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1

Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli, such as light, pH variations, competitive binding, and enzyme. Rotaxanes have also been assembled onto the surfaces of gold nanodisks and microcantilevers to realize active molecular plasmonics and synthetic molecular actuators for device fabrication and function. Pillararenes have been successfully used to control and aid the synthesis of gold nanoparticles, semiconducting quantum dots, and magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting organic-inorganic hydrid nanomaterials have been successfully used for controlled self-assembly, herbicide sensing and detection, pesticide removal, and so forth, taking advantage of the selective binding of pillarenes toward target molecules. Cyclodextrins have also been successfully functionalized onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to serve as recycling extractors for C60. Many interesting prototypes of nanodevices based on synthetic macrocycles and their host-guest chemistry have been constructed and served for different potential applications. This Account will be a summary of the efforts made mainly by us, and others, on the host-guest chemistry of synthetic macrocyclic compounds on the surfaces of different solid supports. PMID:24635353

Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

2014-07-15

2

A study of a moleculartweezer host-guest system by a combination of quantum-chemical calculations and solid-state NMR experiments.  

PubMed

A study of a host-guest system consisting of a naphthalene-spaced tweezer with a 1,4 dicyanobenzene guest molecule is presented. The complex is investigated using a combination of quantum-chemical calculations and solid-state NMR experiments. The advantages of such an approach are illustrated. The focus is on the calculation of (1) 1H NMR and (2) 13C NMR chemical shifts for model fragments of the solid-state structure, (3) the analysis of host-guest interactions important for molecular recognition, and (4) the investigation of the process of a guest molecule rotation. For modeling the solid-state structure, up to three host-guest units are considered and the convergence with respect to the size of the solid-state fragment is investigated. PMID:12469808

Ochsenfeld, Christian; Koziol, Felix; Brown, Steven P; Schaller, Torsten; Seelbach, Uta P; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit

2002-01-01

3

Mutual induced fit in a synthetic host-guest system.  

PubMed

Mutual induced fit is an important phenomenon in biological molecular recognition, but it is still rare in artificial systems. Here we report an artificial host-guest system in which a flexible calix[4]arene is enclathrated in a dynamic self-assembled host and both molecules mutually adopt specific three-dimensional structures. NMR data revealed the conformational changes, and crystallographic studies clearly established the precise structures at each stage. PMID:24611612

Sawada, Tomohisa; Hisada, Hayato; Fujita, Makoto

2014-03-26

4

Construction of a rigid Zn porphyrin-C60 dyad within dendritic structure: dendrimer effect on singlet energy transfer.  

PubMed

A snowflake-shaped Zn porphyrin dendrimer with a C60 terminal was prepared. Covalent linkage of the C60 unit results in significant quenching of the Zn porphyrin fluorescence mainly due to energy transfer from the Zn porphyrin core to the C60 terminal. Comparison of the energy-transfer efficiency with similar dendrons indicates that the dendritic structure considerably delays the energy-transfer rate. PMID:17637061

Kozaki, Masatoshi; Akita, Kogen; Suzuki, Shuichi; Okada, Keiji

2007-08-16

5

Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host–guest chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-assembly of nanoscale materials to form hierarchically ordered structures promises new opportunities in drug delivery, as well as magnetic materials and devices. Herein, we report a simple means to promote the self-assembly of two polymers with functional groups at a water–chloroform interface using microfluidic technology. Two polymeric layers can be assembled and disassembled at the droplet interface using the efficiency of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host–guest supramolecular chemistry. The microcapsules produced are extremely monodisperse in size and can encapsulate target molecules in a robust, well-defined manner. In addition, we exploit a dendritic copolymer architecture to trap a small hydrophilic molecule in the microcapsule skin as cargo. This demonstrates not only the ability to encapsulate small molecules but also the ability to orthogonally store both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargos within a single microcapsule. The interfacially assembled supramolecular microcapsules can benefit from the diversity of polymeric materials, allowing for fine control over the microcapsule properties.

Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M.; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A.

2014-12-01

6

Molecular characterization of two host-guest associating hyaluronan derivatives.  

PubMed

Molecular characteristics were determined of two high-molecular-weight water-soluble hyaluronan derivatives, namely beta-cyclodextrin (HA-beta-CD) and N-acylurea (EDC-HA). The weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) of HA-beta-CD and of EDC-HA, determined with a multi-angle light scattering detector connected on-line to a size exclusion chromatographic system, was respectively 185.3 and 86.8 kDa. However the M(w) value determined for the equimolar mixture of the two HA derivatives equaled 556.0 kDa. Similarly, the gyration radius of the above equimolar mixture, Rg = 80.6 nm, was significantly greater than the values found for the single HA derivative, i.e. 40.2 nm for HA-beta-CD and 23.8 nm for EDC-HA. These data indicate that the two kinds of substituents, bound to the polymeric chains, form host-guest/inclusion complexes resulting in polymacromolecular associates/aggregates. PMID:13680848

Soltés, L; Mendichi, R

2003-09-01

7

Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host-guest chemistry.  

PubMed

The self-assembly of nanoscale materials to form hierarchically ordered structures promises new opportunities in drug delivery, as well as magnetic materials and devices. Herein, we report a simple means to promote the self-assembly of two polymers with functional groups at a water-chloroform interface using microfluidic technology. Two polymeric layers can be assembled and disassembled at the droplet interface using the efficiency of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host-guest supramolecular chemistry. The microcapsules produced are extremely monodisperse in size and can encapsulate target molecules in a robust, well-defined manner. In addition, we exploit a dendritic copolymer architecture to trap a small hydrophilic molecule in the microcapsule skin as cargo. This demonstrates not only the ability to encapsulate small molecules but also the ability to orthogonally store both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargos within a single microcapsule. The interfacially assembled supramolecular microcapsules can benefit from the diversity of polymeric materials, allowing for fine control over the microcapsule properties. PMID:25511608

Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A

2014-01-01

8

Multistate self-assembled micro-morphology transitions controlled by host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

The multistate micro-morphology of aggregates in aqueous solution can be manipulated by host-guest interactions between bis-sulfonatocalix[4]arene, ?-CD and a ditopic guest possessing viologen and coumarin moieties. PMID:24382583

Zhang, Qiwei; Yao, Xuyang; Qu, Da-Hui; Ma, Xiang

2014-02-14

9

A semiconducting organic radical cationic host-guest complex.  

PubMed

The self-assembly and solid-state semiconducting properties of single crystals of a trisradical tricationic complex composed of the diradical dicationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(2(•+))) ring and methyl viologen radical cation (MV(•+)) are reported. An organic field effect transistor incorporating single crystals of the CBPQT(2(•+))?MV(•+) complex was constructed using lithographic techniques on a silicon substrate and shown to exhibit p-type semiconductivity with a mobility of 0.05 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The morphology of the crystals on the silicon substrate was characterized using scanning electron microscopy which revealed that the complexes self-assemble into "molecular wires" observable by the naked-eye as millimeter long crystalline needles. The nature of the recognition processes driving this self-assembly, radical-radical interactions between bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY(•+)), was further investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical investigations of the vibrational modes, and was supported by X-ray structural analyses of the complex and its free components in both their radical cationic and dicationic redox states. These spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the bond order of the BIPY(•+) radical cationic units of host and guest components is not changed upon complexation, an observation which relates to its conductivity in the solid-state. We envision the modularity inherent in this kind of host-guest complexation could be harnessed to construct a library of custom-made electronic organic materials tailored to fit the specific needs of a given electronic application. PMID:23078281

Fahrenbach, Albert C; Sampath, Srinivasan; Late, Dattatray J; Barnes, Jonathan C; Kleinman, Samuel L; Valley, Nicholas; Hartlieb, Karel J; Liu, Zhichang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stoddart, J Fraser

2012-11-27

10

Aquatic host-guest complex between a supramolecular G-quadruplex and the anticancer drug doxorubicin  

PubMed Central

We describe the synthesis of a fluorescent deoxyguanosine derivative that co-assembles (in water) with an unlabeled analogue into a heteromeric supramolecular G-quadruplex, which forms a host-guest complex with doxorubicin as evidenced by FRET experiments. PMID:22895684

Martín-Hidalgo, Mariana; Rivera-Ríos, Jean C.

2013-01-01

11

Supramolecular Host–Guest Interaction for Labeling and Detection of Cellular Biomarkers**  

PubMed Central

Be my guest: A supramolecular host–guest interaction is utilized for highly efficient bioorthogonal labeling of cellular targets. Antibodies labeled with a cyclodextrin host molecule bind to adamantane-labeled magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (see picture) and provide an amplifiable strategy for biomarker detection that can be adapted to different diagnostic techniques such as molecular profiling or magnetic cell sorting. PMID:22113923

Agasti, Sarit S.; Liong, Monty; Tassa, Carlos; Chung, Hyun Jung; Shaw, Stanley Y.

2011-01-01

12

Supramolecular host-guest interaction for labeling and detection of cellular biomarkers.  

PubMed

Be my guest: A supramolecular host-guest interaction is utilized for highly efficient bioorthogonal labeling of cellular targets. Antibodies labeled with a cyclodextrin host molecule bind to adamantane-labeled magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (see picture) and provide an amplifiable strategy for biomarker detection that can be adapted to different diagnostic techniques such as molecular profiling or magnetic cell sorting. PMID:22113923

Agasti, Sarit S; Liong, Monty; Tassa, Carlos; Chung, Hyun Jung; Shaw, Stanley Y; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

2012-01-01

13

Supramolecular Chemistry: Induced Circular Dichroism to Study Host-Guest Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this laboratory experiment, students obtain information about the structure of a host-guest complex from the interpretation of circular dichroism measurements. The value and sign of the induced circular dichroism (ICD) on an achiral chromophore guest when it complexes with a cyclodextrin can be related to the guest penetration and its…

Mendicuti, Francisco; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Maria Jose

2010-01-01

14

Novel hybrid hetero-sandwich architectures via stoichiometric control of host-guest self-organization.  

PubMed

Thiocyanate cadmium and methylviologen hybrid host-guest compounds give two novel multiple sandwich architectures with regular or irregular grids of the anionic layer in the structures as effected by the molar ratios of starting ingredients, and show evidence of charge-transfer to the organic dications. PMID:15010762

Yu, Zhi; Yu, Kui; Lai, Longli; Udachin, Kostantin A; Zhu, Haoguo; Tao, Jianqin; You, Xiaozeng; Ströbele, Markus; Meyer, H-Jürgen; Ripmeester, John A

2004-03-21

15

Stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on the recognition of cryptands by organic guests.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: As the star compounds in host-guest chemistry, the syntheses of crown ethers proclaimed the birth of supramolecular chemistry. Crown ether-based host-guest systems have attracted great attention in self-assembly processes because of their good selectivity, high efficiency, and convenient responsiveness, enabling their facile application to the "bottom-up" approach for construction of functional molecular aggregates, such as artificial molecular machines, drug delivery materials, and supramolecular polymers. Cryptands, as preorganized derivatives of crown ethers, not only possess the above-mentioned properties but also have three-dimensional spatial structures and higher association constants compared with crown ethers. More importantly, the introduction of the additional arms makes cryptand-based host-guest systems responsive to more stimuli, which is crucial for the construction of adaptive or smart materials. In the past decade, we designed and synthesized crown ether-based cryptands as a new type of host for small organic guests with the purpose of greatly increasing the stabilities of the host-guest complexes and preparing mechanically interlocked structures and large supramolecular systems more efficiently while retaining or increasing their stimuli-responsiveness. Organic molecules such as paraquat derivatives and secondary ammonium salts have been widely used in the fabrication of functional supramolecular aggregates. Many host molecules including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils, pillararenes, and cryptands have been used in the preparation of self-assembled structures with these guest molecules, but among them cryptands exhibit the best stabilities with paraquat derivatives in organic solvents due to their preorganization and additional and optimized binding sites. They enable the construction of sophisticated molecules or supramolecules in high yields, affording a very efficient way to fabricate stimuli-responsive functional supramolecular systems. This Account mainly focuses on the application of cryptands in the construction of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and stimuli-responsive host-guest systems such as molecular switches and supramolecular polymers due to their good host-guest properties. These cryptands are bicyclic derivatives of crown ethers, including dibenzo-24-crown-8, bis(m-phenylene)-26-crown-8, dibenzo-30-crown-10, and bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10. The length of the third arm has a very important influence on the binding strength of these cryptands with organic guests, because it affects not only the size fit between the host and the guest but also the distances and angles that govern the strengths of the noncovalent interactions between the host and the guest. For example, for bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10-based cryptands, a third arm of nine atoms is the best. The environmental responsiveness of these cryptand-based host-guest systems arises from either the crown ether units or the third arms. For example, a dibenzo-24-crown-8 unit introduces potassium cation responsiveness and an azobenzene group on the third arm imbues photoresponsiveness. We believe that studies on stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on cryptands and organic guests will contribute significantly to future research on molecular devices, supramolecular polymers, and other functional supramolecular materials. PMID:24804805

Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Xuzhou; Huang, Feihe; Niu, Zhenbin; Gibson, Harry W

2014-07-15

16

Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of the Host-Guest Interactions between ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrins and vanadocene dichloride  

PubMed Central

Host-guest interactions between ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrins and vanadocene dichloride (Cp2VCl2) have been investigated by a combination of thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimeters, PXRD and solid state and solution EPR spectroscopy. The solid state results demonstrated that only ?- and ?-cyclodextrins form 1:1 inclusion complexes, while ?-cyclodextrin does not form an inclusion complex with Cp2VCl2. The ?- and ?-CD-Cp2VCl2 inclusion complexes exhibited anisotropic electron-51V (I = 7/2) hyperfine coupling constants whereas the ?-CD- Cp2VCl2 system showed only an asymmetric peak with no anisotropic hyperfine constant. On the other hand, solution EPR spectroscopy showed that ?-CD may be involved in weak host-guest interactions in equilibrium with free vanadocene species. PMID:19881887

Morales, Alexis; Weber, Ralph T.; Melendez, Enrique

2009-01-01

17

Self-healing supramolecular gels formed by crown ether based host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

Automatic repair: a polymer with pendent dibenzo[24]crown-8 units (purple in picture) was cross-linked by two bisammonium salts (green) to form two supramolecular gels based on host-guest interactions. These two gels are stimuli-responsive materials that respond to changes of the pH value and are also self-healing materials, as can be seen by eye and as evidenced by rheological data. PMID:22653895

Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Chen, Jianzhuang; Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Huang, Feihe

2012-07-01

18

A stable host–guest electro-optic polymer system with polyisoimide as a host  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable host–guest electro-optic (EO) polymer system has been prepared for improving not only the EO effect but also the thermal stability of the effect using a polyisoimide as a host. Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and a polyisoimide (PII) synthesized from 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane and oxydiphthalic anhydride were used as the guest and the host, respectively. Analyses of a model compound reaction

Seung Koo Park; Jung Yun Do; Jung Jin Ju; Myung-Hyun Lee

2004-01-01

19

Supramolecular Host-Guest Chemistry of Heterocyclic V-Shaped Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The host-guest inclusion properties of heterocyclic molecules that utilise C 2-symmetric V-shaped building blocks in their construction are reviewed. Such compounds are classified here according to the molecular structures of these building blocks. Salient features of the crystal structures of the resulting inclusion compounds are described and the f unctions of their key supramolecular synthons are analysed. Concepts underpinning the deliberate design and synthesis of new host molecules of this type are explained and then put into practice.

Bishop, Roger

20

Nanometer arrays of functional light harvesting antenna complexes by nanoimprint lithography and host-guest interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show an approach based on a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, NIL and multivalent host?guest interactions for the realization of engineered ordered functional arrays of purified components of the photosynthetic system, the membrane-bound LH2 complex. In addition to micrometer-scale patterned structures, we demonstrated the use of nanometer-scale hard NIL stamps to generate functional protein arrays approaching molecular dimensions.

Maryana Escalante; Yiping Zhao; Manon J. W. Ludden; Rolf Vermeij; John D. Olsen; Erwin Berenschot; C. Neil Hunter; Jurriaan Huskens; Vinod Subramaniam; Cees Otto

2008-01-01

21

Nanometer arrays of functional light harvesting antenna complexes by nanoimprint lithography and host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

We show an approach based on a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, NIL and multivalent host-guest interactions for the realization of engineered ordered functional arrays of purified components of the photosynthetic system, the membrane-bound LH2 complex. In addition to micrometer-scale patterned structures, we demonstrated the use of nanometer-scale hard NIL stamps to generate functional protein arrays approaching molecular dimensions. PMID:18570413

Escalante, Maryana; Zhao, Yiping; Ludden, Manon J W; Vermeij, Rolf; Olsen, John D; Berenschot, Erwin; Hunter, C Neil; Huskens, Jurriaan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cees

2008-07-16

22

Probing Conformational Changes of Ubiquitin by Host-Guest Chemistry Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mechanistic studies of structural changes of ubiquitin (Ub) by host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. CB[6] binds selectively to lysine (Lys) residues of proteins. Low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protein-CB[6] complex reveals CB[6] binding sites. We previously reported ( Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7916-7923) shifts in major charge states along with Ub-CB[6] complexes in the ESI-MS spectrum with addition of CB[6] to Ub from water. We also reported that CB[6] is present only at Lys6 or Lys11 in high charge state (+13) complex. In this study, we provide additional information to explain unique conformational change mechanisms of Ub by host-guest chemistry with CB[6] compared with solvent-driven conformational change of Ub. Additional CID study reveals that CB[6] is bound only to Lys48 and Lys63 in low charge state (+7) complex. MD simulation studies reveal that the high charge state complexes are attributed to the CB[6] bound to Lys11. The complexation prohibits salt bridge formation between Lys11 and Glu34 and induces conformational change of Ub. This results in formation of high charge state complexes in the gas phase. Then, by utilizing stronger host-guest chemistry of CB[6] with pentamethylenediamine, refolding of Ub via detaching CB[6] from the protein is performed. Overall, this study gives an insight into the mechanism of denatured Ub ion formation via host-guest interactions with CB[6]. Furthermore, this provides a direction for designing function-controllable supramolecular system comprising proteins and synthetic host molecules.

Lee, Jong Wha; Heo, Sung Woo; Lee, Shin Jung C.; Ko, Jae Yoon; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Hugh I.

2013-01-01

23

Host-guest interaction manipulated self-assembly of pyridinium-tailored naphthalene.  

PubMed

Host–guest interactions are employed to manipulate the assembled morphology of an amphiphile, 2-NP, which contains an electron-rich naphthalene group and an electron-deficient pyridinium cation linked with a flexible alkyl arm. By encapsulating the pyridinium and the naphthalene group of 2-NP into the cavity of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]), fluorescence-enhanced microsheets were formed. PMID:25162071

Wang, Peiyi; Lin, Yuan; Smith, Mark; Feng, Sheng; Song, Baoan; Yang, Song; Hu, Jun

2014-10-14

24

Preparation and characterization of (SBA-15)-La 2O 3 host-guest composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanthanum oxide was successfully incorporated into an SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieve via the microwave-assisted synthesis method (MASM) for the first time, and was compared with liquid-phase grafting and thermal diffusion methods. A series of characterizations were used to characterize the prepared materials. The results showed that the preparation of (SBA-15)-La 2O 3 host-guest composite materials by MASM has the advantages of simpler operation, higher efficiency and more plentiful lanthanum oxide could be incorporated into SBA-15 compared with other methods. In the prepared host-guest (SBA-15)-La 2O 3 materials, the frameworks of the host molecular sieve were kept intact, their structures were still kept high ordered and the guest lanthanum oxide locates inside the pores of the SBA-15. The sizes of the prepared (SBA-15)-La 2O 3 samples were 340-357 nm. The prepared host-guest composite materials show the properties of luminescence, and the luminescent intensities are about 2 times of bulk La 2O 3.

Yu, Hui; Zhai, Qing-Zhou

2008-09-01

25

Enhanced electron transfer by dendritic architecture: energy transfer and electron transfer in snowflake-shaped Zn porphyrin dendrimers.  

PubMed

[structure: see text] Photoinduced electron transfer was observed for the snowflake-shaped dendrimer with the Zn porphyrin core and anthraquinonyl terminals. Comparison of the electron-transfer efficiency of the dendrimer with the linear analogues indicates the advantage of the dendritic structure for the electron-transfer process. PMID:17371035

Kozaki, Masatoshi; Akita, Kogen; Okada, Keiji

2007-04-12

26

Supramolecular polymers constructed from macrocycle-based host-guest molecular recognition motifs.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: Supramolecular polymers, fabricated via the combination of supramolecular chemistry and polymer science, are polymeric arrays of repeating units held together by reversible, relatively weak noncovalent interactions. The introduction of noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, aromatic stacking interactions, metal coordination, and host-guest interactions, endows supramolecular polymers with unique stimuli responsiveness and self-adjusting abilities. As a result, diverse monomer structures have been designed and synthesized to construct various types of supramolecular polymers. By changing the noncovalent interaction types, numbers, or chemical structures of functional groups in these monomers, supramolecular polymeric materials can be prepared with tailored chemical and physical properties. In recent years, the interest in supramolecular polymers has been extended from the preparation of intriguing topological structures to the discoveries of potential applications as functional materials. Compared with traditional polymers, supramolecular polymers show some advantages in the fabrication of reversible or responsive materials. The development of supramolecular polymers also offers a platform to construct complex and sophisticated materials with a bottom-up approach. Macrocylic hosts, including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils, and pillararenes, are the most commonly used building blocks in the fabrication of host-guest interaction-based supramolecular polymers. With the introduction of complementary guest molecules, macrocylic hosts demonstrate selective and stimuli-responsive host-guest complexation behaviors. By elaborate molecular design, the resultant supramolecular polymers can exhibit diverse structures based on the self-selectivity of host-guest interactions. The introduction of reversible host-guest interactions can further endow these supramolecular polymers with interesting and fascinating chemical/physical properties, including stimuli responsiveness, self-healing, and environmental adaptation. It has been reported that macrocycle-based supramolecular polymers can respond to pH change, photoirradition, anions, cations, temperature, and solvent. Macrocycle-based supramolecular polymers have been prepared in solution, in gel, and in the solid state. Furthermore, the solvent has a very important influence on the formation of these supramolecular polymers. Crown ether- and pillararene-based supramolecular polymers have mainly formed in organic solvents, such as chloroform, acetone, and acetonitrile, while cyclodextrin- and cucurbituril-based supramolecular polymerizations have been usually observed in aqueous solutions. For calixarenes, both organic solvents and water have been used as suitable media for supramolecular polymerization. With the development of supramolecular chemistry and polymer science, various methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray techniques, electron microscopies, and theoretical calculation and computer simulation, have been applied for characterizing supramolecular polymers. The fabrication of macrocycle-based supramolecular polymers has become a currently hot research topic. In this Account, we summarize recent results in the investigation of supramolecular polymers constructed from macrocycle-based host-guest molecular recognition motifs. These supramolecular polymers are classified based on the different macrocycles used in them. Their monomer design, structure control, stimuli-responsiveness, and applications in various areas are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. It is expected that the development of supramolecular polymers will not only change the way we live and work but also exert significant influence on scientific research. PMID:24684594

Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Huang, Feihe

2014-07-15

27

Understanding a host-guest model system through ¹²?Xe?NMR spectroscopic experiments and theoretical studies.  

PubMed

Gaining an understanding of the nature of host-guest interactions in supramolecular complexes involving heavy atoms is a difficult task. Described herein is a robust simulation method applied to complexes between xenon and members of a cryptophane family. The calculated chemical shift of xenon caged in a H2O2 probe, as modeled by quantum chemistry with complementary-orbital, topological, and energy-decomposition analyses, is in excellent agreement with that observed in hyperpolarized (129)Xe?NMR spectra. This approach can be extended to other van der Waals complexes involving heavy atoms. PMID:25048162

Dubost, Emmanuelle; Dognon, Jean-Pierre; Rousseau, Bernard; Milanole, Gaëlle; Dugave, Christophe; Boulard, Yves; Léonce, Estelle; Boutin, Céline; Berthault, Patrick

2014-09-01

28

Host-Guest Complexation of a Pyrogallol[4]arene Derivative at the Air-Water Interface.  

PubMed

The host-guest properties of acetylated aryl pyrogallol[4]arene (AcPy) were studied as a Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. The self-assembled Langmuir monolayer properties and interactions with monovalent and divalent metal cations were investigated using surface pressure- and surface potential-area isotherms, compression-decompression cycles, stability, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). A favorable interaction is observed for complexation between acetylated aryl pyrogallol[4]arene with divalent calcium and cadmium cations, while no interaction is observed for monovalent sodium and potassium cations. Spectroscopic techniques allow for discrimination between cadmium and calcium complexation. PMID:25588110

Waidely, Eric; Pumilia, Cyrus; Malagon, Andres; Vargas, Edgar F; Li, Shanghao; Leblanc, Roger M

2015-02-01

29

A Stimuli-Responsive Nanopore Based on a Photoresponsive Host-Guest System  

PubMed Central

The open-close states of the ion channels in a living system are regulated by multiple stimuli such as ligand, pH, potential and light. Functionalizing natural channels by using synthetic chemistry would provide biological nanopores with novel properties and applications. Here we use para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene-based host-guest supramolecular system to develop artificial gating mechanisms aiming at regulating wild-type ?-HL commanded by both ligand and light stimuli. Using the gating property of ?-hemolysin, we studied the host-guest interactions between para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4?-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. Subsequently, we have extended the application of this gating system to the real-time study of light-induced molecular shuttle based on para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4?-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. These experiments provide a more efficient method to develop a general tool to analyze the individual motions of supramolecular systems by using commercially available ?-HL nanopores. PMID:23588705

Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Meng, Fu-Na; Cao, Chan; Yao, Xuyang; Willner, Itamar; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

2013-01-01

30

Paramagnetic NMR Investigation of Dendrimer-Based Host-Guest Interactions  

PubMed Central

In this study, the host-guest behavior of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers bearing amine, hydroxyl, or carboxylate surface functionalities were investigated by paramagnetic NMR studies. 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPO) derivatives were used as paramagnetic guest molecules. The results showed that TEMPO-COOH significantly broaden the 1H NMR peaks of amine- and hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers. In comparison, no paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) was observed between TEMPO-NH2, TEMPO-OH and the three types of PAMAM dendrimers. The PRE phenomenon observed is correlated with the encapsulation of TEMPO-COOH within dendrimer pockets. Protonation of the tertiary amine groups within PAMAM dendrimers plays an important role during this process. Interestingly, the absence of TEMPO-COOH encapsulation within carboxylate-terminated PAMAM dendrimer is observed due to the repulsion of TEMPO-COO- anion and anionic dendrimer surface. The combination of paramagnetic probes and 1H NMR linewidth analysis can be used as a powerful tool in the analysis of dendrimer-based host-guest systems. PMID:23762249

Wang, Fei; Shao, Naimin; Cheng, Yiyun

2013-01-01

31

Energy-cascade organic photovoltaic devices incorporating a host-guest architecture.  

PubMed

In planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs), broad spectral coverage can be realized by incorporating multiple molecular absorbers in an energy-cascade architecture. Here, this approach is combined with a host-guest donor layer architecture previously shown to optimize exciton transport for the fluorescent organic semiconductor boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) when diluted in an optically transparent host. In order to maximize the absorption efficiency, energy-cascade OPVs that utilize both photoactive host and guest donor materials are examined using the pairing of SubPc and boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride (SubNc), respectively. In a planar heterojunction architecture, excitons generated on the SubPc host rapidly energy transfer to the SubNc guest, where they may migrate toward the dissociating, donor-acceptor interface. Overall, the incorporation of a photoactive host leads to a 13% enhancement in the short-circuit current density and a 20% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency relative to an optimized host-guest OPV combining SubNc with a nonabsorbing host. This work underscores the potential for further design refinements in planar heterojunction OPVs and demonstrates progress toward the effective separation of functionality between constituent OPV materials. PMID:25611130

Menke, S Matthew; Holmes, Russell J

2015-02-01

32

Networked-cage microcrystals for evaluation of host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

We have developed a new synthetic protocol for the preparation of a microcrystalline powder (median size: X50 = 25 ?m) of networked M6L4 cages 1a for the stationary phase of an affinity column on a greater than 50 g scale. Analogously to large single crystals 1b (X50 ? 0.5 mm), microcrystals 1a accommodate guest molecules tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and fullerene (C60) at up to 32 and 35 wt %, respectively. Importantly, the host-guest interactions within networked cages could be evaluated in terms of the retention time from HPLC analysis by using microcrystals 1a as the stationary phase. In this way, favorable guests for networked cages 1 and even solution M6L4 cage 2 could easily be assessed by HPLC. PMID:25495652

Matsuzaki, Shohei; Arai, Tatsuhiko; Ikemoto, Koki; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

2014-12-31

33

Tailored host-guest lipidic cubic phases: a protocell model exhibiting nucleic acid recognition.  

PubMed

A classical conundrum in origin-of-life studies relates to the nature of the first chemical system: was it a carrier of genetic information or a facilitator of cellular compartmentalization? Here we present a system composed of tailor-made nucleolipids and hydrated monoolein, which assemble at ambient temperatures to form host-guest lipidic cubic phase (LCP) materials that are stable in bulk water and can perform both functions. As such, they may represent a molecular model for a protocell in origin-of-life studies. Nucleolipids within the lipidic material sequester and bind selectively complementary oligonucleotide sequences from solution by virtue of base-pairing; noncomplementary sequences diffuse freely between the LCP material and the bulk aqueous environment. Sequence specific enrichment of nucleic acids within the LCP material demonstrates an effective mechanism for selection of genetic material in these cell-mimetic systems. PMID:23239006

Komisarski, Marek; Osornio, Yazmin M; Siegel, Jay S; Landau, Ehud M

2013-01-21

34

Host-guest inclusion complex of propafenone hydrochloride with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: Spectral and molecular modeling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Host-guest inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins (CDs) with a potential cardiovascular drug propafenone hydrochloride (PFO), were prepared and characterized using absorption, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, SEM, FT-IR, DSC, 1H NMR, XRD and PM3 methods. The spectral studies suggested the phenyl ring along with carbonyl group is present inside of CD cavity. Solvent studies revealed that the normal Stokes shifted band originates from the locally excited state and the large Stokes shifted band occurs due to the emission from ICT. Nanosecond time-resolved studies indicated that PFO exhibits biexponential decay in water and triexponential decay in CD, indicating the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex. The results from solid state studies showed important modifications in the physicochemical properties of free PFO. The ?H, ?G and ?S of the complexation process were determined and it was found that the complexation processes were spontaneous. Investigations of thermodynamic and electronic properties confirmed the stability of the inclusion complex.

Siva, S.; Thulasidhasan, J.; Rajendiran, N.

2013-11-01

35

Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form  

SciTech Connect

Herein we report the gas (CO2, N2O and propane) and solvent (CS2 and acetone) induced transformation and expansion of guest free thermodynamic form of a p-tert-butylcalix [4]arene to 1:1 host guest form.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

2008-07-01

36

The formation of host-guest complexes between surfactants and cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

Cyclodextrins are able to act as host molecules in supramolecular chemistry with applications ranging from pharmaceutics to detergency. Among guest molecules surfactants play an important role with both fundamental and practical applications. The formation of cyclodextrin/surfactant host-guest compounds leads to an increase in the critical micelle concentration and in the solubility of surfactants. The possibility of changing the balance between several intermolecular forces, and thus allowing the study of, e.g., dehydration and steric hindrance effects upon association, makes surfactants ideal guest molecules for fundamental studies. Therefore, these systems allow for obtaining a deep insight into the host-guest association mechanism. In this paper, we review the influence on the thermodynamic properties of CD-surfactant association by highlighting the effect of different surfactant architectures (single tail, double-tailed, gemini and bolaform), with special emphasis on cationic surfactants. This is complemented with an assessment of the most common analytical techniques used to follow the association process. The applied methods for computation of the association stoichiometry and stability constants are also reviewed and discussed; this is an important point since there are significant discrepancies and scattered data for similar systems in the literature. In general, the surfactant-cyclodextrin association is treated without reference to the kinetics of the process. However, there are several examples where the kinetics of the process can be investigated, in particular those where volumes of the CD cavity and surfactant (either the tail or in special cases the head group) are similar in magnitude. This will also be critically reviewed. PMID:24011696

Valente, Artur J M; Söderman, Olle

2014-03-01

37

Molecular Recognition: Use of Metal-Containing Molecular Clefts for Supramolecular Self-Assembly and Host-Guest Formation  

SciTech Connect

Molecular clefts consisting of a rigid spacer linked to two parallel cofacially disposed terpy-M-X (M = Pd{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}) units, which can vary in separation from 6.6 to 7.2 {angstrom}, have been used as molecular receptors and for self-assembly with linear and triangular linkers to produce rectangles and trigonal prisms, respectively. Aromatic molecules form multiple host-guest adducts with the molecular cleft receptors and with the rectangles and trigonal prisms. Planar complexes of Pt{sup 2+} also form host-guest adducts. The forces that control this molecular recognition, namely, {pi}-{pi} interactions, charge-induced dipole interactions, charge-charge forces, weak metal-metal interactions and solvation effects, are discussed and assigned to the various adducts.

Crowley, James D.; Bosnich, Brice (UC)

2008-10-03

38

Host-guest interactions mediated nano-assemblies using cyclodextrin-containing hydrophilic polymers and their biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

Summary Supramolecular nanostructures assembled by polymeric amphiphiles have been intensively studied during the last two decades. Such nanocarriers may be engineered to possess on-demand bio-responsitivity for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases. The successful development of several nanoassembly-based polymer therapeutics further encouraged scientists to develop nano-vehicles to achieve controlled release, enhanced efficacy, improved specificity and reduced toxicity. Different from the abundant existing literatures on the hydrophobically or electrostatically driven self-assemblies and their therapeutic applications, this article reviews host-guest interaction mediated nanoassemblies, especially those constructed using cyclodextrins as the host entities. The excellent biocompatibility, complexation capacity, and chemical-sensitivity of cyclodextrin make cyclodextrin-containing polymers attractive to construct host-guest nanoassemblies. Such nanocarriers may be advantageous also because of the broad availability of cyclodextrins, their flexibility for structure/property modulation and their chemical-responsive characteristics. PMID:20725642

Zhang, Jianxiang; Ma, Peter X

2010-01-01

39

Calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association of host-guest systems from the intermolecular potential of mean force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report calculations of the intermolecular potential of mean force (PMF) in the case of the host-guest interaction. The host-guest system is defined by a water soluble calixarene and a cation. With an organic cation such as the tetramethylammonium cation, the calixarene forms an insertion complex, whereas with the Lanthane cation, the supramolecular assembly is an outer-sphere complex. The authors apply a modified free energy perturbation method and the force constraint technique to establish the PMF profiles as a function of the separation distance between the host and guest. They use the PMF profile for the calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association that they compare to the experimental values previously determined. They finish by giving some structural features of the insertion and outer-sphere complexes at the Gibbs free energy minimum.

Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice

2006-12-01

40

Design and synthesis of Tröger's base ditopic receptors: host-guest interactions, a combined theoretical and experimental study.  

PubMed

Two flexible Tröger's base ditopic receptors C4TB and C5TB incorporating monoaza crown ether were designed and synthesized for bisammonium ion complexation. A comprehensive study of host-guest interactions was established by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Bisammonium chloride (A1) with a shorter alkyl chain spacer showed the highest affinity for the receptors. M06-2X/cc-pVTZ calculations including the solvent effects on host-guest complexes were employed to explain and rationalize the experimental trends. The short N-HO or N-HN hydrogen-bond distances observed in the range of 1.71-1.98 Å indicate the existence of a strong charge assisted hydrogen bonding between the host and the guest. The unusual behaviour (higher binding constant) of A5 in (1)H NMR titration is traced to the conformational folding of the guest. PMID:25425264

Bhaskar Reddy, Manda; Shailaja, Myadaraboina; Manjula, Alla; Premkumar, Joseph Richard; Sastry, Garikapati Narahari; Sirisha, Katukuri; Sarma, Akella Venkata Subrahmanya

2015-01-28

41

Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems  

SciTech Connect

Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

2008-02-16

42

Thermodynamics of host-guest interactions between fullerenes and a buckycatcher.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were employed to obtain reliable thermodynamic data for the formation of the 1:1 inclusion complexes of fullerenes C(60) and C(70) with the buckycatcher (C(60)H(28)). NMR measurements were done in toluene-d8 and chlorobenzene-d5 at 288, 298, and 308 K, while the ITC titrations were performed in toluene, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, anisole, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at temperatures from 278 to 323 K. The association constants, K(a), obtained with both techniques are in very good agreement. The thermodynamic data obtained by ITC indicate that generally the host-guest association is enthalpy-driven. Interestingly, the entropy contributions are, with rare exceptions, slightly stabilizing or close to zero. Neither ?H nor ?S is constant over the temperature range studied, and these thermodynamic functions exhibit classical enthalpy/entropy compensation. The ?Cp values calculated from the temperature dependence of the calorimetric ?H values are negative for the association of both fullerenes with the buckycatcher in toluene. The negative ?Cp values are consistent with some desolvation of the host-cavity and the guest in the inclusion complexes, C(60)@C(60)H(28) and C(70)@C(60)H(28). PMID:25248285

Le, Vu H; Yanney, Michael; McGuire, Matthew; Sygula, Andrzej; Lewis, Edwin A

2014-10-16

43

The 1:1 host-guest complexation between cucurbit[7]uril and styryl dye.  

PubMed

The photophysical properties of aqueous solution of styryl dye, 4-[(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1-ethylpyridinium perchlorate (dye 1), in the presence of cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) was studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The production of 1:1 host-guest complexes in the range of CB[7] concentrations up to 16 ?M with K = 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) has been observed, which corresponds to appearance of the isosbestic point at 396 nm in the absorption spectra and a 5-fold increase in fluorescence intensity. The decay of fluorescence was found to fit to double-exponential functions in all cases; the calculated average fluorescence lifetime increases from 145 to 352 ps upon the addition of CB[7]. Rotational relaxation times of dye 1 solutions 119 ± 14 ps without CB[7] and 277 ± 35 ps in the presence of CB[7] have been determined by anisotropy fluorescence method. The comparison of the results of quantum-chemical calculations and experimental data confirms that in the host cavity dye 1 rotates as a whole with CB[7]. PMID:21469724

Ivanov, Denis A; Petrov, Nikolai Kh; Nikitina, Ekaterina A; Basilevsky, Mikhail V; Vedernikov, Artem I; Gromov, Sergey P; Alfimov, Michael V

2011-05-01

44

Pressure-induced chemistry in a nitrogen-hydrogen host-guest structure.  

PubMed

New topochemistry in simple molecular systems can be explored at high pressure. Here we examine the binary nitrogen/hydrogen system using Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and visual observation. We find a eutectic-type binary phase diagram with two stable high-pressure van der Waals compounds, which we identify as (N2)6(H2)7 and N2(H2)2. The former represents a new type of van der Waals host-guest compound in which hydrogen molecules are contained within channels in a nitrogen lattice. This compound shows evidence for a gradual, pressure-induced change in bonding from van der Waals to ionic interactions near 50?GPa, forming an amorphous dinitrogen network containing ionized ammonia in a room-temperature analogue of the Haber-Bosch process. Hydrazine is recovered on decompression. The nitrogen-hydrogen system demonstrates the potential for new pressure-driven chemistry in high-pressure structures and the promise of tailoring molecular interactions for materials synthesis. PMID:25484135

Spaulding, Dylan K; Weck, Gunnar; Loubeyre, Paul; Datchi, Fréderic; Dumas, Paul; Hanfland, Michael

2014-01-01

45

Pressure-induced chemistry in a nitrogen-hydrogen host–guest structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New topochemistry in simple molecular systems can be explored at high pressure. Here we examine the binary nitrogen/hydrogen system using Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and visual observation. We find a eutectic-type binary phase diagram with two stable high-pressure van der Waals compounds, which we identify as (N2)6(H2)7 and N2(H2)2. The former represents a new type of van der Waals host–guest compound in which hydrogen molecules are contained within channels in a nitrogen lattice. This compound shows evidence for a gradual, pressure-induced change in bonding from van der Waals to ionic interactions near 50?GPa, forming an amorphous dinitrogen network containing ionized ammonia in a room-temperature analogue of the Haber–Bosch process. Hydrazine is recovered on decompression. The nitrogen–hydrogen system demonstrates the potential for new pressure-driven chemistry in high-pressure structures and the promise of tailoring molecular interactions for materials synthesis.

Spaulding, Dylan K.; Weck, Gunnar; Loubeyre, Paul; Datchi, Fréderic; Dumas, Paul; Hanfland, Michael

2014-12-01

46

Preparation and characterization of (SBA-15)-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} host-guest composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum oxide was successfully incorporated into an SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieve via the microwave-assisted synthesis method (MASM) for the first time, and was compared with liquid-phase grafting and thermal diffusion methods. A series of characterizations were used to characterize the prepared materials. The results showed that the preparation of (SBA-15)-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} host-guest composite materials by MASM has the advantages of simpler operation, higher efficiency and more plentiful lanthanum oxide could be incorporated into SBA-15 compared with other methods. In the prepared host-guest (SBA-15)-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials, the frameworks of the host molecular sieve were kept intact, their structures were still kept high ordered and the guest lanthanum oxide locates inside the pores of the SBA-15. The sizes of the prepared (SBA-15)-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were 340-357 nm. The prepared host-guest composite materials show the properties of luminescence, and the luminescent intensities are about 2 times of bulk La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum oxide was successfully incorporated into SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieve via the microwave-assisted synthesis method (MASM) for the first time. The results showed that the preparation of (SBA-15)-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} host-guest composite materials by MASM has the advantages of simpler operation, higher efficiency and more plentiful lanthanum oxide can be incorporated into SBA-15 compared with other methods.

Yu Hui [Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Zhai Qingzhou [Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China)], E-mail: zhaiqingzhou@163.com

2008-09-15

47

Water soluble octa-functionalized POSS: all-click chemistry synthesis and efficient host-guest encapsulation.  

PubMed

A series of water soluble octa-functionalized POSSs were facilely synthesized via thiol-ene and Menschutkin click chemistry. Among them, octa-alkynyl POSS further reacted with azide-terminal alkyl long chains, resulting in a well-defined, amphiphilic octopus-like POSS. For the first time it was used for host-guest encapsulation and it exhibited an ultrahigh loading capability. PMID:24964315

Han, Jin; Zheng, Yaochen; Zheng, Shuai; Li, Sipei; Hu, Tiannan; Tang, Aijin; Gao, Chao

2014-08-14

48

Analysis of the nitrogen K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Zn-porphyrin/C70-fulleren complex for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic structure models of Zn-porphyrin/C70 multilayer for solar cells were examined. The local atomic structure of the Zn-porphyrin/C70 complex was refined with the use of previously published results [1]. Since near-edge spectral region (XANES) is sensitive to the three-dimensional atomic geometry, the theoretical analysis of the experimental XANES was performed on the basis of finite difference method (FDMnes 2008 program code). Some electronic properties of the complex were obtained from the DFT calculations performed by means of Amsterdam Density Functional program package.

Suchkova, S. A.; Castellarin Cudia, C.; Soldatov, A.

2009-11-01

49

Host-Guest Interactions between Calixarenes and Cp2NbCl2  

PubMed Central

The possible inclusion complexes of Cp2NbCl2 into calixarenes hosts have been investigated. The existence of a true inclusion complex in the solid state was confirmed by a combination of NMR, ab-initio calculations, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, Raman and PXRD. Ab-initio calculations, 1H NMR solution and solid state 13C CP MAS NMR results demonstrated that p-sulfonic calix[6]arene does form an inclusion complex with Cp2NbCl2. Raman spectroscopy showed, for the inclusion compound of p-sulfonic calix[6]arene-Cp2NbCl2, a band between 500–850 cm?1 characteristic of Nb-O vibration. This result suggests that Nb(V) may engage in coordination with the oxygen of the sulfonate group, as part of the host-guest interaction. However, it is important to mention that the niobocene dichloride (Cp2NbCl2) dissolves in water and undergoes oxidation and hydrolysis processes to yield Cp2NbCl2(OH) species. For that reason this band does not exclude that the Nb-O band belongs to Cp2NbCl2(OH). Solid State 13C CP MAS NMR and solution 1H NMR spectroscopies together with ab-initio results showed that Cp2NbCl2 is included in the p-sulfonic calix[6]arene cavity, with both Cp rings inside the cavity. In contrast, the solution 1H NMR results demonstrated that calix[6]arene does not form inclusion complex with Cp2NbCl2 in CDCl3 solution. Cp2NbCl2 is not included in the calix[6]arene cavity, possibly due to the lack of sulfonate heads which promote Nb-O interactions and assist the inclusion of Cp2NbCl2 into the cavity. PMID:21709809

Morales, Alexis; Santana, Alberto; Althoff, Gerhard; Melendez, Enrique

2011-01-01

50

Multiaddressable molecular rectangles with reversible host-guest interactions: Modulation of pH-controlled guest release and capture.  

PubMed

A series of multiaddressable platinum(II) molecular rectangles with different rigidities and cavity sizes has been synthesized by endcapping the U-shaped diplatinum(II) terpyridine moiety with various bis-alkynyl ligands. The studies of the host-guest association with various square planar platinum(II), palladium(II), and gold(III) complexes and the related low-dimensional gold(I) complexes, most of which are potential anticancer therapeutics, have been performed. Excellent guest confinement and selectivity of the rectangular architecture have been shown. Introduction of pH-responsive functionalities to the ligand backbone generates multifunctional molecular rectangles that exhibit reversible guest release and capture on the addition of acids and bases, indicating their potential in controlled therapeutics delivery on pH modulation. The reversible host-guest interactions are found to be strongly perturbed by metal-metal and ?-? interactions and to a certain extent, electrostatic interactions, giving rise to various spectroscopic changes depending on the nature of the guest molecules. Their binding mode and thermodynamic parameters have been determined by 2D NMR and van't Hoff analysis and supported by computational study. PMID:25568083

Chan, Alan Kwun-Wa; Lam, Wai Han; Tanaka, Yuya; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

2015-01-20

51

A new supramolecular gel via host-guest complexation with cucurbit[8]uril and N-(4-diethylaminobenzyl)chitosan.  

PubMed

A novel supramolecular gel has been prepared via host-guest interaction between cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8]) and N-(4-diethylaminobenzyl)chitosan (EBCS). The structure of supramolecular gel has been characterized. The spectrum of (1)H NMR demonstrated the benzene ring of EBCS is reside inside the hydrophobic cavity of Q[8] and the host-guest interaction between Q[8] and EBCS was the main driving force for the formation of the supramolecular gel. The network structure of the xerogel of Q[8]/EBCS gel was observed by SEM. The Q[8]/EBCS gel system showed thermosensitive and pH-sensitive properties. The physical characterization by SEM, DSC, TG demonstrated the distinguished characters, which proved the formation of supramolecular gel instead of physical blending. The in vitro release study of the 5-fluorouracil-loaded supramolecular gel showed that sustained release profile in acidic condition, suggesting that Q[8]/EBCS gel could be a potential carrier for pH-sensitive drug controlled release system. PMID:23218316

Lin, Youwen; Li, Lifan; Li, Guangwen

2013-01-30

52

Large scale affinity calculations of cyclodextrin host-guest complexes: Understanding the role of reorganization in the molecular recognition process  

PubMed Central

Host-guest inclusion complexes are useful models for understanding the structural and energetic aspects of molecular recognition. Due to their small size relative to much larger protein-ligand complexes, converged results can be obtained rapidly for these systems thus offering the opportunity to more reliably study fundamental aspects of the thermodynamics of binding. In this work, we have performed a large scale binding affinity survey of 57 ?-cyclodextrin (CD) host guest systems using the binding energy distribution analysis method (BEDAM) with implicit solvation (OPLS-AA/AGBNP2). Converged estimates of the standard binding free energies are obtained for these systems by employing techniques such as parallel Hamitionian replica exchange molecular dynamics, conformational reservoirs and multistate free energy estimators. Good agreement with experimental measurements is obtained in terms of both numerical accuracy and affinity rankings. Overall, average effective binding energies reproduce affinity rank ordering better than the calculated binding affinities, even though calculated binding free energies, which account for effects such as conformational strain and entropy loss upon binding, provide lower root mean square errors when compared to measurements. Interestingly, we find that binding free energies are superior rank order predictors for a large subset containing the most flexible guests. The results indicate that, while challenging, accurate modeling of reorganization effects can lead to ligand design models of superior predictive power for rank ordering relative to models based only on ligand-receptor interaction energies. PMID:25147485

Wickstrom, Lauren; He, Peng; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

2013-01-01

53

Tunable Two-color Luminescence and Host–guest Energy Transfer of Fluorescent Chromophores Encapsulated in Metal-Organic Frameworks  

PubMed Central

Co-assembly of chromophore guests with host matrices can afford materials which have photofunctionalities different from those of individual components. Compared with clay and zeolite materials, the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as a host structure for fabricating luminescent host–guest materials is still at an early stage. Herein, we report the incorporation of a laser dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), into stilbene-based and naphthalene-based MOF systems. The resulting materials exhibit blue/red two-color emission, and the intensity ratio of blue to red fluorescence varies in different planes within the MOF crystal as detected by 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy. The observed changes in ratiometric fluorescence suggest the occurrence of energy transfer from MOF host to DCM molecules, which can be further confirmed by periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. Moreover, selective changes in luminescence behavior are observed on treating the guest@MOF samples with volatile organic compounds (methanol, acetone and toluene), indicating that these host–guest systems have potential applications as fluorescence sensors. It can be expected that by rational selection of MOF hosts and guest chromophores with suitable emissive colors and energy levels, a wide variety of multi-color luminescent and energy-transfer systems can readily be prepared in a similar manner. PMID:24614015

Yan, Dongpeng; Tang, Yanqun; Lin, Heyang; Wang, Dan

2014-01-01

54

Remote-controlled release of DNA in living cells via simultaneous light and host-guest mediations.  

PubMed

Using photons as external triggers to realize remote-controlled release of oligonucleotide is superior to other intracellular or external stimulus. UV light is a valid photon-controlled manner due to high efficiency. However, further applications of these approaches in living cells are hampered by the large dose of UV-light irradiation. To address this issue, a simultaneous light and host/guest mediation was proposed in this paper. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) encoding with mercapto-?-cyclodextrin (?CD) served as a carried agent. Azobenzene (Azo), which was labeled on a releasing oligonucleotide, acted as a photochemically controlled switch. Ferrocene (Fc), an excellent guest for inclusion complexation by ?CD, serves as "enhancers" and shifts the equilibrium of the inclusion-exclusion process between trans-Azo and ?CD under UV-light irradiation, thus making the dose of UV-light irradiation reduced obviously. For further application, transfected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer A549 cells were used to determine cellular uptake and gene silencing mediated by our constructed system in vivo. The results demonstrate that by employing Fc host-guest interaction, about 62.4% gene silencing was achieved within 30 min, which is significantly higher than that without Fc competition. Our strategy provides the potential for orthogonal DNA delivery and therapeutic activation that would be capable of achieving higher levels of site-specific activity and reduced amounts of side effects. PMID:25255368

Zheng, Jing; Nie, Yuhong; Yang, Sheng; Xiao, Yue; Li, Jishan; Li, Yinhui; Yang, Ronghua

2014-10-21

55

Blind prediction of binding affinities for charged supramolecular host-guest systems: achievements and shortcomings of DFT-D3.  

PubMed

Association free energies ?Ga are calculated for two different types of host-guest systems, the rigid cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and the basket shaped octa-acid (OA), and a number of charged guest molecules each by quantum chemical methods from first principles in the context of a recent blind test challenge (SAMPL4). For CB7, the overall agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In comparison with all other submitted calculated relative ?Ga,rel values for this part of the blind test, our results ranked on top. Modeling the binding free energy in the case of the OA host mainly suffers from the problem that the binding situation is undefined with respect to the charge state and due to its intrinsic flexibility the host-guest complex is not represented well by a single configuration, but qualitative features of the binding process such as the proper binding orientation and the order of magnitude of ?Ga are represented in accord with the experimental expectations even though an accurate ranking is not possible. PMID:24588346

Sure, Rebecca; Antony, Jens; Grimme, Stefan

2014-03-27

56

Tunable Two-color Luminescence and Host-guest Energy Transfer of Fluorescent Chromophores Encapsulated in Metal-Organic Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-assembly of chromophore guests with host matrices can afford materials which have photofunctionalities different from those of individual components. Compared with clay and zeolite materials, the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a host structure for fabricating luminescent host-guest materials is still at an early stage. Herein, we report the incorporation of a laser dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), into stilbene-based and naphthalene-based MOF systems. The resulting materials exhibit blue/red two-color emission, and the intensity ratio of blue to red fluorescence varies in different planes within the MOF crystal as detected by 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy. The observed changes in ratiometric fluorescence suggest the occurrence of energy transfer from MOF host to DCM molecules, which can be further confirmed by periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. Moreover, selective changes in luminescence behavior are observed on treating the guest@MOF samples with volatile organic compounds (methanol, acetone and toluene), indicating that these host-guest systems have potential applications as fluorescence sensors. It can be expected that by rational selection of MOF hosts and guest chromophores with suitable emissive colors and energy levels, a wide variety of multi-color luminescent and energy-transfer systems can readily be prepared in a similar manner.

Yan, Dongpeng; Tang, Yanqun; Lin, Heyang; Wang, Dan

2014-03-01

57

Dynamic interplay between spin-crossover and host-guest function in a nanoporous metal-organic framework material.  

SciTech Connect

The nanoporous metal-organic framework [Fe(pz)Ni(CN){sub 4}], 1 (where pz is pyrazine), exhibits hysteretic spin-crossover at ambient conditions and is robust to the adsorption and desorption of a wide range of small molecular guests, both gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}) and vapors (methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene). Through the comprehensive analysis of structure, host-guest properties, and spin-crossover behaviors, it is found that this pillared Hofmann system uniquely displays both guest-exchange-induced changes to spin-crossover and spin-crossover-induced changes to host-guest properties, with direct dynamic interplay between these two phenomena. Guest desorption and adsorption cause pronounced changes to the spin-crossover behavior according to a systematic trend in which larger guests stabilize the high-spin state and therefore depress the spin-crossover temperature of the host lattice. When stabilizing the alternate spin state of the host at any given temperature, these processes directly stimulate the spin-crossover process, providing a chemisensing function. Exploitation of the bistability of the host allows the modification of adsorption properties at a fixed temperature through control of the host spin state, with each state shown to display differing chemical affinities to guest sorption. Guest desorption then adsorption, and vice versa, can be used to switch between spin states in the bistable temperature region, adding a guest-dependent memory effect to this system.

Southon, P. D.; Liu, L.; Fellows, E. A.; Price, D. J.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K. S.; Letard, J.F.; Kepert, C. J.; Univ. Sydney; Monash Univ.; Universite Bordeaux

2009-01-01

58

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: a photophysical and quantum chemical study.  

PubMed

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins (?CD and ?CD, respectively) have been investigated in neutral aqueous solution (pH ? 7) at ambient temperature (?25 °C) following absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements. The dye forms inclusion complexes with both CDs, causing significant changes in its photophysical properties. Whereas fluorescence titration data for lower dye concentrations fit well with 1:1 stoichiometric complexes, the time-resolved fluorescence results indicate formation of a small extent of 1:2 (dye-host) complexes as well, especially at higher CD concentrations. The moderate range of the binding constant values for the present systems indicates the weaker hydrophobic interaction as responsible for the inclusion complex formation in these systems. It has also been observed that ?CD facilitates dimerization of the dye, prominently indicated at the higher dye concentrations. On the contrary, ?CD always assists deaggregation of the dye, even at very high dye concentrations. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy results qualitatively support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. Results from quantum chemical calculations also nicely corroborate with the inferences drawn from photophysical studies. Observed results demonstrate that the size compatibility of the guest and the host cavity mainly determines the host-guest interaction in the present systems, much similar to the substrate-catalyst binding in many biological systems. PMID:22998344

Shaikh, Mhejabeen; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

2012-10-18

59

Light-triggered capture and release of DNA and proteins by host-guest binding and electrostatic interaction.  

PubMed

The development of an effective and general delivery method that can be applied to a large variety of structurally diverse biomolecules remains a bottleneck in modern drug therapy. Herein, we present a supramolecular system for the dynamic trapping and light-stimulated release of both DNA and proteins. Self-assembled ternary complexes act as nanoscale carriers, comprising vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrin, the target biomolecules and linker molecules with an azobenzene unit and a charged functionality. The non-covalent linker binds to the cyclodextrin by host-guest complexation with the azobenzene. Proteins or DNA are then bound to the functionalized vesicles through multivalent electrostatic attraction. The photoresponse of the host-guest complex allows a light-induced switch from the multivalent state that can bind the biomolecules to the low-affinity state of the free linker, thereby providing external control over the cargo release. The major advantage of this delivery approach is the wide variety of targets that can be addressed by multivalent electrostatic interaction, which we demonstrate on four types of DNA and six different proteins. PMID:25585879

Moratz, Johanna; Samanta, Avik; Voskuhl, Jens; Mohan Nalluri, Siva Krishna; Ravoo, Bart Jan

2015-02-16

60

Pillar[5]- and pillar[6]arene-based supramolecular assemblies built by using their cavity-size-dependent host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

Pillar[n]arenes, which we first synthesized and named in 2008, are new pillar-shaped macrocyclic hosts. Pillar[n]arene homologues with n = 5-10 have already been synthesized, but the cyclic pentamers, i.e., pillar[5]arenes, and cyclic hexamers, i.e., pillar[6]arenes, have been most widely used because these can be obtained in good yields. To date, nearly all pillar[n]arene-based supramolecular assemblies have been constructed using pillar[5]- and pillar[6]arene scaffolds. In this feature article, we describe supramolecular assemblies built using host-guest interactions depending on the cavity sizes of pillar[5]- and pillar[6]arenes. We first discuss the effects of the type of substituents on the rims of pillar[5]- and pillar[6]arenes on their solubilities, functionalities and host-guest properties. We then discuss supramolecular assemblies based on their host-guest properties and pillar-shaped architectures. PMID:24643742

Ogoshi, T; Yamagishi, T

2014-05-14

61

Pillar[10]arene-Based Size-Selective Host-Guest Complexation and Its Application in Tuning the LCST Behavior of a Thermoresponsive Polymer.  

PubMed

A new molecular recognition motif between a water soluble pillar[10]arene (WP10) and 1,10-phenanthrolinium guest (G) in water is established. Mainly driven by the cooperativity of multiple electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and ?-? stacking interactions between WP10 and G, this host-guest complex exhibits a high association constant in water, which is about 17 times higher than that between WP10 and paraquat (PQ). Furthermore, this size selective host-guest complexation is employed to tune the lower critical solution temperature behavior of a random copolymer with PQ derivative pendants. PMID:25421009

Yu, Guocan; Zhou, Jiong; Chi, Xiaodong

2015-01-01

62

Structure of molecular tweezer complexes in the solid state: NMR experiments, X-ray investigations, and quantum chemical calculations.  

PubMed

The structure of supramolecular complexes formed by a naphthalene-spaced tweezer molecule as host and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCNB), 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB), and 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) as aromatic, electron-deficient guests is investigated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction measurements. Quantum chemical calculations using linear scaling methods are applied to predict and to assign the 1H NMR chemical shifts of the complexes. By combining experiment and theory, insights into intra- and intermolecular effects influencing the proton chemical shifts of the host-guest system are provided in the solid state. PMID:17263413

Schaller, Torsten; Büchele, Uta P; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Bläser, Dieter; Boese, Roland; Brown, Steven P; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Koziol, Felix; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

2007-02-01

63

Luminescent hybrid materials based on zeolite L crystals and lanthanide complexes: Host-guest assembly and ultraviolet-visible excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several kinds of host-guest hybrid materials have been synthesized employing a ship in a bottle method by loading 9-hydroxy-2-methylphenalenone (MHPO) or 9-hydroxyphenalen (HPNP) from gas phase into the nanochannels of Ln3+-exchanged zeolite L (ZL) crystals (Ln = Gd or Eu). The resulting hybrids without lanthanide ions, MHPO-ZL, HPNP-ZL and the hybrids with lanthanide ions Ln-MHPO-ZL and Ln-HPNP-ZL are characterized with FT-IR, UV-vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence properties of these hybrid materials have been analyzed and discussed, exhibiting the luminescence of Eu3+ and ligands under the excitation at ultraviolet-visible region. These results provide useful data and can be expected to have potential application in the practical fields.

Chen, Lei; Yan, Bing

2014-10-01

64

Luminescent hybrid materials based on zeolite L crystals and lanthanide complexes: host-guest assembly and ultraviolet-visible excitation.  

PubMed

Several kinds of host-guest hybrid materials have been synthesized employing a ship in a bottle method by loading 9-hydroxy-2-methylphenalenone (MHPO) or 9-hydroxyphenalen (HPNP) from gas phase into the nanochannels of Ln(3+)-exchanged zeolite L (ZL) crystals (Ln=Gd or Eu). The resulting hybrids without lanthanide ions, MHPO-ZL, HPNP-ZL and the hybrids with lanthanide ions Ln-MHPO-ZL and Ln-HPNP-ZL are characterized with FT-IR, UV-vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence properties of these hybrid materials have been analyzed and discussed, exhibiting the luminescence of Eu(3+) and ligands under the excitation at ultraviolet-visible region. These results provide useful data and can be expected to have potential application in the practical fields. PMID:24815195

Chen, Lei; Yan, Bing

2014-10-15

65

A theoretical base for optimising intermolecular interactions driving polarity formation in channel-type host guest materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous polarity formation in channel-type host-guest materials is analysed by a Markov model of growth. Criteria for the strength of collinear intermolecular interaction energies Eij between acceptor-?-donor (A-?-D) guest molecules are discussed in order to optimise characteristic properties of the system. In the case of bulk growth, the sequence EAA? EAD? EDD is producing (i) high values of net polarity nnet, (ii) a low number of attachments q to reach constant values of nnet, and (iii) a low density of orientational defects ? within polar chains. Similarly, the optimum sequence for the growth of oriented films on substrates featuring uniform interactions to guest molecules is: EAA> EDD? EAD.

Quintel, Andrea; Hulliger, Jürg

1999-10-01

66

Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.  

PubMed

A star polymer, ?-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (?-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (?-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. PMID:25310380

Wang, Juan; Wang, Xing; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; You, Yezi; Wu, Decheng

2014-11-01

67

Photodissociation of methyl iodide embedded in a host-guest complex: A full dimensional (189D) quantum dynamics study of CH3I@resorc[4]arene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate full dimensional quantum dynamics calculations studying the photodissociation of CH3I@resorc[4]arene on an ab initio based potential energy surface (PES) model are reported. The converged 189D quantum dynamics calculations are facilitated by the multilayer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) approach combined with the correlation discrete variable representation (CDVR) for the evaluation of potential energy matrix elements. The potential employed combines an established ab initio PES describing the photodissociation of methyl iodide in the A band with a harmonic description of the resorc[4]arene host and a bilinear modeling of the host-guest interaction. All potential parameters required in the description of the vibrations of the host molecule and the host-guest interaction are derived from ab initio calculations on the host-guest complex. Absorption spectra at 0 K and 300 K are calculated and the electronic population dynamics during the bond breaking process occurring in the first 20-30 fs after the photoexcitation is investigated. Weak but significant effects resulting from the host-guest interaction on this time scale are found and interpreted. The present study demonstrates that accurate fully quantum mechanical dynamics calculations can be preformed for systems consisting of more than 50 atoms using the ML-MCTDH/CDVR approach. Utilizing an efficient statistical approach for the construction of the ensemble of initial wavepackets, these calculations are not restricted to zero temperature but can also study the dynamics at 300 K.

Westermann, Till; Brodbeck, Ralf; Rozhenko, Alexander B.; Schoeller, Wolfgang; Manthe, Uwe

2011-11-01

68

Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

69

A novel, smart microsphere with K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties based on a responsive host-guest system.  

PubMed

A novel type of smart microspheres with K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties is designed and developed on the basis of a K(+)-recognition host-guest system. The microspheres are composed of cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acryloylamidobenzo-15-crown-5) (P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5)) networks. Due to the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich-type" host-guest complexes between 15-crown-5 units and K(+) ions, the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres significantly exhibit isothermally and synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties at a low K(+) concentration, while other cations (e.g., Na(+), H(+), NH4(+), Mg(2+), or Ca(2+)) cannot trigger such response behaviors. Effects of chemical compositions of microspheres on the K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating behaviors are investigated systematically. The K(+)-induced aggregating sensitivity of the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres can be enhanced by increasing the content of crown ether units in the polymeric networks; however, it is nearly not influenced by varying the monomer and cross-linker concentrations in the microsphere preparation. State diagrams of the dispersed-to-aggregated transformation of P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres in aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and K(+) concentration are constructed, which provide valuable information for tuning the dispersed/aggregated states of microspheres by varying environmental K(+) concentration and temperature. The microspheres with synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties proposed in this study provide a brand-new model for designing novel targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:25325533

Jiang, Ming-Yue; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Fang, Lu; Liu, Zhuang; Yu, Hai-Rong; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Chen, Qianming; Chu, Liang-Yin

2014-11-12

70

Emergent ion-gated binding of cationic host-guest complexes within cationic M12L24 molecular flasks.  

PubMed

"Molecular flasks" are well-defined supramolecular cages that can encapsulate one or more molecular guests within their cavities and, in so doing, change the physical properties and reactivities of the guests. Although molecular flasks are powerful tools for manipulating matter on the nanoscale, most of them are limited in their scope because of size restrictions. Recently, however, increasingly large and diverse supramolecular cages have become available with enough space in their cavities for larger chemical systems such as polymers, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. Here we report how a class of metallosupramolecular cages known as M12L24 polyhedra have been adapted to serve as nanometer-scale containers for solutions of a pseudorotaxane host-guest complex based on a tetracationic cyclophane host, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), and a 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) guest. Remarkably, the hierarchical integration of pseudorotaxanes and M12L24 superhosts causes the system to express stimulus-responsive behavior, a property which can be described as emergent because neither the DNP?CBPQT(4+) nor the M12L24 assemblies exhibit this behavior independently. The DNP-containing M12L24 molecular flasks are effectively "sealed off" to CBPQT(4+) until ions are added as a stimulus to "open" them. The electrolyte stimulus reduces the electrostatic screening distance in solution, allowing favorable DNP?CBPQT(4+) host-guest interactions to overcome repulsive Coulombic interactions between the cationic M12L24 cages and CBPQT(4+) rings. This unusual example of ion-gated transport into chemical nanocontainers is reminiscent of transmembrane ion channels which act as gates to the cell, with the important difference that this system is reversible and operates at equilibrium. PMID:25046565

Bruns, Carson J; Fujita, Daishi; Hoshino, Manabu; Sato, Sota; Stoddart, J Fraser; Fujita, Makoto

2014-08-27

71

Fluorimetric determination of sulphaguanidine and sulphamethoxazole by host-guest complexation in beta-cyclodextrin and partial least squares calibration.  

PubMed

The host-guest inclusion complexes of sulphamethoxazole (SMTX) and sulphaguanidine (SGN) with beta-cyclodextrin, in aqueous solutions, have been investigated. A 1:1 stoichiometry of the complexes was established, the association constants were calculated by different methods, and the influence of several chemical variables on the complexation processes were established. According to the results obtained, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of these sulphonamides has been proposed. The individual and binary mixtures of both sulphonamides have been determined in human urine samples, at representative therapeutic ranges, by application of a first-order multivariate calibration partial least squares (PLS-1) model. The calibration set was designed with 9 samples, containing different concentrations of the two sulphonamides, and 8 blank urine samples, with the aim of modelling the variability of the background. The concentration ranges for the sulphonamides were up to 0.5 microg mL(-1) for SMTX and 1.0 microg mL(-1) for SGN. Figures of merit as selectivity, analytical sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) were also calculated. The proposed procedure was validated by comparing the obtained results with a HPLC method, with satisfactory results for the assayed method. PMID:17393284

Diez, N Mora; de la Peña, A Muñoz; García, M C Mahedero; Gil, D Bohoyo; Cañada-Cañada, F

2007-05-01

72

Host-guest interactions in the confined geometries formed from molecular aggregates of push-pull molecules.  

PubMed

We have considered push-pull molecules, aminonitroacetylene and aminonitrodiacetylene (O2N-(C?C)n-NH2; n = 1 and 2) as the basic units to design a series of molecular aggregates containing favorable hydrogen bonding interactions. Linear, closed, and stacked geometries of dimers, trimers, tetramers, and pentamers formed from these molecules are found to have very good stabilization energies due to the strong hydrogen bonding abilities of the terminal -NO2 and -NH2 groups. The closed hydrogen-bonded assemblies can act as supramolecular hosts for accommodating some molecules and ions as guests. We have been able to find substantial host-guest interaction energies for the complexes of the hydrogen-bonded closed assemblies with some highly reactive molecules like hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), pentafluoroethane (R-125), and difluoromethane (R-32). Further investigations on the interaction of the ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Al(3+), F(-), Cl(-), and Br(-) with the monomers as well as the oligomers reveal the formation of strong ion-? complexes, unlike the conventional weak ion-? complexes found in similar acetylenic systems without the end groups. This opens up the possibility of tuning the nature of ionic interactions in ?-systems by varying the terminal groups. PMID:23772692

K, Rohini; Swathi, R S

2013-07-18

73

Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography separations of benzopyrene isomers. Correlation with computationally derived host-guest energies  

SciTech Connect

General adjustment of system retention is often inadequate to resolve structurally similar compounds in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). The use of cyclodextrins (CDs) as mobile-phase additives is described for separations of structural isomers. CDs are shown to provide dramatic and selective effects on the retention of benzopyrene isomers. Efficient separations of six methyl-substituted and three 1-position-substituted benzopyrene isomers are presented. Derivatized [gamma]-CD discriminates between substitutional isomers less than native [gamma]-CD. A comparison of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (NaC) surfactant systems indicates that SDS-CD mobile phases are more favorable for separation of benzopyrene isomers. Possible separation mechanisms are discussed and evaluated based on results of these studies. The computational procedures of a commercial molecular modeling system are modified and used to determine interaction energies for various host-guest (i.e., [gamma]-CD-benzopyrene) combinations. By use of the average of the five best energy values from interaction energy matrices, correct elution order is predicted for the 1-position-substituted and most of the methyl-substituted benzopyrene isomers. Consideration of different possible CD-benzopyrene orientations must be made to correctly predict elution order. Inspection of the interaction energy matrices revealed no obvious energy barriers that would inhibit inclusion complex formation. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Copper, C.L.; Sepaniak, M.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

1994-01-01

74

Enantioselective Host-Guest Complexation of Ru(II) trisdiimine complexes using neutral and anionic derivatized cyclodextrins  

PubMed Central

Enantioselective host-guest complexation between five racemic Ru(II) trisdiimine complexes and eight derivatized cyclodextrins (CDs) has been examined by NMR techniques. The appearance of non-equivalent complexation-induced shifts of between the ? and ?-enantionomers of the Ru(II) trisdiimine complexes and derivatized CDs is readily observed by NMR. In particular, sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin sodium salt (SBE-?-CD), R-naphtylethyl carbamate ?-cyclodextrin (RN-?-CD), and S-naphtylethyl carbamate ?-cyclodextrin (SN-?-CD) showed good enantiodiscrimination for all five Ru complexes examined, which indicates that aromatic and anionic derivatizing groups are beneficial for chiral recognition. The complexation stoichiometry between SBE-?-CD and [Ru(phen)3]2+ was found to be 1: 1 and binding constants reveal that ?-[Ru(phen)3]2+ binds more strongly to SBE-?-CD than the ?-enantiomer. Correlations between this NMR method and separative techniques based on CDs as chiral discriminating agents (i.e., selectors) are discussed in detail. PMID:20161587

Sun, Ping; MacDonnell, Frederick M.; Armstrong, Daniel W.

2010-01-01

75

Dendrimeric ?-cyclodextrin/Gd(III) chelate supramolecular host-guest adducts as high-relaxivity MRI probes.  

PubMed

We have synthesized a new macromolecular architecture, (PAMAM)-CD8 , which consists of eight ?-cyclodextrin units (?-CD) attached to a generation?1 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer through a disulfide bond, which can be cleaved under reducing conditions. This system shows a pronounced hosting capability towards Gd(III) chelates functionalized with hydrophobic groups, thus leading to well-defined supramolecular adducts. (1)H?NMR relaxometric investigations were carried out to follow the formation of adducts with three Gd(III) chelates based on the ligand architectures of 6-amino-6-methylperhydro-1,4-diazepinetetraacetic acid (AAZTA) or 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) suitably functionalized with benzyl or adamantyl (Ad) pendant groups. In particular, the ditopic complex composed of two AAZTA chelating units connected to a central aromatic ring that bears an adamantyl group showed a strong affinity (ca.?10(6) ?M(-1)) for the CD units of the dendrimer, which is two orders of magnitude higher than toward human serum albumin (HSA). Remarkable relaxivity enhancements (i.e., up to 71% at 1?T and 25?°C) were observed upon the formation of the macromolecular host-guest adducts due to a decrease in the molecular tumbling rate and fast water-exchange. Reduction experiments and competition studies between the paramagnetic dendrimer and HSA were carried out by relaxometric techniques. The results show that the metal complexes are not displaced by the protein, thus suggesting that this novel macromolecular probe is potentially suitable for applications in vivo. PMID:24827137

Martinelli, Jonathan; Thangavel, Kalaivani; Tei, Lorenzo; Botta, Mauro

2014-08-25

76

pH-dependent assembly of two polyoxometalate host-guest structural isomers based on Keggin polyoxoanion templates.  

PubMed

Two interesting polyoxometalate-templated host–guest compounds 1 and 2 with the same chemical formulae of [Ag6(tpt)4(SiW12O40)Cl2]·2H2O have been obtained by hydrothermal reactions of monolacunary Keggin-type K8[?-SiW11O39]·13H2O with CH3COOAg and tpt ligands under different pH conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 are structural isomers. In 1, the novel chair-like tetranuclear [Ag4(?3-Cl)2]2+ clusters and additional Ag+ ions are linked by tpt ligands to form a 2D double-layered structure featured with two different types of voids in the layer, and the double-layers are stacked into a 3D host supramolecular framework with 1D channels filled with Keggin [SiW12O40]4? polyoxoanions and water molecules as guests. In 2, Ag+ ions are linked by tpt ligands into a 3D framework of 10(3)-ths topology. The most outstanding structural feature of 2 is that upon six-fold interpenetration among 10(3)-ths nets there are still nanosized channels along the a axis to accommodate Keggin polyoxoanions and water molecules as guests. Compound 2 represents the first example of six-fold interpenetrating cationic networks templated with polyoxoanions. In this work, the obvious differences in structure between 1 and 2 show that hydrochloric acid solution conditions, which offer not only H+ to regulate the pH value but also Cl? to coordinate with Ag+ ions, play an important role in the formation of host frameworks templated by Keggin-type polyoxoanions. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated in the solid state. PMID:25230083

Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenbin; Kuang, Xiaofei; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Canzhong

2014-11-21

77

Experimental and theoretical charge density distribution in a host-guest system: synthetic terephthaloyl receptor complexed to adipic acid.  

PubMed

The experimental charge density distributions in a host-guest complex have been determined. The host, 1,4-bis[[(6-methylpyrid-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzene (1) and guest, adipic acid (2). The molecular geometries of 1 and 2 are controlled by the presence in the complex of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions and the presence in the host 1 of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. This system therefore serves as an excellent model for studying noncovalent interactions and their effects on structure and electron density, and the transferability of electron distribution properties between closely related molecules. For the complex, high resolution X-ray diffraction data created the basis for a charge density refinement using a pseudoatomic multipolar expansion (Hansen-Coppens formalism) against extensive low-temperature (T = 100 K) single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and compared with a selection of theoretical DFT calculations on the same complex. The molecules crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. A topological analysis of the resulting density distribution using the atoms in molecules methodology is presented along with multipole populations, showing that the host and guest structures are relatively unaltered by the geometry changes on complexation. Three separate refinement protocols were adopted to determine the effects of the inclusion of calculated hydrogen atom anisotropic displacement parameters on hydrogen bond strengths. For the isotropic model, the total hydrogen bond energy differs from the DFT calculated value by ca. 70 kJ mol(-1), whereas the inclusion of higher multipole expansion levels on anisotropic hydrogen atoms this difference is reduced to ca. 20 kJ mol(-l), highlighting the usefulness of this protocol when describing H-bond energetics. PMID:22548484

Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Howard, Sian T; Hanrahan, Jane R; Groundwater, Paul W; Platts, James A; Hibbs, David E

2012-06-14

78

Supramolecular side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes formed by orthogonal coordination-driven self-assembly and crown-ether-based host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

The themes of coordination-driven self-assembly, host-guest interactions, and supramolecular polymerization are unified in an orthogonal noninterfering fashion to deliver side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes. Specifically, a bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 derivative 1 bearing two pyridyl groups polymerizes into a side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxane upon the addition of di-Pt(II) acceptor 4 in the presence of paraquat. Interestingly, by adding a competitive guest 3, the poly[2]pseudorotaxane can realize a conversion in one pot. PMID:24819441

Xing, Hao; Wei, Peifa; Yan, Xuzhou

2014-06-01

79

Tuning excited-state proton transfer dynamics of a 3-hydroxychromone dye in supramolecular complexes via host-guest steric compatibility.  

PubMed

The photophysics of 2-(2'-benzofuryl)-3-hydroxychromone (BFHC) is remarkably modulated in its complexes with macrocyclic hosts such as ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M-?-CD). BFHC exhibits dual emission bands, attributable to excited normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms, where the latter originates from the former through an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction. Fluorescence lifetimes of the tautomer, along with the intensity ratio (IT*/IN*) of the dual emission bands, and the fluorescence quantum yield (?) of the dye, increase significantly in the order ?-CD < HP-?-CD < M-?-CD to indicate increasing hydrophobicity of the dye environment in the host CD cavity. In accordance with this increasing hydrophobicity of the dye environment, the ESIPT dynamics of BFHC becomes increasingly fast in the host cavity in the order ?-CD < HP-?-CD < M-?-CD. Binding constant data and molecular modeling studies indicate that the increasing order of the faster ESIPT dynamics originates from an increasingly tight host-guest spatial fit, which causes increasingly strong dehydration of the BFHC dye. Steric compatibility in size and shape between the host cavity and the guest, which modulates the tightness of the host-guest spatial fit and hence the extent of hydration, is a key factor for tuning the proton transfer dynamics since water molecules perturb the ESIPT reaction and quench the fluorescence of BFHC. PMID:24276115

Das, Ranjan; Duportail, Guy; Ghose, Avisek; Richert, Ludovic; Klymchenko, Andrey; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Yesylevskyy, Semen; Mely, Yves

2014-01-14

80

?-cyclodextrin-ferrocene host-guest complex multifunctional labeling triple amplification strategy for electrochemical immunoassay of subgroup J of avian leukosis viruses.  

PubMed

A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for ultrasensitive detection of subgroup J of avian leukosis virus (ALVs-J) by employing ?-cyclodextrin-ferrocene (CD-Fc) host-guest complex multifunctional Fe3O4 nanospheres as labels and ?-cyclodextrin functional graphene sheets (CD-GS) nanocomposite as sensor platform. The sensitivity was greatly improved based on the triple amplification strategy. Firstly, the CD-GS improved the electron transfer rate as well as increasing the surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibodies (Ab1). Secondly, the CD on the Fe3O4 surface with strong recognition capability could form stable CD-Fc host-guest inclusion complex and provided larger free room for the conjugation of secondary antibodies (Ab2) and glucose oxidase (GOD). Finally, the conjugated GOD exhibited extraordinary electrochemical biocatalysis towards the reduction reaction of Fc(+) by glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a wide working range from 10(2.27)-10(3.50) TCID50/mL (TCID50: 50% tissue culture infective dose) with a low detection limit of 10(2.19) TCID50/mL (S/N=3). The selectivity, reproducibility, and stability are acceptable. The assay was evaluated for real avian serum sample, receiving satisfactory results. This new type of triple amplification strategy may provide potential applications for the clinic application. PMID:23454341

Shang, Kun; Wang, Xindong; Sun, Bing; Cheng, Ziqiang; Ai, Shiyun

2013-07-15

81

Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for CEA through host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene and Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles with adamantine-modified antibody.  

PubMed

A novel non-enzymatic immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) using ?-cyclodextrin functionalized Cu@Ag (Cu@Ag-CD) core-shell nanoparticles as labels and ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene nanosheet (CD-GN) as sensor platform. CD-GN has excellent conductivity which promoted the electric transmission between base solution and electrode surface and enhanced sensitivity of immunosensor. In addition, owing to supramolecular recognition of CD-GN for the guest molecule, quite a few synthesized adamantine-modified primary antibodies (ADA-Ab1) were immobilized on the CD-GN by supramolecular host-guest interaction between CD and ADA. Cu@Ag-CD as a signal tag could be captured by ADA-modified secondary antibody (ADA-Ab2) through a host-guest interaction, leading to a large loading of Cu@Ag nanoparticles with high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. The fabricated immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for the measurement of CEA with wide range linear (0.0001-20 ng/mL), low detection limit (20 fg/mL), good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability, which provide an enormous application prospect in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25129508

Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhankui; Su, Fengjie; Gao, Liang; Pang, Xuehui; Cao, Wei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

2015-01-15

82

Host-guest energetic nanocomposites based on self-assembly of multi-nitro organic molecules in nanochannels of mesoporous materials.  

PubMed

Host-guest energetic nanocomposites have been synthesized by self-assembly of the high energy density compound HNIW in nanometer-scale channels of an ordered mesoporous material SBA-15. The complete impregnation of HNIW can be achieved in acetone solvent at ambient temperature, and the maximum amount was around 70 wt%. Structural characterizations were systematically provided by XRD, TEM, N(2) adsorption, TG, (13)C solid-state NMR and FT-IR. The tendency of multi-nitro organic molecules to self-assemble when the solvent evaporated has been described. Hydrogen bond interactions were considered as the main driving force, so the choices of matched host matrix and guest organic compounds were pivotal for implementing this process. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were measured by DSC analysis. Compared with pure HNIW and a physical mixture, the decomposition peak temperature of the confined crystals decreased about 11?°C, while the total amount of heat released slightly increased. This strategy can also be expanded to other similar host-guest systems. PMID:21697583

Cai, Huaqiang; Yang, Rongji; Yang, Guangcheng; Huang, Hui; Nie, Fude

2011-07-29

83

Facile fabrication of narrowly-distributed polymeric micelles via host-guest inclusion complexation of hyperbranched polymers and cyclodextrin and its two-dimensional self-assembly.  

PubMed

A novel narrowly-distributed (ND) polymeric micelle obtained in combination with host-guest recognition and self-assembly is reported. First, the adamantyl-terminated hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO-AD) was synthesized by esterification of hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO) with 1-adamantanecarbonyl chloride. Then the ND polymeric core-shell micelles, with the hydrophobic HBPO-AD cores and hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) shells, were prepared via host-guest inclusion complexation of HBPO-AD and ?-CD. The resultant polymer micelles were well characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Interestingly, after annealing at a temperature above the glass transition temperature (T(g)) for a certain time, the polymeric micelles can further self-assemble and fuse into two-dimensional (2D) sheets. The TEM, SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization validate that the sheets are formed through stacking and fusion of tightly packed nanoparticles. In addition, the formation mechanism of polymeric complex micelles and 2D sheets has also been discussed. PMID:20714480

Sun, Xiaoyi; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

2010-10-14

84

Optical tweezers: Theory and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their development in the 1980s, optical tweezers have become a widely used and versatile tool in many fields. Outstanding applications include the quantitative measurement of forces in cell biology and biophysics. Computational modelling of optical tweezers is a valuable tool in support of experimental work, especially quantitative applications. We discuss the theory, and the theoretical and computational modelling of optical tweezers.

Nieminen, Timo A.; du Preez-Wilkinson, Nathaniel; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Loke, Vincent L. Y.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

2014-10-01

85

Characterization of the host–guest complex of a curcumin analog with ?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant and evaluation of its anticancer activity  

PubMed Central

Background Curcumin analogs, including the novel compound NC 2067, are potent cytotoxic agents that suffer from poor solubility, and hence, low bioavailability. Cyclodextrin-based carriers can be used to encapsulate such agents. In order to understand the interaction between the two molecules, the physicochemical properties of the host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with ?-cyclodextrin (CD) or ?-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant (CDgemini surfactant) were investigated for the first time. Moreover, possible supramolecular structures were examined in order to aid the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the in vitro anticancer activity of the complex of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant nanoparticles was demonstrated in the A375 melanoma cell line. Methods Physicochemical properties of the complexes formed of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant were investigated by synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and size measurements were employed to assess the supramolecular morphology of the complex formed by NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant. Lastly, the in vitro cell toxicity of the formulations toward A375 melanoma cells at various drug-to-carrier mole ratios were measured by cell viability assay. Results Physical mixtures of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant showed characteristics of the individual components, whereas the complex of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant presented new structural features, supporting the formation of the host–guest complexes. Complexes of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactants formed nanoparticles having sizes of 100–200 nm. NC 2067 retained its anticancer activity in the complex with CDgemini surfactant for different drug-to-carrier mole ratios, with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value comparable to that for NC 2067 without the carrier. Conclusion The formation of host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant has been confirmed and hence the CDgemini surfactant shows good potential to be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents. PMID:25609956

Poorghorban, Masoomeh; Das, Umashankar; Alaidi, Osama; Chitanda, Jackson M; Michel, Deborah; Dimmock, Jonathan; Verrall, Ronald; Grochulski, Pawel; Badea, Ildiko

2015-01-01

86

Selective Host-Guest Interaction between Metal Ions and Metal-Organic Frameworks using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The host–guest interaction between metal ions (Pt2+ and Cu2+) and a zirconium metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH2) was explored using dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 15N{1H} CPMAS NMR spectroscopy supported by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The combined experimental results conclude that each Pt2+ coordinates with two NH2 groups from the MOF and two Cl? from the metal precursor, whereas Cu2+ do not form chemical bonds with the NH2 groups of the MOF framework. Density functional calculations reveal that Pt2+ prefers a square-planar structure with the four ligands and resides in the octahedral cage of the MOF in either cis or trans configurations.

Guo, Zhiyong [Iowa State University; Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Lin-Lin [Ames Laboratory; Goh, Tian Wei [Iowa State University; Xiao, Chaoxian [Iowa State University; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Rosay, Melanie [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Johnson, Duane D [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory; Huang, Wenyu [Ames Laboratory

2014-10-08

87

Addressing association entropy by reconstructing guanidinium anchor groups for anion binding: design, synthesis, and host-guest binding studies in polar and protic solutions.  

PubMed

The bicyclic hexahydropyrimidino[1,2a]pyrimidine cationic scaffold has a well-known capacity to bind a variety of oxoanions (phosphates, carboxylates, squarates, phosphinates). Based on this feature, the parent host was supplemented with sec-carboxamido substituents to generate compounds 1-3 in an effort to improve the anion-binding affinity and selectivity and to learn about the role and magnitude of entropic factors. Bicyclic guanidinium compounds were prepared by a convergent strategy via the corresponding tetraester 22 followed by catalytic amidation. Host-guest binding studies with isothermal titration calorimetry in acetonitrile probed the behavior of artificial hosts 1-3 in comparison with the tetraallylguanidinium compound 4 on binding p-nitrobenzoate, dihydrogenphosphate, and 2,2'-bisphenolcyclophosphate guests that showed enhanced affinities in the 10(5)-10(6) M(-1) range. Contrary to expectation, better binding emerges from more positive association entropies rather than from stronger enthalpic interactions (hydrogen bonding). In an NMR spectroscopy titration in DMSO, o-phthalate was sufficiently basic to abstract a proton from the guanidinium function, as confirmed by an X-ray crystal structure of the product. The novel carboxamide-appended anchor groups also bind carboxylates and phosphates, but not hydrogen sulfate in methanol with affinities in excess of 10(4) M(-1). The energetic signature of the complexation in methanol is inverted with respect to acetonitrile solvent and shows a pattern of general ion pairing with strong positive entropies overcompensating endothermic binding enthalpies. This study provides an example of the fact that bona fide decoration of a parent guanidinium anchor function with an additional binding functionality may provide the desired enhancement of the host-guest affinity, yet for a different reason than that implemented by design as guided by standard molecular modeling. PMID:18523936

Jadhav, Vinod D; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Schmidtchen, Franz P

2008-01-01

88

Fluorescent and colorimetric magnetic microspheres as nanosensors for Hg2+ in aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel grafting reaction and host-guest interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent sensing TSRh6G-?-cyclodextrin fluorophore/adamantane-modified inclusion complex magnetic nanoparticles (TFIC MNPs) have been synthesized via the cooperation of a host-guest interaction and sol-gel grafting reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the material. Fluorescence and UV-visible spectra have shown that the resultant multifunctional nanoparticle sensors exhibit selective `turn-on' type fluorescent enhancements and a clear color change from light brown to pink with Hg2+. Owing to a larger surface area and high permeability, TFIC MNPs exhibit remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for Hg2+, and its detection limit measures up to the micromolar level in aqueous solution. Most importantly, magnetic measurements have shown that TFIC magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and they can be separated and collected easily using a commercial magnet. These results not only solve the limitations in practical sensing applications of nanosensors, but also enable the fabrication of other multifunctional nanostructure-based hybrid nanomaterials.Fluorescent sensing TSRh6G-?-cyclodextrin fluorophore/adamantane-modified inclusion complex magnetic nanoparticles (TFIC MNPs) have been synthesized via the cooperation of a host-guest interaction and sol-gel grafting reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the material. Fluorescence and UV-visible spectra have shown that the resultant multifunctional nanoparticle sensors exhibit selective `turn-on' type fluorescent enhancements and a clear color change from light brown to pink with Hg2+. Owing to a larger surface area and high permeability, TFIC MNPs exhibit remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for Hg2+, and its detection limit measures up to the micromolar level in aqueous solution. Most importantly, magnetic measurements have shown that TFIC magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and they can be separated and collected easily using a commercial magnet. These results not only solve the limitations in practical sensing applications of nanosensors, but also enable the fabrication of other multifunctional nanostructure-based hybrid nanomaterials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures and characterization data for new compounds, fluorescence photographs and the curve of fluorescence intensity. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00580a

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Qingbiao; Sun, Mingda; Fei, Xiaoliang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yingmu; Li, Yaoxian

2013-05-01

89

Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors  

E-print Network

microscopy (AFM) · Optical tweezers · Magnetic tweezers Single molecules force microscopy techniques #12Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors Maria Mañosas Ritort lab UB Barcelona Croquette-Bensimon lab ENS France #12;· Introduction to MT (magnetic tweezers) · Applications: 1. Tracking DNA motors: (i

Ritort, Felix

90

Interferometer Control of Optical Tweezers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses progress in using spatial light modulators and interferometry to control the beam profile of an optical tweezers. The approach being developed is to use a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the phase profile of the tweezers beam and to use a combination of the SLM and interferometry to control the intensity profile. The objective is to perform fine and calculable control of the moments and forces on a tip or tool to be used to manipulate and interrogate nanostructures. The performance of the SLM in generating multiple and independently controllable tweezers beams is also reported. Concurrent supporting research projects are mentioned and include tweezers beam scattering and neural-net processing of the interference patterns for control of the tweezers beams.

Decker, Arthur J.

2002-01-01

91

Theoretical investigation of enantioselectivity of cage-like supramolecular assembly: The insights into the shape complementarity and host-guest interaction.  

PubMed

Enantioselectivity in the aza-Cope rearrangement of a guest molecule encapsulated in a cage-like supramolecular assembly [Ga4 L6 ](12-) [L?=?1,5-bis(2',3'-dihydroxybenzamido)naphthalene] is investigated using density functional theory and ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Reaction pathways leading to R- and S-enantiomers encapsulated in the [Ga4 L6 ](12-) are explored. The reaction barriers and the stabilities of the prochiral structures differed in the [Ga4 L6 ](12-) , resulting that the product with an R structure is favorably produced in the ?-structure [Ga4 L6 ](12-) . The large energy difference in the prochiral structures in the [Ga4 L6 ](12-) was attributed to the deformation of the bulky substituent. The host-guest interaction energy raises the reaction barrier for the product with an S structure. The previous study suggested that the different stability of the prochiral substrates in the assembly was the origin of the enantioselectivity, and the suggestion is supported by our computational finding. In addition, our results show that the difference in the reaction barriers also importantly contributes to the enantioselectivity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25565267

Ootani, Yusuke; Akinaga, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Takahito

2015-03-15

92

Study of host-guest interactions in benzodiazacoronands by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and quantum mechanical computations.  

PubMed

In this work we present solid state data for five host-guest complexes formed by N-(4,19-dioxo-2,8,15,21-tetraoxa-5,18-diazatricyclohexacosa-1(25),9(14),10,12,22(26),23-hexaen-26-yl)-benzamide (1) belonging to the group of benzodiazacoronands, achiral compounds for which chiral crystals were found (J. Kalisiak and J. Jurczak, Cryst. Growth Des., 2006, 6, 20). The X-ray structure was resolved for four of them. It was found that 1 crystallizes in P2(1)/c, P1 and P2(1)/n achiral space groups. Differentiation of molecular packing and the presence of guest molecules within the crystal lattice were analyzed with solid state NMR. An attempt was made to correlate changes in (13)C ?(ii) and (15)N ?(ii) chemical shift tensor values, obtained from analysis of spinning sidebands of 1D and 2D (2D PASS) NMR spectra, with changes in the strength of hydrogen bonding. Quantum mechanical DFT GIAO calculations of NMR shielding parameters carried out on structures with coordinates taken from XRD were employed for signals assignment and verification of structural constraints. PMID:21384038

Nowicka, Katarzyna; Bujacz, Anna; Paluch, Piotr; Sobczuk, Adam; Jeziorna, Agata; Ciesielski, W?odzimierz; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Jurczak, Janusz; Potrzebowski, Marek J

2011-04-14

93

Host-guest interaction dictated selective adsorption and fluorescence quenching of a luminescent lightweight metal-organic framework toward liquid explosives.  

PubMed

In this article, we report the successful preparation of a Mg-based luminescent MIL-53 metal-organic framework (MOF), namely [Mg2(BDC)2(BPNO)]·2DMF (1) (BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylate, BPNO = 4,4'-dipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) in a mixed solvent containing a 2?:?3 volume ratio of DMF and ethanol (EtOH) under solvothermal conditions. Desolvated compound 1a can be used as an absorbent for selective adsorption and separation of liquid explosives, including nitroaromatic (nitrobenzene (NB)) and nitroaliphatic (nitromethane (NM) and nitroethane (NE)) compounds, through single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformations. As one of the weakly luminescent MOFs, the luminescence of compound 1a could be quenched by the incorporation of the three liquid nitro explosives. On the basis of single crystal analysis, we provide direct evidence that both the selective adsorption and fluorescence quenching of the desolvated compound 1a are dictated by host-guest interactions between guest liquid explosives and the host framework. Such findings differ from those reported in previous works, which were dominated by surficial close contact interactions. Moreover, based on the experimentally obtained single-crystal structures, we explain that the luminescence of 1a follows the intraligand ?*?? emission states or weak ligand to ligand charge transfer (LLCT), with little incorporation of intraligand charge transfer (ILCT). PMID:25187098

Liu, Dan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yongxin; Yu, Yang; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Cheng

2014-10-28

94

A B3LYP and MP2 theoretical investigation into host-guest interaction between calix[4]arene and Li(+) or Na (+).  

PubMed

The DFT-B3LYP and MP2 methods with 6-311G** and 6-311++G** basis sets have been applied to study the complexation energies of the host-guest complexes between the cone calix[4]arene and Li(+) or Na(+) on the B3LYP optimized geometries. A comparison of the complexation energies obtained from the MP2(full) with those from MP2(fc) method is also carried out. The result shows that it is essential to introduce the diffuse basis set into the geometry optimizations and complexation energy calculations of the alkali-metal cation-pi interaction complexes of calix[4]arene, and the D (e) values show a maximum of 21.13 kJ mol(-1) (14.45% of relative error) between the MP2(full)/6-311++G** and MP2(fc)/6-311++G** method. For Li(+) cation, the complexation is mainly energetically stabilized by the lower rim/cation (namely O-Li(+)) interaction. However, binding energies and NBO analyses confirm that Na(+) cation prefers to enter the calix[4]arene cavity and the cation-pi interaction is predominant, which contradicts the previous low-level theoretical studies. Furthermore, the complexation with Li(+) is preferred over that with Na(+) by at least 12.70 kJ mol(-1) at MP2(full)/6-311++G**//B3LYP/6-311++G** level. PMID:19705171

Cao, Duan-lin; Ren, Fu-de; Feng, Ya-qing; Liu, Sheng-nan; Chen, Shu-sen

2010-03-01

95

Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque  

E-print Network

1 Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque Authors: Jan n.h.dekker@tudelft.nl Corresponding author: Nynke H. Dekker Keywords: magnetic tweezers, magnetic torque tweezers, freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, twist, torque

Dekker, Nynke

96

A study on the versatility of metallacycles in host-guest chemistry: interactions in halide-centered hexanuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complexes.  

PubMed

Hexanuclear copper(II) pyrazolate complexes have shown the ability to encapsulate different halide ions, leading to [trans-Cu6{?-3,5-(CF3)2pz}6(?-OH)6X](-) (X = F, Cl, Br, I). They offer an interesting case study for variation in local properties at host binding sites, due to the presence of a six membered ring involving Cu(II) centers considered as the borderline Lewis acid according to the Pearson Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) principle. Here, we describe the host-guest interactions via relativistic density functional calculations, involving the graphical description of local dipole and quadrupole moments, energy decomposition analysis, non-covalent indices, and magnetic behavior. The observed variation in the copper local dipole and quadrupole moments suggests that a metallacycle host offers great advantages in comparison to their organic counterparts, prompted by the versatility of the metallic centers to modulate the surrounding electron density accordingly. According to our results, the contribution of ion-dipole forces in the halide-centered series decreases from 95.0% to 77.0% from the fluoride to the iodide complex, whereas the contribution of higher order interactions such as quadrupole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole, goes from 5.0% to 23.0% towards a softer guest. In addition, the through-the-space magnetic response of trans-Cu6{?-3,5-(CF3)2pz}6(?-OH)6, reveals a noteworthy aromatic structure, which is driven by the superexchange through the ligands leading to a singlet ground state. PMID:24866754

Ponce-Vargas, Miguel; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro

2014-07-14

97

Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of organic framework of macrocylic OONNOO-donor ligand with its metal organic framework: Host/guest stability measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized 1,2-di( o-aminophenoxy)ethane, as the starting material, used in the preparation of a novel hexadentate OONNOO-donor macrocyclic ligand-1,4,11,14-tetraoxo-7,8-diaza-5,6:9,10;15,16:19,20-terabezocyclododeca-8,17-iene. It has twenty membered organic framework (OF), which has been designed, synthesized and characterized. Our main findings of this paper are related to the organic framework of ligand, its capacity to digest the metal ions and the stability of metal organic framework (MOFs) with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and manganese(II). The authenticity of the used organic framework and its metal complexes have been detected and observed in solid state as well as in aqueous solutions. The main observations were made on the basis of physiochemical measurements viz.: elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, electronic, ESR spectroscopy. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and electrochemistry measurements have been made. The 1H NMR spectra suggest stereochemistry and proton movement interaction. Considering the used organic framework there are a lot of carbon atoms in the molecule reflected by the 13C NMR spectrum. All these observations gave a clear view to confirming the encapsulation; arrive at the composition, structure and geometry of encapsulated complexes. In simple words, it confirms the host/guest coordination and its stability. Electrochemical properties of the complexes have been investigated to confirm the various changes in oxidation state of metals with change in potentials with respect to current at different scan rate.

Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, R. P.; Singh, R. P.

2008-11-01

98

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic  

E-print Network

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy force microscopy (AFM), micro-needle manipulation1, biomembrane force probe2 and flow-induced stretching

Ritort, Felix

99

Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and calibration of an optical tweezer setup in the Instrumentation and Controls Division (5520). I am utilizing a custom LabVIEW Virtual Instrument program for data collection and microscope stage control. Helping me in my assignment are the following people: Mentor Susan Wrbanek (5520), Dr. Baha Jassemnejad (UCO) and Technicians Ken Weiland (7650) and James Williams (7650). Without their help, my task would not be possible.

Collins, Timothy M.

2004-01-01

100

Undergraduate Construction of Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present a poster on the construction of optical tweezers. This will demonstrate the full process one must go through when working on a research project. First I sifted through the internet for papers and information pertaining to the tweezers. Afterwards I discussed the budget with the lab manager. Next I made purchases, however some items, such as the sample mount, needed to be custom made. These I built in the machine shop. Once the tweezers were operational I spent some time ensuring that the mirrors and lenses were adjusted just right, so that the trap performed at full strength. Finally, I used video data of the Brownian motion of trapped silica microspheres to get a reasonable estimate of the trapping stiffness with such particles. As a general note, all of this was done with the intent of leaving the tweezers for future use by other undergraduates. Because of this extra effort was taken to ensure the tweezers were as safe to use as possible. For this reason a visible LASER was chosen over an infrared LASER, in addition, the LASER was oriented parallel to the surface of the table in order to avoid stray upwards beams.

Hubbell, Lawrence

2012-10-01

101

Optical tweezers for confocal microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSMs), lasers can be used for image formation as well as tools for the manipulation of microscopic objects. In the latter case, in addition to the imaging lasers, the light of an extra laser has to be focused into the object plane of the CLSM, for example as optical tweezers. Imaging as well as trapping by optical tweezers can be done using the same objective lens. In this case, z-sectioning for 3D imaging shifts the optical tweezers with the focal plane of the objective along the optical axis, so that a trapped object remains positioned in the focal plane. Consequently, 3D imaging of trapped objects is impossible without further measures. We present an experimental set-up keeping the axial trapping position of the optical tweezers at its intended position whilst the focal plane can be axially shifted over a distance of about 15 ?m. It is based on fast-moving correctional optics synchronized with the objective movement. First examples of application are the 3D imaging of chloroplasts of Elodea densa (Canadian waterweed) in a vigorous cytoplasmic streaming and the displacement of zymogen granules in pancreatic cancer cells (AR42 J).

Hoffmann, A.; Meyer zu Hörste, G.; Pilarczyk, G.; Monajembashi, S.; Uhl, V.; Greulich, K. O.

2000-11-01

102

Water tweezers for pariticles gagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the microfabrication has grown rapidly, and one of the key technique and important basis is pariticle trapping and manipulation. Now, it develops mostly on light, electricity and plasma to make it. The text raises a fire-new concept of “water tweezers”: when fistulous micro water-jet acts on the face of pariticle, the block of viscosity that causes a

Xiaomin Cheng; Ye Xu; Lin Zhou; Guoliang Zhang; Naiyu Shen

2010-01-01

103

Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA  

E-print Network

Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA transcription. Magnetic tweezers surface magnetic bead F DNA external magnets F =kBT l/> l F x surface Instrumental set-up video camera beam condenser hollow bearing with magnet 90x oil

Leuba, Sanford

104

Observations of the whole bell-shaped energy gap law in the intra-molecular charge separation (CS) from S2 state of directly linked Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads: Examinations of wider range of energy gap (-[Delta]GCS) for the CS rates in normal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very recently, we have succeeded in the first observation of the whole bell-shaped energy gap law (EGL) of photoinduced charge separation (CS) reaction, examining the ultrafast reaction from the S2 state of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads with the fs fluorescence dynamics measurements, which showed EGL including both normal and inverted regimes considerably broader than the result in our previous investigations. We have

Noboru Mataga; Seiji Taniguchi; Haik Chosrowjan; Astuhiro Osuka; Kei Kurotobi

2005-01-01

105

Nanoceria-triggered synergetic drug release based on CeO(2) -capped mesoporous silica host-guest interactions and switchable enzymatic activity and cellular effects of CeO(2).  

PubMed

Herein, a pH stimuli-responsive vehicle for intracellular drug delivery using CeO2 capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) is reported. ?-Cyclodextrin-modified CeO2 nanoparticles could cap onto ferrocene-functionalized mesoporous silica through host-guest interactions. After internalization into A549 cells by a lysosomal pathway, the ferrocenyl moieties are oxidized to ferrocenium ions by CeO2 lids, which could trigger the uncapping of the CeO2 and cause the drugs release. Because of the pH-dependent toxicity, the CeO2 here behaves as a multi-purpose entity that not only acts as a lid but also exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect on cancer cells. Meanwhile, the cell protective effect of CeO2 nanoparticles alone is demonstrated, which ensures that the dissolved CeO2 nanoparticles can be non-toxic to normal cells. PMID:23630084

Xu, Can; Lin, Youhui; Wang, Jiasi; Wu, Li; Wei, Weili; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2013-12-01

106

Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

107

Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focussing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focussing on the trap stiffness and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot but benefit from rotational control.

McDonald, C.; McDougall, C.; Rafailov, E.; McGloin, D.

2014-12-01

108

Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers.  

PubMed

Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focusing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots, and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focusing on the trap stiffness, and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot, but benefit from rotational control. PMID:25490654

McDonald, C; McDougall, C; Rafailov, E; McGloin, D

2014-12-01

109

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. Here we describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations.

Attila Nagy; Keir C Neuman

2008-01-01

110

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

2012-01-01

111

Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells  

E-print Network

Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells Author States) ABSTRACT Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells. Keywords: Optical trapping, Optical tweezers

Wu, Shin-Tson

112

"Red Tweezers": Fast, customisable hologram generation for optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOT) are a versatile way of manipulating microscopic particles in 3D. However, their ease of use has been hampered by the computational load of calculating the holograms, resulting in an unresponsive system. We present a program for generating these holograms on a consumer Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), coupled to an easy-to-use interface in LabVIEW (National Instruments). This enables a HOT system to be set up without writing any additional code, as well as providing a platform enabling the fast generation of other holograms. The GPU engine calculates holograms over 300 times faster than the same algorithm running on a quad core CPU. The hologram algorithm can be altered on-the-fly without recompiling the program, allowing it to be used to control Spatial Light Modulators in any situation where the hologram can be calculated in a single pass. The interface has also been rewritten to take advantage of new features in LabVIEW 2010. It is designed to be easily modified and extended to integrate with hardware other than our own.

Bowman, Richard W.; Gibson, Graham M.; Linnenberger, Anna; Phillips, David B.; Grieve, James A.; Carberry, David M.; Serati, Steven; Miles, Mervyn J.; Padgett, Miles J.

2014-01-01

113

Magnetic tweezers for the measurement of twist and torque.  

PubMed

Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques include so-called force spectroscopy approaches such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, flow stretching, and magnetic tweezers. Amongst these approaches, magnetic tweezers have distinguished themselves by their ability to apply torque while maintaining a constant stretching force. Here, it is illustrated how such a "conventional" magnetic tweezers experimental configuration can, through a straightforward modification of its field configuration to minimize the magnitude of the transverse field, be adapted to measure the degree of twist in a biological molecule. The resulting configuration is termed the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers. Additionally, it is shown how further modification of the field configuration can yield a transverse field with a magnitude intermediate between that of the "conventional" magnetic tweezers and the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, which makes it possible to directly measure the torque stored in a biological molecule. This configuration is termed the magnetic torque tweezers. The accompanying video explains in detail how the conversion of conventional magnetic tweezers into freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers can be accomplished, and demonstrates the use of these techniques. These adaptations maintain all the strengths of conventional magnetic tweezers while greatly expanding the versatility of this powerful instrument. PMID:24894412

Lipfert, Jan; Lee, Mina; Ordu, Orkide; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Dekker, Nynke H

2014-01-01

114

Micro Magnetic Tweezers for Nanomanipulation Inside Live Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the design, realization, and characterization of a multi-pole magnetic tweezers that enables us to maneuver small magnetic probes inside living cells. So far, magnetic tweezers can be divided into two categories: I), tweezers that allow the exertion of high forces but consist of only one or two poles and therefore are capable of only exerting forces in

Anthony H. B. de Vries; Bea E. Krenn; Roel van Driel; Johannes S. Kanger

2005-01-01

115

Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the design, realization, and characterization of a multi-pole magnetic tweezers that enables us to maneuver small magnetic probes inside living cells. So far, magnetic tweezers can be divided into two categories: I), tweezers that allow the exertion of high forces but consist of only one or two poles and therefore are capable of only exerting forces in

Vries de A. H; G. E. Krenn; Driel van R; J. S. Kanger

2005-01-01

116

Optical tweezers: light for manipulating microscopic world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers make use of a tightly focused laser beam to trap, move, guide, rotate and even sort microscopic objects solely with light. Although the basic laser tweezers, making use of a TEM00 laser beam to create a single trap point, have proved to be useful for any applications in areas ranging from physics to biology, a major breakthrough in this field came as the use of computer generated holograms enabled researchers to create multiple trap sites from single laser source (holographic optical tweezers). Coupled with microfluidic techniques, holographic optical tweezers have promised development of optical techniques for high throughput sorting of different cell types under a single micro-chip platform. The holographic methods have also helped the use of specialized laser beams like Laguerre-Gaussian beams instead of the conventional laser beam for interesting applications like orienting/rotating the trapped objects or trapping cells with minimum photodamage. Further, combining optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy is becoming increasingly popular for studying single cell biochemistry as use of optical forces to immobilize the cells under investigations not only avoids the negative effects of fixing the cells onto substrate but also improve the quality of the recorded spectra. These advanced optical trapping techniques as outlined above along with some illustrative biophotonics applications have been explored.

Dasgupta, Raktim

2012-05-01

117

Photophysical properties and photoinduced electron transfer within host-guest complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin with water-soluble calixarenes and cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

We report the formation of host-guest complexes between water-soluble calix[n]arene-p-tetrasulfonates (n = 4, 6, 8) or 2-hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-) and the tetratosylate salt of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP). The binding constants ranging between 10(2) and 10(5) M-1 were calculated from the absorption and fluorescence changes. Calix[4]arene-p-tetrasulfonate has a high binding affinity and forms with TMPyP a 1:1 complex, whereas other calixarenes bind two molecules of TMPyP. Electrostatic attraction is the dominating binding mode. Binding to calixarenes leads to a considerable decrease of the quantum yields of the triplet and excited singlet states and to shortening of the singlet and triplet lifetimes of TMPyP. The quenching mechanism is attributed to electron transfer between calixarene phenolates and excited TMPyP. Photoinduced electron transfer within a novel supramolecular complex calixarene/TMPyP (electron donor)/methyl viologen (electron acceptor) has been proven by absorption and fluorescence measurements. Electrostatic attraction between the cationic donor and cationic acceptor, on the one hand, and the anionic host, on the other, overcomes the electrostatic repulsion forces. In contrast, the interaction of cyclodextrin with TMPyP is hydrophobic in nature and only slightly influences the photophysical properties of TMPyP. The different behavior of TMPyP bound to either of the hosts has been assigned to the specific effects of the dominant binding modes, viz. the electrostatic attraction for calixarenes and the hydrophobic interactions for inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. PMID:11683035

Lang, K; Kubát, P; Lhoták, P; Mosinger, J; Wagnerová, D M

2001-10-01

118

A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the behavior of biological macromolecules and enzymatic reactions under force, advances in single-molecule force spectroscopy have proven instrumental. Magnetic tweezers form one of the most powerful of these techniques, due to their overall simplicity, non-invasive character, potential for high throughput measurements, and large force range. Drawbacks of magnetic tweezers, however, are that accurate determination of the applied forces can be challenging for short biomolecules at high forces and very time-consuming for long tethers at low forces below ˜1 piconewton. Here, we address these drawbacks by presenting a calibration standard for magnetic tweezers consisting of measured forces for four magnet configurations. Each such configuration is calibrated for two commonly employed commercially available magnetic microspheres. We calculate forces in both time and spectral domains by analyzing bead fluctuations. The resulting calibration curves, validated through the use of different algorithms that yield close agreement in their determination of the applied forces, span a range from 100 piconewtons down to tens of femtonewtons. These generalized force calibrations will serve as a convenient resource for magnetic tweezers users and diminish variations between different experimental configurations or laboratories.

Yu, Zhongbo; Dulin, David; Cnossen, Jelmer; Köber, Mariana; van Oene, Maarten M.; Ordu, Orkide; Berghuis, Bojk A.; Hensgens, Toivo; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

2014-12-01

119

Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Cochran, Sandy; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

2014-04-01

120

Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers  

SciTech Connect

An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35?MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: c.r.p.courtney@bath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

2014-04-14

121

Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

122

The Smallest Tweezers in the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical…

Lewalle, Alexandre

2008-01-01

123

Magnetic Tweezers: Micromanipulation and Force Measurement at the Molecular Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cantilevers and optical tweezers are widely used for micromanipulating cells or biomolecules for measuring their mechanical properties. However, they do not allow easy rotary motion and can sometimes damage the handled material. We present here a system of magnetic tweezers that overcomes those drawbacks while retaining most of the previous dynamometers properties. Electromagnets are coupled to a microscope-based particle tracking

Charlie Gosse; Vincent Croquette

2002-01-01

124

Inserting and Manipulating DNA in a Nanopore with Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Inserting and Manipulating DNA in a Nanopore with Optical Tweezers U. F. Keyser, J. van that a combination of optical tweezers, single solid-state nanopores, and electrophysiological ionic current the experimental procedures that are neces- sary to manipulate single biopolymers in a single nanopore, not only

Dekker, Nynke

125

Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers Studies of Type IB Topoisomerases  

E-print Network

Chapter 7 Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers Studies of Type IB Topoisomerases Jan Lipfert, Daniel A properties of type IB topoisomerases can be monitored using this technique. Key words: Single-molecule techniques, magnetic tweezers, topoisomerases, TopIB, spectroscopy. 1. Introduction 1.1. Topoisomerase

Dekker, Nynke

126

Single-Pair FRET Characterization of DNA Tweezers  

E-print Network

Single-Pair FRET Characterization of DNA Tweezers Barbara K. Mu1ller, Andreas Reuter, Friedrich C on the single-molecule level. From single-pair FRET investigations, we show that "open" tweezers exist in a single conformation with minimal FRET efficiency, whereas upon addition of a "closing strand", three

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

127

Optical Tweezers Array and Nimble Tweezers Probe Generated by Spatial- Light Modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical tweezers is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center as a visiblelight interface between ubiquitous laser technologies and the interrogation, visualization, manufacture, control, and energization of nanostructures such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanotubes. The tweezers uses one or more focused laser beams to hold micrometer-sized particles called tools (sometimes called tips in atomic-force-microscope terminology). A strongly focused laser beam has an associated light-pressure gradient that is strong enough to pull small particles to the focus, in spite of the oppositely directed scattering force; "optical tweezers" is the common term for this effect. The objective is to use the tools to create carefully shaped secondary traps to hold and assemble nanostructures that may contain from tens to hundreds of atoms. The interaction between a tool and the nanostructures is to be monitored optically as is done with scanning probe microscopes. One of the initial efforts has been to create, shape, and control multiple tweezers beams. To this end, a programmable spatial-light modulator (SLM) has been used to modify the phase of a laser beam at up to 480 by 480 points. One program creates multiple, independently controllable tweezer beams whose shapes can be tailored by making the SLM an adaptive mirror in an interferometer (ref. 1). The beams leave the SLM at different angles, and an optical Fourier transform maps these beams to different positions in the focal plane of a microscope objective. The following figure shows two arrays of multiple beams created in this manner. The patterns displayed above the beam array control the intensity-to-phase transformation required in programming the SLM. Three of the seven beams displayed can be used as independently controllable beams.

Decker, Arthur J.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Seibel, Robin E.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

128

Investigating hydrodynamic synchronisation using holographic optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated motion at low Reynolds number is widely observed in biological micro-systems, but the underlying mechanisms are often unclear. A holographic optical tweezers system is used to experimentally study this phenomenon, by employing optical forces to drive a pair of coplanar microspheres in circular orbits with a constant tangential force. In this system synchronisation is caused by hydrodynamic forces arising from the motion of the two spheres. The timescales of their synchronisation from large initial phase differences are explored and found to be dependent on how stiffly the microspheres are confined to their circular orbits. These measured timescales show good agreement with numerical simulations.

Box, Stuart; Debono, Luke; Bruot, Nicolas; Kotar, Jurij; Cicuta, Pietro; Miles, Mervyn; Hanna, Simon; Phillips, David; Simpson, Stephen

2014-09-01

129

Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

2014-07-01

130

Quantitative modeling and optimization of magnetic tweezers.  

PubMed

Magnetic tweezers are a powerful tool to manipulate single DNA or RNA molecules and to study nucleic acid-protein interactions in real time. Here, we have modeled the magnetic fields of permanent magnets in magnetic tweezers and computed the forces exerted on superparamagnetic beads from first principles. For simple, symmetric geometries the magnetic fields can be calculated semianalytically using the Biot-Savart law. For complicated geometries and in the presence of an iron yoke, we employ a finite-element three-dimensional PDE solver to numerically solve the magnetostatic problem. The theoretical predictions are in quantitative agreement with direct Hall-probe measurements of the magnetic field and with measurements of the force exerted on DNA-tethered beads. Using these predictive theories, we systematically explore the effects of magnet alignment, magnet spacing, magnet size, and of adding an iron yoke to the magnets on the forces that can be exerted on tethered particles. We find that the optimal configuration for maximal stretching forces is a vertically aligned pair of magnets, with a minimal gap between the magnets and minimal flow cell thickness. Following these principles, we present a configuration that allows one to apply > or = 40 pN stretching forces on approximately 1-microm tethered beads. PMID:19527664

Lipfert, Jan; Hao, Xiaomin; Dekker, Nynke H

2009-06-17

131

21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5360 Tweezer-type epilator. (a) Identification. The...

2012-04-01

132

21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5360 Tweezer-type epilator. (a) Identification. The...

2010-04-01

133

21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5360 Tweezer-type epilator. (a) Identification. The...

2013-04-01

134

21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5360 Tweezer-type epilator. (a) Identification. The...

2014-04-01

135

21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5360 Tweezer-type epilator. (a) Identification. The...

2011-04-01

136

Exploring the mechanome with optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence  

E-print Network

The combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence into an instrument capable of making combined, coincident measurements adds an observable dimension that allows for the examination of the localized ...

Brau, Ricardo R. (Ricardo Rafael), 1979-

2008-01-01

137

Optical manipulation of lipid and polymer nanotubes with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optical tweezers and microfluidics, we stretch either the lipid or polymer membranes of liposomes or polymersomes, respectively, into long nanotubes. The membranes can be grabbed directly with the optical tweezers to produce sub-micron diameter tubes that are several hundred microns in length. We can stretch tubes up to a centimeter in length, limited only by the travel of our microscope stage. We also demonstrate the cross linking of a pulled polymer nanotube.

Reiner, Joseph E.; Kishore, Rani; Pfefferkorn, Candace; Wells, Jeffrey; Helmerson, Kristian; Howell, Peter; Vreeland, Wyatt; Forry, Samuel; Locascio, Laurie; Reyes-Hernandez, Darwin; Gaitan, Michael

2004-10-01

138

Developing functional Optical Tweezers for Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers are useful for manipulation of microscopic materials without damage from physical contact. This project utilized a 20mW HeNe laser (wavelength 632.8nm) and a reconfigured standard teaching-laboratory microscope to form a stable diffraction limited trap. A simple method of live recording of moving particles was developed with the use of AVT SmartView and NI Vision Assistant. The physical setup was altered several times to eliminate sources of misalignment, until an optimal configuration was achieved and optical trapping and manipulation of a polystyrene microsphere was successfully recorded. Additionally, Calcite particles on the order of 1 micrometer were manipulated with the optical trap.

Dax, Tanya; Sauncy, Toni

2010-10-01

139

Multiplexed spectroscopy with holographic optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a multiplexed holographic optical tweezers system with an imaging spectrometer to manipulate multiple optically trapped nanosensors and detect multiple fluorescence spectra. The system uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the positions of infrared optical traps in the sample so that multiple nanosensors can be positioned into regions of interest. Spectra of multiple nanosensors are detected simultaneously with the application of an imaging spectrometer. Nanosensors are capable of detecting changes in their environment such as pH, ion concentration, temperature, and voltage by monitoring changes in the nanosensors' emitted fluorescence spectra. We use streptavidin labeled quantum dots bound to the surface of biotin labeled polystyrene microspheres to measure temperature changes by observing a corresponding shift in the wavelength of the spectral peak. The fluorescence is excited at 532 nm with a wide field source.

Cibula, Matthew A.; McIntyre, David H.

2014-09-01

140

Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

2011-04-01

141

Eukaryotic membrane tethers revisited using magnetic tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane nanotubes, under physiological conditions, typically form en masse. We employed magnetic tweezers (MTW) to extract tethers from human brain tumor cells and compared their biophysical properties with tethers extracted after disruption of the cytoskeleton and from a strongly differing cell type, Chinese hamster ovary cells. In this method, the constant force produced with the MTW is transduced to cells through super-paramagnetic beads attached to the cell membrane. Multiple sudden jumps in bead velocity were manifest in the recorded bead displacement-time profiles. These discrete events were interpreted as successive ruptures of individual tethers. Observation with scanning electron microscopy supported the simultaneous existence of multiple tethers. The physical characteristics, in particular, the number and viscoelastic properties of the extracted tethers were determined from the analytic fit to bead trajectories, provided by a standard model of viscoelasticity. Comparison of tethers formed with MTW and atomic force microscopy (AFM), a technique where the cantilever-force transducer is moved at constant velocity, revealed significant differences in the two methods of tether formation. Our findings imply that extreme care must be used to interpret the outcome of tether pulling experiments performed with single molecular techniques (MTW, AFM, optical tweezers, etc). First, the different methods may be testing distinct membrane structures with distinct properties. Second, as soon as a true cell membrane (as opposed to that of a vesicle) can attach to a substrate, upon pulling on it, multiple nonspecific membrane tethers may be generated. Therefore, under physiological conditions, distinguishing between tethers formed through specific and nonspecific interactions is highly nontrivial if at all possible.

Hosu, Basarab G.; Sun, Mingzhai; Marga, Françoise; Grandbois, Michel; Forgacs, Gabor

2007-06-01

142

Eukaryotic membrane tethers revisited using magnetic tweezers.  

PubMed

Membrane nanotubes, under physiological conditions, typically form en masse. We employed magnetic tweezers (MTW) to extract tethers from human brain tumor cells and compared their biophysical properties with tethers extracted after disruption of the cytoskeleton and from a strongly differing cell type, Chinese hamster ovary cells. In this method, the constant force produced with the MTW is transduced to cells through super-paramagnetic beads attached to the cell membrane. Multiple sudden jumps in bead velocity were manifest in the recorded bead displacement-time profiles. These discrete events were interpreted as successive ruptures of individual tethers. Observation with scanning electron microscopy supported the simultaneous existence of multiple tethers. The physical characteristics, in particular, the number and viscoelastic properties of the extracted tethers were determined from the analytic fit to bead trajectories, provided by a standard model of viscoelasticity. Comparison of tethers formed with MTW and atomic force microscopy (AFM), a technique where the cantilever-force transducer is moved at constant velocity, revealed significant differences in the two methods of tether formation. Our findings imply that extreme care must be used to interpret the outcome of tether pulling experiments performed with single molecular techniques (MTW, AFM, optical tweezers, etc). First, the different methods may be testing distinct membrane structures with distinct properties. Second, as soon as a true cell membrane (as opposed to that of a vesicle) can attach to a substrate, upon pulling on it, multiple nonspecific membrane tethers may be generated. Therefore, under physiological conditions, distinguishing between tethers formed through specific and nonspecific interactions is highly nontrivial if at all possible. PMID:17664652

Hosu, Basarab G; Sun, Mingzhai; Marga, Françoise; Grandbois, Michel; Forgacs, Gabor

2007-06-01

143

How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

1998-04-01

144

Mechanisms of HCV NS3 helicase monitored by optical tweezers.  

PubMed

As one of the essential enzymes for viral genome replication, the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase is one of the best characterized RNA helicases to date in understanding the mechanistic cycles in a helicase-catalyzed strand separation reaction. Recently, single-molecule studies on NS3, in particular the use of optical tweezers with sub-base pair spatial resolution, have allowed people to examine the potential elementary steps of NS3 in unwinding the double-stranded RNA fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis. In this chapter, I detail the essential technical elements involved in conducting a high-resolution optical tweezers study of NS3 helicase, starting from the purification of the recombinant helicase protein from E. coli to setting up a high-resolution single-molecule experiment using optical tweezers. PMID:25579590

Cheng, Wei

2015-01-01

145

Optical tweezers-assisted measurements of elastic light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers have been used in biophysical studies for over twenty years. Typical application areas are force measurements of subcellular structures and cell biomechanics. Optical tweezers can also be used to manipulate the orientation of objects. Moreover, using various beam shapes, optical tweezers allow measuring light scattering from single and multiple objects by keeping particles and cells in place during the measurement. At single cell level, light scattering yields important information about the object being studied, including its size, shape and refractive index. Also dependent scattering can be studied. In this paper, we review experimental work conducted in this area by our group and show new results relating to optical clearing phenomena at single microparticle level.

Kinnunen, M.; Tuorila, J.; Haapalainen, T.; Karmenyan, A.; Tuchin, V.; Myllylä, R.

2014-01-01

146

Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

2009-07-01

147

Magnetic tweezers for manipulation of magnetic particles in single cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic tweezers gain increasing interest for applications in biology. Here, a setup of magnetic tweezers is introduced using micropatterned conducting lines on transparent glass slides. Magnetic particles of 1 ?m diameter were injected in barley cell vacuoles using a microinject system under microscopic control. Time dependent tracking of the particles after application of a magnetic field was used to determine the viscosity of vacuolar sap in vivo relative to water and isolated vacuolar fluid. The viscosity of vacuolar sap in cells was about 2-fold higher than that of extracted vacuolar fluid and 5 times higher than that of water.

Ebrahimian, H.; Giesguth, M.; Dietz, K.-J.; Reiss, G.; Herth, S.

2014-02-01

148

Marker-free cell discrimination by holographic optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for marker-free cell discrimination based on optical tweezers. Cancerous, non-cancerous, and drug-treated cells could be distinguished by measuring the trapping forces using holographic optical tweezers. We present trapping force measurements on different cell lines: normal pre-B lymphocyte cells (BaF3; "normal cells"), their Bcr-Abl transformed counterparts (BaF3-p185; "cancer cells") as a model for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Imatinib treated BaF3-p185 cells. The results are compared with reference measurements obtained by a commercial flow cytometry system.

Schaal, F.; Warber, M.; Zwick, S.; van der Kuip, H.; Haist, T.; Osten, W.

2009-06-01

149

Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

Chaurasiya, Kathy

150

Magnetic Forces and DNA Mechanics in Multiplexed Magnetic Tweezers  

E-print Network

molecule is tethered between a paramagnetic bead and the surface of a flow cell. Tension and torque can in real time by tracking the xyz-position of the paramagnetic bead using video microscopy, thereby, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Abstract Magnetic tweezers (MT) are a powerful

Dekker, Cees

151

A Step-by-step Guide to the Realisation of Advanced Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Since the pioneering work of Arthur Ashkin, optical tweezers have become an indispensable tool for contactless manipulation of micro- and nanoparticles. Nowadays optical tweezers are employed in a myriad of applications demonstrating the importance of these tools. While the basic principle of optical tweezers is the use of a strongly focused laser beam to trap and manipulate particles, ever more complex experimental set-ups are required in order to perform novel and challenging experiments. With this article, we provide a detailed step- by-step guide for the construction of advanced optical manipulation systems. First, we explain how to build a single-beam optical tweezers on a home-made microscope and how to calibrate it. Improving on this design, we realize a holographic optical tweezers, which can manipulate independently multiple particles and generate more sophisticated wavefronts such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Finally, we explain how to implement a speckle optical tweezers, which permit one to employ ...

Pesce, Giuseppe; Marago, Onofrio M; Jones, Philip H; Gigain, Sylvain; Sasso, Antonio; Volpe, Giovanni

2015-01-01

152

Superresolution imaging in optical tweezers using high-speed cameras.  

PubMed

High-speed cameras are reliable alternatives for the direct characterization of optical trap force and particle motion in optical tweezers setups, replacing indirect motion measurements often performed by quadrant detectors. In the present approach, subpixel motion data of the trapped particle is retrieved from a high-speed low-resolution video sequence. Due to the richness structure of motion diversity of microscopic trapped particles, which are subjected to a Brownian motion, we propose to also use the obtained motion information for tackling the inherent lack of resolution by applying superresolution algorithms on the low-resolution image sequence. The obtained results both for trapping calibration beads and for living bacteria show that the proposed approach allows the proper characterization of the optical tweezers by obtaining the real particle motion directly from the image domain, while still providing high resolution imaging. PMID:20389339

Staforelli, Juan Pablo; Vera, Esteban; Brito, José Manuel; Solano, Pablo; Torres, Sergio; Saavedra, Carlos

2010-02-15

153

A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.  

PubMed

The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. PMID:25523395

Quinto-Su, Pedro A

2014-01-01

154

Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064 nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ~0.8-5 pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ~0.01-0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ~0.1-12 pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5-15 µm in media with 1-7 cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens.

Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

2014-10-01

155

A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

2014-12-01

156

Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level.  

PubMed

Cantilevers and optical tweezers are widely used for micromanipulating cells or biomolecules for measuring their mechanical properties. However, they do not allow easy rotary motion and can sometimes damage the handled material. We present here a system of magnetic tweezers that overcomes those drawbacks while retaining most of the previous dynamometers properties. Electromagnets are coupled to a microscope-based particle tracking system through a digital feedback loop. Magnetic beads are first trapped in a potential well of stiffness approximately 10(-7) N/m. Thus, they can be manipulated in three dimensions at a speed of approximately 10 microm/s and rotated along the optical axis at a frequency of 10 Hz. In addition, our apparatus can work as a dynamometer relying on either usual calibration against the viscous drag or complete calibration using Brownian fluctuations. By stretching a DNA molecule between a magnetic particle and a glass surface, we applied and measured vertical forces ranging from 50 fN to 20 pN. Similarly, nearly horizontal forces up to 5 pN were obtained. From those experiments, we conclude that magnetic tweezers represent a low-cost and biocompatible setup that could become a suitable alternative to the other available micromanipulators. PMID:12023254

Gosse, Charlie; Croquette, Vincent

2002-06-01

157

Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers.  

PubMed

The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of approximately 1.45 +/- 0.15 degrees C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 microns optical tweezers having a power density of approximately 10(7) W/cm2 and a focused spot size of approximately 0.8 micron. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15 +/- 0.25 degrees C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. PMID:7612858

Liu, Y; Cheng, D K; Sonek, G J; Berns, M W; Chapman, C F; Tromberg, B J

1995-05-01

158

Using Laser Tweezers For Manipulating Isolated Neurons In Vitro  

PubMed Central

In this paper and video, we describe the protocols used in our laboratory to study the targeting preferences of regenerating cell processes of adult retinal neurons in vitro. Procedures for preparing retinal cell cultures start with the dissection, digestion and trituration of the retina, and end with the plating of isolated retinal cells on dishes made especially for use with laser tweezers. These dishes are divided into a cell adhesive half and a cell repellant half. The cell adhesive side is coated with a layer of Sal-1 antibodies, which provide a substrate upon which our cells grow. Other adhesive substrates could be used for other cell types. The cell repellant side is coated with a thin layer of poly-HEMA. The cells plated on the poly-HEMA side of the dish are trapped with the laser tweezers, transported and then placed adjacent to a cell on the Sal-1 side to create a pair. Formation of cell groups of any size should be possible with this technique. "Laser-tweezers-controlled micromanipulation" means that the investigator can choose which cells to move, and the desired distance between the cells can be standardized. Because the laser beam goes through transparent surfaces of the culture dish, cell selection and placement are done in an enclosed, sterile environment. Cells can be monitored by video time-lapse and used with any cell biological technique required. This technique may help investigations of cell-cell interactions. PMID:19066536

Clarke, Robert; Wang, Jianfeng; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

2008-01-01

159

Magnetic forces and DNA mechanics in multiplexed magnetic tweezers.  

PubMed

Magnetic tweezers (MT) are a powerful tool for the study of DNA-enzyme interactions. Both the magnet-based manipulation and the camera-based detection used in MT are well suited for multiplexed measurements. Here, we systematically address challenges related to scaling of multiplexed magnetic tweezers (MMT) towards high levels of parallelization where large numbers of molecules (say 10(3)) are addressed in the same amount of time required by a single-molecule measurement. We apply offline analysis of recorded images and show that this approach provides a scalable solution for parallel tracking of the xyz-positions of many beads simultaneously. We employ a large field-of-view imaging system to address many DNA-bead tethers in parallel. We model the 3D magnetic field generated by the magnets and derive the magnetic force experienced by DNA-bead tethers across the large field of view from first principles. We furthermore experimentally demonstrate that a DNA-bead tether subject to a rotating magnetic field describes a bicircular, Limaçon rotation pattern and that an analysis of this pattern simultaneously yields information about the force angle and the position of attachment of the DNA on the bead. Finally, we apply MMT in the high-throughput investigation of the distribution of the induced magnetic moment, the position of attachment of DNA on the beads, and DNA flexibility. The methods described herein pave the way to kilo-molecule level magnetic tweezers experiments. PMID:22870220

De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; van Loenhout, Marijn T J; Burnham, Daniel R; Dekker, Cees

2012-01-01

160

HostGuest Systems DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602556  

E-print Network

- ity have been found in a number of metal­organic frame- works (MOFs).[3] Among them, a group of compounds first reported by F�rey and co-workers,[4] based on chains of trans corner-sharing octahedra {MO6 of these MOFs have focused on H2 adsorption,[9] but some studies of the absorption of CO2 [10] and CH4 [11] have

Wang, Xiqu

161

Photoresponsive vesicle permeability based on intramolecular host-guest inclusion.  

PubMed

This article describes light-responsive vesicles that can release their contents in response to a light-sensitive molecular trigger. To this end, liposomes were equipped with amphiphilic ?-cyclodextrin that was covalently labeled with azobenzene. Using dye encapsulation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show that the permeability of these vesicles strongly increases upon UV irradiation (? = 350 nm) with concomitant isomerization of apolar trans-azobenzene to polar cis-azobenzene on the liposome surface. PMID:24287588

Kauscher, Ulrike; Samanta, Avik; Ravoo, Bart Jan

2014-01-28

162

Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends  

E-print Network

Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their ...

Park, Woon Ik

163

Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their limited thin film morphologies. Here, we report that unusual and spontaneous positioning between host and guest BCP microdomains, even in the absence of H-bond linkages, can create hybridized morphologies that cannot be formed from a neat BCP. Our self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulation results theoretically support that the precise registration of a spherical BCP microdomain (guest, B-b-C) at the center of a perforated lamellar BCP nanostructure (host, A-b-B) can energetically stabilize the blended morphology. As an exemplary application of the hybrid nanotemplate, a nanoring-type Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change memory device with an extremely low switching current is demonstrated. These results suggest the possibility of a new pathway to construct more diverse and complex nanostructures using controlled blending of various BCPs. PMID:24217036

Park, Woon Ik; Kim, YongJoo; Jeong, Jae Won; Kim, Kyungho; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Hur, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jong Min; Thomas, Edwin L.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Jung, Yeon Sik

2013-01-01

164

Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis  

E-print Network

Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis Jean-Baptiste Decombe tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping-position adjustment," Opt. Lett. 38, 2617­2620 (2013). 15. S. K. Mondal, S. S. Pal, and P. Kapur, "Optical fiber nano

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers  

E-print Network

Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers Understanding as little as possible. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to combine single-molecule FRET and optical tweezers. Prior attempts, however, exposed great technical

Hohng, Sung Chul

166

A simple optical tweezers for trapping polystyrene particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers is an optical trap. For decades, it has become an optical tool that can trap and manipulate any particle from the very small size like DNA to the big one like bacteria. The trapping force comes from the radiation pressure of laser light which is focused to a group of particles. Optical tweezers has been used in many research areas such as atomic physics, medical physics, biophysics, and chemistry. Here, a simple optical tweezers has been constructed using a modified Leybold laboratory optical microscope. The ocular lens of the microscope has been removed for laser light and digital camera accesses. A laser light from a Coherent diode laser with wavelength ? = 830 nm and power 50 mW is sent through an immersion oil objective lens with magnification 100 × and NA 1.25 to a cell made from microscope slides containing polystyrene particles. Polystyrene particles with size 3 ?m and 10 ?m are used. A CMOS Thorlabs camera type DCC1545M with USB Interface and Thorlabs camera lens 35 mm are connected to a desktop and used to monitor the trapping and measure the stiffness of the trap. The camera is accompanied by camera software which makes able for the user to capture and save images. The images are analyzed using ImageJ and Scion macro. The polystyrene particles have been trapped successfully. The stiffness of the trap depends on the size of the particles and the power of the laser. The stiffness increases linearly with power and decreases as the particle size larger.

Shiddiq, Minarni; Nasir, Zulfa; Yogasari, Dwiyana

2013-09-01

167

Optical Tweezers for Sample Fixing in Micro-Diffraction Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In order to manipulate, characterize and measure the micro-diffraction of individual structural elements down to single phospholipid liposomes we have been using optical tweezers (OT) combined with an imaging microscope. We were able to install the OT system at the microfocus beamline ID13 at the ESRF and trap clusters of about 50 multi-lamellar liposomes (< 10 {mu}m large cluster). Further we have performed a scanning diffraction experiment with a 1 micrometer beam to demonstrate the fixing capabilities and to confirm the size of the liposome cluster by X-ray diffraction.

Amenitsch, H.; Rappolt, M.; Sartori, B.; Laggner, P. [Institute of Biophysics and X-ray Structure Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, 8042 Graz (Austria); Cojoc, D.; Ferrari, E.; Garbin, V.; Di Fabrizio, E. [CNR-INFM, Lab TASC, Area di Ricerca, 34012 Basovizza (Italy); Burghammer, M.; Riekel, Ch. [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2007-01-19

168

Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimisation and calibration  

E-print Network

We have combined a spatial light modulator (SLM) and galvanometer-mounted mirrors into an optical tweezers set-up. This provides great flexibility by allowing us to create an array of traps which can be moved in a smooth and fast way. To optimise the performance we investigated the effect of incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response. Although it is possible to use the SLM at an incidence of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a more constant response with a full $2\\pi$ phase shift. We calibrate the traps using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution technique.

Hanes, Richard D L; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

2009-01-01

169

Near-field single tractor-beam acoustical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to trap a sphere in the near-field of a single-beam piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a rigid, fluid, elastic, and viscoelastic sphere with arbitrary radius placed in the near-field and centered on the axis of a circular piezoelectric transducer vibrating uniformly, experiences a pulling force, so the acoustical waves act as a "tractor" beam. Numerical predictions illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the distance from the source, the size of the transducer, and the elastic properties of the sphere. Those results can potentially suggest a simple and reliable method in designing acoustical tweezers.

Mitri, F. G.

2013-09-01

170

Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension ? and the bending rigidity ? of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that ? increases as the charged component increases but ? remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

2009-09-01

171

Hybrid optical tweezers for dynamic micro-bead arrays.  

PubMed

Dynamic micro-bead arrays offer great flexibility and potential as sensing tools in various scientific fields. Two optical trapping techniques, the GPC method using a spatial light modulator and a mechanical scanning method using galvano mirrors, are combined in a hybrid optical tweezers system to handle dynamic micro-bead arrays. This system provides greater versatility while the GPC method creates massive micro-bead arrays in a 2D space, where the trapped beads can be manipulated smoothly and very quickly in a 3D space using the mechanical scanning method. Four typical examples are demonstrated in real time. PMID:21934908

Tanaka, Yoshio; Tsutsui, Shogo; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Kitajima, Hiroyuki

2011-08-01

172

Trapping sub-micron Size Particles in Holographic Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapping of sub-micron size particles is of interest to the biological community as well as to nanoelectronic research and industry. We have employed spatially modified Gaussian beam to generate narrow optical traps within diffraction limitation. A spatial light modulator is addressed with the spatial frequencies of the required optical traps. The inverse Fourier transform is obtained at the trap plane of the optical tweezers. We have demonstrated the trapping of sub-micron particles in multiples traps, patterned numerically which is addressed to a spatial light modulator. The trap is vary stable and the particles are trapped for more than 120 seconds.

Dwivedi, G.; Gupta, A.; Shukla, M.; Kanaujia, S.; Yede, S.; Andrews, J. T.

2014-09-01

173

Two-state conductance in single Zn porphyrin molecular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductance measurements were taken by forming single molecule junctions between a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a gold substrate. We observed the existence of a two-state conductance in porphyrin molecules ligating a zinc atom. Peaks in the conductance histograms showed molecules changed from a high conductance state to a low conductance state. This effect was not observed for porphyrin molecules without a ligating atom. We discuss how this phenomenon may be attributed to conformational changes in the molecule.

Qian, Guoguang; Saha, Swatilekha; Lewis, K. M.

2010-06-01

174

Multiplexed Single-molecule Force Proteolysis Measurements Using Magnetic Tweezers  

PubMed Central

The generation and detection of mechanical forces is a ubiquitous aspect of cell physiology, with direct relevance to cancer metastasis1, atherogenesis2 and wound healing3. In each of these examples, cells both exert force on their surroundings and simultaneously enzymatically remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). The effect of forces on ECM has thus become an area of considerable interest due to its likely biological and medical importance4-7. Single molecule techniques such as optical trapping8, atomic force microscopy9, and magnetic tweezers10,11 allow researchers to probe the function of enzymes at a molecular level by exerting forces on individual proteins. Of these techniques, magnetic tweezers (MT) are notable for their low cost and high throughput. MT exert forces in the range of ~1-100 pN and can provide millisecond temporal resolution, qualities that are well matched to the study of enzyme mechanism at the single-molecule level12. Here we report a highly parallelizable MT assay to study the effect of force on the proteolysis of single protein molecules. We present the specific example of the proteolysis of a trimeric collagen peptide by matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1); however, this assay can be easily adapted to study other substrates and proteases. PMID:22871786

Adhikari, Arjun S.; Chai, Jack; Dunn, Alexander R.

2012-01-01

175

Use of optical tweezers to probe epithelial mechanosensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular mechanosensation mechanisms have been implicated in a variety of disease states. Specifically in renal tubules, the primary cilium and associated mechanosensitive ion channels are hypothesized to play a role in water and salt homeostasis, with relevant disease states including polycystic kidney disease and hypertension. Previous experiments investigating ciliary-mediated cellular mechanosensation have used either fluid flow chambers or micropipetting to elicit a biological response. The interpretation of these experiments in terms of the ``ciliary hypothesis'' has been difficult due the spatially distributed nature of the mechanical disturbance-several competing hypotheses regarding possible roles of primary cilium, glycocalyx, microvilli, cell junctions, and actin cytoskeleton exist. I report initial data using optical tweezers to manipulate individual primary cilia in an attempt to elicit a mechanotransduction response-specifically, the release of intracellular calcium. The advantage of using laser tweezers over previous work is that the applied disturbance is highly localized. I find that stimulation of a primary cilium elicits a response, while stimulation of the apical surface membrane does not. These results lend support to the hypothesis that the primary cilium mediates transduction of mechanical strain into a biochemical response in renal epithelia.

Resnick, Andrew

2010-01-01

176

Optical tweezers assisted quantitative phase imaging led to thickness mapping of red blood cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) allows dynamic mapping of optical path length of microscopic samples with high temporal and axial resolution. However, decoupling of the geometric thickness from the refractive index in phase measurements is challenging. Here, we report use of optical tweezers combined with QPM for decoupling geometric thickness from the refractive index. This is demonstrated by orienting the microscopic sample (red blood cell) by optical tweezers and imaging the phase at various orientations. Since optical tweezers can orient wide variety of micro and nanoscopic objects, this integrated method can be employed to accurately determine their physical properties.

Cardenas, Nelson; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

2013-07-01

177

Interrogating Biology with Force: Single Molecule High-Resolution Measurements with Optical Tweezers  

PubMed Central

Single molecule force spectroscopy methods, such as optical and magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy, have opened up the possibility to study biological processes regulated by force, dynamics of structural conformations of proteins and nucleic acids, and load-dependent kinetics of molecular interactions. Among the various tools available today, optical tweezers have recently seen great progress in terms of spatial resolution, which now allows the measurement of atomic-scale conformational changes, and temporal resolution, which has reached the limit of the microsecond-scale relaxation times of biological molecules bound to a force probe. Here, we review different strategies and experimental configurations recently developed to apply and measure force using optical tweezers. We present the latest progress that has pushed optical tweezers’ spatial and temporal resolution down to today’s values, discussing the experimental variables and constraints that are influencing measurement resolution and how these can be optimized depending on the biological molecule under study. PMID:24047980

Capitanio, Marco; Pavone, Francesco S.

2013-01-01

178

Optical tweezers for free-solution label-free single bio-molecule studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoaperture based trapping has developed as a significant tool among the various optical tweezer systems for trapping of very small particles down to the single nanometer range. The double nanohole aperture based trap provides a method for efficient, highly-sensitive, label-free, low-cost, free-solution single molecule trapping and detection. We use the double nanohole tweezer to understand biomolecular phenomena like protein unfolding, binding, structural conformation of DNA, protein-DNA interactions, and protein small molecule interactions.

Kotnala, Abhay; Al-Balushi, Ahmed A.; Gordon, Reuven

2014-09-01

179

Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

2012-06-30

180

Applications of optical tweezers and an integrated force measurement module for biomedical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical tweezers are useful for manipulating biological samples and measuring biological forces. In the present study, we have integrated a forward scatter analysis (FORSA) module in the single-beam gradient force optical tweezers. The entire set-up was then incorporated onto an inverted microscope. In the FORSA module an Helium-Neon probing laser was spotted (at a slightly out-of-focus way) onto the object

Jin-Wu Tsai; Bing-Yao Liao; Chun-Cheng Huang; Wen-Liang Hwang; Da-Wei Wang; Arthur E. Chiou; Chi-Hung Lin

2000-01-01

181

Speckle Optical Tweezers: Micromanipulation with Random Light Fields  

E-print Network

Current optical manipulation techniques rely on carefully engineered setups and samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, it is still a challenge to manipulate microparticles when the environment is not well controlled and known a priori, since optical imperfections and scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to efficiently perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting. We anticipate that the simplicity of these "speckle optical tweezers" will greatly broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications.

Giorgio Volpe; Lisa Kurz; Agnese Callegari; Giovanni Volpe; Sylvain Gigan

2014-03-03

182

A tunable line optical tweezers instrument with nanometer spatial resolution.  

PubMed

We describe a simple scanning-line optical tweezers instrument for measuring pair interactions between micrometer-sized colloidal particles. Our instrument combines a resonant scanning mirror and an acousto-optic modulator. The resonant scanning mirror creates a time-averaged line trap whose effective one-dimensional intensity profile, and corresponding trapping potential energy landscape can be programmed using the acousto-optic modulator. We demonstrate control over the confining potential by designing and measuring a family of one-dimensional harmonic traps. By adjusting the spring constant, we balance scattering-induced repulsive forces between a pair of trapped particles, creating a flat potential near contact that facilitates interaction measurements. We also develop a simple method for extracting the out-of-plane motion of trapped particles from their relative brightness, allowing us to resolve their relative separation to roughly 1 nm. PMID:24784615

Rogers, W Benjamin; Crocker, John C

2014-04-01

183

Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimization, and calibration  

SciTech Connect

A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers setup. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps, which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimize performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 deg., smaller angles give a full 2{pi} phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method.

Hanes, Richard D. L.; Jenkins, Matthew C.; Egelhaaf, Stefan U. [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Heinrich-Heine University, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

2009-08-15

184

Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimisation and calibration  

E-print Network

A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers set-up. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimise performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a full 2pi phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method.

Richard D. L. Hanes; Matthew C. Jenkins; Stefan U. Egelhaaf

2009-07-21

185

Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: construction, optimization, and calibration.  

PubMed

A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers setup. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps, which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimize performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a full 2pi phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method. PMID:19725658

Hanes, Richard D L; Jenkins, Matthew C; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

2009-08-01

186

Precise characterization of micro rotors in optical tweezers  

E-print Network

We present an optical tweezer based study of rotation of microscopic objects with shape asymmetry. Thermal fluctuations and rotations are simultaneously monitored through laser back scattering. The rotation results in a modulation in intensity of the back scattered light incident on a quadrant photo detector. This results in the manifestation of peaks at a fundamental rotational frequency and at integer harmonics, superimposed on a modified Lorentzian in the power spectrum. The multiple peaks indicate that the rotations are periodic but with varying angular velocity. We demonstrate the use of video microscopy for characterization of low reflectivity rotors, such as biological cells. The methods also enable a measurement of the average torque on the rotor, and in principle, can reveal information about its principal moments of inertia, and the role of hydrodynamics at micron levels

Yogesha; Sarbari Bhattacharya; Sharath Ananthamurthy

2011-02-15

187

Probing Micromechanical Properties of Biological Cells by Oscillatory Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used oscillatory optical tweezers to probe the micromechanical properties of cultured alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. The frequency-dependent viscoelasticity of these cells was measured by optical trapping and forced oscillation of either a submicron endogenous intracellular organelle (intra-cellular) or a 1.5?m silica bead attached to the cytoskeleton through trans-membrane integrin receptors (extra-cellular). Both the storage modulus and the magnitude of the complex shear modulus followed weak power-law dependence with frequency. These data are comparable to data obtained by other measurement techniques. The exponents of power-law dependence of the data from the intra- and extra- cellular measurements are similar, whereas, the differences in the magnitudes of the moluli from the two measurements are statistically significant.

Zaorski, Angela; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Yalcin, Huseyin C.; Wang, Jing; Ghadiali, Samir N.; Chiou, Arthur; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

2008-03-01

188

Peculiarities of RBC aggregation studied by double trap optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregation peculiarities of red blood cells (RBCs) in autologous plasma are studied using double trap optical tweezers technique. The positions of RBCs are controlled with submicrometer accuracy by two optical traps formed by strongly focused laser beams (?=1064 nm). Quantitative measurements of interaction forces between RBCs in pair aggregates are performed. Depending on the RBCs aggregation force, four different end-points of disaggregation induced by optical trap movement are revealed. Analysis of experimental force dependence on the distance between two RBCs during disaggregation is in a good agreement with the model of ring-shaped interaction surfaces of RBCs in pair aggregate. Aggregation velocities measured are shown to be strongly different for healthy and pathologic (System Lupus Erythematosis - SLE) blood samples.

Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sofia Yu.; Krasnova, Tatyana N.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

2010-04-01

189

Skewed Brownian Fluctuations in Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers  

PubMed Central

Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383

Burnham, Daniel R.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees

2014-01-01

190

Dynamic excitations in membranes induced by optical tweezers.  

PubMed Central

We present the phenomenology of transformations in lipid bilayers that are excited by laser tweezers. A variety of dynamic instabilities and shape transformations are observed, including the pearling instability, expulsion of vesicles, and more exotic ones, such as the formation of passages. Our physical picture of the laser-membrane interaction is based on the generation of tension in the bilayer and loss of surface area. Although tension is the origin of the pearling instability, it does not suffice to explain expulsion of vesicles, where we observe opening of giant pores and creeping motion of bilayers. We present a quantitative theoretical framework to understand most of the observed phenomenology. The main hypothesis is that lipid is pulled into the optical trap by the familiar dielectric effect, is disrupted, and finally is repackaged into an optically unresolvable suspension of colloidal particles. This suspension, in turn, can produce osmotic pressure and depletion forces, driving the observed transformations. PMID:9649388

Bar-Ziv, R; Moses, E; Nelson, P

1998-01-01

191

Fiber optical tweezers for microscale and nanoscale particle manipulation and force sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers have been an important tool in biology and physics for studying single molecules and colloidal systems. Most of current optical tweezers are built with microscope objectives, which are: i) expensive, ii) bulky and hard to integrate, iii) sensitive to environmental fluctuations, iv) limited in terms of working distances from the substrate, and v) rigid with the requirements on the substrate (transparent substrate made with glass and with a fixed thickness). These limitations of objective-based optical tweezers prevent them from being miniaturized. Fiber optical tweezers can provide a solution for cost reduction and miniaturization, and these optical tweezers can be potentially used in microfluidic systems. However, the existing fiber optical tweezers have the following limitations: i) low trapping efficiency due to weakly focused beams, ii) lack of the ability to control the positions of multiple particles simultaneously, and iii) limited functionalities. The overall objective of this dissertation work is to further the fundamental understanding of fiber optical tweezers through experimental study and modeling, and to develop novel fiber optical tweezers systems to enhance the capability and functionalities of fiber optical tweezers as microscale and nanoscale manipulators/sensors. The contributions of this dissertation work are summarized as follows. i) An enhanced understanding of the inclined dual-fiber optical tweezers (DFOTs) system has been achieved. Stable three dimensional (3D) optical trapping of a single micron-sized particle has been experimentally demonstrated. This is the first time that the trapping efficiency has been calibrated and the stiffness of the trap has been obtained in the experiments, which has been carried out by using two methods: the drag force method and power spectrum analysis. Such calibration enables the system to be used as a picoNewton-level force sensor in addition to a particle manipulator. The influence of system parameters on the trapping performance has been carefully investigated through both experimental and numerical studies. ii) Multiple traps have been created and carefully studied with the inclined DFOTs for the first time. Three traps, one 3D trap and two 2D traps, have been experimentally created at different vertical levels with adjustable separations and positions. iii) Multiple functionalities have been achieved and studied for the first time with the inclined DFOTs. Particle separation, grouping, stacking, rod alignment, rod rotation, and optical binding have been experimentally demonstrated. The multiple functionalities allow the inclined DFOTs to find applications in the study of interaction forces in colloidal systems as well as parallel particle manipulation in drug delivery systems. iv) Far-field superfocusing effect has been investigated and successfully demonstrated with a fiber-based surface plasmonic (SP) lens for the first time. A planar SP lens with a set of concentric nanoscale rings on a fiber endface has been developed. For the first time, a focus size that is comparable to the smallest achievable focus size of high NA objective lenses has been achieved with the fiber-based SP lens. The fiber-based SP lens can bridge the nanoscale particles/systems and the macroscale power sources/detectors, which has been a long standing challenge for nanophotonics. In addition to optical trapping, the fiber-based SP lens will impact many applications including high-resolution lithography, high-resolution fluorescence detection, and sub-wavelength imaging. v) Trapping ability enhanced with the fiber-based SP lens has been successfully demonstrated. With the help of the fiber-based SP lens, the trapping efficiency of fiber optical tweezers has been significantly enhanced, which is comparable with that of objective-based optical tweezers. A submicron-sized bacterium has been successfully trapped in three dimensions for the first time with optical tweezers based on single fibers.

Liu, Yuxiang

2011-12-01

192

Development of optical-based array devices using imaging fiber bundles: Optical tweezer arrays, nanoscale arrays, and microelectrode arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this dissertation describes the development of imaging fiber-based array devices, specifically the fabrication and application of an optical tweezer array, a fiber-based nanoarray, and a nanotip array. With regards for the fabrication of an optical tweezer array, this thesis describes how fiber bundles have been used as a method to create multiple beams, which are used as

Jenny M. Tam

2005-01-01

193

Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.  

PubMed Central

Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

2002-01-01

194

Force measurements with optical tweezers inside living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The force exerted by optical tweezers can be measured by tracking the momentum changes of the trapping beam, a method which is more general and powerful than traditional calibration techniques as it is based on first principles, but which has not been brought to its full potential yet, probably due to practical difficulties when combined with high-NA optical traps, such as the necessity to capture a large fraction of the scattered light. We show that it is possible to measure forces on arbitrary biological objects inside cells without an in situ calibration, using this approach. The instrument can be calibrated by measuring three scaling parameters that are exclusively determined by the design of the system, thus obtaining a conversion factor from volts to piconewtons that is theoretically independent of the physical properties of the sample and its environment. We prove that this factor keeps valid inside cells as it shows good agreement with other calibration methods developed in recent years for viscoelastic media. Finally, we apply the method to measuring the stall forces of kinesin and dynein in living A549 cells.

Mas, Josep; Farré, Arnau; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Montes-Usategui, Mario

2014-09-01

195

Torsional sensing of small-molecule binding using magnetic tweezers  

PubMed Central

DNA-binding small molecules are widespread in the cell and heavily used in biological applications. Here, we use magnetic tweezers, which control the force and torque applied to single DNAs, to study three small molecules: ethidium bromide (EtBr), a well-known intercalator; netropsin, a minor-groove binding anti-microbial drug; and topotecan, a clinically used anti-tumor drug. In the low-force limit in which biologically relevant torques can be accessed (<10?pN), we show that ethidium intercalation lengthens DNA ?1.5-fold and decreases the persistence length, from which we extract binding constants. Using our control of supercoiling, we measure the decrease in DNA twist per intercalation to be 27.3?±?1° and demonstrate that ethidium binding delays the accumulation of torsional stress in DNA, likely via direct reduction of the torsional modulus and torque-dependent binding. Furthermore, we observe that EtBr stabilizes the DNA duplex in regimes where bare DNA undergoes structural transitions. In contrast, minor groove binding by netropsin affects neither the contour nor persistence length significantly, yet increases the twist per base of DNA. Finally, we show that topotecan binding has consequences similar to those of EtBr, providing evidence for an intercalative binding mode. These insights into the torsional consequences of ligand binding can help elucidate the effects of small-molecule drugs in the cellular environment. PMID:20624816

Lipfert, Jan; Klijnhout, Sven; Dekker, Nynke H.

2010-01-01

196

Application of laser tweezers to passive microrheology of collagen solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheology is the field that can describe both viscous and elastic properties of a material in response to applied force or deformation. Passive microrheology (PMR) is a technique in which motion of a particle arising from thermal fluctuations is measured on nanometer length scales. One experimental approach to PMR uses optical tweezers, which trap and probe ?m-sized particles, located within the material, at a high bandwidth. In this study, viscoelastic properties of solutions of collagen are characterized. To do this, we have probed the power spectral density of fluctuations of 1-?m-diameter microspheres optically trapped in acidic solutions of varying concentration of collagen type I (0, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml). The results show evidence that the behaviour of the solutions becomes increasingly non-Newtonian at high protein concentration. We attribute this to the presence of the viscoelastic polymer. This introduces frequency dependence to the complex modulus of the solution which is used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity of these systems.

Shayegan, Marjan; Forde, Nancy R.

2009-05-01

197

Multiplexed single-molecule measurements with magnetic tweezers  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for performing multiple single-molecule manipulation experiments in parallel with magnetic tweezers. We use a microscope with a low magnification, and thus a wide field of view, to visualize multiple DNA-tethered paramagnetic beads and apply an optimized image analysis routine to track the three-dimensional position of each bead simultaneously in real time. Force is applied to each bead using an externally applied magnetic field. Since variations in the field parameters are negligible across the field of view, nearly identical manipulation of all visible beads is possible. However, we find that the error in the position measurement is inversely proportional to the microscope's magnification. To mitigate the increased error caused by demagnification, we have developed a strategy based on tracking multiple fixed beads. Our system is capable of simultaneously manipulating and tracking up to 34 DNA-tethered beads at 60 Hz with {approx}1.5 nm resolution and with {approx}10% variation in applied force.

Ribeck, Noah [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Saleh, Omar A. [Materials Department and Biomolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2008-09-15

198

Multiplexed single-molecule measurements with magnetic tweezers.  

PubMed

We present a method for performing multiple single-molecule manipulation experiments in parallel with magnetic tweezers. We use a microscope with a low magnification, and thus a wide field of view, to visualize multiple DNA-tethered paramagnetic beads and apply an optimized image analysis routine to track the three-dimensional position of each bead simultaneously in real time. Force is applied to each bead using an externally applied magnetic field. Since variations in the field parameters are negligible across the field of view, nearly identical manipulation of all visible beads is possible. However, we find that the error in the position measurement is inversely proportional to the microscope's magnification. To mitigate the increased error caused by demagnification, we have developed a strategy based on tracking multiple fixed beads. Our system is capable of simultaneously manipulating and tracking up to 34 DNA-tethered beads at 60 Hz with approximately 1.5 nm resolution and with approximately 10% variation in applied force. PMID:19044437

Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

2008-09-01

199

Temperature-Dependent Conformations of a Membrane Supported ‘Zinc Porphyrin Tweezer’ by 2D Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We studied the equilibrium conformations of a ‘zinc porphyrin tweezer’ composed of two carboxylphenyl-functionalized zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin subunits connected by a 1,4 butyndiol spacer, which was suspended inside the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) liposomes. By combining phase-modulation two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) with linear absorbance and fluorimetry, we determined that the zinc porphyrin tweezer adopts a mixture of ‘folded’ and ‘extended’ conformations in the membrane. By fitting an exciton-coupling model to a series of data sets recorded over a range of temperatures (17 – 85 °C) and at different laser center wavelengths, we determined that the folded form of the tweezer is stabilized by a favorable change in the entropy of the local membrane environment. Our results provide insights toward understanding the balance of thermodynamic factors that govern molecular assembly in membranes. PMID:23480874

Widom, Julia R.; Lee, Wonbae; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Rappoport, Dmitrij; Molinski, Tadeusz F.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

200

Constructing a magnetic tweezers to monitor RNA translocation at the single-molecule level.  

PubMed

Single-molecule methods have become an invaluable tool in the investigation of the mechanisms of nucleic-acid motors. Magnetic tweezers is a single-molecule manipulation technique that permits the real-time measurement of enzyme activities on single nucleic-acid molecules at high-resolution, high-throughput, and inherently constant force. Here, we describe several aspects of the implementation of magnetic tweezers, with special emphasis on the construction of a simple magnetic trap and, in particular, on the detailed description of image analysis methods to measure the extension changes in nucleic-acid molecules induced by protein activity. Finally, we carefully describe the steps involved in performing a full magnetic tweezers experiment. PMID:25579591

Salas, Desiree; Gocheva, Veronika; Nöllmann, Marcelo

2015-01-01

201

RBCs under optical tweezers as cellular motors and rockers: microfluidic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have reported self-rotation of normal red blood cells (RBC), suspended in hypertonic buffer, and trapped in unpolarized laser tweezers. Here, we report use of such an optically driven RBC-motor for microfluidic applications such as pumping/centrifugation of fluids. Since the speed of rotation of the RBC-motor was found to vary with the power of the trapping beam, the flow rate could be controlled by controlling the laser power. In polarized optical tweezers, preferential alignment of trapped RBC was observed. The aligned RBC (simulating a disk) in isotonic buffer, could be rotated in a controlled manner for use as a microfluidic valve by rotation of the plane of polarization of the trapping beam. The thickness of the discotic RBC could be changed by changing the osmolarity of the solution and thus the alignment torque on the RBC due to the polarization of the trapping beam could be varied. Further, in polarized tweezers, the RBCs in hypertonic buffer showed rocking motion while being in rotation. Here, the RBC rotated over a finite angular range, stopped for some time at a particular angle, and then started rotating till it was back to the aligned position and this cycle was found repetitive. This can be attributed to the fact that though the RBCs were found to experience an alignment torque to align with plane of polarization of the tweezers due to its form birefringence, it was smaller in magnitude as compared to the rotational torque due to its structural asymmetry in hypertonic solution. Changes in the laser power caused a transition from/to rocking to/from motor behavior of the RBC in a linearly polarized tweezers. By changing the direction of polarization caused by rotation of an external half wave plate, the stopping angle of rocking could be changed. Further, RBCs suspended in intermediate hypertonic buffer and trapped with polarized tweezers showed fluttering about the vertical plane.

Mohanty, Samarendra; Mohanty, Khyati; Gupta, Pradeep

2006-08-01

202

Applications of optical tweezers and an integrated force measurement module for biomedical research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers are useful for manipulating biological samples and measuring biological forces. In the present study, we have integrated a forward scatter analysis (FORSA) module in the single-beam gradient force optical tweezers. The entire set-up was then incorporated onto an inverted microscope. In the FORSA module an Helium-Neon probing laser was spotted (at a slightly out-of-focus way) onto the object being trapped by the infrared laser-based tweezers and generated a diffraction pattern. Imagines of the diffraction pattern were captured by a charge- coupled device (CCD), and digitized and processed by a computer. Wed demonstrated that tracking the amplified diffraction pattern war much more precise to determine the movement of the object within the trap than analyzing the minute motion of the object itself. Displacement of the object could then be translated into the force being applied by the tweezers. Also, using an algorithm developed in the lab, we were able to follow the movement of the scattering pattern at a temporal resolution close to video rate. We have used this system to investigate the binding force associate with cell-cell interactions and modular interactions. In these studies. A cell was carefully positioned to make contact with another cell or a microparticle coated with proteins of interest by optical tweezers in a well-controlled manner. During these events, we noted a progressive increase of cell adhesion at the immediate early period (i.e., a few minutes after initial contact) of cell-cell interactions. Also, binding of a disintegrin, rhodostomin, and its mutant to the counterpart integrin on the cell surface could be assessed with great convenience and accuracy. Our results demonstrated that addition of the forward scatter analysis module to convention optical tweezers provides an effective and convenient way for monitoring biological activities in situ and measuring changes of biological forces with precision.

Tsai, Jin-Wu; Liao, Bing-Yao; Huang, Chun-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Liang; Wang, Da-Wei; Chiou, Arthur E. T.; Lin, Chi-Hung

2000-07-01

203

Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis  

E-print Network

An original optical tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping of 1 micrometer polystyrene spheres at optical powers down to 2 mW. Harmonic trap potentials were found in the case of dual fiber tweezers by analyzing the trapped particle position fluctuations. The trap stiffness was deduced using three different models. Consistent values of up to 1 fN/nm were found. The stiffness linearly decreases with decreasing light intensity and increasing fiber tip-to-tip distance.

Decombe, Jean-Baptiste; Fick, Jochen

2013-01-01

204

Mechanical and electrical properties of red blood cells using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers are a very sensitive tool, based on photon momentum transfer, for individual, cell by cell, manipulation and measurements, which can be applied to obtain important properties of erythrocytes for clinical and research purposes. Mechanical and electrical properties of erythrocytes are critical parameters for stored cells in transfusion centers, immunohematological tests performed in transfusional routines and in blood diseases. In this work, we showed methods, based on optical tweezers, to study red blood cells and applied them to measure apparent overall elasticity, apparent membrane viscosity, zeta potential, thickness of the double layer of electrical charges and adhesion in red blood cells.

Fontes, A.; Barjas Castro, M. L.; Brandão, M. M.; Fernandes, H. P.; Thomaz, A. A.; Huruta, R. R.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Barbosa, L. C.; Costa, F. F.; Saad, S. T. O.; Cesar, C. L.

2011-04-01

205

Raman Study of Mechanically Induced Oxygenation State Transition of Red Blood Cells Using Optical Tweezers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in the oxygenation state of human red blood cells while they were placed under mechanical stress with the use of optical tweezers. The applied force is intended to simulate the stretching and compression that cells experience as they pass through vessels and smaller capillaries. In this work, spectroscopic evidence of a transition between the oxygenation and deoxygenation states, which is induced by stretching the cell with optical tweezers, is presented. The transition is due to enhanced hemoglobin-membrane and hemoglobin neighbor-neighbor interactions, and the latter was further studied by modeling the electrostatic binding of two of the protein structures. PMID:18931252

Rao, Satish; Bálint, Štefan; Cossins, Benjamin; Guallar, Victor; Petrov, Dmitri

2009-01-01

206

Raman tweezers on bacteria: following the mechanisms of bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman tweezers represents a unique method for identification of different microorganisms on the basis of Raman scattering. Raman tweezers allows us to fix and sterile manipulate with the trapped object and in the same time check the growth, viability, response to the external environment etc. by Raman signal evaluating. The investigations presented here include distinction of bacteria in general (staphylococcal cells), identification of bacteria strains (biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative) by using principal component analysis (PCA) and monitoring the influence of antibiotics.

Bernatova, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilat, Zdenek; Sery, Mojmir; Jezek, Jan; Jakl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Zemanek, Pavel; Hola, Veronika; Dvorackova, Milada; Ruzicka, Filip

2014-05-01

207

Characterisation of coated aerosols using optical tweezers and neutron reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin organic films are believed to form naturally on the surface of aerosols [1,2] and influence aerosol properties. Cloud condensation nuclei formation and chemical reactions such as aerosol oxidation are effected by the presence of thin films [3]. There is a requirement to characterise the physical properties of both the core aerosol and its organic film in order to fully understand the contribution of coated aerosols to the indirect effect. Two complementary techniques have been used to study the oxidation of thin organic films on the surface of aerosols; laser optical tweezers and neutron reflectometry. Micron sized polystyrene beads coated in oleic acid have been trapped in air using two counter propagating laser beams. Polystyrene beads are used as a proxy for solid aerosol. The trapped aerosol is illuminated with a white LED over a broadband wavelength range and the scattered light collected to produce a Mie spectrum [4]. Analysis of the Mie spectrum results in determination of the core polystyrene bead radius, the oleic acid film thickness and refractive index dispersion of the core and shell [5]. A flow of ozone gas can then be introduced into the aerosol environment to oxidise the thin film of oleic acid and the reaction followed by monitoring the changes in the Mie spectrum. The results demonstrate complete removal of the oleic acid film. We conclude that the use of a counter propagating optical trap combined with white light Mie spectroscopy can be used to study a range of organic films on different types of aerosols and their oxidation reactions. Neutron reflectometry has been used as a complementary technique to study the oxidation of monolayer films at the air-water interface in order to gain information on reaction kinetics. The oxidation of an oleic acid film at the air-water interface by the common tropospheric oxidant ozone has been studied using a Langmuir trough. Results indicate complete removal of the oleic acid film with ozone in agreement with the optical tweezers study, which confounds a previous study [6]. Findings also show complicated reaction kinetics that depend on the surface coverage of the film. Combining single particle studies using optical tweezing with macromolecular studies of thin films using neutron reflectometry provides a detailed atmospheric understanding of thin films on aerosols and their oxidation reactions. 1. Tervahattu H., Hartonen K., Kerminen V-H., Kupianen K., Aarnio P., Koskentalo T., Tuck A. and Vaida V., 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4053-4060. 2. Ellison G., Tuck A. and Vaida V., 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11633-11641. 3. King M.D., Thompson K.C., Ward A.D., 2004, JACS, 51, 16710-16711. 4. Ward A.D., Zhang M. and Hunt O., 2008, Opt. Express, 16, 16390-16403. 5. C.F. Bohren and D.R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, (Wiley Scientific 1998). 6. King M.D., Rennie A.R., Thompson K.C., Fisher F.N., Dong C.C., Thomas R.K., Pfrang C., Hughes A.V., 2009, PCCP, 11, 7699-7707.

Jones, S. H.; Ward, A.; King, M. D.

2013-12-01

208

Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity ? by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

2005-08-01

209

Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quaternary (helical) structure of the PapA rod. It was shown that this unfolding takes place at an elongation independent force of 27 +/- 2 pN. We have also recently performed studies on its folding properties and shown that the unfolding/folding of the PapA rod is completely reversible. Here we present a study of the dynamical properties of the PapA rod. We show, among other things, that the unfolding force increases and that the folding force decreases with the speed of unfolding and folding respectively. Moreover, the PapA rod can be folded-unfolded a significant number of times without loosing its characteristics, a phenomenon that is believed to be important for the bacterium to keep close contact to the host tissue and consequently helps the bacterium to colonize the host tissue.

Fallman, Erik G.; Andersson, Magnus J.; Schedin, Staffan S.; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

2004-10-01

210

Microspectroscopy and scanning microscopy in an optical tweezers system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we developed a setup consisting of an Optical Tweezers equipped with linear and non-linear micro-spectroscopy system to add the capabilities of manipulation and analysing captured objects. Our setup includes a homemade confocal spectrometer using a monochromator equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. The spectroscopic laser system included a cw and a femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers that allowed us to perform Raman, hyper-Raman, hyper-Rayleigh and two photon Excited (TPE) luminescence in particles trapped with an Nd:YAG cw laser. We obtained Raman spectra of a single trapped polystyrene microsphere and a single trapped red blood cell to evaluate the performance of our system. We also observed hyper-Rayleigh and hyper-Raman peaks for SrTiO3 with 60s integration time only. This was possible because the repetition rate of the femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers, on the order of 80 MHz, are much higher than the few kHz typical picosecond laser repetition rate used before in hyper- Raman experiment, which required acquisition times of order of few hours. We used this system to perform scanning microscopy and to acquire TPE luminescence spectra of captured single stained microsphere and cells conjugated with quantum dots of CdS and CdTe and hyper-Rayleigh spectra of a noncaptured ZnSe microparticle. The results obtained show the potential presented by this system and fluorescent labels to perform spectroscopy in a living trapped microorganism in any neighbourhood and dynamically observe the chemical reactions changes in real time.

Fontes, Adriana; Neves, Antonio A. R.; Moreira, Wendel L.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luis C.; de Farias, Patricia M. A.; Santos, Beate S.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; de Paula, Ana M.; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-08-01

211

Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

Cicuta, Pietro

212

Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence.  

PubMed

Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful technique for micromanipulation of living cells. Although the technique often has been claimed to be nonintrusive, evidence has appeared that this is not always the case. This work presents evidence that near-infrared continuous-wave laser light from optical tweezers can produce stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. A transgenic strain of C. elegans, carrying an integrated heat-shock-responsive reporter gene, has been exposed to laser light under a variety of illumination conditions. It was found that gene expression was most often induced by light of 760 nm, and least by 810 nm. The stress response increased with laser power and irradiation time. At 810 nm, significant gene expression could be observed at 360 mW of illumination, which is more than one order of magnitude above that normally used in optical tweezers. In the 700-760-nm range, the results show that the stress response is caused by photochemical processes, whereas at 810 nm, it mainly has a photothermal origin. These results give further evidence that the 700-760-nm wavelength region is unsuitable for optical tweezers and suggest that work at 810 nm at normal laser powers does not cause stress at the cellular level. PMID:11916877

Leitz, Guenther; Fällman, Erik; Tuck, Simon; Axner, Ove

2002-04-01

213

Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence.  

PubMed Central

Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful technique for micromanipulation of living cells. Although the technique often has been claimed to be nonintrusive, evidence has appeared that this is not always the case. This work presents evidence that near-infrared continuous-wave laser light from optical tweezers can produce stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. A transgenic strain of C. elegans, carrying an integrated heat-shock-responsive reporter gene, has been exposed to laser light under a variety of illumination conditions. It was found that gene expression was most often induced by light of 760 nm, and least by 810 nm. The stress response increased with laser power and irradiation time. At 810 nm, significant gene expression could be observed at 360 mW of illumination, which is more than one order of magnitude above that normally used in optical tweezers. In the 700-760-nm range, the results show that the stress response is caused by photochemical processes, whereas at 810 nm, it mainly has a photothermal origin. These results give further evidence that the 700-760-nm wavelength region is unsuitable for optical tweezers and suggest that work at 810 nm at normal laser powers does not cause stress at the cellular level. PMID:11916877

Leitz, Guenther; Fällman, Erik; Tuck, Simon; Axner, Ove

2002-01-01

214

Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition.

Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

2015-01-01

215

Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition. PMID:25612723

Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

2015-01-21

216

Refractive multiple optical tweezers for parallel biochemical analysis in micro-fluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multiple laser tweezers system based on refractive optics. The system produces an array of 100 optical traps thanks to a refractive microlens array, whose focal plane is imaged into the focal plane of a high-NA microscope objective. This refractive multi-tweezers system is combined to micro-fluidics, aiming at performing simultaneous biochemical reactions on ensembles of free floating objects. Micro-fluidics allows both transporting the particles to the trapping area, and conveying biochemical reagents to the trapped particles. Parallel trapping in micro-fluidics is achieved with polystyrene beads as well as with native vesicles produced from mammalian cells. The traps can hold objects against fluid flows exceeding 100 micrometers per second. Parallel fluorescence excitation and detection on the ensemble of trapped particles is also demonstrated. Additionally, the system is capable of selectively and individually releasing particles from the tweezers array using a complementary steerable laser beam. Strategies for high-yield particle capture and individual particle release in a micro-fluidic environment are discussed. A comparison with diffractive optical tweezers enhances the pros and cons of refractive systems.

Merenda, Fabrice; Rohner, Johann; Pascoal, Pedro; Fournier, Jean-Marc; Vogel, Horst; Salathé, René-Paul

2007-02-01

217

Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2010, page 1 Experiment 6: Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

. The forces that such an instrument is capable of measuring are of the order of 0.01 to 300 piconewtons (pN). While this technique has been used for over 20 years to manipulate and study the properties of micron to the study of biological systems. There are two major types of optical tweezers instruments. In the Williams

Williams, Mark C.

218

Red blood cell micromanipulation with elliptical laser beam profile optical tweezers in different osmolarity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work optical tweezers with elliptical beam profiles have been developed in order to examine the effect of optical force on fresh red blood cells (RBC) in isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic buffer solutions. Considering that the optical force depends essentially on the cell surface and the cytoplasmic refractive index, it is obvious that biochemical modifications associated with different states of the cell will influence its behaviour in the optical trap. Line optical tweezers were used to manipulate simultaneously more than one red blood cell. After we have been manipulated a RBC with an elliptical laser beam profile in an isotonic or hypertonic buffer, we noticed that it rotates by itself when gets trapped by optical tweezers and undergoes folding. Further shape deformations can be observed attributed to the competition between alignment and rotational torque which are transferred by laser light to the cell. In hypotonic buffer RBCs become spherical and do not rotate or fold since the resultant force due to rays emerging from diametrically opposite points of the cell leads to zero torque. Manipulation of fresh red blood cells in isotonic solution by line optical tweezers leads to folding and elongation of trapped RBCs. Membrane elasticity properties such as bending modulus can be estimated by measuring RBC's folding time in function with laser power.

Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

2011-07-01

219

Red blood cell micromanipulation with elliptical laser beam profile optical tweezers in different osmolarity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work optical tweezers with elliptical beam profiles have been developed in order to examine the effect of optical force on fresh red blood cells (RBC) in isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic buffer solutions. Considering that the optical force depends essentially on the cell surface and the cytoplasmic refractive index, it is obvious that biochemical modifications associated with different states

E. Spyratou; M. Makropoulou; A. A. Serafetinides

2011-01-01

220

In situ laser power measurement at the focus of microscope objectives used in optical tweezers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss measurements of the laser power at the focus of high numerical aperture objectives used in optical microscopy and optical tweezers. For a given power, the focused incident laser beam heats a small mercury bead that jumps when it reaches the boiling temperature of water, the medium used in the experiments. From the size of the mercury beads, the

N. B. Viana; M. S. Rocha; O. N. Mesquita

2005-01-01

221

Using optical tweezers, single molecule fluorescence and the ZIF268 protein-DNA system to probe mechanotransduction mechanisms  

E-print Network

Optical tweezers instruments use laser radiation pressure to trap microscopic dielectric beads. With the appropriate chemistry, such a bead can be attached to a single molecule as a handle, permitting the application of ...

Lee, Peter, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

222

Improved direct binary search-based algorithm for generating holograms for the application of holographic optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an improved direct binary search (DBS)-based algorithm for generating holograms to holographic optical tweezers. The simulations show that the improved algorithm greatly enhances computation speed while maintaining high hologram efficiency and high-intensity homogeneous target spots. The improved algorithm was applied to generate holographic optical tweezers in several experiments. The experiments demonstrate that real-time trap and manipulation can be realized with the improved algorithm if the number of trapped microparticles is small.

Zhao, Xudong; Li, Jing; Tao, Tao; Long, Qian; Wu, Xiaoping

2012-01-01

223

An Improved Optical Tweezers Assay for Measuring the Force Generation of Single Kinesin Molecules  

PubMed Central

Numerous microtubule-associated molecular motors, including several kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, produce opposing forces that regulate spindle and chromosome positioning during mitosis. The motility and force generation of these motors are therefore critical to normal cell division, and dysfunction of these processes may contribute to human disease. Optical tweezers provide a powerful method for studying the nanometer motility and piconewton force generation of single motor proteins in vitro. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we present a set of step-by-step, optimized protocols for expressing a kinesin construct (K560-GFP) in Escherichia coli, purifying it, and studying its force generation in an optical tweezers microscope. We also provide detailed instructions on proper alignment and calibration of an optical trapping microscope. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of similar experiments. PMID:24633799

Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

2014-01-01

224

Dual-trap optical tweezers with real-time force clamp control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single molecule force clamp experiments are widely used to investigate how enzymes, molecular motors, and other molecular mechanisms work. We developed a dual-trap optical tweezers instrument with real-time (200 kHz update rate) force clamp control that can exert 0-100 pN forces on trapped beads. A model for force clamp experiments in the dumbbell-geometry is presented. We observe good agreement between predicted and observed power spectra of bead position and force fluctuations. The model can be used to predict and optimize the dynamics of real-time force clamp optical tweezers instruments. The results from a proof-of-principle experiment in which lambda exonuclease converts a double-stranded DNA tether, held at constant tension, into its single-stranded form, show that the developed instrument is suitable for experiments in single molecule biology.

Wallin, Anders E.; Ojala, Heikki; Ziedaite, Gabija; Hæggström, Edward

2011-08-01

225

Observation of a single-beam gradient force acoustical trap for elastic particles: acoustical tweezers  

E-print Network

The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and...

Baresch, Diego; Marchiano, Régis

2014-01-01

226

A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 ?m, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

2014-10-01

227

Acting force comparison of microbeads and hemocytes in microchannel using optical tweezers system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverted-embedded optical tweezers system combining a micropump was assembled. The escaping velocities and acting forces of particles and hemocytes could be measured. After experiments and calculations, the escaping velocity of a 6 mum bead was 0.20 mum\\/s and the trapping force was 0.012 pN when the power was 5 mW. The escaping velocity of a granulocyte was 0.80 mum\\/s

Yung-Chiang Chung; Yen-Wen Hu; Tsong-Long Hwang; Po-Wen Chen; Fong-Jian Sie

2009-01-01

228

Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to identify specific chromosomes with certainty has been established by the development of several cytogenetic techniques based on staining. Here, we report the use of a new optical technique, laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), to capture and manipulate chromosomes in order to obtain their spectral patterns for molecular analysis without the need for staining. The purpose of this study was to obtain Raman spectroscopy patterns for chromosomes number 1, 2, and 3 and to test if the Raman spectroscopy pattern could be used to distinguish these three chromosomes. In our experiment, optical tweezers were used to capture the individual chromosomes and the Raman spectral patterns were collected for the trapped chromosomes. Then, the captured chromosome was manipulated with the optical tweezers and moved to another chamber through a micro - channel, in which the chromosomes were G banded for positive identification as chromosome number 1, 2, or 3. Generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) was used to compare the Raman signatures. This analysis revealed that chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 could be distinguished and identified based on their Raman spectra. Development of this approach will lead to more rapid automatic methods for chromosome analysis and identification without the use of prior staining. Moreover, the Raman spectral patterns may lend themselves to more detailed analysis of chromosomal structure than is currently available with standard staining protocols. Such analysis may some day be useful for rapid, automated screening and diagnosis for certain cancers.

Ojeda, Jenifer F.; Xie, Changan; Li, Yong-Qing; Bertrand, Fred E.; Wiley, John; McConnell, Thomas J.

2006-06-01

229

Micro-rheology and interparticle interactions in aerosols probed with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optical tweezers for micro-rheological investigations of a surrounding fluid has been routinely demonstrated. In this work, we will demonstrate that rheological measurements of the bulk and surface properties of aerosol particles can be made directly using optical tweezers, providing important insights into the phase behavior of materials in confined environments and the rate of molecular diffusion in viscous phases. The use of holographic optical tweezers to manipulate aerosol particles has become standard practice in recent years, providing an invaluable tool to investigate particle dynamics, including evaporation/ condensation kinetics, chemical aging and phase transformation. When combined with non-linear Raman spectroscopy, the size and refractive index of a particle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy <+/- 0.05%). Active control of the relative positions of pairs of particles can allow studies of the coalescence of particles, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the bulk and surface properties that govern the hydrodynamic relaxation in particle shape. In particular, we will show how the viscosity and surface tension of particles can be measured directly in the under-damped regime at low viscosity. In the over-damped regime, we will show that viscosity measurements can extend close to the glass transition, allowing measurements over an impressive dynamic range of 12 orders of magnitude in relaxation timescale and viscosity. Indeed, prior to the coalescence event, we will show how the Brownian trajectories of trapped particles can yield important and unique insights into the interactions of aerosol particles.

Reid, Jonathan P.; Power, Rory M.; Cai, Chen; Simpson, Stephen H.

2014-09-01

230

New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

2013-09-01

231

Optical nanofiber integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation and in-situ fiber probing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofiber and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofiber at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fiber transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fiber diameter, and may be used as a reference point for in-situ nanofiber or particle size measurement. Therefore we combine SEM size measurements with nanofiber transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fiber assessment. We also demonstrate how the optical tweezers can be used to create a `particle jet' to feed a supply of microspheres to the nanofiber surface, forming a particle conveyor belt. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C.; Truong, Viet. G.; Nic Chormaic, Síle

2014-09-01

232

Single-cell optoporation and transfection using femtosecond laser and optical tweezers.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate a new single-cell optoporation and transfection technique using a femtosecond Gaussian laser beam and optical tweezers. Tightly focused near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse was employed to transiently perforate the cellular membrane at a single point in MCF-7 cancer cells. A distinct technique was developed by trapping the microparticle using optical tweezers to focus the femtosecond laser precisely on the cell membrane to puncture it. Subsequently, an external gene was introduced in the cell by trapping and inserting the same plasmid-coated microparticle into the optoporated cell using optical tweezers. Various experimental parameters such as femtosecond laser exposure power, exposure time, puncture hole size, exact focusing of the femtosecond laser on the cell membrane, and cell healing time were closely analyzed to create the optimal conditions for cell viability. Following the insertion of plasmid-coated microparticles in the cell, the targeted cells exhibited green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the fluorescent microscope, hence confirming successful transfection into the cell. This new optoporation and transfection technique maximizes the level of selectivity and control over the targeted cell, and this may be a breakthrough method through which to induce controllable genetic changes in the cell. PMID:24049675

Waleed, Muhammad; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Kim, Jung-Dae; Shabbir, Irfan; Shin, Sang-Mo; Lee, Yong-Gu

2013-01-01

233

Single-cell optoporation and transfection using femtosecond laser and optical tweezers  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we demonstrate a new single-cell optoporation and transfection technique using a femtosecond Gaussian laser beam and optical tweezers. Tightly focused near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse was employed to transiently perforate the cellular membrane at a single point in MCF-7 cancer cells. A distinct technique was developed by trapping the microparticle using optical tweezers to focus the femtosecond laser precisely on the cell membrane to puncture it. Subsequently, an external gene was introduced in the cell by trapping and inserting the same plasmid-coated microparticle into the optoporated cell using optical tweezers. Various experimental parameters such as femtosecond laser exposure power, exposure time, puncture hole size, exact focusing of the femtosecond laser on the cell membrane, and cell healing time were closely analyzed to create the optimal conditions for cell viability. Following the insertion of plasmid-coated microparticles in the cell, the targeted cells exhibited green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the fluorescent microscope, hence confirming successful transfection into the cell. This new optoporation and transfection technique maximizes the level of selectivity and control over the targeted cell, and this may be a breakthrough method through which to induce controllable genetic changes in the cell. PMID:24049675

Waleed, Muhammad; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Kim, Jung-Dae; Shabbir, Irfan; Shin, Sang-Mo; Lee, Yong-Gu

2013-01-01

234

Microrheology of non mulberry silk varieties by optical tweezer and video microscopy based techniques  

E-print Network

We have carried out a comparative study of the microrheological properties of silk fibroin solutions formed from a variety of silks indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. We present the measured viscoelastic moduli of Tasar silk fibroin solution using both a single and dual optical tweezer at 0.16% and 0.25% (w/v). The bandwidth of the measurements carried out using optical tweezers is extended down to the lower frequency regime by a video microscopy measurement. Further, we have measured the viscoelastic moduli of Eri and Muga varieties of silk fibroin solutions at a higher concentration (1.00% w/v) limiting the tool of measurement to video microscopy, as the reduced optical transparencies of these solutions at higher concentration preclude an optical tweezer based investigation. The choice of a higher concentration of fibroin solution of the latter silk varieties is so as to enable a comparison of the shear moduli obtained from optical methods with their corresponding fibre stiffness obtained from wide angle X-ray scattering data. We report a correlation between the microstructure and microrheological parameters of these silk varieties for the concentration of fibroin solutions studied.

Yogesha; Raghu A; Siddaraju G N; G Subramanya; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

2011-02-15

235

Measurement of macrophage adhesion using optical tweezers with backward-scattered detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrophages are members of the leukocyte family. Tissue damage causes inflammation and release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors, which trigger a local increase in blood flow and capillary permeability. Then, leukocytes accumulate quickly to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process takes place according to a sequence of events that involve tethering, activation by a chemoattractant stimulus, adhesion by integrin binding, and migrating to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process reveals that adhesion is an important part of the immune system. Optical tweezers have become a useful tool with broad applications in biology and physics. In force measurement, the trapped bead as a probe usually uses a polystyrene bead of 1 ?m diameter to measure adhesive force between the trapped beads and cell by optical tweezers. In this paper, using the ray-optics model calculated trapping stiffness and defined the linear displacement ranges. By the theoretical values of stiffness and linear displacement ranges, this study attempted to obtain a proper trapped particle size in measuring adhesive force. Finally, this work investigates real-time adhesion force measurements between human macrophages and trapped beads coated with lipopolysaccharides using optical tweezers with backscattered detection.

Wei, Sung-Yang; Su, Yi-Jr; Shih, Po-Chen; Yang, Shih-Mo; Hsu, Long

2010-08-01

236

Determining the structure-mechanics relationships of dense microtubule networks with confocal microscopy and magnetic tweezers-based microrheology.  

PubMed

The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential in maintaining the shape, strength, and organization of cells. Its spatiotemporal organization is fundamental for numerous dynamic biological processes, and mechanical stress within the MT cytoskeleton provides an important signaling mechanism in mitosis and neural development. This raises important questions about the relationships between structure and mechanics in complex MT structures. In vitro, reconstituted cytoskeletal networks provide a minimal model of cell mechanics while also providing a testing ground for the fundamental polymer physics of stiff polymer gels. Here, we describe our development and implementation of a broad tool kit to study structure-mechanics relationships in reconstituted MT networks, including protocols for the assembly of entangled and cross-linked MT networks, fluorescence imaging, microstructure characterization, construction and calibration of magnetic tweezers devices, and mechanical data collection and analysis. In particular, we present the design and assembly of three neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnetic tweezers devices optimized for use with MT networks: (1) high-force magnetic tweezers devices that enable the application of nano-Newton forces and possible meso- to macroscale materials characterization; (2) ring-shaped NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers devices that enable oscillatory microrheology measurements; and (3) portable magnetic tweezers devices that enable direct visualization of microscale deformation in soft materials under applied force. PMID:23973067

Yang, Yali; Valentine, Megan T

2013-01-01

237

Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been.1088/0957-4484/21/24/245102 Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes Hema Ramachandran1 , A K fragmentation of the bundles. Thus, microbubbles may be used for scavenging, transporting and dispersal

Sharma, Shobhona

238

The design and biological applications of dual-beam oscillating optical tweezer-based imaging cytorheometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its non-invasive nature, optical tweezers have emerged as a popular tool for the studies of complex fluids and biological cells and tissues. The capabilities of optical tweezer-based experimental instruments continue to evolve for better and broader applications, through new apparatus designs and integrations with microscopic imaging techniques. In this paper, we present the design, calibration and applications of a powerful microrheometer that integrates a novel high temporal and spatial resolution dual-beam oscillating optical tweezer-based cytorheometer (DOOTC) with spinning disk confocal microscopy. The oscillating scheme detects the position of micron-size probe particles via a phase-sensitive lock-in amplifier to greatly enhance sensitivity. The dual-beam scheme ensures that the cytorheometer is insensitive to sample specimen background parameter variances, and thus enables the investigation of micromechanical properties of biological samples, which are intrinsically inhomogeneous. The cytorheometer system is demonstrated to be capable of measuring dynamic local mechanical moduli in the frequency range of 0.1-150 Hz at up to 2 data point per second and with nanometer spatial resolutions, while visualizing and monitoring structural properties in situ. We report the results of system applications in the studies of bovine skin gelatin gel, purified microtubule assemblies, and human alveolar epithelial cells. The time evolution of the storage moduli G' and the loss moduli G'' of the gel is recorded for undisturbed gel-forming process with high temporal resolution. The micromechanical modulus G* of polymerized microtubule network as a function of frequency are shown to be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic consistent with local structures revealed by confocal imaging. The mechanical properties of A549 human lung cells as a function of temperature will be reported showing significant decrease in cell stiffness at higher temperature.

Ou-Yang, H. D.; Wang, J.

2006-08-01

239

Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical micromanipulation stands for contact-free handling of microscopic particles by light. Optical forces can manipulate non-absorbing objects in a large range of sizes, e.g., from biological cells down to cold atoms. Recently much progress has been made going from the micro- down to the nanoscale. Less attention has been paid to going the other way, trapping increasingly large particles. Optical tweezers typically employ a single laser beam tightly focused by a microscope objective of high numerical aperture to stably trap a particle in three dimensions (3D). As the particle size increases, stable 3D trapping in a single-beam trap requires scaling up the optical power, which eventually induces adverse biological effects. Moreover, the restricted field of view of standard optical tweezers, dictated by the use of high NA objectives, is particularly unfavorable for catching actively moving specimens. Both problems can be overcome by traps with counter-propagating beams. Our 'macro-tweezers' are especially designed to trap highly motile organisms, as they enable three-dimensional all-optical trapping and guiding in a volume of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. Here we report for the first time the optical trapping of large actively swimming organisms, such as for instance Euglena protists and dinoflagellates of up to 70 µm length. Adverse bio-effects are kept low since trapping occurs outside high intensity regions, e.g., focal spots. We expect our approach to open various possibilities in the contact-free handling of 50-100 µm sized objects that could hitherto not be envisaged, for instance all-optical holding of individual micro-organisms for taxonomic identification, selective collecting or tagging.

Thalhammer, G.; Steiger, R.; Bernet, S.; Ritsch-Marte, M.

2011-04-01

240

Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

Chen, Shuxun; Cheng, Jinping; Kong, Chi-Wing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han Cheng, Shuk; Li, Ronald A.; Sun, Dong

2013-07-01

241

Template stripped double nanohole in a gold film for nano-optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double nanohole (DNH) laser tweezers can optically trap and manipulate objects such as proteins, nanospheres, and other nanoparticles; however, precise fabrication of those DNHs has been expensive with low throughput. In this work, template stripping was used to pattern DNHs with gaps as small as 7 nm, in optically thick Au films. These DNHs were used to trap streptavidin as proof of operation. The structures were processed multiple times from the same template to demonstrate reusability. Template stripping is a promising method for high-throughput, reproducible, and cost efficient fabrication of DNH apertures for optical trapping.

Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Zinck, Aurora A.; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Gordon, Reuven

2014-12-01

242

Template stripped double nanohole in a gold film for nano-optical tweezers.  

PubMed

Double nanohole (DNH) laser tweezers can optically trap and manipulate objects such as proteins, nanospheres, and other nanoparticles; however, precise fabrication of those DNHs has been expensive with low throughput. In this work, template stripping was used to pattern DNHs with gaps as small as 7 nm, in optically thick Au films. These DNHs were used to trap streptavidin as proof of operation. The structures were processed multiple times from the same template to demonstrate reusability. Template stripping is a promising method for high-throughput, reproducible, and cost efficient fabrication of DNH apertures for optical trapping. PMID:25407447

Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Zinck, Aurora A; Gelfand, Ryan M; Gordon, Reuven

2014-12-12

243

Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect

We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

2013-07-15

244

Quantitative characterization for dielectrophoretic behavior of biological cells using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method to precisely quantify dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces and cutoff frequencies (fc) of viable and nonviable yeast cells. The method consists of a two-step process in which generated DEP forces act upon a cell through a micro-electrode device, followed by direct measurement of DEP forces using optical tweezers. DEP behaviors of viable and nonviable yeast cells are monitored as a function of AC frequency. We believe that the proposed method can be used as a powerful platform for cell-based assays to characterize the DEP behavior of various cell types including cancer and normal cells.

Park, In Soo; Hee Park, Se; Woo Lee, Sang; Sung Yoon, Dae; Kim, Beop-Min

2014-02-01

245

Large-area manipulation of microdroplets by holographic optical tweezers based on a hybrid diffractive system.  

PubMed

We report on large-area manipulation of microdroplets by holographic optical tweezers based on a hybrid diffractive system, in which a static computer-generated hologram and a spatial light modulator (SLM) are used. The hybrid diffractive system is useful to manipulate microdroplets on distant areas with the same manner. Experimental results demonstrated that microdroplets were transported successfully in parallel with approximately equivalent velocities over the entire manipulation area. Fusion of microdroplets was also achieved at a position where the optical pattern generated by the SLM alone did not reach. PMID:22193024

Ogura, Yusuke; Kazayama, Yuki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Tanida, Jun

2011-12-01

246

Natural user interface as a supplement of the holographic Raman tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic Raman tweezers (HRT) manipulates with microobjects by controlling the positions of multiple optical traps via the mouse or joystick. Several attempts have appeared recently to exploit touch tablets, 2D cameras or Kinect game console instead. We proposed a multimodal "Natural User Interface" (NUI) approach integrating hands tracking, gestures recognition, eye tracking and speech recognition. For this purpose we exploited "Leap Motion" and "MyGaze" low-cost sensors and a simple speech recognition program "Tazti". We developed own NUI software which processes signals from the sensors and sends the control commands to HRT which subsequently controls the positions of trapping beams, micropositioning stage and the acquisition system of Raman spectra. System allows various modes of operation proper for specific tasks. Virtual tools (called "pin" and "tweezers") serving for the manipulation with particles are displayed on the transparent "overlay" window above the live camera image. Eye tracker identifies the position of the observed particle and uses it for the autofocus. Laser trap manipulation navigated by the dominant hand can be combined with the gestures recognition of the secondary hand. Speech commands recognition is useful if both hands are busy. Proposed methods make manual control of HRT more efficient and they are also a good platform for its future semi-automated and fully automated work.

Tomori, Zoltan; Kanka, Jan; Kesa, Peter; Jakl, Petr; Sery, Mojmir; Bernatova, Silvie; Antalik, Marian; Zemánek, Pavel

2014-09-01

247

Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic tweezer was constructed to apply controlled tensional forces (10 pN to greater than 1 nN) to transmembrane receptors via bound ligand-coated microbeadswhile optically measuring lateral bead displacements within individual cells. Use of this system with wild-type F9 embryonic carcinoma cells and cells from a vinculin knockout mouse F9 Vin (-/-) revealed much larger differences in the stiffness of the transmembrane integrin linkages to the cytoskeleton than previously reported using related techniques that measured average mechanical properties of large cell populations. The mechanical properties measured varied widely among cells, exhibiting an approximately log-normal distribution. The median lateral bead displacement was 2-fold larger in F9 Vin (-/-) cells compared to wild-type cells whereas the arithmetic mean displacement only increased by 37%. We conclude that vinculin serves a greater mechanical role in cells than previously reported and that this magnetic tweezer device may be useful for probing the molecular basis of cell mechanics within single cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

Alenghat, F. J.; Fabry, B.; Tsai, K. Y.; Goldmann, W. H.; Ingber, D. E.

2000-01-01

248

Laser microbeams and optical tweezers to study DNA repair and ageing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect DNA repair is probably one cause of healthy ageing. Laser microbeams or optical tweezers are emerging as convenient tools in the study of repair mechanisms. Using such tools, DNA damage can be induced in a preselected volume element of a cell nucleus and at a preselected time point - an effect which is hardly to achieve with any other tool. On the other hand damage induction highly depends on a subtle combination of laser mircobeam parameters such as dose, pulse peak power and wavelength. In consequence DNA repair at the sites of damage may work differently. Furthermore, such sites are occasionally stationary, occasionally they migrate towards each other, indicating a considerable dynamics of DNA repair inside a cell nucleus. As an example for the application of optical tweezers, Erythrocyte Mediated Force Application (EMFA) is used to induce nitric oxide production in cells of the endothelium, i. e. the inner layer of (human) blood vessels. It is shown that upon stimulation by EMFA, endothelial cells initially activate the calcium homeostasis and develop calcium humps, concentration plateaus and oscillations.

Grigaravicius, Paulius; Monajembashi, Shamci; Pilarczyk, Götz; Rapp, Alexander; Greulich, Karl Otto

2007-09-01

249

Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.

2012-06-01

250

Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer.  

PubMed

A magnetic tweezer was constructed to apply controlled tensional forces (10 pN to greater than 1 nN) to transmembrane receptors via bound ligand-coated microbeadswhile optically measuring lateral bead displacements within individual cells. Use of this system with wild-type F9 embryonic carcinoma cells and cells from a vinculin knockout mouse F9 Vin (-/-) revealed much larger differences in the stiffness of the transmembrane integrin linkages to the cytoskeleton than previously reported using related techniques that measured average mechanical properties of large cell populations. The mechanical properties measured varied widely among cells, exhibiting an approximately log-normal distribution. The median lateral bead displacement was 2-fold larger in F9 Vin (-/-) cells compared to wild-type cells whereas the arithmetic mean displacement only increased by 37%. We conclude that vinculin serves a greater mechanical role in cells than previously reported and that this magnetic tweezer device may be useful for probing the molecular basis of cell mechanics within single cells. PMID:11027646

Alenghat, F J; Fabry, B; Tsai, K Y; Goldmann, W H; Ingber, D E

2000-10-14

251

Combined versatile high-resolution optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. The instrument has complementary design and functionalities compared with similar microscopes previously described. The optical tweezers can be operated in constant force mode for easy data interpretation or in variable force mode for maximum spatiotemporal resolution. The single-molecule fluorescence detection can be implemented in either wide-field or confocal imaging configuration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new instrument, we imaged a single stretched ? DNA molecule and investigated the dynamics of a DNA hairpin molecule in the presence of fluorophore-labeled complementary oligonucleotide. We simultaneously observed changes in the fluorescence signal and pauses in fast extension hopping of the hairpin due to association and dissociation of individual oligonucleotides. The combined versatile microscopy allows for greater flexibility to study molecular machines or assemblies at a single-molecule level.

Sirinakis, George; Ren, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli

2012-09-01

252

Optical Tweezers Experiments Resolve Distinct Modes of DNA-Protein Binding  

PubMed Central

Optical tweezers are ideally suited to perform force microscopy experiments that isolate a single biomolecule, which then provides multiple binding sites for ligands. The captured complex may be subjected to a spectrum of forces, inhibiting or facilitating ligand activity. In the following experiments, we utilize optical tweezers to characterize and quantify DNA binding of various ligands. High Mobility Group Type B (HMGB) proteins, which bind to double-stranded DNA, are shown to serve the dual purpose of stabilizing and enhancing the flexibility of double stranded DNA. Unusual intercalating ligands are observed to thread into and lengthen the double-stranded structure. Proteins binding to both double- and single-stranded DNA, such as the alpha polymerase subunit of E. coli Pol III, are characterized and the subdomains containing the distinct sites responsible for binding are isolated. Finally, DNA binding of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins are measured for a range of salt concentrations, illustrating a binding model for proteins that slide along double-stranded DNA, ultimately binding tightly to ssDNA. These recently developed methods quantify both the binding activity of the ligand as well as the mode of binding. PMID:19173290

McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

2009-01-01

253

Combined versatile high-resolution optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy  

PubMed Central

Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. The instrument has complementary design and functionalities compared with similar microscopes previously described. The optical tweezers can be operated in constant force mode for easy data interpretation or in variable force mode for maximum spatiotemporal resolution. The single-molecule fluorescence detection can be implemented in either wide-field or confocal imaging configuration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new instrument, we imaged a single stretched ? DNA molecule and investigated the dynamics of a DNA hairpin molecule in the presence of fluorophore-labeled complementary oligonucleotide. We simultaneously observed changes in the fluorescence signal and pauses in fast extension hopping of the hairpin due to association and dissociation of individual oligonucleotides. The combined versatile microscopy allows for greater flexibility to study molecular machines or assemblies at a single-molecule level. PMID:23020384

Sirinakis, George; Ren, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli

2012-01-01

254

Invincible DNA tethers: covalent DNA anchoring for enhanced temporal and force stability in magnetic tweezers experiments.  

PubMed

Magnetic tweezers are a powerful single-molecule technique that allows real-time quantitative investigation of biomolecular processes under applied force. High pulling forces exceeding tens of picoNewtons may be required, e.g. to probe the force range of proteins that actively transcribe or package the genome. Frequently, however, the application of such forces decreases the sample lifetime, hindering data acquisition. To provide experimentally viable sample lifetimes in the face of high pulling forces, we have designed a novel anchoring strategy for DNA in magnetic tweezers. Our approach, which exploits covalent functionalization based on heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinkers, allows us to strongly tether DNA while simultaneously suppressing undesirable non-specific adhesion. A complete force and lifetime characterization of these covalently anchored DNA-tethers demonstrates that, compared to more commonly employed anchoring strategies, they withstand 3-fold higher pulling forces (up to 150 pN) and exhibit up to 200-fold higher lifetimes (exceeding 24 h at a constant force of 150 pN). This advance makes it possible to apply the full range of biologically relevant force scales to biomolecular processes, and its straightforward implementation should extend its reach to a multitude of applications in the field of single-molecule force spectroscopy. PMID:25140010

Janissen, Richard; Berghuis, Bojk A; Dulin, David; Wink, Max; van Laar, Theo; Dekker, Nynke H

2015-01-01

255

Holographic optical tweezers: microassembling of shape-complementary 2PP building blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an ongoing trend in miniaturization and due to the increased complexity in MEMS-technology new methods of assembly need to be developed. Recent developments show that particularly optical forces are suitable to meet the requirements. The unique advantages of optical tweezers (OT) are attractive due to their contactless and precise manipulation forces. Spherical as well as non-spherical shaped pre-forms can already be assembled arbitrarily by using appropriate beam profiles generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM), resulting in a so called holographic optical tweezer (HOT) setup. For the fabrication of shape-complementary pre-forms, a two-photon-polymerization (2PP) process is implemented. The purpose of the process combination of 2PP and HOT is the development of an optical microprocessing platform for assembling arbitrary building blocks. Here, the optimization of the 2PP and HOT processes is described in order to allow the fabrication and 3D assembling of interlocking components. Results include the analysis of the dependence of low and high qualities of 2PP microstructures and their manufacturing accuracy for further HOT assembling processes. Besides, the applied detachable interlocking connections of the 2PP building blocks are visualized by an application example. In the long-term a full optical assembly method without applying any mechanical forces can thus be realized.

Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Mattern, Manuel; Köhler, Jannis; Aumann, Andreas; Zyla, Gordon; Ostendorf, Andreas

2014-09-01

256

Observation of a single-beam gradient force acoustical trap for elastic particles: acoustical tweezers  

E-print Network

The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and robotics and bridge the gap that had remained to the macroscopic scale.

Diego Baresch; Jean-Louis Thomas; Régis Marchiano

2014-11-07

257

Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering.  

PubMed

In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts. PMID:24880354

Ott, Dino; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B

2014-05-01

258

Laser scanning confocal microscopy and laser tweezers based experiments to understand dentine-bacteria interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure of endodontic treatment is commonly due to Enterococcal infection. In this study influence of chemical treatments of type-I collagen membrane by chemical agents commonly used in endodontic treatment on Enterococcus faecalis cell adherence was evaluated. In order to determine the change in number of adhering bacteria after chemical treatment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used. For this, overnight culture of E faecalis in All Culture broth was applied to chemically treated type-I collagen membrane. It was found that Ca(OH) II treated groups had statistically significant (p value=0.05) increase in population of bacteria adherence. The change in adhesion force between bacteria and collagen was determined by using optical tweezers (1064 nm). For this experiment, Type-I collagen membrane was soaked for 5 mins in a media that contained 50% all culture media and 50% saturated Ca(OH) II . The membrane was spread on the coverslip, on which diluted bacterial suspension was added. The force of laser tweezers on the bacteria was estimated at different trap power levels using viscous drag method and trapping stiffness was calculated using Equipartition theorem method. Presence of Ca(OH) II was found to increase the cell-substrate adherence force from 0.38pN to >2.1pN. Together, these experiments show that it was highly probable that the increase in adherence to collagen was due to a stronger adhesion in the presence of Ca (OH) II.

Peng, Sum Chee; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gupta, P. K.; Kishen, Anil

2007-02-01

259

Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

2006-08-01

260

Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system Jonas Enger, Mattias Goksr, Kerstin Ramser, Petter Hagberg and Dag Hanstorp*  

E-print Network

- osmotic flow can be used to control the transport of the cells together with their surrounding media.20. Lithographic methods were applied to create microchannels in rubber silicon (PDMS). Media were transported tweezers can be applied in automated single cell-sorting using peripheral blood as a model system.12

261

Direct integration of micromachined pipettes in a flow channel for single DNA molecule study by optical tweezers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a micromachined flow cell consisting of a flow channel integrated with micropipettes. The flow cell is used in combination with an optical trap setup (optical tweezers) to study mechanical and structural properties of ?-DNA molecules. The flow cell was realized using silicon micromachining including the so-called buried channel technology to fabricate the micropipettes, the wet etching of

Cristina Rusu; Oever van't Ronny; M. J. de Boer; Henri V. Jansen; J. W. Berenschot; Martin L. Bennink; Johannes S. Kanger; B. G. de Grooth; Miko Elwenspoek; Jan Greve; Jürgen Brugger; Berg van den Albert

2001-01-01

262

Dynamics of closure of zinc bis-porphyrin molecular tweezers with copper(II) ions and electron transfer.  

PubMed

Zinc bis-porphyrin molecular tweezers composed of a N(4) spacer bound through pyridyl units to the meso position of porphyrins were synthesized, and the tweezers are closed by the coordination of a copper(II) ion inside the spacer ligand. The effect of the ?-? interaction between the porphyrin rings in the closed conformation on the absorption spectra of multi-electron oxidized species and the reduction potentials were clarified by chemical and electrochemical oxidation of the closed form of the zinc bis-porphyrin molecular tweezers in comparison with the open form without copper(II) ion and the corresponding porphyrin monomer. The shifts in redox potentials and absorption spectrum of the porphyrin dication indicate a strong electronic interaction between the two oxidized porphyrins in the closed form, whereas there is little interaction between them in the neutral form. The dynamics of copper(II) ion coordination and subsequent electron transfer was examined by using a stopped-flow UV/Vis spectroscopic technique. It was confirmed that coordination of copper(II) occurs prior to electron-transfer oxidation of the closed form of the zinc bis-porphyrin molecular tweezers. PMID:21837718

Habermeyer, Benoit; Takai, Atsuro; Gros, Claude P; El Ojaimi, Maya; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2011-09-12

263

Host-guest interaction mediated polymeric assemblies: multifunctional nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery.  

PubMed

Novel core-shell structured nanoassemblies are assembled by a beta-cyclodextrin containing a positively charged host polymer and a hydrophobic guest polymer. The hydrophobic core of these types of assemblies serves as a nanocontainer to load and release the hydrophobic drugs, while the positively charged hydrophilic shell is able to condense the plasmid DNA and achieve its transfection/expression in osteoblast cells. These assemblies may be used as a new generation of multifunctional nanocarriers for simultaneous drug delivery and gene therapy. PMID:20112968

Zhang, Jianxiang; Sun, Hongli; Ma, Peter X

2010-02-23

264

Host-Guest Complexes with Protein-Ligand-Like Affinities: Computational Analysis and Design  

PubMed Central

It has recently been discovered that guests combining a nonpolar core with cationic substituents bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultra-high affinities. The present study uses the Mining Minima algorithm to study the physics of these extraordinary associations and to computationally test a new series of CB[7] ligands designed to bind with similarly high affinity. The calculations reproduce key experimental observations regarding the affinities of ferrocene-based guests with CB[7] and ?-cyclodextrin and provide a coherent view of the roles of electrostatics and configurational entropy as determinants of affinity in these systems. The newly designed series of compounds is based on a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane core, which is similar in size and polarity to the ferrocene core of the existing series. Mining Minima predicts that these new compounds will, like the ferrocenes, bind CB[7] with extremely high affinities. PMID:19133781

Moghaddam, Sarvin; Inoue, Yoshihisa

2009-01-01

265

Host-guest complexes with protein-ligand-like affinities: computational analysis and design.  

PubMed

It has recently been discovered that guests combining a nonpolar core with cationic substituents bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultrahigh affinities. The present study uses the Mining Minima algorithm to study the physics of these extraordinary associations and to computationally test a new series of CB[7] ligands designed to bind with similarly high affinity. The calculations reproduce key experimental observations regarding the affinities of ferrocene-based guests with CB[7] and beta-cyclodextrin and provide a coherent view of the roles of electrostatics and configurational entropy as determinants of affinity in these systems. The newly designed series of compounds is based on a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane core, which is similar in size and polarity to the ferrocene core of the existing series. Mining Minima predicts that these new compounds will, like the ferrocenes, bind CB[7] with extremely high affinities. PMID:19133781

Moghaddam, Sarvin; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Gilson, Michael K

2009-03-25

266

Rationally designed cooperatively enhanced receptors to magnify host-guest binding in water.  

PubMed

When disengaged interactions within a receptor are turned on by its guest, these intrahost interactions will contribute to the overall binding energy. Although such receptors are common in biology, their synthetic mimics are rare and difficult to design. By engineering conflictory requirements between intrareceptor electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, we enabled complementary guests to eliminate the "electrostatic frustration" within the host and turn on the intrahost interactions. The result was a binding constant of Ka >10(5) M(-1) from ammonium-carboxylate salt bridges that typically function poorly in water. These cooperatively enhanced receptors displayed excellent selectivity in binding, despite a large degree of conformational flexibility in the structure. PMID:25531747

Gunasekara, Roshan W; Zhao, Yan

2015-01-21

267

NMR characterization of the host-guest inclusion complex between beta-cyclodextrin and doxepin.  

PubMed

The interaction between doxepin, a member of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) class of drugs, with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was investigated using NMR. Several TCAs have been reported to form a complex with beta-CD having 1:1 stoichiometry. Previous results from UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence measurements, and molecular modeling indicated that for imipramine, desipramine, and amitriptyline, the TCA aliphatic tail is included in the cyclodextrin cavity with apparently no interaction of the tricyclic ring. An alternative view of the doxepin-beta-CD complex is presented in this work using analysis of complexation-induced chemical shifts (CICSs), the method of continuous variation (Job's analysis), and analysis of ROESY spectra. The Job's plot derived from the NMR spectral data confirms that the complex formed has 1:1 stoichiometry. The largest changes in the CICS data were observed for the aromatic protons of one of the doxepin rings, with much smaller chemical shift changes observed for the protons of the other aromatic ring and the doxepin tail. Perhaps the most significant evidence for inclusion of the doxepin tricyclic ring is the strong ROESY cross peaks between the doxepin aromatic resonances and the protons located inside the beta-CD cavity. Changes in the doxepin (1)H NMR spectrum and the behavior of ROESY exchange cross peaks suggest that inclusion complex formation decreases the rate of internal motions of doxepin. PMID:18615634

Cruz, Jennifer R; Becker, Bridget A; Morris, Kevin F; Larive, Cynthia K

2008-09-01

268

Supramolecular solubilization of cyclodextrin-modified carbon nano-onions by host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

Small carbon nano-onions (CNOs, 6-12 shells) were prepared in high yields and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation and reacted with ?CD-NH2 to yield CNOs decorated with ?CDs. A biocompatibile dextran polymer with graphted ferrocene groups was employed for the supramolecular self-assembly on the ?CD-CNO surfaces. The ?CDs act as hosts and the polymer ferrocene groups as guests (Fc-Dex) by the formation of inclusion complexes. After their assembly these nanostructures were soluble in aqueous solutions. The resulting product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Moreover, the deposition of successive layers on the surface of the particles was monitored using DLS measurements and zeta potentials. Through-space interactions between the Fc moieties and the CNO cores and the influence of an additional dextran-?CD outer layer were measured electrochemically. PMID:25496567

Wajs, Ewelina; Molina-Ontoria, Agustín; Nielsen, Thorbjørn Terndrup; Echegoyen, Luis; Fragoso, Alex

2015-01-13

269

Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia–Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24?h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10?10?M–2.5 × 10?4?M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice. PMID:24389647

Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

2014-01-01

270

Quantum confinement and host/guest chemistry: probing a new dimension.  

PubMed

Nanoparticulate metals and semiconductors that have atomic arrangements at the interface of molecular clusters and "infinite" solid-state arrays of atoms have distinctive properties determined by the extent of confinement of highly delocalized valence electrons. At this interface, the total number of atoms and the geometrical disposition of each atom can be used to significantly modify the electronic and photonic response of the medium. In addition to teh novel inherent physical properties of the quantum-confined moieties, their "packaging" into nanocomposite bulk materials can be used to define the confinement surface states and environment, intercluster interactions, the quantum-confinement geometry, and the effective charge-carrier density of the bulk. Current approaches for generating nanostructures of conducting materials are briefly reviewed, especially the use of three-dimensional crystalline superlattices as hosts for quantum-confined semiconductor atom arrays (such as quantum wires and dots) with controlled inter-quantum-structure tunneling. PMID:17771883

Stucky, G D; Mac Dougall, J E

1990-02-01

271

Single-molecule analysis of the self-assembly process facilitated by host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

The self-assembly process from a 1?:?1 to a 1?:?2 complex, facilitated by para-sulfonatocalix[6]arenes (SC6) as host and methyl viologen (MV(2+)) as guest, was analyzed at the single-molecule level through an ?-hemolysin nanopore. Especially, the assembled complex structures were discriminated in real time in the mixture of SC6 and MV(2+). PMID:25407997

Meng, Fu-Na; Yao, Xuyang; Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

2014-12-23

272

Steering molecular organization and host-guest interactions using two-dimensional nanoporous coordination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs) have attracted wide interest because they provide a novel route towards porous materials that may find applications in molecular recognition, catalysis, gas storage and separation. The so-called rational design principle-synthesis of materials with predictable structures and properties-has been explored using appropriate organic molecular linkers connecting to metal nodes to control pore size and functionality of open

Sebastian Stepanow; Magalí Lingenfelder; Alexandre Dmitriev; Hannes Spillmann; Erik Delvigne; Nian Lin; Xiaobin Deng; Chengzhi Cai; Johannes V. Barth; Klaus Kern

2004-01-01

273

Host-guest Interaction Mediated Polymeric Assemblies: Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Novel core-shell structured nano-assemblies are assembled by a ?-cyclodextrin containing positively charged host polymer and a hydrophobic guest polymer. The hydrophobic core of this type of assemblies serves as a nano-container to load and release the hydrophobic drugs, while the positively charged hydrophilic shell is able to condense the plasmid DNA and achieve its transfection/expression in osteoblast cells. These assemblies may be used as a new generation of multi-functional nano-carriers for simultaneous drug delivery and gene therapy. PMID:20112968

Zhang, Jianxiang; Sun, Hongli; Ma, Peter X

2010-01-01

274

Host-Guest Interaction between Herbicide Oxadiargyl and Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin  

PubMed Central

In the face of a growing human population and increased urbanization, the demand for pesticides will simply rise. Farmers must escalate yields on increasingly fewer farm acres. However, the risks of pesticides, whether real or perceived, may force changes in the way these chemicals are used. Scientists are working toward pest control plans that are environmentally sound, effective, and profitable. In this context the development of new pesticide formulations which may improve application effectiveness, safety, handling, and storage can be pointed out as a solution. As a contribution to the area, the microencapsulation of the herbicide oxadiargyl (OXA) in (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was performed. The study was conducted in different aqueous media (ultrapure water and in different pH buffer solutions). In all cases an increment of the oxadiargyl solubility as a function of the HP-?-CD concentration that has been related to the formation of an inclusion complex was verified. UV-Vis and NMR experiments allowed concluding that the stoichiometry of the OXA/HP-?-CD complex formed is 1?:?1. The gathered results can be regarded as an important step for its removal from industrial effluents and/or to increase the stabilizing action, encapsulation, and adsorption in water treatment plants. PMID:24396310

Benfeito, Sofia; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E. Manuela

2013-01-01

275

Comparison of host-guest Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer formation by two different amphiphilic cyclodextrins  

SciTech Connect

We report here our results for Langmuir monolayers of the derivatives of cyclodextrin shown: hexakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylamino)-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (1a), heptakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylamino)-{beta}-cyclodextrin (1b), and heptakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylthio)-{beta}-cyclodextrin (2b ), which was found to be partially substituted. Langmuir films of these derivatives were examined using {Pi}-A isotherm measurements and Brewster angle microscopy. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) multilayer films of these derivatives were deposited from subphases containing p-nitrophenol to determine the extent of incorporation of the guest molecule in the LB film. The transfer ratios of the film exhibited a noteworthy evolution with the transfer pressure. The variation in the extent of guest molecule incorporation is discussed and compared with the binding behavior in solution of unmodified cyclodextrins. 29 refs., 4 figs.

Parazak, D.P.; Khan, A.R.; D`Souza, V.T.; Stine, K.J. [Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1996-08-07

276

Experimental quantification of anion-? interactions in solution using neutral host-guest model systems.  

PubMed

Chemical intuition suggests that anions and ?-aromatic systems would repel each other. Typically, we think of cations as being attracted to electron-rich ?-systems of aromatic rings, and the cation-? interaction, a well-established noncovalent interaction, plays an important role in nature. Therefore the anion-? interaction can be considered the opposite of the cation-? interaction. Computational studies of simple models of anion-? interactions have provided estimates of the factors that govern the binding geometry and the binding energy, leading to a general consensus about the nature of these interactions. In order to attract an anion, the charge distribution of the aromatic system has to be reversed, usually through the decoration of the aromatic systems with strongly electron-withdrawing groups. Researchers have little doubt about the existence of attractive anion-? interactions in the gas phase and in the solid state. The bonding energies assigned to anion-? interactions from quantum chemical calculations and gas phase experiments are significant and compare well with the values obtained for cation-? interactions. In solution, however, there are few examples of attractive anion-? interactions. In this Account, I describe several examples of neutral molecular receptors that bind anions in solution either solely through anion-? interactions or as a combination of anion-? interactions and hydrogen bonding. In the latter cases, the strength of the anion-? interaction is indirectly detected as a modulation of the stronger hydrogen bonding interaction (enforced proximity). The dissection of the energy contribution of the anion-? interaction to the overall binding is complex, which requires the use of appropriate reference systems. This Account gives an overview the experimental efforts to determine the binding energies that can be expected from anion-? interactions in solution with examples that center around the recognition of halides. The studies show that anion-? interactions also exist in solution, and the free energy of binding estimated for these attractive interactions is less than 1 kcal/mol for each substituted phenyl groups. The quantification of anion-? interactions in solution relies on the use of molecular recognition model systems; therefore researchers need to consider how the structure of the model system can alter the magnitude of the observed energy values. In addition, the recognition of anions in solution requires the use of salts (ion pairs) as precursors, which complicates the analysis of the titration data and the corresponding estimate of the binding strength. In solution, the weak binding energies suggest that anion-? interactions are not as significant for the selective or enhanced binding of anions but offer potential applications in catalysis and transport within functional synthetic and biological systems. PMID:22621170

Ballester, Pablo

2013-04-16

277

Host-guest inclusion system of mangiferin with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives.  

PubMed

The characterization, inclusion complexation behavior and binding ability of the inclusion complexes of mangiferin (MGF) with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives (hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin (SBE?CD) and mono (6-ethylene-diamino-6-deoxy)-?-cyclodextrin (EN?CD)) were investigated in both solution and solid state by means of PL spectroscopy, (1)H and 2D NMR, XRD, TG and DSC. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of MGF were significantly increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. The MGF/CDs complexes will be potentially useful for the design of a novel formulation of mangiferin for herbal medicine. PMID:23498273

Yang, Xuemin; Zhao, Yulin; Chen, Yunjian; Liao, Xiali; Gao, Chuanzhu; Xiao, Dan; Qin, Qixue; Yi, Dong; Yang, Bo

2013-05-01

278

Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10-10 M-2.5 × 10-4 M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.

Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

2014-01-01

279

Host-guest interaction between pinocembrin and cyclodextrins: Characterization, solubilization and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of pinocembrin with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and its derivative 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) were investigated in both solution and the solid state by means of XRD, DSC, 1H and 2D NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of pinocembrin were obviously increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. This satisfactory water solubility and high stability of the pinocembrin/CD complexes will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicines or healthcare products.

Zhou, Shu-Ya; Ma, Shui-Xian; Cheng, Hui-Lin; Yang, Li-Juan; Chen, Wen; Yin, Yan-Qing; Shi, Yi-Min; Yang, Xiao-Dong

2014-01-01

280

The stiffness of rabbit skeletal actomyosin cross-bridges determined with an optical tweezers transducer.  

PubMed Central

Muscle contraction is brought about by the cyclical interaction of myosin with actin coupled to the breakdown of ATP. The current view of the mechanism is that the bound actomyosin complex (or "cross-bridge") produces force and movement by a change in conformation. This process is known as the "working stroke." We have measured the stiffness and working stroke of a single cross-bridge (kappa xb, dxb, respectively) with an optical tweezers transducer. Measurements were made with the "three bead" geometry devised by Finer et al. (1994), in which two beads, supported in optical traps, are used to hold an actin filament in the vicinity of a myosin molecule, which is immobilized on the surface of a third bead. The movements and forces produced by actomyosin interactions were measured by detecting the position of both trapped beads. We measured, and corrected for, series compliance in the system, which otherwise introduces large errors. First, we used video image analysis to measure the long-range, force-extension property of the actin-to-bead connection (kappa con), which is the main source of "end compliance." We found that force-extension diagrams were nonlinear and rather variable between preparations, i.e., end compliance depended not only upon the starting tension, but also upon the F-actin-bead pair used. Second, we measured kappa xb and kappa con during a single cross-bridge attachment by driving one optical tweezer with a sinusoidal oscillation while measuring the position of both beads. In this way, the bead held in the driven optical tweezer applied force to the cross-bridge, and the motion of the other bead measured cross-bridge movement. Under our experimental conditions (at approximately 2 pN of pretension), connection stiffness (kappa con) was 0.26 +/- 0.16 pN nm-1. We found that rabbit heavy meromyosin produced a working stroke of 5.5 nm, and cross-bridge stiffness (kappa xb) was 0.69 +/- 0.47 pN nm-1. PMID:9726944

Veigel, C; Bartoo, M L; White, D C; Sparrow, J C; Molloy, J E

1998-01-01

281

Condensation transition in DNA-polyaminoamide dendrimer fibers studied using optical tweezers  

E-print Network

When mixed together, DNA and polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers form fibers that condense into a compact structure. We use optical tweezers to pull condensed fibers and investigate the decondensation transition by measuring force-extension curves (FECs). A characteristic plateau force (around 10 pN) and hysteresis between the pulling and relaxation cycles are observed for different dendrimer sizes, indicating the existence of a first-order transition between two phases (condensed and extended) of the fiber. The fact that we can reproduce the same FECs in the absence of additional dendrimers in the buffer medium indicates that dendrimers remain irreversibly bound to the DNA backbone. Upon salt variation FECs change noticeably confirming that electrostatic forces drive the condensation transition. Finally, we propose a simple model for the decondensing transition that qualitatively reproduces the FECs and which is confirmed by AFM images.

F. Ritort; S. Mihardja; S. B. Smith; C. Bustamante

2006-05-30

282

Nanoplasmonic Tweezers Visualize Protein p53 Suppressing Unzipping of Single DNA-Hairpins  

E-print Network

Here we report on the use of double-nanohole (DNH) optical tweezers as a label-free and free-solution single-molecule probe for protein-DNA interactions. Using this approach, we demonstrate the unzipping of individual 10 base pair DNA-hairpins, and quantify how tumor suppressor p53 protein delays the unzipping. From the Arrhenius behavior, we find the energy barrier to unzipping introduced by p53 to be $2\\times 10^{-20}$ J, whereas cys135ser mutant p53 does not show suppression of unzipping, which gives clues to its functional inability to suppress tumor growth. This transformative approach to single molecule analysis allows for ultra-sensitive detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions to revolutionize the fight against genetic diseases.

Kotnala, Abhay

2014-01-01

283

Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers  

PubMed Central

We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

2014-01-01

284

Simultaneous detection of rotational and translational motion in optical tweezers by measurement of backscattered intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a simple yet powerful technique of simultaneously measuring both translational and rotational motion of mesoscopic particles in optical tweezers by measuring the backscattered intensity on a quadrant photodiode (QPD). While the measurement of translational motion by taking the difference of the backscattered intensity incident on adjacent quadrants of a QPD is well-known, we demonstrate that rotational motion can be measured very precisely by taking the difference between the diagonal quadrants. The latter measurement eliminates the translational component entirely, and leads to a detection sensitivity of around 50 mdeg at S/N of 2 for angular motion of a driven micro-rod. The technique is also able to resolve the translational and rotational Brownian motion components of the micro-rod in an unperturbed trap, and can be very useful in measuring translation-rotation coupling of micro-objects induced by hydrodynamic interactions.

Roy, Basudev; Bera, Sudipta K.; Banerjee, Ayan

2014-06-01

285

Optical tweezers as a force sensor for separating dielectrophoresis and AC electroosmosis forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forces experienced by colloidal particles in an AC electric field such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) have been widely investigated for their application in microfluidic devices. In order to provide a more complete theoretical basis for such AC electrokinetic mechanisms, we propose a method to quantify the two forces upon one individual particle using optical tweezers as a force transducer and lock-in phase sensitive detection technique to allow high selectivity. Using this method, we isolated the ACEO force from the DEP force for charged polystyrene sphere in deionized (DI) water. ACEO free DEP crossover frequencies and a comprehensive 2D-mapping of the frequency dependent ACEO forces are presented in this paper.

Wang, Jingyu; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

2010-08-01

286

Engineered Tumor Cell Apoptosis Monitoring Method Based on Dynamic Laser Tweezers  

PubMed Central

Monitoring the cells' apoptosis progression could provide a valuable insight into the temporal events that initiate cell death as well as the potential for rescue of apoptotic cells. In this paper, we engineered a novel and robust method for monitoring apoptosis of tumor cells based on dynamic laser tweezers, using A549 and HeLa cell line as typical samples. The entire experiment can be completed in a few hours with small amount of fluid sample, presenting great advantages of celerity, microscaled measurement, and label-free explorations without perturbing experimental conditions in combination with other probes. Validity and stability of this method are verified experimentally in terms of physical parameters of the system. The proposed technique has great potential in improving cancer treatment by monitoring the objective efficacy of tumor cell killing. PMID:24800217

Zhang, Yuquan; Wu, Xiaojing; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Urbach, H. Paul; Yuan, Xiaocong

2014-01-01

287

Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers.  

PubMed

We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the "killing time" of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S N S; Chen, Zhigang

2015-01-01

288

Accurate measurement of force and displacement with optical tweezers using DNA molecules as metrology standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers facilitate measurement of piconewton-level forces and nanometer-level displacements and have broad applications in biophysics and soft matter physics research. We have shown previously that DNA molecules can be used as metrology standards to define such measurements. Force-extension measurements on two DNA molecules of different lengths can be used to determine four necessary measurement parameters. Here, we show that the accuracy of determining these parameters can be improved by more than 7-fold by incorporating measurements of the DNA overstretching transition and using a multi-step data analysis procedure. This method results in very robust and precise fitting of DNA force-extension measurements to the worm-like chain model. We verify the accuracy through independent measurements of DNA stretching, DNA unzipping, and microsphere contact forces.

delToro, Damian; Smith, Douglas E.

2014-04-01

289

Assembly and force measurement with SPM-like probes in holographic optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate the optical assembly and control of scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-like probes, using holographic optical tweezers. The probes are formed from cadmium sulphide rods and silica microspheres, the latter providing explicit trapping handles. Calibration of the trap stiffness allows us to use a precise measure of probe displacement to calculate the applied forces. We demonstrate that the optically controlled probe can exert a force in excess of 60 pN, over an area of 1×10-13 m2, with a force sensitivity of 50 fN. We believe that probes similar to the ones presented here will have applications as nanotools in probing laser-sensitive cells/materials.

Ikin, L.; Carberry, D. M.; Gibson, G. M.; Padgett, M. J.; Miles, M. J.

2009-02-01

290

Optical tweezers assisted imaging of the Z-ring in Escherichia coli: measuring its radial width  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using single-beam, oscillating optical tweezers we can trap and rotate rod-shaped bacterial cells with respect to the optical axis. This technique allows imaging fluorescently labeled three-dimensional sub-cellular structures from different, optimized viewpoints. To illustrate our method we measure D, the radial width of the Z-ring in unconstricted Escherichia coli. We use cells that express FtsZ-GFP and have their cytoplasmic membrane stained with FM4-64. In a vertically oriented cell, both the Z-ring and the cytoplasmic membrane images appear as symmetric circular structures that lend themselves to quantitative analysis. We found that D ? 100 nm, much larger than expected.

Carmon, G.; Kumar, P.; Feingold, M.

2014-01-01

291

Magnetic tweezers measurements of the nanomechanical properties of DNA in the presence of drugs  

PubMed Central

Herein, we study the nanomechanical characteristics of single DNA molecules in the presence of DNA binders, including intercalating agents (ethidium bromide and doxorubicin), a minor groove binder (netropsin) and a typical alkylating damaging agent (cisplatin). We have used magnetic tweezers manipulation techniques, which allow us to measure the contour and persistence lengths together with the bending and torsional properties of DNA. For each drug, the specific variations of the nanomechanical properties induced in the DNA have been compared. We observed that the presence of drugs causes a specific variation in the DNA extension, a shift in the natural twist and a modification of bending dependence on the imposed twist. By introducing a naive model, we have justified an anomalous correlation of torsion data observed in the presence of intercalators. Finally, a data analysis criterion for discriminating between different molecular interactions among DNA and drugs has been suggested. PMID:20601682

Salerno, Domenico; Brogioli, Doriano; Cassina, Valeria; Turchi, Diana; Beretta, Giovanni Luca; Seruggia, Davide; Ziano, Roberto; Zunino, Franco

2010-01-01

292

Engineered tumor cell apoptosis monitoring method based on dynamic laser tweezers.  

PubMed

Monitoring the cells' apoptosis progression could provide a valuable insight into the temporal events that initiate cell death as well as the potential for rescue of apoptotic cells. In this paper, we engineered a novel and robust method for monitoring apoptosis of tumor cells based on dynamic laser tweezers, using A549 and HeLa cell line as typical samples. The entire experiment can be completed in a few hours with small amount of fluid sample, presenting great advantages of celerity, microscaled measurement, and label-free explorations without perturbing experimental conditions in combination with other probes. Validity and stability of this method are verified experimentally in terms of physical parameters of the system. The proposed technique has great potential in improving cancer treatment by monitoring the objective efficacy of tumor cell killing. PMID:24800217

Zhang, Yuquan; Wu, Xiaojing; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Urbach, H Paul; Yuan, Xiaocong

2014-01-01

293

High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a single-cell motility assay, which allows the quantification of bacterial swimming in a well-controlled environment, for durations of up to an hour and with a temporal resolution greater than the flagellar rotation rates of approximately 100 Hz. The assay is based on an instrument combing optical tweezers, light and fluorescence microscopy, and a microfluidic chamber. Using this device we characterized the long-term statistics of the run-tumble time series in individual Escherichia coli cells. We also quantified higher-order features of bacterial swimming, such as changes in velocity and reversals of swimming direction. Additionally, we investigated the effects of flagella number on swimming parameters including speed and tumble frequency.

Mears, Patrick J.; Min, Taejin L.; Chubiz, Lon M.; Rao, Christopher V.; Golding, Ido; Chemla, Yann R.

2010-03-01

294

Mechanism of termination of bacteriophage DNA packaging investigated with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genomes of many dsDNA viruses are replicated by a mechanism that produces a long concatemer of multiple genomes. These viruses utilize multifunctional molecular motor complexes referred to as "terminases" that can excise a unit genome length of DNA and package it into preformed viral shells. Remarkably, the terminase motor can initiate packaging at the appropriate start point, translocate DNA, sense when a sufficient length has been packaged, and then switch into a mode where it arrests and cleaves the DNA to release a filled virus particle. We have recently developed an improved method to measure single phage lambda DNA packaging using dual-trap optical tweezers and pre-stalled motor-DNA-procapsid complexes. We are applying this method to test proposed mechanisms for the sensor that triggers termination; specifically a velocity-monitor model vs. energy-monitor model vs. capsid-filling monitor model.

delToro, Damian J.; Smith, Douglas E.

2012-10-01

295

New developments on the design and modeling of fiber optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity profile of a focused beam of light can exert small drift forces on particles with a few microns and even smaller, which can be used to confine or manipulate them. Optical trapping has several applications, in particular it has been adopted as a powerful tool in biology, allowing, for instance to manipulate in vivo single cells. A wide variety of optical setups have been implemented to optically trap microscopic bodies, however, the single beam trap using a tightly focused Gaussian beam continues to be the most used. Recent developments introduced an alternative to bulk optical trapping systems based on lensed optical fibers. This work presents simulations showing new designs of fiber optic and 2D waveguide tweezers based on studies of the forces acting on dielectric particles immersed in media with a distinct refractive index, which take into account the refractive index and structure of the particles.

Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Guerreiro, A.

2013-11-01

296

Optical tweezers study of viscoelastic properties in the outer hair cell plasma membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of the outer hair cell (OHC) lateral wall by forming plasma membrane tethers. A 2nd order generalized Kelvin model was applied to describe the viscoelastic behavior of OHC membrane tethers. The measured parameters included equilibrium tethering force, (Feq), force relaxation times (?), stiffness values (?), and coefficients of friction (?). An analysis of force relaxation in membrane tethers indicated that the force decay is a biphasic process containing both an elastic and a viscous phase. In general, we observed an overall negative trend in the measured parameters upon application of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ). CPZ was found to cause up to a 40 pN reduction in Feq in OHCs. A statistically significant reduction in relaxation times and coefficients of friction was also observed, suggesting an increase in rate of force decay and a decrease in plasma membrane viscosity.

Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2004-06-01

297

Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices.

Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; Milstein, Joshua N.

2014-09-01

298

Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca^{++} ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

Khan, Manas; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Sood, A. K.

2005-11-01

299

Detection of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of leukemic T-lymphocytes by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to acquire the Raman spectra of leukemic T lymphocytes exposed to the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin at different time points over 72 hours. Changes observed in the Raman spectra were dependent on drug exposure time and concentration. The sequence of spectral changes includes an intensity increase in lipid Raman peaks, followed by an intensity increase in DNA Raman peaks, and finally changes in DNA and protein (phenylalanine) Raman vibrations. These Raman signatures are consistent with vesicle formation, cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and the cytoplasm of dead cells during the different stages of drug-induced apoptosis. These results suggest the potential of LTRS as a real-time single cell tool for monitoring apoptosis, evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments, or pharmaceutical testing. PMID:21258536

Moritz, Tobias J.; Taylor, Douglas S.; Krol, Denise M.; Fritch, John; Chan, James W.

2010-01-01

300

Micro-rheology on (polymer-grafted) colloids using optical tweezers.  

PubMed

Optical tweezers are experimental tools with extraordinary resolution in positioning (± 1 nm) a micron-sized colloid and in the measurement of forces (± 50 fN) acting on it-without any mechanical contact. This enables one to carry out a multitude of novel experiments in nano- and microfluidics, of which the following will be presented in this review: (i) forces within single pairs of colloids in media of varying concentration and valency of the surrounding ionic solution, (ii) measurements of the electrophoretic mobility of single colloids in different solvents (concentration, valency of the ionic solution and pH), (iii) similar experiments as in (i) with DNA-grafted colloids, (iv) the nonlinear response of single DNA-grafted colloids in shear flow and (v) the drag force on single colloids pulled through a polymer solution. The experiments will be described in detail and their analysis discussed. PMID:21508470

Gutsche, C; Elmahdy, M M; Kegler, K; Semenov, I; Stangner, T; Otto, O; Ueberschär, O; Keyser, U F; Krueger, M; Rauscher, M; Weeber, R; Harting, J; Kim, Y W; Lobaskin, V; Netz, R R; Kremer, F

2011-05-11

301

Evaluating cell matrix mechanics using an integrated nonlinear optical tweezer-confocal imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.

Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark

2013-09-01

302

High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments.  

PubMed

We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to ?4.5 ?m paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as ?1 kPa. PMID:22667631

Lin, Jun; Valentine, Megan T

2012-05-01

303

High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to {approx}4.5 {mu}m paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as {approx}1 kPa.

Lin Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Biomolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Valentine, Megan T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-05-15

304

Tuning the size and configuration of nanocarbon microcapsules: aqueous method using optical tweezers.  

PubMed

To date, optical manipulation techniques for aqueous dispersions have been developed that deposit and/or transport nanoparticles not only for fundamental studies of colloidal dynamics, but also for either creating photonic devices or allowing accurate control of liquids on micron scales. Here, we report that optical tweezers (OT) system is able to direct three-dimensional assembly of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microcapsules of hollow spheres. The OT technique facilitates both to visualize the elasticity of a CNT microcapsule and to arrange a triplet of identical graphene microcapsules in aqueous media. Furthermore, the similarity of swelling courses has been found over a range of experimental parameters such as nanocarbon species, the power of the incident light, and the suspension density. Thanks to the universality in evolutions of rescaled capsule size, we can precisely control the size of various nanocarbon microcapsules by adjusting the duration time of laser emission. PMID:24509866

Frusawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Youei

2014-01-01

305

Tuning the size and configuration of nanocarbon microcapsules: aqueous method using optical tweezers  

E-print Network

To date, optical manipulation techniques for aqueous dispersions have been developed that deposit and/or transport nanoparticles not only for fundamental studies of colloidal dynamics, but also for either creating photonic devices or allowing accurate control of liquids on micron scales. Here, we report that optical tweezers (OT) system is able to direct three-dimensional assembly of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microcapsules of hollow spheres. The OT technique facilitates both to visualize the elasticity of a CNT microcapsule and to arrange a triplet of identical graphene microcapsules in aqueous media. Furthermore, the similarity of swelling courses has been found over a range of experimental parameters such as nanocarbon species, the power of the incident light, and the suspension density. Thanks to the universality in evolutions of rescaled capsule size, we can precisely control the size of various nanocarbon microcapsules by adjusting the duration time of laser emission.

Hiroshi Frusawa; Youei Matsumoto

2014-03-05

306

Optoelectronic tweezers for the measurement of the relative stiffness of erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the first use of Optoelectronic Tweezers (OET), an optically controlled micromanipulation method, to measure the relative stiffness of erythrocytes in mice. Cell stiffness is an important measure of cell health and in the case of erythrocytes, the most elastic cells in the body, an increase in cell stiffness can indicate pathologies such as type II diabetes mellitus or hypertension (high blood pressure). OET uses a photoconductive device to convert an optical pattern into and electrical pattern. The electrical fields will create a dipole within any polarisable particles in the device, such as cells, and non-uniformities of the field can be used to place unequal forces onto each side of the dipole thus moving the particle. In areas of the device where there are no field gradients, areas of constant illumination, the force on each side of the dipole will be equal, keeping the cell stationary, but as there are opposing forces on each side of the cell it will be stretched. The force each cell will experience will differ slightly so the stretching will depend on the cells polarisability as well as its stiffness. Because of this a relative stiffness rather than absolute stiffness is measured. We show that with standard conditions (20Vpp, 1.5MHz, 10mSm-1 medium conductivity) the cell's diameter changes by around 10% for healthy mouse erythrocytes and we show that due to the low light intensities required for OET, relative to conventional optical tweezers, multiple cells can be measured simultaneously.

Neale, Steven L.; Mody, Nimesh; Selman, Colin; Cooper, Jonathan M.

2012-10-01

307

An active one-particle microrheometer: Incorporating magnetic tweezers to total internal reflection microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel microrheometer by incorporating magnetic tweezers in the total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) that enables measuring of viscoelastic properties of materials near solid surface. An evanescent wave generated by a solid/liquid interface in the TIRM is used as the incident light source in the microrheometer. When a probe particle (of a few micrometers diameter) moves near the interface, it can interact with the evanescent field and reflect its position with respect to the interface by the scattered light intensity. The exponential distance dependence of the evanescent field, on the one hand, makes this technique extremely sensitive to small changes from z-fluctuations of the probe (with a resolution of several nanometers), and on the other, it does not require imaging of the probe with high lateral resolution. Another distinct advantage is the high sensitivity in determining the z position of the probe in the absence of any labeling. The incorporated magnetic tweezers enable us to effectively manipulate the distance of the embedded particle from the interface either by a constant or an oscillatory force. The force ramp is easy to implement through a coil current ramp. In this way, the local viscous and elastic properties of a given system under different confinements can therefore be measured by resolving the near-surface particle motion. To test the feasibility of applying this microrheology to soft materials, we measured the viscoelastic properties of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) solutions and compared the results to bulk rheometry. In addition, we applied this technique in monitoring the structure and properties of deformable microgel particles near the flat surface.

Gong, Xiangjun; Hua, Li; Wu, Chi; Ngai, To

2013-03-01

308

Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

2012-01-01

309

Two-dimensional molecular patterning by surface-enhanced Zn-porphyrin coordination.  

PubMed

In this contribution, we show how zinc-5,10,15,20-meso-tetradodecylporphyrins (Zn-TDPs) self-assemble into stable organized arrays on the surface of graphite, thus positioning their metal center at regular distances from each other, creating a molecular pattern, while retaining the possibility to coordinate additional ligands. We also demonstrate that Zn-TDPs coordinated to 3-nitropyridine display a higher tendency to be adsorbed at the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) than noncoordinated ones. In order to investigate the two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly of coordinated Zn-TDPs, solutions with different relative concentrations of 3-nitropyridine and Zn-TDP were prepared and deposited on the surface of HOPG. STM measurements at the liquid-solid interface reveal that the ratio of coordinated Zn-TDPs over noncoordinated Zn-TDPs is higher at the n-tetradecane/HOPG interface than in n-tetradecane solution. This enhanced binding of the axial ligand at the liquid/solid interface is likely related to the fact that physisorbed Zn-TDPs are better binding sites for nitropyridines. PMID:19341279

Visser, Johan; Katsonis, Nathalie; Vicario, Javier; Feringa, Ben L

2009-05-19

310

Portable magnetic tweezers device enables visualization of the three-dimensional microscale deformation of soft biological materials.  

PubMed

We have designed and built a magnetic tweezers device that enables the application of calibrated stresses to soft materials while simultaneously measuring their microscale deformation using confocal microscopy. Unlike previous magnetic tweezers designs, our device is entirely portable, allowing easy use on microscopes in core imaging facilities or in collaborators' laboratories. The imaging capabilities of the microscope are unimpaired, enabling the 3-D structures of fluorescently labeled materials to be precisely determined under applied load. With this device, we can apply a large range of forces (~1-1200 pN) over micron-scale contact areas to beads that are either embedded within 3-D matrices or attached to the surface of thin slab gels. To demonstrate the usefulness of this instrument, we have studied two important and biologically relevant materials: polyacrylamide-based hydrogel films typical of those used in cell traction force microscopy, and reconstituted networks of microtubules, essential cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:21781050

Yang, Yali; Lin, Jun; Meschewski, Ryan; Watson, Erin; Valentine, Megan T

2011-07-01

311

Monitoring of spectroscopic changes of a single trapped fission yeast cell by using a Raman tweezers set-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an improvement of the sensitivity of a Raman tweezers set-up, which combines optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy. The system was tested by taking the Raman spectrum of a 4.6 ?m diameter polystyrene sphere trapped in an aqueous solution. The improvement of sensitivity of the set-up was achieved by adjusting the trap depth for maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR). The maximum SNR was obtained by investigating the Raman peak of a trapped polystyrene sphere at 1001 cm -1 according to trap depth. With this system, a single trapped living Schizosaccharomyces Pombe yeast cell was sensitively monitored by taking the kinetic Raman spectra for more than 2 h. The relative intensity decrease in amide I and amide III bands, frequency increase in amide I band together with alterations in tyrosine marker band around 850 cm -1 was observed, which indicates alterations in the hydration state of protein by time progressing.

Ba?ar, G.; K?n, S.

2008-10-01

312

Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces.  

PubMed

Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level. PMID:22463027

Khokhlova, Maria D; Lyubin, Eugeny V; Zhdanov, Alexander G; Rykova, Sophia Yu; Sokolova, Irina A; Fedyanin, Andrey A

2012-02-01

313

Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

2012-02-01

314

3D manipulation and visualization of in-vitro cells by optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the possibility to trap cells (mouse fibroblasts, bovine spermatozoa and diatoms), to manage their position and to induce rotation, by using optical tweezers. The aim is to place them in desired positions, in order to record holographic images in a microscope configuration. Then we are able to recover the 3D shape and to calculate the biovolume of the cells starting from the reconstructed quantitative phase maps (QPMs).

Merola, F.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Di Caprio, G.; Coppola, G.; Netti, P.; Ferraro, P.

2014-03-01

315

Manipulating CD4+ T cells by optical tweezers for the initiation of cell-cell transfer of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination – especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4+ cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission through virological synapses is to determine the cellular states that allow a chance encounter between cells to become a stable cell-cell adhesion. Here we demonstrate the use of optical tweezers to manipulate uninfected primary CD4+ T cells near HIV Gag-iGFP transfected Jurkat T cells to probe the determinants that induce stable adhesion. When combined with fast 4D confocal fluorescence microscopy, optical tweezers can be utilized to not only facilitate cell-cell contact, but to also allow one to simultaneously track the formation of a virological synapse, and ultimately to enable us to precisely determine all events preceding virus transfer. HIV-1 infected T cell (green) decorated with uninfected primary T cells (red) by manipulating the primary cells with an optical tweezers system PMID:20301121

McNerney, Gregory P.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Chen, Benjamin K.; Huser, Thomas

2011-01-01

316

Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

We present a three-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin-level energetics. Random network models consisting of degree-2, 3, …, 9 junction complexes and spectrin links are used to populate spherical and biconcave surfaces and intermediate shapes, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are then performed with spectrin connectivities fixed. A sphere is first filled with cytosol and gradually deflated while preserving its total surface area, until cytosol volume consistent with the real RBC is reached. The equilibrium shape is determined through energy minimization by assuming that the spectrin tetramer links satisfy the worm-like chain free-energy model. Subsequently, direct stretching by optical tweezers of the initial equilibrium shape is simulated to extract the variation of axial and transverse diameters with the stretch force. At persistence length p = 7.5 nm for the spectrin tetramer molecule and corresponding in-plane shear modulus ?0 ? 8.3 ?N/m, our models show reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements on the large deformation of RBC with optical tweezers. We find that the choice of the reference state used for the in-plane elastic energy is critical for determining the equilibrium shape. If a position-independent material reference state such as a full sphere is used in defining the in-plane energy, then the bending modulus ? needs to be at least a decade larger than the widely accepted value of 2 × 10?19 J to stabilize the biconcave shape against the cup shape. We demonstrate through detailed computations that this paradox can be avoided by invoking the physical hypothesis that the spectrin network undergoes constant remodeling to always relax the in-plane shear elastic energy to zero at any macroscopic shape, at some slow characteristic timescale. We have devised and implemented a liquefied network structure evolution algorithm that relaxes shear stress everywhere in the network and generates cytoskeleton structures that mimic experimental observations. PMID:15749778

Li, J.; Dao, M.; Lim, C. T.; Suresh, S.

2005-01-01

317

Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque  

PubMed Central

Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's “spring-like” conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that ‘nucleosome-excluding’ poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for understanding the flexibility of dsDNA and dsRNA in sequence contexts and under mechanical stresses relevant to their biology. PMID:25102226

Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

2014-01-01

318

Force unfolding kinetics of RNA using optical tweezers. II. Modeling experiments  

E-print Network

By exerting mechanical force it is possible to unfold/refold RNA molecules one at a time. In a small range of forces, an RNA molecule can hop between the folded and the unfolded state with force-dependent kinetic rates. Here, we introduce a mesoscopic model to analyze the hopping kinetics of RNA hairpins in an optical tweezers setup. The model includes different elements of the experimental setup (beads, handles and RNA sequence) and limitations of the instrument (time lag of the force-feedback mechanism and finite bandwidth of data acquisition). We investigated the influence of the instrument on the measured hopping rates. Results from the model are in good agreement with the experiments reported in the companion article (1). The comparison between theory and experiments allowed us to infer the values of the intrinsic molecular rates of the RNA hairpin alone and to search for the optimal experimental conditions to do the measurements. We conclude that long handles and soft laser traps represent the best conditions to extract rate estimates that are closest to the intrinsic molecular rates. The methodology and rationale presented here can be applied to other experimental setups and other molecules.

M. Manosas; J. -D. Wen; P. T. X. Li; S. B. Smith; C. Bustamante; I. Tinoco, Jr.; F. Ritort

2007-07-04

319

Cell manipulation tool with combined microwell array and optical tweezers for cell isolation and deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolation from rare cells and deposition of sorted cells with high accuracy for further study are critical to a wide range of biomedical applications. In the current paper, we report an automated cell manipulation tool with combined optical tweezers and a uniquely designed microwell array, which functions for recognition, isolation, assembly, transportation and deposition of the interesting cells. The microwell array allows the passive hydrodynamic docking of cells, while offering the opportunity to inspect the interesting cell phenotypes with high spatio-temporal resolution based on the flexible image processing technique. In addition, dynamic and parallel cell manipulation in three dimensions can realize the target cell levitation from microwell and pattern assembly with multiple optical traps. Integrated with the programmed motorized stage, the optically levitated and assembled cells can be transported and deposited to the predefined microenvironment, so the tool can facilitate the integration of other on-chip functionalities for further study without removing these isolated cells from the chip. Experiments on human embryonic stem cells and yeast cells are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cell manipulation tool. Besides the application to cell isolation and deposition, three other biological applications with this tool are also presented.

Wang, Xiaolin; Gou, Xue; Chen, Shuxun; Yan, Xiao; Sun, Dong

2013-07-01

320

The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VII. Spring forceps (tweezers), hooks and simple retractors.  

PubMed Central

Instruments manufactured by bending a basic metal strip or rod, either about its middle to create spring forceps (tweezers), or towards one extremity to create hooks and retractors are related structures. Spring forceps depend on tension mediated at the bend (hoop) or fixed end which is transmitted as dynamic 'spring' to the jaws, whereas the bend of hooks and retractors remains fixed and static. If such instruments refine the digital postures of pinch, pincer and retraction during surgery, they have not supplanted these manual actions entirely. After a brief historical introduction, the structure, modifications, functions and controls of spring forceps are analysed. Importantly, this instrument enjoys both right and left-handed functions, some of which are ancient, some transient as haemostats and needle-holders, and some, including left-handed dissection, surprisingly recent. Hooks are sharp or blunt and, among other functions, pre-date the left-handed spring forceps for dissection; in general hooks function as retractors. Hand-held retractors are enlarged blunt hooks, the wide retracting contact surface reducing trauma to wound margins and viscera. The physical effort of employing these retractors deep in body cavities is abated by applying them autostatically around a square or circular frame. Images Figure 1 PMID:8943642

Kirkup, J.

1996-01-01

321

Elasticity of the red cell membrane and its relation to hemolytic disorders: an optical tweezers study.  

PubMed Central

We have used optical tweezers to study the elasticity of red cell membranes; force was applied to a bead attached to a permeabilized spherical ghost and the force-extension relation was obtained from the response of a second bead bound at a diametrically opposite position. Interruption of the skeletal network by dissociation of spectrin tetramers or extraction of the actin junctions engendered a fourfold reduction in stiffness at low applied force, but only a twofold change at larger extensions. Proteolytic scission of the ankyrin, which links the membrane skeleton to the integral membrane protein, band 3, induced a similar effect. The modified, unlike the native membranes, showed plastic relaxation under a prolonged stretch. Flaccid giant liposomes showed no measurable elasticity. Our observations indicate that the elastic character is at least as much a consequence of the attachment of spectrin as of a continuous membrane-bound network, and they offer a rationale for formation of elliptocytes in genetic conditions associated with membrane-skeletal perturbations. The theory of Parker and Winlove for elastic deformation of axisymmetric shells (accompanying paper) allows us to determine the function BH(2) for the spherical saponin-permeabilized ghost membranes (where B is the bending modulus and H the shear modulus); taking the literature value of 2 x 10(-19) Nm for B, H then emerges as 2 x 10(-6) Nm(-1). This is an order of magnitude higher than the value reported for intact cells from micropipette aspiration. Reasons for the difference are discussed. PMID:10585930

Sleep, J; Wilson, D; Simmons, R; Gratzer, W

1999-01-01

322

The ?PIVOT: an integrated particle image velocimeter and optical tweezers instrument for microenvironment investigations  

PubMed Central

A novel instrument to manipulate and characterize the mechanical environment in and around microscale objects in a fluidic environment has been developed by integrating two laser-based techniques: micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (?PIV) and optical tweezers (OT). This instrument, the ?PIVOT, enables a new realm of microscale studies, yet still maintains the individual capabilities of each optical technique. This was demonstrated with individual measurements of optical trap stiffness (?70 pN ?m?1 for a 20 ?m polystyrene sphere and a linear relationship between trap stiffness and laser power) and fluid velocities within 436 nm of a microchannel wall. The integrated device was validated by comparing computational flow predictions to the measured velocity profile around a trapped particle in either a uniform flow or an imposed, gravity-driven microchannel flow (R2 = 0.988, RMS error = 13.04 ?m s?1). Interaction between both techniques is shown to be negligible for 15 ?m to 35 ?m diameter trapped particles subjected to fluid velocities from 50 ?m s?1 to 500 ?m s?1 even at the highest laser power (1.45 W). The integrated techniques will provide a unique perspective toward understanding microscale phenomena including single-cell biomechanics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and single particle or particle–particle hydrodynamics. PMID:18953424

Nève, N; Lingwood, J K; Zimmerman, J; Kohles, S S; Tretheway, D C

2008-01-01

323

Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5??m silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8?MHz standing wave, ??=?220??m, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2?nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W. [Faculty of Engineering, Queens building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Phillips, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Barnes, A. C. [Department of Physics, H.H.Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2014-04-21

324

An Interactive Virtual Reality Simulation for Nanoparticle Manipulation for Nanoassembly using Optical Tweezers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology and nano devices is believed to be one of the most promising steps that science is taking to the future. This paper proposes virtual reality (VR) as a tool to simulate nano particle manipulation using optical tweezers towards achieving nano- assembly for effectively handling issues such as difficulty in viewing, perceiving and controlling the nano-scale objects. The nano simulation is modeled, using virtual reality, displaying all the forces acting on nano particle during the manipulation. The simulation is developed for particles that belong to Rayleigh region and, represents interactions of OT (a laser beam) with the nano particle. The laser beam aimed on to the nano particle traps the particle by applying optical forces. The trapped particle is then moved by moving the laser beam. The proposed VR based simulation tool with its capabilities can be easily extended and used for creating an open system framework by connecting it to a real OT setup to control nano particles manipulation. In addition, a feedback system can be build to increase of precision of movement.

Bhavaraju, Krishna

325

Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2007-09-01

326

Mechanics of protein-DNA interaction studied with ultra-fast optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lac operon is a well known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). LacI and other DNA-binding proteins bind their specific target sequences with rates higher than allowed by 3D diffusion alone. Generally accepted models predict a combination of free 3D diffusion and 1D sliding along non-specific DNA. We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with two different DNA constructs: a construct with two copies of the O1 operator separated by 300 bp and a construct containing the native E.coli operator sequences. Our measurements show at least two classes of LacI-DNA interactions: long (in the tens of s range) and short (tens of ms). Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences (long events) and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences (short events). Moreover, we observe continuous sliding of the protein along DNA, passively driven by the force applied with the optical tweezers.

Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

2014-05-01

327

Cell patterning with a heptagon acoustic tweezer--application in neurite guidance.  

PubMed

Accurate control over positioning of cells is a highly desirable feature in tissue engineering applications since it allows, for example, population of substrates in a controlled fashion, rather than relying on random seeding. Current methods to achieve a differential distribution of cells mostly use passive patterning methods to change chemical, mechanical or topographic properties of surfaces, making areas differentially permissive to the adhesion of cells. However, these methods have no ad hoc control over the actual deposition of cells. Direct patterning methods like bioprinting offer good control over cell position, but require sophisticated instrumentation and are often cost- and time-intensive. Here, we present a novel electronically controlled method of generating dynamic cell patterns by acoustic trapping of cells at a user-determined position, with a heptagonal acoustic tweezer device. We demonstrate the capability of the device to create complex patterns of cells using the device's ability to re-position acoustic traps by using a phase shift in the acoustic wave, and by switching the configuration of active piezoelectric transducers. Furthermore, we show that by arranging Schwann cells from neonatal rats in a linear pattern we are able to create Bands of Büngner-like structures on a non-structured surface and demonstrate that these features are able to guide neurite outgrowth from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia. PMID:24817215

Gesellchen, F; Bernassau, A L; Déjardin, T; Cumming, D R S; Riehle, M O

2014-07-01

328

Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers.  

PubMed

Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments. PMID:25522920

Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S; Clegg, Simon L

2015-01-29

329

Optical tweezers for synchrotron radiation probing of trapped biological and soft matter objects in aqueous environments.  

PubMed

Investigations of single fragile objects manipulated by optical forces with high brilliance X-ray beams may initiate the development of new research fields such as protein crystallography in an aqueous environment. We have developed a dedicated optical tweezers setup with a compact, portable, and versatile geometry for the customary manipulation of objects for synchrotron radiation applications. Objects of a few micrometers up to a few tens of micrometers size can be trapped for extended periods of time. The selection and positioning of single objects out of a batch of many can be performed semi-automatically by software routines. The performance of the setup has been tested by wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments on single optically trapped starch granules, using a synchrotron radiation microbeam. We demonstrate here for the first time the feasibility of microdiffraction on optically trapped protein crystals. Starch granules and insulin crystals were repeatedly raster-scanned at about 50 ms exposure/raster-point up to the complete loss of the structural order. Radiation damage in starch granules results in the appearance of low-angle scattering due to the breakdown of the polysaccharide matrix. For insulin crystals, order along the densely packed [110] direction is preferentially maintained until complete loss of long-range order. PMID:21542583

Santucci, Silvia C; Cojoc, Dan; Amenitsch, Heinz; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Sartori, Barbara; Burghammer, Manfred; Schoeder, Sebastian; DiCola, Emanuela; Reynolds, Michael; Riekel, Christian

2011-06-15

330

Force measuring optical tweezers system for long time measurements of P pili stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A force-measuring optical tweezers instrumentation and long time measurements of the elongation and retraction of bacterial fimbriae from Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) under strain are presented. The instrumentation is presented in some detail. Special emphasis is given to measures taken to reduce the influence of noise and drifts in the system and from the surrounding, which makes long term force measurements possible. Individual P pili from UPEC bacteria were used as a biological model system for repetitive unfolding and refolding cycles of bacterial fimbriae under equilibrium conditions. P pili have evolved into a three-dimensional helix-like structure, the PapA rod, that can be successively and significantly elongated and/or unfolded when exposed to external forces. The instrumentation is used for characterization of the force-vs.-elongation response of the PapA rod of individual P pili, with emphasis on the long time stability of the forced unfolding and refolding of the helical structure of the PapA rod. The results show that the PapA rod is capable of withstanding extensive strain, leading to a complete unfolding of the helical structure, repetitive times during the life cycle of a bacterium without any noticeable alteration of the mechanical properties of the P pili. This function is believed to be importance for UPEC bacteria in vivo since it provides a close contact to a host cell (which is an initial step of invasion) despite urine cleaning attempts.

Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

2006-02-01

331

Optical tweezers reveal a dynamic mechanical response of cationic peptide-DNA complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonviral carriers have been developed to deliver nucleic acids by forming nanoscale complexes; however, there has been limited success in achieving high transfection efficiency. Our hypothesis is that a factor affecting gene delivery efficiency is the mechanical response of the condensed complex. To begin to test this hypothesis, we directly measured the mechanical properties of DNA-carrier complexes using optical tweezers. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymer, Asparagine-lysine (NK) polymer and poly-L-lysine were used to form complexes with a single DNA molecule. As carriers were introduced, a sudden decrease in DNA extension occurrs at a force level which is defined as critical force (Fc). Fc is carrier and concentration dependent. Pulling revealed reduction in DNA extension length for HK-DNA complexes. The characteristics of force profiles vary by agent and can be dynamically manipulated by changes in environmental conditions such as ionic strength of the buffer as well as pH. Heparin can remove cationic reagents which are otherwise irreversibly bound to DNA. The implications for optimizing molecular interactions to enhance transfection efficiency will be discussed.

Lee, Amy; Zheng, Tai; Sucayan, Sarah; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tricoli, Lucas; Hustedt, Jason; Kahn, Jason; Mixson, A. James; Seog, Joonil

2013-03-01

332

Optical tweezers reveal force plateau and internal friction in PEG-induced DNA condensation.  

PubMed

The simplified artificial environments in which highly complex biological systems are studied do not represent the crowded, dense, salty, and dynamic environment inside the living cell. Consequently, it is important to investigate the effect of crowding agents on DNA. We used a dual-trap optical tweezers instrument to perform force spectroscopy experiments at pull speeds ranging from 0.3 to 270 ?m/s on single dsDNA molecules in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and monovalent salt. PEG of sizes 1,500 and 4,000 Da condensed DNA, and force-extension data contained a force plateau at approximately 1 pN. The level of the force plateau increased with increasing pull speed. During slow pulling the dissipated work increased linearly with pull speed. The calculated friction coefficient did not depend on amount of DNA incorporated in the condensate, indicating internal friction is independent of the condensate size. PEG300 had no effect on the dsDNA force-extension curve. The force plateau implies that condensation induced by crowding agents resembles condensation induced by multivalent cations. PMID:24477280

Ojala, Heikki; Ziedaite, Gabija; Wallin, Anders E; Bamford, Dennis H; Hæggström, Edward

2014-03-01

333

Haptic Manipulation of Microspheres Using Optical Tweezers Under the Guidance of Artificial Force Fields  

E-print Network

Using optical tweezers and a haptic device, microspheres having diameters ranging from 3 to 4 um (floating in a fluid solution) are manipulated in order to form patterns of coupled optical microresonators by assembling the spheres via chemical binding. For this purpose, biotin-coated microspheres trapped by a laser beam are steered and chemically attached to an immobilized streptavidin-coated sphere (i.e. anchor sphere) one by one using an XYZ piezo scanner controlled by a haptic device. The positions of all spheres in the scene are detected using a CCD camera and a collision-free path for each manipulated sphere is generated using the potential field approach. The forces acting on the manipulated particle due to the viscosity of the fluid and the artificial potential field are scaled and displayed to the user through the haptic device for better guidance and control during steering. In addition, a virtual fixture is implemented such that the desired angle of approach and strength are achieved during the bind...

Bukusoglu, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper; Kurt, Adnan

2007-01-01

334

Optical Trapping of Thermo-responsive Microgel Particles by Holographic Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOT) is a technique in which the phase of trapping laser is modulated for generating steerable, multiple optical traps in a sample chamber. An indigenously developed HOT set-up at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore has been used to trap thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (pNIPAM-co-AAc) spherical particles of 1.6 ?m diameter suspended in aqueous medium. The videos of the trapped particles were digitally processed to track the particle positions as a function of time. From these measurements lateral trap stiffness for pNIPAM-co-AAc particles was determined as a function of trap power and temperature using Equipartition and Boltzmann Statistics methods. Both the methods gave similar results and the value for the trap stiffness at 25 °C with trapping laser power of 33 mW was estimated to be 0.14±0.01 ?N/m. Since the optical trap stiffness depends on particle size and refractive index which vary as a function of temperature the variation of the measured optical trap stiffness as a function of temperature could be used to determine the volume phase transition of the thermo-responsive microgel particles. The results should also be useful in investigating the interaction between pNIPAM-co-AAc particles trapped in different lattice configurations that can be generated using HOT.

Kannan, M. R. Rajesh; Tata, B. V. R.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Gupta, P. K.

2011-10-01

335

Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane  

SciTech Connect

We explain and demonstrate a new method of force and position calibrations for optical tweezers with back-focal-plane photodetection. The method combines power spectral measurements of thermal motion and the response to a sinusoidal motion of a translation stage. It consequently does not use the drag coefficient of the trapped object as an input. Thus, neither the viscosity, nor the size of the trapped object, nor its distance to nearby surfaces needs to be known. The method requires only a low level of instrumentation and can be applied in situ in all spatial dimensions. It is both accurate and precise: true values are returned, with small error bars. We tested this experimentally, near and far from surfaces in the lateral directions. Both position and force calibrations were accurate to within 3%. To calibrate, we moved the sample with a piezoelectric translation stage, but the laser beam could be moved instead, e.g., by acousto-optic deflectors. Near surfaces, this precision requires an improved formula for the hydrodynamical interaction between an infinite plane and a microsphere in nonconstant motion parallel to it. We give such a formula.

Tolic-Noerrelykke, Simon F.; Schaeffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon; Pavone, Francesco S.; Juelicher, Frank; Flyvbjerg, Henrik [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany) and European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy) and Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Danish Polymer Centre, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

2006-10-15

336

Horizontal Magnetic Tweezers for Micromanipulation of Single DNA-Protein Complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a new magnetic force transducer or "tweezer" that can apply pico-Newton forces on single DNA molecules in the focus plane. Since the changes in DNA's end-to-end extension are coplanar with the pulling force, there is no need to continually refocus. The DNA constructs (?-DNA end labeled with a 3?m polystyrene bead and a 2.8?m paramagnetic sphere) and appropriate buffer are introduced to a custom built 400?L to 650?L closed cell. This closed cell isolates our sample and produces low-noise force and extension measurements. This chamber rests on a stage fixed to a three axis micromanipulator. Entering the flat chamber are two micropipettes, a 2.5?m id pipette for aspirating the polystyrene bead and a 20?m id pipette for injecting proteins of interest. The suction and the injection pipettes are rigidly mounted to a hydraulic, three-axis micromanipulator. DNA-bead constructs, once introduced to the chamber, can be located by moving the stage over the objective. We have shown that we can easily and reputably find, capture, and manipulate single molecules of DNA within a force range of 0.1pN to 100pN.

McAndrew, C.; Sarkar, A.; Mehl, P.

2011-03-01

337

STED nanoscopy combined with optical tweezers reveals protein dynamics on densely covered DNA (presentation video)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense coverage of DNA by proteins is a ubiquitous feature of cellular processes such as DNA organization, replication and repair. We present a single-molecule approach capable of visualizing individual DNA-binding proteins on densely covered DNA and in the presence of high protein concentrations. Our approach combines optical tweezers with multicolor confocal and stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy. Proteins on DNA are visualized at a resolution of 50 nm, a sixfold resolution improvement over that of confocal microscopy. High temporal resolution (<50 ms) is ensured by fast one-dimensional beam scanning. Individual trajectories of proteins translocating on DNA can thus be distinguished and tracked with high precision. We demonstrate our multimodal approach by visualizing the assembly of dense nucleoprotein filaments with unprecedented spatial resolution in real time. Experimental access to the force-dependent kinetics and motility of DNA-associating proteins at biologically relevant protein densities is essential for linking idealized in vitro experiments with the in vivo situation.

Heller, Iddo; Sitters, Gerrit; Broekmans, Onno D.; Farge, Géraldine; Menges, Carolin; Wende, Wolfgang; Hell, Stefan W.; Peterman, Erwin J.; Wuite, Gijs J.

2014-09-01

338

On-chip pH measurement using functionalized gel-microbeads positioned by optical tweezers.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates local pH measurement in a microchip using a pH-sensing gel-microbead. To achieve this, the gel-microbead made of a hydrophilic photo-crosslinkable resin was functionalized with the pH indicator bromothymol blue (BTB). The primary constituent of this photo-crosslinkable resin is poly(ethylene glycol). Gel-microbeads impregnated with BTB were obtained by stirring the mixture solution, which was composed of the resin, BTB, and an electrolyte solution. The gel-microbead is polymerized by UV illumination. The polymerized gel-microbead can be manipulated by optical tweezers and made to adhere to a glass surface. The local pH was measured from the color of the gel-microbead impregnated with BTB by calibrated color information in the YCrCb color space. We succeeded in measuring the local pH value using the pH-sensing gel-microbead by manipulating and positioning it at the desired point in the microchip. PMID:18231676

Maruyama, Hisataka; Arai, Fumihito; Fukuda, Toshio

2008-02-01

339

Holographic optical tweezers combined with back-focal-plane displacement detection.  

PubMed

A major problem with holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) is their incompatibility with laser-based position detection methods, such as back-focal-plane interferometry (BFPI). The alternatives generally used with HOTs, like high-speed video tracking, do not offer the same spatial and temporal bandwidths. This has limited the use of this technique in precise quantitative experiments. In this paper, we present an optical trap design that combines digital holography and back-focal-plane displacement detection. We show that, with a particularly simple setup, it is possible to generate a set of multiple holographic traps and an additional static non-holographic trap with orthogonal polarizations and that they can be, therefore, easily separated for measuring positions and forces with the high positional and temporal resolutions of laser-based detection. We prove that measurements from both polarizations contain less than 1% crosstalk and that traps in our setup are harmonic within the typical range. We further tested the instrument in a DNA stretching experiment and we discuss an interesting property of this configuration: the small drift of the differential signal between traps. PMID:24514607

Marsà, Ferran; Farré, Arnau; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Montes-Usategui, Mario

2013-12-16

340

Uncoiling mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 pili measured by using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pili are bacterial appendages that play many important roles in bacterial behaviors, physiology and interaction with hosts. Via pili, bacteria are able to adhere to, migrate onto, and colonize on host cells, mechanically. Different from the most studied type 1 and P type pili, which are rigid and thick with an average of 6~7 nm in diameter, type 3 pili are relatively tiny (3-5 nm in diameter) and flexible, and their biophysical properties remains unclear. By using optical tweezers, we found that the elongation processes of type 3 pili are divided into three phases: (1) elastic elongation, (2) uncoiling elongation, and (3) intrinsic elongation, separately. Besides, the uncoiling force of the recombinant pili displayed on the surface of E. coli [pmrkABCD V1F] is measured 20 pN in average stronger than that of E. coli [pmrkABCD V1]. This suggests that pilin MrkF is involved in determining the mechanical properties of the type 3 pili.

Chen, Feng-Jung; Chan, Chia-Han; Liu, Kuo-Liang; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Yew, Tri-Rung; Hsu, Ken Y.; Hsu, Long

2007-09-01

341

Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-03-01

342

Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

2007-09-01

343

Molecular cleft or tweezer compounds derived from trioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonadiene diisocyanate and diacid dichloride  

PubMed Central

Summary The structures of two derivatives of the bisdioxine diisocyanate 1, the bisurea 4 and the biscarbamate 5, are established by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. These compounds possess endo,endo structures, in the case of the bisurea 4 with two nearly parallel pendant chains. The X-ray structures are reproduced very well by DFT calculations. Similar endo,endo conformations are calculated for the bisamide crown ether derivatives 7, where two proximate and nearly parallel crown ether units endow the molecules with a claw-like molecular cleft or tweezer structure as evidenced by an enhanced ability to extract some alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth metal ions.

Smounig, Ralf; Belaj, Ferdinand; Kvaskoff, David

2015-01-01

344

Force unfolding kinetics of RNA using optical tweezers. I. Effects of experimental variables on measured results  

E-print Network

Experimental variables of optical tweezers instrumentation that affect RNA folding/unfolding kinetics were investigated. A model RNA hairpin, P5ab, was attached to two micron-sized beads through hybrid RNA/DNA handles; one bead was trapped by dual-beam lasers and the other was held by a micropipette. Several experimental variables were changed while measuring the unfolding/refolding kinetics, including handle lengths, trap stiffness, and modes of force applied to the molecule. In constant-force mode where the tension applied to the RNA was maintained through feedback control, the measured rate coefficients varied within 40% when the handle lengths were changed by 10 fold (1.1 to 10.2 Kbp); they increased by two- to three-fold when the trap stiffness was lowered to one third (from 0.1 to 0.035 pN/nm). In the passive mode, without feedback control and where the force applied to the RNA varied in response to the end-to-end distance change of the tether, the RNA hopped between a high-force folded-state and a low-force unfolded-state. In this mode, the rates increased up to two-fold with longer handles or softer traps. Overall, the measured rates remained with the same order-of-magnitude over the wide range of conditions studied. In the companion paper (1), we analyze how the measured kinetics parameters differ from the intrinsic molecular rates of the RNA, and thus how to obtain the molecular rates.

J. -D. Wen; M. Manosas; P. T. X. Li; S. B. Smith; C. Bustamante; F. Ritort; I. Tinoco Jr

2007-07-04

345

Quantitative High-Resolution Sensing of DNA Hybridization Using Magnetic Tweezers with Evanescent Illumination  

PubMed Central

We applied the combined approach of evanescent nanometry and force spectroscopy using magnetic tweezers to quantify the degree of hybridization of a single synthetic single-stranded DNA oligomer to a resolution approaching a single-base. In this setup, the 200 nucleotide long DNA was covalently attached to the surface of an optically transparent solid support at one end and to the surface of a superparamagnetic fluorescent microsphere (force probe) at the other end. The force was applied to the probes using an electromagnet. The end-to-end molecular distance (i.e. out-of-image-plane position of the force probe) was determined from the intensity of the probe fluorescent image observed with total-internal reflectance microscopy. An equation of state for single stranded DNA molecules under tension (extensible freely jointed chain) was used to derive the penetration depth of the evanescent field and to calibrate the magnetic properties of the force probes. The parameters of the magnetic response of the force probes obtained from the equation of state remained constant when changing the penetration depth, indicating a robust calibration procedure. The results of such a calibration were also confirmed using independently measured probe-surface distances for probes mounted onto cantilevers of an atomic force microscope. Upon hybridization of the complementary 50 nucleotide-long oligomer to the surface-bound 200-mer, the changes in the force-distance curves were consistent with the quantitative conversion of 25% of the original single-stranded DNA to its double-stranded form, which was modeled as an elastic rod. The method presented here for quantifying the hybridization state of the single DNA molecules has potential for determining the degree of hybridization of individual molecules in a single molecule array with high accuracy. PMID:21103547

Oliver, Piercen M.; Park, Jin Seon; Vezenov, Dmitri

2012-01-01

346

Spatial constraint corrections to the elasticity of double stranded DNA measured with magnetic tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we have studied a discrete version of the worm-like-chain (WLC) model, which incorporates the spatial constraints imposed by the magnetic tweezer, used in current micromanipulation experiments. These obstruction effects are relevant for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) 'short' molecules, involving about two thousand base pairs (kbp) or fewer. Two elements of the device have to be considered: first, the fixed plastic slab on which is stuck one molecule end; second, a magnetic bead which is used to pull (or twist) the attached molecule free end. We have developed quantitative arguments showing that the bead surface can be replaced by its tangent plane at the anchoring point, when it is close to the bead south pole relative to the pulling direction. We are, then, led to a confinement model involving two repulsive plates: first, the fixed anchoring plate; second, a fluctuating plate, simulating the bead, in thermal equilibrium with the attached molecule and the ambient fluid. The bead obstruction effect reduces to a slight upper shift of the elongation, about four times smaller than and with the same sign as the effect induced by the anchoring plate. This result, which may contradict naive expectations, has been qualitatively confirmed within the soluble 'Gaussian' model for flexible polymers. A study of the molecule elongation versus the contour length L exhibits a significant non-extensive behaviour. Although the curve for 'short' molecules is well fitted by a straight line, with its slope very close to the prediction of the standard WLC model, it does not pass through the origin, due to the presence of an offset term independent of L. This leads to a 15% upward shift of the elongation for a 2 kbp molecule. Finally, the need for thorough analysis of the spatial constraints in super-coiled dsDNA elasticity measurements is illustrated by 'hat' curves, giving the elongation versus the torque.

Bouchiat, C.

2007-06-01

347

Optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and methodologies for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles by the use of force measuring optical tweezers have been developed. A thorough study of the biomechanical properties of fimbrial adhesion organelles expressed by uropathogenic E. coli, so-called pili, is presented. Steady-state as well as dynamic force measurements on P pili, expressed by E. coli causing pyelonephritis, have revealed, among other things, various unfolding and refolding properties of the helical structure of P pili, the PapA rod. Based on these properties an energy landscape model has been constructed by which specific biophysical properties of the PapA rod have been extracted, e.g. the number of subunits, the length of a single pilus, bond lengths and activation energies for bond opening and closure. Moreover, long time repetitive measurements have shown that the rod can be unfolded and refolded repetitive times without losing its intrinsic properties. These properties are believed to be of importance for the bacteria's ability to maintain close contact with host cells during initial infections. The results presented are considered to be of importance for the field of biopolymers in general and the development of new pharmaceuticals towards urinary tract infections in particular. The results show furthermore that the methodology can be used to gain knowledge of the intrinsic biomechanical function of adhesion organelles. The instrumentation is currently used for characterization of type 1 pili, expressed by E. coli causing cystitis, i.e. infections in the bladder. The first force spectrometry investigations of these pili will be presented.

Andersson, Magnus; Axner, Ove; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Fällman, Erik

2006-08-01

348

Effect of salicylate on outer hair cell plasma membrane viscoelasticity: studies using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) generates mechanical forces in response to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential. The resulting change in the cell length is known as electromotility. Salicylate (Sal), the anionic, amphipathic derivative of aspirin induces reversible hearing loss and decreases electromotile response of the OHCs. Sal may change the local curvature and mechanical properties of the PM, eventually resulting in reduced electromotility or it may compete with intracellular monovalent anions, particularly Cl-, which are essential for electromotility. In this work we have used optical tweezers to study the effects of Sal on viscoelastic properties of the OHC PM when separated from the underlying composite structures of the cell wall. In this procedure, an optically trapped microsphere is brought in contact with PM and subsequently pulled away to form a tether. We measured the force exerted on the tether as a function of time during the process of tether growth at different pulling rates. Effective tether viscosity, steady-state tethering force extrapolated to zero pulling rate, and the time constant for tether growth were estimated from the measurements of the instantaneous tethering force. The time constant for the tether growth measured for the OHC basal end decreased 1.65 times after addition of 10 mM Sal, which may result from an interaction between Sal and cholesterol, which is more prevalent in the PM of OHC basal end. The time constants for the tether growth calculated for the OHC lateral wall and control human embryonic kidney cells as well as the other calculated viscoelastic parameters remained the same after Sal perfusion, favoring the hypothesis of competitive inhibition of electromotility by salicylate.

Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2004-06-01

349

Combining digital holographic microscopy and optical tweezers: a new route in microfluidic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical configuration is realized to obtain quantitative phase-contrast maps able to characterize particles floating in a microfluidic chamber by interference microscopy. The novelty is the possibility to drive the sample and measure it thorough the same light path. That is realized by an optical setup made of two light beams coming from the same laser source. One beam provides the optical forces for driving the particle along the desired path and, at same time, it works as object beam in the digital holographic microscope (DHM). The second one acts as reference beam, allowing recording of an interference fringe pattern (i.e., the digital hologram) in an out-of-focus image plane. This work finds application in the field of micromanipulation as, the devise developed allows to operate in microfluidic chambers driving samples flowing in very small volumes. Recently, the field of optical particle micro-manipulation has had rapid growth, due to Optical Tweezers development. A particle is trapped or moved along certain trajectories according to the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam used. Here, particles freely floating are driven by optical forces along preferential directions and then analyzed by a DHM to numerically calculate their phase-contrast signature. The improvement is that one laser source is employed for making two jobs: driving and analyze the sample. We use two slightly off-axis laser beams coming from a single laser source. The interference between them gives the possibility to record in real-time a sequence of digital holograms, while one of the beam creates the driving force. By this method, a great amount of particles can be analyzed by a real-time recording of DH movies. This allows one to examine each particle at time and characterize it. The optical configuration and the working method are illustrated. Experimental results are shown for polymeric particles and in-vitro.

Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Paturzo, M.; Finizio, A.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

2012-04-01

350

Experimental phase diagram of negatively supercoiled DNA measured by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence.  

PubMed

The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers combined with fluorescence imaging, we here study DNA structure as a function of negative supercoiling at the single-molecule level. We classify DNA phases based on DNA length as a function of supercoiling, down to a very high negative supercoiling density ? of -2.5, and forces up to 4.5 pN. We characterize plectonemes using fluorescence imaging. DNA bubbles are visualized by the binding of fluorescently labelled RPA, a eukaryotic single-strand-binding protein. The presence of Z-DNA, a left-handed form of DNA, is probed by the binding of Z?77, the minimal binding domain of a Z-DNA-binding protein. Without supercoiling, DNA is in the relaxed B-form. Upon going toward negative supercoiling, plectonemic B-DNA is being formed below 0.6 pN. At higher forces and supercoiling densities down to about -1.9, a mixed state occurs with plectonemes, multiple bubbles and left-handed L-DNA. Around ? = -1.9, a buckling transition occurs after which the DNA end-to-end length linearly decreases when applying more negative turns, into a state that we interpret as plectonemic L-DNA. By measuring DNA length, Z?77 binding, plectoneme and ssDNA visualisation, we thus have mapped the co-existence of many DNA structures and experimentally determined the DNA phase diagram at (extreme) negative supercoiling. PMID:25615283

Vlijm, Rifka; Mashaghi, Alireza; Bernard, Stéphanie; Modesti, Mauro; Dekker, Cees

2015-02-01

351

Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-08-01

352

Wavefront analysis and optimization from conventional liquid crystal displays for low-cost holographic optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In different study fields the manipulation and imaging of micro-sized particles is essential. The use of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and digital holographic microscopy (DHM) facilitates this task in a non-mechanical way by providing the proper computer generated hologram and the required amount of light. Electrically addressed spatial light modulators (EASLM) found in holographic optical tweezers are typically of the reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type which can achieve a phase shift of more than 2? but they are expensive. Similar components like transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are produced in large quantities, their optical characteristics improve rapidly and they are inexpensive. Under certain circumstances these devices can be used instead of expensive spatial light modulators. Consumer grade objectives are not always well corrected for spherical aberration. In that case conventional liquid crystal displays can also compensate these undesired optical effects. For this purpose software-corrected computer generated holograms are calculated. Procedures to analyze and compensate different parameters of a conventional low-cost liquid crystal display, e.g. phase shift evaluation and aberration correction of objectives by Zernike polynomials approximation are explained. The applied software compensation of the computer generated hologram has shown significant improvement of the focus quality. An important price reduction of holographic devices could be achieved by replacing special optical elements if correction algorithms for conventional liquid crystal displays are provided.

Weber, Andreas; Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Schröder, Werner

2011-05-01

353

[Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis of cold-adapted aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea].  

PubMed

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy can help with observing and studying individual cells or organelles in a natural state for a relatively long period. In the present experiment, Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used as a tool to report physiological metabolism such as cells growth and nucleic acid, proteins, lipid and glucose of a single active cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea. After the Raman spectrum was collected and analyzed, the findings are as follows: Raman spectrum identified the components of a single cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strain and there were more proteins and carbohydrate produced during the Planococcus sp. NJ41 and Shewanella sp. NJ49 growth and degradation; but there was more lipid than the proteins produced during the Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ289 growth and degradation; the amount of proteins produced by the strains corresponds with the production of degradation rate-limiting enzyme, and was also related to the capacity of low-temperature degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:21510394

Wang, Yi-Bin; Miao, Jin-Lai; He, Bi-Juan; Liang, Qiang; Liu, Fang-Ming; Zheng, Zhou

2011-02-01

354

Lysine-specific molecular tweezers are broad-spectrum inhibitors of assembly and toxicity of amyloid proteins  

PubMed Central

Amyloidoses are diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding and self-assembly, for which no cure is available. Inhibition or modulation of abnormal protein self-assembly therefore is an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of amyloidoses. We examined Lys-specific molecular tweezers and discovered a lead compound termed CLR01, which is capable of inhibiting the aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins by binding to Lys residues and disrupting hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions important for nucleation, oligomerization, and fibril elongation. Importantly, CLR01 shows no toxicity at concentrations substantially higher than those needed for inhibition. We used amyloid ?-protein (A?) to further explore the binding site(s) of CLR01 and the impact of its binding on the assembly process. Mass-spectrometry and solution-state NMR demonstrated binding of CLR01 to the Lys residues in A? at the earliest stages of assembly. The resulting complexes were indistinguishable in size and morphology from A? oligomers but were non-toxic and were not recognized by the oligomer-specific antibody A11. Thus, CLR01 binds already at the monomer stage and modulates the assembly reaction into formation of non-toxic structures. The data suggest that molecular tweezers are unique, process-specific inhibitors of aberrant protein aggregation and toxicity, which hold promise for developing disease-modifying therapy for amyloidoses. PMID:21916458

Sinha, Sharmistha; Lopes, Dahabada H. J.; Du, Zhenming; Pang, Eric S.; Shanmugam, Akila; Lomakin, Aleksey; Talbiersky, Peter; Tennstaedt, Annette; McDaniel, Kirsten; Bakshi, Reena; Kuo, Pei-Yi; Ehrmann, Michael; Benedek, George B.; Loo, Joseph A.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Wang, Chunyu; Bitan, Gal

2011-01-01

355

Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers  

SciTech Connect

The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

Mitri, F.G., E-mail: mitri@chevron.com

2014-03-15

356

First experimental study of self-forming synthetic lipids by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental study of self-forming synthetic lipids, trademarked as QuSomesTM, using Raman spectroscopy in the spectral range of 500 to 3100 cm-1. Raman spectra of these new artificial lipids composed of 1,2- dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDM-12) and 1,2-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDO-12) have been obtained in pure form and in aqueous suspensions with Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) by using an inverted confocal laser-tweezers-Raman-microscopy system. This spectrometer works with an 80 mW diode-pumped solid-state laser, operating at a wavelength of 785 nm in the TEM00 mode. The laser is used both for optical trapping and Raman excitation. The two amphiphiles considered in this study, differ in their hydrophobic chain length and contain similar units of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) head groups. Such synthetic PEG coated lipids exist in liquid form at room temperature and spontaneously form liposomes (nano type vesicles) upon hydration. In this work, we have focused on the band assignments for the spectra of single QuSomesTM nano particles in pure form and in aqueous media acquired by means of Raman spectroscopy. In particular, we have found that the most prominent peaks in the studied spectral region are dominated by vibrational modes arising from C-C and C-H bonds. Furthermore, we have noticed that some of the distinct peaks observed below 1800 cm-1 in pure sample are preserved in aqueous environment. These retained intense bands are located at 1449, 1128, 1079, and 1065 cm-1. This effect might be due to the strong chain-chain interactions, because the chains have to orient themselves and become tightly packed in the vesicles wall rather than adopt random orientations in bulk. This technique has proven to be an excellent tool to establish the fingerprint region revealing the molecular structure and conformation of QuSomesTM particles. The Raman spectroscopic data of these novel lipids and its vesicles formed in suspensions confirm high stability and are therefore considered as potential candidate for varieties of future applications including lipid based novel substances and drug delivery systems.

Bista, Rajan K.; Bruch, Reinhard F.

2008-06-01

357

Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in flow cytometry, open up new possibilities for analyzing cellular processes occurring in single microbial and eukaryotic cells.

Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

2007-01-09

358

Development of optical-based array devices using imaging fiber bundles: Optical tweezer arrays, nanoscale arrays, and microelectrode arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work in this dissertation describes the development of imaging fiber-based array devices, specifically the fabrication and application of an optical tweezer array, a fiber-based nanoarray, and a nanotip array. With regards for the fabrication of an optical tweezer array, this thesis describes how fiber bundles have been used as a method to create multiple beams, which are used as optical traps. By coupling a single beam into an imaging fiber bundle, the light energy is distributed across the face of the fiber bundle. Each illuminated individual fiber in the array propagates light to the distal face of the bundle, where light focusing elements at the end of each fiber focus the laser light and form optical traps. These optical traps are capable of capturing and arraying microspheres in parallel. The number of optical traps is determined by the number of fibers in the optical fiber bundle and is capable of creating a dense array (˜104 traps/mm2) of optical tweezers. This dissertation also describes the fabrication of fiber bundle-based nanoarrays with two different size formats---one with 700 nm array elements and one with 300 nm array elements. These arrays have an ultra-high packing density in that they contain 1 x 106 or 4.5 x 10 6 array elements/mm2. Current fiber bundle-based arrays have micron feature sizes and a high packing density, up to 5 x 10 4 fibers/mm2. These nanoarrays have feature sizes at least 4 times smaller than the micron-sized arrays used and contain up to 4.5 x 106 fibers/mm2. Nanofiber bundles were chemically etched to create nanowells into which sensors were deposited. The number of sensor elements in these arrays provides enough sensing positions such that they could be used to screen an entire genome while also moving towards the concept of a universal array. In addition, this high density of sensors allows for a large number of replicates, leading to an improvement in the signal to noise ratio. An improvement on creating nanoapertures that was originally developed by Paul Pantano, a former postdoctoral fellow in the Walt lab, is also discussed in this thesis. The original technique employed a mechanical puller that heated and pulled a fiber bundle, which was then polished and etched to create nanowells. Although effective, the technique was difficult to reproduce. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tam, Jenny M.

359

New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method to calibrate a quadrant photodiode used as position detector to monitor latex beads trapped in optical tweezers. The method combines the dragging Stoke's force with the thermal noise analysis (power spectral density (PSD)) of the Brownian motion of the trapped bead. Position detector calibrations used in other similar methods normally utilise a bead attached to the coverslip: the voltage-position calibration factor is found by translating the bead across the waist of a laser beam. The so determined calibration factor is then assumed to be the same when beads are investigated in the optical trap. This procedure presents some drawbacks since attached beads can be affected by proximity effects due to the coverslip glass surface which alter the position sensor response itself. On the contrary, our method is able to provide, simultaneously, the calibration factor, the trap stiffness, and the local viscosity of the medium making use of a single trapped bead.

Buosciolo, A.; Pesce, G.; Sasso, A.

2004-02-01

360

A FRET-based DNA nano-tweezer technique for the imaging analysis of specific mRNA.  

PubMed

A DNA nano-tweezer (DNA-NT) structure-based target mRNA detection probe, which uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a detection signal and works as a single molecule, has been developed. This FRET-paired fluorescent dye-modified DNA-NT, self-assembled from three single-stranded DNAs, alters its structure from open to closed states and produces a FRET signal in response to in vitro transcripts of Hes-1 mRNA. Our results showed that the FRET-based DNA-NT detected both GLUT1 mRNA as a pre-fixed target mRNA model and Hes-1 mRNA as a model expressed inside a living cell. These results confirm the feasibility of using the FRET-based DNA-NT for imaging analysis of target mRNA. PMID:25529369

Funabashi, Hisakage; Shigeto, Hajime; Nakatsuka, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio

2015-02-01

361

Development and applications of an optical tweezer-based microrheometer: case studies of biomaterials and living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of mechanical properties of living biological cells and biomaterials is challenging because they are inhomogeneous and anisotropic at microscopic scales, and often time-dependent over a broad time scale. Through three case studies of biomaterials and living cells, we demonstrate that a novel, oscillating optical tweezer-based imaging microrheometer developed recently in our laboratory has overcome many technical barriers posed by the complexity of biological systems. In this paper, we present the working principle, system setup and calibration of the imaging microrheometer, and report the groundbreaking results of the three applications: gelation dynamics of cross-linkable hyaluronan acid (HA) hydrogels; Mechanical in-homogeneity and anisotropy in purified microtubule networks; and effects of drug treatment and temperature variation on the mechanical properties of in vitro human alveolar epithelial cells. In each case, micro beads inserted in the materials, or attached to the cell membrane were used as probes for optical trapping. The probe particle was set into a forced harmonic oscillation by oscillating optical tweezers. Position sensing optics and phase lock-in signal processing allow the determination of the amplitude and phase shift of the particle motion at high sensitivity. The complex mechanical modulus G * is then calculated from the amplitude and the phase shift. The rheometer system is capable of measuring dynamic local mechanical moduli in the broad frequency range of 1.3-1000 Hz at a sampling rate of 2 data point per second across a wide dynamic range (1~20,000 dyne/cm2). Integration of the rheometer system with spinning disk confocal microscopy enables the study of micromechanical properties and the microstructure of the sample simultaneously. Combination of dual-axis, piezo-electric activated mirror and 2-D position sensing detector gives the rheometer system the capability of investigating mechanical anisotropy in highly structured biological samples.

Wang, Jing; Yalcin, Huseyin; Lengel, Angela; Hewitt, Corey; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

2007-02-01

362

Silicon-on-insulator multimode-interference waveguide-based arrayed optical tweezers (SMART) for two-dimensional microparticle trapping and manipulation.  

PubMed

We demonstrate two-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation of 1 ?m and 2.2 ?m polystyrene particles in an 18 ?m-thick fluidic cell at a wavelength of 1565 nm using the recently proposed Silicon-on-insulator Multimode-interference (MMI) waveguide-based ARrayed optical Tweezers (SMART) technique. The key component is a 100 ?m square-core silicon waveguide with mm length. By tuning the fiber-coupling position at the MMI waveguide input facet, we demonstrate various patterns of arrayed optical tweezers that enable optical trapping and manipulation of particles. We numerically simulate the physical mechanisms involved in the arrayed trap, including the optical force, the heat transfer and the thermal-induced microfluidic flow. PMID:23389134

Lei, Ting; Poon, Andrew W

2013-01-28

363

Using optical tweezers to examine the chemotactic force to a single inflammatory cell--eosinophil stimulated by chemoattractants prepared from Toxocara Canis larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granulocytes are a group of white blood cells belonging to the innate immune system in human and in murine in which eosinophils play an important role in worm infection-induced inflammation. The migration of these cells is well characterized and has been separated into four steps: rolling, adhesion, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis, however, the physical characteristics of the chemotactic force to eosinophils from worm component remain largely unknown. Note that optical tweezers are featured in the manipulation of a single cell and the measurement of biological forces. Therefore, we propose to use optical tweezers to examine the chemotactic force to a eosinophil from a T. canis lavae preparation in terms of distance during the migration of eosinophil.

Shih, Po-Chen; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Ke-Min; Jen, Lin-Ni; Liu, Cheng-tzu; Hsu, Long

2005-08-01

364

Lewis base mediated efficient synthesis and solvation-like host-guest chemistry of covalent organic framework-1.  

PubMed

N-Lewis base mediated room temperature synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) starting from a solution of building blocks instead of partially soluble building blocks was developed. This protocol shifts COF synthetic chemistry from sealed tubes to open beakers. Non-conventional inclusion compounds of COF-1 were obtained by vapor phase infiltration of ferrocene and azobenzene, and solvation like effects were established. PMID:23208512

Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Wiktor, Christian; Ramakrishnan, Ayyappan; Weßing, Jana; Schneemann, Andreas; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Fischer, Roland A

2013-01-18

365

Host--guest complexation. 16. Synthesis and cation binding characteristics of macrocyclic polyethers containing convergent methoxyaryl groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses and free energies of association of 12 new macrocyclic ligand systems (hosts) with alkali metal and ammonium and alkylammonium picrates in CdClâ are reported at 25°C. Ten of the hosts were composed of 4-methylanisole units (abbreviated AN) incorporated into the macroring by substitution at their 2,6 positions by CHâO(MO) units, or by direct attachment to other AN units

Karl E. Koenig; George M. Lein; Peter Stuckler; Takahiro Kaneda; Donald J. Cram

1979-01-01

366

Modular, homochiral, porous coordination polymers: rational design, enantioselective guest exchange sorption and ab initio calculations of host-guest interactions.  

PubMed

Two new, homochiral, porous metal-organic coordination polymers [Zn(2)(ndc){(R)-man}(dmf)]?3DMF and [Zn(2)(bpdc){(R)-man}(dmf)]?2DMF (ndc=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate; bpdc=4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate; man=mandelate; dmf=N,N'-dimethylformamide) have been synthesized by heating Zn(II) nitrate, H(2)ndc or H(2)bpdc and chiral (R)-mandelic acid (H(2)man) in DMF. The colorless crystals were obtained and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These isoreticular structures share the same topological features as the previously reported zinc(II) terephthalate lactate [Zn(2)(bdc){(S)-lac}(dmf)]?DMF framework, but have larger pores and opposite absolute configuration of the chiral centers. The enhanced pores size results in differing stereoselective sorption properties: the new metal-organic frameworks effectively and stereoselectively (ee up to 62?%) accommodate bulkier guest molecules (alkyl aryl sulfoxides) than the parent [Zn(2)(bdc){(S)-lac}(dmf)]?DMF, while the latter demonstrates decent enantioselectivity toward precursor of chiral anticancer drug sulforaphane, CH(3)SO(CH(2))(4)OH. The new homochiral porous metal-organic coordination polymers are capable of catalyzing a highly selective oxidation of bulkier sulfides (2-NaphSMe (2-C(10)H(7)SMe) and PhSCH(2)Ph) that could not be achieved by the smaller-pore [Zn(2)(bdc){(S)-lac}(dmf)]?DMF. The sorption of different guest molecules (both R and S isomers) into the chiral pores of [Zn(2)(bdc){(S)-lac}(dmf)]?DMF was modeled by using ab initio calculations that provided a qualitative explanation for the observed sorption enantioselectivity. The high stereo-preference is accounted for by the presence of coordinated inner-pore DMF molecule that forms a weak C-H...O bond between the DMF methyl group and the (S)-PhSOCH(3) sulfinyl group. PMID:20730747

Dybtsev, Danil N; Yutkin, Maxim P; Samsonenko, Denis G; Fedin, Vladimir P; Nuzhdin, Alexey L; Bezrukov, Andrey A; Bryliakov, Konstantin P; Talsi, Evgeniy P; Belosludov, Rodion V; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Subbotin, Oleg S; Belosludov, Vladimir R

2010-09-10

367

Tuning the Surface Activity of Gemini Amphiphile by the Host-Guest Interaction of Cucurbit[7]uril.  

PubMed

This research is aimed to develop an effective supramolecular route for tuning the surface activity of the surfactant. To this end, cationic gemini amphiphiles and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) were complexed in water, and each hydrophobic chain of the gemini amphiphiles was bound with a CB[7]. The steric hindrance of CB[7] prevented the two hydrophobic chains from getting closed to each other, leading a significant change of surface activity. Before supramolecular complexation, the surface activity of the gemini amphiphile is relatively high, which can generate the foams easily. However, the foam generated by gemini amphiphile can be destructed by adding CB[7], suggesting that the suface activity is lowed after the supramolecular complexation. The surface activity can recover after adding 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride, which has a stronger ability to bind CB[7]. Therefore, a controllable foaming and defoaming process can be realized. It is highly anticipated that supramolecular chemistry for tuning amphiphilicity of surfactants may find application in the fields that fast foaming and defoaming are needed. PMID:25489870

Wang, Guangtong; Kang, Yuetong; Tang, Bohan; Zhang, Xi

2015-01-13

368

Host-guest complexes of calix[4]tubes--prediction of ion selectivity by quantum chemical calculations VI.  

PubMed

The selectivity of the bis(calix[4]arene)tetraethylene abbreviated as calix[4]tube for the endohedral complexation of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, was predicted on the basis of structures and complex formation energies computed with three different quantum chemical methods: DFT LANL2DZp)/LANL2DZp), PM3/SPASS, and PM6. A comparison with published X-ray structures demonstrated that the most reliable results were achieved applying DFT calculations. The complexation of K? and Ba²? is most favorable, followed by the encapsulation of Rb? and Sr²?, respectively. The flexibility of the tube, described by the torsion angles associated with the ethylene linkages between the calix[4]arene units and phenyl rings intersecting the plane of the four methylene carbon atoms, also makes an important contribution to its selectivity. In general, the cavity size is similar to [2.2.2] and [N2N2N2], the cryptands with the largest cavities previously studied in our group applying a similar protocol. PMID:24715047

Begel, Svetlana; Puchta, Ralph; van Eldik, Rudi

2014-04-01

369

Host–guest complexes of mixed glycol-bipyridine cryptands: prediction of ion selectivity by quantum chemical calculations, part V  

PubMed Central

Summary The selectivity of the cryptands [2.2.bpy] and [2.bpy.bpy] for the endohedral complexation of alkali, alkaline-earth and earth metal ions was predicted on the basis of the DFT (B3LYP/LANL2DZp) calculated structures and complex-formation energies. The cavity size in both cryptands lay between that for [2.2.2] and [bpy.bpy.bpy], such that the complexation of K+, Sr2+ and Tl3+ is most favorable. While the [2.2.bpy] is moderately larger, preferring Rb+ complexation and demonstrating equal priority for Sr2+ and Ba2+, the slightly smaller [2.bpy.bpy] yields more stable cryptates with Na+ and Ca2+. Although the CH2-units containing molecular bars fixed at the bridgehead nitrogen atoms determine the flexibility of the cryptands, the twist angles associated with the bipyridine and glycol building blocks also contribute considerably. PMID:23843921

Begel, Svetlana; van Eldik, Rudi

2013-01-01

370

A self-assembly induced emission system constructed by the host-guest interaction of AIE-active building blocks.  

PubMed

Dibenzo[24]crown-8 (host) and benzylamine (guest) modified tetraphenylethenes are prepared and used to construct supramolecular polymers, which demonstrate the merits of reversible assembling-disassembling and tunable aggregation-induced emission by acid-base treatments. PMID:25449174

Bai, Wei; Wang, Zhaoyang; Tong, Jiaqi; Mei, Ju; Qin, Anjun; Sun, Jing Zhi; Tang, Ben Zhong

2015-01-21

371

The role of context on alpha-helix stabilization: host-guest analysis in a mixed background peptide model.  

PubMed Central

The helix content of a series of peptides containing single substitutions of the 20 natural amino acids in a new designed host sequence, succinyl-YSEEEEKAKKAXAEEAEKKKK-NH2, has been determined using CD spectroscopy. This host is related to one previously studied, in which triple amino acid substitutions were introduced into a background of Glu-Lys blocks completely lacking alanine. The resulting free energies show that only Ala and Glu- prove to be helix stabilizing, while all other side chains are neutral or destabilizing. This agrees with results from studies of alanine-rich peptide modela, but not the previous Glu-Lys block oligomers in which Leu and Met also stabilize helix. The helix propensity scale derived from the previous block oligomers correlated well with the frequencies of occurrence of different side chains in helical sequences of proteins, whereas the values from the present series do not. The role of context in determining scales of helix propensity values is discussed, and the ability of algorithms designed to predict helix structure from sequence is compared. PMID:9194186

Yang, J.; Spek, E. J.; Gong, Y.; Zhou, H.; Kallenbach, N. R.

1997-01-01

372

Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rossella.arletti@unito.it [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy); Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bagatin, Roberto [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)] [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)

2012-10-15

373

Host-guest interaction between new nitrooxoisoaporphine and ?-cyclodextrins: Synthesis, electrochemical, electron spin resonance and molecular modeling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nitrooxoisoaporphine derivative was synthetized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance. Its aqueous solubility was improved by complexes formation with ?-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin and (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin. In order to assess the inclusion degree reached by nitrooxoisoaporphine in cyclodextris cavity, the stability constants of formation of the complexes were determined by phase-solubility measurements obtaining in all cases a type-AL diagram. Moreover, electrochemical studies were carried out, where the observed change in the EPC value indicated a lower feasibility of the nitro group reduction. Additionally, a detailed spatial configuration is proposed for inclusion of derivate within the cyclodextrins cavity by 2D NMR techniques. Finally, these results are further interpreted by means of molecular modeling studies. Thus, theoretical results are in complete agreement with the experimental data.

Pérez-Cruz, Fernanda; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Lapier, Michel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Uriarte Villares, Eugenio; Olea-Azar, Claudio

2013-02-01

374

Ultrafast 2DIR probe of a host-guest inclusion complex: structural and dynamical constraints of nanoconfinement.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy is used to study the influence of nanoconfinement on the spectral diffusion dynamics of cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (CpMn(CO)3, CMT) free in solution and confined in the cavity of ?-cyclodextrin. Contrary to the reorientation correlation function of the solvent molecules, determined through molecular dynamics simulations, measurements in three different solvents indicate that CMT confined in ?-cyclodextrin undergoes spectral diffusion that is faster than free CMT. To account for this discrepancy, we propose that spectral diffusion time scales contain a dynamical contribution that is dependent on the effective size of the conformational space presented by the solvation environment. This solvation state space size is related to the number of participating solvent molecules, which in turn is proportional to the solvent accessible surface area (SASA). We test the role of the number of participating solvent molecules using a simple Gaussian-Markov simulation and find that an increase in the number of participating solvent molecules indeed slows the time required to search the available conformational space. Finally, we test this dependence by comparing the spectral diffusion of a previously studied manganese carbonyl, dimanganese decacarbonyl (Mn2(CO)10, DMDC), to CMT and find that DMDC, which has a larger SASA, exhibits slower spectral diffusion. The experimental observations and the supporting simplistic solvation model suggest that vibrational probe molecules, such as CMT, might be able to function as sensors of conformational entropy. PMID:24981534

Osborne, Derek G; King, John T; Dunbar, Josef A; White, Aaron M; Kubarych, Kevin J

2013-04-14

375

Variational Implicit-Solvent Modeling of Host-Guest Binding: A Case Study on Cucurbit[7]uril  

E-print Network

in the high-affinity binding of #12;the B2 bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative to CB[7]. For the unbound host, we[n]uril hosts thanks to its good balance between the number of water molecules confined in the host cavity[2.2.2]octane derivative (B2), is a highly suitable candidate for the development of computational

Li, Bo

376

Comparative study of methods to calibrate the stiffness of a single-beam gradient-force optical tweezers over various laser trapping powers.  

PubMed

Optical tweezers have become an important instrument in force measurements associated with various physical, biological, and biophysical phenomena. Quantitative use of optical tweezers relies on accurate calibration of the stiffness of the optical trap. Using the same optical tweezers platform operating at 1064 nm and beads with two different diameters, we present a comparative study of viscous drag force, equipartition theorem, Boltzmann statistics, and power spectral density (PSD) as methods in calibrating the stiffness of a single beam gradient force optical trap at trapping laser powers in the range of 0.05 to 1.38 W at the focal plane. The equipartition theorem and Boltzmann statistic methods demonstrate a linear stiffness with trapping laser powers up to 355 mW, when used in conjunction with video position sensing means. The PSD of a trapped particle's Brownian motion or measurements of the particle displacement against known viscous drag forces can be reliably used for stiffness calibration of an optical trap over a greater range of trapping laser powers. Viscous drag stiffness calibration method produces results relevant to applications where trapped particle undergoes large displacements, and at a given position sensing resolution, can be used for stiffness calibration at higher trapping laser powers than the PSD method. PMID:25375348

Sarshar, Mohammad; Wong, Winson T; Anvari, Bahman

2014-11-01

377

Comparative study of methods to calibrate the stiffness of a single-beam gradient-force optical tweezers over various laser trapping powers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers have become an important instrument in force measurements associated with various physical, biological, and biophysical phenomena. Quantitative use of optical tweezers relies on accurate calibration of the stiffness of the optical trap. Using the same optical tweezers platform operating at 1064 nm and beads with two different diameters, we present a comparative study of viscous drag force, equipartition theorem, Boltzmann statistics, and power spectral density (PSD) as methods in calibrating the stiffness of a single beam gradient force optical trap at trapping laser powers in the range of 0.05 to 1.38 W at the focal plane. The equipartition theorem and Boltzmann statistic methods demonstrate a linear stiffness with trapping laser powers up to 355 mW, when used in conjunction with video position sensing means. The PSD of a trapped particle's Brownian motion or measurements of the particle displacement against known viscous drag forces can be reliably used for stiffness calibration of an optical trap over a greater range of trapping laser powers. Viscous drag stiffness calibration method produces results relevant to applications where trapped particle undergoes large displacements, and at a given position sensing resolution, can be used for stiffness calibration at higher trapping laser powers than the PSD method.

Sarshar, Mohammad; Wong, Winson T.; Anvari, Bahman

2014-11-01

378

Fixed distance photoinduced electron transfer between Fe and Zn porphyrins encapsulated within the Zn HKUST-1 metal organic framework.  

PubMed

An attractive strategy for the development of photocatalytic metal organic framework (MOF) materials is to co-encapsulate a photoactive electron donor with a catalytic electron acceptor within the MOF. Here we report the co-encapsulation of both Zn(ii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Zn4SP) and Fe(iii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Fe4SP) into an HKUST-1 (Zn) MOF and demonstrate photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between the co-encapsulated guest. Photo-excitation of the Zn4SP results in fixed-distance inter-molecular ET between the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP and the Fe(iii)4SP as evident by the reduction in the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP lifetime from 890 ?s (kobs = 1.1 × 10(3) s(-1)) to 83 ?s (kobs = 1.2 × 10(4) s(-1)) in the presence of Fe4SP giving a kET ? 1.1 × 10(4) s(-1). The data are consistent with ET taking place between encapsulated porphyrins that are two cages apart in distance with a reorganizational energy of ?1.65 eV, ? = 1.25 and ?G° = -0.97 eV (within a semi-classical Marcus theory framework). PMID:25575300

Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz

2015-02-01

379

Remarkably efficient photocurrent generation based on a [60]fullerene-triosmium cluster/Zn-porphyrin/boron-dipyrrin triad SAM.  

PubMed

A new artificial photosynthetic triad array, a [60]fullerene-triosmium cluster/zinc-porphyrin/boron-dipyrrin complex (1, Os(3)C(60)/ZnP/Bodipy), has been prepared by decarbonylation of Os(3)(CO)(8)(CN(CH(2))(3)Si(OEt)(3))(mu(3)-eta(2):eta(2):eta(2)-C(60)) (6) with Me(3)NO/MeCN and subsequent reaction with the isocyanide ligand CNZnP/Bodipy (5) containing zinc porphyrin (ZnP) and boron dipyrrin (Bodipy) moieties. Triad 1 has been characterized by various spectroscopic methods (MS, NMR, IR, UV/Vis, photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy). The electrochemical properties of 1 in chlorobenzene (CB) have been examined by cyclic voltammetry; the general feature of the cyclic voltammogram of 1 is nine reversible one-electron redox couples, that is, the sum of those of 5 and 6. DFT has been applied to study the molecular and electronic structures of 1. On the basis of fluorescence-lifetime measurements and transient absorption spectroscopic data, 1 undergoes an efficient energy transfer from Bodipy to ZnP and a fast electron transfer from ZnP to C(60); the detailed kinetics involved in both events have been elucidated. The SAM of triad 1 (1/ITO; ITO=indium-tin oxide) has been prepared by immersion of an ITO electrode in a CB solution of 1 and diazabicyclo-octane (2:1 equiv), and characterized by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The photoelectrochemical properties of 1/ITO have been investigated by a standard three-electrode system in the presence of an ascorbic acid sacrificial electron donor. The quantum yield of the photoelectrochemical cell has been estimated to be 29 % based on the number of photons absorbed by the chromophores. Our triad 1 is unique when compared to previously reported photoinduced electron-transfer arrays, in that C(60) is linked by pi bonding with little perturbation of the C(60) electron delocalization. PMID:20401879

Lee, Chang Yeon; Jang, Jae Kwon; Kim, Chul Hoon; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jihee; Choi, Wonyong; Han, Young-Kyu; Joo, Taiha; Park, Joon T

2010-05-17

380

Optoelectronic tweezers integrated with lensfree holographic microscopy for wide-field interactive cell and particle manipulation on a chip.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an optoelectronic tweezer (OET) coupled to a lensfree holographic microscope for real-time interactive manipulation of cells and micro-particles over a large field-of-view (FOV). This integrated platform can record the holographic images of cells and particles over the entire active area of a CCD sensor array, perform digital image reconstruction to identify target cells, dynamically track the positions of cells and particles, and project light beams to trigger light-induced dielectrophoretic forces to pattern and sort cells on a chip. OET technology has been previously shown to be capable of performing parallel single cell manipulation over a large area. However, its throughput has been bottlenecked by the number of cells that can be imaged within the limited FOV of a conventional microscope objective lens. Integrating lensfree holographic imaging with OET solves this fundamental FOV barrier, while also creating a compact on-chip cell/particle manipulation platform. Using this unique platform, we have successfully demonstrated real-time interactive manipulation of thousands of single cells and micro-particles over an ultra-large area of e.g., 240 mm(2) (i.e. 17.96 mm × 13.52 mm). PMID:23661233

Huang, Kuo-Wei; Su, Ting-Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan; Chiou, Pei-Yu

2013-06-21

381

Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

2009-08-01

382

Magnetic Tweezers-Based 3D Microchannel Electroporation for High-Throughput Gene Transfection in Living Cells.  

PubMed

A novel high-throughput magnetic tweezers-based 3D microchannel electroporation system capable of transfecting 40 000 cells/cm(2) on a single chip for gene therapy, regenerative medicine, and intracellular detection of target mRNA for screening cellular heterogeneity is reported. A single cell or an ordered array of individual cells are remotely guided by programmable magnetic fields to poration sites with high (>90%) cell alignment efficiency to enable various transfection reagents to be delivered simultaneously into the cells. The present technique, in contrast to the conventional vacuum-based approach, is significantly gentler on the cellular membrane yielding >90% cell viability and, moreover, allows transfected cells to be transported for further analysis. Illustrating the versatility of the system, the GATA2 molecular beacon is delivered into leukemia cells to detect the regulation level of the GATA2 gene that is associated with the initiation of leukemia. The uniform delivery and a sharp contrast of fluorescence intensity between GATA2 positive and negative cells demonstrate key aspects of the platform for gene transfer, screening and detection of targeted intracellular markers in living cells. PMID:25469659

Chang, Lingqian; Howdyshell, Marci; Liao, Wei-Ching; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Lu, Wu; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Lee, L James; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

2014-12-01

383

Optical rotor capable of controlling clockwise and counterclockwise rotation in optical tweezers by displacing the trapping position.  

PubMed

A clockwise rotor and a counterclockwise rotor (a clockwise rotor placed upside down) are linked on the optical axis to control the rotation direction in optical tweezers by displacing the trapping (focus) position. The dependence of optical torque on the trapping position of this linked rotor is analyzed using an upward-directed focused beam as illumination, via an objective lens with a numerical aperture of 1.4, using a ray optics model under the condition that laser light is incident to not only the lower surfaces, but also to the side surfaces of both rotors. The rotation rate in water is also simulated for an SU-8 linked rotor with 20 microm diameter at a laser power of 200 mW, with rotor thickness as a parameter, by balancing the optical torque with the drag force evaluated using computational fluid dynamics. It is confirmed that the rotation direction changes from clockwise to counterclockwise with the displacement of the trapping position, that almost the same rotation speed is possible in both directions, and that both speeds increase, reach a maximum at a rotor thickness of 9 microm, and then decrease as the thickness increases. PMID:20357886

Ukita, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroki

2010-04-01

384

Rotation rate of a three-wing rotor illuminated by upward-directed focused beam in optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical torque and the trapping position (focal point) in optical tweezers are analyzed for upward-directed focused laser illumination using a ray optics model, considering that laser light is incident at not only the lower surface but also the side surface of a 3-wing rotor. The viscous drag force due to the pressure and the shearing stress on all surfaces of the rotor is evaluated using computational fluid dynamics. The rotation rate is simulated in water by balancing the optical torque with the drag force, resulting in 500 rpm for an SU-8 rotor with 20 ?m diameter at a laser power of 200 mW. The trapping position is estimated to be 7.6 ?m in the rotor with an upward-directed laser at 200 mW via an objective lens having a numerical aperture of 1.4. Both the rotation rate and the trapping position agree well with the values obtained in the experiment.

Ukita, Hiroo; Ohnishi, Takakazu; Nonohara, Yasunari

2008-03-01

385

Mechanical Characterization of Protein L in the Low-Force Regime by Electromagnetic Tweezers/Evanescent Nanometry  

PubMed Central

Mechanical manipulation at the single molecule level of proteins exhibiting mechanical stability poses a technical challenge that has been almost exclusively approached by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. However, due to mechanical drift limitations, AFM techniques are restricted to experimental recordings that last less than a minute in the high-force regime. Here we demonstrate a novel combination of electromagnetic tweezers and evanescent nanometry that readily captures the forced unfolding trajectories of protein L at pulling forces as low as 10 ? 15 pN. Using this approach, we monitor unfolding and refolding cycles of the same polyprotein for a period of time longer than 30 min. From such long-lasting recordings, we obtain ensemble averages of unfolding step sizes and rates that are consistent with single-molecule AFM data obtained at higher stretching forces. The unfolding kinetics of protein L at low stretching forces confirms and extends the observations that the mechanical unfolding rate is exponentially dependent on the pulling force within a wide range of stretching forces spanning from 13 pN up to 120 pN. Our experiments demonstrate a novel approach for the mechanical manipulation of single proteins for extended periods of time in the low-force regime. PMID:19413987

Liu, Ruchuan; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Sarkar, Atom; Badilla, Carmen L.; Fernández, Julio M.

2009-01-01

386

Mechanical unfolding of human telomere G-quadruplex DNA probed by integrated fluorescence and magnetic tweezers spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Single-molecule techniques facilitate analysis of mechanical transitions within nucleic acids and proteins. Here, we describe an integrated fluorescence and magnetic tweezers instrument that permits detection of nanometer-scale DNA structural rearrangements together with the application of a wide range of stretching forces to individual DNA molecules. We have analyzed the force-dependent equilibrium and rate constants for telomere DNA G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and unfolding, and have determined the location of the transition state barrier along the well-defined DNA-stretching reaction coordinate. Our results reveal the mechanical unfolding pathway of the telomere DNA GQ is characterized by a short distance (<1 nm) to the transition state for the unfolding reaction. This mechanical unfolding response reflects a critical contribution of long-range interactions to the global stability of the GQ fold, and suggests that telomere-associated proteins need only disrupt a few base pairs to destabilize GQ structures. Comparison of the GQ unfolded state with a single-stranded polyT DNA revealed the unfolded GQ exhibits a compacted non-native conformation reminiscent of the protein molten globule. We expect the capacity to interrogate macromolecular structural transitions with high spatial resolution under conditions of low forces will have broad application in analyses of nucleic acid and protein folding. PMID:23303789

Long, Xi; Parks, Joseph W; Bagshaw, Clive R; Stone, Michael D

2013-02-01

387

Disrupting Self-Assembly and Toxicity of Amyloidogenic Protein Oligomers by “Molecular Tweezers” - from the Test Tube to Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs – primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific “molecular tweezers” (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. PMID:23859557

Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

2014-01-01

388

A method for an approximate determination of a polymer-rich-domain concentration in phase-separated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aqueous solution by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy combined with optical tweezers.  

PubMed

The paper demonstrates that a confocal Raman microspectroscope combined with optical tweezers is a promising technique to estimate polymer concentration in polymer-rich domain in phase-separated-aqueous polymer solution. The sample polymer is poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) that is well-known as a representative thermo-responsive polymer. Optical tweezers can selectively trap the polymer-rich domain at the focal point in non-contact and non-intrusive modes. Such situation allows us to determine polymer concentration in the domain, which has been unclear due to a lack of appropriate analytical technique. It is applicable for a variety of other thermo-responsive polymers. PMID:25479874

Shoji, Tatsuya; Nohara, Riku; Kitamura, Noboru; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki

2015-01-01

389

The study of adhesive forces between the type-3 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae and collagen-coated surfaces by using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adherence to host cells by a bacterial pathogen is a critical step for establishment of infection. It will contribute greatly to the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis by studying the biological force between a single pair of pathogen and host cell. In our experiment, we use a calibrated optical tweezers system to detach a single Klebsiella pneumoniae, the pathogen, from collagen, the host. By gradually increasing the laser power of the optical tweezers until the Klebsiella pneumoniae is detached from the collagen, we obtain the magnitude of the adhesive force between them. This happens when the adhesive force is barely equal to the trapping force provided by the optical tweezers at that specific laser power. This study is important because Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which causes suppurative lesions, urinary and respiratory tract infections. It has been proved that type 3 fimbrial adhesin (mrkD) is strongly associated with the adherence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Besides, four polymorphic mrkD alleles: namely, mrkDv1, v2, v3, and v4, are typed by using RFLP. In order to investigate the relationship between the structure and the function for each of these variants, DNA fragments encoding the major fimbrial proteins mrkA, mrkB, mrkC are expressed together with any of the four mrkD adhesins in E. coli JM109. Our study shows that the E. coli strain carrying the mrkDv3 fimbriae has the strongest binding activity. This suggests that mrkDv3 is a key factor that enhances the adherence of Klebsiella Pneumoniae to human body.

Chan, Chiahan; Fan, Chia-chieh; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Long, Hsu

2004-10-01

390

Towards 3D modelling and imaging of infection scenarios at the single cell level using holographic optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy.  

PubMed

The analysis of dynamic interactions of microorganisms with a host cell is of utmost importance for understanding infection processes. We present a biophotonic holographic workstation that allows optical manipulation of bacteria by holographic optical tweezers and simultaneously monitoring of dynamic processes with quantitative multi-focus phase imaging based on self-interference digital holographic microscopy. Our results show that several bacterial cells, even with non-spherical shape, can be aligned precisely on the surface of living host cells and localized reproducibly in three dimensions. In this way a new label-free multipurpose device for modelling and quantitative analysis of infection scenarios at the single cell level is provided. PMID:22700281

Kemper, Björn; Barroso, Álvaro; Woerdemann, Mike; Dewenter, Lena; Vollmer, Angelika; Schubert, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; von Bally, Gert; Denz, Cornelia

2013-03-01

391

Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

Cheng, Chih-Ming [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuarn-Jang [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)] [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei-Ting [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chien-Ting [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Jing-Shin [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chien-Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

2011-01-07

392

Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

2007-02-01

393

A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes.  

PubMed

We report on the development of an experimental platform where epi-fluorescence microscopy and optical tweezers are combined with a microfluidic system to enable the analysis of rapid cytological responses in single cells. The microfluidic system allows two different media to be merged in a Y-shaped channel. Microscale channel dimensions ensure purely laminar flow and, as a result, an environmental gradient can be created between the two media. Optical tweezers are used to move a single trapped cell repeatedly between the different environments. The cell is monitored continuously by fluorescence microscopy during the experiment. In a first experiment on yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) we observed changes in cell volume as the cell was moved between environments with different osmolarity. This demonstrated that the platform allowed analysis of cytological alterations on a time scale shorter than 0.2 s. In a second experiment we observed the spatial migration of the Yap1p transcription factor fused to GFP as a cell was moved from an environment of low to high oxidative capacity. The system is universal allowing the response to numerous environmental changes to be studied on the sub second time scale in a variety of model cells. We intend to use the platform to study how the age of cells, their progression through the cell cycle, or their genetic landscape, alter their capacity (kinetics and amplitude) to respond to environmental changes. PMID:17180207

Eriksson, Emma; Enger, Jonas; Nordlander, Bodil; Erjavec, Nika; Ramser, Kerstin; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan; Nyström, Thomas; Hanstorp, Dag

2007-01-01

394

Safety and pharmacological characterization of the molecular tweezer CLR01 – a broad-spectrum inhibitor of amyloid proteins’ toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background The “molecular tweezer” CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of amyloidoses all without signs of toxicity. With the goal of developing CLR01 as a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer’s disease and other amyloidoses, here we studied its safety and pharmacokinetics. Methods Toxicity studies were performed in 2-m old wild-type mice. Toxicity was evaluated by serum chemical analysis, histopathology analysis, and qualitative behavioral analysis. Brain penetration studies were performed using radiolabeled CLR01 in both wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease at 2-m, 12-m, and 22-m of age. Brain levels were measured from 0.5?-?72 h post administration. Results Examination of CLR01’s effect on tubulin polymerization, representing normal protein assembly, showed disruption of the process only when 55-fold excess CLR01 was used, supporting the compound’s putative “process-specific” mechanism of action. A single-injection of 100 mg/kg CLR01 in mice – 2,500-fold higher than the efficacious dose reported previously, induced temporary distress and liver injury, but no mortality. Daily injection of doses up to 10 mg/kg did not produce any signs of toxicity, suggesting a high safety margin. The brain penetration of CLR01 was found to be 1?-?3% of blood levels depending on age. Though CLR01 was almost completely removed from the blood by 8 h, unexpectedly, brain levels of CLR01 remained steady over 72 h. Conclusion Estimation of brain levels compared to amyloid ?-protein concentrations reported previously suggest that the stoichiometry obtained in vitro and in vivo is similar, supporting the mechanism of action of CLR01. The favorable safety margin of CLR01, together with efficacy shown in multiple animal models, support further development of CLR01 as a disease-modifying agent for amyloidoses. PMID:24735982

2014-01-01

395

The complex folding behavior of HIV-1-protease monomer revealed by optical-tweezer single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

We have used optical tweezers and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the unfolding and refolding process of a stable monomeric form of HIV-1-protease (PR). We have characterized the behavior under tension of the native state (N), and that of the ensemble of partially folded (PF) conformations the protein visits en route to N, which collectively act as a long-lived state controlling the slow kinetic phase of the folding process. Our results reveal a rich network of unfolding events, where the native state unfolds either in a two-state manner or by populating an intermediate state I, while the PF state unravels through a multitude of pathways, underscoring its structural heterogeneity. Refolding of mechanically denatured HIV-1-PR monomers is also a multiple-pathway process. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed us to gain insight into possible conformations the protein adopts along the unfolding pathways, and provide information regarding possible structural features of the PF state. PMID:25194276

Caldarini, M; Sonar, P; Valpapuram, I; Tavella, D; Volonté, C; Pandini, V; Vanoni, M A; Aliverti, A; Broglia, R A; Tiana, G; Cecconi, C

2014-12-01

396

Fiber-integrated optical nano-tweezer based on a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna at the apex of a SNOM tip.  

PubMed

We propose a new concept of fiber-integrated optical nano-tweezer on the basis of a single bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) fabricated at the apex of a metal-coated SNOM tip. We demonstrate 3D optical trapping of 0.5 micrometer latex beads with input power which does not exceed 1 mW. Optical forces induced by the BNA on tip are then analyzed numerically. They are found to be 10(3) times larger than the optical forces of a circular aperture of the same area. Such a fiber nanostructure provides a new path for manipulating nano-objects in a compact, flexible and versatile architecture and should thus open promising perspectives in physical, chemical and biomedical domains. PMID:24787888

El Eter, Ali; Hameed, Nyha M; Baida, Fadi I; Salut, Roland; Filiatre, Claudine; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Atie, Elie; Bole, Samuel; Grosjean, Thierry

2014-04-21

397

Identification of stepped changes of binding affinity during interactions between the disintegrin rhodostomin and integrin ?IIb?3 in living cells using optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrin receptors serve as both mechanical links and signal transduction mediators between the cell and its environment. Experimental evidence demonstrates that conformational changes and lateral clustering of the integrin proteins may affect their binding to ligands and regulate downstream cellular responses; however, experimental links between the structural and functional correlations of the ligand-receptor interactions are not yet elucidated. In the present report, we utilized optical tweezers to measure the dynamic binding between the snake venom rhodostomin, coated on a microparticle and functioned as a ligand, and the membrane receptor integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) expressed on a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell. A progressive increase of total binding affinity was found between the bead and CHO cell in the first 300 sec following optical tweezers-guided contact. Further analysis of the cumulative data revealed the presence of "unit binding force" presumably exerted by a single rhodostomin-integrin pair. Interestingly, two such units were found. Among the measurements of less total binding forces, presumably taken at the early stage of ligand-receptor interactions, a unit of 4.15 pN per molecule pair was derived. This unit force dropped to 2.54 pN per molecule pair toward the later stage of interactions when the total binding forces were relatively large. This stepped change of single molecule pair binding affinity was not found when mutant rhodostomin proteins were used as ligands (a single unit of 1.81 pN per pair was found). These results were interpreted along with the current knowledge about the conformational changes of integrins during the "molecule activation" process.

Hsieh, Chia-Fen; Chang, Bo-Jui; Pai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Lin, Chi-Hung

2004-10-01

398

optical tweezers tractor beams  

E-print Network

. and Ormos P., Appl Phys Lett, 78, 249­251, 2001. plane polarized + static movies movie movie #12;sorting P.C. Splading and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003) protein capsules (2 and 4 ) #12;beyond plane waves

399

Quantum tweezer for atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a quantum dot well, created by a tightly focused laser beam, placed in the center of a BEC confined in a quasi-one-dimensional configuration [1]. We show that for certain parameters it is possible to extract a single atom from a BEC by raising the depth of the well at a given rate. This is possible due to rapid decoupling of the quantum dot and BEC reservoir when the state with a single atom in the dot is just below a chemical potential of the BEC. The analysis is done for realistic experimental parameters for a ^87Rb condensate where the density is limited by three-body collisions. The realization of atomic number states should enable many applications in quantum state engineering [2]. [1] Roberto B. Diener, Biao Wu, Mark G. Raizen, and Qian Niu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 070401 (2002). [2] Artem M. Dudarev, Roberto B. Diener, Biao Wu, Mark G. Raizen, Qian Niu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 010402 (2003).

Dudarev, Artem; Schreck, Florian; Meyrath, Todd; Hanssen, Jay; Chuu, Chih-Sung; Raizen, Mark; Niu, Qian

2004-05-01

400

Optoelectronic Tweezers Integrated with Lens-free Holographic Microscopy for Wide-field Interactive Cell and Particle Manipulation on a Chip  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an optoelectronic tweezer (OET) coupled to a lensfree holographic microscope for real-time interactive manipulation of cells and micro-particles over a large field-of-view (FOV). This integrated platform can record the holographic images of cells and particles over the entire active area of a CCD sensor array, perform digital image reconstruction to identify target cells, dynamically track the positions of cells and particles, and project light beams to trigger light-induced dielectrophoretic forces to pattern and sort cells on a chip. OET technology has been previously shown capable of performing parallel single cell manipulation over a large area. However, its throughput has been bottlenecked by the number of cells that can be imaged within the limited FOV of a conventional microscope objective lens. Integrating lensfree holographic imaging with OET solves this fundamental FOV barrier, while also creating a compact on-chip cell/particle manipulation platform. Using this unique platform, we have successfully demonstrated real-time interactive manipulation of thousands of single cells and micro-particles over an ultra-large area of e.g., 240 mm2 (i.e. 17.96 mm × 13.52 mm). PMID:23661233

Huang, Kuo-Wei; Su, Ting-Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan; Chiou, Pei-Yu

2013-01-01

401

General strategy for the synthesis of rigid weak-link approach platinum(II) complexes: tweezers, triple-layer complexes, and macrocycles.  

PubMed

Air-stable, heteroligated platinum(II) weak-link approach (WLA) tweezer and triple-layer complexes that possess P,X-Aryl hemilabile ligands (P^ = Ph2PCH2CH2-, X = chalcoethers or amines) have been synthesized via the halide-induced ligand rearrangement (HILR) reaction, using a one-pot, partial chloride-abstraction method. The approach is general and works with a variety of phosphine-based hemilabile ligands; when a P,S-Ph ligand is used as the relatively strongly chelating ligand, heteroligated complexes are formed cleanly when an ether- (P,O-Ph), amine- (P,N-Ph2), or fluorinated thioether-based (P,S-C6F4H) hemilabile ligand is used as the weakly chelating counterpart. The HILR reaction has also been used to synthesize bisplatinum(II) macrocycles free of oligomeric material without having to resort to the high-dilution conditions typical for macrocycle synthesis. This approach is complementary to the traditional WLA to the synthesis of macrocyclic complexes which typically proceeds via fully closed, chloride-free intermediates. The structures of the complexes may be toggled between semiopen (with only one chelating ligand) and fully closed (with both ligands chelating) via the abstraction and addition of chloride. PMID:23639203

Kennedy, Robert D; Machan, Charles W; McGuirk, C Michael; Rosen, Mari S; Stern, Charlotte L; Sarjeant, Amy A; Mirkin, Chad A

2013-05-20

402

Investigating Molecular Level Stress-Strain Relationships in Entangled F-Actin Networks by Combined Force-Measuring Optical Tweezers and Fluorescence Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actin is an important cytoskeletal protein involved in cell structure and motility, cancer invasion and metastasis, and muscle contraction. The intricate viscoelastic properties of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks allow for the many dynamic roles of actin, thus warranting investigation. Exploration of this unique stress-strain/strain-rate relationship in complex F-actin networks can also improve biomimetic materials engineering. Here, we use optical tweezers with fluorescence microscopy to study the viscoelastic properties of F-actin networks on the microscopic level. Optically trapped microspheres embedded in various F-actin networks are moved through the network using a nanoprecision piezoelectric stage. The force exerted on the microspheres by the F-actin network and subsequent force relaxation are measured, while a fraction of the filaments in the network are fluorescent-labeled to observe filament deformation in real-time. The dependence of the viscoelastic properties of the network on strain rates and amplitudes as well as F-actin concentration is quantified. This approach provides the much-needed link between induced force and deformation over localized regimes (tens of microns) and down to the single molecule level.

Lee, Kent; Henze, Dean; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M.

2013-03-01

403

Host-guest chemistry of aromatic-amide-linked bis- and tris-calix[4]pyrroles with bis-carboxylates and citrate anion.  

PubMed

A small library of polytopic receptors has been synthesized from meso-p- and meso-m-aminophenylcalix[4]pyrroles and p- or m-phthaloyl or trimesic chloride. Selected bis-carboxylates and the citrate anion, which either exhibit altered distribution profiles in cancerous tissues in comparison with healthy tissues or are metabolites of carcinogenic substances (for example, trans,trans-muconic acid from benzene exposure in humans) were tested as ligands. Varied affinities and binding modes were observed as a function of the number of calix[4]pyrroles and the topology of amide units present in each of the polytopic receptors. The structures of the 1:1 complexes derived by molecular modeling are in excellent agreement with the results of (1)H?NMR complexation studies. PMID:24402826

Cafeo, Grazia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Kohnke, Franz H; Papanikolaou, Georgia; Profumo, Aldo; Rosano, Camillo

2014-02-01

404

Biosynthesis of ketomycin. (II) biomimetic model for beta-lactamase catalysis: host-guest interactions in cyclodextrin-penicillin inclusion complex  

SciTech Connect

The antibiotic ketomycin is formed from shikimic acid via chorismic acid and prephenic acid. Phenylalanine and 2',5'-dihydrophenylalanine derived from shikimic acid are not intermediates in the biosynthesis. Degradation of ketomycin derived from (1,6-/sup 14/C)shikimic acid showed that prephenic acid is converted into ketomycin with stereospecific discrimination between the two enantiotopic edges of the ring, the pro-S-R edge giving rise to the C-2', C-3' side of the cyclohexane ring of ketomycin. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the action of ..beta..-lactam antibiotics is mainly ascribed to their ability to produce ..beta..-lactamase to cleave the ..beta..-lactam ring. It is essential to understand the molecular nature of ..beta..-lactamase-penicillin recognition for designing and formulating more effective ..beta..-lactam antibiotics. A biomimetic study of ..beta..-lactamase is therefore initiated. To meet the requirements of hydrophobic and serine protease characteristics of ..beta..-lactamase, ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin is chosen as a biomimetic model for ..beta..-lactamase. The structural specificity and the chemical dynamics of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-phenoxymethyl penicillin inclusion complex in solid state and in solution have been determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The spectral results strongly indicate that the phenyl portion of the phenoxymethyl penicillin forms a stable inclusion complex with the hydrophobic cavity of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin in solution as well as in the solid state. Kinetic studies followed by /sup 1/HNMR and HPLC analyses under alkaline condition have shown that the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mimics the catalytic function of serine of ..beta..-lactamase in the stereospecific hydrolysis of the ..beta..-lactam ring of phenoxymethyl penicillin.

Mak, H.W.

1986-01-01

405

A facile and flexible process of ?-cyclodextrin grafted on Fe 3O 4 magnetic nanoparticles and host-guest inclusion studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a kind of novel surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was fabricated by the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles surface modification with mono-6-deoxy-6-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-cyclodextrin (6-TsO-?-CD), which were employed to interact with uric acid and their behavior was investigated by electrochemical methods. The architecture has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which confirmed that cyclodextrins have been effectively functionalized on the surface of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. The analyses of vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) verified that the nanoparticles owned good magnetic property. The grafted ?-cyclodextrin on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles contributed to as a modified electrode for detecting uric acid with cyclic voltammograms. Electrochemical results revealed that the new materials could exhibit excellent molecules recognition ability and show high electrochemical response. The new nanoparticles simultaneously had unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles and cyclodextrins through combining their individual distinct advantages.

Zhu, Jie; He, Jiang; Du, Xiaoyan; Lu, Ruihua; Huang, Lizhen; Ge, Xia

2011-08-01

406

An induced-fit process through mechanical pivoting of aromatic walls in host-guest chemistry of calix[6]arene aza-cryptands.  

PubMed

The per-ipso-nitration of a TMPA-capped calix[6]arene has been achieved. The substitution of the six bulky tBu substituents for nitro groups has a strong impact on the behavior of the ligand during guest recognition. The complexation of the aza cap (by H(+) or Cu(+)) associated with the encapsulation of a guest triggers an induced-fit process leading to the loss of the cone conformation of the host in favor of alternate conformations. Such a "pivoting" response of one or two walls of the calixarene core induces a large mechanical motion of the corresponding aromatic units. This stands in strong contrast with the "breathing" phenomena previously identified with other calix[6]arene-based complexes that expand or shrink the size of their cone as a function of the guest. Because of the covalently attached rigid TMPA cap, three arene units of this new calixarene host have a restricted mobility, which forces it to respond in a different manner to a supramolecular stress. PMID:24658279

Brugnara, Andrea; Fusaro, Luca; Luhmer, Michel; Prangé, Thierry; Colasson, Benoit; Reinaud, Olivia

2014-05-01

407

Solvent-dependent host guest complexation of two homologous merocyanines by a water-soluble calix[8]arene: Spectroscopic analysis and structural calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulfonated calixarene I 8C 12 acts as a host for homologous merocyanines Mc1 and Mc2 in organic solvents, exhibiting neither selectivity towards the guest dyes nor solvent dependence of the complexation equilibria. In water, on the contrary, only the lower homologue, Mc1, is solubilized in the presence of the calixarene. A combination of UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic and photophysical analysis and MD structural simulation of the calixarene-dye complexes was employed to account for the observations, and suggests that a radical change in the complexation mode occurs upon moving from an organic to an aqueous environment.

Lodi, Andrea; Caselli, Monica; Casnati, Alessandro; Momicchioli, Fabio; Sansone, Francesco; Vanossi, Davide; Ponterini, Glauco

2007-11-01

408

Ternary europium mesoporous polymeric hybrid materials Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-15(16): host-guest construction, characterization and photoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent polymeric hybrid materials containing europium(III) complexes incorporated to mesoporous silica SBA-15/SBA-16 have been prepared by simple physical doping (impregnation) methods, followed by the addition polymerization reaction of the monomer 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) extending along the mesoporous channels. The precursor europium(III) complexes are synthesized by {beta}-diketonate ({beta}-diketonate=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (tta), hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac), trifluoroacetylacetonate (taa)) and monomer 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) coordinated to Eu{sup 3+}, and SBA-15/SBA-16 are obtained via a sol-gel process. After the physical doping and the polymerization reaction, the final ternary materials Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-15/Eu({beta}-diketonate){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-16 ({beta}-diketonate=tta, hfac, taa) are received. The physical properties and espeically the photoluminescence of these hybrids are characterized, and the XRD and BET results reveal that all of these hybrid materials have uniformity in the mesostructure. The detailed luminescence investigation on all the materials show that Eu(tta){sub 3}pvpd-SBA-16 have the highest luminescence intensity and the materials with taa ligands have longer lifetimes. - Grapical abstract: Luminescent mesoporous polymeric hybrid materials containing europium complexes hydrogen bonding to silica SBA-15/SBA-16 followed by the addition polymerization reaction of 4-vinylpyridine (vpd) extending along the mesoporous channels. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional mesoporous with simple impregnation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New lanthanide mesoporous hybrids with polymer ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence in visible region.

Gu Yanjing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yan Bing, E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li Yanyan [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-06-15

409

Insights into the effects of 2:1 "sandwich-type" crown-ether/metal-ion complexes in responsive host-guest systems.  

PubMed

In-depth investigations of the specific ion-responsive characteristics based on 2:1 "sandwich" structures and effects of crown ether cavity sizes on the metal-ion/crown-ether complexation are systematically performed with a series of PNIPAM-based responsive copolymers containing similar contents of crown ether units with different cavity dimensions (12-crown-4 (12C4), 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6)). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values of copolymers in deionized water shift to lower temperatures gradually when the crown ether contents increase or the ring sizes decrease from 18C6 to 12C4. With increasing the concentrations of alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) or the contents of pendent crown ether groups, the copolymers with different crown ether cavity sizes exhibit higher selectivity and sensitivity to corresponding cations. Importantly, the ion sensitivities of the copolymers in response to corresponding alkali metal ions increase dramatically with an increase in the crown ether cavity size. Interestingly, a linear relationship between the crown ether cavity size and the diameter of corresponding cation for the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich" complexes is found for the first time, from which the size of metal ions or other guests that able to form 2:1 "sandwich" complexes with crown ethers can be deduced. The results in this work are valuable and useful for further developments and practical applications of various crown-ether-based smart materials. PMID:25562507

Yu, Hai-Rong; Hu, Jia-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Chu, Liang-Yin

2015-01-29

410

Flavylium network of chemical reactions in confined media: modulation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavilium reactions by host-guest interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.  

PubMed

In moderately acidic aqueous solutions, flavylium compounds undergo a pH-, and in some cases, light-dependent array of reversible chemical reactions. This network can be described as a single acid-base reaction involving a flavylium cation (acidic form) and a mixture of basic forms (quinoidal base, hemiketal and cis and trans chalcones). The apparent pK'a of the system and the relative mole fractions of the basic forms can be modulated by the interaction with cucurbit[7]uril. The system is studied by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, flash photolysis, and steady-state irradiation. Of all the network species, the flavylium cation possesses the highest affinity for cucurbit[7]uril. The rate of interconversion between flavylium cation and the basic species (where trans-chalcone is dominant) is approximately nine times lower inside the cucurbit[7]uril. PMID:24862455

Basílio, Nuno; Pina, Fernando

2014-08-01

411

Host-guest chemistry of a water-soluble pillar[5]arene: evidence for an ionic-exchange recognition process and different complexation modes.  

PubMed

The complexation of an anionic guest by a cationic water-soluble pillararene is reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), (1)H?NMR, (1)H and (19)F DOSY, and STD NMR experiments were performed to characterize the complex formed under aqueous neutral conditions. The results of ITC and (1)H?NMR analyses showed the inclusion of the guest inside the cavity of the pillar[5]arene, with the binding constant and thermodynamic parameters influenced by the counter ion of the macrocycle. NMR diffusion experiments showed that although a fraction of the counter ions are expelled from the host cavity by exchange with the guest, a complex with both counter ions and the guest inside the pillararene is formed. The results also showed that at higher concentrations of guest in solution, in addition to the inclusion of one guest molecule in the cavity, the pillararene can also form an external complex with a second guest molecule. PMID:25110897

Gómez, Borja; Francisco, Vitor; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Garcia-Rio, Luis; Martín-Pastor, M; Paleo, M Rita; Sardina, F Javier

2014-09-15

412

Two steps forward, one step back: determining XPD helicase mechanism by single-molecule fluorescence and high-resolution optical tweezers  

PubMed Central

XPD-like helicases constitute a prominent DNA helicase family critical for many aspects of genome maintenance. These enzymes share a unique structural feature, an auxiliary domain stabilized by an iron-sulphur (FeS) cluster, and a 5?-3? polarity of DNA translocation and duplex unwinding. Biochemical analyses alongside two single-molecule approaches, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution optical tweezers, have shown how the unique structural features of XPD helicase and its specific patterns of substrate interactions tune the helicase for its specific cellular function and shape its molecular mechanism. The FeS domain forms a duplex separation wedge and contributes to an extended DNA binding site. Interaction within this site position the helicase in an orientation to unwind the duplex, control the helicase rate, and verify the integrity of the translocating strand. Consistent with its cellular role, processivity of XPD is limited and is defined by an idiosyncratic stepping kinetics. DNA duplex separation occurs in single base pair steps punctuated by frequent backward steps and conformational rearrangements of the protein-DNA complex. As such, the helicase in isolation mainly stabilizes spontaneous base pair opening and exhibits a limited ability to unwind stable DNA duplexes. The presence of a cognate ssDNA binding protein converts XPD into a vigorous helicase by destabilizing the upstream dsDNA as well as by trapping the unwound strands. Remarkably, the two proteins can co-exist on the same DNA strand without competing for binding. The current model of the XPD unwinding mechanism will be discussed along with possible modifications to this mechanism by the helicase interacting partners and unique features of such bio-medically important XPD-like helicases as FANCJ (BACH1), RTEL1 and CHLR1 (DDX11). PMID:24560558

Spies, Maria

2014-01-01

413

Two steps forward, one step back: determining XPD helicase mechanism by single-molecule fluorescence and high-resolution optical tweezers.  

PubMed

XPD-like helicases constitute a prominent DNA helicase family critical for many aspects of genome maintenance. These enzymes share a unique structural feature, an auxiliary domain stabilized by an iron-sulphur (FeS) cluster, and a 5'-3' polarity of DNA translocation and duplex unwinding. Biochemical analyses alongside two single-molecule approaches, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution optical tweezers, have shown how the unique structural features of XPD helicase and its specific patterns of substrate interactions tune the helicase for its specific cellular function and shape its molecular mechanism. The FeS domain forms a duplex separation wedge and contributes to an extended DNA binding site. Interactions within this site position the helicase in an orientation to unwind the duplex, control the helicase rate, and verify the integrity of the translocating strand. Consistent with its cellular role, processivity of XPD is limited and is defined by an idiosyncratic stepping kinetics. DNA duplex separation occurs in single base pair steps punctuated by frequent backward steps and conformational rearrangements of the protein-DNA complex. As such, the helicase in isolation mainly stabilizes spontaneous base pair opening and exhibits a limited ability to unwind stable DNA duplexes. The presence of a cognate ssDNA binding protein converts XPD into a vigorous helicase by destabilizing the upstream dsDNA as well as by trapping the unwound strands. Remarkably, the two proteins can co-exist on the same DNA strand without competing for binding. The current model of the XPD unwinding mechanism will be discussed along with possible modifications to this mechanism by the helicase interacting partners and unique features of such bio-medically important XPD-like helicases as FANCJ (BACH1), RTEL1 and CHLR1 (DDX11). PMID:24560558

Spies, Maria

2014-08-01

414

Synthesis, structure and host-guest properties of (Et4N)2[Sn(IV)Ca(II)(chloranilate)4], a new type of robust microporous coordination polymer with a 2D square grid structure.  

PubMed

Reaction of chloranilic acid with SnCl(4), Ca(NO(3))(2) and Et(4)NBF(4) in aqueous acetone yields (Et(4)N)(2)[Sn(IV)Ca(II)(can)(4)]. 2 Me(2)CO which contains 2D coordination polymer sheets of composition [Sn(IV)Ca(II)(can)(4)](2-). Both metals are 8-coordinate and act as 4-connecting nodes to form a square grid containing "square" holes. The anionic sheets are electrostatically bound together by Et(4)N(+) cations, which align the sheets so that holes are arranged directly above and below each other, generating channels perpendicular to the sheets. The acetone is easily removed, after which single crystal character is retained. Crystallographic studies indicate that (Et(4)N)(2)[Sn(IV)Ca(II)(can)(4)] is able to sorb one molecule per square hole of either acetonitrile, or CS(2). Gas sorption measurements indicate that at a pressure of 2000 kPa each square cavity sorbs two CO(2) molecules at 273 K, approximately one molecule of N(2) at 195 K and approximately 2.4 molecules of H(2) at 77 K. PMID:21918755

Abrahams, Brendan F; Grannas, Martin J; Hudson, Timothy A; Hughes, Steven A; Pranoto, Naomi H; Robson, Richard

2011-12-01

415

Host–guest-driven color change in water: influence of cyclodextrin on the structure of a copper complex of poly((4-hydroxy-3-(pyridin-3-yldiazenyl)phenethyl)methacrylamide-co-dimethylacrylamide)  

PubMed Central

Summary In the present work we report the synthesis of poly((4-hydroxy-3-(pyridin-3-yldiazenyl)phenethyl)methacrylamide-co-dimethylacrylamide) and its reversible optical and complex-forming properties due to copper and cyclodextrin (CD) interactions. Color changing effects are characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and the supramolecular behavior is investigated by dynamic light scattering experiments. PMID:25383119

Retzmann, Nils; Maatz, Gero

2014-01-01

416

Iptycene-derived crown ether hosts for molecular recognition and self-assembly.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: Synthetic macrocyclic hosts have played key roles in the development of host-guest chemistry. Crown ethers are a class of macrocyclic molecules with unique flexible structures. They have served as the first generation of synthetic hosts, and researchers have extensively studied them in molecular recognition. However, the flexible structures of simple crown ethers and their relatively limited modes of complexation with guests have limited the further applications of these molecules. In recent years, researchers have moved toward fabricating interlocking molecules, supramolecular polymers, and other assemblies with specific structures and properties. Therefore, researchers have developed more complex crown ether-based macrocyclic hosts with multicavity structures and multicomplexation modes that provide more diverse and sophisticated host-guest systems. In this Account, we summarize our research on the synthesis and characterization of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts, their use as host molecules, and their applications in self-assembled complexes. Iptycenes including triptycenes and pentiptycenes are a class of aromatic compounds with unique rigid three-dimensional structures. As a result, they are promising building blocks for the synthesis of novel macrocyclic hosts and the construction of novel self-assembled complexes with specific structures and properties. During the last several years, we have designed and synthesized a new class of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts including macrotricyclic polyethers, molecular tweezer-like hosts, and tritopic tris(crown ether) hosts, which are all composed of rigid iptycene building blocks linked by flexible crown ether chains. We have examined the complexation behavior of these hosts with different types of organic guest molecules. Unlike with conventional crown ethers, the combination of iptycene moieties and crown ether chains provides the iptycene-derived crown ether hosts with complexation properties that differ based on the structure of the guests. The rigid iptycene moieties within these synthetic host molecules both maintain their inherent three-dimensional cavities and generate multicavity structures. The flexible crown ether chains allow the iptycene-derived hosts to adjust their conformations as they encapsulate guest molecules. Moreover, the expanded complexation properties also allow the host-guest systems based on the iptycene-derived crown ethers to respond to multiple external stimuli, resulting in a variety of supramolecular assemblies. Finally, we also describe the construction of mechanically interlocked self-assemblies, molecular switches/molecular machines, and supramolecular polymers using these new host molecules. We expect that the unique structural features and diverse complexation properties of these iptycene-derived crown ether hosts will lead to increasing interest in this field and in supramolecular chemistry overall. PMID:24877894

Han, Ying; Meng, Zheng; Ma, Ying-Xian; Chen, Chuan-Feng

2014-07-15

417

Synthesis and characterization of transition metal clusters: From the isolation of ligand-stabilized solid fragments to the tuning of magnetic anisotropy and host-guest selectivity, and, Approaches to science teaching: Development of an observation instrument with a measurement model based on item response theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. The work presented herein describes efforts to develop general techniques for the synthesis of transition metal clusters and the manipulation of their properties. In Chapter 2, it is demonstrated that a modified metal atom reactor allows for the vaporization, passivation, and isolation of metal-chalcogenide clusters from their parent binary solids. Among the clusters produced by this method were Cr6S8(PEt3)6, Fe4S 4(PEt3)4, Co6S8(PEt 3)6, Cu6S4(PEt3)6, Cu12S6(PEt3)8, and Cu26Se 13(PEt3)14. To create single-molecule magnets with higher demagnetization barriers, we are developing metal-cyanide systems which exhibit highly adjustable magnetic behavior. Chapter 3 reports an attempt to introduce magnetic anisotropy into a MnCr6 cluster. Replacement of CrIII with Mo III resulted in the assembly of K[(Me3tacn)6MnMo 6(CN)18](ClO4)3 (Me3tacn = N,N',N? -trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane)---the first well-documented example of a cyano-bridged single-molecule magnet. Recently, it was demonstrated that replacing Me3tacn with the less sterically hindering tach (tach = cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane) in the face-centered cubic cluster [(tach)8Cr8Ni 6(CN)24]Br12 provides greater access to the cluster cavity. Chapter 4 describes my efforts to probe the selectivity of this cluster toward inclusion of various guests. Part II. Successful implementation of student-centered curricula reforms requires the creation of a measurement instrument for monitoring whether the curricula are being used as intended. The creation and development of an observation instrument would greatly contribute to this effort. To develop a theoretically sound construct map, it is necessary to review the literature and conduct our own investigations of approaches to science teaching. Chapter 2 presents the findings of these investigations and their contributions to our understanding of the construct. Using these findings, the Science Teaching Observation Protocol (STOP) was created and designed to measure two subconstructs: intentions and strategies. Chapter 3 details the first pilot test of STOP and analysis of the collected data. In Chapter 4, the theoretical shortcomings of the instrument are analyzed and discussed. Modified versions of the intention and strategy subconstruct maps are presented.

Hee, Allan George

418

MAGNETIC TWEEZERS FOR THE STUDY OF DNA TRACKING MOTORS  

PubMed Central

Single-molecule manipulation methods have opened a new vista on the study of molecular motors. Here we describe the use of magnetic traps for the investigation of the mechanism of DNA based motors, in particular helicases and translocases. PMID:20627163

Manosas, Maria; Meglio, Adrien; Spiering, Michelle M.; Ding, Fangyuan; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Barre, François-Xavier; Saleh, Omar A.; Allemand, Jean François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

2011-01-01

419

On chip optical tweezers for large scale trapping of microparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a cost-effective and power efficient approach for on-chip large-scale trapping and sorting of particles in microchamber. Based on the Talbot self-imaging effect in Fresnel region, we make use of a 2D chessboard structure to create a 3D interconnected optical lattice near the emergent surface of the element without adopting an external optical projection configuration. The chessboard structure is designed to be a binary phase grating and fabricated with electron-beam lithography. As no focusing lens projections system is employed, the presented system enables a larger working area without sacrificing the advantage of high resolution. Theoretically the created optical lattice allows exponential size selectivity for particles sorting. We have experimentally demonstrated simultaneous trapping of hundreds of microparticles in a large regular array. Furthermore, in microfluidic chamber we proved the all-optical continuous separation of microparticles with different sizes.

Sun, Yuyang; Yuan, Xiaocong; Ong, Lin Seng; Bu, Jing

2007-02-01

420

On chip optical tweezers for large scale trapping of microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cost-effective and power efficient approach for on-chip large-scale trapping and sorting of particles in microchamber. Based on the Talbot self-imaging effect in Fresnel region, we make use of a 2D chessboard structure to create a 3D interconnected optical lattice near the emergent surface of the element without adopting an external optical projection configuration. The chessboard structure is

Yuyang Sun; Xiaocong Yuan; Lin Seng Ong; Jing Bu

2007-01-01

421

OPTICAL TWEEZERSOPTICAL TWEEZERS FelixFelix RitortRitort  

E-print Network

#12;Minitweezers: Experimental set-up C. Bustamante and S. B. Smith et al., US Patent,7, 133, 132, B2 (condensation, regulation) · Protein/Protein interactions (ligand- receptor binding) · Molecular motors

Ritort, Felix

422

Cleaved fiber optic double nanohole optical tweezers for trapping nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the trapping of single 20 and 40 nm polystyrene spheres at the cleaved end of a fiber optic with a double nanohole aperture in gold and without any microscope optics. An optical transmission increase of 15% indicates a trapping event for the 40 nm particle, and the jump is 2% for the 20 nm particle. This modular technique can be used to replace those used with current optical trapping setups that require complicated free space optics and frequent calibration, with one that is modular and requires no free space optics. This simple arrangement with the potential for fiber translation is of interest for future biosensor and optical nano-pipette devices. PMID:25490482

Gelfand, Ryan M; Wheaton, Skylar; Gordon, Reuven

2014-11-15

423

Characterization of nucleosome unwrapping within chromatin fibers using magnetic tweezers.  

PubMed

Nucleosomal arrays fold into chromatin fibers and the higher-order folding of chromatin plays a strong regulatory role in all processes involving DNA access, such as transcription and replication. A fundamental understanding of such regulation requires insight into the folding properties of the chromatin fiber in molecular detail. Despite this, the structure and the mechanics of chromatin fibers remain highly disputed. Single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments have the potential to provide such insight, but interpretation of the data has been hampered by the large variations in experimental force-extension traces. Here we explore the possibility that chromatin fibers are composed of both single-turn and fully wrapped histone octamers. By characterizing the force-dependent behavior of in vitro reconstituted chromatin fibers and reanalyzing existing data, we show the unwrapping of the outer turn of nucleosomal DNA at 3 pN. We present a model composed of two freely-jointed chains, which reveals that nucleosomes within the chromatin fiber show identical force-extension behavior to mononucleosomes, indicating that nucleosome-nucleosome interactions are orders-of-magnitude smaller than previously reported and therefore can be overcome by thermal fluctuations. We demonstrate that lowering the salt concentration externally increases the wrapping energy significantly, indicative of the electrostatic interaction between the wrapped DNA and the histone octamer surface. We propose that the weak interaction between nucleosomes could allow easy access to nucleosomal DNA, while DNA unwrapping from the histone core could provide a stable yet dynamic structure during DNA maintenance. PMID:25028879

Chien, Fan-Tso; van der Heijden, Thijn

2014-07-15

424

Supplementary information for: Electromagnetic Torque Tweezers: A Versatile Approach  

E-print Network

of custom-built Helmholtz coils made from PMMA spools that hold coils of enamel- insulated copper wire (1 is applied. To protect the coils from high temperatures due to resistive heating, each pair is fitted with a protection circuit (194883 - 89, Conrad Electronic) that cuts power to the coils above a set temperature

Dekker, Nynke