms between t- and o-positions. In the preparation of the hydrides the authors used zirconium iodide with an impurity content no greater than 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -2/ mole %; the hydrogen and helium used in this work had a minimum purity of 99.95%. The content of hydrogen in the specimens was determined by a volumetric method. The x-ray diffraction analysis was performed in a DRON-2.0 unit (CuK/sub ..cap alpha../ radiation). PMR spectra were recorded in a broad-line spectrometer in the temperature interval 150-450 K.

  12. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM--1998 86.1 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM

    E-print Network

    is the zirconium silicate mineral, zircon (ZrSiO4). The mineral baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia (ZrO2), is secondary to zircon in its economic significance. Zircon is the primary source of all hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium are contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50 to 1. Zircon is a coproduct or byproduct

  13. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM--1999 86.1 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM

    E-print Network

    is the zirconium silicate mineral, zircon (ZrSiO4). The mineral baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia (ZrO2), is secondary to zircon in its economic significance. Zircon is the primary source of all hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium are contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50 to 1. Zircon is a coproduct or byproduct

  14. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM By Joseph Gambogi

    E-print Network

    in the Earth's ofzircon, zirconium oxide, or other zirconium chemicals. The crust; however zircon (zirconium of commercial significance. Zirconium and containing alloys. hafnium are both contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50:1. The mineral zircon is used for facings on foundry molds. Zircon is a byproduct of the mining

  15. The alloy system uranium-titanium-zirconium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Howlett

    1959-01-01

    The uranium-titanium-zirconium system in the composition range to 40 ; at.% titanium, 70 at.% zirconium is reported in nine isothermal sections between ; 575 deg and 1000 deg C. The principal features of the alloys are discussed. ; (auth);

  16. Microwave oven drying of zirconium molybdate- 99Mo for use in 99mTc gel generator 1 Presented in part at the DAE\\/BRNS Symposium NUCAR-97, at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta, India, in January, 1997. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Saraswathy; S. K. Sarkar; D. V. S. Narasimhan; R. R. Patel; N. Ramamoorthy

    1999-01-01

    Microwave oven drying of zirconium molybdate-99Mo (Zr99Mo) was investigated for preparing a gel generator for 99mTc and compared with an earlier method standardised by us using hot air for drying. With a microwave frequency of 2.45GHz and power output of 385W, 30g ZrMo gel (i.e. 10g Mo) could be satisfactorily dried for use in a generator in only 35min compared

  17. Zirconium and hafnium in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehmann, W. D.; Chyi, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    The abundances of zirconium and hafnium have been determined in nine stony meteorites by a new, precise neutron-activation technique. The Zr/Hf abundance ratios for the chondrites vary in a rather narrow range, consistent with previously published observations from our group. Replicate analyses of new, carefully selected clean interior samples of the Cl chondrite Orgueil yield mean zirconium and hafnium abundances of 5.2 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. These abundances are lower than we reported earlier for two Cl chondrite samples which we now suspect may have suffered contamination. The new Cl zirconium and hafnium abundances are in closer agreement with predictions based on theories of nucleosynthesis than the earlier data.

  18. Zirconium alloy heat treatment process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urquhart

    1982-01-01

    Zirconium-base alloy channels, fuel cladding tubes, and other nuclear reactor structural components having unique resistance to accelerated pustular corrosion in a boiling water reactor environment are produced by a sequence of heat treatments causing segregation of intermetallic particulate precipitate phase in two dimensional arrays of particles of diameter from 100 to 400 angstroms located along grain boundaries and sub-grain boundaries

  19. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as zirconium lysine complex (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721.9973...Chemical Substances 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721.9973...Chemical Substances 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as zirconium lysine complex (PMN...

  3. Walljet Electrochemistry: Quantifying Molecular Transport through Metallopolymeric and Zirconium

    E-print Network

    Walljet Electrochemistry: Quantifying Molecular Transport through Metallopolymeric and Zirconium precision for the two methods. We apply this technique to a system consisting of zirconium phosphonate supramolecular square building blocks (Keefe; et al. Adv. Mater. 2003, 15, 1936). The zirconium phosphate

  4. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721.9973...Chemical Substances 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10708 - Zirconium substituted heteropolycyclic (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium substituted heteropolycyclic (generic...Chemical Substances 721.10708 Zirconium substituted heteropolycyclic (generic...chemical substance identified generically as zirconium substituted heteropolycyclic...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as zirconium lysine complex (PMN...

  7. Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis,,methylcyclopentadienyl...methoxymethyl zirconium

    E-print Network

    Mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition using bis,,methylcyclopentadienyl...methoxymethyl zirconium J. W. Elama and M. J. Pellin Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA S. D; accepted 22 November 2007; published online 20 December 2007 The mechanism for zirconium oxide atomic layer

  8. Applications for Zirconium and Columbium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condliff, Alex F.

    1986-09-01

    Currently, zirconium and columbium are used in a wide range of applications, overlapping only in the field of corrosion control. As a construction material, zirconium is primarily used by the nuclear power industry. The use of zirconium in the chemical processing industry (CPI) is, however, increasing steadily. Columbium alloys are primarily applied as superconducting alloys for research particle accelerators and fusion generators as well as in magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis.

  9. Zirconium in a sulfuric acid pickling application

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In 1972, Goodyear discovered that zirconium was an ideal material to construct heating coils for sulfuric acid picking tanks. Recently, localized corrosion and high uniform corrosion were reported with certain zirconium coils. The problems could be attributed to the contamination of chloride and/or fluoride ions. Results of electrochemical and immersion tests are used to discuss the effects of acid concentration and acid impurities, such as iron, chloride and fluoride ions, on zirconium's corrosion properties in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Possible sources for acid impurities are identified. Recommendations are made for steel picking when zirconium equipment is used.

  10. Process for producing zirconium based granules

    SciTech Connect

    Jade, S.S.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production f amorphous zirconium based granules. It comprises: adding about 2--15 wt % of a suitable phase stabilizer to an aqueous solutio, based upon the total weight of ZrO{sub 2} in solution, to produce an aqueous solution having a pH in the range of about 4 to 7 comprising a zirconium based complex and phase stabilizer and thereafter; drying the aqueous solution comprising the zirconium based complex and the phase stabilizer at a temperature below about 180{degrees} C. for a time sufficient to evaporate the aqueous solution thereby forming amorphous zirconium based granules containing the phase stabilizer.

  11. Zirconium in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, D.G.; Adamson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the properties of Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, and Zr-2.5Nb with regard to their use as structural materials in nuclear reactors. Topics considered include refinement and fabrication (extractive metallurgy, zirconium and hafnium separation, electron-beam remelting, pressure tube development, cold working and heat treatments), basic metallurgical studies (etching, strain anisotropy, fuel cladding, anneal hardening, recrystallization, hydrides in zirconium alloy tubes), texture and irradiation creep (microstructure, ultrasonic velocity, in-reactor creep, fuel rods, deformation), irradiation growth (proton and neutron bombardment, high-fluence irradiation growth), corrosion (ZrO/sub 2/ films, aqueous corrosion kinetics, corrosive effects of lithium hydroxide, oxidation films, hydridation), fracture studies (stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen cracking), and high-temperature and transient effects (cladding deformation in LOCA, high-temperature behavior of fuel rods, steam oxidation kinetics, dissolution of solid UO/sub 2/ by molten Zircaloy-4).

  12. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  13. Development of zirconium alloys. Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Schwope; W. Chubb

    1952-01-01

    A number of alloys of zirconium have been investigated as part of a program aimed at improving the high-temperature tensile and creep strength of zirconium. These alloys include aluminum, beryllium, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc, binary and ternary alloys. The data indicate that aluminum, lead, molybdenum niobium, tin, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium can be

  14. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM IN HCl-METHANOL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Aylward; E. M. Whitener

    1962-01-01

    The dissolution of zirconium in HCl-methanol was studied ; potentiostatically as a function of HCl concentration and temperature. At low ; overvoltages the reaction is activation controlled and the rate independent of ; HCl concentration. In this region preferential grain boundary attack results in ; etching and separation from the electrode of flnely divided panticles of alpha -; zirconium. At

  15. 2006 Minerals Yearbook ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM

    E-print Network

    .09 Mt in 2005. Because of the closure of mines in Florida and Georgia, domestic production of zircon decreased in 2006 compared with production in 2005. Production of milled zircon and zirconium oxide mineral zircon (ZrSiO4 ). A relatively small quantity of zirconium is derived from the mineral baddeleyite

  16. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  17. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    192 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Zircon sand was produced at two mines in Florida and at one mine in Virginia. Zirconium and hafnium metal. Typically, both metals are in the ore in a zirconium to hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Primary zirconium

  18. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    190 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use to begin operating in Georgia in 2004. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon sand by two in a zirconium to hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Primary zirconium chemicals were produced by the Oregon metal

  19. Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate

    E-print Network

    Fine, Steven Beryl

    1980-01-01

    solution of 1 N C H OPO H solution in equal volumes of acetone and water. This was heated under reflux for ten hours. Then it was filtered, washed, and air dried. The interlayer spacing for the phenyl ester was 16. 4 A. Thermogravimetric analysis..., where one method is essentially an improvement on the other. The first synthesis is much like the method which is used to crystallize n-zirconium phos- phate [ 15]. Zirconyl chloride, hydrofluoric acid, and a phosphoric acid ester are refluxed...

  20. The solar photospheric abundance of zirconium

    E-print Network

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Gnter; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Steffen, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr), together with strontium and yttrium, is an important element in the understanding of the Galactic nucleosynthesis. In fact, the triad Sr-Y-Zr constitutes the first peak of s-process elements. Despite its general relevance not many studies of the solar abundance of Zr were conducted. We derive the zirconium abundance in the solar photosphere with the same CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere that we previously used to investigate the abundances of C-N-O. We review the zirconium lines available in the observed solar spectra and select a sample of lines to determine the zirconium abundance, considering lines of neutral and singly ionised zirconium. We apply different line profile fitting strategies for a reliable analysis of Zr lines that are blended by lines of other elements. The abundance obtained from lines of neutral zirconium is very uncertain because these lines are commonly blended and weak in the solar spectrum. However, we believe that some lines of ionised zirconium are...

  1. Resistance Butt Welding of Zirconium Alloy Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Setty; Reddy P. Ravinder; A. L. N. Murthy

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium alloy is the main structural material used in the nuclear fuel production. This material has distinct advantages like less thermal neutron absorption cross-section and better chemical and mechanical properties for the reactor-working conditions. This material is widely used in boiling water and heavy water type reactors. Natural Uranium Dioxide (UO2) pellets are loaded into thin wall zirconium alloy tubes

  2. Ageing of zirconium alloy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah, Priti Kotak; Dubey, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    India has two types (pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs)) of commercial nuclear reactors in operation, in addition to research reactors. Many of the life limiting critical components in these reactors are fabricated from zirconium alloys. The progressive degradation of these components caused by the cumulative exposure of high energy neutron irradiation with increasing period of reactor operation was monitored to assess the degree of ageing. The components/specimens examined included fuel element claddings removed from BWRs, pressure tubes and garter springs removed from PHWRs and calandria tube specimens used in PHWRs. The tests included tension test (for cladding, garter spring), fracture toughness test (for pressure tube), crush test (for garter spring), and measurement of irradiation induced growth (for calandria tube). Results of various tests conducted are presented and applications of the test results are elaborated for residual life estimation/life extension of the components.

  3. THE ALLOY SYSTEMS URANIUM-TITANIUM, URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM AND URANIUM-TITANIUM- ZIRCONIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Howlett; A. G. Knapton

    1959-01-01

    Dilatometric, metallographic, x-ray, and hightemperature x-ray methods ; were employed in a study of the uranium --titanium, uranium --zirconium and ; uranium --titanium --zirconium alloy systems. The three metals are mutually ; soluble in one another in their high-temperature body-centered cubic forms, and ; about 900 deg C complete solid solubility exists. There is general agreement ; between published versions

  4. Irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of zirconium and dilute zirconium alloys: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaskie

    1976-01-01

    The effects of fast flux (E greater than or equal to 1 MeV) neutrons on zirconium and dilute zirconium alloys are discussed. The effects on the elastic constants, strength and ductility, creep, fatigue and fracture, and irradiation growth are reviewed. (FS)

  5. Methods to treat pyrophoric film on zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L.

    1982-09-01

    Zirconium is a reactive but corrosion resistant metal. However, in a highly oxidizing or an oxygen deficient solution, corrosion of zirconium can be rapid and a pyrophoric film, which ignites easily, may be formed on the surface of zirconium. Although high corrosion rates only infrequently lead to the formation of pyrophoric films, great care should be exercised with testing coupons or equipment where rapid attack is suspected. Laboratory tests were conducted to find methods to treat pyrophoric films on zirconium. Burnable specimens were prepared by placing zirconium coupons in 77.5% sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) with 200-ppm Fe/sup +3/ (as ferric sulfate) at 80/sup 0/C for 10 days withou stirring or agitation. Chemical, X-ray diffraction, and metallographic analyses indicate that the pyrophoric film is composed of ..gamma..-hydride, zirconium oxide, zirconium sulfate, and metallic particles. This pyrophoric film could not be removed easily using common pickling solutions, that is, nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid (HNO/sub 3/-HF) mixtures, or other aggressive media, for example, 80% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It has been found that the pyrophoric film can be rendered nonpyrophoric by treating with hot air or steam. A 20 to 30 min treatment with 250/sup 0/C air or steam is sufficient to completely eliminate the pyrophoric tendency. Lower temperature air or steam can be used but require longer time: a few hours if the temperature is 200/sup 0/C, and a few days if the temperature is 100/sup 0/C. Use of this treatment in the field has proven effective.

  6. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  7. Screw dislocation in zirconium: an ab initio study Emmanuel Clouet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Screw dislocation in zirconium: an ab initio study Emmanuel Clouet CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches in zirconium is controlled by 1/3 1210 screw dislocations gliding in the prism planes of the hexagonal close zirconium and is known to be related to the number of valence electrons in the d band. We use ab initio

  8. Capture of Phosphopeptides Using r-Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Capture of Phosphopeptides Using r-Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets Songyun Xu,, John C. Whitin, College Station, Texas 77843-3123 r-Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets (r-ZrPN) were stud- ied as a binding agent for phosphopeptides. Nanoplatelets of r-zirconium phosphate were incubated overnight

  9. VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS*

    E-print Network

    ERL 03-8 VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS* Yulin Li# and Simon Ho performance of Titanium- Zirconium-Vanadium (TiZrV) NEG thin films was investigated to provide `engineering- Zirconium-Vanadium (TiZrV) NEG thin films, deposited on the interior of stainless steel (SST) pipes. The Ti

  10. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    190 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use minerals. Typically, zirconium and hafnium are contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50 to 1. Two firms produced zircon from surface-mining operations in Florida and Virginia. Zirconium metal and hafnium metal

  11. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    192 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use and hafnium metal were produced from zircon by two domestic producers, one in Oregon and the other in Utah. Typically, both elements are in the ore in a zirconium-to-hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Zirconium chemicals

  12. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    192 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use. Zirconium and hafnium elements were produced from zircon by two domestic producers, one in Oregon and the other in Utah. Typically, both elements are in the ore in a zirconium to hafnium ratio of about 50

  13. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    188 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon by two domestic producers, one in Oregon and the other in Utah. Typically, both elements occur in the ore in a zirconium-to-hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Primary

  14. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    186 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use and hafnium metal were produced from zircon by two domestic producers, one in Oregon and the other in Utah. Typically, both elements are in the ore in a zirconium-to-hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Zirconium chemicals

  15. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    188 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use and hafnium metal were produced from zircon by two domestic producers, one in Oregon and the other in Utah. Typically, both elements are in the ore in a zirconium-to-hafnium ratio of about 50:1. Zirconium chemicals

  16. The corrosion of zirconium under deep geologic repository conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Shoesmith; Dmitrij Zagidulin

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in nuclear reactors as fuel cladding and as reactor structural elements (i.e., CANDU reactor pressure tubes), and are therefore a component of the waste materials that could be emplaced in a deep geologic repository. Therefore, the corrosion mechanisms and rates for relevant zirconium alloys under repository conditions have been reviewed. Since titanium and zirconium alloys

  17. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  18. Ion flux characteristics and efficiency of the deposition processes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, J.; Vlcek, J.; Rezek, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium was investigated at the average target power density of up to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in a pulse. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron with a planar zirconium target of 100 mm diameter at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at duty cycles ranging from 4% to 10%. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at the substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. The increase in the average target power density from 0.97 kW cm{sup -2} to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in shortened voltage pulses (from 200 to 80 {mu}s) at an average target power density of 100 W cm{sup -2} in a period led to high fractions (21%-32%) of doubly charged zirconium ions in total ion fluxes onto the substrate located 100 mm from the target. However, the respective fractions of singly charged zirconium ions decreased from 23% to 3%. It was observed that ion energy distributions were extended to high energies (up to 100 eV relative to the ground potential) under these conditions. The increased target power densities during the shortened voltage pulses resulted in a reduced deposition rate of films from 590 to 440 nm/min and in a weakly decreasing ionized fraction (from 55% to 49%) of the sputtered zirconium atoms in the flux onto the substrate. The doubly charged zirconium ions became strongly predominant (up to 63%) in the total ion flux onto the substrate at the distance of 200 mm from the target. Model calculations were carried out to explain the complicated deposition processes.

  19. Review of zirconium-zircaloy pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    Massive zirconium metal scrap can be handled, shipped, and stored with no evidence of combustion or pyrophoricity hazards. Mechanically produced fine scrap such as shavings, turnings, or powders can burn but are not pyrophoric unless the particle diameter is less than 54 ..mu..m. Powders with particle diameters less than 54 ..mu..m can be both pyrophoric and explosive. Pyrophoric powders should be collected and stored underwater or under inert gas cover to reduce the flammability hazard. Opening sealed containers of zirconium stored underwater should be attempted with caution since hydrogen may be present. The factors that influence the ignition temperature have been explored in depth and recommendations are included for the safe handling, shipping, and storage of pyrophoric or flammable zirconium. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Radiation effects on corrosion of zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-06-01

    From the wide use of zirconium alloys as components in nuclear reactors, has come clear evidence that reactor radiation is a major corrosion parameter. The evidence emerges from comparisons of zirconium alloy corrosion behavior in different reactor types, for example, BWRs versus PWRs and in corresponding reactor loop chemistries; also, oxidation rates differ with location along components such as fuel rods and reactor pressure tubes. In most respects, oxidation effects on power reactor components are paralleled by oxidation behavior on specimens exposed to radiation in reactor loops.

  1. Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kruelov; S Vratislav; L Kalvoda; M Dlouh

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State

  2. Zirconium alloy heat treatment process and product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Black; R. A. Proebstle; A. W. Urquhart; J. L. Walker; C. D. Williams

    1980-01-01

    Zirconium-base alloy channels and fuel cladding tubes having unique resistance to accelerated pustular corrosion in the boiling water reactor environment are produced by a heat treatment causing segregation of intermetallic particulate precipitate phase in two dimensional arrays preferably located along grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries throughout the alloy body.

  3. Intercalation chemistry of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Jan [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsk Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Zima, Vt?zslav, E-mail: vitezslav.zima@upce.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsk Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Melnov, Klra [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsk Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Bene, Ludvk [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Trchov, Miroslava [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsk Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-15

    Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate is a layered material which can be employed as a host for the intercalation reactions with basic molecules. A wide range of organic compounds were chosen to represent intercalation ability of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. These were a series of alkylamines from methylamine to dodecylamine, 1,4-phenylenediamine, p-toluidine, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, 1-aminopyrene, imidazole, pyridine, 4,4?-bipyridine, poly(ethylene imine), and a series of amino acids from glycine to 6-aminocaproic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and IR spectroscopy and probable arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is proposed based on the interlayer distance of the prepared intercalates and amount of the intercalated guest molecules. - Graphical abstract: Nitrogen-containing organic compounds can be intercalated into the interlayer space of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. - Highlights: Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate was examined as a host material in intercalation chemistry. A wide range of nitrogen-containing organic compounds were intercalated. Possible arrangement of the intercalated species is described.

  4. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic study of passive zirconium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiahe Ai; Yingzi Chen; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Digby D. Macdonald

    2008-01-01

    Spent, unreproccessed nuclear fuel is generally contained within the operational fuel sheathing fabricated from a zirconium alloy (Zircaloy 2, Zircaloy 4, or Zirlo) and is then stored in a swimming pool and\\/or dry storage facilities until permanent disposal in a licensed repository. During this period, which begins with irradiation of the fuel in the reactor during operation, the fuel sheathing

  6. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10089 - Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). 721.10089...721.10089 Modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as modified salicylic acid, zirconium complex (PMN P-00-552) is...

  10. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

  11. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

  12. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section...POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This...

  13. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosecrans

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300°F. to 1350°F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of

  14. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-07

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl{sub 3} in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl{sub 3} is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system.

  15. Some strength properties of graphite-zirconium carbide composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Dergunova; A. N. Shurshakov; G. D. Posos'eva; L. N. Lutsenko

    1972-01-01

    1.Some factors influencing the strength of composite materials were examined.2.A study was made of the strength properties of graphite-zirconium carbide and graphite-zirconium carbide-zirconium composite materials having varying structures and compositions. It was found that, at 2500C, the tensile strength of TsG-25 type composite material is 30% higher than that of dense VPP constructional graphite.3.It was established that, by varying the

  16. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-08-01

    Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500-800 C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment.

  17. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  18. Fretting-wear of zirconium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel J Fisher; Murray K Weckwerth; Dwight A. E Grandison; Brian M Cotnam

    2002-01-01

    Fretting tests of Zircaloy fuel sheath bearing pads in contact with zirconium alloy (Zr2.5Nb) pressure tube specimens were conducted at temperatures varying from 25 to 315C. The effects of motion type and amplitude, water chemistry, fuel sheath manufacturer and pressure tube surface finish were also investigated. The effect of temperature is the most significant. The pressure tube wear coefficient in

  19. Transport properties of zirconium alloy oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Frank

    2002-01-01

    The conductivity mechanism of oxide films on tubes of various zirconium alloys grown in water and steam was investigated by IV measurements. Electrodes of Ga, Ag, graphite and Au gave different results. The current decrease at voltage application was due to formation of space charge, which could be extracted again as short-circuit current. The positive branch of the IV characteristics

  20. Fused zirconium-containing refractories of eudialyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Kononov; V. A. Masloboev

    1993-01-01

    Eudialyte concentrate produced in the experimental production area of the Mining Institute of the Kola Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences was used to produce fused zirconium-containing refractories. Kyanite, baddeleyite, and magnetite concentrates and also commercial alumina to TU 6-09-3428-73 were used as the production and modifying additions. The chemical analyses of the original raw materials are shown

  1. FISSION FRAGMENT RECOIL EFFECTS ON ZIRCONIUM OXIDATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Yee; G. H. Jenks; E. E. Stansbury

    1962-01-01

    Fission fragment recoil effects on zirconium oxidation in pure oxygen ; were studied at 1 atm pressure and 250 deg C. Specimens were oxidized under the ; following conditions: reactor radiations including recoils, reactor radiations in ; the absence of recoils, and no radiation. Irradiation experiments were conducted ; in a maximum thermal neutron flux of 8.5 x 10¹¹ neutrons\\/cm²-sec.

  2. Thermal sprayed zirconium coatings for corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bamola, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) is conducted in inert reduced pressures. This results in higher particle velocities than in atmospheric plasma spraying. Reverse arc sputter cleaning and pre-heating of the workpiece lead to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, allowing sintering of the coating and, thus, enhanced densities and bond strengths. Inert Environment Electric Arc Spraying (IEAS) is performed in inert gas chambers, utilizing wire as the feedstock. This leads to lower gas content in the coating, since the initial gas content in wire is lower than that of the powder feedstock used in VPS. Controlled atmosphere sprayed zirconium coatings had inferior mechanical and corrosion properties when compared with bulk zirconium. The VPS coatings displayed higher bond strengths and better cavitation erosion resistance than did the IEAS coatings. The IEAS coatings had lower gas content and showed better electrochemical and corrosion behavior. The lower gas content for IEAS was due to a lower initial gas level in the wire feedstock used in this process. Also, scanning electron microscopy revealed that larger particles result in the IEAS process. Thus, a smaller surface-area-to-volume ratio is available for gas-metal reactions to occur. Improvements in mechanical and corrosion properties for the IEAS coatings were due to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition. Compressive surface stresses induced by post-spray shot-peening enhanced corrosion and cavitation resistance of IEAS coatings. Coating porosity caused failure during immersion testing. Therefore, it was concluded that controlled environment thermal spraying of zirconium is not suitable for forming corrosion resistant coatings on steel. ZrN coatings were formed by electric arc spraying using a nitrogen shroud and post-spray nitriding. Two phases; ZrN and zirconium solid solution, exist in the as-sprayed coating. Nitriding increases the proportion of ZrN.

  3. Ion Exchange Reversibility of Some Radionuclides on Zirconium Tungstosuccinate and Zirconium Tungstosalicylate at their Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. El-Gammal; K. F. Allan

    2012-01-01

    Zirconium tungstosuccinate (ZWSu) and zirconium tungstosalicylate (ZWSa) composites were synthesized by anchoring moieties of succinic acid (SuA) and salicylic acid (SaA) onto zirconium tungstate (ZW), respectively. The produced exchange composites were unambiguously characterized by TGA, DTA, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy. Thermally stable, amorphous, highly active, and multifunctional inorganic-organic exchangers were produced. The sorption behavior of the hybrid materials for removal

  4. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  5. Wrought zirconium and zirconium alloy seamless and welded tubes for nuclear service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The specification includes ordering information, manufacture, chemical requirements, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, permissible variations in dimensions, grain size, corrosion properties, ultrasonic inspection, hydride orientation, workmanship, inspection, certification, packaging, and marking. The specification applies to four grades of reactor grade zirconium and zirconium alloys suitable for nuclear application: R60001, R60802, R60804, and R60901. Three annexes to the specification discuss closed-end burst testing procedure, determination of hydride orientation, and ultrasonic testing. Appendixes offer an advisory guide to transducer selection and positioning. (JMT)

  6. Fabrication of zirconium alloys into components for nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheadle

    1977-01-01

    Over 80% of the world's annual output of zirconium is fabricated into components for nuclear reactors. In 1976 the CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) power reactor program will require nearly 500 Mg of zirconium and by 1986 the requirement will have risen to nearly 800 Mg. Most of this is fabricated into tubes which can cost as much as $80\\/kg. Small

  7. Study of the zirconium oxidation under heavy ion irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brerd; N. Moncoffre; A. Chevarier; H. Jaffrzic; H. Faust; E. Balanzat

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to put in evidence the influence of damages due to the collision cascades which take place at the end of the heavy ion micrometer range, on the zirconium surface oxidation.A comparison between two zirconium oxidation experiments under heavy ion irradiation performed in the same temperature and pressure conditions is presented. In the first

  8. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    : The zirconium-silicate mineral zircon is produced as a coproduct from the mining and processing of heavy produced zircon from surface-mining operations in Florida and Virginia. Zirconium metal and hafnium metal for zircon. Other end uses of zircon include abrasives, chemicals, metal alloys, and welding rod coatings

  9. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless noted)

    E-print Network

    190 ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Zircon sand was produced at two mines in Florida. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon sand companies as well. Zirconia (ZrO2) was produced from zircon sand at plants in Alabama, New Hampshire, New

  10. Determination of fracture strength of ?-zirconium hydrides embedded in zirconium matrix at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Uchikoshi, H.

    2013-04-01

    The fracture strength of ?-zirconium hydrides embedded in a zirconium matrix was determined at temperatures between 25 C and 250 C by ring tensile tests using Zircaloy-2 tubes. Essentially all of the present hydrides in the tubes were re-oriented in the radial direction by a temperature cycling treatment and then tensile stress was applied perpendicular to the hydrides to ensure that brittle fracture would occur at the hydrides. The hydrides failed in a brittle manner below 100 C where-as the zirconium matrix itself underwent ductile fracture without hydride cracking at temperatures above 200 C under plane stress condition. Brittle fracture of the hydrides continued to occur at temperatures up to 250 C under plane strain condition, suggesting that the upper limit temperature for hydride fracture, Tupper, was raised by the triaxial stress state under the plane strain condition. The apparent fracture strength of the hydrides, ?hydridef, was determined at temperatures below Tupper from the measured fracture strength of the tubes, making a correction for the compressive transformation stress in the hydrides. ?hydridef was about 710 MPa at temperatures between 25 C and 250 C at both plane stress and plane strain conditions. The temperature dependency was very small in this temperature range. Tupper was almost equivalent to the cross-over temperature between ?hydridef and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which suggests that, at temperatures above Tupper, the zirconium matrix would undergo ductile fracture before the stress in the hydride is raised above ?hydridef, since UTS is smaller than ?hydridef.

  11. Ab initio study on plane defects in zirconiumhydrogen solid solution and zirconium hydride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Udagawa; Masatake Yamaguchi; Hiroaki Abe; Naoto Sekimura; Toyoshi Fuketa

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of zirconium alloys is one of the main causes of the mechanical degradation of the fuel cladding in light water reactors, and has therefore been extensively studied. Although various conjectures have been proposed as the origin of such embrittlement, it is not known which one plays the most important role: the brittle nature of the hydride, micro-crack nucleation

  12. Evaluation of localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, J.; Holmes, D.; Yau, T.L. [Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium is prone to localized corrosion in acidic chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) solutions contaminated by oxidizing ions, such as ferric or cupric ions. This tendency can be reduced by ensuring that the zirconium surface is clean and smooth. The effect of surface condition on localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions was predicted using potentiodynamic polarization scans. Predictions were confirmed by mass-loss tests on various combinations of surface finish and acid concentrations. A real-time indication of localized corrosion was derived by monitoring electrochemical noise produced between two similar electrodes immersed in an acidic chloride solution. Electrochemical noise monitoring correlated well with predictions from the potentiodynamic polarization and mass-loss experiments. Electrochemical noise results showed a more anodic potential caused by ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) contamination might be necessary for localized corrosion but that it was not a sufficient condition. A clean zirconium surface reduced localized corrosion of zirconium.

  13. Zirconium alloy fuel cladding resistant to PCI crack propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.F.; Foster, J.P.

    1987-06-23

    A nuclear fuel element is described cladding tube comprising: concentric tubular layers of zirconium base alloys; the concentric tubular layers including an inner layer and outer layer; the outer layer metallurgically bonded to the inner layer; the outer layer composed of a first zirconium base alloy characterized by excellent resistance to corrosion caused by exposure to high temperature and pressure aqueous environments; the inner layer composed of a second zirconium base alloy consisting of: about 0.2 to 0.6 wt.% tin, about 0.03 to 0.11 wt.% iron, less than about 0.02 wt.% chromium, up to about 350 ppm oxygen and the remainder being zirconium and incidental impurities, and the inner layer characterized by improved resistance to crack propagation under reactor operating conditions compared to the first zirconium alloy.

  14. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  15. Vacancy clustering in zirconium: an atomic scale study$ Celine Varvenne1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Vacancy clustering in zirconium: an atomic scale study$ Celine Varvenne1 , Olivier Mackain faults, Dislocation loops, Zirconium 1. Introduction Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear]. These vacancy and interstitial clusters have im- portant consequences on the macroscopic behavior of zirconium

  16. Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth analysis; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; A3. Zirconium carbide 1. Introduction Zirconium, is not straightforward particularly by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Although atmospheric halide CVD using zirconium

  17. Diffusion thermique de l'uranium dans le zirconium. Application au stockage des gaines de combustible

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Diffusion thermique de l'uranium dans le zirconium. Application au stockage des gaines de centaines de m de Zircaloy 4, un alliage dont le principal constituant est le zirconium. Durant le avons entrepris des mesures de diffusion de l'uranium dans le zirconium et l'oxyde de zirconium. Dans

  18. Irradiation growth in zirconium and its alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerson, A.

    1988-10-01

    The UKAEA Northern Research Laboratories (Risley) have recently completed an underlying research study on irradiation growth in zirconium and its alloys. During this study, irradiation growth measurements have been made on a range of well-characterized single-crystal and polycrystalline iodide zirconium, commercial alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, and high-purity zirconium-tin alloys in different metallurgical conditions following irradiation in the DIDO reactor at AERE Harwell. Irradiations were performed in three rigs operating at irradiation temperatures between 353 and 673 K. An important feature of the experimental programme was the capability to perform repeat length measurements on individual growth specimens at intervals during their irradiation programme. This facility has allowed accurate monitoring of the growth phenomenon and changes in growth behaviour induced by the combined effects of irradiation temperature and accumulated fast neutron dose over large dose ranges. This paper reviews the main experimental results from this programme and discusses them in terms of current understanding of the growth process. Thus, it has been observed that, in annealed Zircaloy-2 at temperatures between 553 and 673 K, a transition from saturating growth to accelerating growth rates occurs with increasing dose. The dose above which this "growth breakaway" takes place is seen to be inversely dependent on irradiation temperature in mis temperature range. The well-documented difference in growth behaviour between annealed and cold-worked Zircaloy-2 observed at relatively low irradiation temperatures, in which cold-worked material grows at a high linear rate over large dose ranges, is not observed at 673 K. Comparison is made with reported results on similar material irradiated in other irradiation facilities. The growth data are interpreted in terms of recent theories regarding the development during fast neutron irradiation of a cold-worked microstructure consisting of < a>- and < c>-type dislocations. Irradiation growth behaviour of annealed polycrystalline iodide zirconium between 353 and 673 K contrasts strongly with that in annealed Zircaloy-2 with low irradiation growth rates being observed over a large dose and temperature range. The influence of key irradiation parameters on the growth process have been examined in a series of studies initiated as part of a collaborative programme with AECL Chalk River Nuclear Labs. Final results from the studies on annealed and deformed single-crystal zirconium are reported here. They show that growth saturates rapidly at low dose in annealed single-crystal material irradiated at 353 and 553 K but that a gradual increase in growth strain is observed on irradiation to high dose at 553 K. Single-crystal specimens heavily swaged prior to irradiation at 353 K and given different pre-irradiation heat-treatments exhibit high near-linear or accelerating growth rates. These growth data are interpreted in terms of the importance of grain boundaries and twin boundaries as sinks for point defects which allow point defect separation and hence growth to continue to high dose. Finally, the results of growth experiments performed on Zr-0.1% Sn and Zr-1.5% Sn alloys at 353 and 553 K are reviewed. These experiments confirm the important role played by alloying additions and impurities on the growth process in zirconium and Zircaloy-2.

  19. Electron-momentum distribution in zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.K.; Ahuja, B.L.

    1988-08-15

    The electron-momentum distribution in hexagonal-close-packed zirconium has been studied for the first time with use of a Compton-scattering technique. Measurements have been made by scattering 59.54-keV ..gamma.. rays. Theoretical computations have been carried out with use of the renormalized-free-atom model for various 4d-5s configurations. Best agreement between theory and experiment is found if the electron configuration is chosen as 4d/sup 3/5s/sup 1/.

  20. Creep Behavior of Hydrogenated Zirconium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Boopathy, K.; Eapen, J.; Murty, K. L.

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium (Zr) alloys are the primary structural materials of most water reactors. Creep is considered to be one of the important degradation mechanisms of Zr alloys during reactor operating and repository conditions. Zr alloys pick up hydrogen (H2) during their service from the coolant water. Hydrogen can be present in solid solution or precipitated hydride form in Zr alloys depending upon the temperature and concentration. This study reviews the effect of hydrogen on creep behavior of Zr alloys used in the water reactors.

  1. The irradiation effects on zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Ionescu, S.; Stefan, V.; Uta, O.; Prisecaru, I.; Danila, N.

    2007-05-01

    Pressure tube samples were irradiated under helium atmosphere in the TRIGA Steady State Research and Material Test Reactor of the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). These samples are made of the Zr-2.5%Nb alloy used as structural material for the CANDU Romanian power reactors. After irradiation, mechanical tests were performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) to study the influence of irradiation on zirconium alloys mechanical behaviour. The tensile test results were used for structural integrity assessment. Results of the tests are presented. The paper presents, also, pressure tube structural integrity assessment.

  2. Shell model description of zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sieja, K. [GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH., Planckstrasse 1, D-64-220 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nowacki, F. [Institute Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg (France); Langanke, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH., Planckstrasse 1, D-64-220 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    We calculate the low-lying spectra and several high-spin states of zirconium isotopes (Z=40) with neutron numbers from N=50 to N=58 using a large valence space with the {sup 78}Ni inert core, which a priori allows one to study the interplay between spherical and deformed configurations, necessary for the description of nuclides in this part of the nuclear chart. The effective interaction is derived by monopole corrections of the realistic G matrix. We reproduce essential nuclear properties, such as subshell closures in {sup 96}Zr and {sup 98}Zr. The spherical-to-deformed shape transition in {sup 100}Zr is addressed as well.

  3. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication...General Provisions 97.23 Mailing address. Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and mailing address. The mailing address...

  4. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication...General Provisions 97.23 Mailing address. Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and mailing address. The mailing address...

  5. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication...General Provisions 97.23 Mailing address. Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and mailing address. The mailing address...

  6. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication...General Provisions 97.23 Mailing address. Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and mailing address. The mailing address...

  7. 47 CFR 97.23 - Mailing address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Mailing address. 97.23 Section 97.23 Telecommunication...General Provisions 97.23 Mailing address. Each license grant must show the grantee's correct name and mailing address. The mailing address...

  8. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodets, V. B.; Kurennykh, T. E.; Kesarev, A. G.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kondrat'ev, V. V.; Hlsen, C.; Koester, U.

    2011-03-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  9. Retrospective Reactor Dosimetry with Zirconium Alloy Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Foster, John P.

    2009-11-01

    Retrospective measurements are routinely performed with stainless steel samples. Recent experiments have been successfully conducted using zirconium alloy samples, involving somewhat different neuron activation reactions than are normally encountered with stainless steel samples. The alloy composition consisted of nominally 1% (by weight) niobium, 1% tin, and 0.1% iron, with the balance zirconium. The activation products observed in the samples by gamma spectroscopy included Zr-95, Nb-95, Sn-113, Sb-125, Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, and Ta-182. The niobium was then chemically separated following ASTM procedure E1297 and the Nb-93m activities were measured by x-ray spectroscopy. The thermal neutron fluences, as determined independently by the neutron capture gamma reactions to Zr-95, Sn-113, Nb-94, and Sn/Sb-125, were in excellent agreement. The fast neutron fluences, as determined separately by the Fe-54(n,p)Mn-54 and Nb-93(n,n)Nb-93m reactions, were also in good agreement, thus demonstrating the versatility of the retrospective dosimetry technique.

  10. Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 2 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 3 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 4 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136

  11. The synthesis and characterization of Zirconium p-Phenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate and other Zirconium Arylbis(phosphonates) for the application of ion exchange

    E-print Network

    Bellinghausen, Paul Christian

    1995-01-01

    acid group to enhance the ion exchange capacity for several cations. The synthetic routes were further adapted to synthesize Zirconium p,p'-Biphenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate and Zirconium p,p"-Terphenylbis (phosphonate) Phosphate, in which compounds...

  12. Diphanoxy Bis(dithiocarbamato) titanium (IV)\\/zirconium (IV) Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Sangari; G. S. Sodhi; N. K. Kaushik; R. P. Singh

    1981-01-01

    Diphenoxy bis (dithiocarbamato) titanium(IV)\\/zirconium(IV) complexes of the type (C6H5O)2M(S2CNR2)2 and (C6H5O)2M(S2CNRR?)2 (where M = Ti(IV), Zr(IV), R = Me, Et, i-Pr and R? = cyclohexyl) have been prepared by the reaction of stoichiometric amounts of diphenoxy titanium (IV) dichloride and sodium salts of dithiocarbamic acid in refluxing tetrahydrofuran. The corresponding zirconium complexes have been synthesised starting from diphenoxy zirconium (IV)

  13. Factors to consider for using zirconium in sulfuric acid services

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, B.J. [Exxon Chemical Co., Baytown, TX (United States); Webber, R.G. [Exxon Chemical Co., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Frechem, B.S. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States); Briegel, K.F. [Rohm and Haas Texas Co., Deer Park, TX (United States); Yau, T.L. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Zirconium is a pivotal material often specified for process equipment that handles highly corrosive sulfuric acid solutions. Because of the complicated nature of sulfuric acid, several factors should be addressed to ensure the durability of zirconium equipment. These factors include acid concentration, temperature, pressure, impurity, stress, crevices, welding, and surfaces condition. Depending on the situation, certain potential hazards to zirconium equipment can be prevented by applying control measures such as heat treatment, proper design and operating, inhibitor, surface conditioning and/or shot peening.

  14. Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by Zirconium Metal Hydride Complexes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by Zirconium Metal Hydride Complexes Brian L. Edelbach, A. K. Fazlur, Rochester, New York 14627 Received April 8, 1999 The zirconium hydride dimer [Cp2ZrH2]2 reacts with C6F6. [Cp2ZrH2]2 reacts with C6F5H to give Cp2Zr(p-C6F4H)F, Cp2ZrF2, C6F4H2, and H2. The zirconium hydride

  15. Amine-intercalated ?-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated ?-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of ?-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of ?-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  16. Crystal Structure of the ZrO Phase at Zirconium/Zirconium Oxide Interfaces**

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Rebecca J; Ni, Na; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; London, Andrew; McComb, David W; Nellist, Peter D; Grovenor, Chris RM; Pickard, Chris J; Yates, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium-based alloys are used in water-cooled nuclear reactors for both nuclear fuel cladding and structural components. Under this harsh environment, the main factor limiting the service life of zirconium cladding, and hence fuel burn-up efficiency, is water corrosion. This oxidation process has recently been linked to the presence of a sub-oxide phase with well-defined composition but unknown structure at the metaloxide interface. In this paper, the combination of first-principles materials modeling and high-resolution electron microscopy is used to identify the structure of this sub-oxide phase, bringing us a step closer to developing strategies to mitigate aqueous oxidation in Zr alloys and prolong the operational lifetime of commercial fuel cladding alloys. PMID:25892957

  17. Corrosion resistant zirconium alloy structural components and process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Hanneman; A. W. Urquhart; D. A. Vermilyea

    1981-01-01

    Zirconium-base alloy channels, fuel cladding tubes and other components are made resistant to accelerated pustular corrosion in a boiling water reactor environment by coating them with a small amount of a suitable electronically conducting material.

  18. Fatigue behavior of alpha-zirconium phosphate/epoxy nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Varadharajan, Balaji R.

    2006-04-12

    Fatigue crack growth in -Zirconium phosphate/epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. A new fatigue testing technique was implemented for miniature samples. Two different methods ?strength of materials and Rayleigh-Ritz - were used in determining...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). ...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). ...products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

  3. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosecrans

    1984-01-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain

  4. Zirconium and hafnium with low oxygen and iron

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.J.

    1988-02-02

    A high purity zirconium sponge or hafnium sponge is described consisting of 250-about 350 ppm of oxygen impurity, 50-350 ppm of iron impurity, total impurities of 500-1,000 ppm, with the remainder being zirconium or hafnium, whereby an inexpensive intermediate product is provided which can be processed for use in applications requiring high purity material, without resorting to expensive crystal bar processing.

  5. Zirconium and hafnium with low oxygen and iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    A high purity zirconium sponge or hafnium sponge is described consisting of 250-about 350 ppm of oxygen impurity, 50-350 ppm of iron impurity, total impurities of 500-1,000 ppm, with the remainder being zirconium or hafnium, whereby an inexpensive intermediate product is provided which can be processed for use in applications requiring high purity material, without resorting to expensive crystal bar

  6. Corrosion testing of stainless steel-zirconium metal waste form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposition of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms contain irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructure

  7. Material property correlations for the niobium-1% zirconium alloy

    E-print Network

    Senor, David James

    1989-01-01

    relationships between niobium, zirconium, and the important impurity elements (oxygen, carbon, and nittogen). Several binary and ternary diagrams of interest were studiecL Using experimental aging data, a model of the Nb-Zr-0 ternary system was developed... by Fedorov et al. (1981), shown in Figure 9. Niobium-nitrogen phase relationships were studied by Savage and Altstetter (1970), and a zirconium-nitmgen phase diagram was developed by Levinskii (1974), shown in Figure 10, Several ternary systems involving...

  8. Delayed hydride cracking of zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States); Webster, R.T. [Webster (R.T.), Scio, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    High-strength zirconium alloys are susceptible to a mechanism for crack initiation and propagation termed delayed hydride cracking (DHC). In these alloys, it is possible to generate a large enough stress gradient so that hydrogen moves to the highly stressed areas. Therefore, hydrides precipitate and grow in these areas. When the tensile stress is sufficiently great, crack initiation starts at some of these hydrides. Crack propagation occurs by repeating the same process at the crack tip. Of concern for the chemical process industries is the DHC of Zr-2.5Nb welds. Results of long-term tests and case histories indicate that stress relieving is one of the major measures for preventing DHC, provided that ASME mechanical requirements are met.

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of zirconium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.H.; Dropinski, S.C.; Worden, E.F. Jr.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1992-05-01

    We have examined the stepwise-resonant three-photon-ionization spectrum of neutral zirconium atoms using three separately-tunable pulsed visible dye lasers. Lifetimes of even-parity levels (measured with delayed-photoionization technique) range from 10 to 100 nsec. Direct ionization cross sections appear to be less than 10{sup {minus}17} cm{sup 2}; newly-detected autoionizing levels give peak ionization cross sections (inferred from saturation fluences) up to 10{sup {minus}15} cm{sup 2}. Members of Rydberg series converging to the 315 and 1323 cm{sup {minus}1} levels of Zr{sup +} were identified. ``Clumps`` of autoionizing levels are thought to be due to Rydberg-valence mixing.

  10. Zirconium deformation behavior: insights from EBSD measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Bingert, J. F. (John F.); Mason, T. A. (Thomas A.); Kaschner, G. C. (George C.); Maudlin, P. J. (Paul J.); Gray, G. T. (George T.), III

    2001-01-01

    The deformation of crystal-bar zirconium was investigated as a function of strain and strain rate through electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) characterization. The resultant data provided spatially resolved information on microstructure and texture evolution, individual twin system activity, and subsequent strain partitioning between twinned volume and parent grains. A range of deformation conditions was represented through quasi-static compression, 4-point beam bend tests at room and cryogenic temperature, and Taylor cylinder impact experiments. Effects from the interplay between slip and twinning deformation modes on anisotropic plasticity are considered in order to address the apparent trend toward isotropy at high rates. The role of various length scales on deformation behavior will be considered, along with the implications of these length scales on the assumptions typically invoked for plasticity modeling.

  11. Modelling precipitation in zirconium niobium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, J. D.

    2008-07-01

    A model has been developed to predict precipitation of ?-Nb in zirconium-niobium alloys. The model considers two transformation mechanisms; in situ transformation of any retained ?-Zr and homogeneous nucleation of ?-Nb. The two mechanisms are allowed to operate concurrently and compete for the available solute. The model has been calibrated and tested using data in the literature and is able to reasonably reproduce these results without introducing non-physical fitting parameters. It has then been applied to predict the effects of prior ?-Zr fraction, oxygen content, and temperature on the precipitation kinetics of ?-Nb. These calculations predict that prior ?-Zr fraction has a strong effect on the kinetics of subsequent ?-Nb evolution and that oxygen content is also critical, with higher oxygen levels predicted to result in faster kinetics and shift in the peak transformation rate to higher temperatures.

  12. On the dynamic tensile strength of Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hameed, A.; Vignjevic, R.; Hazell, P. J.; Painter, J.; Cademartori, S.

    2014-05-01

    Despite its fundamental nature, the process of dynamic tensile failure (spall) is poorly understood. Spall initiation via cracks, voids, etc, before subsequent coalesce, is known to be highly microstructure-dependant. In particular, the availability of slip planes and other methods of plastic deformation controls the onset (or lack thereof) of spall. While studies have been undertaken into the spall response of BCC and FCC materials, less attention has paid to the spall response of highly anisotropic HCP materials. Here the dynamic behaviour of zirconium is investigated via plate-impact experiments, with the aim of building on an ongoing in-house body of work investigating these highly complex materials. In particular, in this paper the effect of impact stress on spall in a commercially sourced Zr rod is considered, with apparent strain-rate softening highlighted.

  13. On the dynamic tensile strength of zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hameed, Amer; Vignjevic, Rade; Siviour, Clive; Hazell, Paul; Painter, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic tensile failure (spall) initiation via cracks, voids, etc, before subsequent coalesce, is known to be highly microstructure-dependant. In particular, the availability of slip planes and other methods of plastic deformation controls the onset (or lack thereof) of spall. While studies have been undertaken into the spall response of BCC and FCC materials, less attention has paid to spall of highly anisotropic HCP materials. Here the dynamic behaviour of zirconium is investigated via plate-impact experiments, with the aim of building on an on-going in-house body of work investigating this complex class of materials. In particular, in this paper the effects of impact stress, pulse duration and texture on spall have been interrogated using velocimetry techniques.

  14. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  15. FI 6 17 JUIN 97 flash informatique

    E-print Network

    1 FI 6 17 JUIN 97 flash informatique ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE p/a EPFL - SERVICE.11.97 30.10.97 10 19.12.97 25.11.97 SOMMAIRE 1 Quinze leons en quinze minutes pour animer vos pages HTML 2 POUR ANIMER VOS PAGES HTML par Yves Piguet, IA-DGM epuis un peu plus d'une an- ne, quiconque se balade

  16. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  17. Art History 97 Art History

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    Art History 97 Art History The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA The Department of Art History offers a wide range of courses in European, American,Asian, and Middle Eastern/Islamic art history with additional strengths in architectural history and film and media studies.The major in art history is struc

  18. Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE SC97 Conference (SC'97) 0-89791-985-8/97 $ 17.00 1997 IEEE

    E-print Network

    Brightwell, Ron

    Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE SC97 Conference (SC'97) 0-89791-985-8/97 $ 17.00 © 1997 IEEE #12;Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE SC97 Conference (SC'97) 0-89791-985-8/97 $ 17.00 © 1997 IEEE #12;Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE SC97 Conference (SC'97) 0-89791-985-8/97 $ 17.00 © 1997 IEEE #12;Proceedings of the ACM

  19. EPDL97: the evaluated photo data library `97 version

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.; Hubbell, J.H.; Kissel, L.

    1997-09-19

    The Evaluated Photon Data Library, 1997 version (EPLD97), is designed for use in photon transport calculations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This library includes photon interaction data for all elements with atomic number between Z = 1 (hydrogne) and 100 (fermium), including: photoionization, photoexcitation, coherent and incoherent scattering, and pair and triplet porduction cross sections. For use in applications data is provided for all elements over the energy range 1 eV to 100 GeV. This report documents the sources and treatment of the data included inthis library. EPDL97 completely supersedes the earlier 1989 version of EPDL and it is highly recommended that useres only use the most recent version of this library.

  20. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

  1. Ultrafine-grain-sized zirconium by dynamic deformation , J.-M. Gebert b

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Ultrafine-grain-sized zirconium by dynamic deformation B.K. Kad a , J.-M. Gebert b , M.T. Perez A polycrystalline zirconium alloy (Zircadine 702, containing 0.7% Hf) was subjected to high plastic strains (shear deformation; Zirconium; Dynamic deformation 1. Introduction Polycrystalline metals with grain sizes

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a mesoporous hydrous zirconium oxide used for arsenic removal from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bortun, Anatoly; Bortun, Mila; Pardini, James [MELChemicals Inc, 500 Barbertown Point Breeze Road, Flemington, NJ 08822 (United States)] [MELChemicals Inc, 500 Barbertown Point Breeze Road, Flemington, NJ 08822 (United States); Khainakov, Sergei A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)] [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Jose R., E-mail: jrgm@uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Powder (20-50 {mu}m) mesoporous hydrous zirconium oxide was prepared from a zirconium salt granular precursor. The effect of some process parameters on product morphology, porous structure and adsorption performance has been studied. The use of hydrous zirconium oxide for selective arsenic removal from drinking water is discussed.

  3. Epitaxial growth of lead zirconium titanate thin films on Ag buffered Si substrates using rf sputtering

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Epitaxial growth of lead zirconium titanate thin films on Ag buffered Si substrates using rf 7 February 2007; accepted 25 March 2007; published online 23 April 2007 Epitaxial lead zirconium American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2731515 The ferroelectric material lead zirconium titanate Pb

  4. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of a novel Zirconium Acetato-Propionate cluster: [Zr12

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of a novel Zirconium Acetato-Propionate cluster: [Zr12] Sarah: +33 4 76 88 90 35 Abstract This work reports a novel Zirconium acetato-propionate complex herein called [Zr12] obtained by reaction of zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac)4 with propionic acid

  5. Synthesis and Structural Determination of a Hexanuclear Zirconium Glycine Compound Formed in Aqueous Solution

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    Synthesis and Structural Determination of a Hexanuclear Zirconium Glycine Compound Formed, Fujian 350002, P. R. China Received February 14, 2008 Single crystals of a zirconium-glycine compound-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure revealed that it is composed of hexa-zirconium octahedral clusters

  6. Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks cuboctahedral units linked by either porphyrin (MOF-525) or cruciform (MOF-535). Another zirconium) based on the zirconium(IV) cuboctahedral secondary building unit (SBU), Zr6O4(OH)4(CO2)12 (Figure 1A

  7. Zirconium oxidation under high energy heavy ion irradiation N. Brerd, A. Chevarier, N. Moncoffre, H. Jaffrezic,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Zirconium oxidation under high energy heavy ion irradiation N. Brerd, A. Chevarier, N. Moncoffre This paper concerns the study of zirconium oxidation under irradiation with high energetic Xe ions on the oxidation kinetics of zirconium. This study is performed in the framework of long-term storage of nuclear

  8. First-Principles Study of Secondary Slip in Zirconium Nermine Chaari and Emmanuel Clouet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    First-Principles Study of Secondary Slip in Zirconium Nermine Chaari and Emmanuel Clouet CEA, DEN, as found in iridium [8]. Cross slip is also observed in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals. In zirconium secondary slip in hcp metals. We fo- cus mainly on zirconium, although we checked that the FIG. 1. Hexagonal

  9. Magnetically affected texture and microstructure evolution during grain growth in Zirconium

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Magnetically affected texture and microstructure evolution during grain growth in Zirconium Dmitri.bozzolo@mines-paristech.fr Keywords: Grain growth, Magnetic annealing, Zirconium, Magnetic anisotropy. Abstract. The effect of a magnetic field on texture and microstructure development in cold rolled (80%) commercially pure zirconium

  10. Actinide diffusion in zirconium and the role of oxidation , H. Catalette2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Actinide diffusion in zirconium and the role of oxidation N. Brerd1 , H. Catalette2 , A. Chevarier in the cladding. Consequently, this work will be presented into two parts. The first part is devoted to zirconium presents the study of uranium diffusion in the oxidised zirconium. 2. Experimental set up 2.1 The ILL

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors

    E-print Network

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors Dennis M (ALD) of smooth and highly conformal films of hafnium and zirconium oxides was studied using six metal alkylamide precursors for hafnium and zirconium. Water was used as an oxygen source during these experiments

  12. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113, 3829-3837 3829 Zirconium and Hafnium Polyhydrides. Preparation and

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113, 3829-3837 3829 Zirconium and Hafnium Polyhydrides. Preparation Abstract: Treatment of the zirconium and hafnium tetrahydroborate complexes M(BH4)4with trimethylphosphine-ligand distances in the zirconium complex are slightly longer than those in the hafnium complex, as expected from

  13. CORROSIVE WEAR BEHAVIOR OF ZIRCONIUM IN HOT SULFIDE CONTAINING ELECTROLYTES (1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrill Holmes

    The synergistic effect between corrosion and wear was determined for zirconium 702 in an aqueous medium. Zirconium 702 with a pickled surface treatment and zirconium 702 with an air oxidized surface treatment were studied. Stainless Steel 304L was used as a reference. The electrolyte used was actual Production Raw Green Liquor from the Pulp and Paper Industry. The testing conditions

  14. Dissolution of passive zirconium in electrolyte solutions: The influence of the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Florianovich; E. A. Larchenko

    1995-01-01

    The anodic behavior of passive zirconium in aqueous electrolyte solutions is studied by the radiometry technique in conjunction with a variety of electrochemical methods and Auger spectroscopy. The conclusion is made that, generally, there is no direct correlation between the composition of the passivating film on zirconium and the dissolution rate of passive zirconium. Water molecules act as a passivating

  15. A case study of the development of a military specification - zirconium powder for thermal batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary T. Burgess

    1987-01-01

    Thermal batteries are used as the critical power source in nuclear fuses, missiles, and aircraft. Heat sources in thermal batteries use a fine zirconium powder. This report focuses on the zirconium problem and the development of a military specification for zirconium powder as produced by the magnesium reduction method.

  16. Case study of the development of a military specification - zirconium powder for thermal batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.T.

    1987-10-01

    Thermal batteries are used as the critical power source in nuclear fuses, missiles, and aircraft. Heat sources in thermal batteries use a fine zirconium powder. This report focuses on the zirconium problem and the development of a military specification for zirconium powder as produced by the magnesium reduction method.

  17. A case study of the development of a military specification - zirconium powder for thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Mary T.

    1987-10-01

    Thermal batteries are used as the critical power source in nuclear fuses, missiles, and aircraft. Heat sources in thermal batteries use a fine zirconium powder. This report focuses on the zirconium problem and the development of a military specification for zirconium powder as produced by the magnesium reduction method.

  18. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  19. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  20. 46 CFR 111.97-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...111.97-1 Section 111.97-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems ...

  1. 28 CFR 97.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Definitions. 97.2 Section...SERVICES 97.2 Definitions. (a) Crime of...or threatened use of physical force against the...involves a substantial risk that physical force against...

  2. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort...Policy 552.97 Communications. The Ft....

  3. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Communications. 552.97 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort...Policy 552.97 Communications. The Ft....

  4. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort...Policy 552.97 Communications. The Ft....

  5. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Communications. 552.97 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort...Policy 552.97 Communications. The Ft....

  6. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort...Policy 552.97 Communications. The Ft....

  7. Corrosion kinetics under high pressure of steam of pure zirconium and zirconium alloys followed by in situ thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dali, Yacoub; Tupin, Marc; Bossis, Philippe; Pijolat, Michle; Wouters, Yves; Jomard, Franois

    2012-07-01

    A new experimental thermogravimetric device has been installed to study in situ the corrosion behaviour of zirconium alloys under high pressure of steam. Corrosion tests up to 5 MPa of steam pressure have been performed on two materials, pure zirconium and Zircaloy-4 (Zy4), at around 415 C. The rate-limiting step assumption was experimentally verified on Zy4. Unlike pure zirconium, its oxidation rate is not dependent on steam pressure. The experimental result obtained on this material is consistent with an oxygen vacancy diffusion rate-limiting step. For pure zirconium, the kinetic law is nearly linear during the corrosion process, which leads to propose an interface reaction rate-limiting step. Moreover, according to the isotope exchange experiments, the oxygen diffusion in the oxide formed on pure zirconium under high pressure of steam is very fast compared to that in the oxide of Zy4, which supports the thermogravimetric results. Finally, the impact of the SPPs on the corrosion resistance is briefly discussed in the last part of this paper from photoelectrochemical results.

  8. Studies on synthesis esterified zirconium glyphosates and their hydrophobic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Li, Minglei; Ji, Xuemei; Xu, Qinghong

    2010-03-01

    A series of new organic-modified zirconium glyphosate compounds were synthesized based on the reactions between esterified glyphosates and ZrOCl 2. FT-IR spectra, solid-state 31P MAS NMR and elementary analysis proved the formation of these new compounds. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images proved these compounds had lamellar structures. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images showed that solvents used in synthesis had great influence on the morphologies of products. Water contact angle measurements showed that the hydrophobic property of the products was a function of the number of carbon in esterified glyphosates, increased from 0 of zirconium glyphosate to 133 of dodecyl zirconium glyphosate. The present study offered a new route to synthesize organic-modified ?-Zr(HPO 4) 2H 2O (?-ZrP) materials with various morphology and controllable hydrophobic property.

  9. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.155 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for...

  10. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.155 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for...

  11. 40 CFR 97.426 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.426 Section 97.426 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.426 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Annual allowance may be banked...

  12. 40 CFR 97.426 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.426 Section 97.426 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.426 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Annual allowance may be banked...

  13. 40 CFR 97.726 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.726 Section 97.726 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program 97.726 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 2 allowance may be banked...

  14. 40 CFR 97.526 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.526 Section 97.526 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program 97.526 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Ozone Season allowance may be...

  15. 40 CFR 97.626 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.626 Section 97.626 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program 97.626 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 1 allowance may be banked...

  16. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment...CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be...

  17. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.55 Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or...

  18. 40 CFR 97.626 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.626 Section 97.626 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program 97.626 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 1 allowance may be banked...

  19. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System 97.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for...

  20. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.55 Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or...

  1. 40 CFR 97.426 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.426 Section 97.426 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.426 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Annual allowance may be banked...

  2. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System 97.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for...

  3. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System 97.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for...

  4. 40 CFR 97.526 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.526 Section 97.526 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program 97.526 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Ozone Season allowance may be...

  5. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System 97.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for...

  6. 40 CFR 97.726 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.726 Section 97.726 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program 97.726 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 2 allowance may be banked...

  7. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment...CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be...

  8. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment...CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be...

  9. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.55 Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or...

  10. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System 97.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for...

  11. 40 CFR 97.626 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 97.626 Section 97.626 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program 97.626 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 1 allowance may be banked...

  12. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.155 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for...

  13. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.55 Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or...

  14. 40 CFR 97.526 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.526 Section 97.526 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program 97.526 Banking. (a) A TR NOX Ozone Season allowance may be...

  15. 40 CFR 97.726 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 97.726 Section 97.726 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program 97.726 Banking. (a) A TR SO2 Group 2 allowance may be banked...

  16. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment...TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System 97.55 Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or...

  17. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor...Property, and Subawards 97.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency...Federal Government purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a...

  18. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor...Property, and Subawards 97.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency...Federal Government purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a...

  19. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor...Property, and Subawards 97.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency...Federal Government purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a...

  20. 29 CFR 97.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copyrights. 97.34 Section 97.34 Labor...Property, and Subawards 97.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency...Federal Government purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a...

  1. 7 CFR 97.155 - Signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Signatures. 97.155 Section 97.155 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.155 Signatures. Every document filed by an attorney...proceeding in the Office shall bear the signature of such attorney or agent, except...

  2. 7 CFR 97.155 - Signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Signatures. 97.155 Section 97.155 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.155 Signatures. Every document filed by an attorney...proceeding in the Office shall bear the signature of such attorney or agent, except...

  3. 7 CFR 97.155 - Signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Signatures. 97.155 Section 97.155 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.155 Signatures. Every document filed by an attorney...proceeding in the Office shall bear the signature of such attorney or agent, except...

  4. 7 CFR 97.155 - Signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Signatures. 97.155 Section 97.155 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.155 Signatures. Every document filed by an attorney...proceeding in the Office shall bear the signature of such attorney or agent, except...

  5. 7 CFR 97.155 - Signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Signatures. 97.155 Section 97.155 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.155 Signatures. Every document filed by an attorney...proceeding in the Office shall bear the signature of such attorney or agent, except...

  6. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505...Qualifying Examination Systems 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering...Advanced Class operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired...

  7. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505...Qualifying Examination Systems 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering...Advanced Class operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired...

  8. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97...Qualifying Examination Systems 97.503 Element standards. A written examination...of a question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the...

  9. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97...Qualifying Examination Systems 97.503 Element standards. A written examination...of a question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the...

  10. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary station. 97.201 Section 97.201...SERVICE Special Operations 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station...Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder of a...

  11. 7 CFR 97.156 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Addresses. 97.156 Section 97.156 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.156 Addresses. Attorneys and agents practicing...the Office in writing of any change of address. The Office shall address letters...

  12. 7 CFR 97.156 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addresses. 97.156 Section 97.156 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.156 Addresses. Attorneys and agents practicing...the Office in writing of any change of address. The Office shall address letters...

  13. 7 CFR 97.156 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addresses. 97.156 Section 97.156 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.156 Addresses. Attorneys and agents practicing...the Office in writing of any change of address. The Office shall address letters...

  14. 7 CFR 97.156 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Addresses. 97.156 Section 97.156 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.156 Addresses. Attorneys and agents practicing...the Office in writing of any change of address. The Office shall address letters...

  15. 7 CFR 97.156 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Addresses. 97.156 Section 97.156 Agriculture... Attorneys and Agents 97.156 Addresses. Attorneys and agents practicing...the Office in writing of any change of address. The Office shall address letters...

  16. 28 CFR 97.12 - Employee training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 97.12 Section 97.12...DETAINEE SERVICES 97.12 Employee training. Private prisoner transport...of a minimum of 100 hours of employee training before an employee may...

  17. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...in a compliance account or a general account will remain in such account unless and until the CAIR NOX allowance is deducted or transferred under 97.142, 97.154, 97.156, or subpart GG or II of this...

  18. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...in a compliance account or a general account will remain in such account unless and until the CAIR NOX allowance is deducted or transferred under 97.142, 97.154, 97.156, or subpart GG or II of this...

  19. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  20. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  1. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  2. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  3. Chemistry of zirconium related to the behavior of nuclear fuel cladding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cubicciotti, D.

    1980-03-26

    Studies of the chemistry of the zirconium-iodine and zirconium-oxygen systems were undertaken to elucidate their thermodynamics and kinetics. It is anticipated that the results obtained will lead to an improved understanding of the chemical processes involved in chemically assisted fuel rod failures. This project not only has classified the thermodynamics of both the gas phase and the solids in the zirconium-iodine system, it has also provided valuable information on the chemisorption of iodine and of oxygen on zirconium surfaces at high temperatures. In addition, the kinetics of reactions on zirconium surfaces were studied. These results have already been helpful in understanding the stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy.

  4. Experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX).

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D. H.

    1998-04-10

    The results of two series of experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. The first series of experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water while the second series employed 1.2-kg batches of zirconium-stainless steel mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite large, the explosion energies estimated from the experimental measurements were found to be small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

  5. Material property correlations for the niobium-1% zirconium alloy

    E-print Network

    Senor, David James

    1989-01-01

    in This Work. Page 2 Melting Point Data. 3 Summary of Experimental Creep Data, 4 Summary of Experimental Tensile Property Data . . 41 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The niobium-1% zirconium (Nb-1Zr) alloy is currently under consideration for application as a...'? Liquid o 862 C p(Z ) utah) + PRO 0. 6 )tish)+ tttNb) 6 85 utxO+ ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Weiglu Petoeet Niobwm ligure 3 Niobium-Zirconium Phase Diagram (after Lundin and Cox 1960). 1050 P Sso ~)+I@) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13...

  6. Stress measurements during thin film zirconium oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Soo; Jeong, Yong-Hwan; Jang, Jeong-Nam

    2011-05-01

    Stress accumulation during thin film zirconium oxide growth was successfully measured using new curvature measurement technique and stress of up to 5.1 GPa was observed in an approximately 50 nm thick oxide film. Experimental results also show that steam and air oxidation make little difference in the stress profile on the oxide film thickness, especially during the early stage of oxidation. This result possibly supports the theory that zirconium corrosion kinetics crucially depends on the oxide phase transformation at the metal-oxide interface. Apparent discrepancies between previous studies were interpreted in terms of stress relaxation effects on the measurements.

  7. Variant selection and transformation texture in zirconium alloy Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, M.; Holt, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    The crystallographic texture and variant selection during phase transformations in zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5% Sn-0.8% Mo-0.8% Nb) was investigated. It was shown that upon water-quenching from ?Zr + ?Zr or fully ?Zr regions, variant selection occurs during ?Zr ? ??Zr martensitic transformation. Also during air-cooling from the ?Zr + ?Zr region, only a partial memory effect and some transformation texture with variant selection was observed which is contrary to previous reports on zirconium alloys heat treated in the ?Zr + ?Zr region.

  8. Hydrogen pickup mechanism of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Adrien

    Although the optimization of zirconium based alloys has led to significant improvements in hydrogen pickup and corrosion resistance, the mechanisms by which such alloy improvements occur are still not well understood. In an effort to understand such mechanisms, a systematic study of the alloy effect on hydrogen pickup is conducted, using advanced characterization techniques to rationalize precise measurements of hydrogen pickup. The hydrogen pick-up fraction is accurately measured for a specially designed set of commercial and model alloys to investigate the effects of alloying elements, microstructure and corrosion kinetics on hydrogen uptake. Two different techniques to measure hydrogen concentrations were used: a destructive technique, Vacuum Hot Extraction, and a non-destructive one, Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen pickup varies not only from alloy to alloy but also during the corrosion process for a given alloy. For instance Zircaloy type alloys show high hydrogen pickup fraction and sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics whereas ZrNb alloys show lower hydrogen pickup fraction and close to parabolic oxidation kinetics. Hypothesis is made that hydrogen pickup result from the need to balance charge during the corrosion reaction, such that the pickup of hydrogen is directly related to (and indivisible of) the corrosion mechanism and decreases when the rate of electron transport or oxide electronic conductivity sigmao xe through the protective oxide increases. According to this hypothesis, alloying elements (either in solid solution or in precipitates) embedded in the oxide as well as space charge variations in the oxide would impact the hydrogen pick-up fraction by modifying sigmaox e, which drives oxidation and hydriding kinetics. Dedicated experiments and modelling were performed to assess and validate these hypotheses. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tubes to directly measure the evolution of sigma oxe as function of exposure time. The results show that sigmao xe decreases as function of exposure time and that its variations are directly correlated to the instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction variations. The electron transport through the oxide layer is thus altered as the oxide grows, reasons for which are yet to be exactly determined. Preliminary results also show that sigma oxe of ZrNb alloys would be much higher compared with Zircaloy-4. Thus, it is confirmed that sigmaox e is a key parameter in the hydrogen and oxidation mechanism. Because the mechanism whereby alloying elements are incorporated into the oxide layer is critical to changing sigmao xe, the evolution of the oxidation state of two common alloying elements, Fe and Nb, when incorporated into the growing oxide layers is investigated using X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) using micro-beam synchrotron radiation on cross sectional oxide samples. The results show that the oxidation of both Fe and Nb is delayed in the oxide layer compared to that of Zr, and that this oxidation delay is related to the variations of the instantaneous hydrogen pick-up fraction with exposure time. The evolution of Nb oxidation as function of oxide depth is also compatible with space charge compensation in the oxide and with an increase in sigmaox e of ZrNb alloys compared to Zircaloys. Finally, various successively complex models from the well-known Wagner oxidation theory to the more complex effect of space charge on oxidation kinetics have been developed. The general purpose of the modeling effort is to provide a rationale for the sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics and demonstrate the correlation with hydrogen pickup fraction. It is directly demonstrated that parabolic oxidation kinetics is associated with high sigmao xe and low space charges in the oxide whereas sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics is associated with lower sigmaox e and higher space charge in the oxide. All these observations helped us to propose a general corrosion mechanism of zirconium allo

  9. Characterization of uranium and uranium-zirconium deposits produced in electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the metallurgical characterization of deposits produced in molten salt electrorefining of uranium and uranium - 10.% zirconium alloy. The techniques of characterization are described with emphasis on considerations given to the radioactive and pyrophoric nature of the samples. The morphologies observed and their implications for deposit performance are also presented - samples from pure uranium deposits were comprised of chains of uranium crystals with a characteristic rhomboidal shape, while morphologies of samples from deposits containing zirconium showed more polycrystalline features. Zirconium was found to be present as a second, zirconium metal phase at or very near the uranium-zirconium dendrite surfaces. Higher collection efficiencies and total deposit weights were observed for the uranium-zirconium deposits; this performance increase is likely a result of better mechanical properties exhibited by the uranium-zirconium dendrite morphology. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Standard Specification for Nuclear Grade Zirconium Oxide Pellets

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of stabilized zirconium oxide used in nuclear reactors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-Molybdenum-Zirconium Alloys

    E-print Network

    Woolum, Connor

    2014-12-12

    As part of a global effort to convert reactors that require highly enriched uranium to instead operate with low enriched uranium, monolithic fuel plates consisting of a U-Mo fuel meat with a zirconium foil barrier layer and clad in aluminum...

  12. Solid State Phase Transformations in Uranium-Zirconium Alloys

    E-print Network

    Irukuvarghula, Sandeep

    2013-08-06

    Uranium-10wt% zirconium (U-10Zr) alloy nuclear fuels have been used for decades and new variations are under consideration ranging from U-5Zr to U-50Zr. As a precursor to understanding the fission gas behavior in U-Zr alloys using ion implantation...

  13. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  14. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  15. Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huaming; Chan, George C-Y; Mao, Xianglei; Zorba, Vassilia; Zheng, Ronger; Russo, Richard E

    2015-05-01

    Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS) for rapid isotopic analysis of zirconium at atmospheric pressure was studied with a femtosecond-laser system operated under high repetition rate (1 kHz) and low pulse energy (160?J). The temporal evolution of zirconium neutral-atomic and ionic lines, as well as zirconium oxide molecular bands, were studied. Six molecular bands, belonging to the d(3)?-a(3)? (i.e., the ? system) and E(1)?(+)-X(1)?(+) transitions, were observed with appreciable isotopic shifts. The assignments of the isotopic bandheads were first based on theoretical predictions of the band origins and the associated isotopic shifts of various dipole-allowed ZrO electronic transitions, followed by an experimental confirmation with a (94)Zr-enriched ZrO2 sample. In this work, the ?(0,1) band from the d(3)?3-a(3)?3 subsystem was utilized for Zr isotope analysis based on a compromise between the magnitude of isotopic shifts in emission wavelengths, emission strengths, signal-to-background ratios, and spectral interferences. The analysis was performed in a standardless calibration approach; the isotopic information was extracted from the experimentally measured molecular spectra through theoretical spectral fitting. The results demonstrate the feasibility to obtain isotopic information for a spectrally complicated element like zirconium, without the need to use isotopically labeled calibration standards. The availability of comprehensive molecular constants will further improve the analytical accuracy of this standardless calibration approach. PMID:25821993

  16. Ultrathin micropatterned porphyrin films assembled via zirconium phosphonate chemistry

    E-print Network

    Ultrathin micropatterned porphyrin films assembled via zirconium phosphonate chemistry Aaron M of a phosphonic-acid-functionalized porphyrin is presented and a procedure for the reproducible assembly of the porphyrins into thin films on glass or conductive glass surfaces is described. The assembly scheme, which

  17. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zirconium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mik, A.; Demirel, A. L.; Somer, M.

    2010-06-01

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) has generated wide interest because of its potential in applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, catalysts and optical devices. In these applications, it is important to control the grain size of the material and increase the surface area by introducing porosity with tailored pore size. This paper presents a synthesis route for the preparation of mesoporous zirconia using spin-coating method combined with block copolymer templating evaporation induced self assembly (EISA). The hybrid mesophase was formed by zirconium oxychloride precursor ZrOCl28H2O and Brij 700 poly-ethylene oxide based block copolymer template C18H37(OCH2CH2). FT-IR and Raman measurements of the hybrid mesophase provided information on the possible intermolecular interactions between the precursor and the copolymer template. The results indicate a weak ion-dipole interaction between the inorganic precursor and the organic template after the solvent evaporation, possibly directly between the zirconium and the oxygen of the poly-ethylene oxide chain. The removal of the organic block copolymer by heat treatment resulted in mesoporous zirconia with pore size of ~4-8 nm and crystalline grain size of ~10-17 nm. The morphology in thin films depended significantly on the solvent quality and the block copolymer concentration. Tailoring the surface morphology and the grain size resulted in super-hydrophilic mesoporous zirconia thin films in contrast to water contact angle of 50 on conventional tetragonal zirconium oxide.

  18. CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, AND HAFNIUM AT HIGH PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Jamieson

    1963-01-01

    At high pressures, as determined by x-ray analysis, titanium and ; zirconium metal have a distorted, bodycentered-cubic structure. This phase ; persists on pressure release. The normal hexagonal close-packed structures are ; recovered when the metals are heated. An electronic shift must occur in the ; transition. Hafnium metal showed no such transition. (auth);

  19. The corrosion of zirconium under deep geologic repository conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoesmith, David W.; Zagidulin, Dmitrij

    2011-11-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used in nuclear reactors as fuel cladding and as reactor structural elements (i.e., CANDU reactor pressure tubes), and are therefore a component of the waste materials that could be emplaced in a deep geologic repository. Therefore, the corrosion mechanisms and rates for relevant zirconium alloys under repository conditions have been reviewed. Since titanium and zirconium alloys have many similarities, and because the data base for the corrosion of titanium alloys under repository conditions is considerably more extensive than that for zirconium alloys, the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of both materials have been compared and evaluated. Although electrochemical studies suggest Zircaloy cladding could be susceptible to pitting, redox conditions within a failed waste container will remain reducing and unable to support pitting. This leaves passive corrosion as the only long-term corrosion mechanism. The available data indicates that the rate of passive corrosion will be very low. A rate of 20 nm/year would be a reasonable upper limit but it is likely the rate will be less than 1 nm/year.

  20. Synthesis and Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions of Zirconium Phosphate Disks

    E-print Network

    Shuai, Min

    2013-05-07

    -shaped nanoparticles, and use it for the study of self-assembly and discotic liquid crystal phase transitions of discotic particles. The work was introduced by the control over the size and polydispersity of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) disks through synthesis...

  1. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    : Zircon sand was produced at two mines in Florida. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon companies as well. Zirconia (ZrO ) was produced from zircon sand at plants in Alabama, New Hampshire, New York, and Ohio, and the2 metal producer in Oregon. Zircon ceramics opacifiers, refractories

  2. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    : Zircon sand was produced at two mines in Florida and one mine in Virginia. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon sand by two domestic producers, one each in Oregon and Utah. Both metals other companies as well. Zirconia (ZrO2) was produced from zircon sand at plants in Alabama, New

  3. Mineral resource of the month: zirconium and hafnium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are grouped in the same family as titanium on the periodic table. The two elements commonly occur in oxide and silicate minerals and have significant economic importance in everything from ink, ceramics and golf shoes to nuclear fuel rods.

  4. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)

    E-print Network

    : Zircon sand was produced at two mines in Florida and one mine in Virginia. Zirconium and hafnium metal were produced from zircon sand by two domestic producers, one each in Oregon and Utah. Both metals other companies as well. Zirconia (ZrO ) was produced from zircon sand at plants in Alabama, New2

  5. THE OXIDATION AND CORROSION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ITS ALLOYS. XV. FURTHER STUDIES OF ZIRCONIUM-NIOBIUM ALLOYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cox; P. G. Chadd; J. F. Short

    1962-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of binary and ternary zirconium alloys containing 0.5 to 5 wt% niobium and ternary additions of Sn, Cu, W, Mo, Sb, V, Ge, Pd, Pt, Fe, and Mn was studied in steam and air. The lowest oxidation rate was achieved with a Zr--1% Nb--1% Cu alloy. A study of the effect of heat treatment on the alloys

  6. Layered zirconium phosphonate with inorganicorganic hybrid structure: Preparation and its assembly with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-Min [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry of Jiangxi Province, Jinggangshan University, Jian 343009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Guo-Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiang, Li-Ping, E-mail: jianglp@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Jun-Jie [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    An aminoethoxy-functionalized zirconium phosphonate (Zr(O{sub 3}POCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}3H{sub 2}O), abbreviated as ZrRP (R=OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}), with layered structure has been synthesized. This layered compound possesses the characteristic of inorganicorganic hybrid, due to the covalently linked aminoethoxy in the host layer. The anion exchanged property of this zirconium phosphonate is suitable for the direct intercalation of negatively charged DNA, which is different from these reported zirconium phosphates or zirconium phosphonates. As a precursor, this prepared zirconium phosphonate was utilized to fabricate a novel DNA/ZrRP binary hybrid via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The release behavior of DNA from the DNA/ZrRP composite was investigated at different medium pH, because the combination between zirconium phosphonate sheets and DNA was pH-dependent sensitively. Moreover, the helical conformation of DNA was almost retained after the intercalation and release process. These properties of the DNA/ZrRP composite suggested the potential application of layered zirconium phosphonate as a non-viral vector in gene delivery. - Graphical abstract: The intercalation of DNA into zirconium phosphonate and the release of DNA from the interlayer of zirconium phosphonate. - Highlights: ?A layered aminoethoxy-functionalized zirconium phosphonate has been synthesized. ?DNA was intercalated directly into the prepared zirconium phosphonate. ?A novel zirconium phosphonate/DNA binary hybrid was fabricated. ?DNA can be reversibly released from the interlayer of zirconium phosphonate. ?The intercalation/release processes do not induce the denaturalization of DNA.

  7. 40 CFR 97.105 - Retired unit exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...97.102, 97.103, 97.104, 97.106(c)(4) through (7), 97.107, 97.108, and subparts BB and EE through GG of this part. (2) The exemption under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall become effective the day on which the...

  8. 40 CFR 97.105 - Retired unit exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...97.102, 97.103, 97.104, 97.106(c)(4) through (7), 97.107, 97.108, and subparts BB and EE through GG of this part. (2) The exemption under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall become effective the day on which the...

  9. Syntheses and structural characterization of zirconium-tin and zirconium-lead binary and ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.U.

    1991-01-28

    The binary zirconium-tin system was reinvestigated. The A15 phase appears to be a line phase with a Zr{sub 4}Sn composition. The Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) compounds are line phases below 1000{degree}C, the latter being a self-interstitial phase of the former. ZrSn{sub 2} is the tin-richest phase. There is an one-phase region between these phases with partial self-interstitials at high temperatures. The zirconium-lead system behaves similarly: there are an A15 phase with a Zr{sub {approximately}5.8}Pb composition, Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4-type}) compounds, and a high temperature solid solution between Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub >3.5} and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} from below 1000{degree}C; however, the ZrSn{sub 2} analogue is not formed. The Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phases in these systems can accommodate third elements interstitially to form stoichiometric compounds Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}Z (Z = B, C, N, O, Al, Si, P, S, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and As and Se) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}Z (Z = Al, Si, P, S, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te) as well as their self-interstitial derivatives. The systems Zr-Sn-T, T = Fe, Co and Ni, did not produce stoichiometric interstitial phases Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}T. Instead, the interstitial phases for these elements are formed only with excess tin that partially occupies the interstitial site together with a T element. Reducing the amount of tin in these systems yields two new phases; Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 2+x}Fe{sub 1-x} (0 {le} {times} {le} 0.28) (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 6}Sn{sub 2}Fe (Zr{sub 6}Al{sub 2}Co-type) as characterized by X-ray single crystal analyses. A cobalt analogue for the latter was also synthesized.

  10. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium-zirconium alloy after acid etching.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Wintermantel, Erich; Haugen, Hvard J

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium-zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p<0.01) on the titanium-zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium. PMID:23827573

  11. Proteome analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma cell strains, MHCC97-H and MHCC97-L, with different

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Proteome analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma cell strains, MHCC97-H and MHCC97-L, with different. China To better understand the mechanism underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis are discussed. Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma / Mass spectrometry / Metastasis / Proteome / Two

  12. Penetrate-leach dissolution of zirconium-clad uranium and uranium dioxide fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    A new decladding-dissolution process was developed for zirconium-clad uranium metal and UO fuels. The proposed penetrate-leach process consists of penetrating the zirconium cladding with Alniflex solution (2M HF--1M HNO--1M Al(NO)--0.1M KCrO) and of leaching the exposed core with 10M HNO. Undissolved cladding pieces are discarded as solid waste. Periodic HF and HNO additions, efficient agitation, and in-line zirconium analyses are

  13. Corrosion properties of amorphous iron-zirconium films in 1N sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. McCormick; C. L. Chien; C. R. Molock; N. S. Wheeler

    1984-01-01

    Amorphous iron-zirconium alloys, ranging in composition from FeZr to FeZr, hav been studied by anodic polarization and passivation decay in 1N sulfuric acid. The results showed a compositional enhancement o corrosion resistance with increasing zirconium concentration. Auger electron spectroscopy indicated that exposure to th sulfuric acid solution enhances the surface zirconium concentration with respect to the bulk of the exposed

  14. 40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers 97.362 Notification...days of recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer under 97.361...days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to...

  15. Charge-optimized many-body (COMB) potential for zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordhoek, Mark J.; Liang, Tao; Lu, Zizhe; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Sinnott, Susan B.; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2013-10-01

    An interatomic potential for zirconium is developed within the charge-optimized many-body (COMB) formalism. The potential correctly predicts the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure as the ground state with cohesive energy, lattice parameters, and elastic constants matching experiment well. The most stable interstitial position is the basal octahedral followed by basal split, in agreement with recent first principles calculations. Stacking fault energies within the prism and basal planes satisfactorily match first principles calculations. A tensile test using nanocrystalline zirconium exhibits both prismatic {1 0 1bar 0}<1 1 2bar 0> slip and pyramidal {1 1 2bar 2}<1 1 2bar 3bar> slip, showing the model is capable of reproducing the mechanical deformation modes observed in experiments.

  16. New Zirconium Phosphate Fluorides: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wloka; S. I. Troyanov; E. Kemnitz

    1998-01-01

    A series of zirconium phosphate fluorides were synthesized and structurally characterized using different amines as templates. The compounds have the general formulas [amHn]1\\/n[Zr2(HPO4)(PO4)2F]H2O (1,am=ethylenediamine,n=2; 2.am=N-methylethylenediamine,n=2; 3,am=1,3-diaminopropane,n=2; 4,am=diethylenetriamine,n=3) and [amH2]0.5[Zr2(HPO4)2(PO4)F2]0.5H2O (5,am=N,N,N?,N?-tetramethylethylenediamine). In the structures of 24 with a Zr:F ratio of 2:1, there exists a three-dimensional arrangement of zirconium octahedra (one ZrO6and one ZrO5F) and phosphate tetrahedra (two PO4and one HPO4)

  17. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  18. Modelling zirconium hydrides using the special quasirandom structure approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chroneos, A; Jiang, C; Schwingenschlgl, U

    2013-05-28

    The study of the structure and properties of zirconium hydrides is important for understanding the embrittlement of zirconium alloys used as cladding in light water nuclear reactors. Simulation of the defect processes is complicated due to the random distribution of the hydrogen atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure approach as a computationally efficient way to describe this random distribution. We have generated six special quasirandom structure cells based on face centered cubic and face centered tetragonal unit cells to describe ZrH(2-x) (x = 0.25-0.5). Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the mechanical properties, stability, and electronic structure of the alloys. PMID:23588997

  19. Effects of solutes on damage production and recovery in zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Birtcher, R.C.; MacEwen, S.R.; Abromeit, C.

    1986-04-01

    Dilute zirconium-based alloys and pure zirconium were irradiated at 10 K with spallation neutrons at IPNS. Four types of alloys - Zr-Ti, Zr-Sn, Zr-Dy and Zr-Au - each with three concentration levels, were used. Low-temperature resistivity damage rates are enhanced by the presence of any of the four solutes. The greatest enhancement was produced by Au while the least by Dy. Within each alloy group, damage production also increased but at a decreasing rate, with increasing concentration. Post-irradiation annealing experiments, up to 400 K, showed that all four solutes suppress recovery due to interstitial migration, indicative of interstitial trapping by the solutes. Vacancy recovery is also suppressed by the presence of Sn, Dy or Au. The effect of Ti is to shift this stage to lower temperature. No clear correlation between the results with solute size was detected.

  20. A theoretical and experimental study of hydrides in zirconium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Shmakov; D. Yan; R. L. Eadie

    2006-01-01

    A method developed for computing the critical length and thickness of hydride plates formed in delayed hydride cracking (DHC)\\u000a in zirconium alloys is considered. The model is based on analyzing the distribution of tensile stresses in the plane of a\\u000a sharp normal tensile crack. The characteristics of hydrides formed due to DHC in reactor tubes produced from alloy Zr-2.5%\\u000a Nb

  1. Niobium-Zirconium Chronometry and Early Solar System Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Schnbchler; Mark Rehkmper; Alex N. Halliday; Der-Chuen Lee; Michle Bourot-Denise; Brigitte Zanda; Bodo Hattendorf; Detlef Gnther

    2002-01-01

    Niobium-92 (92Nb) decays to zirconium-92 (92Zr) with a half-life of 36 million years and can be used to place constraints on the site of p-process nucleosynthesis and the timing of early solar system processes. Recent results have suggested that the initial 92Nb\\/93Nb of the solar system was high (>10-3). We report Nb-Zr internal isochrons for the ordinary chondrite Estacado (H6)

  2. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  3. Trivalent zirconium and hafnium ions in yttrium oxide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, V. I.; Spirina, A. V.; Konev, S. F.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2014-05-01

    An analysis of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum of transparent ceramics composed of yttrium oxide with zirconium and hafnium additives has revealed the presence of signals (with similar parameters) from Zr3+ and Hf3+ ions, which have a similar electron configurations of the ground states: [Kr]4 d 1 and [Xe]5 d 1, respectively. It is shown that the pulsed cathodoluminescence spectra of these ions consist of two bands peaking at ? ? 818 and 900 nm.

  4. Defluoridation of Water Using Zirconium Impregnated Coconut Fiber Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sai Sathish; S. Sairam; V. Guru Raja; G. Nageswara Rao; C. Janardhana

    2008-01-01

    In this study the applicability of Zirconium ion impregnated coconut fiber carbon (ZICFC) as an adsorbent for fluoride removal from water was investigated. The dependence of fluoride adsorption on the physicochemical properties includes pH, agitation time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and the initial concentration of the adsorbate. Maximum defluoridation was obtained at an original pH value of 4.0 with a rapid

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Beavers; J. C. Griess; W. K. Boyd

    1980-01-01

    The susceptibility of zirconium and its common alloys to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitric acid was investigated by slow strain-rate and constant deflection techniques. Cracking occurred at 25°C over a wide range of acid concentrations and electrochemical potentials. The crack velocity increased slightly with increasing temperature. The failure mode was transgranular and the morphology was similar to SCC failures

  6. Distribution coefficients of rare earth ions in cubic zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, H.; Luther, K.-D.; Assmus, W.

    1994-08-01

    Cubic zirconium dioxide crystals are grown with the skull melting technique. The effective distribution coefficients for Nd(exp 3+), Sm(exp 3+) and Er(sup 3+) as dopants are determined experimentally as a function of the crystal growth velocity. With the Burton-Prim-Slichter theory, the equilibrium distribution coefficients can be calculated. The distribution coefficients of all other trivalent rare earth ions can be estimated by applying the correlation towards the ionic radii.

  7. Isothermal diffusion in uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Petri; M. A. Dayananda

    1997-01-01

    Isothermal diffusion couple experiments were performed at 1023 K to investigate diffusion phenomena in body-centered cubic U?Pu?Zr alloys. The U?Pu?Zr alloys covered the uranium-rich corner of the ternary phase diagram with plutonium concentrations up to 27 at.% and zirconium concentrations up to 20 at.%. Ternary interdiffusion coefficients were calculated at the common composition between two couples with intersecting diffusion paths.

  8. Continuous ion exchange separation of zirconium and hafnium

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) has been developed for truly continuous ion exchange preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam by 60-cm-long CAC, but a larger model has recently been designed and constructed. A detailed study has been made of the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a simulated carbonate leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Recent studies have investigated the ion exchange separation of zirconium and hafnium from a sulfate feed solution. Nuclear reactor-grade zirconium, containing < 0.01 wt % hafnium, and hafnium, containing < 1% zirconium, have been continuously prepared using cation exchange resin in the pressurized CAC. This device, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to largescale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  9. Tetra(trihaptoallyl)zirconium(IV) Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 12,No. 7, 1973 1535 Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    Tetra(trihaptoallyl)zirconium(IV) Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 12,No. 7, 1973 1535 Contribution from of Interchange of the Syn and Anti Protons of Tetra(trihaptuallyl)zirconium(IV)l JEANNE K. KRIEGER,* J. M. DEUTCH, and GEORGE M. WHITESIDES* Received November 6, 1972 The temperature dependence of the H nmr spectrum of tetra(trihuptoallyl)zirconium

  10. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 69 (2008) 128132 Selective MOCVD of titanium oxide and zirconium oxide thin films

    E-print Network

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2008-01-01

    and zirconium oxide thin films using single molecular precursors on Si(1 0 0) substrates B.-C. Kanga,, D 23 June 2007; accepted 10 August 2007 Abstract Titanium oxide (TiO2) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin thin film are possible. Also, zirconium oxide (ZrO2) has been extensively studied for use as a silicon

  11. Dislocation study of prismatic slip systems and their interactions in hexagonal close packed metals: application to zirconium

    E-print Network

    Devincre, Benoit

    : application to zirconium G. Monnet *, B. Devincre, L.P. Kubin Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures, CNRS of dislocation dynamics in single crystals of hcp zirconium are presented with emphasis on the hardening deformation stage with a low strain hardening coefficient in zirconium or titanium crystals at low temperature

  12. Astron. Nachr. / AN 999, No. 88, 789 800 (2010) / DOI please set DOI! The solar photospheric abundance of zirconium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    2010-01-01

    abundance of zirconium E. Caffau1,2, , R. Faraggiana3 , H.-G. Ludwig1,2 , P. Bonifacio2,4 , and M. Steffen5 Hydrodynamics Line: formation Zirconium (Zr), together with strontium and yttrium, is an important element derive the zirconium abundance in the solar photosphere with the same CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model

  13. SPECTRES D'ABSORPTION K DU ZIRCONIUM, DE SON OXYDE ET DE SON OXYCHLORURE (*) Par ALEXIS GANSON,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    298. SPECTRES D'ABSORPTION K DU ZIRCONIUM, DE SON OXYDE ET DE SON OXYCHLORURE (*) Par ALEXIS GANSON'tude par spectroscopie X des spectres d'absorption K du zirconium, de ZrO2 et ZrOCl2 anhydres et hydrats mica courb, par transmission. On montre que la discontinuit d'absorption K du zirconium mtallique

  14. Expanded Heat Treatment to Form Residual Compressive Hoop Stress on Inner Surface of Zirconium Alloy Tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao MEGATA

    1997-01-01

    A specific heat treatment process that introduces hoop stress has been developed. This technique can produce zirconium alloy tubing with a residual compressive hoop stress near the inner surface by taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy in hexagonal close-packed zirconium crystal.Since a crystal having its basal pole parallel to the tangential direction of the tubing is easier to exhibit plastic

  15. Process for forming seamless tubing of zirconium or titanium alloys from welded precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Sabol; R. F. Barry

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for forming seamless tubing of a material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, and titanium alloys, from welded precursor tubing of the material, having a heterogeneous structure resulting from the welding thereof. The process consists of: heating successive axial segments of the welded tubing, completely through the wall thereof, including the weld, to uniformly transform the

  16. Ultrasonic Estimation of Hydride Degradation of Zirconium Pressure Tubes of RBMK Fuel Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rymantas KAZYS; Reimondas SLITERIS; Liudas MAZEIKA; Algirdas VOLEISIS

    Fuel channels of nuclear reactors, which are major structural elements of a reactor core, have to meet strict requirements in terms of operational reliability. The middle part of the fuel channel, located in a graphite stack, is a tube made of a zirconium-2.5% niobium alloy. However, zirconium alloys can pick up hydrogen during operation as a consequence of corrosion reaction

  17. Inhibition by boric acid of the oxidation of zirconium in high pressure steam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Britton; J. N. Wanklyn

    1962-01-01

    A substantial reduction in the corrosion of iodide zirconium expused to ; high pressure steam has been obtained by adding boric acid to the steam. In ; steam only at 500 deg C and l000 psi (68 at.), iodide zirconium is almost ; completely oxidised in 24 hours, weight gains of about 5400 mg\\/dm² being ; obtained. Inhibition by boric

  18. Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

    1984-10-09

    A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear reactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

  19. Solid-state coexistence of {Zr12} and {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Malaestean, Iurie L. [RWTH Aachen University; Alici, Meliha Kutluca [RWTH Aachen University; Besson, Claire [RWTH Aachen University; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Kogerler, Paul [RWTH Aachen University

    2013-10-30

    Ligand metathesis, Co(II) coordination, and partial condensation reactions of an archetypal {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate cluster result in the first example of the coexistence of the distinct zirconium oxide frameworks {Zr6O8} and {Zr12O22}. Even minor modifications to the reaction conditions push this apparent equilibrium towards the {Zr6O8}-based product.

  20. Solid-State Coexistance of (Zr12) and (Zr6) Zirconium Oxocarboxylate Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Malaestean, Lurie [RWTH Aachen University; Alici, Meliha Kutluca [RWTH Aachen University; Besson, Claire [RWTH Aachen University; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Kogerler, Paul [RWTH Aachen University

    2013-10-30

    Ligand metathesis, Co(II) coordination, and partial condensation reactions of an archetypal {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate cluster result in the first example of the coexistence of the distinct zirconium oxide frameworks {Zr6O8} and {Zr12O22}. Even minor modifications to the reaction conditions push this apparent equilibrium towards the {Zr6O8}-based product.

  1. Zirconium, Niobium, Antimony and Fluorine in Mice : Effects on growth, survival and tissue levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY A. SCHROEDER; MARIAN MITCHENER; JOSEPH J. BALASSA

    To evaluate innate effects of certain trace elements, 540 mice were fed a diet of rye, corn oil and dried skim milk containing moderate amounts of zirconium and niobium and no detectable antimony or fluorine, in an environment relatively free of trace contaminants. Groups of 108, divided as to sex, were given 5 ppm zirconium, niobate or antimony or 10

  2. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the removal of zirconium, hafnium and niobium radioisotopes from aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dyer; F. H. Kadhim

    1989-01-01

    Studies were made on the uptake of zirconium, hafnium and niobium isotopes onto zeolites and amorphous zirconium phosphate. Ion exchange capacities and distribution coefficients were determined and the influence of pH examined. Kinetic experiments were made to determine the rates of uptake of the radioisotopes on the exchangers and to measure the leaching of isotopes from preloaded exchangers by synthetic

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Activation of Zirconium and Hafnium Dialkyl Complexes that Contain a

    E-print Network

    Mller, Peter

    Synthesis, Characterization, and Activation of Zirconium and Hafnium Dialkyl Complexes that Contain of zirconium and hafnium complexes, [MepyN]MX2 (M ) Zr, X ) NMe2, Cl, OSO2CF3, CH2CHMe2, CH2Ph; M ) Hf, X ) NMe

  4. DIFFUSION OF OXYGEN IN ZIRCONIUM AND ITS RELATION TO OXIDATION AND CORROSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paul Pemsler

    1958-01-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in zinonium and dilute zirconium alloys has been ; studied in the temperature rsmge of 400 deg to 585 deg C by observing the rates ; of dissolution of anodically deposited interference oxide films. The diffusion ; coefficient of oxygen in zirconium depends on the grain orientation and varies by ; a factor of two among

  5. Anodic behaviour of zirconium and its alloys in fluorinated nitric media dissolution-passivation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prong; T. Jaszay; A. Caprani; J. P. Frayret

    1995-01-01

    Current-potential curves for zirconium in fluorinated nitric medium were obtained using a rotating disc electrode. The curves exhibited four different domains according to the potential, and suggested a seven-step reaction model composed of three competing paths. Quantitatively verified by comparing computed and experimental curves, this model accounts for the behaviour of either zirconium or its main industrial alloy, Zircaloy 4,

  6. Lithium aluminate/zirconium material useful in the production of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA); Trapp, Turner J. (Richland, WA)

    1984-10-09

    A composition is described useful in the production of tritium in a nuclear eactor. Lithium aluminate particles are dispersed in a matrix of zirconium. Tritium produced by the reactor of neutrons with the lithium are absorbed by the zirconium, thereby decreasing gas pressure within capsules carrying the material.

  7. Diffusion in uranium alloys with zirconium. Analysis of the concentration behavior of the activation energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Shevchuk

    1997-01-01

    Uranium metal and alloys based on it are of interest as materials for fast-reactor fuel. A comprehensive investigation of the thermodynamic and diffusion properties of uranium alloys with zirconium permits drawing several fundamental conclusions that could be valid not only for this system but for other alloys as well. Thermodynamic data on the -),-phase alloys of the uranium-zirconium system are

  8. The initiation of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium-2.5 niobium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derong Yan

    1999-01-01

    This thesis contains two parts of work that study the initiation of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys in different aspects. The first part is a theoretical work in which the effect of stress on the hydride precipitation solvus in zirconium, is studied from the view point of thermodynamics. The material equilibrium of a closed thermodynamic system which

  9. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.7 Regulations. (a) Supplementary regulations and instructions. The...

  10. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.7 Regulations. (a) Supplementary regulations and instructions. The...

  11. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future...section. (b) Any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance that is held in a...

  12. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers 97.361 EPA...section) of receiving a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer, the Administrator will record a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer by moving each...

  13. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future...section. (b) Any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance that is held in a...

  14. 40 CFR 97.361 - EPA recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers 97.361 EPA...section) of receiving a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer, the Administrator will record a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer by moving each...

  15. 32 CFR 9.7 - Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM 9.7 Regulations. (a) Supplementary regulations and instructions. The Appointing Authority...

  16. 9 CFR 201.97 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...General 201.97 Annual reports. Every packer, live poultry...annually with the Administration a report on prescribed forms not...may waive the filing of such reports in particular cases. (Approved by the...

  17. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During...procedures section of the annual management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register ; Treaty...

  18. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During...procedures section of the annual management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register ; Treaty...

  19. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During...procedures section of the annual management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register ; Treaty...

  20. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During...procedures section of the annual management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register ; Treaty...

  1. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During...procedures section of the annual management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register ; Treaty...

  2. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) 97.115 IRB...following: (1) Copies of all research proposals reviewed, scientific...accompany the proposals, approved sample consent documents, progress...changes in or disapproving research; and a written summary...

  3. 34 CFR 97.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    34 Education 1 2012-07-01...Section 97.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN...research obtains (1) Data through intervention...within the constraints set forth by the IRB...

  4. 34 CFR 97.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    34 Education 1 2014-07-01...Section 97.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN...research obtains (1) Data through intervention...within the constraints set forth by the IRB...

  5. 34 CFR 97.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    34 Education 1 2013-07-01...Section 97.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN...research obtains (1) Data through intervention...within the constraints set forth by the IRB...

  6. 34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education...Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

  7. 34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education...Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

  8. 49 CFR 176.97 - Prohibition of dump scows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of dump scows. 176.97 Section 176.97 Transportation...Requirements for Barges 176.97 Prohibition of dump scows. Dump scows are barges having cargo carrying...

  9. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation 96.97 Application...

  10. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation 96.97 Application...

  11. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation 96.97 Application...

  12. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation 96.97 Application...

  13. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation 96.97 Application...

  14. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Third party communications. 97.115 Section 97.115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...Standards 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur...

  15. Irradiation response of ODS Eurofer97 steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Luzginova; H. S. Nolles; P. ten Pierick; T. Bakker; R. K. Mutnuru; M. Jong; D. T. Blagoeva

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer97 steel (EU batch, 0.3wt.% of Y2O3 particles), produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot rolling, is irradiated in the High Flux Reactor in Petten, The Netherlands at three different irradiation temperatures (300, 450 and 550C) up to nominal doses of 1dpa and 3dpa. The effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of ODS Eurofer97

  16. Control and monitoring of the localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, J.; Holmes, D.; Yau, T.L. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Zirconium in acidic chloride solutions which are contaminated with ferric or cupric cations is prone to localized corrosion. This tendency can be reduced by ensuring that the zirconium surface is clean and smooth. In this paper, the effect of surface condition on the localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions is predicted with potentiodynamic scans. These predictions are confirmed by weight loss tests on various combinations of surface finish and acid concentrations. A real time indication of localized corrosion is seen by monitoring the electrochemical noise produced between two similar electrodes immersed in an acidic chloride solutions. Electrochemical noise monitoring correlates well with the predictions from potentiodynamic and weight loss experiments. The electrochemical noise results show that while an elevated (more anodic) potential caused by ferric ion contamination may be a necessary condition for localized corrosion, it is not a sufficient condition: A smooth, clean zirconium surface reduces the localized corrosion of zirconium.

  17. Factors affecting the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of zirconium in 90% nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    U-band, C-ring, and slow strain rate tests were performed to evaluate the effects of texture, stress, surface condition, heat treatments electrochemical potential, and strain rate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium in 90% nitric acid at room temperature. Careful control of texture, surface condition (scratching, cleaning, and oxide coating), and/or applied stress was shown to effectively lead to the prevention of SCC of zirconium in 90% HNO/sub 3/. Heat treating at 760, 880, or 1000 C does not seem to improve the SCC resistance. However, if the potential of zirconium is maintained at 500 mV/sub SCE/ or lower, or 200 ppm of HF is added, zirconium's SCC susceptibility in 90% HNO/sub 3/ is eliminated. When adding HF, zirconium sponge must also be added to avoid corrosion rates.

  18. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  19. Fundamental studies into zirconium modified phosphonic acid based ionic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Gregory Joseph

    The demand for a sustainable energy economy requires the development of new solid stare electrochemical energy conversion devices. Ionic membranes are the bases for most of these devices. Solid super acids based on zirconium phosphonates show great promise for development into these membranes. Copolymers of vinyl phosphonic acid with zirconium vinyl phosphonate have been synthesized via UV free radical polymerization from immiscible mixtures into amorphous, transparent, water stable, flexible membranes. Ion exchange capacities range from 6 to 10 meq/g corresponding to equivalent weights well below 200 g/mol. A 20wt% loading of the VZP co-monomer is XRD amorphous. It is shown that 1.5 of the 2 protons in the beginning acidic groups are dissociated in the 20wt% VZP loaded ionomer allowing these materials to have high proton conductivities, up to and exceeding 0.1 S cm^-1 at 80C and 80%RH. Water uptake measurementsshow very little swelling of the material below 70%RH and ca. 1 water per proton at low RH. Proton conductivity under dry conditions, roughly 0.05 S cm-1 with a lambda < 1, indicates that the material conducts protons under limiting hydration conditions and strongly implicates transport by a pure Grotthuss mechanism. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that zirconium vinyl phosphonate can, in fact, be dispersed and incorporated into a polymer to create new, hybrid organic-inorganic ionomers. High conductivities over 0.15 S/cm have been shown for multiple formulations of these ionomers, which is approaching conductivities that are comparable to liquid and molten phosphoric and phosphonic acids. Phosphonic acid functionalization yielded high proton conductivities, however the increased ionic character rendered the ionomer vulnerable to attack from water. Annealing provides a rise in conductivity at 150 degrees Celsius, but shows decreases after heating to 175 degrees Celsius, where the ionomer is obviously starting to degrade.

  20. Processing and properties of zirconium diboride-based composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Monteverde; A Bellosi; S Guicciardi

    2002-01-01

    Two zirconium diboride-base composites were produced and characterised. The chosen starting compositions were: 55 wt.% ZrB2+41 wt.%TiB2+4 wt.% Ni and 83 wt.% ZrB2+13 wt.% B4C+4 wt.% Ni. The microstructure and properties of these composites were compared to those of a monolithic ZrB2+4 wt.% Ni material. In all cases, metallic Ni as the sintering aid promoted the formation of the liquid

  1. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pena, Maria I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  2. Raj JainThe Ohio State University 97-0610 Performance97-0610 Performance

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    1 Raj JainThe Ohio State University 97-0610 Performance97-0610 Performance Management RequirementsManagement Requirements of ATM Networksof ATM Networks Suba Varadarajan, Raj Jain The Ohio State University Aditya Sehgal, Southwestern Bell Communications Contact: jain@cis.ohio-state.edu http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ #12

  3. TRASTORNOS DEL LENGUAJE REV NEUROL 2008; 46 (Supl 1): S97-S100 S97

    E-print Network

    Rosso, Paolo

    TRASTORNOS DEL LENGUAJE REV NEUROL 2008; 46 (Supl 1): S97-S100 S97 INTRODUCCIN En 1976 se produjo de esos trastornos. Hasta ese momento slo la fontica articulatoria intentaba explicarlos. Las malas con re- trasos y trastornos del lenguaje se explican en trminos de ra- lentizacin del calendario de

  4. Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert J.

    2014-08-01

    The optimization of zirconium-based alloys used for nuclear fuel cladding aims to reduce hydrogen pickup during operation, and the associated cladding degradation. The present study focuses on precisely and accurately measuring hydrogen pickup fraction for a set of alloys to specifically investigate the effects of alloying elements, microstructure and corrosion kinetics on hydrogen uptake. To measure hydrogen concentrations in zirconium alloys two techniques have been used: a destructive technique, Vacuum Hot Extraction, and a non-destructive one, Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. The results of both techniques show that hydrogen pickup fraction varies significantly with exposure time and between alloys. A possible interpretation of the results is that hydrogen pickup results from the need to balance charge. That is, the pickup of hydrogen shows an inverse relationship to oxidation kinetics, indicating that, if transport of charged species is rate limiting, oxide transport properties such as oxide electronic conductivity play a key role in the hydrogen pickup mechanism. Alloying elements (either in solid solution or in precipitates) would therefore impact the hydrogen pickup fraction by affecting charge transport.

  5. Dispersion type zirconium matrix fuels fabricated by capillary impregnation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A.; Konovalov, I.; Vatulin, A.; Morozov, A.; Orlov, V.; Uferov, O.; Ershov, S.; Laushkin, A.; Kulakov, G.; Maranchak, S.; Petrova, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Several novel dispersion fuel compositions with a high uranium content fuel (U9Mo, U5Zr5Nb, U 3Si) and a zirconium alloy matrix with low melting point (1063-1133 K) have been developed at A.A. Bochvar Institute using a capillary impregnation fabrication method. The capillary impregnation method introduces fuel granules and granules of a zirconium alloy into a fuel element followed by a short-term anneal at a temperature above the melting temperature of alloy. The alloy melts down and under capillary forces moves into the joints between the fuel element components to form metallurgical bonds. The volume ratios between the components are: 55-65% fuel, 10-20% matrix, and 15-30% pores. Fuel elements produced by capillary impregnation method have a high uranium content (9-10 g cm -3) and a high thermal conductivity (18-22 W m -1 K -1), which, when used as PWR or BWR fuels allow the fuel temperature to be lowered to 723-773 K. They also feature porosity to accommodate swelling. The metallurgical fuel-cladding bond makes the fuel elements serviceable in power transients. The primary advantages for PWR, BWR and CANDU use of these fuels elements, would be the high uranium content, low fuel temperature and serviceability under transient conditions. Consideration is given to their applicability in Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPP) as well as for the feasibility of burning civil and weapon grade plutonium.

  6. Wear Analysis in THA Utilizing Oxidized Zirconium and Crosslinked Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Kevin L.; Mangla, Jimmi; Murdoch, Nathan; Martell, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium, a material with a ceramic surface on a metal substrate, and highly cross-linked polyethylene are two materials developed to reduce wear. We measured in vivo femoral head penetration in patients with these advanced bearings. We hypothesized the linear wear rates would be lower than those published for cobalt-chrome and standard polyethylene. We retrospectively reviewed a select series of 56 THAs in a relatively young, active patient population utilizing oxidized zirconium femoral heads and highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular liners. Femoral head penetration was determined using the Martell computerized edge-detection method. All patients were available for 2-year clinical and radiographic followup. True linear wear was 4?m/year (95% confidence intervals,59?m/year). The early wear rates in this cohort of relatively young, active patients were low and we believe justify the continued study of these alternative bearing surfaces. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18946711

  7. Solidification of a Vacuum Arc-Remelted Zirconium Ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil-Baudard, Matthieu; Jardy, Alain; Combeau, Herv; Leclerc, Faustine; Rebeyrolle, Vronique

    2013-10-01

    As the quality of vacuum arc-remelted (VAR) zirconium ingots is directly linked to their chemical homogeneity and their metallurgical structure after solidification, it is important to predictively relate these factors to the operating conditions. Therefore, a detailed modeling study of the solidification process during VAR has been undertaken. To this purpose, the numerical macromodel SOLAR has been used. Assuming axisymmetrical geometry, this model is based on the solution of the coupled transient heat, momentum, and solute transport equations, under turbulent flow conditions during the remelting, hot-topping, and cooling of a cylindrical ingot. The actual operating parameters are defined as inputs for the model. Each of them, mainly the melting current sequence, melting rate sequence, and stirring parameters (current and period), is allowed to vary with time. Solidification mechanisms recently implemented in the model include a full coupling between energy and solute transport in the mushy zone. This modeling can be applied to actual multicomponent alloys. In this article, the macrosegregation induced by solidification in a zirconium alloy ingot is investigated. In order to validate the model results, a full-scale homogeneous Zy4 electrode has been remelted, and the resulted ingot has been analyzed. The model results show a general good agreement with the chemistry analyses, as soon as thermosolutal convection is accounted for to simulate accurately the interdendritic fluid flow in the central part of the ingot.

  8. Histopathological and microanalytical study of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in bone cement.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, C. E.; Philip, G.; Brady, K.; Spencer, J. D.; Levison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To report the appearances of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in interface membranes, synovium, and other tissues around joint prostheses. METHODS: Histological sections from 23 specimens were reviewed by light microscopy and polarisation. Scanning electron microscopy and x ray microanalysis were performed on routinely processed paraffin wax sections. RESULTS: Polyethylene, metals, and polymethylmethacrylate cement debris were easily recognisable. Almost all the cement remnants contained either zirconium dioxide or barium sulphate, confirmed by microanalysis. The contrast media had characteristic light microscopic appearances. Zirconium was identified in macrophages away from cement remnants. CONCLUSION: The presence of radiographic contrast media in tissues around prosthetic joints is common but not widely recognised. Images PMID:1452794

  9. Colorimetric determination of zirconium with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Ross, L E; Drabek, V M; Larsen, R P

    1969-06-01

    A method is described for the determination of as little as 50 ppm of zirconium in uranium-fission element alloys and zinc magnesium-uranium-fission element alloys. Zirconium is extracted from a nitric acid-aluminium nitrate medium with dibutyl phosphate in toluene. The uranium co-extracted with the zirconium is removed by scrubbing with hydrochloric acid-ammonium thiocyanate solution. A portion of the organic phase is mixed with pyridine-toluene solution of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol to develop the colour. PMID:18960573

  10. Herman Schmit October `97 Reconfigurable Computing

    E-print Network

    Budiu, Mihai

    October `97 Performance Algorithm FPGA system Comparison CPU Speedup DNA Matching SPLASH 2 SPARC 10 4300 75MHz 33.8 FIR filter 1 Xilinx FPGA DSP 50MHz 17.9 Hidden Markov Model 1 Xilinx FPGA SPARC 10 24(s) Reconfigurable Coprocessor(s) Data-flow dominatedControl-flow dominated Memory Superscalar w/ Reconfigurable

  11. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed

    E-print Network

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this research was to design, assemble, and demonstrate the initial performance of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) system capable of producing thin, uniform zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings (1 to 10 micrometers...

  12. Separation of Zirconium from Uranium in U-Zr Alloys Using a Chlorination Process

    E-print Network

    Parkison, Adam J

    2013-06-04

    The fundamental behavior underpinning a new processing concept was demonstrated which is capable of separating uranium from zirconium in U-Zr alloys through the formation and selective volatilization of their respective chlorides. Bench...

  13. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed

    E-print Network

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this research was to design, assemble, and demonstrate the initial performance of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) system capable of producing thin, uniform zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings (1 to 10 micrometers...

  14. Separation of Zirconium from Uranium in U-Zr Alloys Using a Chlorination Process

    E-print Network

    Parkison, Adam J

    2013-06-04

    The fundamental behavior underpinning a new processing concept was demonstrated which is capable of separating uranium from zirconium in U-Zr alloys through the formation and selective volatilization of their respective chlorides. Bench...

  15. Methods for Investigating Gas Bubble Formation in Uranium-Zirconium Alloys

    E-print Network

    Mews, Kathryn Ann Wright

    2013-05-06

    Uranium-zirconium alloy nuclear fuels have many advantages as compared with ceramic fuels, especially for fast reactor systems. However, metallic fuels arent currently used in commercial power production due in part to issues with fuel swelling...

  16. Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors

    E-print Network

    Hausaman, Jeffrey Stephen

    2012-02-14

    ; initial trials demonstrated significant losses during the casting process. A low temperature hot extrusion process was explored as a potential method to fabricate uranium-zirconium fuel alloys containing the TRU isotopes. The advantage of extrusion...

  17. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products 700.16 Use of aerosol...

  18. Effects of cold work and niobium on the blistering of zirconium by helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, R. H.; Watters, J. F.

    1984-05-01

    Zr-2.5 wt% Nb and high purity zirconium, in either the fully annealed or 40% cold-worked conditions, were irradiated with 50 keV helium ions at temperatures between 100 K and 773 K to doses up to 2 10 22 ions/m 2. Above 300 K, blisters were not observed in annealed zirconium whereas at lower temperatures, extensive surface damage was produced. In Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, blisters were found in both the annealed and cold-worked alloys at all temperatures. The blistering behaviour in zirconium is related to the trapping of the implanted helium ions and the mechanical properties of these materials. Two zirconium single crystals were irradiated at 573 K and 773 K for comparison. Extensive blistering was observed in both single crystals even though no surface damage was found in the polycrystalline material irradiated under the same conditions.

  19. Formation of Tetrafluorobenzyne by -Fluoride Elimination in Zirconium-Perfluorophenyl Complexes

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    5)F.4,5 In the zirconium system, some of the tetrafluorobenzyne was trapped using durene to give a Diels-Alder adduct. In the absence of durene, tetrafluorobenzyne formed adducts with the THF solvent.5

  20. Evaluation of zirconium-iron-rhenium alloys as surrogates for a technetium alloy waste form

    E-print Network

    Mews, Paul Aaron

    2009-05-15

    wt% Re, 3) a rhenium-zirconium intermetallic, 4) another Fe-Zr intermetallic with very little Re, and 5) a Fe-Re intermetallic. Potentiostatic and potentiodynamic electrochemical tests were performed using sulfuric acid to evaluate the corrosion...

  1. Synthesis of zirconium carbide from zircon concentrates in a thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, E.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Manrique, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Ultrafine zirconium carbide powder has been synthesized using zircon concentrate and methane in a thermal plasma reactor. The effect of several experimental variables, such as power used and zircon particle size, on the conversion has been studied. A thermodynamic analysis of the possible reactions and stable compounds was performed. A mathematical model that describes the in-flight decomposition of zircon particles was developed based on a description of the temperature and velocity profiles calculated in the reactor. It was shown that the formation of zirconium carbide from zircon and methane is thermodynamically possible. Complete vaporization of zircon in the reactor is predicted when the particle size is below 45 {micro}m and the effective power entering the reactor is 15 kW. The powders were collected and characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and chemical analysis using ICP. Results of the product analysis indicated the presence of zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, silicon carbide and silicon oxide.

  2. Mo-98(p,d)mo-97 Reaction and Core Coupling in Mo-97 and Nb-97

    E-print Network

    Bindal, P. K.; Youngblood, David H.; Kozub, R. L.; Hoffmannpinther, P. H.

    1975-01-01

    observed. The I 1 1 I I 2.875 MeV S=l Mo(~, d) Mo 3.260 MeV?' e=l "Mo(p, d) "Mo O.I 'd~ IdQ, 6 b ~ Sf') 3.004 MeV 3.052 MeV: X=I 0.1 1.0 O. l O. i 0.1 i 3.345 MeV = e=l .406 MeV: A=4 3.519 MeV Sr e ~ e~sg Q YI 01 e xfL~ 3... REACTIONS, NUCLEAR STRUCTURE ' Mo(P, d), E=3S.6 Mev; measured o'(&), 97Mo levels; deduced l, S; calculated J, 7(', S, particle-core- coupling model, Q for 9 Mo (2+) and 9 Mo (g.s.), &{E2), &(M1) for 97Mo, ~Nb. I. INTRODUCTION Recently we have studied...

  3. The manufacturing of zirconium metal powder by means of a high temperature plasma process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Havenga; J. T. Nel

    2010-01-01

    Summary form only given. The most general application for high purity zirconium metal alloys is for cladding material for nuclear fuel assemblies in nuclear power plants. A process was developed to manufacture zirconium metal powder from ZrCl4 or ZrF4 with a high temperature DC non - transfer arc plasma. Mg or Ca metal was used as reductant. The reactants were

  4. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM ALLOYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. ed

    1959-01-01

    Data from a survey of the literature and other available information on ;\\u000a zirconium--uranium alloys have been reviewed for the purpose of obtaining a ;\\u000a coherent picture of current knowledge about the properties and behavior of ;\\u000a zirconium--uranium alloys. The results of the survey were used to revise and ;\\u000a extend the presentation of material gathered earlier in a similar

  5. Actinide partitioning studies using dihexyl-N,N-diethycarbamolymehtyl phosphonate and dissolved zirconium calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Garn, T.G.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    A baseline flowsheet capable of partitioning the transuranic (TRU) elements from dissolved zirconium calcines has been developed. The goal of the TRU partitioning process is to remove the TRUs from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcines to below the 10 CFR 61.55 Class A waste limit of 10 nCi/g. Extraction, scrub, strip, and wash distribution coefficients for several elements, including the actinides, were measured in the laboratory by performing equal volume batch contacts. A solvent containing diheyl-N, N- diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate (CMP), tributylphosphate (TBP), and a branched chain hydrocarbon as the diluent were used to develop this process. A non-radioactive zirconium pilot-plant calcine was spiked with the TRUs, U, Tc, or a radioactive isotope of zirconium to simulate the behavior of these elements in actual dissolved zirconium calcine feed. Distribution coefficient data obtained from laboratory testing were used to recommend: (1) solvent composition, (2) scrub solutions capable of selectively removing extracted zirconium while minimizing actinide recycle, (3) optimized strip solutions which quantitatively recover extracted actinides, and (4) feed adjustments necessary for flowsheet efficiency. Laboratory distribution coefficients were used in conjunction with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to develop and recommend a flowsheet for testing in the 5.5-cm Centrifugal Contractor Mockup. GTM results indicate that the recommended flowsheet should remove the actinides from dissolved zirconium calcine feed to below the Class A waste limit of 10 nCi/g. Less than 0.01 wt% of the extracted zirconium will report to the high- activity waste (HAW) fraction using the 0.05 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} in 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} scrub, and greater than 99% of the extracted actinides are recovered with 0.001 M HEDPA.

  6. Atomic Diffusion in the Uranium-50wt% Zirconium Nuclear Fuel System

    E-print Network

    Eichel, Daniel

    2013-06-17

    ATOMIC DIFFUSION IN THE URANIUM-50WT% ZIRCONIUM NUCLEAR FUEL SYSTEM A Thesis by DANIEL R. EICHEL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... design concept. Image courtesy Lightbridge Corporation. ............................................... 2 Figure 2: Phase diagram for the binary zirconium-uranium system, showing the existence of the ? phase below 600?C for alloy compositions...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of novel aramid-zirconium oxide micro-composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. U. Rehman; M. I. Sarwar; Z. Ahmad; H. Krug; H. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    New micro-composites containing different proportions of zirconium oxide in aromatic polyamide have been prepared via a sol-gel process. Poly(phenyleneterephthalamide) chains with carbonyl chloride end groups were synthesized by reacting a mixture of p- and m-phenylene diamines with terephthaloyl chloride. The chain ends were endcapped with aminophenyltrimethoxysilane. Appropriate amount of zirconium propoxide solution (82.3 wt.%) in propanol was mixed in the

  8. Separation of Zirconium by Extraction Chromatography with Amberlite LA1 from Malonic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash Narayanan; S. M. Khopkar

    1985-01-01

    Zirconium was separated by extraction chromatography with Amberlite LA-l as an extractant from 1 10 M to 2.5 to 10 M of malonic acid at pH 2.0 to 6.0. It was stripped with various mineral acids and determined spectro-photometrically with arsenazo-III at 665 nm. Zirconium was separated from alkali, alkaline earths, yttrium, lanthanum, chromium(III), manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc,

  9. Efficient UV-Emitting X-Ray Phosphors: Potassium Hafnium-Zirconium Phosphates

    E-print Network

    Li, Jing

    Efficient UV-Emitting X-Ray Phosphors: Potassium Hafnium-Zirconium Phosphates K2Hf1-xZrx(PO4 Abstract Potassium hafnium-zirconium phosphates, K2Hf1-xZrx(PO4)2 and KHf2(1-x)Zr2x(PO4)3 are broad-band UV.e., those with emission less than 400 nm). Attention was given to hafnium-oxide based phosphors because HfO2

  10. Studies on adsorption of formaldehyde in zirconium phosphate-glyphosates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuejuan; Yi, Jianjun; Xu, Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work [22], a kind of layered compound of zirconium phosphate-glyphosate (ZrGP) was synthesized. Its large surface area (445 m 2/g) indicates this compound has possible application in adsorptions. In this paper, adsorption to formaldehyde in ZrGP and mechanisms of the adsorption were studied carefully. Balance time of adsorption (about 6 h) and largest adsorbed amount (7.8%) were found when adsorption temperature was at 40 C and pH value of adsorption environment was about 3.0. H-bonds were found existing between molecules of formaldehyde and ZrGP, and formaldehyde molecules could exist in ZrGP stably.

  11. Improved tribology of tool steel by zirconium ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbas, N.; Oztarhan, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-02-01

    AISI D3 tool steel was ion implanted with zirconium and the improvement in surface tribological properties investigated. The Zr ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc broad-beam ion source, with a mean ion energy of 130 keV and at doses of 3.6 x 10(sup 16), 5 x 10(sup 16) and 1 x 10(sup 17) ions/cm2. Wear, friction and hardness of the implanted samples were measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted steel. The wear resistance was increased by about a factor of two, the friction remained about the same or was possibly increased by a small amount, and the hardness was improved by a factor of five or more by the ion implantation. We also investigated the effect on the Zr implantation profile of the multi-component energy distribution of the ion beam used here.

  12. Titanium-Zirconium-Nickel Alloy Inside Marshall's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a close-up of a sample of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy inside the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber allowing scientists to record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. Once inside the chamber, a laser heats the sample until it melts. The laser is then turned off and the sample cools, changing from a liquid drop to a solid sphere. Since 1977, the ESL has been used at MSFC to study the characteristics of new metals, ceramics, and glass compounds. Materials created as a result of these tests include new optical materials, special metallic glasses, and spacecraft components.

  13. Titanium-Zirconium-Nickel Alloy Inside Marshall's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This Photo, which appeared on the July cover of `Physics Today', is of the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber allowing scientists to record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. Once inside the chamber, a laser heats the sample until it melts. The laser is then turned off and the sample cools, changing from a liquid drop to a solid sphere. In this particular shot, the ESL contains a solid metal sample of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy. Since 1977, the ESL has been used at MSFC to study the characteristics of new metals, ceramics, and glass compounds. Materials created as a result of these tests include new optical materials, special metallic glasses, and spacecraft components.

  14. Wear resistant zirconium base alloy article for water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, J.E.; Shockling, L.A.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1988-03-01

    In a water reactor operating environment, the combination having improved fretting wear resistance is described comprising: an elongated tubular water displacer rod; having a low neutron absorption cross section guide support plates distributed along the length of the water displacer rod; the water displacer rod intersecting the guide support plates through apertures in the guide support plates; the water displacer rod having a plurality of spaced apart annular electrospark deposited coatings, each coating facing the wall of a respective aperture, the electrospark deposited coatings comprising Cr/sub 2/C/sub 3/; wherein the water displacer rod has a tube wall composed of a zirconium base alloy; and wherein the guide support plates are composed of a stainless steel alloy.

  15. Neutron capture by (94,96)Zr and the decays of (97)Zr and (97)Nb.

    PubMed

    Krane, K S

    2014-12-01

    Cross sections for radiative neutron capture have been determined for (94)Zr and (96)Zr using the activation technique with samples of naturally occurring Zr metal. The sensitivity to the correction for epithermal neutrons in the determination of small thermal cross sections is discussed, particularly in view of the variation in the resonance integral at different sites in the reactor. Gamma-ray spectroscopic studies of the decays of (97)Zr and its daughter (97)Nb have been performed, leading to improved values of the energies and intensities of the emitted ? rays, and correspondingly improved values for the energy levels and ? feedings of excited states populated in (97)Nb and (97)Mo. PMID:25103250

  16. Zirconium Copper - a New Material for Use at Low Temperatures?

    SciTech Connect

    Woodcraft, Adam L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-07

    Cryogenic instruments usually require components with high thermal conductivity. Pure (non alloyed) copper offers very high conductivity, but is soft and not thus always suitable structurally. High conductivity beryllium copper (BeCu) alloys are a common choice when copper is unsuitable since they offer a good compromise between hardness and thermal conductivity. These alloys contain a small (<1%) amount of beryllium (along with a few percent of nickel or cobalt), with strength being obtained by precipitation hardening. An alternative precipitation hardened copper alloy is C15000 zirconium copper (ZrCu), which contains < 0.2% zirconium with the remainder being copper. This material does not seem to be generally used in cryogenic systems, though hardness and strength are comparable to BeCu. Moreover, the lower impurity content suggests that the thermal conductivity should be higher than for BeCu. I present residual resistivity measurements suggesting that ZrCu does indeed possess considerably higher conductivity than BeCu (19 Wm-1K-1 at 1 K compared to approximately 2 Wm-1K-1), and should therefore be a very useful material. A method is given for extrapolating the low temperature thermal conductivity values to temperatures up to 300 K; good agreement is seen with room temperature data-sheet values. This extrapolation method is shown to also be applicable to BeCu and thus presumably other dilute copper alloys, and is used to give recommended values for coin silver and various BeCu alloy types, including C17510 and C17200.

  17. Raj JainThe Ohio State University 97-0613:97-0613

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    1 Raj JainThe Ohio State University 97-0613:97-0613: Modifications to Sections 3.3Modifications, The Ohio State University Contact: Jain@cis.ohio-state.edu http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ #12;2 Raj JainThe Ohio State University q Section 3.3: Throughput fairness q Section 3.4: Frame loss ratio q

  18. Factors affecting the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of zirconium in 90% nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    U-bend, C-ring, and slow strain-rate tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of texture, stress, surface conditions, heat treatment, electrochemical potential, and strain rate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium in 90% nitric acid at room temperatures. It has been shown that careful control of texture, surface condition (scratching, cleaning and oxide coating), and/or applied stress can effectively lead to the prevention of SCC of zirconium in 90% HNO/sub 3/. Heat treating at 760/sup 0/C, 880/sup 0/C, or 1000/sup 0/C does not seem to improve the SCC resistance. However, if the potential of zirconium is maintained at 500 mV/sub SCE/ or lower, or 200 ppm of HF is added, zirconium's SCC susceptibility in 90% HNO/sub 3/ is eliminated. In the case of adding HF, zirconium sponge must also be added in order to avoid high corrosion rates. The mechanism for SCC of zirconium in 90% HNO/sub 3/ appears to be stress assisted local anodic dissolution, since the highest susceptibility is observed at strain rate = 7.5 x 10/sup -7//sec, and, at a higher or lower strain rate the susceptibility decreases. There is additional evidence to support this mechanism.

  19. Preparation of porous resin loaded with crystalline hydrous zirconium oxide and its application to the removal of arsenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshishige M. Suzuki; John O. Bomani; Hideyuki Matsunaga; Toshiro Yokoyama

    2000-01-01

    A porous resin loaded with monoclinic or cubic hydrous zirconium oxide was prepared by incorporation of ZrOCl28H2O into porous spherical polymer beads followed by hydrolysis and hydrothermal treatment of the zirconium salt. Hydrous zirconium oxide appeared to deposit inside the pores with relatively large diameter. The adsorption capacity and distribution coefficients for As(III) and As(V) were determined by batch procedures.

  20. Synthetic environment technologies in STOW 97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jeffrey T.; Koklauner, Karl

    1997-10-01

    The synthetic theater of war (STOW) is the major application of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) thrust in advanced distributed simulation (ADS). The STOW Program focuses on an advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) termed STOW 97 sponsored by DARPA with the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM). The successful implementation of STOW 97 technologies in November 1997 with the United Endeavor 98-1 exercise will mark the full operational capacity of the USACOM Joint Training, Analysis and Simulation Center. To support ADS applications up to the Joint Task Force level, STOW seeks to develop and demonstrate technologies enabling the integration of war-fighting through virtual and constructive simulations from geographically distributed locations in a common synthetic battlespace.

  1. Preparation of zirconium oxy ion-imprinted particle for the selective separation of trace zirconium ion from water.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yueming; Liu, Pingxin; Liu, Xiaoli; Feng, Jing; Fan, Zhuangjun; Luan, Tianzhu

    2014-10-01

    Zr(IV) oxy ion-imprinted particle (Zr-IIP) was prepared using the metal ion imprinting technique in a sol-gel process on the surface of amino-silica. The dosages of zirconium ions as imprinted target, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) as a functional monomer and teraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a cross-linker were optimized. The prepared Zr-IIP and Zr(IV) oxy ion non-imprinted particle (Zr-NIP) were characterized. pH effect, binding ability and the selectivity were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Zr-IIP had an excellent binding capacity and selectivity in the water. The equilibrium data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir model for Zr(IV) binding onto Zr-IIP, respectively. The saturate binding capacity of Zr-IIP was found to be 196.08 ?mol g(-1), which was 18 times higher than that of Zr-NIP. The sequence of binding efficiency of Zr-IIP for various ions was Zr(IV)>Cu(II)>Sb(III)>Eu(III). The coordination number has an important effect on the dimensional binding capacity. The equilibrium binding capacity of Zr-IIP for Zr(IV) decreased little under various concentrations of Pb(II) ions. The analysis of relative selectivity coefficient (Kr) indicated that the Zr-IIP had an appreciable binding specificity towards Zr(IV) although the competitive ions coexisted in the water. The Zr-IIP could serve as an efficient selective material for recovering or removing zirconium from the water environment. PMID:25004058

  2. New cholescintigraphic agent: ruthenium-97-DISIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G,E.; Robeson, W.; Mausner, L.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Margouleff, D.

    1986-06-01

    These studies demonstrate the first application of Ru-97-DISIDA in human subjects. High quality images were obtained. Scintigraphic findings in patients with hepatobiliary disorders were consistent with the biodistribution data obtained in experinmental animals and with other imaging procedures and clinical findings. Administration of Ru-97-DISIDA I.V. and of a solid test meal labeled with Tc-99m-Sulfur Colloid allowed simulateneous detection and quantification of deodenogastric reflux and determination of the gastric emptying rate. This represents an advantage as compared to the currently used techniques which necessitate two separate studies if a solid meal is used, or would mandate a liquid meal for a simultaneous study. The excellent nuclear decay characteristics of Ru-97 (tl/2 69.6 h, gamma 216 keV, 86%, no betas) permit delayed study of the hepatobiliary system with considerably less radiation exposure than I-131 Rose Bengal and with a marked improvement in image quality. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Zirconium(IV) chloride catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1 H)-ones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Venkateshwar Reddy; M Mahesh; P. V. K Raju; T. Ramesh Babu; V. V. Narayana Reddy

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium tetrachloride catalyzes efficiently the three component condensation reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, a ?-ketoester and urea in refluxing ethanol to afford the corresponding dihydropyrimidinone in high yield.

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-13 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 97.37-13 Section...OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-13 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  7. 40 CFR 97.72 - Out of control periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Out of control periods. 97.72 Section...NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting 97.72 Out of control periods. (a) Whenever any emission monitoring system fails to meet...

  8. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401...Procedures 401.97 Closing procedures and ice navigation. (a) No wintering vessel...the nearest Seaway station. (f) Where ice conditions restrict navigation,...

  9. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401...Procedures 401.97 Closing procedures and ice navigation. (a) No wintering vessel...the nearest Seaway station. (f) Where ice conditions restrict navigation,...

  10. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401...Procedures 401.97 Closing procedures and ice navigation. (a) No wintering vessel...the nearest Seaway station. (f) Where ice conditions restrict navigation,...

  11. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401...Procedures 401.97 Closing procedures and ice navigation. (a) No wintering vessel...the nearest Seaway station. (f) Where ice conditions restrict navigation,...

  12. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401...Procedures 401.97 Closing procedures and ice navigation. (a) No wintering vessel...the nearest Seaway station. (f) Where ice conditions restrict navigation,...

  13. 40 CFR 97.357 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.357...and 97.361 for any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances in the account to one or more other CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System...

  14. 40 CFR 97.357 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System 97.357...and 97.361 for any CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances in the account to one or more other CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System...

  15. 7 CFR 97.400 - Extensions of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Extensions of time. 97.400...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...Proceedings 97.400 Extensions of time. Upon a showing of good cause, extensions of time not...

  16. 24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

  17. 24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

  18. 24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

  19. 24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

  20. 24 CFR 200.97 - Adjustments resulting from cost certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Adjustments resulting from cost certification. 200.97 Section 200...Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification 200.97 Adjustments resulting from cost certification. (a) Fee simple...

  1. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  2. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  3. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  4. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  5. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  6. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  7. 46 CFR 56.97-40 - Installation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Installation tests. 56.97-40 Section 56...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests 56.97-40 Installation tests. (a) The...

  8. 46 CFR 56.97-40 - Installation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Installation tests. 56.97-40 Section 56...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests 56.97-40 Installation tests. (a) The...

  9. 46 CFR 56.97-40 - Installation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Installation tests. 56.97-40 Section 56...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests 56.97-40 Installation tests. (a) The...

  10. 46 CFR 56.97-40 - Installation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Installation tests. 56.97-40 Section 56...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests 56.97-40 Installation tests. (a) The...

  11. 46 CFR 56.97-40 - Installation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Installation tests. 56.97-40 Section 56...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests 56.97-40 Installation tests. (a) The...

  12. 47 CFR 97.305 - Authorized emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Authorized emission types. 97.305 Section 97.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...305 Authorized emission types. (a) Except as specified...transmit the following emission types on the frequencies...

  13. 47 CFR 97.305 - Authorized emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Authorized emission types. 97.305 Section 97.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...305 Authorized emission types. (a) Except as specified...transmit the following emission types on the frequencies...

  14. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  15. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  16. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  17. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  18. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  19. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  20. 40 CFR 97.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. 97.53 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  1. 40 CFR 97.60 - Submission of NOX allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of NOX allowance transfers. 97.60 Section 97.60...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  2. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42 Section 97...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance...

  3. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. 18.97...Equipment 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in 18.95, all machines approved under the...

  4. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. 18.97...Equipment 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in 18.95, all machines approved under the...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47...Equipment, Etc. 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least...

  10. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97...of Certificate 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an owner elects...variety name only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued...

  11. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97...of Certificate 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an owner elects...variety name only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued...

  12. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 ...Labeling Provisions 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by...

  13. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97...of Certificate 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an owner elects...variety name only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued...

  14. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97...of Certificate 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an owner elects...variety name only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued...

  15. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 ...Labeling Provisions 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by...

  16. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97...of Certificate 97.122 Certified seed only election. When an owner elects...variety name only as a class of certified seed, a new certificate may be issued...

  17. 7 CFR 97.143 - Certified seed only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed only. 97.143 Section 97.143 ...Labeling Provisions 97.143 Certified seed only. (a) Upon filing an application, or amendment thereto, specifying seed of the variety is to be sold by...

  18. 46 CFR 97.15-20 - Hatches and other openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Hatches and other openings. 97.15-20 Section 97.15-20... 97.15-20 Hatches and other openings. (a)(1) With the exception...that all exposed cargo hatches and other openings in the hull of his vessel are...

  19. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine. 26.97 Section 26.97 Alcohol, Tobacco...Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto Rican...

  20. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97...VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the...be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board,...

  1. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97...VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the...be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board,...

  2. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97...VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the...be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board,...

  3. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97...VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the...be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board,...

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97...VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the...be made of each supply of fuel oil received on board,...

  5. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

  6. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

  7. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

  8. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

  9. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11 Section 97...Provisions 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the...

  10. Tank 241-S-302 grab samples 302S-97-1, 302S-97-2 and 302S-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diaz

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-S-302 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected on January 30, 1998. Analyses were performed on samples 302-S-97-1, 302-S-97-2 and 302-S-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey, 1997). The analytical results are

  11. Cesium Adsorption on the ZIRCONIUM/OXYGEN/TUNGSTEN(100) Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiung-Ku.

    Interest in zirconium covered tungsten as an electrode material has been stimulated by recent work on the model surface Zr/O/W(100). This surface has been shown to have an effective thermionic work function of (TURN) 2.6 eV, when properly prepared, with very low volatility and excellent thermal stability. For advanced thermionic converter applications and for proposed future nuclear electric propulsion systems, the emitter requirement is (phi)(,eff) (LESSTHEQ) 2.4 eV at 1600 K. The corresponding collector must have a work function <(, )1.4 eV at (TURN) 600 K. For any electrode materials yet studied, these requirements dictate the presence of an equilibrium pressure of cesium vapor. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of cesium in the Zr/O/W(100) surface and the effect of cesium coverage on the surface work function have been studied, using Auger electron spectrometry (AES), field emission retarding potential work function measurements (FERP) and thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDS). The minimum work function attained for cesium adsorption on the Zr/O/W(100) surface was 2.12 eV. The desorption spectrum of cesium from this surface shows major binding states at 1.1 and 1.3 eV, with desorption complete at T (LESSTHEQ) 900 K. Adsorption of excess oxygen on the low work function Zr/O/W(100) surface increases the affinity of the surface toward cesium and lowers the minimum work function. Cesium adsorbed on a saturated layer of excess oxygen shows a terminal desorption temperature of 1300 K and minimum work function of 1.37 eV. Thermal equilibrium of the excess oxygen removes some oxygen and zirconium from the surface, changing the cesium adsorption characteristics. Measurement of low energy electron reflection from the Zr/O/W(100) surface with and without adsorbed cesium indicates that the presence of cesium reduces the reflection coefficient of Zr/O/W(100) near the threshold beam potential for current collection. Two adsorption sites for Cs adsorption on clear W(100) were found in the thermal desorption spectra. The Cs/W(100) bonding is stronger than the bonding of Cs on Zr/O/W(100) surface.

  12. MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D.G. Westlake and A.E. Dwight*

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D. Introduction.- Zirconium metal forms two stable hydrides, 6 and e (Fig. 1), which have vastly diffe- rent such a study of Er3+ impurities in &- and e- phase zirconium hydrides. 2. Experimental methods and results

  13. DIFFUSION ELASTIQUE D'ELECTRONS SUR LE ZIRCONIUM-90 ET LE MOLYBDENE-92 Phan Xuan Ho, J.B. Bellicard, A. Bussire, Ph. Leconte et M. Priou

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    DIFFUSION ELASTIQUE D'ELECTRONS SUR LE ZIRCONIUM-90 ET LE MOLYBDENE-92 Phan Xuan Ho, J.B. Bellicard-sur-Yvette, France. Rs&.- La diffusion lastique d'lectrons sur le zirconium-90 et le molybdne-92 a t mesure gaussien parabolique comme distribution de charge. Pour le zirconium- 90, nous comparons ce modle aux

  14. Emulsions stabilized by precipitates of zirconium and tributyl phosphate degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Sugai, H.; Munakata, K. (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Tokai Research Center 2600, Ishigamitojuku, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP)); Miyachi, S.; Yasu, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai Works Reprocessing Plant, Analysis Section, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP))

    1992-05-01

    In the Purex process, a solvent extraction method of nuclear fuel reprocessing, a stable emulsion called crud forms at the interface between the oil and water phases. This paper reports that crud is an emulsion stabilized by finely dispersed solids. Insoluble residues and precipitates of zirconium and radiation-degraded products of tributyl phosphate (TBP) are key materials in crud formation. Cruds formed by precipitates of zirconium and TBP degradation products, such as di-n-butyl phosphate (HDBP), mono-n-butyl phosphate (H{sub 2}MBP), and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) are studied. Experimental results show that the precipitate of zirconium and HDBP is not effective in stabilizing emulsions. However, the refractory complex of zirconium and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is an important material for stabilizing an oil-in-water emulsion in a solution with or without uranium. Moreover, it is shown that the complex of zirconium and H{sub 2}MBP has a significant role in stabilizing a water-in-oil emulsion, especially when uranium is also present.

  15. Investigation of zirconium oxynitride thin films deposited by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Abd El-Rahman, A. M.; Ahmed, Mahrous R.

    2007-11-01

    Zirconium oxynitride films were deposited onto glass and Si (1 0 0) substrates at room temperature by pulsed reactive dc magnetron sputtering of a metallic Zr target in an Ar/O2/N2 atmosphere. The structural, compositional and optical properties of the deposited films were found to depend on the ratio of nitrogen partial pressure to the total reactive gas partial pressure. Morphology investigation by atomic force microscopy showed that most of the zirconium oxynitride coatings have smooth surfaces (average roughness 2.5 nm). X-ray diffraction measurements revealed a change from the monoclinic zirconium oxide phase to the orthorhombic, and then a change to the cubic zirconium nitride phase upon changing the nitrogen content in the films. Optical properties of zirconium oxynitride films were analysed by a spectrophotometer and computer simulations. The calculated refractive index of transparent and semi-transparent films was found to be in the range 2.05-4.73 (at 650 nm). The optical band gap changed from 3.67 to 1.59 eV with changing nitrogen content. This study allows the elaboration process optimization and then the control of the film composition and properties, which is very interesting for a technological transfer.

  16. Surface modification of biomedical AISI 316L stainless steel with zirconium carbonitride coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Zhao, X.; Ding, M. H.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, H. S.; Zhang, B.; Li, X. Q.; Wu, G. Y.

    2015-06-01

    In the paper, by using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering method, a zirconium carbonitride coating was produced on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. The influence of substrate temperature (Ts) on microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility were then investigated. XRD and TEM results revealed that the zirconium carbonitride coatings were almost amorphous when Ts was below 400C, while nanostructured Zr2CN was formed at Ts of 400 C. The nanocrystalline formation resulted in a significant increase in the nanohardness of zirconium carbonitride coatings from 17 GPa to over 32 GPa. Electrochemical testing showed that the stable zirconium carbonitride coating had improved the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel substrate material. The characterization of platelet adhesion indicated that the zirconium carbonitride coatings presented better hemocompatibility when Ts varied from 25 C to more than 200 C, which may be due to the lower surface roughness, interfacial tension and the rate ?sd /?sp , where ?sd and ?sp are the disperse component and polar component of the surface, respectively.

  17. Pulsed single-mode laser ionization of hyperfine levels of zirconium-91

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.A.; Morrison, H.D.; Bourne, O.L.; Simard, B.; Rayner, D.M.

    1988-12-01

    We identify a considerable improvement in proposed schemes for isotopic depletion of zirconium-91 on the basis of the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) method. The improvement lies in applying a single-longitudinal-mode dye laser for selective excitation of all hyperfine split levels of the ground state of zirconium-91. High-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic beams of zirconium produced through laser vaporization--supersonic expansion has been used to identify transitions of zirconium with suitable hyperfine structure. Casimir magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole coupling constants and isotope shifts have been derived and are reported for five excited configurations. Suitable intermediate levels in a multistep resonance ionization pathway have been identified by two-color resonance ionization spectroscopy. Isotope depletion has been demonstrated on one ground state transition (z /sup 3/F/sup circle-open//sub 3/ left-arrowa /sup 3/F/sub 2/ at 593.7 nm) by using a specially constructed pulsed, single-longitudinal-mode dye-laser oscillator. Prospects and future directions in zirconium AVLIS are discussed.

  18. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  19. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    PubMed

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, Mara R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Cer, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments. PMID:24170339

  20. Synthesis of zirconium tungstate-zirconia core-shell composite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Khazeni, Nasser, E-mail: khazeni.n@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)] [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Mavis, Bora, E-mail: bmavis@hacettepe.edu.tr [Mechanical Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Ankara 06800 (Turkey)] [Mechanical Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Guenduez, Guengoer, E-mail: ggunduz@metu.edu.tr [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)] [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Colak, Uner, E-mail: ucolak@hacettepe.edu.tr [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Ankara 06800 (Turkey)] [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}-ZrO{sub 2} core-shell particles to offer solutions for sintering problems. {yields} Core synthesis by a precursor based on tungstic acid and zirconium acetate. {yields} Shell phase by urea hydrolysis in the presence of zirconium ions. {yields} [Urea]/[ZrOCl{sub 2}] ratio controls the rate of shell precursor precipitation. -- Abstract: In this work, ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}-ZrO{sub 2} core-shell composite particles were synthesized. ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} that was used in the core is a material with negative coefficient of thermal expansion, and it was synthesized from a high-pH precursor based on use of tungstic acid and zirconium acetate. Shell layer was composed of ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystallites and precipitated from an aqueous solution by urea hydrolysis. While volume of the shell was effectively controlled by the initial zirconium ion concentration in the solutions, the rate of precipitation was a function of the ratio of initial concentrations of urea to zirconium ions. It is hypothesized that isolation of the ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} within a layer of ZrO{sub 2}, will be a key element in solving problems associated with reactivity of ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} towards other components in sintering of ceramic-ceramic composites with tuned or zero thermal expansion coefficient.

  1. Simulated knee wear with cobalt chromium and oxidized zirconium knee femoral components.

    PubMed

    White, S E; Whiteside, L A; McCarthy, D S; Anthony, M; Poggie, R A

    1994-12-01

    A knee simulator that mimics the plowing/rolling wear mechanisms of the knee was used to compare wear properties of cobalt chromium and oxidized zirconium femoral components. The simulator flexes and extends the knee so that the femoral components travels from 0 degrees to 30 degrees while applying axial loads from 130 to 1300 lb. Three oxidized zirconium and 3 cobalt chromium femoral components were tested with 10-mm tibial polyethylene components. The oxidized zirconium femoral components caused significantly less ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear than cobalt chromium femoral components. Tibial inserts that were articulated against the cobalt chromium components had evidence of scratching, burnishing, and delamination, but none of the surfaces that were articulated against oxidized zirconium components had evidence of delamination. Cobalt chromium surface roughness significantly increased during the 2,000,000 cycle test, but oxidized zirconium surface roughness was not affected. Polyethylene wear was correlated to a significant degree with the surface roughness of the femoral components. The improved wear characteristics of the ceramic articular surfaces can be explained by the wettability of the ceramic surface, which minimized adhesive wear, and the resistance of the hard, ceramic surface to roughening. PMID:7994957

  2. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz

    1996-04-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of {sup 137}Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes.

  3. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ZIRCALOY-4 SUBSTRATES WITH NICKEL ZIRCONIUM INTERMETALLICS

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Gilbert, Edgar R.; Pitman, Stan G.; Love, Edward F.

    2013-02-01

    Surfaces of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) substrates were modified with nickel-zirconium (NiZr) intermetallics to tailor oxidation performance for specialized applications. Surface modification was achieved by electroplating Zr-4 substrates with nickel (Ni) and then performing thermal treatments to fully react the Ni plating with the substrates, which resulted in a coating of NiZr intermetallics on the substrate surfaces. Both plating thickness and thermal treatment were evaluated to determine the effects of these fabrication parameters on oxidation performance and to identify an optimal surface modification process. Isothermal oxidation tests were performed on surface-modified materials at 290, 330, and 370C under a constant partial pressure of oxidant (i.e., 1 kPa D2O in dry Ar at 101 kPa) for 64 days. Test results revealed an enhanced, transient oxidation rate that decreased asymptotically toward the rate of the Zr-4 substrate. Oxidation kinetics were analyzed from isothermal weight gain data, which were correlated with microstructure, hydrogen pickup, strength, and hardness.

  4. Study of a zirconium getter for purification of xenon gas

    E-print Network

    Dobi, A; Hall, C; Kaufman, L; Langford, T; Slutsky, S; Yen, Y R

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen, nitrogen and methane purification efficiencies for a common zirconium getter are measured in 1050 Torr of xenon gas. Starting with impurity concentrations near 10^{-6} g/g, the outlet impurity level is found to be less than 120*10^{-12} g/g for O2 and less than 950*10^{-12} g/g for N2. For methane we find residual contamination of the purified gas at concentrations varying over three orders of magnitude, depending on the purifier temperature and the gas flow rate. A slight reduction in the purifier's methane efficiency is observed after 13 mg of this impurity has been absorbed, which we attribute to partial exhaustion of the purifier's capacity for this species. We also find that the purifier's ability to absorb N2 and methane can be extinguished long before any decrease in O2 performance is observed, and slower flow rates should be employed for xenon purification due to the cooling effect that the heavy gas has on the getter.

  5. Structural and electrical properties of zirconium doped yttrium oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Masoud; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-04-01

    A synthetic process for the formation of ZrxY1-xOy nanostructures is demonstrated by the reaction of yttrium nitrate hexahydrate with zirconium propoxide. The reactions are carried out at temperature 60C and pressure 0.1 MPa. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy measurements confirm formation of ZrxY1-xOy nanostructures and the presence of carbonate and hydroxide species which are removed after high temperature anneals. It was found that the oxygen pressure during synthesis plays a determinant role on the structural properties of the nanostructure. This effect is further studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), which showed the formation of an isotopically organized structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement reveals that these changes in the nanostructural efficiency are associated with structural and compositional changes among the substrate. The dielectric constant as measured by the capacitance-voltage (C-V) technique is estimated to be around 39.05. C-V measurements taken at 1 MHz show the maximum capacitance for the Zr0.05Y0.95Oy film. The leakage current densities were below 10-5 A/cm2 for the Zr0.05Y0.95Oy film.

  6. Effects of fast neutron irradiation on zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Kondo, Sosuke

    2010-04-01

    High-purity zone refined zirconium carbide has been fast neutron irradiated in the dose and temperature range of 1-10 10 25 N/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) and 635-1480 C, respectively. Non-irradiated and as-irradiated properties were measured including the lattice parameter, hardness and elastic modulus as determined through nano-indentation, thermal conductivity, and indentation fracture toughness. The effects of neutron irradiation on the microstructure were also determined though using transmission electron microscopy. The general finding of this paper, limited to this particular zone refined ZrC of nominal C/Zr ratio of 0.93, is that this ceramic is quite stable under neutron irradiation in the temperature and dose range studied. Measurement of lattice parameter before and after irradiation indicated a lack of significant crystalline strain due to irradiation. Only modest changes were observed in the mechanical properties of hardness, elastic modulus, and indentation fracture toughness. The thermal conductivity underwent a slight reduction near 1000 C irradiation, though was essentially unchanged for 1300-1480 C irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed black-spot-type defects (likely Frank or other small loops) for irradiation at 670 C, maturing to faulted Frank loops at 1280 C. As the irradiation temperature increased from 1280 C to the highest irradiation temperature, of 1496 C, a transition to prismatic loops occurs.

  7. Strain effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-11-01

    Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the strain effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external strain, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero strains, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by strain. Under compressive strains, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing strain for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative strains, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing strain for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative strains, interstitials respond to strain more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative strains, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of strain effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.

  8. Zirconium and hafnium Salalen complexes in isospecific polymerisation of propylene.

    PubMed

    Press, Konstantin; Venditto, Vincenzo; Goldberg, Israel; Kol, Moshe

    2013-07-01

    The activity of dibenzylzirconium and dibenzylhafnium Salalen complexes in polymerisation of propylene with MAO as a cocatalyst is described. Three Salalen ligand precursors combining a bulky alkyl group (1-adamantyl) on the imine-side phenol and electron withdrawing halo groups of different sizes on the amine-side phenol were explored. All metal complexes were obtained as single diastereomers. An X-ray crystallographic structure of a hafnium complex of an additional ligand carrying the combination of tert-butyl and chloro substituted phenolates, 4-Hf, revealed a fac-mer wrapping of the Salalen ligand around the metal centre. All complexes led to active catalysts in propylene polymerisation and to isotactic polypropylene of high regioregularity. The zirconium complexes led to polypropylene having molecular weights of Mw = 132,000-200,000 and isotacticities of [mmmm] = 65.7-75.0%. The hafnium complexes led to polypropylene of higher molecular weights of Mw = 375,000-520,000 and higher stereoregularities of [mmmm] = 80.6-89.3%, the highest isotacticity obtained with 3-Hf. PMID:23471354

  9. NMR study of hydrogen diffusion in zirconium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, C.; Goren, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear-magnetic-resonance method was used to study the diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium hydride by measuring the temperature dependence of T1 in a temperature range where the major relaxation mechanism was due to hydrogen diffusion. The samples investigated were ZrH1.588, ZrH1.629, ZrH1.684, ZrH1.736, ZrH1.815, ZrH1.910, and ZrH1.960. These spanned both the cubic and tetragonal phases. The activation energy was found to be independent of hydrogen concentration in the cubic phase with Ea=13.4+/-0.4 kcal/mol and a preexponential factor given by A=(1/2)(2-x)(45+/-10)1012 Hz. In the tetragonal phase the activation energy of the bulk of the hydrogen increased modestly with concentration. In addition, it was discovered that a new very fast hydrogen channel was created by the tetragonality for ~3% of the hydrogen. They jump with a preexponential factor that is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of the rest of the hydrogen. A comparison was also made between the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound, the Barton-Sholl, and the Bustard theories for nuclear magnetic relaxation due to diffusion.

  10. NMR study of hydrogen diffusion in zirconium hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, C.; Goren, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear-magnetic-resonance method was used to study the diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium hydride by measuring the temperature dependence of T/sub 1/ in a temperature range where the major relaxation mechanism was due to hydrogen diffusion. The samples investigated were ZrH/sub 1.588/, ZrH/sub 1.629/, ZrH/sub 1.684/, ZrH/sub 1.736/, ZrH/sub 1.815/, ZrH/sub 1.910/, and ZrH/sub 1.960/. These spanned both the cubic and tetragonal phases. The activation energy was found to be independent of hydrogen concentration in the cubic phase with E/sub a/ = 13.4 +- 0.4 kcal/mol and a preexponential factor given by A = (1/2)(2-x)(45 +- 10) x 10/sup 12/ Hz. In the tetragonal phase the activation energy of the bulk of the hydrogen increased modestly with concentration. In addition, it was discovered that a new very fast hydrogen channel was created by the tetragonality for approx.3% of the hydrogen. They jump with a preexponential factor that is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of the rest of the hydrogen. A comparison was also made between the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound, the Barton-Sholl, and the Bustard theories for nuclear magnetic relaxation due to diffusion.

  11. Nanocrystallization of zirconium subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Han, Y; Lu, J

    2008-04-23

    A nanostructured surface layer with thickness of about 20m was formed on commercially pure zirconium using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructural features of the surface layer were systematically investigated using optical microscopy (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. Based on the results obtained, a grain refinement mechanism induced by plastic deformation during SMAT of Zr is proposed. Atthe initial stage of SMAT, twinning dominates the plastic deformation of Zr and divides the coarse grains of Zr into finer twin plates. With increasing strain, intersection of twins occurs, and dislocation slips are activated, becoming the predominant deformation mode instead of twinning. As a result of the dislocation slips, high-density dislocation arrays are formed, which further subdivide the twin plates into subgrains of size about 200-400nm. With a further increase of strain, the dislocations accumulate and rearrange to minimize the energy state of the high-strain-energy subgrains, the dense dislocation walls convert to grain boundaries, and the submicronic grains are subdivided, leading to the formation of nanosized grains at the top of the treated surface. PMID:21825658

  12. Nanocrystallization of zirconium subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Han, Y.; Lu, J.

    2008-04-01

    A nanostructured surface layer with thickness of about 20 m was formed on commercially pure zirconium using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructural features of the surface layer were systematically investigated using optical microscopy (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. Based on the results obtained, a grain refinement mechanism induced by plastic deformation during SMAT of Zr is proposed. At the initial stage of SMAT, twinning dominates the plastic deformation of Zr and divides the coarse grains of Zr into finer twin plates. With increasing strain, intersection of twins occurs, and dislocation slips are activated, becoming the predominant deformation mode instead of twinning. As a result of the dislocation slips, high-density dislocation arrays are formed, which further subdivide the twin plates into subgrains of size about 200-400 nm. With a further increase of strain, the dislocations accumulate and rearrange to minimize the energy state of the high-strain-energy subgrains, the dense dislocation walls convert to grain boundaries, and the submicronic grains are subdivided, leading to the formation of nanosized grains at the top of the treated surface.

  13. The effect of zirconium implantation on the structure of sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Sina, Younes [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); McHargue, Carl J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The effect of zirconium implantation on the structure of sapphire was investigated by 175 keV Zr implantation at room temperature to a fluence of 4 1016 ions/cm2 into sapphire single crystals. Samples were examined by several experimental techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy along a channeling direction (RBS-C), electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and Z-contrast images obtained in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Range and deposited energy were simulated with SRIM-2008.04. The Z-contrast images from transmission electron microscope indicated: a near surface damaged layer ~30 nm thick, a subsurface region exhibiting "random" de-channeling ~52 nm thick, and a deeper damaged, crystalline zone ~64 nm thick. The RBS-C spectra confirmed the presence of these three regions. The two damaged regions contained high concentrations of as yet unresolved defect clusters. The intermediate region contained Zr-clusters embedded in an "amorphous" matrix that exhibited short-range order corresponding to -Al2O3, i.e., a defective spinel structure. The EELS measurements show that the amorphous region is deficient in oxygen.

  14. Corrosion Cracking of Zirconium Cladding Tubes. A Review. 2. Effect of External Factors, Structure, and Properties of the Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Nikulin; A. B. Rozhnov

    2005-01-01

    Data on the effect of various external factors (applied loads, iodine concentration, temperature, irradiation), structure,\\u000a and properties (strength, state of the surface, residual stresses, and hydrogen charging) of zirconium alloys on the mechanisms\\u000a of and resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium cladding tubes primarily in iodine-bearing media are presented.

  15. The effect of zirconium oxide and quartz pigments on the heat and corrosion resistance properties of the silicone based coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mathivanan; A. K. Arof

    2000-01-01

    Silicone resin based protective coatings are generally used for high temperature applications. In this work, anti-corrosive and heat resistant properties of titanium dioxide, mica, zirconium oxide and quartz combination pigments with silicone resin as carrier vehicle in primer and top coat for mild steel surface have been evaluated. Promising results were obtained, showing that the ceramic pigments (zirconium oxide and

  16. Phase equilibria in uranium-rich binary alloys containing molybdenum and zirconium and the effect of ternary additions of carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Craik; D. Birch; C. Fizzotti; F. Saraceno

    1962-01-01

    The metallographic characteristics of the microstructures obtained when ; uranium rich alloys are slowly cooled to room temperature, with intervening step-; annealing treatments at and below 950 deg C, are described. These alloys contain ; binary additions of molybdenum and zirconium and ternary additions of carbon with ; molybdenum or zirconium. The optical and particularly the replica electron ; microscope

  17. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and exposure to zirconium silicate in a young ceramic tile worker.

    PubMed

    Liippo, K K; Anttila, S L; Taikina-Aho, O; Ruokonen, E L; Toivonen, S T; Tuomi, T

    1993-10-01

    We describe a nonsmoking ceramic tile worker 25 yr of age who developed a worsening dry cough and dyspnea after 3.5 yr as a sorter and glazer of tiles. Open lung biopsy revealed an intense granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with mild fibrosis, compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and numerous very small birefringent crystals around the terminal airways and occasionally in granulomas. Pulmonary particle analysis revealed an inhaled dust burden nearly 100-fold the normal background level, mainly consisting of clay minerals and zirconium silicate. The patient had no history or clinical or laboratory findings suggesting any organic etiologic agent. A sarcoid granulomatosis type of chronic pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction is known after long-term exposure to zirconium, but this case demonstrates that zirconium can also cause an acute and fulminant allergic alveolitislike hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:8214930

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Treated Mild Steel with and Without Organic Coating: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Alireza; Attar, Mohammadreza Mohammadzade

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-corrosion performance of phosphated and zirconium treated mild steel (ZTMS) with and without organic coating was evaluated using AC and DC electrochemical techniques. The topography and morphology of the zirconium treated samples were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. The results revealed that the anti-corrosion performance of the phosphate layer was superior to the zirconium conversion layer without an organic coating due to very low thickness and porous nature of the ZTMS. Additionally, the corrosion behavior of the organic coated substrates was substantially different. It was found that the corrosion protection performance of the phosphate steel and ZTMS with an organic coating is in the same order.

  19. Separation of zirconium by extraction chromatography with amberlite LA-1 from malonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, P.; Khopkar, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Zirconium was separated by extraction chromatography with Amberlite LA-1 as an extractant from 1 X 10/sup -3/ M to 2.5 to 10/sup -1/ M of malonic acid at pH 2.0 to 6.0. It was stripped with various mineral acids and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo-III at 665 nm. Zirconium was separated from alkali, alkaline earths, yttrium, lanthanum, chromium(III), manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and aluminium by process of selective extraction. It was also separated from scandium, titanium, thorium, uranium and bismuth by process of selective stripping with various mineral acids. The method was extended for the analysis of zirconium in zircon.

  20. Theoretical stusy of the reaction between 2,2',4' - trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid and zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    Zirconium reacts with 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid in acid solutions to Form two complexes in which the ratios of dye to zirconium are 1 to 1 and 2 to 1. Both complexes are true chelates, with zirconium acting as a bridge between the two orthohydroxy dye groups. Apparent equilibrium constants for the reactions to form each of the complexes are determined. The reactions are used as a basis for the determination of the active component in the dye and a graphical method for the determination of reagent purity is described. Four absorption spectra covering the wave length region from 350 to 750 mu are given, which completely define the color system associated with the reactions in solutions where the hydrochloric acid concentration ranges from 0.0064N to about 7N.

  1. Simulating the corrosion of zirconium alloys in the water coolant of VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Motkova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    A model for predicting the corrosion of cladding zirconium alloys depending on their composition and operating conditions is proposed. Laws of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics of the reactions through which the multicomponent zirconium alloy is oxidized in the reactor coolant constitute the physicochemical heart of the model. The developed version of the model is verified against the results obtained from tests of fuel rod claddings made of commercial-grade and experimental zirconium alloys carried out by different researchers under autoclave and reactor conditions. It is shown that the proposed model adequately describes the corrosion of alloys in coolants used at nuclear power stations. It is determined that, owing to boiling of coolant and its acidification in a VVER-1200 reactor, Zr-1% Nb alloys with additions of iron and oxygen must be more resistant to corrosion than the commercial-grade alloy E110.

  2. Determination of fluoride in water - A modified zirconium-alizarin method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, W.L.

    1945-01-01

    A convenient, rapid colorimetric procedure using the zirconium-alizarin indicator acidified with sulfuric acid for the determination of fluoride in water is described. Since this acid indicator is stable indefinitely, it is more useful than other zirconium-alizarin reagents previously reported. The use of sulfuric acid alone in acidifying the zirconium-alizarin reagent makes possible the maximum suppression of the interference of sulfate. Control of the pH of the samples eliminates errors due to the alkalinity of the samples. The fluoride content of waters containing less than 500 parts per million of sulfate and less than 1000 p.p.m. of chloride may be determined within a limit of 0.1 p.p.m. when a 100-ml. sample is used.

  3. New phosphanyl-substituted titanium and zirconium alkoxide precursors for sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, A.; Schubert, U. [Technischen Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1996-12-31

    Zirconium and titanium alkoxide derivatives with phosphanyl substituents were synthesized by reaction of the alkoxides with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid followed by addition of HPPh{sub 2} to the acrylic double bond. Alternatively, the phosphinated sulfonic acid was prepared first and then reacted with the alkoxides. The second route is preferred because of the milder reaction conditions, shorter reaction times and avoidance of byproducts. The bifunctional organic ligand is bonded to the titanium or zirconium atom via the sulfonate group, while the PR{sub 2} group is available for further reactions such as the coordination of metal compounds.

  4. Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates containing tin

    SciTech Connect

    Buvaneswari, G.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Varadaraju, U.V

    2004-03-01

    Thermal expansion behaviour of sodium zirconium phosphate structure type phosphates of the formula AM{sup 3+}SnP{sub 3}O{sub 12} (A=Ca, Sr and Ba; M{sup 3+}=Cr and Fe) was studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry in the temperature range 298-1073 K. The variation in the hexagonal lattice parameters of the Ca-containing compounds is in line with the 'sodium zirconium phosphate behaviour'. However, the strontium- and barium-containing compounds display an altogether different behaviour of axial expansion. The results are explained based on the crystal chemistry of these compounds.

  5. GRANULOMA FORMATION IN NORMAL GUINEA PIGS INJECTED INTERADERMALLY WITH ALUMINUM AND ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Turk; Darien Parker

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs were injected intradermally with 5 mg, 0.5 mg, and 0.05 mg of the following compounds: zirconium carbonate (ZrCO3), aluminum chlorhydrate (ACH), and zirconium aluminum glycine complex (ZAGS), or 6.5 mg, 0.65 mg, and 0.065 mg of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), in 0.1 ml of saline. Al(OH)3 produced measurable granulomas with the 6.5-mg and 0.65-mg doses; those produced by the

  6. Investigation of ideal zirconium-doped perovskite-type ceramic membrane materials for oxygen separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Tong; Weishen Yang; Baichun Zhu; Rui Cai

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium-doped perovskite-type membrane materials of BaCo0.4Fe0.6?xZrxO3?? (x=00.4) with mixed oxygen ion and electron conductivity were synthesized through a method of combining citric and EDTA acid complexes. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD) and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) showed that the incorporation of proper amount of zirconium into BaCo0.4Fe0.6O3?? could stabilize the ideal and cubic structure of

  7. Stable colloidal suspensions of nanostructured zirconium oxide synthesized by hydrothermal process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiane M. Arantes; Giovanni P. Mambrini; Daniel G. Stroppa; Edson R. Leite; Elson Longo; Antonio J. Ramirez; Emerson R. Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconium oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of ZrO(NO3)2 and ZrOCl2 aqueous solutions at different temperatures and time in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrothermal treatment of zirconium\\u000a salts (0.25 and 0.50molL?1) produced nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 powders with narrow size distribution, which were formed by the attachment of the smaller particles with crystallites size\\u000a of 3.5nm, estimated by means of

  8. Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Hongting; Moore, Robert C.

    2004-11-30

    A method, composition, and apparatus for removing contaminant species from an aqueous medium comprising: providing a material to which zirconium has been added, the material selected from one or more of zeolites, cation-exchangeable clay minerals, fly ash, mesostructured materials, activated carbons, cellulose acetate, and like porous and/or fibrous materials; and contacting the aqueous medium with the material to which zirconium has been added. The invention operates on all arsenic species in the form of arsenate, arsenite and organometallic arsenic, with no pretreatment necessary (e.g., oxidative conversion of arsenite to arsenate).

  9. STS-97 Crew Interviews: Michael J. Bloomfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield is shown. The interview addresses many different questions including why Bloomfield became interested in the space program, the events and people that influence him and ultimately led to his interest, and his vigorous training in the astronaut program. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses are the main goals of the STS-97 mission, its scheduled docking with the new International Space Station (ISS), and its delivery of the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays, batteries, and radiators. Bloomfield briefly discusses his responsibilities during the much-anticipated docking as well as during the scheduled space-walks.

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Phosphorylates the Viral Nuclear Egress Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayuri; Bender, Brian J.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Lye, Ming F.; Pesola, Jean M.; Reim, Natalia I.; Hogle, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesvirus nucleocapsids exit the host cell nucleus in an unusual process known as nuclear egress. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 protein kinase is required for efficient nuclear egress, which can be explained by its phosphorylation of the nuclear lamina component lamin A/C, which disrupts the nuclear lamina. We found that a dominant negative lamin A/C mutant complemented the replication defect of a virus lacking UL97 in dividing cells, validating this explanation. However, as complementation was incomplete, we investigated whether the HCMV nuclear egress complex (NEC) subunits UL50 and UL53, which are required for nuclear egress and recruit UL97 to the nuclear rim, are UL97 substrates. Using mass spectrometry, we detected UL97-dependent phosphorylation of UL50 residue S216 (UL50-S216) and UL53-S19 in infected cells. Moreover, UL53-S19 was specifically phosphorylated by UL97 in vitro. Notably, treatment of infected cells with the UL97 inhibitor maribavir or infection with a UL97 mutant led to a punctate rather than a continuous distribution of the NEC at the nuclear rim. Alanine substitutions in both UL50-S216 and UL53-S19 resulted in a punctate distribution of the NEC in infected cells and also decreased virus production and nuclear egress in the absence of maribavir. These results indicate that UL97 phosphorylates the NEC and suggest that this phosphorylation modulates nuclear egress. Thus, the UL97-NEC interaction appears to recruit UL97 to the nuclear rim both for disruption of the nuclear lamina and phosphorylation of the NEC. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes birth defects and it can cause life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised patients. HCMV assembles in the nucleus and then translocates to the cytoplasm in an unusual process termed nuclear egress, an attractive target for antiviral therapy. A viral enzyme, UL97, is important for nuclear egress. It has been proposed that this is due to its role in disruption of the nuclear lamina, which would otherwise impede nuclear egress. In validating this proposal, we showed that independent disruption of the lamina can overcome a loss of UL97, but only partly, suggesting additional roles for UL97 during nuclear egress. We then found that UL97 phosphorylates the viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), which is essential for nuclear egress, and we obtained evidence that this phosphorylation modulates this process. Our results highlight a new role for UL97, the mutual dependence of the viral NEC and UL97 during nuclear egress, and differences among herpesviruses. PMID:25339763

  11. Ultrasonic texture characterization of aluminum, zirconium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.J.

    1997-10-08

    This work attempts to show the feasibility of nondestructive characterization of non-ferrous alloys. Aluminum alloys have a small single crystal anisotropy which requires very precise ultrasonic velocity measurements for derivation of orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs); the precision in the ultrasonic velocity measurement required for aluminum alloys is much greater than is necessary for iron alloys or other alloys with a large single crystal anisotropy. To provide greater precision, some signal processing corrections need to be applied to account for the inherent, half-bandwidth offset in triggered pulses when using a zero-crossing technique for determining ultrasonic velocity. In addition, alloys with small single crystal anisotropy show a larger dependence on the single crystal elastic constants (SCECs) when predicting ODCs which require absolute velocity measurements. Attempts were made to independently determine these elastics constants in an effort to improve correlation between ultrasonically derived ODCs and diffraction derived ODCs. The greater precision required to accurately derive ODCs in aluminum alloys using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques is easily attainable. Ultrasonically derived ODCs show good correlation with derivations made by Bragg diffraction techniques, both neutron and X-ray. The best correlation was shown when relative velocity measurements could be used in the derivations of the ODCs. Calculation of ODCs in materials with hexagonal crystallites can also be done. Because of the crystallite symmetries, more information can be extracted using ultrasonic techniques, but at a cost of requiring more physical measurements. Some industries which use materials with hexagonal crystallites, e.g. zirconium alloys and titanium, have traditionally used texture parameters which provide some specialized measure of the texture. These texture parameters, called Kearns factors, can be directly related to ODCs.

  12. Thermal properties of zirconium diboride -- transition metal boride solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClane, Devon Lee

    This research focuses on the thermal properties of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) based ceramics. The overall goal was to improve the understanding of how different transition metal (TM) additives influence thermal transport in ZrB2. To achieve this, ZrB2 with 0.5 wt% carbon, and 3 mol% of individual transition metal borides, was densified by hot-press sintering. The transition metals that were investigated were: Y, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Re. The room temperature thermal diffusivities of the compositions ranged from 0.331 cm2/s for nominally pure ZrB2 to 0.105 cm2/s for (Zr,Cr)B2 and converged around 0.155cm2/s at higher temperatures for all compositions. Thermal conductivities were calculated from the diffusivities, using temperature-dependent values for density and heat capacity. The electron contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated from measured electrical resistivity according to the Wiedemann-Franz law. The phonon contribution to thermal conductivity was calculated by subtracting the electron contribution from the total thermal conductivity. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data was used to determine the lattice parameters of the compositions. The decrease in thermal conductivity for individual additives correlated directly to the metallic radius of the additive. Additional strain appeared to exist for additives when the stable TM boride for that metal had different crystal symmetries than ZrB2. This research provided insight into how additives and impurities affect thermal transport in ZrB2. The research potentially offers a basis for future modeling of thermal conductivity in ultra-high temperature ceramics based on the correlation between metallic radius and the decrease in thermal conductivity.

  13. The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORRAINE C. RACUSEN; KIM SOLEZ; ROBERT B. COLVIN; STEPHEN M. BONSIB; MARIA C. CASTRO; TITO CAVALLO; BYRON P. CROKER; A. JAKE DEMETRIS; CYNTHIA B. DRACHENBERG; AGNES B. FOGO; PETER FURNESS; LILLIAN W. GABER; IAN W. GIBSON; DENNIS GLOTZ; JULIO C. GOLDBERG; JOSEPH GRANDE; PHILIP F. HALLORAN; H. E. HANSEN; BARRY HARTLEY; PEKKA J. HAYRY; CLAIRE M. HILL; ERNESTO O. HOFFMAN; LAWRENCE G. HUNSICKER; ANNE S. LINDBLAD; NIELS MARCUSSEN; MICHAEL J. MIHATSCH; TIBOR NADASDY; PETER NICKERSON; T. STEEN OLSEN; JOHN C. PAPADIMITRIOU; PARMJEET S. RANDHAWA; DAVID C. RAYNER; IAN ROBERTS; STEPHEN ROSE; DAVID RUSH; LUIS SALINAS-MADRIGAL; DANIEL R. SALOMON; STALE SUND; EERO TASKINEN; KIRIL TRPKOV; YUTAKA YAMAGUCHI

    1999-01-01

    The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.BackgroundStandardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology.MethodsBanff 97 grew

  14. West Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia University 1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergradu

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1 West Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia University 1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog School of Physical Education School of Social Work The 1995-97 West Virginia University Undergraduate

  15. ChemicalEngineering AnnualReport1996-97

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    ....................................................................................................................... 4 Undergraduate Scholarships and AwardsChemicalEngineering AnnualReport1996-97 #12;Contents Chairman's Report ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 Undergraduate Program Trends in Undergraduate Enrollment

  16. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE...Standards 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur station...

  17. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE...Standards 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur station...

  18. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE...Standards 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur station...

  19. 47 CFR 97.115 - Third party communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE...Standards 97.115 Third party communications. (a) An amateur station...

  20. Method for making fine and ultrafine spherical particles of zirconium titanate and other mixed metal oxide systems

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2006-05-23

    Disclosed is a method for making amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate and crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate comprising the steps of mixing an aqueous solution of zirconium salt and an aqueous solution of titanium salt into a mixed solution having equal moles of zirconium and titanium and having a total salt concentration in the range from 0.01 M to about 0.5 M. A stearic dispersant and an organic solvent is added to the mixed salt solution, subjecting the zirconium salt and the titanium salt in the mixed solution to a coprecipitation reaction forming a solution containing amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate wherein the volume ratio of the organic solvent to aqueous part is in the range from 1 to 5. The solution of amorphous spherical particles is incubated in an oven at a temperature .ltoreq.100.degree. C. for a period of time .ltoreq.24 hours converting the amorphous particles to fine or ultrafine crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate.

  1. Zirconium pressure tube testing: Test procedures, Production Assurance Program (Project H-700)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Zaloudek; M. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    UNC Nuclear Industries (UNC) has initiated a plan for the fabrication of zirconium alloy pressure tubes required for the future operation of N-Reactor. As part of this plan, UNC is establishing a program to qualify and develop a process capable of fabricating these pressure tubes to the requirements of UNC specification HWS 6502, REV. 4, Amendment 1. The objective of

  2. A combined SIF and temperature model of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Shmakov; R. N. Singh; D. Yan; R. L. Eadie; Yu. G. Matvienko

    2007-01-01

    In the last four decades several theoretical models have been developed to diagnose the DHC velocity in zirconium alloys. However, majority of the known models ignore a dependence of the crack-tip hydrides on stress intensity factor (SIF) and temperature. In this paper we first present the integrated model of DHC which combines two independent calculation models. The first calculation sub-model

  3. A combined SIF and temperature model of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Shmakov; R. N. Singh; D. Yan; R. L. Eadie; Yu. G. Matvienko

    2006-01-01

    In the last four decades several theoretical models have been developed to diagnose the DHC velocity in zirconium alloys. However, majority of the known models ignore a dependence of the crack-tip hydrides on stress intensity factor (SIF) and temperature. In this paper we first present the integrated model of DHC which combines two independent calculation models. The first calculation sub-model

  4. Reduction of scrap losses in Zircaloy2 clad zirconium-uranium alloy tube coextrusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Clemans; K. E. Conlin

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford has developed a new driver element for production of special nuclear material through neutron bombardment of a target element in a nuclear reactor. The driver element is a tube fabricated using zirconium\\/9.3 wt % enriched uranium alloy clad ID and OD with metallurgically bonded Zircaloy-2. Because of the high cost of the core material, it was necessary to

  5. Refractory products from zirconium dioxide and metal powders with phosphate binder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Amirov; F. Yu. Abzgil'din; L. B. Khoroshavin

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions Bodies containing zirconium dioxide and a metal powder give a reasonably strong material when a phosphate binder is used. The thermophysical, physicomechanical, and other properties of the product vary with the proportion of added metal powder. Certain metals, e.g., nickel, reduce the kilning temperature to 160400C so that the area of utilization of the product is greatly extended.

  6. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs and other organs of experimental...lung is an organ, like skin, subject to the development of granulomas. Unlike the skin, the lung will not reveal the...

  7. THE CONSTITUTION OF DELTA-PHASE ALLOYS OF THE SYSTEM URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM- MOLYBDENUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Farkas; A. A. Bauer; F. A. Rough

    1959-01-01

    An investigation of the delta -phase relationships between the uranium--; zirconium and uranium-- molybdenum systems was conducted. A ternary cut joining ; U--31.5 at.% Mo to U--74 at.% Zr is presented on the basis of differential ; thermal analysis, metallographic, and x-ray diffraction data. Hypothetical ; isothermal ternary sections, inferred from the determined delta -phase ; relatlonships, are presented for

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium cladding tubes: IV. Effect of hydrogen saturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Rozhnov; S. A. Nikulin; V. G. Khanzhin; V. A. Belov

    2011-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen saturation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of zirconium cladding tubes in an iodine-containing medium is studied. Comparative SCC tests are performed for tubes produced from E110 and E635 alloys with various hydrogen contents (up to 400 ppm). Hydrogen is shown to decrease the SCC resistance of the tubes predominantly because of the activation of

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium cladding tubes: II. Mechanisms and kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Rozhnov; V. A. Belov; S. A. Nikulin; V. G. Khanzhin

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of corrosion fracture of thin-wall cladding tubes of zirconium alloys in a methanol-iodine medium are determined by a direct comparison of the acoustic emission parameters with the characteristics of accumulated corrosion defects in a material during stress corrosion cracking tests. The main types of corrosion defects (nucleation, development, interaction) are revealed and quantitatively described. A general

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium cladding tubes: I. Proximate local SCC testing method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Rozhnov; V. A. Belov; S. A. Nikulin; V. G. Khanzhin

    2010-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) methods of testing zirconium cladding tubes are analyzed. A proximate method is proposed for estimating SCC of fuel claddings claddings in a iodine-containing environment with a limited contact zone between a metal and corrosive medium and simultaneous measurement of acoustic emission (AE) from forming corrosion defects. Criteria of estimating the SCC resistance of the tubes

  11. Properties of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Koski; J. Hls; P. Juliet

    1999-01-01

    Zirconium oxide thin films were deposited by direct current (d.c.) reactive magnetron sputtering on glass slide, silicon wafer and stainless steel substrates. The thickness of the thin films was between 200nm and 3?m. The target power density controlled deposition process was used. The process parameters investigated were the target power, the sputtering gas pressure and the substrate bias voltage and

  12. Physical properties of zirconium oxynitride films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laurikaitis; S. Burinskas; J. Dudonis; D. Milcius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze structural, optical, and electrical properties of transition zirconium oxynitride thin films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering. Films were prepared on Si(111) and glass substrates in an argon\\/nitrogen+oxygen atmosphere. The oxygen flow increased stepwise from 0 to 10 sccm, while at the same time the nitrogen flow decreased from 10

  13. The formation of omega phase in titanium and zirconium alloys: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Hickman

    1969-01-01

    The omega phase is a metastable phase which forms in alloys of titanium and zirconium with most transition metals. In this paper the available data from both alloy systems on the occurrence, the structure, the mechanism of formation, and the morphology of the phase are reviewed and compared. The effect of omega phase on the mechanical behaviour and on the

  14. Mismatched wear couple zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide in total hip arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Morlock; Roman Nassutt; Rolf Janssen; Gerd Willmann; Matthias Honl

    2001-01-01

    A patient complained about a squeaking noise in his total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation revealed good function, and there were no signs of loosening on the radiograph. Physiotherapy did not alter this phenomenon, and ultimately a revision was performed 42 months after the first surgery. The analysis of the retrievals revealed that a zirconium oxide ceramic head had been paired

  15. Mechanical response of zirconiumI. Derivation of a polycrystal constitutive law and finite element analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Tom; P. J. Maudlin; R. A. Lebensohn; G. C. Kaschner

    2001-01-01

    Simulating the forming of anisotropic polycrystals, such as zirconium, requires a description of the anisotropy of the aggregate and the single crystal, and also of their evolution with deformation (texture development and hardening). Introducing the anisotropy of the single crystal requires the use of polycrystal models that account for inhomogeneous deformation depending on grain orientation. In particular, visco-plastic self-consistent models

  16. Postsynthetic Modification of an Alkyne-Tagged Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework via a "Click" Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Bijian; Gui, Bo; Hu, Guiping; Yuan, Daqiang; Wang, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and postsynthetic modification of a novel alkyne-tagged zirconium metal-organic framework, UiO-68-alkyne. The alkynyl groups in the pore surface were subjected to a "click" reaction, achieving quantitative conversion and maintaining the crystallinity of the framework. PMID:25955401

  17. Giant magnetoelectric effect in Nilead zirconium titanate cylindrical D. A. Pan,1,a

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    interaction between multiferroic orders could pro- duce magnetoelectric ME or magnetodielectric effects.2.10 To achieve better magnetoelectric properties, giant mag- netostrictive material Tb1-xDyxFe2-yGiant magnetoelectric effect in Nilead zirconium titanate cylindrical structure D. A. Pan,1,a Y

  18. Evaluation of zirconium-iron-rhenium alloys as surrogates for a technetium alloy waste form

    E-print Network

    Mews, Paul Aaron

    2009-05-15

    , 2) an FeZr2-type intermetallic with 11 wt % or less Re, and 3) a second intermetallic with about 18 wt % Re. Zirconium rich samples formed as many as five distinct phases: 1) a Zr solid solution phase, 2) a Zr3Fe-type intermetallic with as much as 13...

  19. Evaluation of zirconium-iron-rhenium alloys as surrogates for a technetium alloy waste form

    E-print Network

    Mews, Paul Aaron

    2008-10-10

    , 2) an FeZr2-type intermetallic with 11 wt % or less Re, and 3) a second intermetallic with about 18 wt % Re. Zirconium rich samples formed as many as five distinct phases: 1) a Zr solid solution phase, 2) a Zr3Fe-type intermetallic with as much as 13...

  20. Zirconium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films

    E-print Network

    Tewg, Jun-Yen

    2005-02-17

    A new high-k dielectric material, i.e., zirconium-doped tantalum oxide (Zr-doped TaOx), in the form of a sputter-deposited thin film with a thickness range of 5-100 nm, has been studied. Important applications of this new dielectric material include...