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1

Study of Coating Growth Behavior During the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Magnesium Alloy ZK60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma electrolytic oxidation technique was used to coat ZK60 magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte. Effects of oxidation time on the morphology, phase structure, and corrosion resistance of the resulting coatings were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The main components of the inner and the outer coating layers were MgO and Mg2SiO4, respectively. It was also found that the oxidation time has a significant impact on the corrosion resistance properties of the coatings. The coating obtained within the oxidation time of 360 s exhibited a corrosion current of 7.6 × 10-8 A/cm2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, which decreased significantly when comparing with the pristine magnesium alloy.

Qiu, Zhaozhong; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yushen; Qu, Yunfei; Wu, Xiaohong

2015-04-01

2

Study of Coating Growth Behavior During the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Magnesium Alloy ZK60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma electrolytic oxidation technique was used to coat ZK60 magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte. Effects of oxidation time on the morphology, phase structure, and corrosion resistance of the resulting coatings were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The main components of the inner and the outer coating layers were MgO and Mg2SiO4, respectively. It was also found that the oxidation time has a significant impact on the corrosion resistance properties of the coatings. The coating obtained within the oxidation time of 360 s exhibited a corrosion current of 7.6 × 10-8 A/cm2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, which decreased significantly when comparing with the pristine magnesium alloy.

Qiu, Zhaozhong; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yushen; Qu, Yunfei; Wu, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

3

Enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding in ZK60 magnesium alloy by aging precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic interference shielding, hardness, and electrical conductivity measurements were employed to evaluate the effect of aging precipitation on shielding characteristics of ZK60 magnesium alloy. During artificial aging MgZn2 phase precipitates occurred and the age hardening peak happened at 150 °C for 15 h. Aging precipitation induced enhanced shielding effectiveness as well as tensile strength in the alloy. It is interesting to note that the shielding effectiveness exhibited a rapid increase with increase in aging time until 15 h, but for longer aging time it tended to remain largely unchanged. Artificial aging at 150 °C for 15 h can thus be considered as the optimum heat treatment condition. In this condition, the good combination of superior shielding effectiveness greater than 70 dB and high mechanical properties was achieved. The origin of the attractive electromagnetic interference shielding properties is discussed based on second phase precipitation in the alloy.

Chen, Xianhua; Liu, Juan; Pan, Fusheng

2013-06-01

4

Microstructure characterization of ZK60 magnesium alloys using TEM and HR-EBSD.  

PubMed

ZK60 (Mg-Zn-Zr) alloys exhibited a variation in precipitates with aging, and their mechanical properties also changed. Microindentation tests were carried out on two types of ZK60 alloys of solid solution (T4) and peak aging (T6). Microstructure and texture evolution during indentation was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. Twinning occurred near the indentation marks in most grains. It was found that tensile twinning was dominant, and two twin variants were usually observed. Texture and microstructure evolution by twinning and slip activation was further examined by uniaxial compression test with strain. The initial random orientation gradually changed into basal fibers with strain. Some grains with nonbasal orientations aligned with the loading direction easily underwent twinning followed by slip deformation. Other grains near basal orientations revealed only slip deformation. PMID:23920164

Cho, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Ho; Kang, Suk-Bong

2013-08-01

5

In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility of ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Coated with Hydroxyapatite by a Simple Chemical Conversion Process for Orthopedic Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnesium and its alloys—a new class of degradable metallic biomaterials—are being increasingly investigated as a promising alternative for medical implant and device applications due to their advantageous mechanical and biological properties. However, the high corrosion rate in physiological environments prevents the clinical application of Mg-based materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy substrates to mediate the rapid degradation of Mg while improving its cytocompatibility for orthopedic applications. A simple chemical conversion process was applied to prepare HA coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy. Surface morphology, elemental compositions, and crystal structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The corrosion properties of samples were investigated by immersion test and electrochemical test. Murine fibroblast L-929 cells were harvested and cultured with coated and non-coated ZK60 samples to determine cytocompatibility. The degradation results suggested that the HA coatings decreased the degradation of ZK60 alloy. No significant deterioration in compression strength was observed for all the uncoated and coated samples after 2 and 4 weeks’ immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cytotoxicity test indicated that the coatings, especially HA coating, improved cytocompatibility of ZK60 alloy for L929 cells. PMID:24300096

Wang, Bing; Huang, Ping; Ou, Caiwen; Li, Kaikai; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

2013-01-01

6

Microstructure, texture evolution, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of ECAP processed ZK60 magnesium alloy for biodegradable applications.  

PubMed

Ultra-fine grained ZK60 Mg alloy was obtained by multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing at different temperatures of 250°C, 200°C and 150°C. Microstructural observations showed a significant grain refinement after ECAP, leading to an equiaxed and ultrafine grain (UFG) structure with average size of 600nm. The original extrusion fiber texture with planes oriented parallel to extrusion direction was gradually undermined during ECAP process and eventually it was substituted by a newly stronger texture component with considerably higher intensity, coinciding with ECAP shear plane. A combination of texture modification and grain refinement in UFG samples led to a marked reduction in mechanical asymmetric behavior compared to the as-received alloy, as well as adequate mechanical properties with about 100% improvement in elongation to failure while keeping relatively high tensile strength. Open circuit potential, potentiodynamic and weight loss measurements in a phosphate buffer solution electrolyte revealed an improved corrosion resistance of UFG alloy compared to the extruded one, stemming from a shift of corrosion regime from localized pitting in the as-received sample to a more uniform corrosion mode with reduced localized attack in ECAP processed alloy. Compression tests on immersed samples showed that the rate of loss of mechanical integrity in the UFG sample was lower than that in the as-received sample. PMID:24971801

Mostaed, Ehsan; Hashempour, Mazdak; Fabrizi, Alberto; Dellasega, David; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Bonollo, Franco; Vedani, Maurizio

2014-09-01

7

In vitro degradation and biocompatibility of a strontium-containing micro-arc oxidation coating on the biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys are promising biodegradable implant candidates for orthopedic application. In the present study, a phosphate-based micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was applied on the ZK60 alloy to decrease its initial degradation rate. Strontium (Sr) was incorporated into the coating in order to improve the bioactivity of the coating. The in vitro degradation studies showed that the MAO coating containing Sr owned a better initial corrosion resistance, which was mainly attributed to the superior inner barrier layer, and a better long-term protective ability, probably owning to its larger thickness, superior inner barrier layer and the superior apatite formation ability. The degradation of MAO coating was accompanied by the formation of degradation layer and Ca-P deposition layer. The in vitro cell tests demonstrated that the incorporation of Sr into the MAO coating enhanced both the proliferation of preosteoblast cells and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the murine bone marrow stromal cells. In conclusion, the MAO coating with Sr is a promising surface treatment for the biodegradable magnesium alloys.

Lin, Xiao; Yang, Xiaoming; Tan, Lili; Li, Mei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke; Hu, Zhuangqi; Qiu, Jianhong

2014-01-01

8

Influence of ECAP process on mechanical and corrosion properties of pure Mg and ZK60 magnesium alloy for biodegradable stent applications  

PubMed Central

Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on ZK60 alloy and pure Mg in the temperature range 150–250 °C. A significant grain refinement was detected after ECAP, leading to an ultrafine grain size (UFG) and enhanced formability during extrusion process. Comparing to conventional coarse grained samples, fracture elongation of pure Mg and ZK60 alloy were significantly improved by 130% and 100%, respectively, while the tensile strength remained at high level. Extrusion was performed on ECAP processed billets to produce small tubes (with outer/inner diameter of 4/2.5 mm) as precursors for biodegradable stents. Studies on extruded tubes revealed that even after extrusion the microstructure and microhardness of the UFG ZK60 alloy were almost stable. Furthermore, pure Mg tubes showed an additional improvement in terms of grain refining and mechanical properties after extrusion. Electrochemical analyses and microstructural assessments after corrosion tests demonstrated two major influential factors in corrosion behavior of the investigated materials. The presence of Zn and Zr as alloying elements simultaneously increases the nobility by formation of a protective film and increase the local corrosion damage by amplifying the pitting development. ECAP treatment decreases the size of the second phase particles thus improving microstructure homogeneity, thereby decreasing the localized corrosion effects. PMID:25482411

Mostaed, Ehsan; Vedani, Maurizio; Hashempour, Mazdak; Bestetti, Massimiliano

2014-01-01

9

Superplasticity in a 17 vol.% SiC particulate-reinforced ZK60A magnesium composite (ZK60\\/SiC\\/17p)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superplastic characteristics of a 17 vol.% SiC particulate-reinforced ZK60A magnesium composite (ZK60\\/SiC\\/17p) have been studied. The composite has a fine microstructure (grain size ?0.5 ?m) and is stable at high temperatures. As a result of the fine microstructure, the composite exhibits superplasticity (with an elongation to failure of 350%) at very high strain rate (?1 s?1). The superplastic properties

T. G. Nieh; A. J. Schwartz; J. Wadsworth

1996-01-01

10

Grain refinement of AZ31 and ZK60 Mg alloys — towards superplasticity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature superplastic (SP) behavior (mechanical and deformation mechanisms) of two commercial Mg-based alloys (AZ31 and ZK60) was characterized. The two alloys were tested in the as extruded condition with initial grain size of 15 ?m (AZ31) and fine (2 ?m) and coarse (25 ?m) grains mixed randomly for the ZK60. Strain rate was activated in the range 10?5–1 s?1

A. Bussiba; A. Ben Artzy; A. Shtechman; S. Ifergan; M. Kupiec

2001-01-01

11

Effect of heat treatment on strain hardening of ZK60 Mg alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain hardening behaviors of extruded ZK60 Mg alloy under different heat treatments (T4, T5 and T6) were studied using uniaxial tensile tests at room temperature. Hardening capacity, strain hardening exponent as well as strain hardening rate curve were obtained according to true plastic stress–strain curves. T5 and T6 treatments decrease strain hardening of extruded ZK60 alloy, and subsequently give rise

Xianhua Chen; Fusheng Pan; Jianjun Mao; Jingfeng Wang; Dingfei Zhang; Aitao Tang; Jian Peng

2011-01-01

12

Corrosion resistance enhancement of magnesium ZK60/SiC composite by Nd:YAG laser cladding  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) which possess high specific stiffness and strength are attractive in applications where it is advantageous to employ low density structural materials, such as in aerospace, automotive and sports industries. However, it is well known that magnesium is one of the most active structural metals, and is usually susceptible to galvanic corrosion when in contact with other materials, especially, in wet and salt-laden environments. The corrosion is enhanced when an additional phase is added to magnesium alloys because most of the magnesium/reinforcement systems are electrochemically unstable. Previous investigations have revealed that high power laser surface treatment is an efficient way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys and their composite materials, without resulting in significant adverse effects on the properties of the bulk materials. In the present study, laser cladding of an Al-Si eutectic alloy on magnesium ZK60/SiC composite was performed using a multiwave Nd:YAG laser. In order to avoid excessive oxidation, argon shielding gas was blown directly into the laser-generated molten pool instead of using a vacuum condition.

Yue, T.M.; Wang, A.H.; Man, H.C. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mfg. Engineering] [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mfg. Engineering

1999-01-08

13

Aging Effect on Texture Evolution during Warm Rolling of ZK60 Alloys Fabricated by Twin-Roll Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZK60(Mg-Zn-Zr) alloys experience variation of precipitates during aging. The frequency and size of rod- and disk-shaped precipitates change with aging. The effect of aging on texture evolution during warm rolling of ZK60 was investigated. Some difference was found between the texture evolution of solution heat-treated (T4) and artificially aged (T6) samples. The Aged samples had more texture variations along the thickness direction than solution heat-treated samples. The intensities of basal fibers were lower during asymmetric rolling than during symmetric rolling, although the initial intensities increased during both rolling processes. The decrease in basal fibers by asymmetric rolling was clearer at a lower temperature of 448 K (175 °C) than at 498 K (225 °C).

Cho, Jae-Hyung; Chen, Hong-Mei; Choi, Shi-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Kang, Suk-Bong

2010-10-01

14

Effect of microstructural evolution on mechanical properties of friction stir welded ZK60 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six millimeters thick extruded ZK60 plate was successfully friction stir welded at a rotation rate of 800rpm and a traverse speed of 100mm\\/min. Friction stir welding (FSW) resulted in breakup and dissolution of MgZn2 phase and remarkable grain refinement in the nugget zone. Relatively weak basal texture on the transverse plane of the nugget zone was not the dominant factor

G. M. Xie; Z. Y. Ma; L. Geng

2008-01-01

15

Influences of current density on tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings on ZK60 Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.  

PubMed

Current density is a key factor of plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Its influences on structure, mechanical, and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings on ZK60 Mg alloy by pulsed bipolar microplasma oxidation in Na(3)PO(4) solution were studied in this paper. Thickness, structure, composition, mechanical property, and tribological characteristics of the coatings were studied by eddy current coating thickness gauge, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation measurements, and ball-on-disk friction testing. The results show that all the coatings prepared under different current densities are composed of MgO phase. The amount of MgO phase, thickness and friction coefficient of the coatings increased with the increasing current density. Among three ceramic coatings produced under three current densities, the coating produced under the current density of 7 A/dm(2) got the highest nanohardness and lowest wear rate with the value of 1.7 GPa and 1.27 x 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm. PMID:20356285

Wu, Xiaohong; Su, Peibo; Jiang, Zhaohua; Meng, Song

2010-03-01

16

Comparison of degradation behavior and the associated bone response of ZK60 and PLLA in vivo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether ZK60, an extruded magnesium alloy, reacts in vivo with an appropriate host response, and to investigate how microarc oxidation treatment influences this in vivo corrosion behavior. Twelve cylinders were machined from as-extruded ZK60, with six cylinders treated with MAO and six left untreated; poly-l-lactic acid pins were used as a control to compare biocompatibility. These cylinders were implanted into the right distal femur of mice along the transepicondylar axis from the medial condyle. Microcomputerized tomography was used to quantitatively analyze corrosion in a nondestructive manner in vivo and the corrosion rate was calculated based on the volume measurements of the residual implants. The physiological response of the rats postimplantation was obtained by clinical observation and blood biochemical analysis. Histological analyses of the soft tissue around the implants were used to assess bone response in relation to the implants. The results obtained clearly indicate that the untreated ZK60 alloy showed high degradation rates in vivo, and that MAO treatment had a significant but unsatisfying effect on protecting the implant from further corrosion. Compared with PLLA, the ZK60 alloy showed good osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, and, according to biochemical indicators, had good biocompatibility in vivo. PMID:23666894

Qi, Zheng-Rong; Zhang, Qiang; Tan, Li-Li; Lin, Xiao; Yin, Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yang, Ke; Wang, Yan

2014-05-01

17

Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of wrought magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many researches on the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80, AZ91, and ZK60 magnesium alloys at different temperatures and strain rates, but few of them focuses on the deformation behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys, especially under the twin-roll casting (TRC) state. Meanwhile, the existing researches only focus on the grain refinement law of the magnesium alloys under deformation conditions, the deformation mechanism has not been revealed yet. The hot compression behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M magnesium alloys under the temperature and strain rate ranges of 250-400 °C and 0.001-1 s-1 are studied by thermal simulation methods using Gleeble 1500 machine and virtual simulation using finite element analysis software. Simulation results show that sine hyperbolic law is the most suitable flow stress model for wider deformation conditions. The most reasonable selected deformation conditions of ZK60M alloy is 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/1 s-1 for conventional casting (CC), while AZ41M alloy is 300 °C/0.01 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for CC. Deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of them are analyzed at the same deformation conditions. The microstructures of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys are observed at different deformed conditions by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and it reveals the flow behavior and deformation mechanism of them. Working harden and work soften contribute to the activation of basal, non-basal slip systems which promote DRX. The proposed research reveals the deformation behavior and mechanism of the AZ41M and ZK 60M magnesium alloys and concludes their optimized deformation parameters and processes and provides a theory basis for their manufacturing and application.

Wang, Shouren; Song, Linghui; Kang, Sukbong; Cho, Jaehyung; Wang, Yingzi

2013-05-01

18

Forming limit of magnesium alloy at elevated temperatures for precision forging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workability of magnesium alloy (ZK60) is investigated by the upsettability test and the results are applied to precision backward extrusion at elevated temperatures. In the upsettability test, cylindrical billets are compressed with concentrically grooved tools at a temperature range of 100–400 °C to obtain the critical reductions in height due to cracking and the flow curves. In backward extrusion, the

N Ogawa; M Shiomi; K Osakada

2002-01-01

19

Thermo-Mechanical Methods for Improving Fatigue Performance of Wrought Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wrought magnesium alloys AZ80 and ZK60 in as-cast condition were extruded at 300°C with extrusion ratios of ER = 12 and 44. Resulting microstructures, crystallographic textures and mechanical properties were investigated. Extruding led to profound reduction in grain size in comparison to as-cast condition which drastically improved yield stress, tensile elongation and HCF performance. Strength differentials in ZK60 after extruding at ER = 12 were more pronounced than after extruding at ER = 44 whereas no such effect was observed in AZ80. Swaging after extruding further increased yield stress and endurance limit, while strength differential increased and ductility was lowered.

Shahzad, Muhammad; Wagner, Lothar

20

Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

Pompa, Luis Enrique

21

Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. PMID:25687006

Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

2015-04-01

22

The Dynamic Flow and Failure Behavior of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the dynamic behavior of magnesium alloys through a survey of the literature and a comparison with our own high-strain-rate experiments. We describe high-strain-rate experiments (at typical strain rates of 103 s-1) on polycrystalline pure magnesium as well as two magnesium alloys, AZ31B and ZK60. Both deformation and failure are considered. The observed behaviors are discussed in terms of the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in magnesium, considering the effects of grain size, strain rate, and crystallographic texture. A comparison of current results with the literature studies on these and other Mg alloys reveals that the crystallographic texture, grain size, and alloying elements continue to have a profound influence on the high-strain-rate deformation behavior. The available data set suggests that those materials loaded so as to initiate extension twinning have relatively rate-insensitive strengths up to strain rates of several thousand per second. In contrast, some rate dependence of the flow stress is observed for loading orientations in which the plastic flow is dominated by dislocation mechanisms.

Eswar Prasad, K.; Li, B.; Dixit, N.; Shaffer, M.; Mathaudhu, S. N.; Ramesh, K. T.

2014-01-01

23

Tensile and compressive properties of wrought magnesium alloys at high rates of strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact tensile and compressive properties of three different wrought magnesium alloys (AZ31B-F, AZ61A-F and ZK60A-T5) are determined using two different versions of the split Hopkinson bar. Tension and compression specimens are machined from extruded bars parallel to the extrusion axis. Tensile and compressive stress-strain data at strain rates of 1000-2000/s are presented and compared with those at quasi-static and medium strain rates obtained on an Instron 4505 testing machine. The effects of strain rate and loading mode on the ultimate strength, ultimate strain and absorbed energy are examined in details. It is shown that the wrought magnesium alloys exhibit a pronounced asymmetric yield behavior in tension and compression at both low and high rates of strain. It is also shown that the ultimate strengths increase with increasing strain rate, and the strain rate dependence of the ultimate strain and absorbed energy differs, depending the wrought magnesium alloys tested.

Yokoyama, T.

2003-09-01

24

Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys  

DOEpatents

Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

Mayer, A.

1988-01-21

25

Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys  

DOEpatents

Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

Mayer, Anton (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

26

Magnesium-lithium casting alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

1974-01-01

27

Elastic Properties and Internal Friction of Two Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The elastic properties and internal friction of two magnesium alloys were studied from 25 C to 450 C using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). The Young's moduli decrease with increasing temperature. At 200 C, a change in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants is observed. The internal friction increases significantly with increasing temperature above 200 C. The observed changes in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants and the internal friction are the result of anelastic relaxation by grain boundary sliding at elevated temperatures. Elastic properties govern the behavior of a materials subjected to stress over a region of strain where the material behaves elastically. The elastic properties, including the Young's modulus (E), shear modulus (G), bulk modulus (B), and Poisson's ratio (?), are of significant interest to many design and engineering applications. The choice of the most appropriate material for a particular application at elevated temperatures therefore requires knowledge of its elastic properties as a function of temperature. In addition, mechanical vibration can cause significant damage in the automotive, aerospace, and architectural industries and thus, the ability of a material to dissipate elastic strain energy in materials, known as damping or internal friction, is also important property. Internal friction can be the result of a wide range of physical mechanisms, and depends on the material, temperature, and frequency of the loading. When utilized effectively in engineering applications, the damping capacity of a material can remove undesirable noise and vibration as heat to the surroundings. The elastic properties of materials can be determined by static or dynamic methods. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), used in this study, is a unique and sophisticated non-destructive dynamic technique for determining the complete elastic tensor of a solid by measuring the resonant spectrum of mechanical resonance for a sample of known geometry, dimensions, and mass. In addition, RUS allows determination of internal friction, or damping, at different frequencies and temperatures. Polycrystalline pure magnesium (Mg) exhibits excellent high damping properties. However, the poor mechanical properties limit the applications of pure Mg. Although alloying can improve the mechanical properties of Mg, the damping properties are reduced with additions of alloying elements. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study and develop Mg-alloys with simultaneous high damping capacity and improved mechanical properties. Moreover, studies involving the high temperature dynamic elastic properties of Mg alloys are limited. In this study, the elastic properties and internal friction of two magnesium alloys were studied at elevated temperatures using RUS. The effect of alloy composition and grain size was investigated. The wrought magnesium alloys AZ31 and ZK60 were employed. Table 1 gives the nominal chemical compositions of these two alloys. The ZK60 alloy is a commercial extruded plate with a T5 temper, i.e. solution-treated at 535 C for two hours, quenched in hot water, and aged at 185 C for 24 hours. The AZ31 alloy is a commercial rolled plate with a H24 temper, i.e. strain hardened and partially annealed.

Freels, M.; Liaw, P. K.; Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Radiovic, M.

2011-06-01

28

Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

Wilson, M. L. (inventor)

1973-01-01

29

LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

2007-01-01

30

REVIEW ARTICLE A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials Xue-Nan GU, Yu-Feng ZHENG 100871, China © Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 Abstract Magnesium of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self

Zheng, Yufeng

31

Stress Drop LED by Twinning during Initial Stage of Hot Compression of Twin-Roll Cast Mg-5.51%Zn-0.49%Zr Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow stress behavior during initial stage of hot compression of twin-roll cast ZK60 magnesium alloy was characterized by employing deformation temperature of 300°C and 400°C, and a given strain rate of 10-2s-1. A stress drop during initial stage of hot compression at 300°C, generally led by dynamic recrystallization, was found to be attributed to twinning, correspondingly to dynamic recrystallization as deformation temperature was raised to 400°C.

Liu, Zhiyi; Xu, Jing; Hou, Yanhui; Kang, Sukbong

2012-12-01

32

Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

Liu, M. [GM China Lab] [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

33

Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.

Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 2041 College Road, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, J. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Scott Laboratory, 201 West 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chung, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Intelligent Textile System Research Center, Seoul National University, 56-1, Shinlim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. Y. [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja 2-Dong, Chunchon, Gangwon-Do, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-05-17

34

Magnesium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium is the lightest of all metals used as the basis for constructional alloys. It is this property which entices automobile manufacturers to replace denser materials, not only steels, cast irons and copper base alloys but even aluminium alloys by magnesium based alloys. The requirement to reduce the weight of car components as a result in part of the introduction

B. L Mordike; T Ebert

2001-01-01

35

Feasibility study of twin roll casting process for magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of a strip casting technology for manufacturing magnesium alloy sheets. The aim of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate the economical manufacture of high-quality magnesium alloy sheets. Magnesium alloy AZ31, AZ61, AM60 and AZ91 were used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin roll

H. Watari; T. Haga; N. Koga; K. Davey

2007-01-01

36

The Microstructure of Mechanically Alloyed Nanocrystalline Aluminium-Magnesium  

E-print Network

The Microstructure of Mechanically Alloyed Nanocrystalline Aluminium-Magnesium Jen Gubicza1 analysis. Magnesium gradually goes into solid solution during ball milling and after 3 h almost all. Experimental A series of aluminium-magnesium samples were prepared from high purity aluminium (99.9%) powder

Gubicza, Jenõ

37

Protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys — a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium and its alloys have excellent physical and mechanical properties for a number of applications. In particular its high strength:weight ratio makes it an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications, where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion, particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited its use in the automotive

J. E. Gray; B. Luan

2002-01-01

38

General and localized corrosion of magnesium alloys: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium (Mg) alloys as well as experimental alloys are emerging as light structural materials for current, new, and innovative\\u000a applications. This paper describes the influence of the alloying elements and the different casting processes on the microstructure\\u000a and performance of these alloys and corrosion. It gives a comprehensible approach for the resistance of these alloys to general,\\u000a localized and metallurgically

Edward Ghali; Wolfgang Dietzel; Karl-Ulrich Kainer

2004-01-01

39

Bearing Tests of Magnesium-alloy Sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing tests of AM-3S, AM-52S, and AM-C57S magnesium-alloy sheet in various thicknesses and tempers were made. Bearing yield and ultimate strengths were determined and compared for various edge distances and for various ratios of loading-pin diameter to sheet thickness. Tensile strengths were determined and ratios of average bearing yield and ultimate strength to tensile strength are given. The results of the tests indicated that ultimate bearing strengths increased with edge distances up to 1.5 to 2 times the diameter of the loading pin; that ultimate bearing strengths are a function of the ratio of pin diameter to sheet thickness; and that these properties are effected only slightly by increases in edge distance greater than 1.5 diameters.

Sharp, W H; Moore, R L

1943-01-01

40

Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University] [Case Western Reserve University

2013-08-12

41

Chrome-free surface treatments for magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion coatings for magnesium have traditionally been based on immersion treatment in a solution containing hexavalent chromium compounds. However, the need for a replacement surface treatment has been strongly emphasized by the present environmental drive to eliminate hexavalent chromium. The development of permanganate bath chemical conversion coatings for magnesium alloys was studied, using mass gain measurements, measurements of corrosion potential,

H. Umehara; M. Takaya; S. Terauchi

2003-01-01

42

Fatigue crack propagation of magnesium alloy in biaxial stress fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue crack propagation tests of magnesium alloy were conducted under conditions of biaxial and uniaxial loading by using a cruciform specimen in a biaxial fatigue machine, in order to investigate the effect of non-singular stress cycling on the fatigue crack growth properties DeltaKI -da\\/dN. The Magnesium alloys (AZ31B-O) used for this research are 2.5mm thickness plates. There are four different

Yasumi Itoh; Akira Shimamoto

2005-01-01

43

Column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were made to determine the column strength of extruded magnesium alloy AM-57S. Column specimens were tested with round ends and with flat ends. It was found that the compressive properties should be used in computations for column strengths rather than the tensile properties because the compressive yield strength was approximately one-half the tensile yield strength. A formula for the column strength of magnesium alloy AM-57S is given.

Holt, M

1942-01-01

44

Adherent protective coatings plated on magnesium-lithium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc is plated on a magnesium-lithium alloy by using a modification of the standard zinc-plate immersion bath. Further protection is given the alloy by applying a light plating of copper on the zinc plating. Other metals are plated on the copper by using conventional plating baths.

1965-01-01

45

Magnesium alloy wires as reinforcement in composite intramedullary nails.  

PubMed

A promising group of biomaterials assigned for the production of intramedullary nails are composites with a polylactide (PLA) matrix, reinforced with wires made of magnesium alloys and carbon fibres. The paper describes the effect of the composition of magnesium alloy wires, their number and orientation in the composite, as well as their connection with differently directed long carbon fibres, on the mechanical properties and the degradation rate of the obtained intramedullary nails. Among the tested implant prototypes, the best mechanical characteristics and a gradual and uniform course of magnesium alloy wires were exhibited by the PLA+CF1D+MgI composite nails (with a unidirectional orientation of carbon fibres and an axially oriented single Mg alloy wire). The strength of these nails became gradually decreased with the incubation time, which should allow for a gradual loading of the bone. In the case of the PLA with only magnesium alloy wires (without carbon fibres), the increase of the number of wires, on the one hand, stimulates the improvement of the nails' strength, yet on the other hand, a higher content of magnesium alloys in the PLA matrix affects the nails' faster resorption. PMID:24642977

Morawska-Chochó?, Anna; Ch?opek, Jan; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Szaraniec, Barbara; Grzy?ka, Ewa

2014-01-01

46

On the Modeling of Plastic Deformation of Magnesium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloys are promising materials due to their low density and therefore high specific strength. However, the industrial application is not well established so far, especially for wrought products such as sheets or profiles. Due to its hexagonal crystallographic structure, deformation mechanisms observed in magnesium alloys are rather different from those in face centered cubic metals such as aluminum alloys. This leads not only to a mechanical anisotropy, but also to a tension-compression asymmetry, i.e. unequal compressive and tensile yield strength. The resulting complexity in the yielding behavior of such materials cannot be captured by conventional models of J2 plasticity. Cazacu and Barlat, therefore, proposed a phenomenological yield potential which accounts for the respective phenomena by introducing the third invariant of the stress tensor. Simulations based on this model are performed with ABAQUS/Explicit and a user defined routine VUMAT for validating the respective implementation. The application aims at simulating the extrusion process of magnesium alloys.

Ertuerk, S.; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Brocks, W. [GKSS Research Center, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Plank-Str., D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2007-05-17

47

Nondestructive evaluation of an environmentally friendly conversion coating for magnesium alloys using optical measurement techniques  

E-print Network

Magnesium alloys have one of the highest specific strengths of all construction metals used. Specifically, magnesium alloy castings are used in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aerospace vehicles. Coating systems must be employed...

Zuniga, David

2006-10-30

48

Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly\\u000a contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological\\u000a barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications\\u000a is also assessed

Mustafa Kemal Kulekci

2008-01-01

49

Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D  

E-print Network

Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K ductility, and the HAZ was found to be the `weakest link'. Keywords: Magnesium alloy, AZ91D, TIG welding, Hot cracking, Liquation, Fracture Introduction Magnesium alloys have high strength/weight ratio

Zhou, Wei

50

The effect of cooling rate on thermophysical properties of magnesium alloys  

E-print Network

ARTICLES The effect of cooling rate on thermophysical properties of magnesium alloys M.N. Khan magnesium alloys (AZ91D, AM60B, and AE44) have been studied. Phase-transformation temperatures and enthalpy behavior of magnesium alloys, but the effect of cooling rate on phase-transformation temperatures

Medraj, Mamoun

51

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 084101 (2011) Guiding the experimental discovery of magnesium alloys  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 084101 (2011) Guiding the experimental discovery of magnesium alloys Richard 2011; published 19 August 2011) Magnesium alloys are among the lightest structural materials known and are of considerable technological interest. To develop superior magnesium alloys, experimentalists must have

Hart, Gus

52

Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review Nan Li, Yufeng Zheng*  

E-print Network

Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review Nan Li, Yufeng Zheng* State in the development of magnesium alloys both for industrial and biomedical applications. Industrial interest in magnesium alloys is based on strong demand of weight reduction of transportation vehicles for better fuel

Zheng, Yufeng

53

Electrochemical Characteristics of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys with Microarc Oxidation Coating Alycia Berman1  

E-print Network

Electrochemical Characteristics of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys with Microarc Oxidation Coating Alycia arisen in recent years is the use of magnesium alloys due to their excellent mechanical properties. Magnesium alloys have many properties comparable to bone, including strength-to-weight ratio, density

Zhou, Yaoqi

54

Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings  

E-print Network

Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings Haider Al-Kazzaz1 for magnesium alloys. The process reliability of 2-mm ZE41A-T5 butt joints welded by a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser, reproducibility, Weibull distribution 1. Introduction The applications of magnesium alloys are expanding rapidly

Medraj, Mamoun

55

Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys  

E-print Network

Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys M.G. POKORNY, C.A. MONROE properties that are suitable for advanced stress modeling is even more limited for magnesium alloys. Recently of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in order to predict hot tears.[4] This study relied on crude estimates

Beckermann, Christoph

56

Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Development and Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnesium based alloys possess a natural ability to biodegrade due to corrosion when placed within aqueous substances, which is promising for cardiovascular and orthopedic medical device applications. These materials can serve as a temporary scaffold when placed in vivo, which is desirable for treatments when temporary supportive structures are required to assist in the wound healing process. The nature of these materials to degrade is attributed to the high oxidative corrosion rates of magnesium. In this review, a summary is presented for magnesium material development, biocorrosion characteristics, as well as a biological translation for these results. PMID:22408600

Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; McGoron, Anthony

2012-01-01

57

Microplasticity and fatigue of some magnesium-lithium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile microstrain behaviour of a series of magnesium-lithium alloys, with lithium contents up to 12.5 wt %, has been studied. The strain hardening exponents in the microstrain region were found to depend on the lithium content, the increase in which led to a change in crystal structure from hcp to bcc. The onset of cross-slip in the bcc alloys

R. E. Lee; W. J. D. Jones

1974-01-01

58

Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy  

SciTech Connect

Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO{sub 2} with some Mg(OH){sub 2}. The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO{sub 2} and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 3}Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37{+-}1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased {beta}-Mg{sub 12}Al{sub 17} phase.

Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China) and Shenzhen Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China) and State Key Laboratory of Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 15001 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-03-15

59

Acoustic emission during unloading of elastically stressed magnesium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnesium alloy was quasi-statically cycled elastically between zero load and tension. Both loading and unloading stress delays were found, and the unloading stress delay was further studied. An analytical expression was written for the unloading stress delay which is an elastic constitutive parameter. The potential use of these results for the acoustic emission monitoring of elastic stress states is discussed.

Lee, S. S.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

1977-01-01

60

Mechanical surface treatments on titanium, aluminum and magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, mechanical surface treatments induce high dislocation densities in near-surface regions. Due to the local plastic deformation, residual stresses are developed and the surface topography is changed. These changes can have contradictory influences on the fatigue strength. Results on the influence of mechanical surface treatments on magnesium are presented in relation to the relatively well-studied titanium and aluminum alloys.

L Wagner

1999-01-01

61

Semisolid Twin-roll Casting Process of Magnesium Alloy Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental approach has been performed to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid strip casting using a horizontal twin roll caster. The demand for light-weight products with high strength has grown recently due to the rapid development of automobile and aircraft technology. One key to such development has been utilization of magnesium alloys, which can potentially reduce the total product weight.

H. Watari; K. Davey; M. T. Alonso Rasgado; T. Haga; N. Koga

2004-01-01

62

Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

2013-04-01

63

PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE  

E-print Network

PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE corrosion of the magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B combined with different coatings on steel bolts was investigated in field corrosion tests carried out by Volvo Car Corporation. Light metals like magnesium

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

64

Ordered magnesium-lithium alloys: First-principles predictions Richard H. Taylor  

E-print Network

Ordered magnesium-lithium alloys: First-principles predictions Richard H. Taylor Department 2010 Magnesium-lithium Mg-Li alloys are among the lightest structural materials. Although considerable Emerging technologies increasingly depend on the pro- duction of ultralight-weight materials. Magnesium

Hart, Gus

65

In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys Xuenan Gu a  

E-print Network

In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys Xuenan Gu a , Yufeng Zheng a 2 September 2008 Accepted 21 October 2008 Available online 9 November 2008 Keywords: Magnesium alloy Corrosion In vitro Cytotoxicity Hemocompatibility a b s t r a c t As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium

Zheng, Yufeng

66

SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1 , C, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA 2 Magnesium Innovation Center ­ MagIC, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Germany Keywords: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Stress Simulation Abstract A visco

Beckermann, Christoph

67

Study of Forming of Magnesium Alloy by Explosive Energy  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloy is an attractive next generation material due to its high specific strength with low weight. However, magnesium alloys has few slip lines with close-packed hexagonal lattice, and generally poor ductility at room temperature, therefore it is difficult to form this material by cold forging. It is well known that the speed of deformation of metallic materials rapidly changes at the high strain rate. For some metallic materials, it is reported that the ductility also increases at the high strain rate with this speed effect. In this study, a series of high speed impulsive compressive tests were carried. By using explosives for shock wave loading, the velocity in this experiment reached 100 m/s that can't be easily obtained in normal experiment. In this paper, the possibility of forming the AZ31 extrusion magnesium alloy using explosive-impulsive pressure is investigated. And improved ductility by the effect of high-rate deformation is observed with this alloy.

Ruan, Liqun; Hokamoto, Kazuyuki; Marumo, Yasuo [Kumamoto University Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto-shi 860-8555 (Japan); Yahiro, Ititoku [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. Nihonbasi 1-3-16, Toukyou 104-8439 (Japan)

2011-05-04

68

Magnesium  

MedlinePLUS

... de Magnésium, Glycinate de Magnésium, Hydroxyde de Magnésium, Lactate de Magnésium, Lait de Magnésium, Magnesia, Magnesia Carbonica, ... Gluconate, Magnesium Glycerophosphate, Magnesium Glycinate, Magnesium ... Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Murakab, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Oxide, ...

69

In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degrading metal alloys are a new class of implant materials suitable for bone surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation mechanism at the bone–implant interface of different degrading magnesium alloys in bone and to determine their effect on the surrounding bone. Sample rods of four different magnesium alloys and a degradable polymer as a control were

F. Witte; V. Kaese; H. Haferkamp; E. Switzer; A. Meyer-Lindenberg; C. J. Wirth; H. Windhagen

2005-01-01

70

The Numerical Simulation for Extrusion Forming of Magnesium Alloy Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now magnesium alloy is the light metal materials of structural in engineering application, it has a wide potential of application and development in transport, communication equipment, aerospace and other fields. AZ31B magnesium alloy pipes is used to be the research object, and the extruded forming simulation for pipe was made by using finite element software ANSYS, under displacement loads. In order to make the pipe extrusion, the maximum stress of pipe must be bigger than the yield point of it, no matter the pipe was in strengthening phase or local deformation phase. According to the yield point and ultimate strength on the true stress-strain curve of pipe and yield criterion, it can be judged whether the pipe has plastic deformation or not, and it can be determined whether the load applied could make pipe achieve the purpose of extrusion or not.

Zhang, Daiquan; Chen, Guoping

71

The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

Boyer, J A

1927-01-01

72

The Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrosion rates for bare and coated Magnesium alloy AZ31B have been measured. Two coatings, Dow-23(Trademark) and Tagnite(Trademark), have been tested by electrochemical methods and their effectiveness determined. Electrochemical methods employed were the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). In addition, general corrosion and stress corrosion methods were employed to examine the effectiveness of the above coatings in 90 percent humidity. Results from these studies are presented.

Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Mitchell, M. L.; Torres, P. D.

1997-01-01

73

Thermomechanical modelling of indirect extrusion process for magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of deformation phenomena observed in magnesium and its alloys originates from its hexagonal closed packed crystallographic\\u000a structure. Mechanical anisotropy and asymmetry in tension-compression are hence observed. A phenomenological model derived\\u000a by Cazacu and Barlat accounts for the respective phenomena. However, the capabilities of this model for simulation of extrusion\\u000a are limited since strain rate and temperature dependency on

S. Ertürk; D. Steglich; J. Bohlen; D. Letzig; W. Brocks

2009-01-01

74

Corrosion behaviour of laser-melted magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports studies of the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys, AZ31, AZ61 and WE43 following laser surface melting (LSM) with a 2kW continuous wave CO2 laser to depth about 1mm. The laser-melted samples were immersed in 5wt.% sodium chloride solution of pH 10.5 for 10 days, with open circuit potential measurements recorded in the initial 24h. LSM resulted

G. Abbas; Z. Liu; P. Skeldon

2005-01-01

75

Finite element simulation of magnesium alloys laser beam welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate thermal history magnesium-based alloys during laser beam welding. Space–time temperature distributions in weldments are predicted from the beginning of welding to the final cooling. The finite element calculations were performed using Cast3M code with which the heat equation is solved considering a non-linear transient behaviour. The applied loading

Asma Belhadj; Jamel Bessrour; Jean-Eric Masse; Mahmoud Bouhafs; Laurent Barrallier

2010-01-01

76

Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potential of biodegradable magnesium alloys.  

PubMed

Corroding metals made of magnesium alloys represent a new class of degradable implants for musculoskeletal surgery. These implants may be associated with skin sensitizing reactions because of the release of metal ions. This study was conducted to compare the sensitizing potential of four different magnesium alloys (AZ31, AZ91, WE43, and LAE442) to current implant materials such as titanium (TiAl6V4) and a degradable polymer (SR-PLA96). Solutions and solid chips of these materials were prepared and tested in 156 guinea pigs according to the Magnusson-Kligman test. A standard allergen (hydroxy-cinnamon-aldehyde) causing allergic erythema was used as positive control and a standard irritant (sodium-lauryl-sulfate) causing local skin irritation for less than 24 h was used as negative control. All erythema were graded immediately and 24 h after patch removal by three independent observers. Histomorphological analyses were performed on skin biopsies taken 24 h after patch removal. We found that initial erythema in animals treated with solid chips diminished within 24 h and were caused by local skin irritation. Local skin irritation was also determined in erythema remaining for 24 h after patch removal in animals treated with dissolved test materials. No allergenic reactions according to the histomorphological criteria were observed in skin biopsies. We conclude that no skin sensitizing potential were detected for standard materials as well as for all tested magnesium alloys by the used methods. PMID:18067164

Witte, Frank; Abeln, Inken; Switzer, Elinor; Kaese, Volker; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Windhagen, Henning

2008-09-15

77

Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

1995-12-31

78

The Influence of Aluminum Content of AZ61 and AZ80 Magnesium Alloys on Hot Cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate how aluminum content in magnesium alloys AZ61 and AZ80 impacts the hot cracking susceptibility of magnesium alloys. Differences in aluminum content are known to influence the total crack length of hot cracking. Magnesium alloy AZ61's total crack length was the longest in one thermal cycle, while AZ80's total crack length increased as the number of

C. J. Huang; C. M. Cheng; C. P. Chou

2011-01-01

79

Preparation of AZ31 magnesium alloy strips using vertical twin-roll caster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed technology for manufacturing magnesium alloy strip, vertical twin-roll strip casting, has been described. This manufacturing process is easy to be facilitated in an economical way to manufacture wrought magnesium alloy strips. As an example, AZ31 magnesium alloy was used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for vertical twin-roll strip casting by varying the temperatures of the molten

Guang-shan WANG; Hong-shuang DI; Feng HUANG

2010-01-01

80

Effect of HCl pre-treatment on corrosion resistance of cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium and magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion protection afforded by a cerium conversion coating, formed by immersion in a solution containing rare earth salt and hydrogen peroxide, on pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys, AZ91 and AM50, has been studied. The effect of HCl pre-treatments on the morphology and on the corrosion resistance of the cerium conversion layer was investigated. A thicker and more homogeneous

Katya Brunelli; Manuele Dabalà; Irene Calliari; Maurizio Magrini

2005-01-01

81

Semi-solid Twin-roll Casting Process of Magnesium Alloy Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental approach has been performed to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid strip casting using a horizontal twin roll caster. The demand for light-weight products with high strength has grown recently due to the rapid development of automobile and aircraft technology. One key to such development has been utilization of magnesium alloys, which can potentially reduce the total product weight. However, the problems of utilizing magnesium alloys are still mainly related to high manufacturing cost. One of the solutions to this problem is to develop magnesium casting-rolling technology in order to produce magnesium sheet products at competitive cost for commercial applications. In this experiment, magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid roll strip casting for producing magnesium alloy sheets. The temperature of the molten magnesium, and the roll speeds of the upper and lower rolls, (which could be changed independently), were varied to find an appropriate manufacturing condition. Rolling and heat treatment conditions were changed to examine which condition would be appropriate for producing wrought magnesium alloys with good formability. Microscopic observation of the crystals of the manufactured wrought magnesium alloys was performed. It has been found that a limiting drawing ratio of 2.7 was possible in a warm deep drawing test of the cast magnesium alloy sheets after being hot rolled.

Watari, H.; Davey, K.; Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Haga, T.; Koga, N.

2004-06-01

82

On the shock response of the magnesium alloy elektron 675  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloying elements such as aluminum, zinc or rare-earths allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armor materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high strain-rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure longitudinal stress evolution in armor-grade wrought Mg-alloy Elektron 675 under 1D shock loading. The spall behavior was interrogated using a Heterodyne velocimeter (Het-v) system, with an estimate made of the material's Hugoniot elastic limit for both aged and un-aged materials.

Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth James; Wielewski, Euan; Siviour, Clive Richard; Stennett, Chris

2012-03-01

83

High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys  

E-print Network

The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

Somekawa, Hidetoshi

84

Corrosion protection of aerospace grade magnesium alloy Elektron 43(TM) for use in aircraft cabin interiors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys exhibit desirable properties for use in transportation technology. In particular, the low density and high specific strength of these alloys is of interest to the aerospace community. However, the concerns of flammability and susceptibility to corrosion have limited the use of magnesium alloys within the aircraft cabin. This work studies a magnesium alloy containing rare earth elements designed to increase resistance to ignition while lowering rate of corrosion. The microstructure of the alloy was documented using scanning electron microscopy. Specimens underwent salt spray testing and the corrosion products were examined using energy dispersive spectroscopy.

Baillio, Sarah S.

85

Sheet metal forming of magnesium wrought alloys — formability and process technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New developments at the Institute for Metal Forming and Metal Forming Machine Tools show that magnesium sheets possess excellent forming behavior, if the process is conducted at elevated temperatures. For the evaluation of mechanical properties relevant for forming of magnesium sheets, uniaxial tensile tests have been carried out at various temperatures and strain rates.Deep drawing tests with magnesium alloys AZ31B,

E. Doege; K. Dröder

2001-01-01

86

Dissimilar material laser welding between magnesium alloy AZ31B and aluminum alloy A5052-O  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joining technology of lightweight dissimilar metals between magnesium and aluminum alloys is essential for realizing hybrid structure cars and other engineering applications. In the present study, the normal center-line welding of lap joint was carried out by laser welding. It was found that the intermetallic layer formed near interface between two metals significantly degraded the joining strength. FEM heat transfer

Rattana Borrisutthekul; Yukio Miyashita; Yoshiharu Mutoh

2005-01-01

87

In vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite  

E-print Network

21 March 2013] AZ31 magnesium alloy fibers reinforced poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites materials have never been reported to our knowledge. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the copolymerIn vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite Y.H. Wu1) , N

Zheng, Yufeng

88

CIRP Conference on Modeling of Machining Operations (CIRP CMMO) Constitutive Modelling of AZ31B-O Magnesium Alloy  

E-print Network

B-O Magnesium Alloy for Cryogenic Machining E. Girauda* , F. Rossib , G. Germaina , J.C. Outeirob disks of AZ31B-O magnesium alloy, using a special designed tool. In order to include the effects of Machining Operations" in the person of the Conference Chair Prof. Luca Settineri Keywords: Magnesium alloy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Modelling of Superplastic Forming of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

In this study the constitutive equation of the superplastic AZ31 magnesium-based alloy is modelled by the power law relationship between the stress, the strain and the strain-rate and an accurate procedure for determining the constants of the material is presented. Moreover, the problem of optimizing the pressure-time load curve of a free forming process is investigated and resolved by means of a pressure jump forming process. The experimental tests, carried out to support the finite-element modelling, have shown good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data.

Giuliano, G. [University of Cassino, Department of Industrial Engineering, via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

2011-01-17

90

Laser Surface Engineering of Magnesium Alloys: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are well known for their high specific strength and low density. However, widespread applications of Mg alloys in structural components are impeded by their insufficient wear and corrosion resistance. Various surface engineering approaches, including electrochemical processes (plating, conversion coatings, hydriding, and anodizing), gas-phase deposition (thermal spray, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, diamond-like coatings, diffusion coatings, and ion implantation), and organic polymer coatings (painting and powder coating), have been used to improve the surface properties of Mg and its alloys. Recently, laser surface engineering approaches are attracting significant attention because of the wide range of possibilities in achieving the desired microstructural and compositional modifications through a range of laser-material interactions (surface melting, shock peening, and ablation). This article presents a review of various laser surface engineering approaches such as laser surface melting, laser surface alloying, laser surface cladding, laser composite surfacing, and laser shock peening used for surface modification of Mg alloys. The laser-material interactions, microstructural/compositional changes, and properties development (mostly corrosion and wear resistance) accompanied with each of these approaches are reviewed.

Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P.

2012-06-01

91

Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating.

Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

2015-02-01

92

Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Magnesium Alloys During Electropulse Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two magnesium alloys AZ31 and ZEK100 were subjected to cold rolling followed by electropulse treatment (EPT) for different durations in order to investigate the microstructure and texture evolution during EPT. AZ31 started to recrystallize once the electropulse current was applied. ZEK100, in contrast, exhibited two-stage recrystallization before which an evident recovery process occurred. Texture modification was achieved in both alloys after recrystallization, with AZ31 exhibiting a weak RD-split texture and ZEK100 a TD-spread one. The results were discussed with particular emphasis on the distinct impact of electropulse current on the recrystallization texture formation. It is proposed that the promotion of the nucleation of non-basal-oriented grains, the change of the relative mobility of grain boundaries, and the non-basal dislocation activity in the continuous recrystallization are responsible for the texture modification.

Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui; Ye, Xiaoxin; Tang, Jianguo; Liu, Haifeng; Wang, Jeff; Tang, Guoyi

2015-04-01

93

Low temperature superplasticity in an AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by ECAE  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloys are especially suitable for use of the structural components in aerospace and outerspace applications due to their low density. In general, however, magnesium alloys have poor workability because of their h.c.p. structure. Therefore it is desirable to improve the poor workability, and superplastic forming is expected to be put into the processing in practical applications. In the present work, equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE), which allows one to attain high shear strain, has been conducted on an AZ91 magnesium alloy. The alloy processed by ECAE exhibited superplastic behavior at low temperatures of 448 and 473 K, which are about 0.5T{sub m}.

Mabuchi, M. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan)] [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan); Iwasaki, H.; Yanase, K. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)] [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

1997-03-15

94

Microstructure and texture studies on magnesium sheet alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AZ3, the most common Mg sheet alloy, is currently produced by hot rolling of the DC cast ingot. Mg wrought alloys, in general have limited formability due to hexagonal close-packed structure and preferred orientation (texture). In order to improve magnesium sheet formability, a good understanding of microstructure and texture evolution in twin-roll casting is necessary. The objectives of this research are to study the microstructural and texture evolution in twin-roll cast AZ31 Mg sheet alloy and to develop/modify alloy compositions with improved mechanical properties (weakened texture). In the first part of study, the influence of cooling rate (CR) on the casting structure of AZ31 magnesium alloy has been investigated, as a background to understand microstructural development in TRC AZ31, using different moulds to obtain slow to moderate cooling rates. It was found that grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) reduces as the cooling rate increases. Moreover, it was observed that with an increase in cooling rate the fraction of second phase particles increases and the second phase particles become finer. The second part focused on the microstructure and texture study of the twin-roll cast (TRC) AZ31 (Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn) sheet. The results indicate that TRC AZ31 exhibits a dendritic microstructure with columnar and equiaxed grains. It was noted that the amount of these second phases in the TRC alloy is greater than the conventionally cast AZ31. Recrystallization at 420 °C leads to a bimodal grain-size distribution, while a fine-grain structure is obtained after rolling and annealing. The TRC AZ31 sheet exhibits basal textures in the (i) as-received, (ii) rolled and (iii) rolled-annealed conditions. However, post-annealing of the TRC AZ31 at 420 °C produces a relatively random texture that has not been previously observed in the conventional AZ31 sheet. The texture randomization is attributed to the particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) of new grains in the TRC structure. The preliminary evaluation of mechanical properties indicates that such annealing treatment slightly increases the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), but significantly improves elongation. In the final of part of the study, the microstructures and textures of rolled and rolled/annealed Mg-1wt.%Mn-based and Mg-1wt.%Zn-Based alloys containing different levels of Ce and Sr were examined. The Ce addition refines the as-cast and rolled/annealed grain structure of Mg-1wt.%Mn (M1) alloy. Moreover, the overall texture intensity of basal pole was weakened for rolled as well as rolled/annealed Mg-Mn-Ce alloys compared to the M1 alloy. The texture weakening was attributed to the solid solubility of Ce in Mg rather than PSN or c/a ratio alteration. The Sr addition refined the as-cast and rolled/annealed grain structure of Mg-1wt.%Mn-Sr (MJ) and Mg-1wt.%Zn (Z1) alloy. Moreover, the overall texture intensity of basal pole was weakened for rolled as well as rolled/annealed Mg-Zn-Sr (ZJ) alloys compared to the Z1 alloy. The texture weakening is attributed to the PSN of new grains with random orientations.

Masoumi, Mohsen

95

Effects of Zn-In-Sn elements on the electric properties of magnesium alloy anode materials.  

PubMed

A new magnesium alloy anode is based on an environmentally friendly electrode that contains none of mercury, lead and chromate, but it can enhance the electric properties of alloy significantly. Magnesium alloy adding eco-friendly elements Zn-In-Sn which was developed by orthogonal design were obtained by two casting methods. The effect of additive elements on performance of electrode material was studied. The effects of elements addition and casting method on electric properties and corrosive properties of Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloys were investigated by using electrochemical measurements, corrosive tests and observation of surface structure. The results show that Mg-Zn-In-Sn alloy anode has higher electromotive force and more stable work potential than that commercial magnesium alloy AZ91. It is suitable for anode material of magnesium battery for its small hydrogen evolution, less self-corrosion rate and easy to shed corrosive offspring off. PMID:25084604

Yu, Zhan; Ju, Dongying; Zhao, Hongyang; Hu, Xiaodong

2011-06-01

96

Investigation of Deformation Dynamics in a Wrought Magnesium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

In the present research, the deformation dynamics and the effect of the deformation history on plastic deformation in a wrought magnesium alloy have been studied using real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements under a continuous loading condition and elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) polycrystal modeling. The experimental results reveal that the pre-deformation delayed the activation of the tensile twinning during subsequent compression, mainly resulting from the residual strain. No apparent detwinning occurred during unloading and even in the elastic region during reverse loading. It is believed that the grain rotation played an important role in the elastic region during reverse loading. The EVPSC model, which has been recently updated by implementing the twinning and detwinning model, was employed to characterize the deformation mechanism during the strain-path changes. The simulation result predicts well the experimental observation from the real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements. The present study provides a deep insight of the nature of deformation mechanisms in a hexagonal close-packed structured polycrystalline wrought magnesium alloy, which might lead to a new era of deformation-mechanism research.

Wu, Wei [ORNL; Qiao, Hua [McMaster University; An, Ke [ORNL; Wu, Peidong [McMaster University; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2014-01-01

97

Formability study of magnesium alloy AZ31B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this paper is to study the formability of the AZ31B magnesium alloy at various temperature and strain rates. The tensile tests are performed to describe the rheological behavior of material, and the constitutive law is identified with Voce law [1], which contains a softening item. The law is proved effectiveness by fitting the equation with the experimental data. Nakazima experiments with hemispherical punch have been performed at CEMEF on a hydraulic testing machine. Six strain paths are selected by performing various sample geometries [2]. The AramisOptical strain measurement system has been used to obtain principle forming limit strain. The Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is obtained by the critical point on the specimen surface at various temperatures. It is shown that the forming limit curve is higher at high temperature. Based on the Voce law model, finite element simulations of deep drawing test have been done with the commercial finite element code FORGE® in order to investigate the feasibility of hot stamping process for AZ31. In the simulation, the punch load and the thickness distributions have been studied. Meanwhile, the cross-shaped cup deep drawing simulations have been conducted with the data provided in the conference Website. The similar conclusion are obtained that the formability of AZ31 improve at high temperature and the simulation is effective in hot stamping processing. The study results are helpful for the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet [3].

Liu, Z. G.; Lasne, P.; Massoni, E.

2011-08-01

98

Modeling the strength and ductility of magnesium alloys containing nanotwins  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloys have been receiving much attention recently as potential lightweight alternatives to steel for automotive and other applications, but the poor formability of these alloys at low temperatures has limited their widespread adoption for automotive applications. Recent work with face centered cubic (FCC) materials has shown that introduction of twins at the nanometer scale in ultra-fine grained FCC polycrystals can provide significant increase in strength with a simultaneous improvement in ductility. This objective of this work is to explore the feasibility of extending this concept to hexagonal close packed (HCP) materials, with particular focus on using this approach to increase both strength and ductility of magnesium alloys. A crystal plasticity based finite element (CPFE) model is used to study the effect of varying the crystallographic texture and the spacing between the nanoscale twins on the strength and ductility of HCP polycrystals. Deformation of the material is assumed to occur by crystallographic slip, and in addition to the basal and prismatic slip systems, slip is also assumed to occur on the {1 0 -1 1} planes that are associated with compression twins in these materials. The slip system strength of the pyramidal systems containing the nanotwins is assumed to be much lower than the strength of the other systems, which is assumed to scale with the spacing between the nanotwins. The CPFE model is used to compute the stress-strain response for different microstrucrutral parameters, and a criterion based on a critical slip system shear strain and a critical hydrostatic stress is used to compute the limiting strength and ductility, with the ultimate goal of identifying the texture and nanotwin spacing that can lead to the optimum values for these parameters.

Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL

2013-01-01

99

Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

Bhowmick, Sukanta

2011-12-01

100

Barium phosphate conversion coating on die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor corrosion resistance limits the application of magnesium alloys. Conversion coating is widely used to protect magnesium alloys because of easy operation and low cost. A novel conversion coating on die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy containing barium salts was studied. The optimum concentrations of Ba(NO3)2, Mn(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 are 25 g\\/L, 15 mL\\/L and 20 g\\/L, respectively, based on orthogonal test

Feng LIU; Da-yong SHAN; En-hou HAN; Chang-sheng LIU

2008-01-01

101

MUTLI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN WROUGHT MAGNESIUM ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

The microstructural features that govern the mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloys include grain size, crystallographic texture, and twinning. Several processes based on shear deformation have been developed that promote grain refinement, weakening of the basal texture, as well as the shift of the peak intensity away from the center of the basal pole figure - features that promote room temperature ductility in Mg alloys. At ORNL, we are currently exploring the concept of introducing nano-twins within sub-micron grains as a possible mechanism for simultaneously improving strength and ductility by exploiting a potential dislocation glide along the twin-matrix interface a mechanism that was originally proposed for face-centered cubic materials. Specifically, we have developed an integrated modeling and optimization framework in order to identify the combinations of grain size, texture and twin spacing that can maximize strength-ductility combinations. A micromechanical model that relates microstructure to material strength is coupled with a failure model that relates ductility to a critical shear strain and a critical hydrostatic stress. The micro-mechanical model is combined with an optimization tool based on genetic algorithm. A multi-objective optimization technique is used to explore the strength-ductility space in a systematic fashion and identify optimum combinations of the microstructural parameters that will simultaneously maximize the strength-ductility in the alloy.

Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL] [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL] [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

102

Binary Magnesium Alloys: Searching for Novel Compounds by Computational Thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys are among the lightest structural materials and are of considerable technical interest. We use the high-throughput framework AFLOW to make T = 0 K ground state predictions by scanning a large set of known candidate structures for thermodynamic minima. The study presented here encompasses 34 Mg-X systems of interest (X=Al, Au, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, Ir, K, La, Pb, Pd, Pt, Mo, Na, Nb, Os, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr). Avenues for further investigation revealed by this study include stable phases found in addition to experimental phases and compound forming systems thought to be either immiscible or non-compound forming. The existence of potentially novel ordered phases presents new opportunities for materials design.

Taylor, Richard; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

2011-03-01

103

Magnesium alloy AZ31 foil prepared by sputter deposition at 200° C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium and its alloys have a hexagonal closepacked (hcp) crystalline structure. Such structures have very limited slip systems (mainly basal at low temperature) and as a result are difficult to fabricate by conventional thermomechanical processing. Current methods of manufacturing magnesium foil by thermomechanical processing can only produce foil 0.15 mm thick. Further reduction in thickness can only be achieved by

T. G. Nieh; J. Wadsworth

1987-01-01

104

Semisolid manufacturing process of magnesium alloys by twin-roll casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental approach has been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid roll strip casting of magnesium alloys by a twin-roll caster. The demand for light-weight products with high strength has grown recently due to the rapid development of automobile and aircraft technology. One key to such development has been utilization of magnesium alloys, which can potentially reduce the total

H. Watari; K. Davey; M. T. Rasgado; T. Haga; S. Izawa

2004-01-01

105

Determination of the concentrations of magnesium and aluminum in alloys by laser produced atomic emission spectroscopy  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MAGNESIUM AND ALUiiINUM IN ALLOYS BY LASER PRODUCED ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by WILLIAM MONROE ASHE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the reqmrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Physics DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MAGNESIUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS BY LASER PRODUCED ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by WILLIAM MONROE ASHE...

Ashe, William Monroe

1997-01-01

106

Kinetics of recrystallization for twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy during homogenization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of recrystallization for twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy with different thicknesses during homogenization was analyzed. It is shown that fine grains are first formed at the boundaries of deformed bands in the twin-roll casting slab. The recrystallized grains with no strain are gradually substituted for the deformed microstructure of twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy. The incubation temperature and time for the recrystallization of a twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy strip with a thickness of 3 mm are lower and shorter than those of the 6-mm thick strip, respectively. The 3-mm thick twin-roll casting magnesium alloy has finer grains than the 6-mm thick strip. The activation energies of recrystallization for twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy slabs with the thickness of 3 and 6 mm are 88 and 69 kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetics curves of recrystallization for twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy were obtained.

Zhao, Hu; Li, Pei-Jie; He, Liang-Ju

2011-10-01

107

In Vitro Biocompatibility and Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys for Improved Stent Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE) elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg) alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3–10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future. PMID:24921251

Zhao, Nan; Watson, Nevija; Xu, Zhigang; Chen, Yongjun; Waterman, Jenora; Sankar, Jagannathan; Zhu, Donghui

2014-01-01

108

Superplastic Response of Continuously Cast AZ31B Magnesium Sheet Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium sheet is typically produced for commercial applications with the traditional DC-ingot casting method. As a result of the hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure in magnesium, multiple rolling passes and annealing steps are required to reduce the thickness of the ingots. Thus, high fabrication costs characterize the creation of magnesium sheet suitable for common forming operations. Recently, continuous casting (CC) technology, where molten metal is solidified directly into sheet form, has been applied to magnesium alloys; this method has shown the potential to significantly reduce the cost of fabricating magnesium sheet alloys. In order to understand the viability of the CC process, a study was conducted to investigate the superplastic potential of alloys produced by this method. This study focused on AZ31B Mg that was continuously-cast on twin-roll casters from three different suppliers. These three materials were compared with a production DC-cast AZ31B alloy in terms of microstructure, elevated-temperature tensile properties, and superplastic forming response. The data from this study found that microstructural features such as grain size and segregation can significantly affect the forming response. Additionally, the CC alloys can have equivalent or superior SPF response compared to DC-cast alloys, as demonstrated in both elevated temperature tensile tests and superplastic forming trials using a rectangular pan die.

Boileau, J. M.; Friedman, P. A.; Houston, D. Q.; Luckey, S. G.

2010-06-01

109

Investigation of the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy coated with HA and antimicrobial peptide.  

PubMed

Implant-associated infection is one of the biggest problems in orthopedic surgery. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are well-known components of the innate immunity and less susceptible to the development of pathogen resistance compared to conventional antibiotics. Magnesium alloys as potential biodegradable bone implants have been received much attention in biomaterials field. This study investigated the deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings and loading of AMPs on the magnesium alloy surface by a biomimetic method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results presented that a microporous and plate-like CaP coating was processed on the magnesium alloy surface. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the main component of coating was hydroxyapatite (HA). Degradation assay in vitro showed that the HA coating deposited onto the magnesium alloy was corroded more slowly than the bare one. The amount of AMP loaded in the HA coating was 11.16±1.99 ?g/cm2. The AMP loaded onto HA coatings had slow release for 7 days. The AMP-loaded coating showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Its bacterial inhibition rate exceeded 50% after 4 days and the antibacterial effect was sustained for 7 days. The coated magnesium alloys loaded with AMP could improve rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) proliferation. Furthermore, it could also promote alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of rBMMSCs. Both radiographic evaluation and histopathology analysis demonstrated that implantation of the coated magnesium alloy into the rabbit femoral condyle had promoted bone repair and showed anti-inflammatory effect. The results showed that the AMP loaded onto HA coatings on the magnesium alloy surface could be considered an ideal orthopedic implant against S. aureus infection. PMID:25631264

Tian, Jinhuan; Shen, Si; Zhou, Changren; Dang, Xiangli; Jiao, Yanpeng; Li, Lihua; Ding, Shan; Li, Hong

2015-02-01

110

The corrosion behavior of Ce-implanted magnesium alloys  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerium ion implantation on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys. Samples were implanted with doses of 5 x 10{sup 16}, 1 x 10{sup 17} and 5 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}, respectively, using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at an extraction voltage of 45 kV. Auger electron spectrometry (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the depth distribution and the valence states of elements in the implanted layer, respectively. The potentiodynamic polarization technique was applied to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the implanted samples in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with Mg(OH){sub 2}. The results showed that under an optimal dose the corrosion resistance of the implanted sample was improved compared with that of the bare sample. Finally, the corrosion mechanism of the Ce-implanted samples was discussed.

Wang Xuemin [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: wangxuemin75@sjtu.edu.cn; Zeng Xiaoqin; Yao Shoushan; Wu Guosong [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lai Yijian [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2008-05-15

111

Warm Deep Drawing Of Rectangular Cups With Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Recently, magnesium alloys have been widely applied in automotive and electronic industries as the lightest weight structural and functional materials. Warm forming of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention due to the very poor formability of Mg alloys at room temperature. The formability of magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperature is significantly affected by the processing parameters. Among them the forming temperature, the punch speed, the geometrical shape of the blank, the blank holder force and the lubrication are probably the most relevant. In this research, the deep drawing of rectangular cups with AZ31 sheets was conducted at elevated temperatures with different process parameters. The finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of rectangular cup drawing and to predict the process defects during the process. The material yield condition was modeled using the isotropic Von Mises criterion. The flow stress data were obtained from tensile tests.

Ren, L. M. [Department of Mechanical and Management Engineering (DIMeG), Polytechnic of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Palumbo, G.; Tricarico, L. [Department of Mechanical and Management Engineering (DIMeG), Polytechnic of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Zhang, S. H. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China)

2007-05-17

112

Thermal Conductivity of Magnesium Alloys in the Temperature Range from -125 °C to 400 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys have been widely used in recent years as lightweight structural materials in the manufacturing of automobiles, airplanes, and portable computers. Magnesium alloys have extremely low density (as low as 1738 kg · m-3) and high rigidity, which makes them suitable for such applications. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two different magnesium alloys made by twin-roll casting was investigated using the laser-flash technique and differential scanning calorimetry for thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity measurements, respectively. The thermal diffusivity of the magnesium alloys, AZ31 and AZ61, was measured over the temperature range from -125 °C to 400 °C. The alloys AZ31 and AZ61 are composed of magnesium, aluminum, and zinc. The thermal conductivity gradually increased with temperature. The densities of AZ31 and AZ61 were 1754 kg · m-3 and 1777 kg · m-3, respectively. The thermal conductivity of AZ31 was about 25 % higher than that of AZ61, and this is attributed to the amount of precipitation.

Lee, Sanghyun; Ham, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Su Yong; Kim, Sok Won; Suh, Chang Min

2013-12-01

113

Forming Analysis of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets by Means of a Multistep Inverse Approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper applies a multi-step inverse approach to predict the forming of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. An in-house finite element code named “INAPH”, which implements the inverse approach formulation by Guo et al. (Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 30, 1385-1401), has been used for the forming analysis. This inverse approach uses the deformation theory of plasticity and assumes that the deformation is independent of the loading history. Failure during forming is predicted by a stress-based criterion or a forming limit diagram-based criterion. The INAPH predictions have been compared with experimental results of Takuda et al (Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 89-90:135-140) and incremental analysis using ABAQUS. The multi-step inverse analysis has been shown to very quickly and fairly accurately predict stress, plastic strain, thickness distributions and failure locations on deeply drawn parts made of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The capability of INAPH to predict the formability of magnesium alloys has also been demonstrated at various temperatures. As magnesium alloys possess very limited formability at room temperature, and their formability becomes better at higher temperatures (> 100oC), the inverse analysis constitutes an efficient and valuable tool to predict forming of magnesium alloy parts as a function of temperature. In addition, other processing and design parameters such as the initial dimensions, final desired shape, blank holder forces, and friction can be quickly adjusted to assess the forming feasibility.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2009-04-01

114

Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy  

E-print Network

91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering in revised form 20 January 2000 Key words: AZ91D alloy, chloride ion, corrosion, die-cast, ingot, magnesium of morphology. The corrosion product consisted of magnesium hydroxide, fallen b particles and magnesium

Zhou, Wei

115

LJournal of Alloys and Compounds 270 (1998) 8894 Reduction of magnesium orthovanadate Mg (VO )3 4 2  

E-print Network

LJournal of Alloys and Compounds 270 (1998) 88­94 Reduction of magnesium orthovanadate Mg (VO )3 4; received in revised form 15 August 1997 Abstract Reduction of polycrystalline and crystalline magnesium of orthorhombic Mg V O with a cation-deficient-spinel structure (25% of the magnesium atoms on3 2 8 octahedral

Marks, Laurence D.

116

Magnesium  

MedlinePLUS

... and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease Hypertension is a ... magnesium in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Migraine headaches Magnesium deficiency is related to factors that ...

117

In vitro studies of biomedical magnesium alloys in a simulated physiological environment: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the immense potential of biodegradable magnesium alloys, the fast degradation rates of Mg-based biomedical implants in the physiological environment impose severe limitations in many clinical applications. Consequently, extensive in vitro studies have been carried out to investigate the materials’ performance and fathom the associated mechanisms. Here, an up-to-date review of the in vitro studies on biomedical magnesium

Y. Xin; T. Hu; P. K. Chu

2011-01-01

118

One-step electrochemical fabrication of bilayered MgO/polymer coating on magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research demonstrates a novel one-step electrochemical method to fabricate thick bilayer coatings on magnesium alloy in acid phosphate electrolyte containing aniline monomer and styrene-acrylic emulsion (SAE) with pulsed DC voltage. The morphologies, XRD and FTIR results show that the bilayer coating consists of an inner oxide layer and an outer polyaniline (PANI)/SAE composite layer. It is believed that the bilayered structure achieved results from a hybrid process combining electropolymerization (EPM) of aniline, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of SAE and plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) of magnesium alloy substrate. Electrochemical corrosion tests indicate that the bilayer coating can provide superior corrosion protection to the magnesium alloy substrate in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

Liang, Jun; Zhang, Ren-Hui; Peng, Zhen-Jun; Liu, Bai-Xing

2014-09-01

119

Corrosion Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Three Different Physiological Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys have been considered as promising biomedical materials and were studied in different physiological environments. In this work, corrosion behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva, simulated body fluid (SBF), and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques and a short-term immersion test. In contrast with other physiological environments, the amount of aggressive ions in artificial saliva is small. In addition, a protective film is formed on the surface of samples in artificial saliva. Experimental results suggest that corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy in artificial saliva is better than that in c-SBF and 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

Zhou, Juncen; Li, Qing; Zhang, Haixiao; Chen, Funan

2014-01-01

120

A mechanistic in vitro study of the microgalvanic degradation of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to understand the effect of microgalvanic degradation on secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys under in vitro condition. Pure magnesium and Mg17 Al12 (?-phase) were galvanically coupled in simulated body fluid and the degradation behavior was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The galvanic coupling produced a phosphate/carbonate layer on the ?-phase, which initially increased the degradation resistance. However, the deposited phosphate/carbonate layer rapidly degraded once the galvanic coupling was removed, and ?-phase exhibited similar degradation resistance to that of pure magnesium. A phenomenological model has been presented, demonstrating the galvanic coupling effect. PMID:24910135

Walter, R; Kannan, M Bobby

2015-03-01

121

Design of experiment (DOE) study of biodegradable magnesium alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying using fractional factorial design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biodegradable nature of magnesium (Mg) makes it a most highlighted and attractive to be used as implant materials. However, rapid corrosion rate of Mg alloys especially in electrolytic aqueous environment limits its performance. In this study, Mg alloy was mechanically milled by incorporating manganese (Mn) as alloying element. An attempt was made to study both effect of mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation processes on the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. 2k-2 factorial design was employed to determine the significant factors in producing Mg alloy which has properties closes to that of human bones. The design considered six factors (i.e. milling time, milling speed, weight percentage of Mn, compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time). Density and hardness were chosen as the responses for assessing the most significant parameters that affected the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. The experimental variables were evaluated using ANOVA and regression model. The main parameter investigated was compaction pressure.

Salleh, Emee Marina; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Hussain, Zuhailawati

2014-06-01

122

Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

Hiraki, Takehito; Takeda, Osamu; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

2011-06-01

123

Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys  

PubMed Central

In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting process is confirmed by SEM analyses. Microstructures and Co-rich precipitations of various Mg-Co alloys are investigated by means of EDS and XRD analyses. The Mg-Co alloys' mechanical strengths are determined by tensile tests. Magnetic properties of the Mg-Co sensor alloys depending on the cobalt content and the acting mechanical load are measured utilizing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. Within the scope of this work, the influence of the element cobalt on magnesium is investigated in detail and an optimal cobalt concentration is defined based on the performed examinations. PMID:23344376

Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Mroz, Gregor; Reimche, Wilfried; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Kerber, Kai

2013-01-01

124

Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings  

SciTech Connect

Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

Bichler, L. [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ravindran, C., E-mail: rravindr@ryerson.ca [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. E., Toronto, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

2010-03-15

125

A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn  

E-print Network

A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn and B. B. Clow, Nashville, Tennessee, Mar. 2000, pp. 345-348. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY

Zhou, Wei

126

Study on the blood compatibility and biodegradation properties of magnesium alloys.  

PubMed

Lately, several magnesium alloys have been investigated as a new class of biomaterials owing to their excellent biodegradability in living tissues. In this study, we considered AZ series of Mg alloy containing aluminum (3% to 9%) and zinc (1%) as a model magnesium alloy, and investigated their biodegradation in whole blood and blood compatibility in vitro. The results of the elution property of metal ions determined using chromogenic assay and the associated pH change show that the degradation resistance of the AZ series alloys in blood is improved by alloying aluminum. Furthermore, the blood compatibility of the alloys was investigated in terms of their hemolysis, factor Xa-like activity, using spectrophotometry and chromogenic assay, respectively, and coagulation time measurements (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time). The results indicated that the blood compatibility of the AZ series alloys is excellent, irrespective of the alloy composition. The excellent blood compatibility with the coagulation system could be attributed to the eluted Mg(2+) ion, which suppresses the activation of certain coagulation factors in the intrinsic and/or extrinsic coagulation pathways. In terms of the degradation resistance of the AZ series alloys in blood, the results of pH change in blood and the amount of the eluted metal ions indicate that the performance is markedly improved with an increase in aluminum content. PMID:25492190

Mochizuki, Akira; Kaneda, Hideki

2015-02-01

127

Microstructure, solute partitioning and material properties of gadolinium-doped magnesium alloy AZ91D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 10–25mass%Gd doping on the solidification microstructure, solute partitioning and material properties of the magnesium alloy AZ91D were investigated. AZ91D samples with 10–25mass%Gd were solidified by a furnace cooling technique from 700°C in an Ar flow. Microstructure observations showed that the Gd-doped alloys exhibit drastic structural changes to the ?Mg matrix with dispersed Al2Gd particles. SEM-EDS analysis indicated

Masaki Sumida; Sanghoon Jung; Toshimitsu Okane

2009-01-01

128

Evaluation of tensile properties of 5052 type aluminum-magnesium alloy at warm temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the tensile properties of 5052 type aluminum-manganese alloy in warm temperatures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: In this research, uniaxial tensile deformation behavior of 5052-H32 type aluminum magnesium alloy was studied range between room to 300°C and in the strain rate range of 0.0083-0.16 s-1. Findings: It was observed that the uniaxial tensile elongation of

F. Ozturk; S. Toros; S. Kilic

129

Effects of antimony addition on the microstructures of ZA84 magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of antimony (Sb) on the microstructures of as-cast Mg–8Zn–4Al (ZA84) magnesium alloy were investigated by using optical microscopy, SEM, EDX, and XRD, etc. The results indicated that the microstructures of as-cast alloys containing Sb consisted of solid solution ?(Mg), ternary phases ? [Mg32(Al, Zn)49] and ? (Al2Mg5Zn2), eutectic mixture phase [?(Mg)+?], a newly formed dual phase MgZn2, and

Jianqiang Wang; Zhanlai Ding; Fangjuan Qi; Hao Zhu; Yunchang Fan

2010-01-01

130

Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy.  

PubMed

Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. PMID:25686961

Ren, Yufu; Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2015-04-01

131

Formation of Ha-Containing Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Micro-Arc Oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this study, a HA-containing coating was fabricated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The active plasma species of micro-discharge was studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The microstructure and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion behavior and apatite-forming ability were studied by electrochemical tests and immersed samples in simulated body fluids (SBF). The results show that the microdischarge channel model is gas discharges and oxide layer discharges. The elements from the substrate and electrolyte take part in the formation of the coating. The MAO coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy and enhances the apatite formation ability.

Tang, Hui; Li, Deyu; Chen, Xiuping; Wu, Chao; Wang, Fuping

2013-08-01

132

The twin-roll casting of magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, technologies for twin-roll casting have been widely developed to efficiently fabricate the lightweight Mg alloy sheets that are quite attractive for numerous weight-sensitive applications. This paper reviews the recent progress in the twin-roll casting of Mg alloys, focusing on the processing aspects that have close relations to the solidification behavior of Mg alloy strips. In addition, recent attempts to develop new Mg alloys utilizing the metallurgical advantages attainable by this novel casting process are also presented.

Park, S. S.; Park, W.-J.; Kim, C. H.; You, B. S.; Kim, Nack J.

2009-08-01

133

Effects of magnetic fields on the phosphate conversion coating of AZ91D magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An external high parallel magnetic fields (MF) was imposed on the barium phosphate process of AZ91D magnesium alloy. The influences of the permanent MF on the morphology, the phase composition and the corrosion resistance of the barium phosphate coatings were studied using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, salt spay test. The results show that the coatings with MF are more

HuaLan Jin; XiangJie Yang; WenYi Peng; HongMin Guo

2010-01-01

134

Plastic anisotropy and the role of non-basal slip in magnesium alloy AZ31B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic explanations for the plastic behavior of a wrought magnesium alloy are developed using a combination of experimental and simulation techniques. Parameters affecting the practical sheet formability, such as strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, the degree of anisotropy, and the stresses and strains at fracture, are examined systematically by conducting tensile tests of variously oriented samples at a range

Sean R. Agnew; Özgür Duygulu

2005-01-01

135

Texture characterisation of hexagonal metals: Magnesium AZ91 alloy, welded by laser processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled and cast magnesium AZ91 alloy was welded using a CO2 laser. The changes in the microstructure were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Modification of the anisotropic properties was evaluated by the characterization of the texture in the base metal, in the core of the welded zone and in the welded zone close to the

A. Kouadri; L. Barrallier

2006-01-01

136

Precipitation reactions in Magnesium-rare earth alloys containing Yttrium, Gadolinium or Dysprosium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation reactions have been evaluated in three magnesium-rare earth alloys, containing yttrium, gadolinium or dysprosium. Differences have been noted in precipitate morphology, volume fraction and formation kinetics. These features have been combined with phase composition data and related to mechanical properties.

P. J. Apps; H. Karimzadeh; J. F. King; G. W. Lorimer

2003-01-01

137

Microstructures and tensile properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy by continuous extrusion forming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of continuous extrusion forming (Conform process) of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results indicate that continuous extrusion forming can refine the structure, improve the degree of the structure homogeneity and change the crystal orientation of basal plane and hence enhance the ductility but decrease tensile strength at room temperature. The fracture

Hui Zhang; Qiqi Yan; Luoxing Li

2008-01-01

138

Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

2012-07-01

139

Mechanical and corrosion properties of Al/Ti film on magnesium alloy AZ31B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparation of titanium film on magnesium substrate faces a challenge due to non-Fickian inter-diffusion between titanium and magnesium. Aluminum can build a bridge between titanium and magnesium. Al/Ti duplex coatings were deposited on magnesium alloy AZ31B using magnetron sputtering (MS). The low temperature diffusion bonding behavior of the Mg/Al/Ti coating was investigated through SEM and its affiliated EDS. The phase structure and critical load of the coatings were examined by means of XRD and scratch tests, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bonding strength was significantly improved after a post heat treatment (HT) at a temperature of 210°C. The diffusion mechanism of the interfaces of Mg/Al and Al/Ti in the coating was discussed based on the analysis of formation energy of vacancies and diffusion rates. The Al/Ti dual layer enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy. And the HT process further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy. This result implies that a post HTat a lower temperature after MS is an effective approach to enhance the bonding strength and corrosion resistance of the Al/Ti film on Mg alloys.

Zeng, Rong-Chang; Jiang, Ke; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Cui, Hong-Zhi; Han, En-Hou

2015-03-01

140

Anisotropy and Asymmetry of Yield in Magnesium Alloys at Room Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical anisotropy and asymmetry are often pronounced in wrought magnesium alloys and are detrimental to formability and service performance. Single crystals of magnesium are highly anisotropic due to the large difference in critical resolved shear stress between the softest and hardest deformation modes. Polycrystalline magnesium alloys exhibit lower anisotropy, influenced by texture, solute level, and precipitates. In this work, a fundamental study of the effects of alloying, precipitate formation, and texture on the change in anisotropy and asymmetry from the pure magnesium single crystal case to polycrystalline alloys has been performed. It is demonstrated that much of the reduction in anisotropy and asymmetry arises from overall strengthening as solute, precipitates, and grain boundary effects are accounted for. Precipitates are predicted to be more effective than solute in reducing anisotropy and asymmetry, but shape and habit are critical since precipitates produce highly anisotropic strengthening. A small deviation from an ideal basal texture (15 deg spread) has a very strong effect in reducing anisotropy and asymmetry, similar in magnitude to the maximum effect produced by precipitation. Elasto-plastic modeling suggests that this is due to a contribution from basal slip to initial plastic deformation, even when global yield is not controlled by this mode.

Robson, Joseph

2014-10-01

141

Study of the decomposition of the magnesium-based solid solutions in Mg-Sm-Tb alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics and structural transformations upon the decomposition of a magnesium-based supersaturated solid solution in Mg-Sm-Tb alloys have been studied at various relations between the concentrations of terbium and samarium. It has been established that with increasing terbium content in the alloys the strengthening upon the decomposition of the supersaturated magnesium-based solid solution increases. The decomposition of the supersaturated magnesium-based solid solution in the Mg-Sm-Tb alloys with a percentage ratio (wt %) Tb: Sm of about 2.5 exhibits signs characteristic of the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in binary Mg-Tb alloys. With allowance for the equilibrium Mg-Sm-Tb phase diagram, this gives grounds to suppose that samarium is mainly dissolved in the products of the decomposition of the magnesium solid solution that are characteristic of Mg-Tb alloys.

Luk'yanova, E. A.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Dobatkina, T. V.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.

2013-07-01

142

Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

2013-09-01

143

Biocompatibility of rapidly solidified magnesium alloy RS66 as a temporary biodegradable metal.  

PubMed

Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys are very promising materials for temporary implants. However, the clinical use of magnesium-based alloys is often limited by rapid corrosion and by insufficient mechanical stability. Here we investigated RS66, a magnesium-based alloy with extraordinary physicochemical properties of high tensile strength combined with a high ductility and a homogeneous grain size of ~1 ?m which was obtained by rapid solidification processing and reciprocal extrusion. Using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we analyzed the biodegradation behavior and the biocompatibility of this alloy. In vitro, RS66 had no cytotoxic effects in physiological concentrations on the viability and the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In vivo, RS66 cylinders were implanted into femur condyles, under the skin and in the muscle of adult rabbits and were monitored for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks. After explantation, the RS66 cylinders were first analyzed by microtomography to determine the remaining RS66 alloy and calculate the corrosion rates. Then, the implantation sites were examined histologically for healing processes and foreign body reactions. We found that RS66 was corroded fastest subcutaneously followed by intramuscular and bony implantation of the samples. No clinical harm with transient gas cavities during the first 6 weeks in subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation sites was observed. No gas cavities were formed around the implantation site in bone. The corrosion rates in the different anatomical locations correlated well with the local blood flow prior to implantation. A normal foreign body reaction occurred in all tissues. Interestingly, no enhanced bone formation could be observed around the corroding samples in the condyles. These data show that RS66 is biocompatible, and due to its interesting physicochemical properties, this magnesium alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants. PMID:23416472

Willbold, Elmar; Kalla, Katharina; Bartsch, Ivonne; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Remennik, Sergei; Shechtman, Dan; Nellesen, Jens; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogt, Carla; Witte, Frank

2013-11-01

144

Magnesium and its alloys as orthopedic biomaterials: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a lightweight metal with mechanical properties similar to natural bone, a natural ionic presence with significant functional roles in biological systems, and in vivo degradation via corrosion in the electrolytic environment of the body, magnesium-based implants have the potential to serve as biocompatible, osteoconductive, degradable implants for load-bearing applications. This review explores the properties, biological performance, challenges and future

Mark P. Staiger; Alexis M. Pietak; Jerawala Huadmai; George Dias

2006-01-01

145

Texture Control by Selective Deformation Mechanism Activation in Magnesium Alloy  

E-print Network

strategies that increase strength in single-phase Mg alloy via grain refinement to submicron average grain size. We also established the achievable crystallographic textures in Mg alloy using 90o equal channel angular extrusion. In support of these first two...

Foley, David Christopher

2014-07-01

146

Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium alloy on its  

E-print Network

Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341­356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium Magnesium alloys exhibit the attractive combination of low densities (1.74 g/cm3 versus 2.7 g/cm3 for Al

Tong, Wei

147

Testing of general and localized corrosion of magnesium alloys: A critical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of materials generally occurs via corrosion, fatigue, and wear. Once a magnesium (Mg) alloy is chosen for a certain application, corrosion testing is generally required as a function of the expected service environment, the type of corrosion expected in service, and the type of surface protection, depending on the material and its use in the intended surface. In the absence of appropriate standards for the testing of magnesium alloys, a brief summary of the various procedures of accelerated electrochemical and corrosion testing of Mg alloys that have been adopted by different schools is given, accompanied by some critical comments for future work. Hydroxide, hydroxide-chloride, and corrosive water formulated according to American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standard 1384-96 are considered to evaluate general corrosion, localized corrosion, and corrosion influenced by metallurgical parameters. The influence of agitation, oxygenation, pH, and temperature are discussed. Surface cleaning, superficial microstructure, and surface preparation for testing are discussed. Appropriate electrochemical methods that can be applied to this relatively new and electrochemically active structural material are described. Corrosion potential measurements, polarization, impedance, noise electrochemistry, and surface reference electrode technique are recommended as valuable methods for evaluating the resistance of existing or experimental alloys to these types of corrosion. Corrosion kinetics and varying properties of the solution at the alloy/solution interface are examined. A critical description of the relevance and importance of these methods to corrosion testing of Mg alloys is given.

Ghali, Edward; Dietzel, Wolfgang; Kainer, Karl-Ulrich

2004-10-01

148

46. Progress of Glide and Fracture in Alloy Crystals 141 The behaviour of magnesium crystals is shown in Fig. 108. The  

E-print Network

8 46. Progress of Glide and Fracture in Alloy Crystals 141 The behaviour of magnesium crystals with magnesium solid solutions. The yield-stress curves of et-brass crystals of various zinc con- centrations

Cambridge, University of

149

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium-Alloyed Hematite Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized pure and Mg-alloyed hematite thin films on F-doped, SnO2-coated glass substrates by radiofrequency magnetron cosputtering of iron oxide with and without MgO sources in mixed Ar/O2 and mixed N2/O2 ambient. We found that hematite films deposited in N2/O2 ambient exhibited much poorer crystallinity than those deposited in Ar/O2 ambient. We determined that Mg alloying led to increased crystallinity and bandgap. Furthermore, we found that Mg alloying inverted the type of conductivity of the thin films: pure hematite thin films exhibited n-type conductivity, whereas Mg-alloyed hematite thin films exhibited p-type conductivity.

Tang, Houwen; Matin, M. A.; Wang, Heli; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Turner, John; Yan, Yanfa

2012-11-01

150

Influence of anisotropy of the magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets on warm negative incremental forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single point incremental forming of the magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets, which were fabricated by hot extrusion, slab+hot\\/cold rolling, strip-casting rolling and cross-rolling, respectively, was investigated at elevated temperatures. The results show that the anisotropy of the sheets fabricated by casting slab+hot\\/cold rolling and cross-rolling is not remarkable, and the formability is improved significantly. The circular, square and rotary cone parts

Qinglai Zhang; Hailing Guo; Fugui Xiao; Lin Gao; A. B. Bondarev; Weidong Han

2009-01-01

151

Optimisation of magnesium alloy stamping with local heating and cooling using the finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new deep-drawing process with a localised heating and cooling technique was verified to improve sheet forming of a magnesium alloy which is impossible to form by conventional methods at room temperature. Deep-drawing experiments were conducted at a temperature of about 400°C for the blank and deep-drawing tool (holder and die) and at a punch speed of 200mm\\/min. In the

S. Yoshihara; B. J. MacDonald; H. Nishimura; H. Yamamoto; K. Manabe

2004-01-01

152

Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation [1] can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied

Z. G. Liu; E. Massoni

2011-01-01

153

Anomalous Strain Rate Sensitivity of Twinning in a Magnesium Alloy at High Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous strain rate sensitivity of twinning was observed in a Mg-Al-Mn magnesium alloy during extrusion around 723 K (450 °C). The density of twins decreases as the ram speed increases. At 10 mm min-1, relatively high density twins are activated, but much fewer twins were observed at 30 mm min-1; at 50 mm min-1, twins were hardly seen. The negative strain rate sensitivity was ascribed to the interaction of twinning with defects.

Ma, Quancang; Li, Bin; Mcclelland, Zackery; Horstemeyer, Stephen J.

2013-10-01

154

Die design for stamping a notebook case with magnesium alloy sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing a notebook top cover case with LZ91 magnesium–lithium alloy sheet at room temperature was examined using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. A four-operation stamping process was developed to eliminate both the fracture and wrinkle defects occurred in the stamping process of the top cover case. In order

Heng-Kuang Tsai; Chien-Chin Liao; Fuh-Kuo Chen

2008-01-01

155

Alloy formation processes at electrochemical intercalation of lithium into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of alloy formation processes that occur during the electrochemical intercalation of lithium from lithium\\u000a chloride solutions in dimethylformamide into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc (MgZn2, Mg2Zn3) and the corresponding individual metals is studied by chronopotentiometric and voltammetric methods. Lithium-containing\\u000a phases are formed in all samples studied; moreover, for MgZn2 and Mg2Zn3 electrodes, the phases formed are

V. V. Ozeryanskaya; V. E. Guterman

2007-01-01

156

On the use of magnesium alloys for aerospace and defense mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme light-weighting is important in many aerospace and defense applications but the cost associated with beryllium or other exotic materials can be prohibitive. The current standard for producing cost effective, high performance mirrors is to diamond machine mirror blanks from aluminum alloy stock. About 80% material removal is the limit for geometrical lightweighting while still retaining the structural integrity required for optical fabrication. To reduce weight further requires alternative materials. This paper summarizes the status of diamond machined finishing and coating of magnesium alloys to produce cost effective, lightweight mirrors with high, broadband reflectivity and low scatter finish.

Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Crifasi, Joseph C.

2014-06-01

157

Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of HPDC AM6OB Magnesium Alloy at Cold Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the fatigue and fracture characterization of the high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B magnesium alloy at -40 °C temperature was conducted by means of the constant load amplitude fatigue test. The results demonstrated that low temperature had a significant influence on alloy's fatigue life; the life increased at -40 °C temperature as compared to that at room temperature. The fracture surfaces of the tested specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to further understand the fracture phenomenon at low temperature.

Nur Hossain, Md.; Taheri, Farid

2011-12-01

158

Development of a Binary Zn-Based Solder Alloy for Joining Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ31B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present article, the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B sheets were soldered by means of high-frequency induction heating device using a novel binary Zn-based solder alloy in argon gas shield condition. The interfacial microstructure, phase constitution, and fracture morphology of the soldered joint were studied. The microhardness and shear strength of the soldered joint were tested. The experimental results exhibit that ?-Mg solid solution and ?-MgZn phase were formed in soldering region. Moreover, the ?-Mg7Zn3 phase in the original Zn-based solder alloy disappeared completely after the soldering process due to the fierce alloying between the molten binary Zn-based solder alloy and the base metal AZ31B during soldering. Test results show that the shear strength of the soldered joint is 28 MPa. The fracture morphology of the soldered joint displays an intergranular fracture mode, and the crack originates from ?-Mg + ?-MgZn eutectoid structure. The interaction between the molten Zn-based solder alloy and the base metal AZ31B leads the Zn-based solder alloy to be transformed into Mg-based soldering metal during soldering.

Ma, Li; Long, Weimin; Qiao, Peixin; He, Dingyong; Li, Xiaoyan

2013-01-01

159

Textures, microstructures, anisotropy and formability of aluminum-manganese-magnesium and aluminum-magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation work, the microstructure and texture evolution of continuous cast (CC) and direct chill (DC) cast Al-Mn-Mg (AA 3105 and AA 3015) and Al-Mg (AA 5052) alloys during cold rolling and annealing are systematically investigated. Macrotexture analyses were based on three-dimensional orientation distribution functions (ODFs) calculated from incomplete pole figures from X-ray diffraction by using arbitrarily defined cell (ADC) and series expansion methods. A new technique, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), was adopted for microtexture and mesotexture investigation. The anisotropy and formability of Al-Mn-Mg and Al-Mg alloys are correlated to the texture results. For aluminum alloys studied in this work, a stronger Cube orientation is observed in DC hot band than in CC hot band after complete recrystallization. alpha and beta fibers become well developed beyond 50% cold rolling in both CC and DC aluminum alloys. The highest intensity along the beta fiber (skeleton line) is located between the Copper and the S orientations in both materials after high cold rolling reductions. In both CC and DC aluminum alloys, a cell structure develops with the indication of increasing CSL Sigma1 boundaries during the early stages of cold rolling. There is no evidence of the development of twin boundaries (Sigma3, Sigma9, Sigma27a & 27b) in either CC or DC aluminum alloys when the cold rolling reductions are less than 40%. The R and Cube textures are dominant recrystallization texture components in CC and DC AA 5052 alloys. The volume fraction of the Cube component is increased by increasing cold rolling reduction and annealing temperature but not by increasing annealing time while the volume fraction of the R component is only increased by increasing cold rolling reduction. Stronger Cube and R orientations are found at the surface layer than at half-thickness layer of cold rolled hot bands after annealing. The Cube and P textures are dominant recrystallization texture components in DC AA 3105 and CC AA 3015 alloys, respectively. When the hot bands of CC AA 3015 alloy were directly cold rolled followed by annealing the P orientation {011}<566>, accompanied by the R-CubeND orientation {001}<130>, was found to be the major recrystallization texture component for CC AA 3015 alloy. The Brass orientation {011}<112> transforms to the P orientation along the alpha fiber during annealing. The intensity of the P orientation increases with increasing cold rolling reduction and the highest intensity is obtained utilizing a 450°C anneal. The Zener drag mechanism appears to be responsible for the formation of the highly RD-elongated recrystallized grain structure. For CC AA3015 alloy, the yield strength and ultimate strength of cold rolled hot bands at O-temper condition can be significantly increased by solid solution annealing of hot bands before cold rolling.

Liu, Jiantao

160

Yield Asymmetry Design of Magnesium Alloys by Integrated Computational Materials Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to microstructure, characterized by texture and grain size. Modified intermediate phi-model, a polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry by thermomechanical processing. In some texture, for example, rolled texture, CYS/TYS is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In some texture, for example, extruded texture, asymmetry is large along normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, the asymmetry will increased to close to 1 along rolling direction after compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our model shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Besides texture control, grain refinement can also optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreased to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 since CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ahzi, Said

2013-11-01

161

Crystal Structure Formed in Mechanical Alloying Process of Mg-Al-Zn Powder Mixture Using Magnesium Alloy Machined Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For making the functional alloy powder from magnesium alloy scrap, Mg-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn powder mixtures, which aluminum and zinc powder were added with various contents to machined chips of AZ31 alloy, were mechanically alloyed for various milling times using planetary ball mill. Crystal phase formed in the obtained powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness of the powder particles was measured for confirmations of the formed phases. In the case of Mg-2.5mol%Zn powder mechanically alloyed for long milling time, super-saturated ?-Mg phase with 2.5mol%Zn concentration forms. The structures of Mg-28 and 52mol%Zn powder consist of Mg2Zn2 or MgZn2, Mg7Zn3 phases and then these phases become to amorphous phase by milling for prolonged time. In the ternary Mg-Al-Zn system of composition range, which were (30-50)mol%Mg with Al/Zn=(90/10-60/40) molar ratio, Mg-(30-50)mol%Al-20mol%Zn and Mg-(10-30)mol%Al-40mol%Zn, icosahedron Mg49 (Al, Zn) 32 phase as called the quasi crystal forms by the mechanical alloying for 72ks.

Oginuma, Hideki; Yuasa, Eiji

162

Effect of Ar bubbling during plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31B magnesium alloy in silicate electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argon gas was bubbled during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of magnesium alloy in a silicate solution. The appearance of arcs and plasma discharging was locally concentrated on the magnesium alloy surface and phase fraction of Mg2SiO4 in the oxide layer was increased due to Argon gas bubbling. The higher energy density of the Ar plasma atmosphere is believed to contribute to the effective formation of the high temperature phase (Mg2SiO4), particularly in the inner layer. Furthermore, the PEO treated Mg alloy with Ar bubbling showed improved corrosion resistance by a change of open pores structure.

Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Yonghwan; Chung, Wonsub

2012-10-01

163

Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

2013-11-01

164

Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

2010-12-01

165

Comparative in vitro study and biomechanical testing of two different magnesium alloys.  

PubMed

In this in vitro study, magnesium plates of ZEK100 and MgCa0.8 alloy similar to common titanium alloy osteosynthesis plates were investigated as degradable biomedical materials with a focus on primary stability. Immersion tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution at 37. The bending strength of the samples was determined using the four-point bending test according to ISO 9585:1990. The initial strength of the noncorroded ZEK100 plate was 11% greater than that of the MgCa0.8 plate; both were approximately 65% weaker than a titanium plate. The bending strength was determined after 48 and 96 h of immersion in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution; both magnesium alloys decreased by approximately 7% after immersion for 96 h. The degradation rate and the Mg(2+) release of ZEK100 were lower than those of MgCa0.8. Strong pitting and filiform corrosion were observed in the MgCa0.8 samples after 96 h of immersion. The surface of the ZEK100 plates exhibited only small areas of filiform corrosion. The results of this in vitro study indicate that the ZEK100 alloy may be more suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24105427

Weizbauer, Andreas; Modrejewski, Christian; Behrens, Sabine; Klein, Helmut; Helmecke, Patrick; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Windhagen, Henning; Möhwald, Kai; Reifenrath, Janin; Waizy, Hazibullah

2014-04-01

166

Modelling of laser cladding of magnesium alloys with pre-placed powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a surface engineering technique, high-power laser cladding, has shown great potential for improving the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Its main advantage over other processes, is its ability to form relatively thick protective coatings on selected areas where improved properties are desired. It is also a 'clean' process. However, previous research studies have found that in laser cladding of magnesium alloys, the problem of a high degree of dilution cannot be easily overcome. Moreover, in-depth studies using analytical or numerical modelling can rarely be found in the literature for addressing laser cladding with pre-placed powders with the aim of predicting the level of dilution. In the first phase of this study, a simplified thermal model based on the finite element method (FEM) was developed to study the phenomenon of dilution in laser cladding of a magnesium alloy. In the model, the powder bed was treated as a continuum, and a high power continuous wave (CW) laser was employed. The results of the simulations of the FEM model together with those of the statistical analyses showed that although, under normal cladding conditions, a process window can be established for achieving good interfacial bonding between the substrate and the clad coating, a low dilution level was extremely difficult to achieve. This was primarily attributed to the low melting point and the high thermal diffusivity of magnesium as well as the relatively long laser-material interaction time. To overcome the dilution problem, the double-layer cladding technique was explored, and was found to be able to produce low dilution clads with improved corrosion resistance. In considering the improvement of corrosion resistance that can be caused by laser surface modification to magnesium alloys, a comparison was made between the techniques of laser surface melting and laser cladding. The results of the potentiodynamic polarisation tests showed that the improvement obtained from laser surface melting was far less than that could be provided by laser cladding. Although, laser surface melting could effect a rapid solidification, and as a consequence, a homogenised microstructure was obtained, this has not changed the extreme position of magnesium in the electrochemical series nor has it changed the fact that magnesium cannot form self-healing passivating surface films in corrosive environments. On the contrary, the application of laser cladding could completely change the surface chemistry of magnesium alloys and create a more noble surface coating. However, it must be recognised that to benefit most from laser cladding, a low level of dilution is desirable. Accordingly, a careful selection of the laser processing parameters is needed. To achieve this, the 3-D numerical FEM model presented in the present research has shown to be of great value. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Guo, Li-Feng

167

One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys. PMID:25559356

Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

2015-01-28

168

Modeling dynamic strain aging of aluminum-magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents atomistic studies and continuum modeling of solute clustering and solute diffusion in Al-Mg alloys, which are considered elements of the mechanism of dynamic strain aging (DSA). Solute clustering in Al-Mg binary alloys is first studied by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. In the undistorted lattice, Mg has a tendency to form a coherent phase. The binding energy of this structure is rather low and it dissolves at room temperature when only dynamic associations of doublets or triples of solute atoms are observed. In presence of dislocations and at room temperature, Mg clusters at cores forming the coherent phase observed in the undistorted lattice at lower temperatures. The size, shape and structure of the cluster cannot be predicted by elementary calculations based on the pressure field generated by the unclustered dislocation. Then diffusion for Mg in Al-Mg alloys is investigated by Molecular Statics and the Nudged Elastic Band method. The activation energy for diffusion of Mg in the bulk is evaluated in the dilute solution limit for the nearest neighbor and the ring mechanisms. It is concluded that bulk diffusion at low and moderate temperatures must be assisted by vacancies. Further, diffusion of Mg along the core of edge, 60° and screw dislocations is studied. The vacancy formation energy in the core and the migration energy for vacancy-assisted Mg is evaluated for a large number of diffusion paths in the core region. The analysis shows that pipe diffusion; which is currently considered as the leading mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in these alloys, is too slow in absence of excess vacancies. Finally, the time-dependent Mg solute clustering process is studied using a continuum model calibrated based on atomistic information. The solute atmosphere around an edge dislocation is evaluated in terms of a chemical potential gradient, which is obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. The solute clustering process is modeled by coupled diffusion-deformation partial differential equations (PDEs). The PDEs are implemented with a plane strain formulation and numerically solved with ABAQUS general purpose finite element program. The evolutions of cluster size and concentration at various selected sites are investigated.

Zhang, Dawei

169

In vivo study of nanostructured akermanite/PEO coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

The major issue for biodegradable magnesium alloys is the fast degradation and release of hydrogen gas. In this article, we aim to overcome these disadvantages by using a surface modified magnesium implant. We have recently coated AZ91 magnesium implants by akermanite (Ca2 MgSi2 O7 ) through the combined electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) methods. In this work, we performed the in vitro and in vivo examinations of these coated implants using L-929 cell line and rabbit animal model. The in vitro study confirmed the higher cytocompatibility of the coated implants compare to the uncoated ones. For the in vivo experiment, the rod samples were implanted into the greater trochanter of rabbits and monitored for two months. The results indicated a noticeable biocompatibility improvement of the coated implants which includes slower implant weight loss, reduction in Mg ion released from the coated samples in the blood plasma, lower release of hydrogen bubbles, increase in the amount of bone formation and ultimately lower bone inflammation after the surgery according to the histological images. Our data exemplifies that the proper surface treatment of the magnesium implants can improve their biocompatibility under physiological conditions to make them applicable in clinical uses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1798-1808, 2015. PMID:25203515

Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

2015-05-01

170

An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

2013-10-01

171

Novel magnesium alloy Mg-2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions.  

PubMed

Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg-2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to <70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg-2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg-2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. PMID:24907760

Weizbauer, Andreas; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Werle, Peter; Hegermann, Jan; Willbold, Elmar; Eifler, Rainer; Windhagen, Henning; Reifenrath, Janin; Waizy, Hazibullah

2014-08-01

172

Study of second phase in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys: Phase stability evaluation via Dmol{sup 3} calculation  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamical stabilities of four conventional second phases as well as magnesium matrix in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys were investigated theoretically via computer calculation method. Model of individual phase and systems including phase and four water molecular (phase-4H{sub 2}O) were established to simulate the in vitro and in vivo environment. Local orbital density functional theory approach was applied to calculate the total energy for the individual phase and phase-4H{sub 2}O system. The results demonstrated that all the second phases possessed higher phase stability compared with magnesium matrix, but the phase stability was quite different for different types of second phases or second phase-4H{sub 2}O systems. Furthermore, a schematic process of inflammation reaction caused by magnesium alloy implants was proposed for the further evaluation on biocompatibility of different second phases.

Yang, Huazhe [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Biophysics, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Chen [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wan, Peng; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2013-11-01

173

Cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is primarily focused on gaining a better understanding of the deposition and corrosion behavior of cerium-based conversion coatings (CeCCs) on AZ31B and AZ91D Mg alloys. Deposition of homogenous and protective CeCCs was highly dependent on the surface preparation steps. The best results were obtained when Mg samples underwent grinding, acid cleaning, and alkaline cleaning processes. This reduced the number of active cathodic sites and promoted the formation of a protective Al-rich Mg oxide/hydroxide layer. Electrochemical properties of the CeCCs were also strongly correlated with morphological, microstructural, and chemical characteristics. Protective CeCCs were deposited on both AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys using a range of deposition times (5 to 180 s) and temperatures (10 to 80 °C). However, shorter deposition times (5 s) and lower deposition temperatures (~10 °C) showed higher impedance and longer bath stability than other deposition conditions. The increase in impedance was related with fewer cracks and smaller nodule sizes. Additional investigations of post-treated CeCCs exposed to NaCl environments showed an increased in the total impedance. The increase in corrosion protection of the CeCCs was associated with an overall increase in coating thickness from 400 to 800 nm. A microstructural evolution from ~3 nm nodular nanocrystals of CeO2/CePO4*H2O embedded in an amorphous matrix to >50 nm CePO4*H2O nanocrystals was responsible for the electrochemically active corrosion protection. Exposure of CeCCs to sunlight in humid environments promoted the reduction of Ce(IV) into Ce(III) species compared to unexposed coatings. This reduction process was related with photocatalytic water oxidation reaction.

Castano Londono, Carlos Eduardo

174

Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium- and aluminium-alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of an optical emission spectroscopy study of Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium- and aluminum-alloy. Plasma electron number density Ne diagnostics is performed either from the H? line shape or from the width or shift of non-hydrogenic ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. The line profile analysis of the H? suggests presence of two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne?1.2×1015 cm-3 and Ne?2.3×1016 cm-3. Apart from these two low Ne processes, there is the third one related to the ejection of evaporated anode material through micro-discharge channels. This process is characterized by larger electron density Ne=(1.2-1.6)1017 cm-3, which is detected from the shape and shift of aluminum and magnesium singly charged ion lines. Two low Ne values detected from the H? and large Ne measured from the widths and shift of ion lines suggest presence of three types of discharges during PEO with aluminum- and magnesium-alloy anode. On the basis of present and earlier results one can conclude that low Ne processes do not depend upon anode material or electrolyte composition.The electron temperature of 4000 K and 33,000 K are determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. The attention is drawn to the possibility of Ne application for Te evaluation using Saha equation what is of importance for PEO metal plasma characterization. During the course of this study, difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are encountered and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

Jovovi?, J.; Stojadinovi?, S.; Šišovi?, N. M.; Konjevi?, N.

2012-10-01

175

Bioresorbable Drug-Eluting Magnesium-Alloy Scaffold for Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting in late persistent or acquired malapposition of the permanent metallic implant. Delayed endotheliaization and malapposition may lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have been introduced to potentially overcome these limitations, as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage. Magnesium is an essential mineral needed for a variety of physiological functions in the human body and its bioresorbable alloy has the strength-to-weight ratio comparable with that of strong aluminum alloys and alloy steels. The aim of this review is to present the new developments in Magnesium BRS technology, to describe its clinical application and to discuss the future prospects of this innovative therapy. PMID:24351829

Campos, Carlos M.; Muramatsu, Takashi; Iqbal, Javaid; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Haude, Michael; Lemos, Pedro A.; Warnack, Boris; Serruys, Patrick W.

2013-01-01

176

Bioresorbable drug-eluting magnesium-alloy scaffold for treatment of coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting in late persistent or acquired malapposition of the permanent metallic implant. Delayed endotheliaization and malapposition may lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have been introduced to potentially overcome these limitations, as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage. Magnesium is an essential mineral needed for a variety of physiological functions in the human body and its bioresorbable alloy has the strength-to-weight ratio comparable with that of strong aluminum alloys and alloy steels. The aim of this review is to present the new developments in Magnesium BRS technology, to describe its clinical application and to discuss the future prospects of this innovative therapy. PMID:24351829

Campos, Carlos M; Muramatsu, Takashi; Iqbal, Javaid; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Haude, Michael; Lemos, Pedro A; Warnack, Boris; Serruys, Patrick W

2013-01-01

177

Magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium wird überwiegend durch Schmelzflußelektrolyse hergestellt. Das dabei anfallende Reinmagnesium hat einen Mg-Gehalt von etwa 99,9%. Hauptbeimengung ist das Eisen; Silizium und Aluminium sind nur in Spuren vorhanden. Der Anwendungsumfang des Reinmagnesiums ist gering; dagegen werden Magnesiumlegierungen zunehmend, insbesondere für den Druckguß verwendet. Neben den bis etwa zum Jahre 1950 allein gebräuchlichen Mg-Mn-, Mg-Al- und Mg-Al-Zn-Legierungen werden heute mehr und mehr die besonders warmfesten Legierungen mit Zusätzen von Zirkon, Thorium und Seltenen Erden hergestellt (siehe dazu auch Abschnitt Seltene Erden). Als Umhüllungsmaterial für Uranstäbe dient die Legierung Magnox A 12, die nach [H 3] neben 1 % Al noch geringe Mengen an Ca und Ba enthält. In den in Deutschland üblichen Kurzzeichen (DIN 1729) werden die chemischen Symbole und der ungefähre Gehalt der wichtigsten Legierungselemente angegeben. Gußlegierungen werden zusätzlich durch ein G (Sandguß oder Kokillenguß) oder ein D (Druckguß) gekennzeichnet (siehe Tab. 5).

Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

178

Analysis of Nugget Formation During Resistance Spot Welding on Dissimilar Metal Sheets of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nugget formation of resistance spot welding (RSW) on dissimilar material sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was studied, and the element distribution, microstructure, and microhardness distribution near the joint interface were analyzed. It was found that the staggered high regions at the contact interface of aluminum and magnesium alloy sheets, where the dissimilar metal melted together, tended to be the preferred nucleation regions of nugget. The main technical problem of RSW on dissimilar metal sheets of aluminum and magnesium alloys was the brittle-hard Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds distributed in the nugget, with hardness much higher than either side of the base materials. Microcracks tended to generate at the interface of the nugget and base materials, which affected weld quality and strength.

Luo, Yi; Li, Jinglong

2014-10-01

179

Thermal control coatings on magnesium alloys prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four kinds of oxide coatings with different solar absorptance properties were prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation. They were of different colors due to the different additives in the electrolytes. The microstructure and composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The optical properties were investigated by the UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, and the thermal control properties were measured by solar spectrum reflectometer as well as emissivity tester. Results showed that the solar absorptance of the coatings ranged from 0.439 to 0.918 while the emittance remained unchanged.

Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Jiansong; Liang, Jun; Chen, Jianmin

2013-09-01

180

Synthesis of hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of we54-ae magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work shows some preliminary results related to the synthesis, characterization and corrosion evaluation of different hybrid sol-gel coatings applied on the WE54-AE magnesium alloy attending to the two experimental variables, i.e. the precursors ratio and the aging time, which may affect the quality and the electrochemical properties of the coatings resultant. The experimental results confirmed that, under some specific experimental conditions, it was possible to obtain homogeneous and uniform, porous coatings with good corrosion resistance that also permit to accommodate corrosion inhibitors.

Hernández-Barrios, C. A.; Duarte, N. Z.; Hernández, L. M.; Peña, D. Y.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.

2013-11-01

181

Research on microstructures of sub-rapidly solidified AZ61 Magnesium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

AZ61 magnesium alloy foils of 0.5-3.0 mm thick were successfully produced by using sub-rapid solidification technique. Microstructures of conventionally solidified (CS) and sub-rapidly solidified (sub-RS) alloys were examined by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the cellular grain of 1.8-13.5 {mu}m can be obtained during sub-rapid solidification process. Phase compositions and microdistribution of the alloying elements in the foils were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), respectively. The eutectic transformation L {yields} {alpha}-Mg + {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and microsegregation in conventionally solidified AZ61 alloy were remarkably suppressed in sub-rapid solidification process. As a consequence, the alloying elements Al, Zn, Mn showed much higher solid solubility and the sub-rapid solidification microstructures dominantly consisted of supersaturated {alpha}-Mg solid solution. Meanwhile, the {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phases located in the {alpha}-Mg grain boundaries are largely decreased due to high solidification cooling rate.

Teng Haitao, E-mail: seantht@yahoo.com.cna [Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Zhang Xiaoli; Zhang Zhongtao [Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Li Tingju, E-mail: tjuli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Cockcroft, Steve [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

2009-06-15

182

Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. PMID:21417352

Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

2011-04-19

183

Microstructural characterization of ultrasonic impact treated aluminum-magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum 5456-H116 has high as-welded strength, is formable, and highly corrosion resistant, however, it can become sensitized when exposed to elevated temperatures for a prolonged time. Sensitization results in the formation of a continuous ? phase at the grain boundaries that is anodic to the matrix. Thus the grain boundaries become susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion cracking (IGC). Cracking issues on aluminum superstructures have prompted the use of a severe plastic deformation processes, such as ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), to improve SCC resistance. This study correlated the effects of UIT on the properties of 5456-H116 alloy to the microstructural evolution of the alloy and helped develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that cause the microstructural evolution. Ultrasonic impact treatment produces a deformed layer at the surface ˜ 10 to 18 µm thick that is characterized by micro-cracks, tears, and voids. Ultrasonic impact treatment results in grain refinement within the deformation layer and extending below the deformed layer. The microstructure exhibits weak crystallographic texture with larger fraction of high angle grain boundaries. Nanocrystalline grains within the deformation layer vary in size from 2 to 200 nm in diameter and exhibit curved or wavy grain boundaries. The nanocrystalline grains are thermally stable up to 300°C. Above 300°C, grain growth occurs with an activation energy of ˜ 32 kJ/mol. Below the deformation layer, the microstructure is characterized by submicron grains, complex structure of dislocations, sub-boundaries, and Moiré fringes depicting overlapping grains. The deformation layer does not exhibit the presence of a continuous ? phase, however below the deformation layer; a continuous ? phase along the grain boundaries is present. In general the highest hardness and yield strength is at the UIT surface which is attributed to the formation of nanocrystalline grains. Although the highest hardness and yield strength was observed at the UIT surface, the results were mixed with some lower values. The lower hardness and yield strength values at the UIT surface are attributed to the voids and micro cracking/micro voids observed in the deformation layer. The fracture mode was transgranular ductile fracture with micro void coalescence and dimples. Both UIT and untreated material exhibit similar levels of intergranular corrosion susceptibility. Corrosive attack was intergranular with slightly deeper attack in the untreated material. Numerical simulation modeling showed that the calculated residual stress under the tool, ˜80 MPa, is of the same order of magnitude as the compressive residual stresses measured by XRD measurements near the surface. Modeling also showed that high effective strains were induced almost immediately. The UIT process also resulted in rapid localized heating to a maximum temperature of ˜32°C during the first eleven pin tool cycles. The model also showed that during UIT processing, the material undulates as the pin tool impacts and retracts from the surface of the material. The undulations represent the elastic response of the surface to the compressive stresses built up during a pin tool cycle.

Tran, Kim Ngoc Thi

184

Effect of PEO-modes on the electrochemical and mechanical properties of coatings on MA8 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protective surface layers with a high corrosion stability and significant microhardness as compared to the substrate material were obtained on MA8 magnesium alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) in a silicate-fluoride electrolyte. The phase and elemental composition of the coatings were investigated. It was found that the application of the bipolar PEO-modes enables one to synthesize on the alloy's surface a high-temperature phase of magnesium silicate, forsterite (Mg2SiO4) having a good anticorrosion and mechanical properties.

Sidorova, M. V.; Sinebrukhov, S. L.; Khrisanfova, O. A.; Gnedenkov, S. V.

185

Tribological properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy hardened with silicon carbide and by severe plastic deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of investigation of the tribological contact characteristics of R18 tool steel in interface with AZ91D magnesium alloy\\u000a hardened with SiC disperse powder filler and by severe plastic deformation (SPD)—specifically, equal-channel angular pressing\\u000a (ECAP)—are presented. It is established that introduction of the SiC powder filler into the magnesium alloy increases the\\u000a friction coefficient and reduces the wear rate. The size

V. I. Semenov; Y.-R. Jeng; S.-J. Huang; Y.-Zh. Dao; S.-J. Hwang; L. Sh. Shuster; S. V. Chertovskikh; P.-Ch. Lin

2009-01-01

186

Superplastic Formability of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets Produced by Twin Roll Casting and Sequential Hot Rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, superplastic tensile testing and gas bulging forming of AZ31 and AZ31 + Y + Sr magnesium alloys produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and sequential hot rolling were carried out. At 673 K, the superplastic formability of the TRC AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets added Y and Sr elements has improved significantly compared to the common TRC AZ31 sheets. Formations of cavities on the bulging part go through three stages of the nucleation, growth and aggregation, finally cavities merging lead to rupture at the top of the bulging part.

Yu, Yandong; Lin, Kai; Jiang, Peng

2013-07-01

187

Endothelialization of novel magnesium-rare earth alloys with fluoride and collagen coating.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 µm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

2014-01-01

188

Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating  

PubMed Central

Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 ?m was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

2014-01-01

189

Corrosion Behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+XRE Magnesium Alloy with Minor Addition of Yttrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental alloys were prepared by melting high-purity Mg, Al, Zn, and Y, respectively. Melting was carried out in a Inconel 718 crucible under SF6 and ultra pure Ar (99.999%) gas mixture environment using electric arc furnace. The corrosion behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+ xYttrium ( x = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt.% Y) magnesium alloy with different levels of yttrium additions was studied in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure of yttrium-added alloy shows that higher grainrefinement is obtained in Mg-6Al-1Zn+0.5wt.%Y. Increasing yttrium content reduces the size of ?-grain and alters the distribution of the ?-phase (Mg17Al12) from continuous network morphology to small and dispersive distribution. It forms secondary intermetallic phase Al2Y which has high melting point along the grain boundary. The corrosion resistance of Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy improved with addition of Yttrium. It was confirmed by the results of electrochemical polarization test. Based on the polarization curves, it is seen that fine precipitates of Al-Y intermetallic phase in Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy decrease the corrosion current density, thereby improving the corrosion resistance of the Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy.

Manivannan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan

2015-04-01

190

Corrosion Behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+XRE Magnesium Alloy with Minor Addition of Yttrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental alloys were prepared by melting high-purity Mg, Al, Zn, and Y, respectively. Melting was carried out in a Inconel 718 crucible under SF6 and ultra pure Ar (99.999%) gas mixture environment using electric arc furnace. The corrosion behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+xYttrium (x = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt.% Y) magnesium alloy with different levels of yttrium additions was studied in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure of yttrium-added alloy shows that higher grainrefinement is obtained in Mg-6Al-1Zn+0.5wt.%Y. Increasing yttrium content reduces the size of ?-grain and alters the distribution of the ?-phase (Mg17Al12) from continuous network morphology to small and dispersive distribution. It forms secondary intermetallic phase Al2Y which has high melting point along the grain boundary. The corrosion resistance of Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy improved with addition of Yttrium. It was confirmed by the results of electrochemical polarization test. Based on the polarization curves, it is seen that fine precipitates of Al-Y intermetallic phase in Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy decrease the corrosion current density, thereby improving the corrosion resistance of the Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy.

Manivannan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan

2015-02-01

191

Wear Behavior Characterization for the Screening of Magnesium-based Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is focused on the development of a systematic approach to evaluate the selection of materials for Mg-based alloys under wear conditions for biomedical applications. A pilot study was carried out in order to establish an accurate and reliable wear testing technique for magnesium and its alloys. This pilot study was conducted on aluminum (Al) and pure Mg, and showed that aluminum has a lower wear rate compared to Mg. The technique displayed good repeatability and high precision. For the main study, an ERC Mg-based alloy was to be compared with pure Mg. The same technique, when applied to pure Mg from a different vendor, produced up to 90% scatter in the data. Microstructure was studied to see if it had any correlation with the scatter. It was discovered that Mg ingot from the second vendor had outsized grains that contributed to the disproportional scatter in the wear data. Increasing the stroke length during wear testing was required so that the wear data would be averaged over multiple grains and reduces the variation in computed wear rates. In the main study, wear behavior and friction properties were analyzed using microtribometery, mechanical stylus profilometry, and microindentation. Surface morphology and microstructure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. For the main study, pure Mg and the ERC alloy as-cast and extruded conditions were compared. Pure Mg and MZCR alloys were extruded at 350°C and 400°C, respectively. Mg and MZCR alloy were cast at 350°C and heat treated at 510°C. The extruded specimens were divided into two sections, cross-section and longitudinal section. Wear tests were carried out under the applied normal load 0.5 N - 2.5 N in 0.5 N increments sliding at a rate of 0.2 Hz for 240 passes. The results show that the alloying and extrusion processes increase the hardness of the MZCR alloy significantly up to 80%. The as-cast MZCR has a lower resistance to wear compared to as-cast pure Mg. However, the extrusion process enhances the alloy wear resistance as the extrusion ratio increases. On the other hand, the extrusion process on Mg decreases its wear resistance and hardness properties. The wear resistance was greater in the cross-section for the pure Mg with extrusion ratio of 10 and for the MZCR alloy extruded at ratios of 10 and 50. The cross-section of the MZCR alloys had the lowest amount of wear compared to the longitudinal section.

McGhee, Paul R.

192

Manufacture of gradient micro-structures of magnesium alloys using two stage extrusion dies  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims to manufacture magnesium alloy metals with gradient micro-structures using hot extrusion process. The extrusion die was designed to have a straight channel part combined with a conical part. Materials pushed through this specially-designed die generate a non-uniform velocity distribution at cross sections inside the die and result in different strain and strain rate distributions. Accordingly, a gradient microstructure product can be obtained. Using the finite element analysis, the forming temperature, effective strain, and effective strain rate distributions at the die exit were firstly discussed for various inclination angles in the conical die. Then, hot extrusion experiments with a two stage die were conducted to obtain magnesium alloy products with gradient micro-structures. The effects of the inclination angle on the grain size distribution at cross sections of the products were also discussed. Using a die of an inclination angle of 15°, gradient micro-structures of the grain size decreasing gradually from 17 ?m at the center to 4 ?m at the edge of product were achieved.

Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Huang, Tze-Hui [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naimark, Oleg Borisovich [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation); Jeng, Yeau-Ren [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16

193

Stamping of Thin-Walled Structural Components with Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the stamping process for manufacturing cell phone cases with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was studied using both the experimental approach and the finite element analysis. In order to determine the proper forming temperature and set up a fracture criterion, tensile tests and forming limit tests were first conducted to obtain the mechanical behaviors of AZ31 sheets at various elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of Z31 sheets obtained from the experiments were then adopted in the finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of the stamping process of cell phone cases. The finite element simulation results revealed that both the fracture and wrinkle defects could not be eliminated at the same time by adjusting blank-holder force or blank size. A drawbead design was then performed using the finite element simulations to determine the size and the location of drawbead required to suppress the wrinkle defect. An optimum stamping process, including die geometry, forming temperature, and blank dimension, was then determined for manufacturing the cell phone cases. The finite element analysis was validated by the good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It confirms that the cell phone cases can be produced with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet by the stamping process at elevated temperatures.

Chen, F.-K.; Chang, C.-K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2005-08-05

194

Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B  

SciTech Connect

The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGE registered. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E. [CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris 1, rue Claude Daunesse, BP 207, 06904, Sophia-Antipolis Cedex (France)

2011-05-04

195

Adsorption orientation of sodium of polyaspartic acid effect on anodic films formed on magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously reported organic addition agent in improving the performance of anodic film formed on magnesium alloy. Here we report that the environment-friendly electrolyte with sodium of polyaspartic acid (PASP) affects the anodizing process including the microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion performance. We have used SEM, XRD, XPS and polarization curve to study in detail the electrolyte impact. Our results show that the anodic film in electrolyte with 19.2-28.8 g/L PASP is compact, smooth and high corrosion resistant. And also, increasing the PASP concentration ranging from 9.6 to 28.8 g/L results in enhancing the cell voltage, thickness and the content of compound including MgO and Mg 2SiO 4 in anodic film. Interestingly, the anodic film is non-stoichiometric oxide. Comparing with Tafel curves of the anodic film to the addition of PASP or not to, the corrosion current density is 1-2 magnitudes less than the later. Furthermore, a plausible model we propose that the anodizing process is regulated by two main plausible adsorption orientations of PASP at the surface anode. With the increasing of PASP content, the adsorption orientation may transit from "end-on" to "flat-on". This research using organic addition agent PASP may further broaden applications of organic additive in the anti-corrosion engineering and electrochemical surface treatment of magnesium alloy.

Liu, YuPing; Zhang, Dingfei; Chen, Changguo; Zhang, Jiangang; Cui, libo

2011-06-01

196

Fiber laser micromachining of magnesium alloy tubes for biocompatible and biodegradable cardiovascular stents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys constitute an attractive solution for cardiovascular stent applications due to their intrinsic properties of biocompatibility and relatively low corrosion resistance in human-body fluids, which results in as a less intrusive treatment. Laser micromachining is the conventional process used to cut the stent mesh, which plays the key role for the accurate reproduction of the mesh design and the surface quality of the produced stent that are important factors in ensuring the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of such a kind of devices. Traditionally continuous or pulsed laser systems working in microsecond pulse regime are employed for stent manufacturing. Pulsed fiber lasers on the other hand, are a relatively new solution which could balance productivity and quality aspects with shorter ns pulse durations and pulse energies in the order of mJ. This work reports the study of laser micromachining and of AZ31 magnesium alloy for the manufacturing of cardiovascular stents with a novel mesh design. A pulsed active fiber laser system operating in nanosecond pulse regime was employed for the micromachining. Laser parameters were studied for tubular cutting on a common stent material, AISI 316L tubes with 2 mm in diameter and 0.2 mm in thickness and on AZ31 tubes with 2.5 mm in diameter and 0.2 in thickness. In both cases process parameters conditions were examined for reactive and inert gas cutting solutions and the final stent quality is compared.

Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Colombo, Daniele; Ge, Qiang; Vedani, Maurizio; Petrini, Lorenza; Wu, Wei; Biffi, Carlo Alberto

2012-02-01

197

Study on Pressurized Solidification Behavior and Microstructure Characteristics of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloy AZ91D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Squeeze casting technology for magnesium alloys has a great application potential in automobile manufacturing and has received increasing attention from both academic and industrial communities. In this study, the pressurized solidification behavior of magnesium alloy AZ91D in squeeze casting process was investigated using computer-aided cooling curve analysis (CA-CCA). It was found that the applied pressure increased both the start and end temperatures of primary ?-Mg formation but had little effect on the sizes of temperature ranges. Moreover, the applied pressure increased the start temperature and decreased the end temperature of eutectic reaction during the solidification, resulting in a larger temperature range of eutectic reaction compared with solidification under atmospheric pressure. The grains were remarkably refined, and the eutectic fraction increased with increasing applied pressure. The dendritic microstructure with a larger secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) was observed under a higher applied pressure at the central part of the experimental casting. By correlating the CA-CCA and SDAS data, it was found that SDAS and the cooling rate at the maximum ?-Mg growth could be fit into the power law equation in classic solidification theories.

Han, Zhiqiang; Pan, Haowei; Li, Yanda; Luo, Alan A.; Sachdev, Anil K.

2015-02-01

198

Experimental investigation of anisotropy evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets under tensile loading  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for lighter final products has created new opportunities for the application of new light weight materials. Due to high strength to density ratio and good magnetic resistance properties, magnesium alloys are good candidates to replace steel and aluminum for same application. However, limited numbers of active slip deformation mechanisms, result in a decreased formability at room temperature. Furthermore, wrought magnesium alloys have an initial crystallographic texture, remained from the prior rolling operations, which makes them highly anisotropic. In this paper, tensile tests are performed at room temperature and 200 deg. C at different strain rates and orientations relative to the rolling direction, including rolling, 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. and transverse orientation. The strain rates adopted for these experiments varied from 0.001 to 1.0. The testing results show the effect of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 sheets. The extent of deformation is continuously recorded using two separate high temperature extensometers. The results of testing show an increase in the r-values with the plastic deformation. The strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 increased as the temperature was elevated. At higher strain rates the measured r-values are larger and the slope of its evolution with the plastic strain is steeper.

Tari, D. Ghaffari; Worswick, M. J. [University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2011-05-04

199

Multipass cold drawing of magnesium alloy minitubes for biodegradable vascular stents.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys possess highly limited room-temperature formabilities. This presents a technological barrier to the fabrication of minitubes for biodegradable vascular stents. The research was aimed at developing precision forming technology to fabricate ZM21 magnesium alloy minitubes with a refined microstructure. A multipass cold drawing process with a moving mandrel was successfully developed to convert seamless hollow billets through five passes of cold drawing and an interpass annealing treatment into minitubes with an outside diameter of 2.9 mm and a wall thickness of 0.217 mm, ready for laser cutting into vascular stents. It was found that a cumulative reduction in cross-section area as much as 32% could be applied to the material without causing fracture. However, a further reduction in cross-section area required annealing at 300°C for 1h to change a twinned microstructure into a recrystallized grain structure and to regain formability. The interpass annealing treatment after the fourth pass led to a reduction in drawing force by 22%, in comparison with the drawing force at the fourth pass of drawing. The variations in the outside diameter and wall thickness of the minitubes could be kept within 5 and 12 ?m, respectively. Further research is directed toward improvements in dimensional precisions. PMID:23706237

Fang, Gang; Ai, Wei-jiang; Leeflang, Sander; Duszczyk, Jurek; Zhou, Jie

2013-08-01

200

Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation [1] can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGE®. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E.

2011-05-01

201

Microstructure control during twin roll casting of an AZ31 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing twin roll casting technique for magnesium alloys suffers heterogeneity in both microstructure and chemistry and downstream processing is required to improve the strip quality, resulting in cost rise. In the present work, twin roll casting was carried out using an AZ31 magnesium alloy, with the application of intensive shearing melt conditioning prior to casting. The effect of process parameters such as pouring temperature and casting speed on microstructure control during casting and subsequent downstream processing was studied. Experimental results showed that the melt conditioning treatment allowed the production of AZ31 strips with uniform and refined microstructure free of centreline segregations. It was also shown that an optimized combination of pouring temperature and casting speed, in conjunction with a strip thickness control operation, resulted in uniformly distributed stored energies due to enhanced plastic deformation, which promoted recrystallization during casting and subsequent heat treatment. Strips prepared by twin roll casting and homogenization developed similar microstructural features to those prepared by twin roll casting followed by lengthy downstream processing by homogenization, hot rolling and annealing and displayed a weaker basal texture, exhibiting a potentially better formability.

Huang, Y.; Bayandorian, I.; Fan, Z.

2012-01-01

202

High-Speed Rolling of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Having Different Initial Textures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that magnesium alloys can be rolled up to a large thickness reduction and develop a unique texture when the rolling speed is high (>1000 m/min). In order to understand the texture formation mechanism during high-strain-rate deformation, high-speed rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy samples having different initial textures was conducted. The main components of the textures after the rolling were the RD-split basal, which consisted of 10°-20° inclining basal poles from the normal direction toward the rolling direction of the sheet, regardless of the different initial textures. With preheating at 473 K, all the samples were rolled without cracking while all were cracked when preheating was not applied. The optical micrographs and EBSD measurements showed a significant amount of twins and the cracks that developed along the shear bands consisted with laminated twins. Based on the texture simulation using the visco-plastic self-consistent model, it is concluded that the rapid development of the RD-split basal component from the initial basal alignment along the transverse direction was attributable to the tension twinning, The effect of the initial texture on the crack formation can be explained by the activation of the twinning system.

Onuki, Yusuke; Hara, Kenichiro; Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

2015-02-01

203

Solidification, growth mechanisms, and associated properties of Al-Si and magnesium lightweight casting alloys  

SciTech Connect

Continually rising energy prices have inspired increased interest in weight reduction in the automotive and aerospace industries, opening the door for the widespread use and development of lightweight structural materials. Chief among these materials are cast Al-Si and magnesium-based alloys. Utilization of Al-Si alloys depends on obtaining a modified fibrous microstructure in lieu of the intrinsic flake structure, a process which is incompletely understood. The local solidification conditions, mechanisms, and tensile properties associated with the flake to fiber growth mode transition in Al-Si eutectic alloys are investigated here using bridgman type gradient-zone directional solidification. Resulting microstructures are examined through quantitative image analysis of two-dimensional sections and observation of deep-etched sections showing three-dimensional microstructural features. The transition was found to occur in two stages: an initial stage dominated by in-plane plate breakup and rod formation within the plane of the plate, and a second stage where the onset of out-of-plane silicon rod growth leads to the formation of an irregular fibrous structure. Several microstructural parameters were investigated in an attempt to quantify this transition, and it was found that the particle aspect ratio is effective in objectively identifying the onset and completion velocity of the flake to fiber transition. The appearance of intricate out-of-plane silicon instability formations was investigated by adapting a perturbed-interface stability analysis to the Al-Si system. Measurements of silicon equilibrium shape particles provided an estimate of the anisotropy of the solid Si/liquid Al-Si system and incorporation of this silicon anisotropy into the model was found to improve prediction of the instability length scale. Magnesium alloys share many of the benefits of Al-Si alloys, with the added benefit of a 1/3 lower density and increased machinability. Magnesium castings often contain additions of heavier elements, such as zinc, zirconium, and rare earth elements, which significantly improve high temperature performance. However, additions of these elements can lead to macrosegregational effects in castings, which are detectable by radiographic scans. The effect of these flow-line indications on alloy mechanical properties is not well quantified. An examination of these flow-line indications and their effects on mechanical properties in three magnesium-based casting alloys was performed here in order to determine the best practice for dealing with affected castings. Preliminary results suggest the flow-lines do not measurably impact bulk material properties. Three additional methods of characterizing three-dimensional material structures are also presented: a minimum spanning tree analysis is utilized to quantify local structure in Cu-Zr liquid phase simulations obtained from molecular dynamics; the radial distribution function is applied to directionally solidified Al-Si structures in an attempt to extract local spacing data; and the critical diameter measurement is also defined and applied to irregular eutectic Al-Si structures.

Hosch, Timothy

2010-05-16

204

Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

Minárik, P.; Král, R.; Jane?ek, M.

2013-09-01

205

Fatigue properties of magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by severe plastic deformation.  

PubMed

Fatigue properties of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by severe plastic deformation were investigated and compared with the properties of the initial cast state. The severe plastic deformation was carried out by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The ECAP treatment resulted in a bimodal structure. The bimodality consists in a coexistence of fine grained areas with higher content of Mg17Al12 particles and areas exhibiting larger grains and lower density of Mg17Al12 particles. Improvement of the basic mechanical properties of AZ91 (yield stress, tensile strength and ductility) by ECAP was significant. Also the improvement of the fatigue life in the low-cycle fatigue region was substantial. However the improvement of the fatigue strength in the high-cycle fatigue region was found to be negligible. The endurance limit based on 10(7) cycles for the cast alloy was 80 MPa and for the alloy processed by ECAP 85 MPa. The cyclic plastic response in both states was qualitatively similar; initial softening was followed by a long cyclic hardening. Fatigue cracks in cast alloy initiate in cyclic slip bands which were formed in areas of solid solution. In the case of severe plastic deformed material with bimodal structure two substantially different mechanisms of crack initiation were observed. Crack initiation in slip bands was a preferred process in the areas with large grains whereas the grain boundaries cracking was a characteristic mechanism in the fine grained regions. PMID:25498295

Fintová, Stanislava; Kunz, Ludvík

2015-02-01

206

Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

2012-11-01

207

Abrasion resistance of magnesium alloys with surface films generated from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface films formed by treatment with the ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP101), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP102) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate (LEP102) on magnesium alloys have been studied. The abrasion resistance of the coated alloys was studied by microscratching under progressively increasing load, and compared with that of the uncoated materials. Abrasion-protective phosphorus-containing films are generated on AZ31B, with an order of abrasion resistance as a function of the IL of LEP102 > LMP101 > LMP102, with a reduction in penetration depth of a 67% for the sample treated with LEP102 with respect to the uncovered alloy. This is attributed to the formation of a continuous adhered phosphorus-containing film. In contrast, the abrasion resistance of EZ33A alloy is not improved due to the presence of the less reactive Zn-rich phase at the grain boundaries, which prevents the formation of a continuous protective layer. The results are discussed from contact angles, SEM-EDX and XPS analysis.

Espinosa, T.; Jiménez, A. E.; Martínez-Nicolás, G.; Sanes, J.; Bermúdez, M. D.

2014-11-01

208

Fundamental studies of friction-stir welding (FSW) of magnesium alloys to 6061-T6 aluminum and FSW of dissimilar magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has primarily explored the specificities of the process used for the friction-stir welding (FSW) of the magnesium (Mg) alloys (both SSC and wrought) to themselves and to 6061-T6 aluminum (Al), as well as the microstructural analysis of the resultant welds in order to understand the fundamental mechanisms involved in the mixing of these metals. Dissimilar Mg alloy systems included the FSW of AZ91D with AM60, and the FSW of AZ91D with AZ31B-H24. Both Mg AZ91D and AZ31B-H24 alloys were welded to 6061-T6 Al. Dissimilar Al alloy welds included the FSW of Al 6061-T6 to Al 5052-H34. Dynamic recrystallization was observed in the weld region as well as in the transition region (HAZ), with a clear decrease in the grain size from the base material through the transition zone and into the FSW zone. The welds were free of porosities. The FSW zone in the welds of Mg alloys (AZ31B and AZ91D) to 6061-T6 A1 showed unique dissimilar-weld characteristics such as complex intercalated microstructures with lamellar-like bands of Mg-rich and Al-rich regions. EDX analysis of the weld zones revealed bands with equal parts of Mg and Al, as well as unique recrystallized bands with predominance of either material were observed. The transition from the HAZ to the FSW zone consistently shows a sharp demarcation on either side of the weld. The transition from the Mg AZ31B HAZ to the FSW zone reveals a demarcation band region that uniquely characterizes all Mg AZ31B-Al 6061-T6 welds. In the case of the FSW of Mg AZ91D-Al 6061-T6, the demarcation band was revealed to form in the retreating side of the weld. Vickers microhardness testing performed on the weld cross-sections provided microhardness profiles that revealed the compensation of the normal degradation of 6061-T6 Al in the HAZ. It was also noticed that all the Mg-AI welds showed very high and erratic microhardness values in the weld zone, in comparison to the base material. The dissimilar Mg alloy welds revealed a homogenous, equi-axed, fine-grain structure in the FSW zone, along with complex intercalated microstructures. A sharp demarcation was seen on the advancing side (AZ91D) and a fairly diffuse flow was observed on the retreating side (AM60B) for both sets of solid fractions. Vickers microhardness testing on the dissimilar Mg alloy systems revealed no degradation of residual microhardness of the material in the FSW zone or the transition zone. Limited TEM studies of these welds revealed dense dislocation structures. Considering the Hall-Petch relationship, both the presence of dense dislocation structures and the decrease in weld zone grain sizes might be contributing to the lack of degradation observed in the weld region. The FSW of dissimilar Al alloys show a sharp advancing side demarcation, a rather diffuse retreating side, and an intercalated weld zone microstructure. The interfaces within this weld system are also unique in that a very fine boundary layer demarcates the lamellar bands of recrystallized material within the weld zone. The transitioning of the elongated grains into the weld zone, and the widely varying grain structures across the advancing side interface are also confirmations of general weld characteristics.

Somasekharan, Anand Chandrika

2005-11-01

209

Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

210

Effects of Er on the microstructure and properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy prepared via the EMS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of small amounts of the rare-earth element erbium on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of AZ31\\u000a magnesium alloy via the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) process have been studied. It has been shown that AZ31-Er alloys are\\u000a mainly composed of ?-Mg solid solution and ?-Mg17Al12 phases. When the Er content reaches 0.12 wt.%, the characteristic peaks of Al2Er can

Yutao Ma; Xingguo Zhang; Hongbin Liu; Linggang Meng

2010-01-01

211

Hydrogen in lanthanum-magnesium-nickel alloys with structures of the L22, D2 d , and L60 types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical theory of the solubility of hydrogen in alloys with structures of the L22, D2 d , and L60 types and in phase mixtures of these alloys is developed. The isotherms of absorption and desorption have been studied; their dependence on the activity of hydrogen and concentration of magnesium has been established. It is shown that with an increase in the magnesium concentration and a decrease in the activity of hydrogen, a plateau (a horizontal segment) appears and is lengthened in the isotherms. Hysteresis effects have been investigated with allowance for volume effects; the hysteresis coefficients have been estimated. The decrease in the hysteresis coefficient with increasing magnesium concentration is substantiated. The results of the theoretical calculations are compared with experimental data.

Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Matysina, Z. A.; Shchur, D. V.

2007-11-01

212

Study on Attraction of Laser to Arc Plasma in Laser-TIG Hybrid Welding on Magnesium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of investigation on the attraction of laser to the electric arc plasma in laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) hybrid welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B plates. By comparably estimating the characteristics of arc plasma, including the shape, the electron temperature, and density of the arc plasmas in hybrid welding and single TIG welding, three interactions between laser

Minghua Chen; Liming Liu

2011-01-01

213

Influence of shot peening on corrosion properties of biocompatible magnesium alloy AZ31 coated by dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD).  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications because of many outstanding properties like biodegradation, bioactivity and their specific density and Young's modulus are closer to bone than the commonly used metallic implant materials. Unfortunately their fatigue properties and low corrosion resistance negatively influenced their application possibilities in the field of biomedicine. These problems could be diminished through appropriate surface treatments. This study evaluates the influence of a surface pre-treatment by shot peening and shot peening+coating on the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy AZ31. The dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating (DCPD) was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06M NH4H2PO4 and 10mL/L of H2O2. The effect of shot peening on the surface properties of magnesium alloy was evaluated by microhardness and surface roughness measurements. The influence of the shot peening and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.9% NaCl solution at a temperature of 22±1°C. The obtained results were analyzed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuit method. The results showed that the application of shot peening process followed by DCPD coating improves the properties of the AZ31 surface from corrosion and mechanical point of view. PMID:24863232

Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip; Hadzima, Branislav

2014-06-01

214

Warm Deep Drawing of Rectangular Parts of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Adopting Variable Blank Holder Force  

SciTech Connect

AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet with good shape and formability is fabricated by warm cross rolling. Uniaxial tensile tests are conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermal - mechanical simulator, and the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are analyzed. A warm deep drawing process of square part is also simulated by the finite element method. The influences of blank holder force on the formability are numerically investigated. A double-action hydraulic press that can realize adjustable blank holder forces is developed and its working principle and control system are introduced. Some warm deep drawing experiments of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are also performed. Different variation schemes of the blank holder force with the stroke of the punch are tested, and the experiment results are compared. Results show that the suitable blank holder force variation scheme is a ladder curve with the punch stroke. Adopting the variable blank holder force technique can improve 13.2% of the drawing depth of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

Peng Yinghong; Chang Qunfeng; Li Dayong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200240 (China); Zeng Xiaoqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2007-05-17

215

Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. PMID:25491800

Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

2014-12-01

216

Solidification, growth mechanisms, and associated properties of aluminum-silicon and magnesium lightweight casting alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continually rising energy prices have inspired increased interest in weight reduction in the automotive and aerospace industries, opening the door for the widespread use and development of lightweight structural materials. Chief among these materials are cast Al-Si and magnesium-based alloys. Utilization of Al-Si alloys depends on obtaining a modified fibrous microstructure in lieu of the intrinsic flake structure, a process which is incompletely understood. The local solidification conditions, mechanisms, and tensile properties associated with the flake to fiber growth mode transition in Al-Si eutectic alloys are investigated here using bridgman type gradient-zone directional solidification. Resulting microstructures are examined through quantitative image analysis of two-dimensional sections and observation of deep-etched sections showing three-dimensional microstructural features. The transition was found to occur in two stages: an initial stage dominated by in-plane plate breakup and rod formation within the plane of the plate, and a second stage where the onset of out-of-plane silicon rod growth leads to the formation of an irregular fibrous structure. Several microstructural parameters were investigated in an attempt to quantify this transition, and it was found that the particle aspect ratio is effective in objectively identifying the onset and completion velocity of the flake to fiber transition. The appearance of intricate out-of-plane silicon instability formations was investigated by adapting a perturbed-interface stability analysis to the Al-Si system. Measurements of silicon equilibrium shape particles provided an estimate of the anisotropy of the solid Si/liquid Al-Si system and incorporation of this silicon anisotropy into the model was found to improve prediction of the instability length scale. Magnesium alloys share many of the benefits of Al-Si alloys, with the added benefit of a 1/3 lower density and increased machinability. Magnesium castings often contain additions of heavier elements, such as zinc, zirconium, and rare earth elements, which significantly improve high temperature performance. However, additions of these elements can lead to macrosegregational effects in castings, which are detectable by radiographic scans. The effect of these flow-line indications on alloy mechanical properties is not well quantified. An examination of these flow-line indications and their effects on mechanical properties in three magnesiumbased casting alloys was performed here in order to determine the best practice for dealing with affected castings. Preliminary results suggest the flow-lines do not measurably impact bulk material properties. Three additional methods of characterizing three-dimensional material structures are also presented: a minimum spanning tree analysis is utilized to quantify local structure in Cu-Zr liquid phase simulations obtained from molecular dynamics; the radial distribution function is applied to directionally solidified Al-Si structures in an attempt to extract local spacing data; and the critical diameter measurement is also defined and applied to irregular eutectic Al-Si structures.

Hosch, Timothy Al

217

Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the ?-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the ?-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ?2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25491147

Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

2014-12-10

218

Stability of body-centered cubic iron-magnesium alloys in the Earth's inner core.  

PubMed

The composition and the structure of the Earth's solid inner core are still unknown. Iron is accepted to be the main component of the core. Lately, the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of iron was suggested to be present in the inner core, although its stability at core conditions is still in discussion. The higher density of pure iron compared with that of the Earth's core indicates the presence of light element(s) in this region, which could be responsible for the stability of the bcc phase. However, so far, none of the proposed composition models were in full agreement with seismic observations. The solubility of magnesium in hexagonal Fe has been found to increase significantly with increasing pressure, suggesting that Mg can also be an important element in the core. Here, we report a first-principles density functional study of bcc Fe-Mg alloys at core pressures and temperatures. We show that at core conditions, 5-10 atomic percent Mg stabilizes the bcc Fe both dynamically and thermodynamically. Our calculated density, elastic moduli, and sound velocities of bcc Fe-Mg alloys are consistent with those obtained from seismology, indicating that the bcc-structured Fe-Mg alloy is a possible model for the Earth's inner core. PMID:19805214

Kádas, Krisztina; Vitos, Levente; Johansson, Börje; Ahuja, Rajeev

2009-09-15

219

Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

2014-08-01

220

Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

2014-11-01

221

Stability of body-centered cubic iron–magnesium alloys in the Earth's inner core  

PubMed Central

The composition and the structure of the Earth's solid inner core are still unknown. Iron is accepted to be the main component of the core. Lately, the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of iron was suggested to be present in the inner core, although its stability at core conditions is still in discussion. The higher density of pure iron compared with that of the Earth's core indicates the presence of light element(s) in this region, which could be responsible for the stability of the bcc phase. However, so far, none of the proposed composition models were in full agreement with seismic observations. The solubility of magnesium in hexagonal Fe has been found to increase significantly with increasing pressure, suggesting that Mg can also be an important element in the core. Here, we report a first-principles density functional study of bcc Fe–Mg alloys at core pressures and temperatures. We show that at core conditions, 5–10 atomic percent Mg stabilizes the bcc Fe both dynamically and thermodynamically. Our calculated density, elastic moduli, and sound velocities of bcc Fe–Mg alloys are consistent with those obtained from seismology, indicating that the bcc-structured Fe–Mg alloy is a possible model for the Earth's inner core. PMID:19805214

Kádas, Krisztina; Vitos, Levente; Johansson, Börje; Ahuja, Rajeev

2009-01-01

222

Design factors influencing weldability of the Mg-4Y-3RE cast magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to low density and good strength properties, magnesium alloys are increasingly used as a structural material They are used, amongst others, for large-size castings in sand moulds, pressure and precision castings. Welding and pad welding is used to repair casting defects, such as misruns, micro-shrinkage, cracks, etc. The most frequent reason for disqualifying of welded joints made to repair the castings is hot cracking which occurs as a result of tensile stresses formed in the material during welding. The Mg-4Y-3RE (WE43) alloy with addition of yttrium and rare earth and zirconium elements used for testing is creep resistant to 300°C. The alloy is used in the automotive industry, for example for engine blocks and in aerospace industry for gearbox housings. This paper describes the welding and remelting tests of the Mg-4Y-3RE (WE43) castings in conditions of constant and variable stiffness. It has been concluded that hot cracks are formed as a result of eutectic melting in the areas of contact of ? - Mg solid solution crystals.

Kierzek, A.; Adamiec, J.

2011-05-01

223

Rate sensitivity and tension-compression asymmetry in AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet.  

PubMed

The constitutive response of a commercial magnesium alloy rolled sheet (AZ31B-O) is studied based on room temperature tensile and compressive tests at strain rates ranging from 10(-3) to 10(3)?s(-1). Because of its strong basal texture, this alloy exhibits a significant tension-compression asymmetry (strength differential) that is manifest further in terms of rather different strain rate sensitivity under tensile versus compressive loading. Under tensile loading, this alloy exhibits conventional positive strain rate sensitivity. Under compressive loading, the flow stress is initially rate insensitive until twinning is exhausted after which slip processes are activated, and conventional rate sensitivity is recovered. The material exhibits rather mild in-plane anisotropy in terms of strength, but strong transverse anisotropy (r-value), and a high degree of variation in the measured r-values along the different sheet orientations which is indicative of a higher degree of anisotropy than that observed based solely upon the variation in stresses. This rather complex behaviour is attributed to the strong basal texture, and the different deformation mechanisms being activated as the orientation and sign of applied loading are varied. A new constitutive equation is proposed to model the measured compressive behaviour that captures the rate sensitivity of the sigmoidal stress-strain response. The measured tensile stress-strain response is fit to the Zerilli-Armstrong hcp material model. PMID:24711496

Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J; Ghaffari Tari, Dariush; Mishra, Raja K; Carter, Jon T

2014-05-13

224

Grain refinement of DC cast magnesium alloys with intensive melt shearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new direct chill (DC) casting process, melt conditioned DC (MC-DC) process, has been developed for the production of high quality billets/slabs of light alloys by application of intensive melt shearing through a rotor-stator high shear device during the DC casting process. The rotor-stator high shear device provides intensive melt shearing to disperse the naturally occurring oxide films, and other inclusions, while creating a microscopic flow pattern to homogenize the temperature and composition fields in the sump. In this paper, we report the grain refining effect of intensive melt shearing in the MC-DC casting processing. Experimental results on DC casting of Mg-alloys with and without intensive melt shearing have demonstrated that the MC-DC casting process can produce magnesium alloy billets with significantly refined microstructure. Such grain refinement in the MC-DC casting process can be attributed to enhanced heterogeneous nucleation by dispersed naturally occurring oxide particles, increased nuclei survival rate in uniform temperature and compositional fields in the sump, and potential contribution from dendrite arm fragmentation.

Zuo, Y. B.; Jiang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fan, Z.

2012-01-01

225

Influence of Laser Processing Parameters on Microstructure and Corrosion Kinetics of Laser-Treated ZE41 Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, surface melting of a magnesium alloy, ZE41, was performed with an Nd:YAG laser using different laser parameters. The microstructure of the laser-treated and untreated specimens was analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance of the different laser-treated specimens along with the untreated alloy was characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight loss measurements in 0.001 M sodium chloride solution. Although the laser processing parameters influenced the microstructure and the melt depth of the laser-treated zone, these had little effect on the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

Chakraborty Banerjee, P.; Singh Raman, R. K.; Durandet, Y.; McAdam, G.

2013-05-01

226

Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C. [Research and Development, Forming Technology voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Voest-Alpine Strasse 3, 4031 Linz (Austria)

2011-05-04

227

Zirconium, calcium, and strontium contents in magnesium based biodegradable alloys modulate the efficiency of implant-induced osseointegration  

PubMed Central

Development of new biodegradable implants and devices is necessary to meet the increasing needs of regenerative orthopedic procedures. An important consideration while formulating new implant materials is that they should physicochemically and biologically mimic bone-like properties. In earlier studies, we have developed and characterized magnesium based biodegradable alloys, in particular magnesium-zirconium (Mg-Zr) alloys. Here we have reported the biological properties of four Mg-Zr alloys containing different quantities of strontium or calcium. The alloys were implanted in small cavities made in femur bones of New Zealand White rabbits, and the quantitative and qualitative assessments of newly induced bone tissue were carried out. A total of 30 experimental animals, three for each implant type, were studied, and bone induction was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical and radiological methods; cavities in the femurs with no implants and observed for the same period of time were kept as controls. Our results showed that Mg-Zr alloys containing appropriate quantities of strontium were more efficient in inducing good quality mineralized bone than other alloys. Our results have been discussed in the context of physicochemical and biological properties of the alloys, and they could be very useful in determining the nature of future generations of biodegradable orthopedic implants. PMID:23976848

Mushahary, Dolly; Sravanthi, Ragamouni; Li, Yuncang; Kumar, Mahesh J; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cuie; Pande, Gopal

2013-01-01

228

Monitoring evolution of stress in individual grains and twins in a magnesium alloy aggregate  

SciTech Connect

Crystallographic twinning is a strain accommodation mechanism extensively observed in low-symmetry crystals. In hexagonal metals (HCP), twinning transformation results in abrupt crystallographic reorientation of grain domains, and strongly affects the mechanical response, texture evolution, plastic formability and internal stress evolution. Recent fundamental advances in constitutive descriptions ofHCP's indicate the need for a basic characterization oftwinning mechanisms. Here we use the emerging technique of 3DXRD [9-12], for the first time, to in-situ monitor the twin nucleation and growth in individual grains inside the bulk of a magnesium alloy aggregate. At the same time, we accomplish the first direct measurement of the evolving triaxial stress states in both the parent grain and its twin. We show that the stress state of the twin is radically different from that of the parent and interpret the three-dimensional response in the light of the constraints placed on the parent and the twin by the surrounding polycrystalline medium.

Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aydiner, Cahit C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernier, Joel V [LLNL; Lienert, Ulrich [ANL

2008-01-01

229

First-principles study of typical precipitates in creep resistant magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations were performed to study the mechanical properties of typical precipitates of creep resistant magnesium alloys (Mg2Si, Mg2Ge, Mg2Sn and Mg3Zn3Y2). Formation enthalpies and cohesive energies, elastic constants C11, C12, C44, bulk modulus B0, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, the ratios of shear modulus to bulk modulus G/B0, negative Cauchy pressure parameter (C12-C44) and Poisson's ratio ? of four precipitates were discussed. The results show that Mg2Si and Mg2Ge are stiffer than Mg3Zn3Y2. The charge density was further investigated to clarify the electronic causes.

Zhang, Caili; Han, Peide; Yan, Xin; Wang, Can; Xia, Linqing; Xu, Bingshe

2009-06-01

230

Punchless Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet under Cold Condition and its Computation  

SciTech Connect

The punchless drawing with Maslennikov's technique was applied to the circular cup drawing of magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet under cold condition. The elastic rubber ring was used instead of the 'hard' punch, where the compressed ring dragged the sheet inward the die cavity. Attainable circumferential strain of the blank was increased by this technique with repetitive drawing operation. Thickness of the rubber pad affected little the attainable strain. The shape appearance became better when a harder rubber was used. The cup forming by single drawing operation was also tested using a small die shoulder radius. The LDR of 1.250 was obtained with the straight cup wall. Further, the computation of the punchless drawing was also conducted for the single drawing operation. The computed deformation pattern was well consistent with the corresponding experimental result.

Yamashita, Minoru [Center for Advanced Die Engineering and Technology, Gifu University, Yanagido Gifu, 501-1193 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Gifu University, ditto. (Japan); Sato, Joji [Research Institute for Machinery and Materials, Gifu Prefectural Government, 1288 Oze Seki, 501-3265 (Japan)

2011-01-17

231

Statistical analysis on static recrystallization texture evolution in cold-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.  

PubMed

Cast AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy, comprising Mg with 3.27 wt% Al and 0.96 wt% Zn, was cold rolled and subsequently annealed. Global texture evolutions in the specimens were observed by X-ray diffractometry after the thermomechanical processing. Image-based microstructure and texture for the deformed, recrystallized, and grown grains were observed by electron backscattered diffractometry. Recrystallized grains could be distinguished from deformed ones by analyzing grain orientation spread. Split basal texture of ca. ±10-15° in the rolling direction was observed in the cold-rolled sample. Recrystallized grains had widely spread basal poles at nucleation stage; strong {0001} basal texture developed with grain growth during annealing. PMID:23920167

Park, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Hong; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Chung, Jung-Man; Kim, Dong-Ik; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Heung Nam

2013-08-01

232

Grain Refinement of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Weldments by AC Pulsing Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study has investigated the influence of alternating current pulsing on the structure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments. Autogenous full penetration bead-on-plate GTA welds were made under a variety of conditions including variable polarity (VP), variable polarity mixed (VPM), alternating current (AC), and alternating current pulsing (ACPC). AC pulsing resulted in significant refinement of weld metal when compared with the unpulsed conditions. AC pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equiaxed grain structure in GTA welds. In contrast, VP, VPM, and AC welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. The reason for this grain refinement may be attributed to the periodic variations in temperature gradient and solidification rate associated with pulsing as well as weld pool oscillation observed in the ACPC welds. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone hardness, tensile strength, and ductility.

Kishore Babu, N.; Cross, C. E.

2012-11-01

233

Macro- and Microstructural Studies of Laser-Processed WE43 (Mg-Y-Nd) Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macro- and microstructural changes in the fusion zone (FZ) of WE43 magnesium alloy processed by a diode-pumped ytterbium (IPG YLS-3000) continuous wave fiber laser for specified processing conditions (from 4.17 to 12.5 × 107 J/m2) were studied. With the aid of computational heat-transfer model, the temperature history and cooling rate were determined for different laser-processing conditions. The computational heat-transfer results of laser-processed samples were used to correlate with microstructures characterized using optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopies, and electron backscatter and X-ray diffraction analyses. The microhardness measurement was carried out to establish the structure-property relationship, and the results indicated that the minimal hardness variation (1 pct) within laser FZ was due to a constant heat extraction time (0.1 second), narrow variation in grain size (4 to 7 ?m), and the type of precipitate (?-phase) formation.

Santhanakrishnan, S.; Kumar, N.; Dendge, N.; Choudhuri, D.; Katakam, S.; Palanivel, S.; Vora, H. D.; Banerjee, R.; Mishra, R. S.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

2013-10-01

234

Constitutive acoustic-emission elastic-stress behavior of magnesium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Repeated laoding and unloading of a magnesium alloy below the macroscopic yield stress result in continuous acoustic emissions which are generally repeatable for a given specimen and which are reproducible between different specimens having the same load history. An acoustic emission Bauschinger strain model is proposed to describe the unloading emission behavior. For the limited range of stress examined, loading and unloading stress delays of the order of 50 MN/sq m are observed, and they appear to be dependent upon the direction of loading, the stress rate, and the stress history. The stress delay is hypothesized to be the manifestation of an effective friction stress. The existence of acoustic emission elastic stress constitutive relations is concluded, which provides support for a previously proposed concept for the monitoring of elastic stresses by acoustic emission.

Williams, J. H., Jr.; Emerson, G. P.

1977-01-01

235

Evolution of stress in individual grains and twins in a magnesium alloy aggregate.  

SciTech Connect

This is an in situ measurement of the full stress tensor and its evolution in a growing deformation twin and, simultaneously, in the grain where the twin forms. The combined information provides a detailed picture of the grain-twin interaction. The three-dimensional x-ray diffraction method using 80.7 keV synchrotron x rays allows us to in situ investigate a grain within the bulk of a magnesium alloy (AZ31) sample that is compressed to activate the {l_brace}10{bar 1}2{r_brace} <{bar 1}011> tensile twin system. We observe that the stress state of the twin is drastically different from the one of the grain in which it is embedded. We analyze such result in terms of the shear transformation associated with twinning and the dimensional constraints imposed by the surrounding aggregate.

Aydiner, C. C.; Bernier, J. V.; Clausen, B.; Lienert, U.; Tome, C. N.; Brown, D. W.; X-Ray Science Division; LANL; LLNL

2009-07-01

236

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Wrought Magnesium Alloy for High Strength and Ductility  

SciTech Connect

An optimization technique is coupled with crystal plasticity based finite element (CPFE) computations to aid the microstructural design of a wrought magnesium alloy for improved strength and ductility. The initial microstructure consists of a collection of sub-micron sized grains containing deformation twins. The variables used in the simulations are crystallographic texture, and twin spacing within the grains. It is assumed that plastic deformation occurs mainly by dislocation slip on two sets of slip systems classified as hard and soft modes. The hard modes are those slip systems that are inclined to the twin planes and the soft mode consists of dislocation glide along the twin plane. The CPFE code calculates the stress-strain response of the microstructure as a function of the microstructural parameters and the length-scale of the features. A failure criterion based on a critical shear strain and a critical hydrostatic stress is used to define ductility. The optimization is based on the sequential generation of an initial population defined by the texture and twin spacing variables. The CPFE code and the optimizer are coupled in parallel so that new generations are created and analyzed dynamically. In each successive generation, microstructures that satisfy at least 90% of the mean strength and mean ductility in the current generation are retained. Multiple generation runs based on the above procedure are carried out in order to obtain maximum strength-ductility combinations. The implications of the computations for the design of a wrought magnesium alloy are discussed. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

2013-01-01

237

Finite-Element Damage Analysis for Failure Prediction of Warm Hydroforming Tubular Magnesium Alloy Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bursting has been recognized by many researchers as a common failure mode in the tube hydroforming (THF) process. Therefore, the prediction of the bursting that occurs during the THF process has received much attention in the manufacturing industry and research institutions. Effective prediction of failure can reduce significantly the number of practical trials required to obtain the desired products. However, the prediction of such bursting for magnesium-based (Mg-based) alloy can be a rather difficult issue due to the nonlinear nature of the model used to describe the deformation process at elevated temperatures. This article proposes the failure prediction of Mg-based alloy during the THF process at elevated temperatures by using the Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model. In the study, numerical simulation was performed by the finite-element (FE) analysis commercial software ABAQUS, with the material model assumed to be elastic-plastic. The constitutive model of Mg-based alloy (AZ31B) tube at different elevated temperatures, for instance at 493 K, 523 K, and 553 K, was represented by the Fields-Backofen constitutive equation, with material parameters collected from relevant literature. Accordingly, THF experiments were conducted by a self-developed thermal hydroforming attachment coping with an existing hydraulic power press to validate the prediction of the numerical results. The geometrical parameters for the specimen tubes used in the experiment were Ø22 × 150 mm, and 1.5 mm wall thickness. The numerical and the experimental results were demonstrated to have good agreement. The results of the simulation and the THF experiments imply that the model proposed in this study can provide a reliable prediction of the failure analysis of the Mg-based alloy tube during the THF process.

Chan, L. C.

2015-02-01

238

The study of microstructure and mechanical properties of twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloy after constrained groove pressing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure investigation and microhardness mapping were done on the material with ultra-fine grained structure prepared by constrained groove pressing of twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium strips. The microstructure observations showed significant drop of the grain size from 200 gm to 20 gm after constrained groove pressing. Moreover, the heterogeneities in the microhardness along the cross-section observed in the as-cast strip were replaced by the bands of different microhardness in the constrained groove pressed material. It is shown that the constrained groove pressing technique is a good tool for the grain refinement of magnesium alloys.

Zimina, M.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Kurz, G.; Cieslar, M.; Zník, J.

2014-08-01

239

Influence of coating bath chemistry on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys have a low specific density and a high strength to weight ratio. This makes them sought after light weight construction materials for automotive and aerospace applications. These materials have also recently become of interest for biomedical applications. Unfortunately, the use of magnesium alloys in many applications has been limited due to its high susceptibility to corrosion. One way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is through the deposition of protective coatings. Many of the current pretreatments/coatings available use toxic chemicals such as chromates and hydrofluoric acid. One possible environmentally friendly alternative is organosilane coatings which have been shown to offer significant corrosion protection to both aluminum alloys and steels. Organosilanes are ambifunctional molecules that are capable of covalent bonding to metal hydroxide surfaces. In order for covalent bonding to occur, the organosilane must undergo hydrolysis in the coating bath followed by a condensation reaction with the surface. There are a number of factors that influence the rates of these reactions such as pH and concentration of reactants. These factors can also influence competing reactions in solution such as oligomerization. The rates of hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy silane in methanol have been analyzed with (1)H NMR and ATR-FTIR. The results indicate that organosilane oligomers begin to form in solution before the molecules are fully hydrolyzed. The organosilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91 at a variety of concentrations and pre-hydrolysis times were characterized with a combination of ATR-FTIR, ellipsometry and SEM/EDS. The results show that both organosilane film thickness and uniformity are affected by the chemistry occurring in the coating bath prior to deposition. PMID:20064643

Scott, A F; Gray-Munro, J E; Shepherd, J L

2010-03-15

240

Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm2 and pulse duration 2.5 ?s. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic ? phase and Mg17Al12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ˜15 ?m. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg3.1Al0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg17Al12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

Li, M. C.; Hao, S. Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R. F.

2014-06-01

241

Characterization of AZ31B wrought magnesium alloy joints welded by high power fiber laser  

SciTech Connect

A 6 kW fiber laser is used to weld AZ31B wrought magnesium alloy and the characterization of welded joints are studied by the observations of bead size, microstructure and mechanical properties. The accepted joints without macro-defects can be obtained when the laser power is in the range of 2.5 to 4.0 kW. Typical hexagonal dendrites are observed in the fusion zone, whose average semi-axis length increases with increasing heat input or decreasing welding speed. The minimum ultimate tensile strength of welded joints reaches 227 MPa, 94.6% of the base metal. And when the heat input reduces to 48 J/mm or lower, the joints are fractured in the base metal, showing stronger failure strength compared to the base metal. For the joints ruptured in the weld metal, the fracture surface is characterized by a ductile-brittle mixed pattern consisting of both dimples and cleavages. Finally, the formation mechanism of pore in the welds is discussed and summarized by the pore morphologies on the fracture surface. - Highlights: {yields} Accepted joints of AZ31B Mg alloy are produced by high power fiber laser. {yields} Optimal welding parameters are summarized by experimental observations. {yields} Obvious hexagonal dendrites are observed in the fusion zone. {yields} The joints are stronger than base metal as the heat input is lower than 48 J/mm. {yields} Pore formation mechanism of welded joints is discussed and summarized.

Wang Zemin; Gao Ming, E-mail: mgao@mail.hust.edu.cn; Tang Haiguo; Zeng Xiaoyan

2011-10-15

242

Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of a Friction Stir Lap Welded Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction stir welding (FSW), being an enabling solid-state joining technology, can be suitably applied for the assembly of lightweight magnesium (Mg) alloys. In this investigation, friction stir lap welded (FSLWed) joints of AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy were characterized in terms of the welding defects, microstructure, hardness, and fatigue properties at various combinations of tool rotational rates and welding speeds. It was observed that the hardness decreased from the base metal (BM) to the stir zone (SZ) across the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The lowest value of hardness appeared in the SZ. With increasing tool rotational rate or decreasing welding speed, the average hardness in the SZ decreased owing to increasing grain size, and a Hall-Petch-type relationship was established. Fatigue fracture of the lap welds always occurred at the interface between the SZ and TMAZ on the advancing side where a larger hooking defect was present (in comparison with the retreating side). The welding parameters had a significant influence on the hook height and the subsequent fatigue life. A relatively "cold" weld, conducted at a rotational rate of 1000 rpm and welding speed of 20 mm/s, gave rise to almost complete elimination of the hooking defect, thus considerably (over two orders of magnitude) improving the fatigue life. Fatigue crack propagation was basically characterized by the formation of fatigue striations concomitantly with secondary cracks.

Naik, B. S.; Chen, D. L.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.

2013-08-01

243

ZM-21 magnesium alloy corrosion properties and cryogenic to elevated temperature mechanical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical properties of bare ZM-21 magnesium alloy flat tensile specimens were determined for test temperatures of +400 F, +300 F, +200 F, +80 F, 0 F, -100 F, -200 F, and -320 F. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the material increased with decreasing temperature with a corresponding reduction in elongation values. Stress corrosion tests performed under: (1) MSFC atmospheric conditions; (2) 95% relative humidity; and (3) submerged in 100 ppm chloride solution for 8 weeks indicated that the alloy is not susceptible to stress corrosion. The corrosion tests indicated that the material is susceptible to attack by crevice corrosion in high humidity and chemical type attack by chloride solution. Atmospheric conditions at MSFC did not produce any adverse effects on the material, probably due to the rapid formation of a protective oxide coating. In both the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion evaluations the test specimens which were cut transverse to the rolling direction had superior properties when compared to the longitudinal properties.

Montana, J. W.; Nelson, E. E.

1972-01-01

244

Microstructure Evolution in As-Cast and SIMA-Processed AE42 Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, microstructural evolutions of AE42 magnesium alloy via strain-induced melt activation process and the effect of different process parameters are studied. Scanning electron microscope, metallographic observations, and quantitative metallographic method were used for microstructural characterization. The results show that the consumption of supersaturated aluminum during partial remelting led to a decrease in Al/RE ratio and consequently blocky shape Al2RE starts to appear in the microstructure. Furthermore, it was seen that lanthanum and praseodymium did not contribute in precipitate formation and only improved the hardness of the matrix. The effect of compression ratio on the microstructure of treated alloys was confirmed through the increase of both liquid fraction and entrapped pool as well as the kinetic of microstructural changes. Moreover, the effect of compression ratio and holding time on shape factor, liquid fraction, and particle size of the globular structure were measured. It was found that the best result could be achieved at 35% deformation and 40 min holding of the samples at 610 °C.

Nayyeri, Mohammad Javad; Dehghani, Kamran

2014-09-01

245

Microstructural and textural evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy sheet during bidirectional cyclic bending  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the microstructural and textural evolution in the sheets of AZ61 magnesium alloy was studied by means of bidirectional cyclic bending for 8 passes at 623 K. The bended samples were examined by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The results showed that a gradient structure with fine grains about 3 ?m in the regions near two surfaces and, in contrast, coarse grains in the middle of the sheet were formed. The evident grain refinement was attributed to twin-assisted dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization induced by kink bands. The texture intensity was clearly reduced, resulting in a negative gradient distribution, with the texture intensity decreases from the center of the sheet to two surfaces. The weakened texture greatly facilitated the reduction of the yield strength. A higher fracture elongation and a slightly improved ultimate tensile strength were achieved concurrently. - Highlights: • The AZ61 Mg alloy is deformed at 623 K by bidirectional cyclic bending. • A symmetric gradient distribution of fine grains along the thickness is formed. • The basal texture in the regions near two surfaces is weakened significantly.

Huo, Qinghuan; Yang, Xuyue, E-mail: yangxuyue@mail.csu.edu.cn; Ma, Jijun; Sun, Huan; Qin, Jia; Jiang, Yupei

2013-05-15

246

Improving the packing density of calcium phosphate coating on a magnesium alloy for enhanced degradation resistance.  

PubMed

In this study, an attempt was made to improve the packing density of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on a magnesium alloy by tailoring the coating solution for enhanced degradation resistance of the alloy for implant applications. An organic solvent, ethanol, was added to the coating solution to decrease the conductivity of the coating solution so that hydrogen bubble formation/bursting reduces during the CaP coating process. Experimental results confirmed that ethanol addition to the coating solution reduces the conductivity of the solution and also decreases the hydrogen evolution/bubble bursting. In vitro electrochemical experiments, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization showed that CaP coating produced in 30% (v/v) ethanol containing coating solution (3E) exhibits significantly higher degradation resistance (i.e., ~50% higher polarization resistance and ~60% lower corrosion current) than the aqueous solution coating. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the coatings revealed that the packing of 3E coating was denser than that of aqueous coating, which can be attributed to the lower hydrogen evolution in the former than in the latter. Further increase in the ethanol content in the coating solution was not beneficial; in fact, the coating produced in 70% (v/v) ethanol containing solution (7E) showed degradation resistance much inferior to that of the aqueous coating, which is due to low thickness of 7E coating. PMID:23008190

Kannan, M Bobby

2013-05-01

247

A Crystalline Plasticity Finite Element Method for Simulation of the Plastic Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a constitutive framework based on a crystalline plasticity model is employed to simulate the plastic deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy, which posses the hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structure. Dislocation slip and mechanical twinning are taken into account in the model. The successive integration method is used to determine the active slip systems, and the contribution of twinning to the grain reorientation is treated by the PTR method. The FE model is introduced into ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Three deformation processes of AZ31 magnesium alloy, including tension, compression and a stamping process, are simulated with the present method. The simulation results are compared with experiment and those presented in the literature.

Li Dayong; Peng Yinghong [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai (China); Zhang Shaorui; Tang Weiqin; Huang Shiyao [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai (China)

2010-06-15

248

Tensile properties of AZ11A-0 magnesium-alloy sheet under rapid-heating and constant temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of AZ31A-0 magnesium alloy sheet were heated to rupture at nominal rates of 0.2 F to 100 F per second under constant tensile load conditions. The data are presented and compared with the results of conventional tensile stress-strain tests at elevated temperatures after 1.2-hour exposure. A temperature-rate parameter was used to construct master curves from which stresses and temperatures for yield and rupture can be predicted under rapid-heating conditions. A comparison of the elevated-temperature tensile properties of AZ31A-0 and HK31XA-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet under both constant-temperature and rapid-heating conditions is included.

Kurg, Ivo M

1956-01-01

249

Generation of hydrogen from magnesium alloy scraps catalyzed by platinum-coated titanium net in NaCl aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of end-of-life magnesium products is important because Mg alloy has an increasing number of uses in automotive and electronic consumer applications. Currently, however, only high-grade Mg scraps are recyclable and over half of all Mg scraps cannot be processed economically. This work proposes a new method for generating H2 gas in NaCl aqueous solution by the hydrolysis of

Jun-Yen Uan; Chi-Yuan Cho; Kun-Ta Liu

2007-01-01

250

Determination of heat transfer coefficients by extrapolation and numerical inverse methods in squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a different wall-thickness 5-step (with thicknesses as 3, 5, 8, 12, 20mm) casting mold was designed, and squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60 was performed under an applied pressure 30, 60 and 90MPa in a hydraulic press. The casting–die interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTC) in the 5-step casting were determined based on thermal histories throughout the die

Zhizhong Sun; Henry Hu; Xiaoping Niu

2011-01-01

251

Twin-roll strip casting of AZ61 magnesium alloy and improvement of formability by structure-control rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous strip casting and direct rolling method are receiving attention as the integrated producing process to obtain wrought magnesium alloys. In this research, AZ61 strip was cast from molten metal by twin-roll strip caster and rolled by “Structure-Control rolling process”. The effects of casting conditions and rolling parameters on surface aspects and microstructure of the rolled sheet were investigated. The

T. Mino; M. Asakawa; D. Lee; T. Fujiwara; K. Matsuzaki; M. Kobayashi

2006-01-01

252

The effect of sintering pressure on the microstructure and properties of a nanocrystalline magnesium alloy in spark plasma sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have shown that particle boundaries in spark plasma sintering (SPS) can be easily removed by using a combination of sintering temperature and pressure. We already reported that a degassing treatment prior to sintering by SPS was a critical step to remove particle-particle boundaries effectively and to obtain a magnesium alloy having high strength and high ductility. In this study, the microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Mg-6%Al alloys were investigated to determine the effect of sintering pressure combined with an appropriate degassing treatment.

Kim, Ka Ram; Kim, Hye Sung; Kwon, Soon Hong; Hwang, Dae-Youn

2014-11-01

253

Electrochemical characteristics of calcium-phosphatized AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys suffer from their high reactivity in common environments. Protective layers are widely created on the surface of magnesium alloys to improve their corrosion resistance. This article evaluates the influence of a calcium-phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution. The calcium phosphate (CaP) layer was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and 10 ml l(-1) of H2O2. The formed surface layer was composed mainly of brushite [(dicalcium phosphate dihidrate (DCPD)] as proved by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Immersion test was performed in order to observe degradation of the calcium phosphatized surfaces. The influence of the phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31, in 0.9 % NaCl solution, was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results were analysed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuits method. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DCPD-coated surface is about 25 times higher than that of non-coated surface. The CaP electro-deposition process increased the activation energy of corrosion process. PMID:24477876

Hadzima, Branislav; Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip

2014-05-01

254

Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

2014-03-01

255

Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution: A slow positron beam study  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

Liu, Y.F. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Qin, Q.L. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Yang, W. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Wen, W. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Zhai, T. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Yu, B. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Liu, D.Y. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Luo, A. [GM Research and Development Center] [GM Research and Development Center; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

256

Effect of alloying elements on the texture and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys with REM, lithium, and aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of the texture and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in extruded rods of commercial alloys MA5, MA18, MA21 and also experimental Mg-Y-based and Mg-Y-Ce-based alloys are studied by X-ray diffraction and the measurement of the hardness and the tensile and compressive properties. It is shown that the magnesium alloys can be separated into three groups according to the anisotropy of the mechanical properties. The first group consists of the alloys not containing rare-earth metals and lithium, and the second group is the alloys with yttrium for which the yield strength in the axial direction of the rods are significantly higher than those in the transverse direction. The alloys of the first group demonstrate a substantial excess of the yield strength in the axial direction in the tension tests as compared to those in compression tests, and the second group alloys do not demonstrate such a difference. The ceriumand lithium-containing alloys (the third group) exhibit a weak anisotropy of the strength properties. A method for estimating the anisotropy of the strength properties is developed on the basis of calculation of the Taylor factors for basal slip averaged over all orientations of crystallites, and a quantitative method is developed for determining the phase composition by measuring the solid solution lattice parameter.

Betsofen, S. Ya.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Wu, R.; Lozovan, A. A.; Voskresenskaya, I. I.

2014-11-01

257

Superplastic Response of Continuously Cast AZ31B Magnesium Sheet Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium sheet is typically produced for commercial applications with the traditional DC-ingot casting method. As a result of the hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure in magnesium, multiple rolling passes and annealing steps are required to reduce the thickness of the ingots. Thus, high fabrication costs characterize the creation of magnesium sheet suitable for common forming operations. Recently, continuous casting (CC) technology,

J. M. Boileau; P. A. Friedman; D. Q. Houston; S. G. Luckey

2010-01-01

258

CHARACTERIZATION AND FORMABILITY OF CONTINUOUS-CAST AZ31B MAGNESIUM ALLOY SHEETS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to understand the inter-relationship between the initial properties of continuous-cast magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets and their subsequent formability and post-formed mechanical performance for use in cost-effective, lightweight, automotive body panels. As-received sheets, provided by the Automotive Metals Division (AMD-602) team, were characterized by surface roughness measurements using mechanical profilometry. The arithmetic mean deviation of profile (Ra) and the maximum two-point height of profile (Ry) of the as-received sheets ranged from ~0.2-2 ?m and ~2-15 ?m, respectively. Several commercial lubricants were evaluated by thermal analysis and the liquid phase of the lubricants was found to evaporate/decompose upon heating leaving behind a solid residue upon heating to temperatures exceeding ~125-150°C. Elevated temperature bending-under-tension (BUT) friction tests were conducted at 350°C and the coefficient-of-friction values ranged from a minimum of ~0.1 (for tungsten disulfide lubricant) to ~0.7 when no lubricant was used. These results, in conjunction with those from the forming trials conducted by the AMD-602 team, will be eventually used to determine the role of sheet-die friction in determining the formability of AZ31B sheets.

Rohatgi, Aashish; Herling, Darrell R.; Nyberg, Eric A.

2009-09-24

259

Microstructure and properties of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating on magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ti and N co-doped diamond-like carbon ((Ti:N)-DLC) film was deposited on the MAO coated substrate using a hybrid beam deposition system, which consists of a DC magnetron sputtering of Ti target and a linear ion source (LIS) with C2H2 and N2 precursor gas. The microstructure and properties of the duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating were investigated. Results indicate that the (Ti:N)-DLC top film with TiN crystalline phase was formed. Ti and N co-doping resulted in the increasing ID/IG ratio. The significant improvement in the wear and corrosion resistance of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating was mainly attributed to the increased binding strength, lubrication characteristics and chemical inertness of (Ti:N)-DLC top film. The superior low-friction and anti-corrosion properties of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating make it a good candidate as protective coating on magnesium alloy.

Yang, Wei; Ke, Peiling; Fang, Yong; Zheng, He; Wang, Aiying

2013-04-01

260

Degradation behaviors of surface modified magnesium alloy wires in different simulated physiological environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation behaviors of the novel high-strength AZ31B magnesium alloy wires after surface modification using micro-arc-oxidization (MAO) and subsequently sealing with poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) in different simulated physiological environments were investigated. The results show the surface MAO micropores could be physically sealed by PLLA, thus forming an effective protection to corrosion resistance for the wires. In simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at a low pH value (1.5 or 2.5), the treated wires have a high degradation rate with a rapid decrease of mass, diameter, mechanical properties and a significant increase of pH value of the immersion fluid. However, surface modification could effectively reduce the degradation rate of the treated wires in SGF with a pH value above 4.0. For the treated wires in simulated intestinal fluid at pH = 8.5, their strength retention ability is higher than that in strong acidic SGF. And the loss rate of mass is faster than that of diameter, while the pH value of the immersion fluid decreases. It should be noted that the modified wires in simulated body environment have the best strength retention ability. The wires show the different degradation behaviors indicating their different degradation mechanisms, which are also proposed in this work.

Li, Xuan; Shi, Chao; Bai, Jing; Guo, Chao; Xue, Feng; Lin, Ping-Hua; Chu, Cheng-Lin

2014-09-01

261

Modelling the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium Alloys during Indirect Extrusion  

SciTech Connect

One of the basic metal forming process for semi-finished products is extrusion. Since extrusion involves complex thermo-mechanical and multiaxial loading conditions resulting in large strains, high strain rates and an increase in temperature due to deformation, a proper yield criterion and hardening law should be used in the numerical modelling of the process. A phenomenological model based on a plastic potential has been proposed that takes strain, strain rate and temperature dependency on flow behaviour into consideration. A hybrid methodology of experiment and finite element simulation has been adopted in order to obtain necessary model parameters. The anisotropy/asymmetry in yielding was quantified by tensile and compression tests of specimens prepared from different directions. The identification of the corresponding model parameters was performed by a genetic algorithm. A fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis has been used in extrusion simulations for calculation of the temperature field by considering heat fluxes and heat generated due to plastic deformation. The results of the approach adopted in this study appeared to be successful showing promising predictions of the experiments and thus may be extended to be applicable to other magnesium alloys or even other hcp metals.

Steglich, D. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); G.I.F.T., POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Ertuerk, S.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Brocks, W. [Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

2010-06-15

262

Effect of microstructure on the zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the microstructure, particularly of ?-Mg17Al12 phase, on the formation and growth of zinc phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91 (AZ91) was studied. The zinc phosphate coatings were formed on AZ91 with different microstructures produced by heat treatment. The effect of the microstructure on the zinc phosphate coatings were examined using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), coatings weight and etching weight balances, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and salt immersion test. Results showed that as-cast AZ91 contained a high volume fraction of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase and it was dissolved into ?-Mg phase during heat treatment at 400 °C. The ?-phase became center for hydrogen evolution during phosphating reaction (cathodic sites). The decreased volume fraction of the ?-phase caused decreasing both coatings weight and etching weight of the phosphating process. However, it increased the crystal size of the coatings and improved corrosion resistance of AZ91 by immersing in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Results also showed that the structure of the zinc phosphate conversion on AZ91 consisted of two layers: an outer crystal Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O (hopeite) and an inner which was mainly composed of MgZn2(PO4)2 and Mg3(PO4)2. A mechanism for the formation of two layers of the coatings was also proposed in this study.

Van Phuong, Nguyen; Moon, Sungmo; Chang, Doyon; Lee, Kyu Hwan

2013-01-01

263

Inverse Identification of the Dynamic Recrystallization Parameters for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using BP Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) parameters are of prime importance to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulation of hot forming processes for metals. However, it is difficult to determine the values of DRX parameters from experiments because of the influence of various factors, such as temperature, etc. In the present study, the DRX parameters for AZ31 magnesium alloy are identified by using the method of inverse analysis based on measured stress, BP neural network algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), orthogonal experiment, and numerical simulation. Then, by applying the identified parameters in finite element analysis, the comparison between the numerically calculated and the experimental results is made to verify the correctness of the method. The results show that the numerically calculated stress, strain, recrystallized fraction, and average grain size valus are in good agreement with the experimental ones. These results demonstrate that the method of inverse analysis is a feasible and an effective tool for determination of the AZ31 DRX parameters.

Lou, Yan; Wu, Wenhua; Li, Luoxing

2012-07-01

264

Effects of heat input on microstructure and tensile properties of laser welded magnesium alloy AZ31  

SciTech Connect

A 3 kW CO{sub 2} laser beam was used to join wrought magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets, and the effects of heat input on the quality of butt welding joints were studied. By macro and microanalysis, it is found that the welding heat input plays an important role in laser welding process for AZ31 wrought sheets. After welding, the grains far from the weld centre present the typical rolled structure. But the microstructure out of the fusion zone gradually changes to complete equiaxed crystals as the distance from the weld centre decreases. Adjacent to the fusion boundary, there is a band region with columnar grains, and its growth direction is obviously perpendicular to the solid/liquid line. The microstructure in fusion centre consists of fine equiaxed grains and the many precipitated particles are brittle phase Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} or Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12}. With increasing the heat input, the band width of columnar grains varies, the grains in fusion zone get coarser, and the distribution of precipitates changes from intragranularly scattered particles to intergranularly packed ones. The results of tensile test show that the change trend of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of the welded joints is to increase at first and then decrease with the heat input increasing. When the heat input reaches 24 J mm{sup -1}, the maximum value of the UTS is up to 96.8% of the base metal.

Quan, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: quanyj_2006@yahoo.com.cn; Chen, Z.H.; Gong, X.S.; Yu, Z.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2008-10-15

265

In-vitro characterization of stress corrosion cracking of aluminium-free magnesium alloys for temporary bio-implant applications.  

PubMed

The complex interaction between physiological stresses and corrosive human body fluid may cause premature failure of metallic biomaterials due to the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking. In this study, the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of biodegradable and aluminium-free magnesium alloys ZX50, WZ21 and WE43 was investigated by slow strain rate tensile testing in a simulated human body fluid. Slow strain rate tensile testing results indicated that each alloy was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and this was confirmed by fractographic features of transgranular and/or intergranular cracking. However, the variation in alloy susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking is explained on the basis of their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics. PMID:25063163

Choudhary, Lokesh; Singh Raman, R K; Hofstetter, Joelle; Uggowitzer, Peter J

2014-09-01

266

Biocorrosion and osteoconductivity of PCL/nHAp composite porous film-based coating of magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at designing a novel porous hydroxyapatite/poly(?-caprolactone) (nHAp/PCL) hybrid nanocomposite matrix on a magnesium substrate with high and low porosity. The coated samples were prepared using a dip-coating technique in order to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant and to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloys. The mechanical and biocompatible properties of the coated and uncoated samples were investigated and an in vitro test for corrosion was conducted by electrochemical polarization and measurement of weight loss. The corrosion test results demonstrated that both the pristine PCL and nHAp/PCL composites showed good corrosion resistance in SBF. However, during the extended incubation time, the composite coatings exhibited more uniform and superior resistance to corrosion attack than pristine PCL, and were able to survive severe localized corrosion in physiological solution. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the composite film was determined by the rapid formation of uniform CaP nanoparticles on the sample surfaces during immersion in SBF. The mechanical integrity of the composite coatings displayed better performance (˜34% higher) than the uncoated samples. Finally, our results suggest that the nHAp incorporated with novel PCL composite membranes on magnesium substrates may serve as an excellent 3-D platform for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, and growth in bone tissue. This novel as-synthesized nHAp/PCL membrane on magnesium implants could be used as a potential material for orthopedic applications in the future.

Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Amna, Touseef; Lim, Jae Kyoo

2013-04-01

267

Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes.  

PubMed

The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd2O3 content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. PMID:25842129

Hakimi, O; Aghion, E; Goldman, J

2015-06-01

268

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-17 Magnetic susceptibility of dilute alloys of rare earths in magnesium  

E-print Network

susceptibility of dilute alloys of rare earths in magnesium M. deJong, P.Touborg(*), and J. Bijvoet Natuurkunding. Magnesium is very suited to this as it has a different valence (2 instead of 3). Single crystals of Magnesium with the rare earths Tb, Dy, Ho, Er or Tm of concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 at. % were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Superplastic Response of Continuously Cast AZ31B Magnesium Sheet Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium sheet is typically produced for commercial applications with the traditional DC-ingot casting method. As a result\\u000a of the hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure in magnesium, multiple rolling passes and annealing steps are required\\u000a to reduce the thickness of the ingots. Thus, high fabrication costs characterize the creation of magnesium sheet suitable\\u000a for common forming operations. Recently, continuous casting (CC) technology,

J. M. Boileau; P. A. Friedman; D. Q. Houston; S. G. Luckey

2010-01-01

270

Evaluating the improvement of corrosion residual strength by adding 1.0 wt.% yttrium into an AZ91D magnesium alloy  

SciTech Connect

The influence of yttrium on the corrosion residual strength of an AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated detailedly. Scanning electron microscope was employed to analyze the microstructure and the fractography of the studied alloys. The microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy is remarkably refined due to the addition of yttrium. The electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve of the studied alloy was performed with a CHI 660b electrochemical station in the three-electrode system. The result reveals that yttrium significantly promotes the overall corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy by suppressing the cathodic reaction in corrosion process. However, the nucleation and propagation of corrosion pits on the surface of the 1.0 wt.% Y modified AZ91D magnesium alloy indicate that pitting corrosion still emerges after the addition of yttrium. Furthermore, stress concentration caused by corrosion pits should be responsible for the drop of corrosion residual strength although the addition of yttrium remarkably weakens the effect of stress concentration at the tip of corrosion pits in loading process.

Wang Qiang [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Jilin University), Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China); Liu Yaohui, E-mail: liuyaohui2005@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Jilin University), Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China); Fang Shijie [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Song Yulai; Zhang Dawei; Zhang Lina; Li Chunfang [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Jilin University), Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China)

2010-06-15

271

Cryogenic machining and burnishing of AZ31B magnesium alloy for enhanced surface integrity and functional performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface integrity of manufactured components has a critical impact on their functional performance. Magnesium alloys are lightweight materials used in the transportation industry and are also emerging as a potential material for biodegradable medical implants. However, the unsatisfactory corrosion performance of Mg alloys limits their application to a great extent. Surface integrity factors, such as grain size, crystallographic orientation and residual stress, have been proved to remarkably influence the functional performance of magnesium alloys, including corrosion resistance, wear resistance and fatigue life. In this dissertation, the influence of machining conditions, including dry and cryogenic cooling (liquid nitrogen was sprayed to the machined surface during machining), cutting edge radius, cutting speed and feed rate, on the surface integrity of AZ31B Mg alloy was investigated. Cryogenic machining led to the formation of a "featureless layer" on the machined surface where significant grain refinement from 12 microm to 31 nm occurred due to dynamic recrystallization (DRX), as well as increased intensity of basal plane on the surface and more compressive residual stresses. Dry and cryogenic burnishing experiments of the same material were conducted using a fixed roller setup. The thickness of the processed-influenced layer, where remarkable microstructural changes occurred, was dramatically increased from the maximum value of 20 microm during machining to 3.4 mm during burnishing. The burnishing process also produced a stronger basal texture on the surface than the machining process. Preliminary corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion performance of selected machined and burnished AZ31B Mg samples in 5% NaCl solution and simulated body fluid (SBF ). Cryogenic cooling and large edge radius tools were found to significantly improve the corrosion performance of machined samples in both solutions. The largest improvement in the material's corrosion performance was achieved by burnishing. A finite element study was conducted for machining of AZ31B Mg alloy and calibrated using the experimental data. A user subroutine was developed and incorporated to predict the grain size changes induced by machining. Good agreements between the predicted and measured grain size as well as thickness of featureless layers were achieved. Numerical studies were extended to include the influence of rake angle, feed rate and cutting speed on the featureless layer formation. KEYWORDS: Surface Integrity, Cryogenic Machining/Burnishing, Corrosion Resistance, Finite Element Analysis, Magnesium Alloys.

Pu, Zhengwen

272

Direct current induced suppression of the Portevin-Le Chatelier serrated deformation in the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of direct current induced suppression of the Portevin-Le Chatelier serrated deformation in the aluminum-magnesium alloy 5056 has been revealed experimentally. This effect manifests itself as an increase in the critical plastic strain, which precedes the onset of serrations in the stress-strain curve, with an increase in the current density in the range from 15 to 60 A/mm2. It has been shown that the observed effect is not related to the Joule heating of the entire specimen. Possible mechanisms of the phenomenon have been discussed.

Shibkov, A. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Gasanov, M. F.; Kochegarov, S. S.

2015-02-01

273

Microstructure Formation and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Solidified with a Novel Mechanical Vibration Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel mechanical vibration for refining microstructure is reported where vibration energy was directly exerted into a molten alloy by a vibrating horn, and the vibrating horn was melted during vibration. Effects of vibration intensity and melt superheat on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated. It is confirmed that the melting of the vibrating horn could effectively extract the superheat and latent heat from the interior of the molten alloy, leading to rapid cooling during the initial stage of solidification, and the cooling rate is strongly dependent on the vibration acceleration and melt superheat. This study showed that it was difficult to refine the solidified microstructure when the treated alloy was kept in the full liquid state within the entire vibrating duration. A significantly refined microstructure was obtained by applying mechanical vibration during the nucleation stage, and a globular microstructure could form in a few seconds after solidification. When the molten alloy was treated from 920 K to 903 K (647 °C to 630 °C), with increasing vibration acceleration from 2.5 to 19 m s-2, the coarse dendritic microstructure of the produced AZ31 billets transformed into a well-refined, reasonably uniform, and non-dendritic one, and mechanical properties were improved significantly. Moreover, the mechanisms of microstructure formation are discussed.

Guo, H. M.; Zhang, A. S.; Yang, X. J.; Yan, M. M.; Ding, Y.

2014-01-01

274

On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yuzhnoye SDO developed several generations of launch vehicles and spacecraft that are characterized by weight perfection, optimal cost, accuracy of output geometrical characteristics, stable strength characteristics, high tightness. The main structural material of launch vehicles are thermally welded non-strengthened aluminium- magnesium alloys. The aluminium-magnesium alloys in the annealed state have insufficiently high strength characteristics. Considerable increase of yield strength of sheets and plates can be reached by cold working but in this case, plasticity reduces. An effective way to improve strength of aluminium-magnesium alloys is their alloying with scandium. The alloying with scandium leads to modification of the structure of ingots (size reduction of cast grain) and formation of supersaturated solid solutions of scandium and aluminium during crystallization. During subsequent heatings (annealing of the ingots, heating for deformation) the solid solution disintegrates with the formation of disperse particles of Al3Sc type, that cause great strengthening of the alloy. High degree of dispersion and density of distribution in the matrix of secondary Al3Sc particles contribute to the considerable increase of the temperature of recrystallization of deformed intermediate products and to the formation of stable non-recrystallized structure. The alloying of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium increases their strength and operational characteristics, preserves their technological and corrosion properties, improves weldability. The alloys can be used within the temperature limits ­196-/+150 0C. The experimental structures of propellant tanks made of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium have been manufactured and tested. It was ascertained that the propellant tanks have higher margin of safety during loading with internal pressure and higher stability factor of the shrouds during loading with axial compression force which is caused by higher value of yield strength. The analysis of the performed work showed good prospects of using the alluminium-magnesium alloys with increased mechanical characteristics for making body elements of propellant tanks of the Zenit -2S launch vehicles. The use of these alloys can give the increase of structural strength by 20-30% and considerable increase of payload weight.

Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

2002-01-01

275

Magnesium industry overview  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium products provide an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, good fatigue strength, high impact strength, good corrosion resistance, high-speed machinability, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. As a result, applications are expanding in almost every industry. Dozens of automotive components are now made of magnesium, including steering wheels, valve covers, and seat frames. Magnesium alloys are also used in computer housings, in-line roller skates, golf clubs, tennis racquets, and baseball bats. Good strength and stiffness at both room and elevated temperatures make magnesium alloys especially valuable for aerospace applications. This article presents an overview of magnesium technology, world production, increasing demand, and recycling.

Clow, B.B. [International Magnesium Association, McLean, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

276

Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture of Magnesium AZ91-D Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study was to characterize the properties of a magnesium alloy welded by friction stir welding. The results led to a better understanding of the relationship between this process and the microstructure and anisotropic properties of alloy materials. Welding principally leads to a large reduction in grain size in welded zones due to the phenomenon of dynamic recrystallization. The most remarkable observation was that crystallographic textures appeared from a base metal without texture in two zones: the thermo-mechanically affected and stir-welded zones. The latter zone has the peculiarity of possessing a marked texture with two components on the basal plane and the pyramidal plane. These characteristics disappeared in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), which had only one component following the basal plane. These modifications have been explained by the nature of the plastic deformation in these zones, which occurs at a moderate temperature in the TMAZ and high temperature in the SWZ.

Kouadri-Henni, A.; Barrallier, L.

2014-10-01

277

Serrated flow and enhanced ductility in coarse-grained aluminum-magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum 5XXX alloys are of industrial importance and interest as they combine a wide range of desirable strength, forming and welding characteristics with a high resistance to corrosion. The presence of Mg in these alloys ensures favorable mechanical properties. However, the room temperature stretching performance of these alloys is limited. Moreover, Al-Mg alloys are known for being susceptible to the

Ehab Samuel

2009-01-01

278

Dynamic behavior and constitutive modeling of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under high strain rate compressive loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic stress-strain characteristics of magnesium alloys have not been sufficiently studied experimentally. Thus, the present work investigated compressive dynamic stress-strain characteristics of two representative magnesium alloys: AZ91D and AZ31B at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. In order to use the stress-strain characteristics in numerical simulations to predict the impact response of components, the stress-strain characteristics must be modeled. The most common approach is to use accepted constitutive laws. The results from the experimental study of the response of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under dynamic compressive loading, at different strain rates and elevated temperatures are presented here. Johnson-Cook model was used to best fit the experimental data. The material parameters required by the model were obtained and the resultant stress-strain curves of the two alloys for each testing condition were plotted. It is found that the dynamic stress-strain relationship of both magnesium alloys are strain rate and temperature dependent and can be described reasonably well at high strain rates and room temperature by Johnson-Cook model except at very low strains. This might be due to the fact that the strain rate is not strictly constant in the early stage of deformation.

Xiao, Jing; Ahmad, Iram Raza; Shu, D. W.

2014-03-01

279

75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...China and pure and alloy magnesium from Russia...China and pure and alloy magnesium from Russia would be likely to lead to...

2010-08-10

280

Role of biomineralization on the degradation of fine grained AZ31 magnesium alloy processed by groove pressing.  

PubMed

Groove pressing (GP) has been successfully adopted to achieve fine grain size up to 7 ?m in AZ31 magnesium alloy with an initial grain size of 55 ?m. The effect of microstructural evolution and surface features on wettability, corrosion resistance, bioactivity and cell adhesion were investigated with an emphasis to study the influence of deposited phases when the samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF 5×). The role of microstructure was also evaluated without any surface treatments or coatings on the material. GPed samples exhibit improved hydrophilicity compared to the annealed sample. After immersion in SBF, specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. More amount of white precipitates composed of hydroxyapatite and magnesium phosphate along with magnesium hydroxide was observed on the surfaces of groove pressed specimens as compared to the annealed specimens with an increase in immersion time in SBF. Corrosion behavior of the samples estimated using potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate good corrosion resistance for GPed samples before and after immersion in SBF. The MTT assay using rat skeletal muscle (L6) cells revealed that both the processed and unprocessed samples are nontoxic and cell adhesion was promising for GPed sample. PMID:23827614

Sunil, B Ratna; Kumar, Arun Anil; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday

2013-04-01

281

A New Constitutive Model for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet Deformed at Elevated Temperatures and Various Strain Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new constitutive model is established for AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperatures and strain rates in order to describe two competing mechanisms for deformation, i.e. both work-hardening and softening stage of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet. Stress-strain curves obtained by conducting uni-axial tensile tests at elevated and strain rates were first separated at the maximum stress and corresponding strain values. Voce's law [25] was then employed to fit separated hardening and softening stage. A MATLAB tool is used to determine material parameters by using least square fitting method at various temperatures and strain rate. The mergence of separated work-hardening and softening equations is in good agreement with experimental data. The parameters of fitting curves are utilized to determine them as a function of temperature and strain rate using a surface fitting method. The final equation is then implemented to predict stress-strain curves at various temperatures and strain rates. The proposed equation showed the good comparability between the simulation results and the corresponding experiments.

Nguyen, Duc-Toan

2014-12-01

282

Mesoscale Modeling and Validation of Texture Evolution during Asymmetric Rooling and Static Recrystallization of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the present research is to develop an integrated deformation and recrystallization model for magnesium alloys at the microstructural length scale. It is known that in magnesium alloys nucleation of recrystallized grains occurs at various microstructural inhomogeneities such as twins and localized deformation bands. However, there is a need to develop models that can predict the evolution of the grain structure and texture developed during recrystallization and grain growth, especially when the deformation process follows a complicated deformation path such as in asymmetric rolling. The deformation model is based on a crystal plasticity approach implemented at the length scale of the microstructure that includes deformation mechanisms based on dislocation slip and twinning. The recrystallization simulation is based on a Monte Carlo technique that operates on the output of the deformation simulations. The nucleation criterion during recrystallization is based on the local stored energy and the Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the growth of the nuclei due to local stored energy differences and curvature. The model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained through electron backscatter analysis and neutron diffraction.

Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Stoica, Grigoreta M [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL

2012-01-01

283

Investigation of tin as a constituent of inorganic coatings for magnesium alloys. Final report, 1 May 1974--30 Apr 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests was initiated to evaluate tin as a filler material in inorganic coatings to be used on magnesium alloys. Coatings were made based on tin powder incorporated in alkali silicate, quaternary ammonium silicate and chromate\\/phosphate binders. Tests were run evaluating zinc immersion, stannate, pyrophosphate, and galvanic anodize pretreatments. Salt spray testing indicated alkali silicate coatings with galvanic

Mosser

1975-01-01

284

Study on the deterioration process of a chromium-free conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy in NaCl solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of a chromium-free conversion coating for AZ91D magnesium alloy was observed with an Atomic Force Microscopy. The results showed the uniform conversion coating has a relatively smooth appearance with shallow valleys. The EDX results indicated that the compositions of the coating were mainly compounds of Mg, Al, Mn, P, Ca and O. The XRD result showed that the

Ming Zhao; Shusen Wu; Ping An; Jirong Luo

2006-01-01

285

An evaluation on the growth rate of small fatigue cracks in cast AM50 magnesium alloy at different temperatures in vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on in situ observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), we present the cracking process of small fatigue cracks and the influence of higher temperatures and vacuum conditions on the growth behavior of these cracks in cast AM50 magnesium alloy. We report and discuss some differences of small fatigue crack propagation behaviors at elevated temperatures from those at room temperature.

Xi-shu Wang; Jing-hong Fan

2006-01-01

286

In vivo assessment of the host reactions to the biodegradation of the two novel magnesium alloys ZEK100 and AX30 in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies on biodegradable magnesium implants published recently use magnesium-calcium-alloys or magnesium-aluminum-rare earth-alloys. However, since rare earths are a mixture of elements and their toxicity is unclear, a reduced content of rare earths is favorable. The present study assesses the in vivo biocompatibility of two new magnesium alloys which have a reduced content (ZEK100) or contain no rare earths at all (AX30). Methods 24 rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (AX30 or ZEK100, 3 or 6 months, respectively) and cylindrical pins were inserted in their tibiae. To assess the biodegradation ?CT scans and histological examinations were performed. Results The ?CT scans showed that until month three ZEK100 degrades faster than AX30, but this difference is leveled out after 6 months. Histology revealed that both materials induce adverse host reactions and high numbers of osteoclasts in the recipient bone. The mineral apposition rates of both materials groups were high. Conclusions Both alloys display favorable degradation characteristics, but they induce adverse host reactions, namely an osteoclast-driven resorption of bone and a subsequent periosteal formation of new bone. Therefore, the biocompatibility of ZEK100 and AX30 is questionable and further studies, which should focus on the interactions on cellular level, are needed. PMID:22429539

2012-01-01

287

In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

2015-03-01

288

Solidification Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Magnesium-Aluminum-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Al-Sn alloys have been investigated using computational thermodynamics and experiments. The as-cast microstructure of Mg-Al-Sn alloys consists of ?-Mg, Mg17Al12, and Mg2Sn phases. The amount of Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn phases formed increases with increasing Al and Sn content and shows good agreement between the experimental results and the Scheil solidification calculations. Generally, the yield strength of as-cast alloys increases with Al and Sn content, whereas the ductility decreases. This study has confirmed an early development of Mg-7Al-2Sn alloy for structural applications and has led to a promising new Mg-7Al-5Sn alloy with significantly improved strength and ductility comparable with commercial AZ91 alloy.

Luo, Alan A.; Fu, Penghuai; Peng, Liming; Kang, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Tianyu

2012-01-01

289

The influence of shearing conditions on the rheology of semi-solid magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the shearing conditions on the rheology of semi-solid magnesium slurry was investigated by a Couette type viscometer. As the stirring time increased, the apparent viscosity first decreased until reaching a minimum value, and then gradually increased. The phenomena might be affected by the destruction of the dendritic structure (resulting in a decreasing curve) and particle coarsening (resulting

Hsueh-I Chen; Jyh-Chen Chen; Jyun-Jhong Liao

2008-01-01

290

Numerical simulation of the twin-roll casting process of magnesium alloy strip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnesium twin-roll strip casting process is investigated with a test caster at the IME. The flow field in the melt cannot be investigated optically, therefore numerical simulations have been undertaken to show the flow field in the Mg melt, the solidification between the two rolls and the cooling of the strip. The three-dimensional, turbulent flow field for different steady

Jian Zeng; Roger Koitzsch; Herbert Pfeifer; Bernd Friedrich

2009-01-01

291

The Impact of Melt-Conditioned Twin-Roll Casting on the Downstream Processing of an AZ31 Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt conditioning by intensive shear was used prior to twin-roll casting of AZ31 magnesium alloy strip to promote heterogeneous nucleation and to provide a refined and uniform microstructure without severe macrosegregation. The cast strip was then processed by homogenization, hot rolling, and annealing, and its downstream processing was compared with a similar cast strip produced without melt conditioning. Melt conditioning produced strip with accelerated kinetics of recrystallization during homogenization and improved performance in hot rolling and improved tensile properties. An average tensile elongation of ~28 pct was achieved, which is substantially higher than the ~9 pct obtained for the strip produced without melt conditioning which is consistent with reported values (~6 pct to 16 pct). The as-cast, homogenized, and hot-rolled microstructures of the strip were characterized. The kinetics of homogenization and hot-rolling process have been discussed in detail.

Bayandorian, I.; Huang, Y.; Fan, Z.; Pawar, S.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G. E.

2012-03-01

292

Polishing-assisted galvanic corrosion in the dissimilar friction stir welded joint of AZ31 magnesium alloy to 2024 aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

Galvanic corrosion of a dissimilar friction stir welded 2024-T3 Al/AZ31B-H24 Mg joint prepared using a water-based and a non-water-based polishing solution was characterized. Microstructure and the distribution of chemical elements were analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The stir zone polished using water-based solution was observed to be much more susceptible to galvanic corrosion attack than that obtained using non-water-based polishing solution. The location of corrosion attack was observed in the narrow regions of AZ31 Mg alloy adjacent to Al2024 regions in the stir zone. The occurrence of galvanic corrosion was due to the formation of Mg/Al galvanic couples with a small ratio of anode-to-cathode surface area. The corrosion product was primarily the porous magnesium hydroxide with characteristic microcracks and exhibited a low microhardness value.

Liu, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca; Bhole, S. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Cao, X.; Jahazi, M. [Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Centre, Institute For Aerospace Research, National Research Council Canada, 5145 Decelles Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3T 2B2 (Canada)

2009-05-15

293

Measurement of the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys using Tafel extrapolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that the corrosion of Mg alloys can be adequately estimated using Tafel extrapolation of the polarisation curve is termed herein the electrochemical measurement hypothesis for Mg. In principle, such a hypothesis can be disproved by a single valid counter example. The critical review of Mg corrosion by Song and Atrens in 2003 indicated that, for Mg alloys, Tafel

Zhiming Shi; Ming Liu; Andrej Atrens

2010-01-01

294

Some Key Issues and Accesses to the Application of Magnesium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of Mg alloy application, and then some key issues limiting their applications and the corresponding accesses were briefly discussed. It was supposed that development of new alloys with high performance and low cost, investigating advanced forming technology, and development of credible and effective surface modification technologies and related equipment were the urgent tasks in present. Correspondingly, three aspects

Yuan Hao; Tijun Chen; Ying Ma; Yuandong Li; Fengyun Yan; Xiaofeng Huang

2010-01-01

295

Effect of magnesium content on the semi solid cast microstructure of hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study of microstructural evolution of A390 hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy (Al-17%Si-4.5%Cu-0.5%Mg) with addition of Mg contents up to 10% was carried out during semi solid metal processing as well as conventional casting. As a first step, the FACTSAGE thermodynamic databank and software was applied in order to investigate the phase diagram, the solidification behavior as well as the identification of the components that are formed during the solidification of A390 alloy with different Mg contents for equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Schiel) conditions. With higher Mg content between 4.2 - 7.2 %, the Mg2Si intermetallic phase is solidified in the eutectic network according to the ternary reaction together the primary silicon due to the binary reaction of Liq ? Si + Mg2Si. However the primary silicon is still the first solidified phase in this critical Mg zone. For Mg contents greater than 7.2%, the Mg2Si solidifies first as a primary phase. In fact, the Mg2Si is solidified during the primary, the binary and the ternary reactions and can be observed in the microstructure as a eutectic phase and a pro-eutectic phase with different morphology. In the next stage, the experimental tests were carried out in order to verify the accuracy of the results obtained by the FACTSAGE software. The microstructures of the A390 and the 6 and 10 wt% Mg alloys were investigated using conventional casting and rheocasting (stir casting) processes with continuous cooling solidification. The results showed that, for both processes, the microstructure of the eutectic network for high Mg alloys, specifically the eutectic Si phase is modified compared to the eutectic Si in the microstructure of A390 alloy. However the alloys with 6% and 10% Mg have a similar eutectic morphology. The eutectic formation temperature was measured by placing the thermocouple into the melt for determination of the cooling curves. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) test were also carried out. The results are in good agreement with the FACTSAGE results confirming the reduction of eutectic formation temperature with addition of Mg up to 4.2% and nearly the same temperature for 6 and 10% Mg alloys. Finally, the hardness of the A390 and the 6 and 10% Mg alloys was evaluated for conventionally cast samples and after T6 heat treatment. As expected, the high Mg content alloys showed higher hardness values compared to the A390 alloy. This is a significant finding because A390 is used in high wear resistance applications at medium or elevated temperature. Therefore, the A390 alloy with higher Mg addition can improve the wear resistance of this alloy. The reason for the increased in hardness of Mg can be attributed to the modification of eutectic silicon in the matrix, the presence of eutectic Mg2 Si in the matrix as well as the increase of solid fraction of primary phases from 6.1% for A390 to 12.2% for the 10% Mg alloy. The T6 heat treatment increased the value of hardness for all samples. However, contrary to the as-cast samples, the hardness of A390 alloy in T6 condition shows higher increase than the high Mg alloys. This phenomenon can be attributed to the precipitation hardening of alpha-Al phase during the heat treatment. Since the matrix of A390 consists of more alpha-Al phase when compared to the high Mg content alloys, the increases in hardness of A390 alloy is more significant.

Hekmat-Ardakan, Alireza

2009-12-01

296

Full potential linear muffin-tin orbital modeling of zinc-selenide and zinc-magnesium-selenide alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, we used ab-initio full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method to study native defects, chlorine and nitrogen doping, and chromium incorporation issues in ZnSe and ZnMgSe alloys. The method we used and the results we obtained are discussed in details. In chapter 1, an introduction to recent studies in ZnSe was given. The methodology was discussed at chapter 2. In chapter 3, we studied lattice relaxation around native defects in ZnSe and formation energies for these native defects. Our results were compared with other theoretical results. In chapter 4, chlorine doping in ZnSe and ZnMgSe alloys are modeled, our results indicated that the addition of Mg reduces the formation energy for chlorine on the Se site, thereby predicting increased solubility. Subsequent chlorine doping experiments in ZnxMg1-xSe using molecular beam epitaxy indicated significantly higher chlorine incorporation in the presence of magnesium, directly supporting the prediction of the calculations. Our calculated results in maximum electron concentration in ZnMgSe with different Mg content also match experimental results very well. In chapter 5, we focus on chromium incorporation in ZnSe and ZnMgSe. Chromium site selection and charge selection in ZnSe were considered, and our results were consistent with experimental results.

Yang, Yaxiang

297

Titanium and Magnesium Co-Alloyed Hematite Thin Films for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of density functional theory calculation and materials synthesis and characterization we examine the properties of charge-compensated Ti and Mg co-alloyed hematite thin films for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. We find that the charge-compensated co-alloying results in the following effects: (1) It enhances the solubility of Mg and Ti, which leads to reduced electron effective mass and therefore increased electron mobility; (2) It tunes the carrier density and therefore allows the optimization of electrical conductivity; and (3) It reduces the density of charged defects and therefore reduces carrier recombination. As a result, the Ti and Mg co-alloyed hematite thin films exhibit improved water oxidation photocurrent magnitudes as compared to pure hematite thin films. Our results suggest that charge-compensated co-alloying is a plausible approach for engineering hematite for the application of PEC water splitting.

Tang, H.; Yin, W. J.; Matin, M. A.; Wang, H.; Deutsch, T.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Turner, J. A.; Yan, Y.

2012-04-01

298

Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of Gravity Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the wear behavior of conventional cast Mg-Sn-based alloys. The alloys were studied through pin- on- disk wear test under four different loading conditions; namely, 9.8, 19.6, 29.4, and 39.2 N. The study highlights the cumulative wear loss, volumetric wear loss, dry sliding wear rate, and coefficient of friction of the alloys. The volumetric wear increased with increasing applied load. The wear mechanism was studied with scanning electron microscope. The wear occurs mainly by plowing mechanism and also by delamination. During wear, extensive plastic deformation and work hardening occurred. Microstructural analysis has been carried out for all the alloys at different loading conditions.

Poddar, Palash; Das, Arpan; Sahoo, K. L.

2014-04-01

299

A Novel Method of Evaluating the Mild to Severe Wear Transition Loads for Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel method for predicting the mild to severe wear transition loads for AZ31 and AZ61 alloys at various sliding velocities. Morphologies and hardness of worn surfaces and microstructures in subsurfaces of AZ31 alloy were analyzed. A criterion of mild to severe wear transition is proposed, i.e., the mild to severe wear transition is controlled by a critical surface dynamic recrystallization (DRX) temperature. DRX temperatures in surface layers at transition loads are determined using recrystallization kinetics. Correlation between DRX temperature and transition load is established by introducing a constant c DRX that is associated with testing equipment and material properties of pin and disk in the critical DRX state. The transition loads are well predicted in a sliding velocity range of 0.5-4.0 m/s for AZ31 alloy, and 0.8-2.0 m/s for AZ61 alloy.

Liang, C.; Wang, Y. B.; Yin, M. L.; Lv, X. X.; An, J.

2015-04-01

300

Effect of heat treatments on oxidation kinetics in AZ91 and AM60 magnesium alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect of heat treatments on a non protective atmosphere (air) on the morphology and composition of the oxide in AM60 and AZ91 alloys has been evaluated. With the aim of evaluating the loss of alloying elements during heat treatment, a study of these alloys has been carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In order to determine the nature of the oxides the reaction products generated were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the nature and morphology of the oxides generated are related to the temperature and the time of the heating conditions applied. - Highlights: {yields} The effect of heat treatments on the oxide growth in Mg-Al alloys has been evaluated. {yields} The nature and morphology of the oxides have been characterized. {yields} These oxides are associated to the time and the temperature conditions.

Barrena, M.I., E-mail: ibarrena@quim.ucm.es; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Matesanz, L.; Soria, A.

2011-10-15

301

Phase Stability of Low-Density, Multiprincipal Component Alloys Containing Aluminum, Magnesium, and Lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of low-density, multiprincipal component alloys containing high concentrations of Al, Mg, Li, Zn, Cu and/or Sn was designed using a strategy based on high-entropy alloys (HEAs). The alloys were prepared by induction melting under high-purity argon atmosphere, and the resulting microstructures were characterized in the as-cast condition. The resulting microstructures are multiphase and complex and contain significant volume fractions of disordered solutions and intermetallic compounds. By analyzing the atomic size difference, enthalpy of mixing, entropy of mixing, electronegativity difference, and valence electron concentration among the constituent elements, modified phase formation rules are developed for low-density multiprincipal component alloys that are more restrictive than previously established limits based on more frequently studied HEAs comprising mostly transition metals. It is concluded that disordered solid solution phases are generally less stable than competing ordered compounds when formulated from low-density elements including Al, Mg, and Li.

Yang, X.; Chen, S. Y.; Cotton, J. D.; Zhang, Y.

2014-10-01

302

A Novel Method of Evaluating the Mild to Severe Wear Transition Loads for Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel method for predicting the mild to severe wear transition loads for AZ31 and AZ61 alloys at various sliding velocities. Morphologies and hardness of worn surfaces and microstructures in subsurfaces of AZ31 alloy were analyzed. A criterion of mild to severe wear transition is proposed, i.e., the mild to severe wear transition is controlled by a critical surface dynamic recrystallization (DRX) temperature. DRX temperatures in surface layers at transition loads are determined using recrystallization kinetics. Correlation between DRX temperature and transition load is established by introducing a constant c DRX that is associated with testing equipment and material properties of pin and disk in the critical DRX state. The transition loads are well predicted in a sliding velocity range of 0.5-4.0 m/s for AZ31 alloy, and 0.8-2.0 m/s for AZ61 alloy.

Liang, C.; Wang, Y. B.; Yin, M. L.; Lv, X. X.; An, J.

2015-02-01

303

Effect of Na2SiO3 concentration on the properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy prepared by electrolytic plasma processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Na2SiO3 concentration on the dense ceramic oxide coatings prepared on a AZ31 magnesium alloy through electrolytic plasma processing in a NaOH-Na2SiF6 electrolytic solution, have been investigated. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the coating formed in silicate electrolyte was mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveals that the number of pores on coatings decreases by increasing concentration of Na2SiO3 and coatings prepared in 12-20 g/L of Na2SiO3 show similar surface morphologies. The observed micro-hardness of coating layers is over 1000 Hv, which is much larger than that of the original AZ31 magnesium alloy without electrolytic plasma processing.

Ahn, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Gun; Cho, Ho-Je; Lee, Seung-Rok; Ahmed, Faheem; Anwar, M. S.; Koo, Bon-Heun

2013-11-01

304

Cyclic Deformation Behavior of a Rare-Earth Containing Extruded Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Heat Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at evaluating strain-controlled cyclic deformation behavior of a rare-earth (RE) element containing Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) alloy in different states (as-extruded, peak-aged (T5), and solution-treated and peak-aged (T6)). The addition of RE elements led to an effective grain refinement and weak texture in the as-extruded alloy. While heat treatment resulted in a grain growth modestly in the T5 state and significantly in the T6 state, a high density of nano-sized and bamboo-leaf/plate-shaped ?' (Mg7(Gd,Y)) precipitates was observed to distribute uniformly in the ?-Mg matrix. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, as well as the maximum and minimum peak stresses during cyclic deformation in the T5 and T6 states were significantly higher than those in the as-extruded state. Unlike RE-free extruded Mg alloys, symmetrical hysteresis loops in tension and compression and cyclic stabilization were present in the GW103K alloy in different states. The fatigue life of this alloy in the three conditions, which could be well described by the Coffin-Manson law and Basquin's equation, was equivalent within the experimental scatter and was longer than that of RE-free extruded Mg alloys. This was predominantly attributed to the presence of the relatively weak texture and the suppression of twinning activities stemming from the fine grain sizes and especially RE-containing ?' precipitates. Fatigue crack was observed to initiate from the specimen surface in all the three alloy states and the initiation site contained some cleavage-like facets after T6 heat treatment. Crack propagation was characterized mainly by the characteristic fatigue striations.

Mirza, F. A.; Chen, D. L.; Li, D. J.; Zeng, X. Q.

2015-03-01

305

The development and characterization of a novel aluminum-copper-magnesium P/M alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a metal fabrication process that is characterized by high yield and ability to be automated, as well as the resultant part complexity and reproducibility. This press and sinter process is favoured by the automotive industry. Aluminum alloy P/M parts are particularly attractive because they have a high strength to weight ratio and they can be made to have high corrosion and wear resistance. There are few commercial Al P/M alloys currently in use and they occupy a small portion of the market. To expand the use of aluminum in the industry a new alloy was created, modeled after the wrought AC2024 family of alloys. P/M 2324, with a nominal composition of Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg, was assessed using physical, chemical and mechanical methods to help maximize alloy properties through processing. The objective of this work was to develop a viable industrial alloy. The investigation of 2324 included the evaluation of starting powders, starting composition, processing methods, secondary treatments, and industrial response. All blending and compacting was completed at Dalhousie University, while sintering was undertaken at Dalhousie and GKN Sinter Metals. The green alloy was assessed for best compaction pressure using green density and strength. The sintered alloy was assessed to determine the best press and sinter variables, using dimensional change, sintered density, apparent hardness, tensile properties and microscopy. These same sintered properties were tested to determine if sintering done on a laboratory scale could be replicated industrially. The viability of heat treatment was tested using differential scanning calorimetry, hardness and tensile properties. The alloy was also subject to modifications of Cu and Mg amounts, as well as to the addition of tin to the base composition. It was determined that compaction at 400MPa and sintering at 600°C for 20min produced the best properties for the sintered bodies. The resultant mechanical properties were attributed to a high sintered density (2.68g/cm 3 or 97% of theoretical) and strengthening mechanisms present in the Al-Cu-Mg system. These mechanisms included possible secondary phases formed in the alloy seen using microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. A T6 heat treatment of solutionizing at 495°C for 1.5h, water quench and aging for 10h was found to improve the properties of 2324. Modifications to Cu and Mg alloying additions produced few gains. However, the presence of 0.2Sn (w/o) was found to enhance the alloy. Resultant properties of the optimal alloy included an apparent hardness of 76.6HRE and an ultimate tensile strength of 367MPa. Also studied was the discrepancy observed in sintering at GKN and Dalhousie and the mechanisms at work with the addition of Sn. 2324 was adapted successfully to P/M applications. It was capable of performing against an established Al P/M industry standard, and with further testing its uses can undoubtedly be expanded.

Boland, Christopher Daniel

306

Organosilane self-assembled layers (SAMs) and hybrid silicate magnesium-rich primers for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy 2024 T3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although current chromate coatings function very well in corrosion protection for aircraft alloys, such as aluminum alloy 2024 T3, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is planning to totally ban the use of chromates as coating materials in the next decade or so because of their extremely toxic effect. For this purpose, both self-assembled layers and silicate magnesium-rich primers were tested to provide the corrosion protection for aluminum alloy. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a coating system to replace the current chromate coating for aircraft corrosion protection. Aluminum alloy 2024 T3 substrates were modified with self-assembled monolayer or multilayer thin films from different alkylsilane compounds. Mono-functional silanes, such as octadecyltrichlorosilane (C18SiCl3), can form a mixed hydrophobic monolayer or multilayer thin film on the aluminum oxide surface to provide a barrier to water and other electrolytes, so the corrosion resistance of the SAMs modified surface was increased significantly. On the other hand, the bi-functional silane self-assembly could attach the aluminum surface through the silicon headgroup while using its functional tailgroup to chemically bond the polymer coating, thus improving the adhesion between the aluminum substrate and coating substantially, and seems to contribute more to corrosion protection of aluminum substrate. Organosilanes were also combined with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in propel ratios to form a sol-gel binder to make silicate magnesium-rich primers. Analogue to the inorganic zinc-rich coatings, the silicate magnesium-rich primers also showed excellent adhesion and solvent resistance. The sacrificial magnesium pigments and the chemically inert silicate binder both contribute to the anti-corrosion properties. Future studies will be focused on the formula optimization for better toughness, chemical resistance and anticorrosion performance.

Wang, Duhua

307

A new shell casting process based on expendable pattern with vacuum and low-pressure casting for aluminum and magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new shell casting process, with the adoption of the foam pattern of lost foam casting (LFC) as prototype and the combination\\u000a of the thin shell fabrication technology of investment casting and vacuum and low-pressure casting process, was proposed for\\u000a manufacturing complicated and thin-walled aluminum and magnesium alloy precision castings. Loose-sand uniting vacuum was used\\u000a in the new process to

Wenming Jiang; Zitian Fan; Defeng Liao; Xuanpu Dong; Zhong Zhao

2010-01-01

308

Synthesis, Characterization and Cold Workability of Cast Copper-Magnesium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Mg as an alloying element in copper alloys has largely been overlooked in scientific literature and technological applications. Its supposed tribological compatibility with iron makes it an interesting option to replace Pb in tribological alloys. This work describes the casting process of high-quality thin slabs of Cu-Mg-Sn alloys with different compositions by means of conventional methods. The resulting phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Typical dendritic ?-Cu, eutectic Cu2Mg(Sn) and eutectoid non-equilibrium microstructures were found. Tensile tests and Vickers microhardness show the excellent hardening capability of Mg as compared to other copper alloys in the as-cast condition. For some of the slabs and compositions, cold rolling reductions of over 95 pct have been easily achieved. Other compositions and slabs have failed during the deformation process. Failure analysis after cold rolling reveals that one cause for brittleness is the presence of casting defects such as microshrinkage and inclusions, which can be eliminated. However, for high Mg contents, a high volume fraction of the intermetallic phase provides a contiguous path for crack propagation through the connected interdendritic regions.

Bravo Bénard, Agustín Eduardo; Martínez Hernández, David; González Reyes, José Gonzalo; Ortiz Prado, Armando; Schouwenaars Franssens, Rafael

2014-02-01

309

Effect of Na2SiO3 solution concentration of micro-arc oxidation process on lap-shear strength of adhesive-bonded magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-arc oxidation films are fabricated on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy in the Na2SiO3 electrolyte. The mechanical performance of magnesium alloy bonding with the adhesive is examined by single lap-shear test, and the morphology and composition of the oxidation film are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The data indicate that the increase of Na2SiO3 solution concentration results in the decrease of bonding strength of magnesium alloy joints, while the porosity has no directly relation with the variation of the lap-shear strength. The results also show that Na2SiO3 participates into the film formation and the fabricated film is mainly composed of MgO and Mg2SiO4. In particular, with the increase of Na2SiO3 solution concentration, the content of MgO decreased while that of Mg2SiO4 increased. Moreover, MgO could initiate the formation of the hydroxyl group, which potentially enhances surface wettability and hydrogen bonding with the adhesive. This rationale is strongly supported by the results of Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring.

Gao, Haitao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Xin; Huang, Ping; Xu, Kewei

2014-09-01

310

Grain Refinement of Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Recent Research, Theoretical Developments, and Their Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds on the "Grain Refinement of Mg Alloys" published in 2005 and reviews the grain refinement research on Mg alloys that has been undertaken since then with an emphasis on the theoretical and analytical methods that have been developed. Consideration of recent research results and current theoretical knowledge has highlighted two important factors that affect an alloy's as-cast grain size. The first factor applies to commercial Mg-Al alloys where it is concluded that impurity and minor elements such as Fe and Mn have a substantially negative impact on grain size because, in combination with Al, intermetallic phases can be formed that tend to poison the more potent native or deliberately added nucleant particles present in the melt. This factor appears to explain the contradictory experimental outcomes reported in the literature and suggests that the search for a more potent and reliable grain refining technology may need to take a different approach. The second factor applies to all alloys and is related to the role of constitutional supercooling which, on the one hand, promotes grain nucleation and, on the other hand, forms a nucleation-free zone preventing further nucleation within this zone, consequently limiting the grain refinement achievable, particularly in low solute-containing alloys. Strategies to reduce the negative impact of these two factors are discussed. Further, the Interdependence model has been shown to apply to a broad range of casting methods from slow cooling gravity die casting to fast cooling high pressure die casting and dynamic methods such as ultrasonic treatment.

StJohn, D. H.; Easton, M. A.; Qian, M.; Taylor, J. A.

2013-07-01

311

MAGNESIUM ALLOYS IN US MILITARY APPLICATIONS: PAST, CURRENT AND FUTURE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1940’s Mg-alloys have been used for military applications, from aircraft components to ground vehicles. The drive for usage was primarily availability and lightweighting of military systems. But the promise of widespread military usage was not met largely based on corrosion and flammability concerns, poor mechanical behavior and inferior ballistic response. This review paper will cover historical, current and potential future applications with a focus on scientific, engineering and social barriers relevant to integration of Mg-alloy. It will also present mechanical and physical property improvements solutions which are currently being developed to address these issues.

Mathaudhu, Suveen N.; Nyberg, Eric A.

2010-02-26

312

Mechanical Flow Response and Anisotropy of Ultra-Fine Grained Magnesium and Zinc Alloys  

E-print Network

that can potentially meet the high demand for light weight structural materials and low fuelconsumption in transportation. Zn-Al alloys, on the other hand, can be potential substitutes for several ferrous and non-ferrous materials because of their good...

Al Maharbi, Majid H.

2011-02-22

313

Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill's quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at different temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal effects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at different stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.

Wang, Rui-ze; Chen, Zhang-hua; Li, Yu-jie; Dong, Chao-fang

2013-12-01

314

Phase equilibria in the binary rare-earth alloys: The erbium-magnesium system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er-Mg system was examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray examination, metallography, and microprobe analysis. Four intermediate phases are found to exist, and their crystal structures have been confirmed or determined as the following: ? phase (?Er2Mg) (cubic, cI2-W type, peritectic formation 1255 °C); ErMg (cubic, cP2-CsCl type, peritectic formation 830 °C); ErMg2 (hexagonal, hP12-MgZn2 type, peritectic formation 670 °C); and Er5Mg24 (cubic, cI58-?-Mn type, peritectic formation 600 °C). The ? phase undergoes a eutectoidal decomposition at 680 °C and 30.5 at. pct Mg. A eutectic reaction was observed to occur at 570 °C and 89.5 at. pct Mg. Comparisons of the general properties between the ErMg phases and with those of the other R-Mg compounds (R = rare earth) are briefly discussed. Properties and structures of the R-Mg, R-rich alloys are specially considered and compared with those of a few groups of rare-earth alloys. The alloying behavior of R-rich R-Me alloys (R = Ho, Er, Tm, Lu; Me = Mg, Cd, In, Tl) is systematically presented and/or predicted.

Saccone, A.; Delfino, S.; Macciò, D.; Ferro, R.

1992-03-01

315

Microstructure and Impression Creep Characteristics of Cast Mg-5Sn- xBi Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and creep behavior of a cast Mg-5Sn alloy with 1, 2, and 3 wt pct Bi additions were studied by impression tests in the temperature range 423 K to 523 K (150 °C to 250 °C) under punching stresses in the range 125 to 475 MPa for dwell times up to 3600 seconds. The alloy containing 3 wt pct Bi showed the lowest creep rates and, thus, the highest creep resistance among all materials tested. This is attributed to the favorable formation of the more thermally stable Mg3Bi2 intermetallic compound, the reduction in the volume fraction of the less stable Mg2Sn phase, and the dissolution of Bi in the remaining Mg2Sn particles. These particles strengthen both the matrix and grain boundaries during creep deformation of the investigated system. The creep behavior of the Mg-5Sn alloy can be divided into the low- and high-stress regimes, with the respective average stress exponents of 5.5 and 10.5 and activation energies of 98.3 and 163.5 kJ mol-1. This is in contrast to the creep behavior of the Bi-containing alloys, which can be expressed by a single linear relationship over the whole stress and temperature ranges studied, yielding stress exponents in the range 7 to 8 and activation energies of 101.0 to 107.0 kJ mol-1. Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is proposed that the dominant creep mechanism in Mg-5Sn is pipe-diffusion controlled dislocation viscous glide the low-stress regime and dislocation climb creep with back stress in the high-stress regime. For the Mg-5Sn- xBi alloys, however, the controlling creep mechanism is dislocation climb with an additional particle strengthening effect, which is characterized by the higher stress exponent of 7 to 8.

Keyvani, Mahsa; Mahmudi, Reza; Nayyeri, Ghazal

2011-07-01

316

76 FR 72172 - Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order: Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...material injury to an industry in the United States...Pure magnesium is a metal or alloy containing by...materials into magnesium metal. Pure primary magnesium...and chemical reduction industries. In addition, pure...containing magnesium scrap, secondary...

2011-11-22

317

The Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Tensile, Fatigue, and Creep Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AM60  

SciTech Connect

Tensile, fatigue, fracture toughness, and creep experiments were performed on a commercially available magnesium-aluminum alloy (AM60) after three processing treatments: (1) as-THIXOMOLDED (as-molded), (2) THIXOMOLDED then thermomechanically processed (TTMP), and (3) THIXOMOLDED then TTMP then annealed (annealed). The TTMP procedure resulted in a significantly reduced grain size and a tensile yield strength greater than twice that of the as-molded material without a debit in elongation to failure ({epsilon}{sub f}). The as-molded material exhibited the lowest strength, while the annealed material exhibited an intermediate strength but the highest {epsilon}{sub f} (>1 pct). The TTMP and annealed materials exhibited fracture toughness values almost twice that of the as-molded material. The as-molded material exhibited the lowest fatigue threshold values and the lowest fatigue resistance. The annealed material exhibited the greatest fatigue resistance, and this was suggested to be related to its balance of tensile strength and ductility. The fatigue lives of each material were similar at both room temperature (RT) and 423 K (150 C). The tensile-creep behavior was evaluated for applied stresses ranging between 20 and 75 MPa and temperatures between 373 and 473 K (100 and 200 C). During both the fatigue and creep experiments, cracking preferentially occurred at grain boundaries. Overall, the results indicate that thermomechanical processing of AM60 dramatically improves the tensile, fracture toughness, and fatigue behavior, making this alloy attractive for structural applications. The reduced creep resistance after thermomechanical processing offers an opportunity for further research and development.

Chen, Zhe [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Huang, J [Thixomat, Incorporated; Decker, R [Thixomat, Incorporated; Lebeau, S [Thixomat, Incorporated; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Boehlert, C. J. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01

318

Concurrent Integration of Science-Based Mechanistic Relationships with Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetic Simulations for Strengthening Magnesium Alloys at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated computational materials engineering approaches to alloy development leverage the hierarchical, interconnected nature of materials systems to rapidly optimize material performance. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of predictive models and simulation tools to elucidate fundamental relationships within the processing-structure-processing materials paradigm. For the current work, computational simulation results were used in combination with mechanistic, science-based models to assist alloy design. Two case studies are presented as illustrative examples that focus on high-temperature magnesium (Mg) alloy development. Solid solution strengthening potency and solute-based effects on creep rate were discussed in the first case study to guide strategies for solute selection in alloy development. This analysis was completed through the identification of composition-sensitive microstructural parameters that were subsequently evaluated in a predictive fashion. The second case study used computational thermo-kinetic simulations to evaluate Mg alloy precipitate systems for their ability to nucleate a high number density of coarsening-resistant particles. This nucleation and growth analysis was then applied to a Mg-Sn-Al alloy to highlight the utility of the current methodology in predicting multicomponent alloy precipitation behavior. This paper ultimately seeks to provide insight into an integrative approach that captures the important underlying material physics through relationships parameterized by descriptive thermodynamic and kinetic factors, where these factors can be readily calculated with a commercially available suite of computational tools in concert with accessible data in the literature.

Bryan, Z. L.; Manuel, M. V.

2015-01-01

319

Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

2012-12-01

320

The magnesium silicide germanide stannide alloy: A new concept in ocean thermal energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

In devices hitherto used for the direct conversion of heat into electricity, commonly known as ''thermoelectric energy converters'', the efficiency of conversion is appreciably lower than that of conventional reciprocating or rotary heat engines. This low efficiency is brought about by the physical properties of the materials selected for the manufacture of these devices. The materials that are currently being used for this purpose are either simple elements and alloys thereof, such as silicon and germanium, or intermetallic compounds, either simple or alloys and solid solutions thereof. Of the latter, mention may be made of bismuth telluride, antimony telluride, lead telluride, antimony silver telluride, lead selenide, bismuth selenide, antimony selenide, etc., as well as mixtures and solid solutions of these and other compounds. A search in respect of these materials carried out in the U.S. Patent literature indicates indeed a quite substantial and impressive record.

Nicolaou, M.C.

1983-12-01

321

Ignition and combustion of aluminum/magnesium alloy particles in O2 at high pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ignition and combustion of Al, Mg, and Al/Mg alloy particles in 99 percent O2/1 percent N2 mixtures is investigated at high temperatures and pressures for rocket engine applications. The 20-micron particles contain 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt pct Mg alloyed with Al, and are ignited in oxygen using the reflected shock in a single-pulse shock tube near the endwall. Using this technique, the ignition delay and combustion times of the particles are measured at temperatures up to 3250 K as a function of Mg content for oxygen pressures of 8.5, 17, and 34 atm. An ignition model is developed that employs a simple lumped capacitance energy equation and temperature and pressure dependent particle and gas properties. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted trends in the ignition delay times.

Roberts, Ted A.; Burton, Rodney L.; Krier, Herman

1993-01-01

322

Effect of magnesium content on the semi solid cast microstructure of hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study of microstructural evolution of A390 hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy (Al-17%Si-4.5%Cu-0.5%Mg) with addition of Mg contents up to 10% was carried out during semi solid metal processing as well as conventional casting. As a first step, the FACTSAGE thermodynamic databank and software was applied in order to investigate the phase diagram, the solidification behavior as well as the identification

Alireza Hekmat-Ardakan

2009-01-01

323

Deformation Mechanism in the Crack-Tip Region of Fine-Grained Magnesium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation mechanism in the crack-tip region of a fine-grained Mg-2.4 at. pct Zn binary alloy was investigated by focused\\u000a ion beam (FIB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and finite element analysis (FEA) at the beginning of\\u000a the fracture toughness test. The deformed microstructure observations showed the formation of subgrains instead of deformation\\u000a twins in the fracture toughness tested sample, which

Hidetoshi Somekawa; Tadanobu Inoue; Alok Singh; Toshiji Mukai

2011-01-01

324

A constitutive description for aluminum-0.1 pct magnesium alloy under hot working conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive behavior of an aluminum 0.1 wt pct Mg alloy deformed in the temperature range of 573 to 823 K at strain rates\\u000a between 0.001 and 100 s?1 is analyzed on the basis of the concept of the mechanical threshold stress (MTS), \\u000a $$\\\\hat \\\\sigma $$\\u000a , taking into consideration the contributions from the different strengthening mechanisms that could be

Eli S. Puchi-Cabrera

2003-01-01

325

Evaluation of microstructural effects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microconstituents on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D alloy prepared by die-casting and ingot casting route has been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution at pH 7.25. The experimental techniques used include constant immersion technique, in-situ corrosion monitoring, and potentiodynamic polarisation experiments. Surface examination and analytical studies were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDX

Rajan Ambat; Naing Naing Aung; W Zhou

2000-01-01

326

Superplastic deformation behavior of hot-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out in the temperature range of 250–450°C and the strain rate range of 0.7×10?3–1.4×10?1 s?1 to evaluate the superplasticity of AZ31 Mg alloy. The threshold stress which characterizes the difficulty for grain boundary\\u000a sliding was calculated at various temperatures. The surface relieves of superplastically deformed specimens were observed\\u000a by using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM).

Zhang Kaifeng; Yin Deliang; Wang Guofeng; Han Wenbo

2006-01-01

327

Enhanced ductility in an aluminum-4 Pct magnesium alloy at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable enhancement of the tensile ductility in a commercial Al-4 pct Mg alloy is observed during deformation at elevated\\u000a temperatures (up to 250?C) and slow strain rates. Total elongations of ?175 pct at 250?C were obtained compared to 27 pct\\u000a at ambient temperature. Much of this ductility was a result of large increases with temperature in the post uniform

Robert A. Ayres

1977-01-01

328

Pulsed laser surface treatment of magnesium alloy: Correlation between thermal model and experimental observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of deposition of Al+Al2O3 on MRI 153M Mg alloy processed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser is presented in this study. A composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. The microstructure and phase constituents were characterized and correlated with the thermal predictions. The laser scan speed had an effect on the average melt depth and the

Anoop N. Samant; Baoshuai Du; Sameer R. Paital; S. Kumar; Narendra B. Dahotre

2009-01-01

329

Microstructure and aging behavior of conventional and nanocrystalline aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys with scandium additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of small amounts of scandium (0.15 and 0.3 wt.%) on the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties of 2618 (Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni) and C416 (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag-Mn) alloys was studied. It was observed the overall precipitation sequence and the general morphology of the aging curve were not affected by the addition of small amounts of Sc. It was also observed that a separate population of small Al3Sc particles improved the aging response and mechanical properties of low-Cu, low-Sc Al-Cu-Mg alloys, while the formation of Al5-8Cu7-4Sc particles resulted in a decrease of the mechanical properties in high-Cu Sc-containing alloys. The Sc-modified with the best aging response (2618 + 0.15 % Sc) was cryomilled in order to produce Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc nanocrystalline powders. Bulk nanocrystalline samples were consolidated from the cryomilled powder using three different techniques: hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, spark plasma sintering, cold spraying. The influence of consolidation technique on the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties was analyzed. The extruded and spark plasma sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc nanocrystalline samples presented a bimodal grain structure consisting of coarse-grained regions located at the inter-particle region, and nanocrystalline regions at the particle interiors. The aging behavior of the nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc alloy was characterized by softening instead of hardening. This behavior was rationalized on the basis of changes in the precipitation processes that occur in the nanocrystalline state. On the other hand, the cold spray process promoted the formation of truly nanocrystalline coatings. The mechanisms influencing the coating formation of conventional and nanocrystalline Al-Cu-Mg-Fe-Ni-Sc samples were analyzed.

Zuniga, Alejandro

330

Friction stir welding of AZ-91 and AM-Lite magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to report the results of butt joint quality of friction stir welding (FSW) of samples of alloys of MgAlZn group. Welding has been carried out with the FSW tool of welding speed ranging from 140 to 355 mm\\/min. In the stir zone and the surrounding, neither porosity nor cracks have been obtained. Microhardness in the

Lechos?aw Tuz; Pawe? Ko?odziejczak; Andrzej Kolasa

2011-01-01

331

Biodegradable poly-lactic acid based-composite reinforced unidirectionally with high-strength magnesium alloy wires.  

PubMed

Biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) - based composites reinforced unidirectionally with high-strength magnesium alloy wires (MAWs) are fabricated by a heat-compressing process and the mechanical properties and degradation behavior are studied experimentally and theoretically. The composites possess improved strengthening and toughening properties. The bending strength and impact strength of the composites with 40 vol% MAWs are 190 MPa and 150 kJ/m(2), respectively, although PLA has a low viscosity and an average molecular weight of 60,000 g/mol. The mechanical properties of the composites can be further improved by internal structure modification and interface strengthening and a numerical model incorporating the equivalent section method (ESM) is proposed for the bending strength. Micro arc oxidization (MAO) of the MAWs is an effective interfacial strengthening method. The composites exhibit high strength retention during degradation and the PLA in the composite shows a smaller degradation rate than pure PLA. The novel biodegradable composites have large potential in bone fracture fixation under load-bearing conditions. PMID:25725562

Li, X; Chu, C L; Liu, L; Liu, X K; Bai, J; Guo, C; Xue, F; Lin, P H; Chu, Paul K

2015-05-01

332

Abnormal distribution of microhardness in tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of heat input on the distribution of microhardness of tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welded hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were investigated. The results show that with an increase of heat input, the distributions of microhardness at the top and bottom of the welded joints are different because they are determined by both the effect of grain coarsening and the effect of dispersion strengthening. With an increase of the heat input, the microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the top and bottom of welded joints and the fusion zone (FZ) at the bottom of welded joints decreased gradually, while the microhardness of the FZ at the top of welded joints decreased initially and then increased sharply. The reason for the abnormal distribution of microhardness of the FZ at the top of the welded joints is that this area is close to the heat source during welding and then large numbers of hard {beta}-Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12} particles are precipitated. Hence, in this case, the effect of dispersion strengthening dominated the microhardness.

Xu Nan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen Jun, E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xie Weidong; Wang Linzhi; Wang Dan; Min Dong [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

2010-07-15

333

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Laser-Welded and Diode-Laser-Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructures, tensile properties, strain hardening, and fatigue strength of fiber-laser-welded (FLW) and diode-laser-welded (DLW) AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloys were studied. Columnar dendrites near the fusion zone (FZ) boundary and equiaxed dendrites at the center of FZ, with divorced eutectic ?-Mg17Al12 particles, were observed. The FLW joints had smaller dendrite cell sizes with a narrower FZ than the DLW joints. The heat-affected zone consisted of recrystallized grains. Although the DLW joints fractured at the center of FZ and exhibited lower yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and fatigue strength, the FLW joints failed at the fusion boundary and displayed only moderate reduction in the YS, UTS, and fatigue strength with a joint efficiency of ~91 pct. After welding, the strain rate sensitivity basically vanished, and the DLW joints exhibited higher strain-hardening capacity. Stage III hardening occurred after yielding in both base metal (BM) and welded samples. Dimple-like ductile fracture characteristics appeared in the BM, whereas some cleavage-like flat facets together with dimples and river marking were observed in the welded samples. Fatigue crack initiated from the specimen surface or near-surface defects, and crack propagation was characterized by the formation of fatigue striations along with secondary cracks.

Chowdhury, S. M.; Chen, D. L.; Bhole, S. D.; Powidajko, E.; Weckman, D. C.; Zhou, Y.

2011-07-01

334

Microstructural Evolution and Flow Behavior of Twin-Roll Cast AZ41 Magnesium Alloy during Hot Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructural evolution and flow behavior of twin-roll cast AZ41 magnesium alloy during hot compression were characterized by employing deformation temperature of 300°C, 350°C and 400°C, and strain rate ranging from 10-3 to 10-2s-1. When compressed at different temperature (300°C, 350°C and 400°C) and strain rate (10-3 and 10-2s-1) all stress strain curves showed a flow softening behavior before strained to 0.51 due to dynamic recrystallization, even though concurrent twinning was quite active. Twinning contributed to the flow hardening behavior appeared during the end of hot compression (? > 0.51) at a strain rate of 10-2s-1 and elevated temperature (300°C, 350°C and 400°C) in spite of the softening effect of concurrently occurred dynamic recrystallization. TEM image showed that discontinuous recrystallization occurred when deformed at elevated temperature as high as 400°C and the strain rate ranging from 10-2 to 10-3s-1. It is suggested that dislocation slip, twinning and recrystallization develop in a cyclic mode from initial stage to the end of hot compression.

Liu, Zhiyi; Chen, Xu; Hou, Yanhui; Kang, Sukbong

2012-12-01

335

Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 ?m thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to ?-TCP and ?-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

2013-10-01

336

Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys  

SciTech Connect

With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (? 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS] [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham] [University of Alabama - Birmingham

2014-03-31

337

Theoretical investigation of new type of ternary magnesium alloys AMgNi 4 (A=Y, La, Ce, Pr and Nd)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New ternary magnesium alloys AMgNi 4 (A=Y, La, Ce, Pr and Nd) have been studied by First-Principles calculations within the generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structural parameters were in good agreement with the available experimental data. The calculated cohesive energies and formation enthalpies showed that these alloys had strong structural stability. Then the elastic constants Cij of these AMgNi 4 alloys were calculated, and the bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio ? and anisotropy value A of polycrystalline materials were derived from the elastic constants, the related mechanical properties were further discussed. The electronic structures were also calculated to reveal the underlying mechanism for the structural stability and the elastic property.

Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Fang; Fan, Tou-Wen; Tang, Bi-Yu; Peng, Li-Ming; Ding, Wen-Jiang

2011-03-01

338

Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: Microstructure, Texture, and Tensile Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at characterizing the microstructure, texture and tensile properties of a friction stir welded AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy with varying tool rotational rates and welding speeds. Friction stir welding (FSW) resulted in the presence of recrystallized grains and the relevant drop in hardness in the stir zone (SZ). The base alloy contained a strong crystallographic texture with basal planes (0002) largely parallel to the rolling sheet surface and < {11bar{2}0} rangle directions aligned in the rolling direction (RD). After FSW the basal planes in the SZ were slightly tilted toward the TD determined from the sheet normal direction (or top surface) and also slightly inclined toward the RD determined from the transverse direction (or cross section) due to the intense shear plastic flow near the pin surface. The prismatic planes (10bar{1}0) and pyramidal planes (10bar{1}1) formed fiber textures. After FSW both the strength and ductility of the AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy decreased with a joint efficiency in-between about 75 and 82 pct due to the changes in both grain structure and texture, which also weakened the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. The welding speed and rotational rate exhibited a stronger effect on the YS than the UTS. Despite the lower ductility, strain-hardening exponent and hardening capacity, a higher YS was obtained at a higher welding speed and lower rotational rate mainly due to the smaller recrystallized grains in the SZ arising from the lower heat input.

Chowdhury, S. H.; Chen, D. L.; Bhole, S. D.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.

2013-01-01

339

Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

2008-10-01

340

Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol-gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol-gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

Murillo-Gutiérrez, N. V.; Ansart, F.; Bonino, J.-P.; Kunst, S. R.; Malfatti, C. F.

2014-08-01

341

Characterization of adiabatic shear bands in AM60B magnesium alloy under ballistic impact  

SciTech Connect

Adiabatic shear bands in Mg alloy under ballistic impact at a velocity of 0.5 km.s{sup -1} were characterized by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and indenter technique. The results show that adiabatic shear bands were formed around the impacted crater, and the deformed and transformed bands were distinguished by etching colors in metallographic observation. TEM observation shows that the deformed bands were composed of the elongated grains and high density dislocations, while the transformed bands composed of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains were confirmed. In initial stage, the severe localized plastic deformation led to the formation of elongated grains in the deformed bands. With localized strain increasing, the severe localized deformation assisted with the plastic temperature rising led to the severe deformation grains evolved into the ultrafine and equiaxed grains, while the deformed bands were developed into transformed bands. The formation of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands should be attributed to the twinning-induced rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism. High microhardness in the bands was obtained because of the strain hardening, grain refining and content concentration. - Research Highlights: {yields} Deformed and transformed bands are found in Mg alloy under ballistic impact. {yields} The microstructures in the deformed and transformed bands are characterized. {yields} The evolution process of the microstructure in the bands is discussed.

Zou, D.L.; Zhen, L., E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn; Xu, C.Y.; Shao, W.Z.

2011-05-15

342

Magnesium Tube Hydroforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloys can be considered as alternative materials towards achieving light weight structures with high material stiffness. The formability of two magnesium alloys, viz. AZ31 and ZM21 has been experimentally tested using the IHP forming process. A new die set up for hot IHP forming has been designed and the process experimentally investigated for temperatures up to 400 °C. Both alloys exhibit an increase in formability with increasing forming temperature. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at the same time. The IHP process has also been used to demonstrate practicability and feasibility for real parts from manufacture a technology demonstrator part using the magnesium alloy ZM21.

Liewald, M.; Pop, R.; Wagner, S.

2007-04-01

343

Magnesium Gluconate  

MedlinePLUS

Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

344

Effects of temperature-dependent material properties and shielding gas on molten pool formation during continuous laser welding of AZ91 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser welding processes are widely used for fabrications in many engineering applications such as aerospace and automotives. In this paper, a moving distributed heat source model based on Goldak's method [1] has been implemented into finite volume thermal simulations in order to predict temperature distributions during the welding process of a magnesium alloy and to study the effects of variations in thermal properties, absorption coefficient and gas shielding on the computed temperature distributions and weld pool dimensions. The main conclusion is the significant effects of varying the thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient of magnesium. Also, it has been seen that the shielding gas, besides its main role of protection against oxidation, has a significant effect on the width of the weld pool. Finally, the obtained results have been compared to the experimental ones and a satisfactory correlation has been observed, indicating the reliability of the model developed in this study.

Bannour, Sana; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges

2012-11-01

345

Recrystallization and superplasticity at 300 C in an aluminum-magnesium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in thermomechanical processing (TMP) which regulate the microstructural characteristics and superplastic response of an Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy at 300 C were evaluated. Mechanical property data revealed that the superplastic ductility can be enhanced by simultaneously increasing the total rolling strain, the reduction per pass, and the duration of reheating intervals between passes during isothermal rolling. Texture and microscopy data were consistent with the development of a refined microstructure by recovery-dominated processes, i.e., continuous recrystallization, during the processing. The mechanisms by which a refined substructure can be progressively converted into a fine-grained structure during repeated cycles of deformation and annealing are addressed. A qualitative description of the complex sequence of developments leading to a microstructure better suited to support superplastic response is presented.

Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Mcqueen, H. J.

1991-01-01

346

Laser Cladding of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D with Silicon Carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg alloys are ultralight but their structural applications are often limited by their poor wear and corrosion resistance. The research aimed to address the problem by laser-cladding. Cladding with SiC powder onto surface of AZ91D was carried out using Nd:YAG laser. The laser-clad surface was analyzed using the optical microscope, SEM equipped with EDS, and XRD and found to contain SiC and other Si compounds such as Mg2Si and Al3.21Si0.47 as well as much refined ?-Mg grains and ?-Mg17Al12 intermetallics. The laser-clad surface possesses considerably higher hardness but its corrosion resistance is not improved, indicating that the laser-cladding technique can only be adopted for applications in noncorrosive environments where wear is the predominant problem.

Cai, L. F.; Mark, C. K.; Zhou, Wei

347

Long-term in vivo degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the magnesium alloy ZEK100 for use as a biodegradable bone implant.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys are the focus of research as resorbable materials for osteosynthesis, as they provide sufficient stability and would make surgery to remove implants unnecessary. The new degradable magnesium alloy ZEK100 was developed to improve the stability and corrosion resistance by alloying with zinc, rare earth metals and zirconium. As the implants were degraded to only a limited extent after 6 months implantation in a previous in vivo study the present study was conducted to evaluate the long-term degradation behaviour and biocompatibility in the same animal model over 9 and 12 months. Five rabbits each with intramedullary tibia implants were examined over 9 and 12 months. Three legs were left without an implant to serve as negative controls. Numerous examinations were performed in the follow-up (clinical examinations, serum analysis, and radiographic and in vivo micro-CT investigations) and after death (ex vivo micro-CT, histology, and implant analysis) to assess the in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. It could be shown that favourable in vivo degradation behaviour is not necessarily associated with good biocompatibility. Although ZEK100 provided a very high initial stability and positive biodegradation, it must be excluded from further biomedical testing as it showed pathological effects on the host tissue following complete degradation. PMID:22922249

Dziuba, Dina; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Seitz, Jan Marten; Waizy, Hazibullah; Angrisani, Nina; Reifenrath, Janin

2013-11-01

348

Enhancement of the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy via nanostructured hydroxyapatite thin films fabricated via radio-frequency magnetron sputtering.  

PubMed

The structure, composition and morphology of a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposited dense nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating that was deposited on the surface of an AZ31 magnesium alloy were characterized using AFM, SEM, EDX and XRD. The results obtained from SEM and XRD experiments revealed that the bias applied during the deposition of the HA coating resulted in a decrease in the grain and crystallite size of the film having a crucial role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the fabricated biocomposites. A maximum hardness of 9.04GPa was found for the HA coating, which was prepared using a bias of -50V. The hardness of the HA film deposited on the grounded substrate (GS) was found to be 4.9GPa. The elastic strain to failure (H/E) and the plastic deformation resistance (H(3)/E(2)) for an indentation depth of 50nm for the HA coating fabricated at a bias of -50V was found to increase by ~30% and ~74%, respectively, compared with the coating deposited at the GS holder. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that all of the HA coatings increased the surface hardness on both the microscale and the nanoscale. Therefore, the results revealed that the films deposited on the surface of the AZ31 magnesium alloy at a negative substrate bias can significantly enhance the wear resistance of this resorbable alloy. PMID:25792410

Surmeneva, M A; Tyurin, A I; Mukhametkaliyev, T M; Pirozhkova, T S; Shuvarin, I A; Syrtanov, M S; Surmenev, R A

2015-06-01

349

Biodegradation of a magnesium alloy implant in the intercondylar femoral notch showed an appropriate response to the synovial membrane in a rabbit model in vivo.  

PubMed

Degradable magnesium alloys are promising biomaterials for orthopedic applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects on both the synovial membrane (synovialis) and the synovial fluid (synovia) of the degradation products of a MgYREZr-pin implanted in the intercondylar femoral notch in a rabbit model. Thirty-six animals were randomized into two groups (MgYREZr or Ti6Al4V alloy) of 18 animals each. Each group was then divided into three subgroups with implantation periods of 1, 4, and 12 weeks, with six animals in each subgroup. The initial inflammatory reaction caused by the surgical trauma declined after 12 weeks of implantation, and elucidated a progressive recovery of the synovial membrane. Compared with control Ti6Al4V pins, there were no significant differences between the groups. However, after 12 weeks, recovery of the synovial membrane was more advanced in the titanium group, in which 92% showed no signs of synovitis, than in the magnesium group. A cytotoxicity test with L929 cells and human osteoblasts (HOB) was also conducted, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, and no toxic leachable products were observed after 24 h of incubation. In conclusion, the MgYREZr alloy seems to be a suitable material for intra-articular degradable implants. PMID:24522242

Ezechieli, Marco; Diekmann, Julia; Weizbauer, Andreas; Becher, Christoph; Willbold, Elmar; Helmecke, Patrick; Lucas, Arne; Schavan, Robert; Windhagen, Henning

2014-02-12

350

Multi-passes warm rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy, effect on evaluation of texture, microstructure, grain size and hardness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the effect of multi-passes warm rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy on texture, microstructure, grain size variation and hardness of as cast sample (A) and two rolled samples (B & C) taken from different locations of the as-cast ingot was investigated. The purpose was to enhance the formability of AZ31 alloy in order to help manufacturability. It was observed that multi-passes warm rolling (250°C to 350°C) of samples B & C with initial thickness 7.76mm and 7.73 mm was successfully achieved up to 85% reduction without any edge or surface cracks in ten steps with a total of 26 passes. The step numbers 1 to 4 consist of 5, 2, 11 and 3 passes respectively, the remaining steps 5 to 10 were single pass rolls. In each discrete step a fixed roll gap is used in a way that true strain per step increases very slowly from 0.0067 in the first step to 0.7118 in the 26th step. Both samples B & C showed very similar behavior after 26th pass and were successfully rolled up to 85% thickness reduction. However, during 10th step (27th pass) with a true strain value of 0.772 the sample B experienced very severe surface as well as edge cracks. Sample C was therefore not rolled for the 10th step and retained after 26 passes. Both samples were studied in terms of their basal texture, microstructure, grain size and hardness. Sample C showed an equiaxed grain structure after 85% total reduction. The equiaxed grain structure of sample C may be due to the effective involvement of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) which led to formation of these grains with relatively low misorientations with respect to the parent as cast grains. The sample B on the other hand showed a microstructure in which all the grains were elongated along the rolling direction (RD) after 90 % total reduction and DRX could not effectively play its role due to heavy strain and lack of plastic deformation systems. The microstructure of as cast sample showed a near-random texture (mrd 4.3), with average grain size of 44 & micro-hardness of 52 Hv. The grain size of sample B and C was 14?m and 27?m respectively and mrd intensity of basal texture was 5.34 and 5.46 respectively. The hardness of sample B and C came out to be 91 and 66 Hv respectively due to reduction in grain size and followed the well known Hall-Petch relationship.

Kamran, J.; Hasan, B. A.; Tariq, N. H.; Izhar, S.; Sarwar, M.

2014-06-01

351

Effects of Ca and Ce Addition on Tensile and Fracture Properties in Squeeze Cast AT42(Mg-4Al-2Sn) Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the addition of Ca and Ce to the AT42(Mg-4Al-2Sn) alloy on the microstructural modification and deformation, as well as the fracture mechanisms of squeeze cast magnesium alloys, were investigated in this study. Microstructural analyses indicated that the AT42 alloy contained Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn particles precipitated along cell boundaries, whereas long, needle-shaped CaMgSn particles were precipitated additionally in the AT42-0.5Ca and AT42-1Ca alloys. In the AT42-1Ca-0.5Ce and AT42-1Ca-1Ce alloys containing Al11Ce3 particles as well as Mg17Al12, Mg2Sn, and CaMgSn particles, the overall distribution of precipitates was homogeneously modified considerably as the solidification cell size was refined. According to the observation of deformation and the fracture processes of the AT42-1Ca alloys, the fracture proceeded mainly along cracked, needle-shaped CaMgSn particles at a relatively low stress-intensity factor level. However, in the AT42-1Ca-1Ce alloys, the deformation and fracture proceeded into cells rather than into cell boundaries as twins were developed actively inside cells, although few microcracks were initiated at the precipitates. Thus, the AT42-1Ca-1Ce alloy had the highest strength, ductility, and fracture toughness simultaneously because of the increase in the volume fraction of hard precipitates and the development of many twins in the Mg matrix.

Do, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Byeongho; Park, Yongho; Park, Ikmin; Lee, Sunghak

2012-08-01

352

Superplastic Forming of Multipass Friction Stir Processed Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipass friction stir processing (FSP) of AA5086 Al-Mg alloy was carried out to obtain bulk fine grain material for superplastic forming. FSP produced inhomogeneous microstructure in the thickness direction. The aim of the present work was to understand superplastic forming behavior of distinct microstructural layers, i.e., nugget layer (NL) containing microstructure from nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected/heat-affected layer (TL) containing microstructure from thermo-mechanically affected/heat-affected (TMAZ/HAZ) zone, and composite layer (CL) containing microstructure from both the above zones (nugget and TMAZ/HAZ). Superplastic forming of NL, TL, and CL blanks was carried out at constant gas pressure. Three different forming gas pressures of 0.75, 1.15, and 1.5 MPa corresponding to strain rates of 5 × 10-4 s-1, 1 × 10-3 s-1 , and 5 × 10-3 s-1, respectively, were used. Forming characteristics of CL were found to be comparable to that of NL and even better at higher forming pressures. Concomitant microstructural evolution during bulging of CL and NL plays an important role here.

Pradeep, S.; Pancholi, Vivek

2014-09-01

353

Superplastic Forming of Multipass Friction Stir Processed Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipass friction stir processing (FSP) of AA5086 Al-Mg alloy was carried out to obtain bulk fine grain material for superplastic forming. FSP produced inhomogeneous microstructure in the thickness direction. The aim of the present work was to understand superplastic forming behavior of distinct microstructural layers, i.e., nugget layer (NL) containing microstructure from nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected/heat-affected layer (TL) containing microstructure from thermo-mechanically affected/heat-affected (TMAZ/HAZ) zone, and composite layer (CL) containing microstructure from both the above zones (nugget and TMAZ/HAZ). Superplastic forming of NL, TL, and CL blanks was carried out at constant gas pressure. Three different forming gas pressures of 0.75, 1.15, and 1.5 MPa corresponding to strain rates of 5 × 10-4 s-1, 1 × 10-3 s-1 , and 5 × 10-3 s-1, respectively, were used. Forming characteristics of CL were found to be comparable to that of NL and even better at higher forming pressures. Concomitant microstructural evolution during bulging of CL and NL plays an important role here.

Pradeep, S.; Pancholi, Vivek

2014-12-01

354

Tensile properties of HK31XA-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet under rapid-heating conditions and constant elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of HK31XA-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet from an experimental batch were heated to failure at nominal temperature rates from 0.2 F to 100 F per second under constant-load conditions. Rapid-heating yield and rupture stresses are presented and compared with the yield and ultimate stresses from elevated-temperature tensile stress-strain tests for 1/2-hour exposure. Linear temperature-rate parameters were used to correlate rapid-heating results by constructing master curves which can be used for predicting yield stresses and temperatures and for estimating rupture stresses and temperatures.

Gibbs, Thomas W

1956-01-01

355

Magnesium Research and Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

2009-12-30

356

Texture Development in a Friction Stir Lap-Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at characterizing the microstructure, texture, hardness, and tensile properties of an AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy that was friction stir lap welded (FSLWed) at varying tool rotational rates and welding speeds. Friction stir lap welding (FSLW) resulted in the presence of recrystallized grains and an associated hardness drop in the stir zone (SZ). Microstructural investigation showed that both the AZ31B-H24 Mg base metal (BM) and SZ contained ?-Mg17Al12 and Al8Mn5 second phase particles. The AZ31B-H24 BM contained a type of basal texture (0001)<110> with the (0001) plane nearly parallel to the rolled sheet surface and <110> directions aligned in the rolling direction. FSLW resulted in the formation of another type of basal texture (0001)<100> in the SZ, where the basal planes (0001) became slightly tilted toward the transverse direction, and the prismatic planes (100) and pyramidal planes (101) exhibited a 30 deg + ( n - 1) × 60 deg rotation ( n = 1, 2, 3, …) with respect to the rolled sheet normal direction, due to the shear plastic flow near the pin surface that occurred from the intense local stirring. With increasing tool rotational rate and decreasing welding speed, the maximum intensity of the basal poles (0001) in the SZ decreased due to a higher degree of dynamic recrystallization that led to a weaker or more random texture. The tool rotational rate and welding speed had a strong effect on the failure load of FSLWed joints. A combination of relatively high welding speed (20 mm/s) and low tool rotational rate (1000 rpm) was observed to be capable of achieving a high failure load. This was attributed to the relatively small recrystallized grains and high intensity of the basal poles in the SZ arising from the low heat input as well as the presence of a small hooking defect.

Naik, B. S.; Chen, D. L.; Cao, X.; Wanjara, P.

2014-09-01

357

Synthesis and evaluation of MgF2 coatings by chemical conversion on magnesium alloys for producing biodegradable orthopedic implants of temporary use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work was the synthesis of biodegradable MgF2 coatings by chemical conversion on the commercial Elektron 21 and AZ91D magnesium alloys, in aqueous HF solutions for different concentrations and temperatures. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the other hand, their corrosion behavior was evaluated by gravimetric and electrochemical measurements in Hank's solution at 37°C for different immersion times. The experimental results revealed that chemical conversion in HF produced MgF2 coatings which corrosion resistance was enhanced by increasing the HF concentration. Further, the microstructure and composition of the base alloy played a key role on the growth and degradation mechanisms of the MgF2 coatings.

Casanova, P. Y.; Jaimes, K. J.; Parada, N. J.; Hernández-Barrios, C. A.; Aparicio, M.; Viejo, F.; Coy, A. E.

2013-11-01

358

Influence of heat treatment on bond strength and corrosion resistance of sol-gel derived bioglass-ceramic coatings on magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

In this study, bioglass-ceramic coatings were prepared on magnesium alloy substrates through sol-gel dip-coating route followed by heat treatment at the temperature range of 350-500°C. Structure evolution, bond strength and corrosion resistance of samples were studied. It was shown that increasing heat treatment temperature resulted in denser coating structure as well as increased interfacial residual stress. A failure mode transition from cohesive to adhesive combined with a maximum on the measured bond strength together suggested that heat treatment enhanced the cohesion strength of coating on the one hand, while deteriorated the adhesion strength of coating/substrate on the other, thus leading to the highest bond strength of 27.0MPa for the sample heat-treated at 450°C. This sample also exhibited the best corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests revealed that relative dense coating matrix and good interfacial adhesion can effectively retard the penetration of simulated body fluid through the coating, thus providing excellent protection for the underlying magnesium alloy. PMID:25728582

Shen, Sibo; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Zhao, Huan; Niu, Shuxin; Zhang, Ruiyue

2015-05-01

359

Surface microstructure and in vitro analysis of nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) alloys, owing to their biodegradability and good mechanical properties, have potential applications as biodegradable orthopedic implants. However, several poor properties including low corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility have prevented their clinical application, as these properties may result in the sudden failure of the implants during the bone healing. In this research, nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) powder was coated on the AZ91 Mg alloy through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) assisted micro arc oxidation (MAO) method to modify the properties of the alloy. The surface microstructure of coating, corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the samples were characterized with different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, compression test and cell culture test. The results showed that the nanostructured akermanite coating can improve the corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the biodegradable Mg alloy making it a promising material to be used as biodegradable bone implants for orthopedic applications. PMID:24721316

Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Hashemi Beni, Batoul; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

2014-05-01

360

Effect of different calcium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-5Al-1Bi-0.3Mn magnesium alloy.  

PubMed

The effect of different Ca contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-5Al-1Bi-0.3Mn (AMB501) magnesium alloys was investigated by conventional melting and casting technique using different Ca contents (1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt %). Increasing the Ca content resulted in higher hardness and yield strength, but decreased elongation. The improved tensile properties of the AM50-1Bi-xCa alloys were due to the changes in AMB501 alloy microstructure when the Ca content increased, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrum, and X-ray diffractometer. The alloy microstructure indicated that the amount of ?-Mg17 Al12 phase on grain boundaries decreased and the morphology of ?-Mg17 Al12 phase on grain boundaries changed from quasicontinuous-net shape to dispersed particles. The Mg17 Al12 phase disappeared and a new secondary phase Al2 Ca appeared after a 3.0 wt % Ca addition. PMID:25339286

Xiao-ping, Luo; Su-e, Dang; Ya-qing, Zhang

2015-01-01

361

Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by ?-TCP coating. Moreover, the (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that ?-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface. PMID:25783501

Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

2015-04-01

362

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 20, 2001, 457459 Tensile and fatigue behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy  

E-print Network

and then at 420 C for 24 h in argon atmosphere followed by water quench at 25 C. The solution treated alloy material for coping with energy conservation and environmental pollution regulations. Much of the recent strength magne- sium alloys. AZ91D alloy was subjected to solution heat- treatment at 380 C for 8 h

Zhou, Wei

363

Magnesium for Future Autos  

SciTech Connect

In the quest for better fuel economy and improved environmental performance, magnesium may well become a metal of choice for constructing lighter, more efficient vehicles. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, yet it has a high strength-to-weight ratio makes it comparable to steel in many applications. The world’s automakers already use magnesium for individual components. But new alloys and processing methods are needed before the metal can become economically and technologically feasible as a major automotive structural material. This article will explore the formation, challenges and initial results of an international collaboration—the Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project—that is leveraging the expertise and resources of Canada, China and the United States to advance the creation of magnesium-intensive vehicles. The MFERD project aims to develop the enabling technologies and knowledge base that will lead to a vehicles that are 50-60 percent lighter, equally affordable, more recyclable and of equal or better quality when compared to today’s vehicles. Databases of information also will be captured in models to enable further alloy and manufacturing process optimization. Finally, a life-cycle analysis of the magnesium used will be conducted.

Nyberg, Eric A.; Luo, Alan A.; Sadayappan, Kumar; Shi, Wenfang

2008-10-01

364

Effects of Mechanical Vibration and Wall Thickness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Processed by Expendable Pattern Shell Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical vibration was introduced into the solidification process of AZ91D magnesium alloy during the expendable pattern shell casting process, and the combined effects of mechanical vibration and wall thickness on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicate that with the increase of wall thickness, the morphologies in ?-Mg phase and ?-Mg17Al12 phase of the samples obtained without vibration evolved from a fine dendrite to a coarse dendrite and from a fine continuous network structure to a coarse continuous network structure, respectively, and the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy continuously decreased. With the application of mechanical vibration, the coarser dendrites transformed into fine equiaxed grains, and the previous coarse continuous network structure of the ?-Mg17Al12 phase was changed to a discontinuous granular morphology. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties and density of AZ91D alloy greatly increased. The effect of mechanical vibration on the microstructure and mechanical properties increased with increasing vibration frequency and wall thickness. The fractographs of the tensile samples show a change in fracture surface from brittle to that of a tough fracture with the addition of vibration.

Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian; Chen, Xu; Wang, Benjing; Wu, Hebao

2015-04-01

365

Combined effect of non-equilibrium solidification and thermal annealing on microstructure evolution and hardness behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-equilibrium solidification of commercial AZ91 magnesium alloy was performed by copper mold spray-casting technique and the thermal stability property of as-formed meta-stable microstructure was investigated by subsequent annealing at different temperatures and times. Remarkable grain refinement appears with increasing cooling rate during solidification process, which is accompanied by a visible cellular/dendrite transition for the grain morphology of primary phase. Moreover, the non-equilibrium solidified alloy exhibits obvious precipitation hardening effect upon annealing at 200 °C, and the precipitation mode of ?-Mg17Al12 phase changes from discontinuous to continuous with extending isothermal time from 4 h to 16 h, which generates an increase of resultant micro-hardness value. After solid solution treatment at the elevated temperature of 420 °C, the volume fraction of ?-Mg17Al12 phase decreases and a notable grain growth phenomenon occurs, which give rise to a reduction of hardness in comparison with that of as-quenched alloy.

Zhou, Z. Z.; Yang, W.; Chen, S. H.; Yu, H.; Xu, Z. F.

2014-06-01

366

The Bolting of Magnesium Components in Car Engines  

E-print Network

1 The Bolting of Magnesium Components in Car Engines Sarennah J.P. Longworth Newnham College vehicles. At present this is achieved through the use of ultralight steels, aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys for some body parts. Magnesium has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any structural metal

Cambridge, University of

367

NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE  

E-print Network

NUCLEATION PHENOMENON IN SiC PARTICULATE REINFORCED MAGNESIUM COMPOSITE Y. Cai, D. Taplin, M.J. Tan performance of matrix metals and alloys. Most magnesium alloy based MMCs are produced via a casting process into the last freezing interdendritic regions. For magnesium based composites, both particle pushing (or capture

Zhou, Wei

368

Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of high strength magneisum alloys fabricated by deformation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research was to develop high strength Mg by thermo-mechanical processing. Several novel techniques were developed to impart large plastic strains on Mg alloys and Mg based composites. The main emphasis of this work was on investigating the effect of different processing schemes on grain-refinement and texture modification of processed material. The room-temperature and elevated-temperature mechanical behavior of processed-Mg was studied in detail. Biaxial corrugated pressing, also known as alternate biaxial reverse corrugation processing was applied to twin-roll cast AZ31 Mg and warm-extruded ZK60 Mg. Friction stir processing to partial depths was applied to thixomolded AM60 Mg and warm-extruded ZK60 Mg. A new process called "bending reverse-bending", was developed and applied to hot rolled AZ31-H24 Mg. A Mg/Al laminated composite was developed by hot pressing and rolling. In processed condition, Mg alloys exhibit enhancement in room-temperature strength and ductility, as well as elevated temperature formability. It was concluded that improvement in mechanical properties of processed-Mg is strongly influenced by grain size and precipitates; while ductility largely depends on resulting deformation textures.

Mansoor, Bilal

369

Numerical and experiment analysis of residual stress on magnesium alloy and steel butt joint by hybrid laser-TIG welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid welding technology has received significant attention in the welding of dissimilar materials recently. While, great welding residual stress and deformation often result by the difference of coefficient of thermal expansion This study describes the thermal elastic–plastic analysis using finite element techniques to analyze the thermo mechanical behavior and evaluate the residual stresses and welding distortion on the AZ31B magnesium

Zhi Zeng; Xunbo Li; Yugang Miao; Gang Wu; Zijun Zhao

2011-01-01

370

Comparison of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of AX41 magnesium alloy processed by EX-ECAP via three different routes A, Bc and C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the creep-resistant AX41 magnesium alloy (Mg-4 wt.% Al-1 wt.% Ca), processed by extrusion and consecutive Equal Channel Angular Pressing (EX- ECAP) up to total of eight passes, via route A, Bc and C at 220 °C. Beyond the deformation behavior the change of the microstructures was studied by electron back-scattering and X-ray diffraction methods. Significant grain refinement was found for all processing routes (grain sizes decreased below 1 pm after 8 passes). The X-ray line profile analysis performed by Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) fitting method has not revealed differences between the particular dislocation structures. Route A was found to be the most effective processing route from the point of view of grain size refinement and the room temperature strength. The influence of the texture and the dislocation structure on the plastic deformation processes is discussed in detail.

Kraj?ák, T.; Máthis, K.; Jane?ek, M.; Gubicza, J.

2014-08-01

371

Sub-structure strengthening and work hardening of an ultra-fine grained aluminium–magnesium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of an Al–Mg1 alloy, processed to obtain grain sizes in the range from less than a micrometer to relatively coarse sizes, have been investigated by tensile and compression testing. A characteristic feature of the stress–strain curves of fine-grained Al–Mg-alloys is a sharp yield point followed by Lüders-band elongation. The flow stress at each given strain level followed

O. Nijs; B. Holmedal; J. Friis; E. Nes

2008-01-01

372

Investigation of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell response in direct culture.  

PubMed

Crystalline Mg-Zn-Ca ternary alloys have recently attracted significant interest for biomedical implant applications due to their promising biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to characterize as-cast Mg-xZn-0.5Ca (x=0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0wt.%) alloys, and determine the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) at the interface with the Mg-xZn-0.5Ca alloys. The direct culture method (i.e. seeding cells directly onto the surface of the sample) was established in this study to probe the highly dynamic cell-substrate interface and thus to elucidate the mechanisms of BMSC responses to dynamic alloy degradation. The results showed that the BMSC adhesion density on these alloys was similar to the cell-only positive control and the BMSC morphology appeared more anisotropic on the rapidly degrading alloy surfaces in comparison with the cell-only positive control. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6mM Mg(2+) ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on BMSC responses. We speculated that degradation-induced dynamic surface topography played an important role in modulating cell morphology at the interface. This study presents a clinically relevant in vitro model for screening bioresorbable alloys, and provides useful design guidelines for determining the degradation rate of implants made of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. PMID:25449917

Cipriano, Aaron F; Sallee, Amy; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Tayoba, Myla; Sanchez, Jorge; Liu, Huinan

2015-01-01

373

Magnesium Hydroxide  

MedlinePLUS

Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

374

Magnesium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D At a Glance Test ... of abnormal levels of magnesium, calcium and/or potassium When to Get Tested? When you have symptoms ...

375

Nanophasic biodegradation enhances the durability and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys for the next-generation vascular stents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable metal alloys emerge as a new class of biomaterials for tissue engineering and medical devices such as cardiovascular stents. Deploying biodegradable materials to fabricate stents not only obviates a second surgical intervention for implant removal but also circumvents the long-term foreign body effect of permanent implants. However, these materials for stents suffer from an un-controlled degradation rate, acute toxic responses, and rapid structural failure presumably due to a non-uniform, fast corrosion process. Here we report that highly uniform, nanophasic degradation is achieved in a new Mg alloy with unique interstitial alloying composition as the nominal formula Mg-2.5Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (wt%, hereafter, denoted as JDBM). This material exhibits highly homogeneous nanophasic biodegradation patterns as compared to other biodegradable metal alloy materials. Consequently it has significantly reduced degradation rate determined by electrochemical characterization. The in vitro cytotoxicity test using human vascular endothelial cells indicates excellent biocompatibility and potentially minimal toxic effect on arterial vessel walls. Finally, we fabricated a cardiovascular stent using JDBM and performed in vivo long-term assessment via implantation of this stent in an animal model. The results confirmed the reduced degradation rate in vivo, excellent tissue compatibility and long-term structural and mechanical durability. Thus, this new Mg-alloy with highly uniform nanophasic biodegradation represents a major breakthrough in the field and a promising material for manufacturing the next generation biodegradable vascular stents.

Mao, Lin; Shen, Li; Niu, Jialin; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Wenjiang; Wu, Yu; Fan, Rong; Yuan, Guangyin

2013-09-01

376

Formation and breakdown of chromate conversion coatings on aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper 7X75 alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to characterize the formation and breakdown of chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) on aluminum alloys Al-Zn-Mg-Cu 7075 and 7475 with a focus on the effect of alloy temper, alloy purity and selected coating processing variables. Overall, results consistently pointed to a slight temper effect. Conversion coated AA7475-T7 was significantly more corrosion resistant than conversion coated AA7475-T6. In AA7075, there was only a slight difference in corrosion resistance between the two tempers. This was attributed to the effect of constituent particles on coating formation and breakdown, which are present to a much greater extent in AA7075 than in AA7475. The difference in the corrosion resistance between the T6 and T7 tempers in the coated and uncoated conditions is about the same suggesting that the origin of any "temper effect" in conversion coated materials is ultimately due to the intrinsic change in corrosion susceptibility of the alloy itself. Thicker coating formed on AA7475-T7 has the effect of increasing corrosion resistance, which could be associated with the 860 cm-1 Raman intensity band. Studies were also conducted with alloys in retrogression and reaged tempers and the W temper. Results with these tempers were mixed and no general conclusions could be drawn. In terms of electrochemically derived measures of corrosion resistance (electrochemical impedance, and pitting potential measurements), the magnitude of the temper effect was about the same as the effect due to the purity difference between AA7075 and AA7475. The temper effect was less significant than effects due to increasing coating time from 1 to 3 minutes, withholding certain substrate precleaning steps, or withholding key ingredients from the coating bath. Scanning probe microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize coating formation in the vicinity of constituent intermetallic particles (IMPs) present in the alloys. Coatings formed on IMPS exhibited different morphologies and were much thinner that coatings formed on the matrix. Coatings were thinnest on S phase particles, and in post-coating exposure to aggressive chloride environments coating breakdown was almost always associated with these particles. The difference in coating thickness between particles and the surrounding matrix was established within the first tens of seconds of coating. The thickness differential was then observed to remain constant for the remainder of the coating immersion time. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Yoon, Yuhchae

377

Improving the high-temperature mechanical properties of a magnesium alloy by equal-channel angular pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was conducted on a Mg–0.55% Zr alloy at a temperature of 513K. It is shown that processing by ECAP refines the grain size from ?75 to ?8.6?m. Tensile testing was performed at temperatures from 473 to 773K and at initial strain rates from 10?5 to 10?2s?1 using specimens in the as-received condition and after processing by

Bing Q. Han; Terence G. Langdon

2005-01-01

378

Corrosion Performance of Anodized AZ91D Magnesium Alloy: Effect of the Anodizing Potential on the Film Structure and Corrosion Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy samples have been submitted for anodizing at different potentials. Anodizing was conducted in an environmentally friendly solution which comprised 3 M KOH + 1 M Na2SiO3 at room temperature. The surface treatment was performed electrolytically at four different potentials: 3, 5, 8, and 10 V. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained after 7 days of immersion in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at room temperature. The porosity of the anodic films was estimated by means of the linear polarization method. SEM images revealed that the surface oxide was thicker for the anodic films obtained at 3 and 5 V. The films obtained at these potentials were more porous than those formed at 8 and 10 V. The results showed that the thickness of the anodic film had a significant effect on the corrosion behavior of the AZ91D, whereas the influence of the initial porosity was not significant.

de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes; Pereira, Viviam Serra Marques; Correa, Olandir Vercino; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

2013-10-01

379

Effects of half-wave and full-wave power source on the anodic oxidation process on AZ91D magnesium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anodic films have been prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloys in 1 mol/L Na 2SiO 3 with 10 vol.% silica sol addition under the constant voltage of 60 V at room temperature by half-wave and full-wave power sources. The weight of the anodic films has been scaled by analytical balance, and the thickness has been measured by eddy current instrument. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and structure of the anodic films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the thickness and weight of the anodic films formed by the two power sources both increase with the anodizing time, and the films anodized by full-wave power source grow faster than that by half-wave one. Furthermore, we have fitted polynomial to the scattered data of the weight and thickness in a least-squares sense with MATLAB, which could express the growth process of the anodic films sufficiently. The full-wave power source is inclined to accelerate the growth of the anodic films, and the half-wave one is mainly contributed to the uniformity and fineness of the films. The anodic film consists of crystalline Mg 2SiO 4 and amorphous SiO 2.

Wang, Ximei; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Li, Yihong

2009-03-01

380

Rheological behavior and microstructural evolution of semi-solid hypereutectic aluminum-silicon-magnesium-copper alloys using rheoforming process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the current study was to investigate the rheological behavior and microstructural evolution of hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Mg-Cu alloys using conventional and modified SEED process (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device). In the first part; the feasibility of semi-solid processing of hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu A390 alloys using a novel rheoforming process was investigated. A combination of the SEED process, isothermal holding using insulation and addition of solid alloy during swirling was introduced as a novel method to improve the processability of semi-solid A390 slurries. The effects of isothermal holding and the addition of solid alloy on the temperature gradient between the centre and the wall and on the formation of alpha-Al particles were examined. In addition, phosphorus and strontium were added to the molten metal to refine the primary and eutectic silicon structure to facilitate semi-solid processing. It was found that the combination of the SEED process with two additional processing steps can produce semisolid 390 alloys that can be rheoformed. In the second part, the effects of Mg additions ranging from 6 to 15% on the solidification behaviour of hypereutectic Al-155i-xMg-4Cu alloys was investigated using thermodynamic calculations, thermal analysis and extensive microstructural examination. The Mg level strongly influenced the microstructural evolution of the primary Mg2Si phase as well as the solidification behaviour. Thermodynamic predictions using ThermoCalc software reported the occurrence of six reactions, comprising the formation of primary Mg2 Si, two pre-eutectic binary reactions, forming either Mg2Si + Si or Mg2Si + alpha-Al phases, the main ternary eutectic reaction forming Mg2Si + Si + alpha-Al, and two post-eutectic reactions resulting in the precipitation of the Q-Al5Mg8Cu 2Si6 and theta-Al2Cu phases, respectively. Microstructures of the four alloys studied confirmed the presence of these phases, in addition to that of the pi-Al8Mg3FeSi 6 phase. The presence of the pi-phase was also confirmed by thermal analysis. In the third part, the effects of P and Sr on the microstructure of hypereutectic Al-155i14Mg-4Cu alloy were studied. The microstructural examination and phase identification were carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of individual and combined additions of P and Sr on the eutectic arrest in Al-155i14Mg-4Cu alloy were examined using thermal analysis. The mean size of primary Mg2Si decreases from about 350 mum to less than 60 mum and the morphology changes from coarse dendritic type or equiaxed to polygonal type. In addition, the morphology of the eutectic Mg2Si phase changes from coarse Chinese script to fine fiber-like, while that of the eutectic Si phase changes from coarse acicular shape to a fine fibrous form. With Sr addition, the morphology of the pi-Fe phase evolved from Chinese script to a fine twin platelet form. Furthermore, the thermal analysis results reveal that the addition of Sr or Sr and P reduces the temperature of eutectic nucleation and growth. Finally, the rheological behaviour and microstructure of semi-solid hypereutectic A390, P-refined A390, Al-15Si-10.5Mg-4Cu and Al-15Si-13.5Mg-4Cu alloys were investigated by using parallel plate viscometry. The flow deformation of these alloys in the semi-solid state was characterized at different deformation rates and at variable solid fractions. The calculated viscosity for variable shear rate was deduced using the analytical method developed by Laxmanan and Flemings. Microstructures of the four alloys, after partial solidification, were examined in order to characterize the flow behaviour during deformation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tebib, Mehand

381

Electrochemical behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy in phosphate medium—part I. Effect of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pH on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based AZ91D alloy was investigated in a constant composition phosphate\\u000a medium using various electrochemical techniques, complemented with surface analysis data. The studied solutions were 0.1 M\\u000a H3PO4, NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4 and Na3PO4 having pH values of 1.8, 4.5, 9.1 and 11.8, respectively. Spontaneous passivation was substantiated from monitoring the continuous\\u000a positive shift of

Fakiha El-Taib Heakal; Amany Mohammed Fekry; Mohammed Ziad Fatayerji

2009-01-01

382

An Investigation of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Magnesium Alloys Subjected to Severe Plastic Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations of physico-mechanical properties of specimens made from the structural Mg-based alloy (Russian grade Ma2-1) in its coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained states after SPD processing are presented. To form the ultrafine-grained structure, use was made of the method of orthogonal equal-channel angular pressing. After four passes through the die, a simultaneous increase was achieved in microhardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure under conditions of uniaxial tensile loading.

Kozulyn, A. A.; Skripnyak, V. A.; Krasnoveikin, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Karavatskii, A. K.

2015-01-01

383

In vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium alloy for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries. PMID:25789500

Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

2015-01-01

384

Elevated temperature aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

385

In-situ white beam microdiffraction study of the deformation behavior in polycrystalline magnesium alloy during uniaxial loading  

SciTech Connect

Scanning white beam X-ray microdiffraction has been used to study the heterogeneous grain deformation in a polycrystalline Mg alloy (MgAZ31). The high spatial resolution achieved on beamline 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source provides a unique method to measure the elastic strain and orientation of single grains as a function of applied load. To carry out in-situmeasurements a light weight (~;;0.5kg) tensile stage, capable of providing uniaxial loads of up to 600kg, was designed to collect diffraction data on the loading and unloading cycle. In-situ observation of the deformation process provides insight about the crystallographic deformation mode via twinning and dislocation slip.

Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lynch, P.A.; Stevenson, A.W.; Liang, D.; Parry, D.; Wilkins, S.; Madsen, I.C.; Bettles, C.; Tamura, N.; Geandier, G.

2007-01-19

386

Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium  

E-print Network

Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Rajan Ambat(OH)2 with small amounts b phase, magnesium-aluminium oxide and MgH2 while for die-cast, the product: Magnesium alloys; AZ91D; Ingot; Die-cast; Microstructure; Corrosion 0010-938X/00/$ - see front matter 7 2000

Zhou, Wei

387

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM K.D. Carlson1 , C: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Shrinkage Porosity, Hot Tears, Modeling Abstract Simulations are performed and hot tears in squeeze casting of magnesium alloys. Introduction Both shrinkage porosity and hot tears

Beckermann, Christoph

388

First-principles calculations of twin-boundary and stacking-fault energies in magnesium  

E-print Network

First-principles calculations of twin-boundary and stacking-fault energies in magnesium Y. Wang and stacking faults in metal magnesium have been calculated using first-principles supercell approach. Four. Keywords: Magnesium; Interfaces; Twinning; First-principles calculation Magnesium alloys are increasingly

Chen, Long-Qing

389

Growth and characterization of zinc oxide and zinc oxide-based alloys: magnesium zinc oxide and manganese zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of this work were to synthesize ZnO and ZnO based alloys in the forms of thin films by using pulsed-laser deposition technique and to study the structural, stoichiometric, optical and electrical properties of these thin films for the potential applications in the new optoelectronic devices. The optimized deposition conditions for growing epitaxial hexagonal MgZnO alloy thin films on sapphire (0001) substrates were determined by a systematic analysis of XRD and TEM. The epitaxial growth mechanism of these films on sapphire (0001) substrates is demonstrated to be domain-matched. The films are of high single-crystalline quality and show bright excitonic luminescence. Based on the RBS results, the maximum Mg concentration in the films with hexagonal wurtzite structure was found to be 34 at. %, which is almost ten times of the value allowed by the phase diagram. The bandgap energy of MgZnO thin films was found to be changed to the higher energy side with increasing Mg concentration. By changing Mg content, the bandgap of MgZnO alloy film can be tuned from 3.40 eV to 4.19 eV, this provides an excellent opportunity for bandgap engineering for optoelectronic applications. For the potential applications in spintronic devices, epitaxial MnZnO thin films were also synthesized on sapphire (0001) substrates by using PLD. These MnZnO thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure and very high single-crystalline quality according to the XRD, TEM and RBS results. The maximum Mn concentration was 35 at. %. The bandgap of these films shifts to the higher energy side with increasing Mn content. Magnetic investigations indicate that these films are paramagnetic. Single-crystalline ZnO thin films have been grown successfully on Si(111) substrates by using PLD. This integration of ZnO thin films with silicon substrates was realized with two different heterostructures, ZnO/AlN/Si(111) and ZnO/MgO/TiN/Si(111). In ZnO/AlN/Si(111) heterostructure, the ZnO film was grown epitaxially on the AlN buffer which was grown on the Si substrate with domain-matching epitaxy. Two buffer layers were applied for the ZnO/MgO/TiN/Si(111) heterostructure. The excellent epitaxial property of TiN on Si substrate ensures the epitaxial growths of the MgO buffer layer and the ZnO film. These heterostructure thin films have excellent single crystalline quality and extremely bright excitonic emission based on the analysis of XRD, TEM and PL measurements. An ultraviolet illumination-enhanced luminescence effect was observed in the ZnO thin film samples. We found that the PL intensity increased with the UV light exposure time. This new phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen desorption on the ZnO sample surface. A phenomenological model was proposed to explain this new effect. The time dependent equations derived from this model result in a very good agreement with the experimental data. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Jin, Chunming

390

The Effects of Pre-strain and Subsequent Annealing on the Yielding Behavior in a Rolled Magnesium Alloy AZ31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work, pre-compression along the transverse direction and the normal direction (ND) was conducted on the rolled AZ31Mg alloy. Subsequently, the pre-compressed samples were annealed at 250 °C for different times. The effects of pre-compression and post-annealing on the yielding behavior during subsequent compression along ND were investigated. The results revealed that a lot of non-recrystallized extension twin remained in 5% PT sample after annealing for 4 h, while no twin was observed in the 5% PN sample, under the same annealing time. Along with, no prominent changes occurred in the texture of post-annealed as compared to pre-compressed samples. Due to the grain refinement caused by static recrystallization, yield strength increase of 5% PNA sample is found for an annealing time of 30 min. For the 5% PTA sample, the strength increase is attributed to annealing hardening (i.e., annealing retards the detwinning activity and consequently increase the yield strength).

Long, Zhixiang; Liu, Tianmo; He, Jiejun; Zhang, Yin; Pan, Fusheng

2015-01-01

391

Growth behavior of intermetallic compounds during reactive diffusion between aluminum alloy 1060 and magnesium at 573-673 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential new research reactor fuel design proposes to use U-Mo fuel in a Mg matrix clad with Al. Interdiffusion between the Mg containing fuel core and Al cladding can result in the formation of intermetallic compounds that can be detrimental to fuel element performance. The kinetics of the reactive diffusion in the binary Al-Mg system was experimentally studied. Layers of the intermetallic compounds, ? (Al3Mg2) and ? (Al12Mg17) phases, were formed between the Al alloy 1060 and Mg during annealing. The ? layer was observed to grow faster than the ? phase. The thickness of each layer can be expressed by a power function of the annealing time with the exponent n close to 0.5 for the ? phase and less than 0.5 for the ? phase. The results suggest that the growth of ? phase is controlled by lattice diffusion and that of the ? phase by grain boundary and lattice diffusion. Metallographic examination showed the grain boundary diffusion in the form of columnar growth of ? phase during annealing. Based on the reactive diffusion equation developed in this work, in the absence of irradiation effects, it will take more than 110 h to consume a half thickness of 400 ?m of the cladding.

Xiao, Lin; Wang, Ning

2015-01-01

392

Fiber Laser Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy: The Effect of Welding Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at characterizing microstructural change and evaluating tensile and fatigue properties of fiber laser welded AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy with special attention to the effect of welding speed. Laser welding led to the formation of equiaxed dendrites in the fusion zone and columnar dendrites near the fusion zone boundary along with divorced eutectic Mg17Al12 particles and recrystallized grains in the heat-affected zone. The lowest hardness across the weld appeared in the fusion zone. Although the yield strength, ductility, and fatigue life decreased, the hardening capacity increased after laser welding, with a joint efficiency reaching about 90 pct. A higher welding speed resulted in a narrower fusion zone, smaller grain size, higher yield strength, and longer fatigue life, as well as a slightly lower strain-hardening capacity mainly because of the smaller grain sizes. Tensile fracture occurred in the fusion zone, whereas fatigue failure appeared essentially in between the heat-affected zone and the fusion zone. Fatigue cracks initiated from the near-surface welding defects and propagated by the formation of fatigue striations together with secondary cracks.

Chowdhury, S. H.; Chen, D. L.; Bhole, S. D.; Powidajko, E.; Weckman, D. C.; Zhou, Y.

2012-06-01

393

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2011-01-01

394

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2010-01-01

395

Production of magnesium metal  

DOEpatents

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

2010-02-23

396

Magnesium Oxide  

MedlinePLUS

... used for different reasons. Some people use it as an antacid to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. Magnesium oxide also may be used as a laxative for short-term, rapid emptying of ...

397

Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

2010-01-01

398

Production of magnesium metal  

DOEpatents

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

2012-04-10

399

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

Kramer, D.A.

2012-01-01

400

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

Kramer, D.A.

2002-01-01

401

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

Kramer, D.A.

2007-01-01

402

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

Kramer, D.A.

2001-01-01

403

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

Kramer, D.A.

2004-01-01

404

Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

2014-04-01

405

Computational micromechanics of bioabsorbable magnesium stents.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys are a promising candidate material for an emerging generation of absorbable metal stents. Due to its hexagonal-close-packed lattice structure and tendency to undergo twinning, the deformation behaviour of magnesium is quite different to that of conventional stent materials, such as stainless steel 316L and cobalt chromium L605. In particular, magnesium exhibits asymmetric plastic behaviour (i.e. different yield behaviours in tension and compression) and has lower ductility than these conventional alloys. In the on-going development of absorbable metal stents it is important to assess how the unique behaviour of magnesium affects device performance. The mechanical behaviour of magnesium stent struts is investigated in this study using computational micromechanics, based on finite element analysis and crystal plasticity theory. The plastic deformation in tension and bending of textured and non-textured magnesium stent struts with different numbers of grains through the strut dimension is investigated. It is predicted that, unlike 316L and L605, the failure risk and load bearing capacity of magnesium stent struts during expansion is not strongly affected by the number of grains across the strut dimensions; however texturing, which may be introduced and controlled in the manufacturing process, is predicted to have a significant influence on these measures of strut performance. PMID:24566380

Grogan, J A; Leen, S B; McHugh, P E

2014-06-01

406

SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL  

SciTech Connect

Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

2012-06-04

407

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

Kramer, D.A.

2006-01-01

408

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

Kramer, D.A.

2003-01-01

409

The twin-roll strip casting of magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization has been working since 2000 to develop twin-roll strip casting of magnesium alloy. The primary objective was to significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of the magnesium sheet through the twin-roll casting process. This article describes the goals and challenges of this project as well as pilot plant test results.

Liang, D.; Cowley, C. B.

2004-05-01

410

Electroless iron plating on pure magnesium for biomedical applications Xingkai Zhang a  

E-print Network

Electroless iron plating on pure magnesium for biomedical applications Xingkai Zhang a , Wei Han a to protect magnesium and its alloys from corrosion and abrasion. While in biomedical application, electroless study, biocompatible and biodegradable iron coatings were directly electroless plated on pure magnesium

Zheng, Yufeng

411

Enthalpies of formation of magnesium compounds from first-principles calculations  

E-print Network

Enthalpies of formation of magnesium compounds from first-principles calculations Hui Zhang t An energetics database of binary magnesium compounds has been developed from first-principles calculations. Introduction Magnesium alloys are of great importance to the industrial world. With a density of 1.741 g/cm3

Chen, Long-Qing

412

Comparison of Lost Foam Casting of AM60B Alloy and A356 Alloy  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings in order to compare the difference in castability between magnesium alloys and aluminum alloy using the lost foam casting process. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval; Nedkova, Teodora [Kaiser Aluminum

2007-01-01

413

Blood Serum Magnesium  

E-print Network

Key Words · Blood Serum · Magnesium · Flame · Atomic Absorption Method Guide: 40162 Atomic, and magnesium is determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame. Lanthanum Magnesium master standard (7.5 mM/L) Dissolve 0.182 g of oxide-free magnesium ribbon in the minimum

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

414

Aluminum battery alloys  

DOEpatents

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

1984-09-28

415

Aluminum battery alloys  

DOEpatents

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

1985-01-01

416

Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes  

DOEpatents

A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

Richardson, Thomas J.

2013-07-09

417

Interfacial structure of the joints between magnesium alloy and mild steel with nickel as interlayer by hybrid laser-TIG welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint interface of Mg alloy to steel with Ni interlayer was investigated. Comparing with that without any interlayer, the joint shear strength was improved significantly. The characterization of interfaces in the joint with Ni interlayer was analyzed and discussed. The results show that the formation of intermetallic compound Mg2Ni and solid solution of Ni in Fe at the interface

Xiaodong Qi; Gang Song

2010-01-01

418

The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review.  

PubMed

Today, more than 200years after the first production of metallic magnesium by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808, biodegradable magnesium-based metal implants are currently breaking the paradigm in biomaterial science to develop only highly corrosion resistant metals. This groundbreaking approach to temporary metallic implants is one of the latest developments in biomaterials science that is being rediscovered. It is a challenging topic, and several secrets still remain that might revolutionize various biomedical implants currently in clinical use. Magnesium alloys were investigated as implant materials long ago. A very early clinical report was given in 1878 by the physician Edward C. Huse. He used magnesium wires as ligature for bleeding vessels. Magnesium alloys for clinical use were explored during the last two centuries mainly by surgeons with various clinical backgrounds, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and general surgery. Nearly all patients benefited from the treatment with magnesium implants. Although most patients experienced subcutaneous gas cavities caused by rapid implant corrosion, most patients had no pain and almost no infections were observed during the postoperative follow-up. This review critically summarizes the in vitro and in vivo knowledge and experience that has been reported on the use of magnesium and its alloys to advance the field of biodegradable metals. PMID:20172057

Witte, Frank

2010-05-01

419

Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of mechanical deformation and subsequent annealing on the thermoelectric properties and microstructure have been investigated for p-type (Bi0.25Sb0.75)2Te3 alloys prepared by melting followed by quenching. The mechanically deformed pellets were prepared by repetition of cold-pressing of quenched samples at room temperature. Cold-pressed pellets were then annealed at 300°C in vacuum, and the thermoelectric properties and microstructure were traced through the course of the heat treatment. For the heavily deformed samples, the Seebeck coefficient rapidly increased at the very early stage of annealing and did not change as the annealing time increased, due to recrystallization of a new ?-phase which equilibrated at the annealing temperature of 300°C (?300-phase). At the initial stage of annealing (recovery stage), the electrical resistivity sharply increased, probably due to the interaction of antistructural defects with vacancies produced during the cold-pressing treatment. However, for the lightly deformed samples, recrystallization occurred only at some portion of the grain boundaries, and the newly generated ?300-phase slowly replaced the original, as-solidified ?ingot-phase.

Jung, Sung-Jin; Kim, Seong Keun; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hyun, Dow-Bin; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Kim, Jin-Sang

2014-06-01

420

Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Mg x%Zn1%Mn ( x=4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) wrought magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of Zn content and thermo-mechanical treatment in affecting microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-x%Zn-1%Mn (mass fraction, x=4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) wrought Mg alloys were investigated. The microstructure was extremely refined by dynamic recrystallization (DRC) during extrusion. With increasing Zn content, the DRC grains tended to grow up, at the same time, more second phase streamlines would

Ding-fei ZHANG; Guo-liang SHI; Xia-bing ZHAO; Fu-gang QI

2011-01-01

421

Semisolid Magnesium Feedstock Produced by Controlled Nucleation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Controlled Nucleation method has been developed to produce feedstock for semisolid forming, without forced convection. By controlling grain nucleation and growth, fine-grained and non-dendritic microstructures that are suitable for semisolid casting can be generated. The method has been applied to hypoeutectic and hypereutectic aluminium-silicon casting alloys, aluminium wrought alloys and a magnesium alloy. Parameters such as pouring temperature, cooling

H. Wang; Z. Ning

422

Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate  

MedlinePLUS

Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

423

Serum magnesium - test  

MedlinePLUS

... Magnesium is also needed for the heart to function normally and to help regulate blood pressure. Magnesium also helps the body control blood sugar level and helps support the body's defense (immune) ...

424

Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties  

SciTech Connect

The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5% in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

2000-06-30

425

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at

R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

1989-01-01

426

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity

R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

1989-01-01

427

Magnesium and glucose homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Magnesium is an important ion in all living cells being a cofactor of many enzymes, especially those utilising high energy phosphate bounds. The relationship between insulin and magnesium has been recently studied. In particular it has been shown that magnesium plays the role of a second messenger for insulin action; on the other hand, insulin itself has been demonstrated to

G. Paolisso; A. Scheen; F. D'Onofrio; P. Lefèbvre

1990-01-01

428

A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5-60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Barranco, Violeta; El-Hadad, A. A.; Llorente, Irene; Serra, Carmen; Galván, J. C.

2014-03-01

429

Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation  

PubMed Central

Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

2014-01-01

430

Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation.  

PubMed

Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when expo