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Sample records for zn-porphyrin tweezer host-guest

  1. The Design of Molecular Hosts, Guests, and Their Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the origins, definitions, tools, and principles of host-guest chemistry. Gives examples of chiral recognition in complexation, of partial transacylase mimics, of caviplexes, and of a synthetic molecular cell. (Author/RT)

  2. Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host-guest chemistry

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M.; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-12-16

    assembly of pre-formed polymeric materials to form multi-layer amphiphilic microcapsules has not yet been demon- strated. Supramolecular host-guest chemistry has been ap- plied in the preparation of various self-assembled structures, including polymers33... . Osmotic-pressure- controlled concentration of colloidal particles in thin-shelled capsules. Nat. Commun. 5, 3068 (2014). [16] Jiao, D., Geng, J., Loh, X. J., Das, D., Lee, T.- C., and Scherman, O. A. Supramolecular peptide amphiphile vesicles through host...

  3. Viologen cyclophanes: redox controlled host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Berville, Mathilde; Karmazin, Lydia; Wytko, Jennifer A; Weiss, Jean

    2015-10-20

    Viologens can exist in three redox states varying from dicationic to neutral. This work emphasizes the control of the host-guest properties in bis-viologen cyclophanes. Two flexible cyclophanes were prepared by a cyclisation method sensitive to the odd/even number of carbons in the flexible chains linking two viologens. C5 and C7 cyclophanes were characterised by X-ray diffraction in their tetracationic state and their diradical dicationic state. In the presence of tetrathiafulvalene or methyl viologen as guests, inclusion complexes were obtained, including a mixed valence species. PMID:26356351

  4. A new topological parameter for monitoring subtle aggregation events in host-guest inclusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novato, Willian T. G.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.

    2012-02-01

    Supramolecular complexes with cyclodextrin (CD) have been the subject of considerable research in the material and life sciences. The dynamics of systems are difficult to characterise, therefore, knowledge of the molecular features governing the host-guest equilibrium might aid in the design and practical application of the resulting inclusion complexes. In this Letter, we present a new topological parameter based on simple trigonometric considerations to be used to monitor subtle host-guest inclusion events along the molecular dynamics trajectory. The new topological descriptor, called vector-?, was applied to amphetamine@?/?-CD inclusion complexes, providing interesting insights on the host-guest equilibrium.

  5. Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host-guest chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M.; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-12-01

    The self-assembly of nanoscale materials to form hierarchically ordered structures promises new opportunities in drug delivery, as well as magnetic materials and devices. Herein, we report a simple means to promote the self-assembly of two polymers with functional groups at a water-chloroform interface using microfluidic technology. Two polymeric layers can be assembled and disassembled at the droplet interface using the efficiency of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host-guest supramolecular chemistry. The microcapsules produced are extremely monodisperse in size and can encapsulate target molecules in a robust, well-defined manner. In addition, we exploit a dendritic copolymer architecture to trap a small hydrophilic molecule in the microcapsule skin as cargo. This demonstrates not only the ability to encapsulate small molecules but also the ability to orthogonally store both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargos within a single microcapsule. The interfacially assembled supramolecular microcapsules can benefit from the diversity of polymeric materials, allowing for fine control over the microcapsule properties.

  6. A semiconducting organic radical cationic host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Sampath, Srinivasan; Late, Dattatray J; Barnes, Jonathan C; Kleinman, Samuel L; Valley, Nicholas; Hartlieb, Karel J; Liu, Zhichang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-11-27

    The self-assembly and solid-state semiconducting properties of single crystals of a trisradical tricationic complex composed of the diradical dicationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(2(•+))) ring and methyl viologen radical cation (MV(•+)) are reported. An organic field effect transistor incorporating single crystals of the CBPQT(2(•+))?MV(•+) complex was constructed using lithographic techniques on a silicon substrate and shown to exhibit p-type semiconductivity with a mobility of 0.05 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The morphology of the crystals on the silicon substrate was characterized using scanning electron microscopy which revealed that the complexes self-assemble into "molecular wires" observable by the naked-eye as millimeter long crystalline needles. The nature of the recognition processes driving this self-assembly, radical-radical interactions between bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY(•+)), was further investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical investigations of the vibrational modes, and was supported by X-ray structural analyses of the complex and its free components in both their radical cationic and dicationic redox states. These spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the bond order of the BIPY(•+) radical cationic units of host and guest components is not changed upon complexation, an observation which relates to its conductivity in the solid-state. We envision the modularity inherent in this kind of host-guest complexation could be harnessed to construct a library of custom-made electronic organic materials tailored to fit the specific needs of a given electronic application. PMID:23078281

  7. Guest Chain ``Melting'' in Incommensurate Host-Guest Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Emma; Munro, Keith; McMahon, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    Upon increasing pressure the group-I elements transform from close-packed structures (bcc and fcc) to a series of low-symmetry complex structures. Residing in the middle of the group, potassium (K) has numerous structures in common with its neighbours, and, in fact, is remarkably structurally similar to sodium (Na) and rubidium (Rb). For example, the post-fcc transition in K is to a composite incommensurate host-guest structure (tI19), and the host structure of this phase is isostructural with that found in Na and Rb. Previously we have reported that below 16.7GPa, the Bragg peaks from the guest component of tI19-Rb broaden considerably, signalling a loss of the inter-chain correlation, or a ``melting'' of the chains. Furthermore, in tI19-Na above 125 GPa, the Bragg peaks from the guest component are also broadened, suggesting that the guest chains are also nearly ``melted.'' During studies of the melting curve of K, we observed that the guest peaks from tI19-K broaden dramatically on heating. Here we report single-crystal, quasi-single-crystal, and powder synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements of tI19-K to 50 GPa and 800 K, which allowed a detailed study of this chain ``melting'' transition. The order-disorder transition is clearly visible over a 30 GPa pressure range, and there are significant changes in the gradient of the phase boundary, which may be influenced by the nature of the guest structure. Furthermore, data extending the melting curve will also be presented.

  8. Host-Guest Carbon Dots for Enhanced Optical Properties and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ping; Lu, Zhuomin; Yang, Fan; Meziani, Mohammed J.; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Liu, Yun; Qian, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dots, generally small carbon nanoparticles with various forms of surface passivation, have achieved the performance level of semiconductor quantum dots in the green spectral region, but their absorption and fluorescence in red/near-IR are relatively weaker. Conceptually similar to endofullerenes, host-guest carbon dots were designed and prepared with red/near-IR dyes encapsulated as guest in the carbon nanoparticle core. Beyond the desired enhancement in optical properties, the host-guest configuration may significantly broaden the field of carbon dots. PMID:26196598

  9. Determination of association constant of host-guest supramolecular complex (molecular recognition of carbamazepine, antiseizure drug, with calix(4)arene).

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, C; Jayabal, P; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-12-01

    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest, inclusion complex formed between p-t-butyl calix(4)arene which is a supramolecule, and the antiseizure drug, carbamazepine was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(4)arene has been used as a host molecule and carbamazepine as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(4)arene with carbamazepine. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the association constant were determined. An interesting 1:2 stochiometric host-guest complex was formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed. Molecular dimension of the host molecule plays a vital role in the formation of the host-guest stochiometric complexes. PMID:26163795

  10. Supramolecular Chemistry: Induced Circular Dichroism to Study Host-Guest Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendicuti, Francisco; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students obtain information about the structure of a host-guest complex from the interpretation of circular dichroism measurements. The value and sign of the induced circular dichroism (ICD) on an achiral chromophore guest when it complexes with a cyclodextrin can be related to the guest penetration and its…

  11. Engineering responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest molecular recognition for functional applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: All living organisms and soft matter are intrinsically responsive and adaptive to external stimuli. Inspired by this fact, tremendous effort aiming to emulate subtle responsive features exhibited by nature has spurred the invention of a diverse range of responsive polymeric materials. Conventional stimuli-responsive polymers are constructed via covalent bonds and can undergo reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, or both in response to a variety of external stimuli. They have been imparted with a variety of emerging applications including drug and gene delivery, optical sensing and imaging, diagnostics and therapies, smart coatings and textiles, and tissue engineering. On the other hand, in comparison with molecular chemistry held by covalent bonds, supramolecular chemistry built on weak and reversible noncovalent interactions has emerged as a powerful and versatile strategy for materials fabrication due to its facile accessibility, extraordinary reversibility and adaptivity, and potent applications in diverse fields. Typically involving more than one type of noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic association, electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, and ?-? stacking), host-guest recognition refers to the formation of supramolecular inclusion complexes between two or more entities connected together in a highly controlled and cooperative manner. The inherently reversible and adaptive nature of host-guest molecular recognition chemistry, stemming from multiple noncovalent interactions, has opened up a new platform to construct novel types of stimuli-responsive materials. The introduction of host-guest chemistry not only enriches the realm of responsive materials but also confers them with promising new applications. Most intriguingly, the integration of responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest recognition motifs will endow the former with further broadened responsiveness to external stimuli and accordingly more sophisticated functions. In this Account, we summarize recent progress in the field of responsive polymeric materials containing host-guest recognition motifs with selected examples and highlight their versatile functional applications, whereas small molecule-oriented host-guest supramolecular systems are excluded. We demonstrate how the introduction of host-guest chemistry into conventional polymer systems can modulate their responsive modes to external stimuli. Moreover, the responsive specificity and selectivity of polymeric systems can also be inherited from the host-guest recognition motifs, and these features provide extra advantages in terms of function integration. The following discussions are categorized in terms of design and functions, namely, host-guest chemistry toward the fabrication of responsive polymers and assemblies, optical sensing and imaging, drug and gene delivery, and self-healing materials. A concluding remark on future developments is also presented. We wish this prosperous field would incur more original and evolutionary ideas and benefit fundamental research and our daily life in a more convenient way. PMID:24742049

  12. Biotin-?-cyclodextrin: a new host-guest system for the immobilization of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Michael; Singh, Meenakshi; Cosnier, Serge

    2012-08-28

    The formation of stable supramolecular interactions between biotin and ?-cyclodextrin was studied. An association constant of 3 × 10(2) M(-1) could be determined by NMR measurements by mapping the high field shift differences of the ?-cyclodextrin protons (H-3) at different biotin concentrations. With the aim to demonstrate a new alternative for the immobilization of bioreceptors, biotin and ?-cyclodextrin tagged biomolecules were immobilized on transducer surfaces, which were functionalized with the correspondent host-guest partner. The reliability of this new affinity system was investigated using two enzymes (glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase) as biomolecule models. This supramolecular inclusion complex shows clear advantages to the classic biotin-(strept)avidin-biotin system due to a detrimental effect of the additional avidin layer reducing the transduction efficiency. A 7-fold increase in the maximum current density and an almost 20 times higher sensitivity were exhibited by the immobilized biological layer obtained using this new host-guest system. PMID:22860511

  13. Stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on the recognition of cryptands by organic guests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Xuzhou; Huang, Feihe; Niu, Zhenbin; Gibson, Harry W

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: As the star compounds in host-guest chemistry, the syntheses of crown ethers proclaimed the birth of supramolecular chemistry. Crown ether-based host-guest systems have attracted great attention in self-assembly processes because of their good selectivity, high efficiency, and convenient responsiveness, enabling their facile application to the "bottom-up" approach for construction of functional molecular aggregates, such as artificial molecular machines, drug delivery materials, and supramolecular polymers. Cryptands, as preorganized derivatives of crown ethers, not only possess the above-mentioned properties but also have three-dimensional spatial structures and higher association constants compared with crown ethers. More importantly, the introduction of the additional arms makes cryptand-based host-guest systems responsive to more stimuli, which is crucial for the construction of adaptive or smart materials. In the past decade, we designed and synthesized crown ether-based cryptands as a new type of host for small organic guests with the purpose of greatly increasing the stabilities of the host-guest complexes and preparing mechanically interlocked structures and large supramolecular systems more efficiently while retaining or increasing their stimuli-responsiveness. Organic molecules such as paraquat derivatives and secondary ammonium salts have been widely used in the fabrication of functional supramolecular aggregates. Many host molecules including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils, pillararenes, and cryptands have been used in the preparation of self-assembled structures with these guest molecules, but among them cryptands exhibit the best stabilities with paraquat derivatives in organic solvents due to their preorganization and additional and optimized binding sites. They enable the construction of sophisticated molecules or supramolecules in high yields, affording a very efficient way to fabricate stimuli-responsive functional supramolecular systems. This Account mainly focuses on the application of cryptands in the construction of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and stimuli-responsive host-guest systems such as molecular switches and supramolecular polymers due to their good host-guest properties. These cryptands are bicyclic derivatives of crown ethers, including dibenzo-24-crown-8, bis(m-phenylene)-26-crown-8, dibenzo-30-crown-10, and bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10. The length of the third arm has a very important influence on the binding strength of these cryptands with organic guests, because it affects not only the size fit between the host and the guest but also the distances and angles that govern the strengths of the noncovalent interactions between the host and the guest. For example, for bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10-based cryptands, a third arm of nine atoms is the best. The environmental responsiveness of these cryptand-based host-guest systems arises from either the crown ether units or the third arms. For example, a dibenzo-24-crown-8 unit introduces potassium cation responsiveness and an azobenzene group on the third arm imbues photoresponsiveness. We believe that studies on stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on cryptands and organic guests will contribute significantly to future research on molecular devices, supramolecular polymers, and other functional supramolecular materials. PMID:24804805

  14. Self-healing supramolecular gels formed by crown ether based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Chen, Jianzhuang; Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Huang, Feihe

    2012-07-01

    Automatic repair: a polymer with pendent dibenzo[24]crown-8 units (purple in picture) was cross-linked by two bisammonium salts (green) to form two supramolecular gels based on host-guest interactions. These two gels are stimuli-responsive materials that respond to changes of the pH value and are also self-healing materials, as can be seen by eye and as evidenced by rheological data. PMID:22653895

  15. Incommensurate host-guest structures in compressed elements: Hume—Rothery effects as origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyareva, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Discovery of the incommensurate structure in the element Ba under pressure 15 years ago was followed by findings of a series of similar structures in other compressed elements. Incommensurately modulated structures of the host-guest type consist of a tetragonal host structure and a guest structure. The guest structure forms chains of atoms embedded in the channels of host atoms so that the axial ratio of these subcells along the c axis is not rational. Two types of the host-guest structures have been found so far: with the host cells containing 8 atoms and 16 atoms; in these both types the guest cells contain 2 atoms. These crystal structures contain a non-integer number of atoms in their unit cell: tI11* in Bi, Sb, As, Ba, Sr, Sc and tI19* in Na, K, Rb. We consider here a close structural relationship of these host-guest structures with the binary alloy phase Au3Cd5-tI32. This phase is related to the family of the Hume-Rothery phases that is stabilized by the Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interaction. From similar considerations for alkali and alkaline-earth elements a necessary condition for structural stability emerges in which the valence electrons band overlaps with the upper core electrons and the valence electron count increases under compression.

  16. Water-soluble host-guest system from ?-cyclodextrin as a fluorescent sensor for aluminium ions: synthesis and sensing studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z C; Zhu, W P; Chen, Y H; Li, Y X; Ding, Y J; Yang, W J; Li, K

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a simple small molecule (L) based on 4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and carbohydrazide has been synthesized and characterized. Moreover, under ultrasonic conditions, a host-guest system with ?-cyclodextrin and L was obtained. According to the hybridization process, the host-guest system showed excellent water solubility. The investigation of the fluorescence spectra revealed that the host-guest system exhibited a characteristic fluorescence behavior toward Al(3+) in a pure water environment. Upon addition of Al(3+), the host-guest system showed a strong blue fluorescence, which resulted from the fluorophore of L after the coordination of ?-CD-L and Al(3+) with a high binding constant (k = 3.1626 × 10(11) M(-1)). In addition, SEM images demonstrated that the host-guest system expressed good crystallization behavior. Fluorescence microscope images of onion epidermal cells with ?-CD-L-Al(3+) proved that the water-soluble host-guest system possessed a high ability for cell permeability. PMID:26328668

  17. Modular self-assembly, characterization, and host-guest chemistry of nanoscale organometallic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, J.; Kuehl, C.J.; Stang, P.J.; Muddiman, D.C.; Smith, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The supramolecular synthesis and chemistry of organic macrocycles has been the focus of considerable study for over thirty years. In contrast, the chemistry of analogous inorganic and organometallic macrocycles is in it infancy; little is know about the stability, spectroscopic and physical properties, and chemistry of these species. We will report on the design of several unique supramolecular macrocycles and the characterization of these species by a range of spectroscopic techniques, including electrospray-ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry. Preliminary data concerning the host-guest chemistry of these macrocycles will also be presented.

  18. Straightforward functionalization of breath figures: Simultaneous orthogonal host-guest and pH-responsive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sanz de León, Alberto; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Gallardo, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Bernard, Julien; Rodríguez-Hernández, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report the design and preparation of multireversible smart porous surfaces combining two different abilities. On the one hand, either neutral or negatively charged surfaces can be formed by formation/disruption of host-guest complexes. On the other hand, these surfaces have the capability of alternating negatively and positively charge upon complexation of a polycation. Moreover, these two functionalization steps were demonstrated to be reversible so that the initial surface can be recovered and employed again. For this purpose, first, a copolymer was prepared by polymerization of two different monomers, i.e. styrene (S) and a styrene modified with cyclodextrin (SCD) by click chemistry. Blends of this copolymer and polystyrene were employed to fabricate porous surfaces with controlled pore sizes and chemical distribution by the breath figures technique. More precisely, the cyclodextrin (CD) moieties, specifically located inside the holes of the surface, interact reversibly with adamantane end-terminated poly(acrylic acid) chain (Ada-PAA85). The latter served to establish electrostatic interaction with a polycation (poly-L-lysine, PLL), leading to positively charged surface. These interactions, both host-guest and electrostatic, can be inverted obtaining again the original surface, proving the full reversibility of the system. PMID:26196710

  19. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene/?-cyclodextrin: host-guest interactions for electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilun; Leng, Xuanye; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Chengguo; Fu, Lei

    2015-07-28

    Host-guest interactions, especially those between cyclodextrins (CDs, including ?-, ?- and ?-CD) and various guest molecules, exhibit a very high supramolecular recognition ability. Thus, they have received considerable attention in different fields. These specific interactions between host and guest molecules are promising for biosensing and clinical detection. However, there is a lack of an ideal electrode substrate for CDs to increase their performance in electrochemical sensing. Herein, we propose a new 3D nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) based electrochemical sensor, taking advantage of the superior sensitivity of host-guest interactions. Our 3D-NG was fabricated by a template-directed chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, and it showed a large specific surface area, a high capacity for biomolecules and a high electron transfer efficiency. Thus, for the first time, we took 3D-NG as an electrode substrate for ?-CD to establish a new type of biosensor. Using dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (APAP) as representative guest molecules, our 3D-NG/?-CD biosensor shows extremely high sensitivities (5468.6 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2) and 2419.2 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2), respectively), which are significantly higher than those reported in most previous studies. The stable adsorption of ?-CD on 3D-NG indicates potential applications in clinical detection and medical testing. PMID:26111276

  20. Dynamic Cross-Linking of Polymeric Binders Based on Host-Guest Interactions for Silicon Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Woo; Jeong, You Kyeong; Deniz, Erhan; AlQaradawi, Siham Y; Choi, Jang Wook; Coskun, Ali

    2015-11-24

    We report supramolecular cross-linking of polymer binders via dynamic host-guest interactions between hyperbranched ?-cyclodextrin polymer and a dendritic gallic acid cross-linker incorporating six adamantane units for high-capacity silicon anodes. Calorimetric analysis in the solution phase indicates that the given host-guest complexation is a highly spontaneous and enthalpically driven process. These findings are further verified by carrying out gelation experiments in both aqueous and organic media. The dynamic cross-linking process enables intimate silicon-binder interaction, structural stability of electrode film, and controlled electrode-electrolyte interface, yielding enhanced cycling performance. Control experiments using both ?, ?-CDp with different cavity sizes and a guest molecule incorporating a single adamantane unit verified that the enhanced cycle life originates from the host-guest interaction between ?-cyclodextrin and adamantane. The impact of the dynamic cross-linking is maximized at an optimal stoichiometry between the two components. Importantly, the present investigation proves that the molecular-level tuning of the host-guest interactions can be translated directly to the cycling performance of silicon anodes. PMID:26422642

  1. Spectrofluorimetric study of host-guest complexation of ibuprofen with ?-cyclodextrin and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2003-03-01

    The characteristics of host-guest complexation between ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and two forms of ibuprofen (protonated and deprotonated) were investigated by fluorescence spectrometry. 1:1 stoichiometries for both complexes were established and their association constants at different temperatures were calculated by applying a non-linear regression method to the change in the fluorescence of ibuprofen that brought about by the presence of ?-CD. The thermodynamic parameters (? H, ? S and ? G) associated with the inclusion process were also determined. Based on the obtained results, a sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of ibuprofen was developed with a linear range of 0.1-2 ?g ml -1 and a detection limit of 0.03 ?g ml -1. The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of ibuprofen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  2. Photoreversible [2] Catenane via the Host-Guest Interactions between a Palladium Metallacycle and ?-Cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dengqing; Nie, Yong; Saha, Manik Lal; He, Zuoli; Jiang, Long; Zhou, Zhixuan; Stang, Peter J

    2015-12-21

    We report the efficient preparation of an A2D2 (A = acceptor and D = donor) metallacycle 2 = [(en)2Pd2(1)2](NO3)4, using the coordination driven self-assembly of trans-azobenzene based bispyridyl ligand 1 and (en)Pd(NO3)2 (en = ethylenediamine). In the metallacycle, the trans-azobenzene units serve both as a structural element and as sites for subsequent host-guest chemistry with ?-cyclodextrin, leading to the formation of a [2] catenane 3. This catenation process is reversible and can be switched off and on in a photocontrollable manner via the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene units. PMID:26637012

  3. Bifunctionalized dextrans for surface PEGylation via multivalent host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Antoniuk, Iurii; Wintgens, Véronique; Volet, Gisèle; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Amiel, Catherine

    2015-11-20

    The main goal of this work was to develop a supramolecular chemistry strategy to decorate interfaces with polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafts. A series of novel bifunctionalized dextrans, bearing 40-60 PEG pending chains and 12-24 hydrophobic adamantyl groups, have been prepared by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Their binding properties toward native ?CD and ?CD polymers were characterized both in solution and at interface using isothermal titration microcalorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The polymers were found to form stable layers onto neutral and positively charged ?CD-polymer films pre-adsorbed on gold surfaces, due to multivalent interpolymer host-guest interactions. The thickness and stability of the layers could be tuned by varying the ratio between the degrees of substitution by PEG and adamantyl groups. PMID:26344304

  4. Chiral discrimination on the host-guest-complexation of resorc[4]arenes with quarternary amines.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Ahmad; Letzel, Matthias C; Klaes, Michael; Agena, Ceno; Mattay, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of inherently chiral resorc[4]arenes with different chiral ammonium ions was measured by ESI-MS. For that purpose one enantiomer of the ammonium guests was labeled with deuterium to distinguish the enantiomers by their mass. We synthesized the ammonium salts by reaction of chiral primary amines with either CH3I or CD3I and analyzed the resulting ammonium iodides by NMR and optical rotation. The complexation experiments were performed by mixing the chiral host with various ratios of the unlabeled guest and its labeled enantiomer. By analysis of the integrals of the host-guest complexes we observed a chiral discrimination effect and a secondary isotope effect as well. PMID:15531798

  5. Host-guest inclusion system of artesunate with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives: Characterization and antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hudie; Yang, Bo; Wang, Fen; Zhao, Yulin

    2015-04-01

    Inclusion complexes between artesunate (ATS) and three cyclodextrins, namely ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD), were prepared by a suspension method. The complexes in both liquid and solid were characterized by phase-solubility diagram, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermoanalysis. The results suggested that artesunate was partly encapsulated within the cyclodextrin cavity to form a 1:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. Especially in the SBE-?-CD complex, displayed the greatest stability constant. Significant enhancement of water solubility and thermal stability of ATS in present of ?-CDs was shown. The calculated IC50 values indicated that the antitumor activities of inclusion complexes were better than that of ATS. Satisfactory aqueous solubility, along with high thermal stability of inclusion complexes will be potentially useful for their application on the formulation design of natural medicine.

  6. Optimization of the host-guest system within an OLED using different models of mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames Prada, Rosana; Ardila Vargas, Angel Miguel

    2014-12-01

    To optimize the host-guest system of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), it were performed simulations by doping a small molecule organic semiconductor (acting as host) with the transition organometallic complex known as Ir(ppy)2(acac) (acting as a guest). The simulation was carried out using simOLED with different mobility models: the Pool-Frenkel Model (PFM), the Extended Gaussian Disorder Model (EGDM) and Extended Correlated Disorder Model (ECDM), with the aim to determine the magnitude of some parameters like temperature, applied electric field, film thickness and charge carrier density that improve the electrical and optical properties of OLEDs with a more simplified structure like ITO/CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy)2(acac)/TPBi/LiF/Al.

  7. Networked-cage microcrystals for evaluation of host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shohei; Arai, Tatsuhiko; Ikemoto, Koki; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2014-12-31

    We have developed a new synthetic protocol for the preparation of a microcrystalline powder (median size: X50 = 25 ?m) of networked M6L4 cages 1a for the stationary phase of an affinity column on a greater than 50 g scale. Analogously to large single crystals 1b (X50 ? 0.5 mm), microcrystals 1a accommodate guest molecules tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and fullerene (C60) at up to 32 and 35 wt %, respectively. Importantly, the host-guest interactions within networked cages could be evaluated in terms of the retention time from HPLC analysis by using microcrystals 1a as the stationary phase. In this way, favorable guests for networked cages 1 and even solution M6L4 cage 2 could easily be assessed by HPLC. PMID:25495652

  8. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene/?-cyclodextrin: host-guest interactions for electrochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jilun; Leng, Xuanye; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Chengguo; Fu, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Host-guest interactions, especially those between cyclodextrins (CDs, including ?-, ?- and ?-CD) and various guest molecules, exhibit a very high supramolecular recognition ability. Thus, they have received considerable attention in different fields. These specific interactions between host and guest molecules are promising for biosensing and clinical detection. However, there is a lack of an ideal electrode substrate for CDs to increase their performance in electrochemical sensing. Herein, we propose a new 3D nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) based electrochemical sensor, taking advantage of the superior sensitivity of host-guest interactions. Our 3D-NG was fabricated by a template-directed chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, and it showed a large specific surface area, a high capacity for biomolecules and a high electron transfer efficiency. Thus, for the first time, we took 3D-NG as an electrode substrate for ?-CD to establish a new type of biosensor. Using dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (APAP) as representative guest molecules, our 3D-NG/?-CD biosensor shows extremely high sensitivities (5468.6 ?A mM-1 cm-2 and 2419.2 ?A mM-1 cm-2, respectively), which are significantly higher than those reported in most previous studies. The stable adsorption of ?-CD on 3D-NG indicates potential applications in clinical detection and medical testing.Host-guest interactions, especially those between cyclodextrins (CDs, including ?-, ?- and ?-CD) and various guest molecules, exhibit a very high supramolecular recognition ability. Thus, they have received considerable attention in different fields. These specific interactions between host and guest molecules are promising for biosensing and clinical detection. However, there is a lack of an ideal electrode substrate for CDs to increase their performance in electrochemical sensing. Herein, we propose a new 3D nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) based electrochemical sensor, taking advantage of the superior sensitivity of host-guest interactions. Our 3D-NG was fabricated by a template-directed chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, and it showed a large specific surface area, a high capacity for biomolecules and a high electron transfer efficiency. Thus, for the first time, we took 3D-NG as an electrode substrate for ?-CD to establish a new type of biosensor. Using dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (APAP) as representative guest molecules, our 3D-NG/?-CD biosensor shows extremely high sensitivities (5468.6 ?A mM-1 cm-2 and 2419.2 ?A mM-1 cm-2, respectively), which are significantly higher than those reported in most previous studies. The stable adsorption of ?-CD on 3D-NG indicates potential applications in clinical detection and medical testing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The procedure for preparing the sensor, wide survey XPS, XRD patterns, the effect of scan rate, more CV data on the stability and selectivity, and a comparison with previous studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03109e

  9. Enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest nanonets catalyzing amplification for procalcitonin detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yang, Zhe-Han; Han, Jing; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-02-25

    An enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the host-guest nanonets of N,N-bis(ferrocenoyl)-diaminoethane/?-cyclodextrins/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated Au nanoparticles (Fc-Fc/?-CD/PAMAM-Au) for procalcitonin (PCT) detection has been developed in this study. The signal probe was constructed as follows: amine-terminated ?-CD was adsorbed to PAMAM-Au first, and then the prepared Fc-Fc was recognized by the ?-CD to form stable host-guest nanonets. Next, secondary antibodies (Ab2) were attached into the formed netlike nanostructure of Fc-Fc/?-CD/PAMAM-Au by chemical absorption between PAMAM-Au and -NH2 of ?-CD. Herein, the PAMAM-Au act not only as nanocarriers for anchoring large amounts of the ?-CD and Ab2 but also as nanocatalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) for signal amplification. Moreover, the Fc-Fc could be stably immobilized by the hydrophobic inner cavity of ?-CD as well as improving solubility by the hydrophilic exterior of ?-CD. With the unique structure of two ferrocene units, Fc-Fc not only affords more electroactive groups to make the electrochemical response more sensitive but also plays a role of combining dispersive ?-CD-functionalized PAMAM-Au to form the netlike nanostructure. Furthermore, Fc-Fc exhibits good catalytic activity for AA oxidation. When the detection solution contained AA, the synergetic catalysis of PAMAM-Au and Fc-Fc to AA oxidation could be obtained, realizing enzyme-free signal amplification. The proposed immunosensor provided a linear range from 1.80 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL for PCT detection and a detection limit of 0.36 pg/mL under optimal experimental conditions. Moreover, the immunosensor has shown potential application in clinical detection of PCT. PMID:25629216

  10. Molecular Recognition: Use of Metal-Containing Molecular Clefts for Supramolecular Self-Assembly and Host-Guest Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, James D.; Bosnich, Brice

    2008-10-03

    Molecular clefts consisting of a rigid spacer linked to two parallel cofacially disposed terpy-M-X (M = Pd{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}) units, which can vary in separation from 6.6 to 7.2 {angstrom}, have been used as molecular receptors and for self-assembly with linear and triangular linkers to produce rectangles and trigonal prisms, respectively. Aromatic molecules form multiple host-guest adducts with the molecular cleft receptors and with the rectangles and trigonal prisms. Planar complexes of Pt{sup 2+} also form host-guest adducts. The forces that control this molecular recognition, namely, {pi}-{pi} interactions, charge-induced dipole interactions, charge-charge forces, weak metal-metal interactions and solvation effects, are discussed and assigned to the various adducts.

  11. Host-guest chemistry of mesoporous silicas: precise design of location, density and orientation of molecular guests in mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohmiya, Minoru; Saito, Kanji; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Mesoporous solids, which were prepared from inorganic-surfactant mesostructured materials, have been investigated due to their very large surface area and high porosity, pore size uniformity and variation, periodic pore arrangement and possible pore surface modification. Morphosyntheses from macroscopic morphologies such as bulk monolith and films, to nanoscopic ones, nanoparticles and their stable suspension, make mesoporous materials more attractive for applications and detailed characterization. This class of materials has been studied for such applications as adsorbents and catalysts, and later on, for optical, electronic, environmental and bio-related ones. This review summarizes the studies on the chemistry of mesoporous silica and functional guest species (host-guest chemistry) to highlight the present status and future applications of the host-guest hybrids.

  12. Calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association of host-guest systems from the intermolecular potential of mean force.

    PubMed

    Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2006-12-14

    The authors report calculations of the intermolecular potential of mean force (PMF) in the case of the host-guest interaction. The host-guest system is defined by a water soluble calixarene and a cation. With an organic cation such as the tetramethylammonium cation, the calixarene forms an insertion complex, whereas with the Lanthane cation, the supramolecular assembly is an outer-sphere complex. The authors apply a modified free energy perturbation method and the force constraint technique to establish the PMF profiles as a function of the separation distance between the host and guest. They use the PMF profile for the calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association that they compare to the experimental values previously determined. They finish by giving some structural features of the insertion and outer-sphere complexes at the Gibbs free energy minimum. PMID:17176145

  13. Host-guest interaction induced supramolecular amphiphilic star architecture and uniform nanovesicle formation for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Ling; Liu, Kerh Li; Wen, Yuting; Song, Xia; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A star polymer of poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) with adamantyl end-terminals extended from an ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) core is designed. It subsequently self-assembles to form controllable and uniform nanovesicles induced by host-guest interactions between heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-CD and the adamantyl ends. The nanovesicles are suitable for loading and intracellular delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. PMID:26692041

  14. Host-guest supramolecular chemistry in solid-state nanopores: potassium-driven modulation of ionic transport in nanofluidic diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Albesa, Alberto G.; Knoll, Wolfgang; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the use of asymmetric nanopores decorated with crown ethers for constructing robust signal-responsive chemical devices. The modification of single conical nanopores with 18-crown-6 units led to a nanodevice whose electronic readout, derived from the transmembrane ion current, can be finely tuned over a wide range of K+ concentrations. The electrostatic characteristics of the nanopore environment arising from host-guest ion-recognition processes taking place on the pore walls are responsible for tuning the transmembrane ionic transport and the rectification properties of the pore. This work illustrates the potential and versatility of host-guest chemistry, in combination with nanofluidic elements, as a key enabler to achieve addressable chemical nanodevices mimicking the ion transport properties and gating functions of specific biological channels.We describe the use of asymmetric nanopores decorated with crown ethers for constructing robust signal-responsive chemical devices. The modification of single conical nanopores with 18-crown-6 units led to a nanodevice whose electronic readout, derived from the transmembrane ion current, can be finely tuned over a wide range of K+ concentrations. The electrostatic characteristics of the nanopore environment arising from host-guest ion-recognition processes taking place on the pore walls are responsible for tuning the transmembrane ionic transport and the rectification properties of the pore. This work illustrates the potential and versatility of host-guest chemistry, in combination with nanofluidic elements, as a key enabler to achieve addressable chemical nanodevices mimicking the ion transport properties and gating functions of specific biological channels. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details of the preparation and characterization of the brush-modified nanopores. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04645a

  15. Coupled-cluster interaction energies for 200-atom host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Andreji?, Milica; Ryde, Ulf; Mata, Ricardo A; Söderhjelm, Pär

    2014-10-20

    We have developed a method to calculate interaction energies of large systems (such as host-guest or even protein-ligand systems) at the local coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples level, and with extrapolation to the limit of a complete basis set. The method is based on the polarizable multipole interactions with supermolecular pairs molecular fractionation approach, which combines a pairwise quantum-mechanical evaluation of the short-range interactions with a polarizable multipole treatment of many-body effects. The method is tested for nine guest molecules binding to an octa-acid host (in total 198-207 atoms), as part of the SAMPL4 blind challenge. From the test calculations, the accuracy of the approach is found to be 10 kJ?mol(-1) or better. Comparison with dispersion-corrected density functional theory reveals that the latter underestimates the dispersion contribution for this type of system, which leads to a difference in the ranking of the ligands. PMID:25262989

  16. Vesicular gold assemblies based on host-guest inclusion and its controllable release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Kang, Yang; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Bang-Jing

    2013-12-13

    We have developed a kind of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are attached on the surface of a gold nanocrystal through the host-guest inclusion between adamantane groups (ADA) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The resulting AuNPs become amphiphilic in water above body temperature and self-assemble into vesicles. It is found that these vesicles can load doxorubicin (Dox) effectively. With a decrease in temperature, the PNIPAM shifted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, causing Au vesicles to disassemble into stable small AuNPs, triggering the release of Dox. These hybrid vesicles, combining polymer functionality with the intriguing properties of AuNPs, can first release free Dox and AuNP/Dox at a site of a tumor through the application of either simple ice packs or deeply penetrating cryoprobes, then the AuNP/Dox can be taken in by tumor cells and destroy them like miniature munitions. Furthermore, these vesicles showed other therapeutic possibilities due to the presence of gold. We believe that the development of such multi-functional vesicles will provide new and therapeutically useful means for medical applications. PMID:24231410

  17. Vesicular gold assemblies based on host-guest inclusion and its controllable release of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Wei; Kang, Yang; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Bang-Jing

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a kind of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are attached on the surface of a gold nanocrystal through the host-guest inclusion between adamantane groups (ADA) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The resulting AuNPs become amphiphilic in water above body temperature and self-assemble into vesicles. It is found that these vesicles can load doxorubicin (Dox) effectively. With a decrease in temperature, the PNIPAM shifted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, causing Au vesicles to disassemble into stable small AuNPs, triggering the release of Dox. These hybrid vesicles, combining polymer functionality with the intriguing properties of AuNPs, can first release free Dox and AuNP/Dox at a site of a tumor through the application of either simple ice packs or deeply penetrating cryoprobes, then the AuNP/Dox can be taken in by tumor cells and destroy them like miniature munitions. Furthermore, these vesicles showed other therapeutic possibilities due to the presence of gold. We believe that the development of such multi-functional vesicles will provide new and therapeutically useful means for medical applications.

  18. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  19. Supramolecular assemblies of host-guest complexes of cucurbit[6]uril with some organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Tian, Zhong-Cheng; He, Li; Xue, Sai-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Qian-Jiang; Tao, Zhu

    2010-02-01

    Four host-guest complexes, {(gI)@(CyH) 6Q[6]}·3H 2O ( 1), {(gIIH 2) 2+@(CyH) 2Q[6]}·2Cl -·21H 2O ( 2), {(gIII)@Q[6]}·27H 2O ( 3), and {(gIVH) +@(CyH) 2Q[6]}·Cl -·13H 2O ( 4), have been prepared from cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril, {(CyH) 6Q[6]}, symmetrical dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril {(CyH) 2Q[6]}, and cucurbit[6]uril {Q[6]} as hosts, and four different guests, namely 2-phenyl-2 H-imidazole (gI), the HCl salt of N1, N4-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)butane-1,4-diamine (gII), benzylamine (gIII), and the HCl salt of 4-(1 H-imidazolyl)phenol (gIV). Their crystal structures have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and revealed that these hosts can form supramolecular assemblies through iondipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, CH···? or NH···? interactions, and ?···? stacking.

  20. Pressure-induced chemistry in a nitrogen-hydrogen host-guest structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Dylan K.; Weck, Gunnar; Loubeyre, Paul; Datchi, Fréderic; Dumas, Paul; Hanfland, Michael

    2014-12-01

    New topochemistry in simple molecular systems can be explored at high pressure. Here we examine the binary nitrogen/hydrogen system using Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and visual observation. We find a eutectic-type binary phase diagram with two stable high-pressure van der Waals compounds, which we identify as (N2)6(H2)7 and N2(H2)2. The former represents a new type of van der Waals host-guest compound in which hydrogen molecules are contained within channels in a nitrogen lattice. This compound shows evidence for a gradual, pressure-induced change in bonding from van der Waals to ionic interactions near 50?GPa, forming an amorphous dinitrogen network containing ionized ammonia in a room-temperature analogue of the Haber-Bosch process. Hydrazine is recovered on decompression. The nitrogen-hydrogen system demonstrates the potential for new pressure-driven chemistry in high-pressure structures and the promise of tailoring molecular interactions for materials synthesis.

  1. Pressure-induced chemistry in a nitrogen-hydrogen host-guest structure.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Dylan K; Weck, Gunnar; Loubeyre, Paul; Datchi, Fréderic; Dumas, Paul; Hanfland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    New topochemistry in simple molecular systems can be explored at high pressure. Here we examine the binary nitrogen/hydrogen system using Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and visual observation. We find a eutectic-type binary phase diagram with two stable high-pressure van der Waals compounds, which we identify as (N2)6(H2)7 and N2(H2)2. The former represents a new type of van der Waals host-guest compound in which hydrogen molecules are contained within channels in a nitrogen lattice. This compound shows evidence for a gradual, pressure-induced change in bonding from van der Waals to ionic interactions near 50?GPa, forming an amorphous dinitrogen network containing ionized ammonia in a room-temperature analogue of the Haber-Bosch process. Hydrazine is recovered on decompression. The nitrogen-hydrogen system demonstrates the potential for new pressure-driven chemistry in high-pressure structures and the promise of tailoring molecular interactions for materials synthesis. PMID:25484135

  2. Redox-responsive supramolecular amphiphiles constructed via host-guest interactions for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ma, Yufei; Xu, Lei; Liu, Lichao; Zhang, Weian

    2015-08-01

    A supramolecular photosensitizer delivery system has been established through the self-assembly of supramolecular amphiphiles constructed by the host-guest interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-?-cyclodextrin (PEG-?-CD) and adamantane-terminated porphyrin derivatives bearing a disulfide bond (TPPC6-SS-Ada). TPPC6-SS-Ada/PEG-?-CD supramolecular amphiphiles can self-assemble into spherical micelles in water, and the assembled morphology was respectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular uptake and localization of supramolecular photosensitizers were further investigated by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the result indicated that TPPC6-SS-Ada/PEG-?-CD micelles could be effectively up-taken by MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the phototoxicity evaluated by an MTT assay showed that TPPC6-SS-Ada/PEG-?-CD micelles have very low dark toxicity but greater photo-toxicity compared to free porphyrin. Thus, TPPC6-SS-Ada/PEG-?-CD micelles would provide the potential application for photosensitizer delivery. PMID:26222037

  3. Host-guest complex of cypermethrin with ?-cyclodextrin: A spectroscopy and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Bitai; Chen, Feifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Zhendong

    2011-03-01

    An inclusion complex of ?-CD with cypermethrin was synthesized. To reveal the host-guest interaction, UV-vis and Raman spectroscopic analysis in combination with DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level were performed on cypermethrin and its ?-CD inclusion complex. Upon examining the optimized geometry of inclusion complex, we find that the cypermethrin molecule inserts into the cavity of ?-CD from the larger opening, and the phenyl moiety is staying inside the cavity. Partial density of states spectra (PDOS) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis reveals that intermolecular hydrogen bond is main driving force of formation of inclusion complex. DFT calculations reproduce well the experimental spectra and the deviation is within 20 cm -1. Comparing the same vibrational modes of inclusion complex with those of free cypermethrin and ?-CD, we note that most of characteristic bands of free molecules present in the Raman spectrum of inclusion complex, but a small Raman shift of 2-13 cm -1 has been observed on the same mode. The presence of characteristic bands and the small Raman shifts affirm the weak interaction between cypermethrin and ?-CD. Calculated thermodynamic analysis reveals that the formation of ?-CD cypermethrin inclusion complex is a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process.

  4. Thermodynamics of Host–Guest Interactions between Fullerenes and a Buckycatcher

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    1H NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were employed to obtain reliable thermodynamic data for the formation of the 1:1 inclusion complexes of fullerenes C60 and C70 with the buckycatcher (C60H28). NMR measurements were done in toluene-d8 and chlorobenzene-d5 at 288, 298, and 308 K, while the ITC titrations were performed in toluene, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, anisole, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at temperatures from 278 to 323 K. The association constants, Ka, obtained with both techniques are in very good agreement. The thermodynamic data obtained by ITC indicate that generally the host–guest association is enthalpy-driven. Interestingly, the entropy contributions are, with rare exceptions, slightly stabilizing or close to zero. Neither ?H nor ?S is constant over the temperature range studied, and these thermodynamic functions exhibit classical enthalpy/entropy compensation. The ?Cp values calculated from the temperature dependence of the calorimetric ?H values are negative for the association of both fullerenes with the buckycatcher in toluene. The negative ?Cp values are consistent with some desolvation of the host-cavity and the guest in the inclusion complexes, C60@C60H28 and C70@C60H28. PMID:25248285

  5. Computational Calorimetry: High-Precision Calculation of Host–Guest Binding Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a strategy for carrying out high-precision calculations of binding free energy and binding enthalpy values from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The approach is used to calculate the thermodynamic profiles for binding of nine small molecule guests to either the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) or ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) host. For these systems, calculations using commodity hardware can yield binding free energy and binding enthalpy values with a precision of ?0.5 kcal/mol (95% CI) in a matter of days. Crucially, the self-consistency of the approach is established by calculating the binding enthalpy directly, via end point potential energy calculations, and indirectly, via the temperature dependence of the binding free energy, i.e., by the van’t Hoff equation. Excellent agreement between the direct and van’t Hoff methods is demonstrated for both host–guest systems and an ion-pair model system for which particularly well-converged results are attainable. Additionally, we find that hydrogen mass repartitioning allows marked acceleration of the calculations with no discernible cost in precision or accuracy. Finally, we provide guidance for accurately assessing numerical uncertainty of the results in settings where complex correlations in the time series can pose challenges to statistical analysis. The routine nature and high precision of these binding calculations opens the possibility of including measured binding thermodynamics as target data in force field optimization so that simulations may be used to reliably interpret experimental data and guide molecular design. PMID:26523125

  6. High Precision Measurement of Isotope Effects on Noncovalent Host-Guest Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mugridge, Jeffrey S.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-06-23

    Isotope effects (IEs) are a powerful tool for examining the reactivity of, and interactions between, molecules. Recently, secondary IEs have been used to probe the nature of noncovalent interactions between guest and host molecules in supramolecular systems. While these studies can provide valuable insight into the specific interactions governing guest recognition and binding properties, IEs on noncovalent interactions are often very small and difficult to measure precisely. The Perrin group has developed an NMR titration method capable of determining ratios of equilibrium constants with remarkable precision. They have used this technique to study small, secondary equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs) on the acidity of carboxylic acids and phenols and on the basicity of amines, measuring differences down to thousandths of a pK{sub a} unit. It occurred to us that this titration method can in principle measure relative equilibrium constants for any process which is fast on the NMR timescale and for which the species under comparison are distinguishable by NMR. Here we report the application of this method to measure very small EIEs on noncovalent host-guest interactions in a supramolecular system.

  7. Efficient solid-state host-guest light-emitting electrochemical cells based on cationic transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hai-Ching; Wu, Chung-Chih; Fang, Fu-Chuan; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2006-12-01

    The authors demonstrate highly efficient solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) consisting of green-emitting [Ir(dFppy)2(SB)]+(PF6-) as the host and orange-emitting [Ir(ppy)2(SB)]+(PF6-) as the guest [where dFppy is 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, SB is 4,5-diaza-9,9'-spirobifluorene, and ppy is 2-phenylpyridine]. Photophysical studies show that with the optimized host-guest compositions, the emission is mainly from the guest and photoluminescence quantum yields are largely enhanced over those of pure host and guest films due to suppressed intermolecular interactions. Correspondingly, LECs based on such host-guest cationic complex systems show substantially enhanced quantum efficiencies (power efficiencies) of up to 10.4% (36.8lm/W), representing a 1.5 times enhancement compared to those of pure host and guest devices. Such results indicate that the host-guest system is essential and useful for achieving highly efficient solid-state LECs.

  8. Fluorescent Detection of Tadalafil Based on Competitive Host-Guest Interaction Using p-Sulfonated Calix[6]arene Functionalized Graphene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yucong; Ran, Xin; Deng, Guogang; Xie, Xiaoguang; Li, Can-Peng

    2015-12-01

    A competitive fluorescence method toward tadalafil detection has been developed based on host-guest recognition by selecting rhodamine B (RhB) and p-sulfonated calix[6]arene functionalized graphene (CX6-Gra) as the "reporter pair". Upon the presence of tadalafil to the performed CX6-Gra-RhB complex, the RhB molecules are displaced by tadalafil, leading to a "switch-on" fluorescence signal. The observed fluorescence signal can be used for quantitative detection of tadalafil ranging from 1.00 to 50.00 ?M with a detection limit of 0.32 ?M (S/N = 3). The inclusion complex of tadalafil and CX6 was studied by molecular docking and the results indicated that a 1:1 host-guest stoichiometry had the lowest ?G value of -7.18 kcal/mol. The docking studies demonstrated that the main forces including ?-? interactions, electrostatic interactions, and hydrophobic interactions should be responsible for the formation of this inclusion compound. The mechanism of the competitive host-guest interaction was clarified. The binding constant (K) of the tadalafil/CX6 complex was more than 5 times greater than that of RhB/CX6. PMID:26571350

  9. Proteasome-cytochrome c interactions: a model system for investigation of proteasome host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Holly A; Sadeghi, Mehrnoosh; Seemuller, Erika; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Dunn, Michael F

    2003-07-29

    Owing to its high thermal stability and structural simplicity, the archaebacterium Thermoplasma Acidophilum 20S proteasome was selected for mechanistic studies in this work. This oligomeric enzyme complex consists of a barrel-shaped 20S core (approximately 700kDa) comprised of four stacked seven-membered rings with a alpha(7)beta(7)beta(7)alpha(7) subunit structure situated around a 7-fold symmetry axis. The hollow interior of the proteasome has three large interconnected chambers with narrow (13 A diameter) entrances from solution located at either end of the barrel. The 14 beta-subunit proteolytic sites are located on the inner surface of the central chamber. Herein, we demonstrate that unfolded horse heart ferricytochrome c (Cyt c) is a novel chromophoric probe for investigation of the mechanism of proteasome action. Under conditions of temperature and denaturant which unfold Cyt c but do not alter the thermophilic proteasome, Cyt c is extensively cleaved by the proteasome. Ten peptides were isolated and sequenced from the proteasome digest. Analysis of the cleavage products established that unfolded Cyt c and its covalently attached heme prosthetic group are translocated to the central chamber where proteolysis occurs. In the presence of site-specific inhibitors of the proteasome, we demonstrate that unfolded cytochrome c can be sequestered inside the proteasome complex. Upon cooling, a quasistable host-guest complex is formed. Analysis of the complex via UV/visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometry gave evidence that the sequestered Cyt c is essentially intact within the inhibited proteasome. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that (1) complexes with an apparent stoichiometry of approximately one Cyt c per proteasome can be formed and (2) when inhibition is removed from the complex, a rapid turnover of the sequestered Cyt c occurs. PMID:12873127

  10. Formation of host-guest complexes of ?-cyclodextrin and perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Karoyo, Abdalla H; Borisov, Alex S; Wilson, Lee D; Hazendonk, Paul

    2011-08-11

    Structural characterization and dynamic properties of solid-state inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were investigated by (19)F/(13)C solid-state and (19)F/(1)H solution NMR spectroscopy. The complexes in the solid state were prepared using dissolution and slow cool methods, where thermal analyses (DSC and TGA), PXRD, and FT-IR results provided complementary support that inclusion complexes were formed between ?-CD and PFOA with variable stoichiometry and inclusion geometry. (19)F DP (direct polarization) and (13)C CP (cross-polarization) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) solids NMR, along with (19)F/(1)H solution NMR were used to characterize the complexes in the solid and solution phases, respectively. The dynamics of the guest molecules in the inclusion complexes (ICs) were studied using variable temperature (VT) (19)F DP/MAS NMR experiments in the solid state. The guest molecules were observed to be in several different molecular environments, providing strong evidence of variable host-guest stoichiometry and inclusion geometry, in accordance with the preparation method of the complex and the conformational preference of PFOA. It was concluded from PXRD that ?-CD and PFOA form inclusion complexes with "channel-type" structures. Variable spin rate (VSR) (19)F DP/MAS NMR was used to assess the phase purity of the complexes, and it was revealed that slow cooling resulted in relatively pure phases. In the solution state, (1)H and (19)F NMR complexation-induced chemical shifts (CISs) of ?-CD and PFOA, respectively, provided strong support for the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 ?-CD/PFOA inclusion complexes. The dynamics of the guest molecule in the ?-CD/PFOA complexes in D(2)O solutions were probed using VT (19)F NMR and revealed some guest conformational and exchange dynamics as a function of temperature and the relative concentrations of the host and guest. PMID:21688796

  11. The synthesis and host-guest applications of synthetic receptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osner, Zachary R.

    2011-12-01

    Host-guest chemistry involves the complimentary binding between two molecules. Host molecules have been synthesized to bind negative, positive, and neutral molecules such as proteins and enzymes, and have been used as optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, supramolecular catalysts, and in the pharmaceutical industry as anti-cancer agents.1 The field of nanoscience has exploited guest-host interactions to create optical sensors with colloidal gold and Dip-Pen nanolithography technologies. Gold nanoparticles, have been functionalized with DNA, and have been developed as a selective colorimetric detection system, that upon binding turns the solution from a red to blue in color.2 Cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) 1 is a common supramolecular scaffold that has been previously employed in guest-host chemistry, and the construction of CTV involves the cyclic trimerization of veratryl alcohol via the veratryl cation.3 Due to the rigid bowl shaped structure of CTV, CTV has been shown to act as a host molecule for fullerene-C60.4 Lectin binding receptor proteins are a specific class of proteins found in bacteria, viruses, plants, and animals that can bind to complimentary carbohydrates. It is these lectins that are believed to be responsible for cell-cell interactions and the formation of biofilms in pathenogenic bacteria.5 P. aeruginosa is a pathenogenic bacterium, shown to have a high resistance to many antibiotics, which can form biofilms in human lung tissue, causing respiratory tract infections in patients with compromised immune systems. 5 I will exploit guest-host interactions to create synthetic supramolecular and carbohydrate receptor molecules to that will be of use as biological sensing devices via self-assembled monolayers on solid surfaces and nanoparticle technologies. *Please refer to dissertation for references/footnotes.

  12. UV photodissociation spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled gas phase host-guest complex ions of crown ethers.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Sekiya, Ryo; Morishima, Fumiya; Dedonder, Claude; Féraud, Géraldine; Jouvet, Christophe; Ebata, Takayuki

    2015-10-21

    The geometric and electronic structures of cold host-guest complex ions of crown ethers (CEs) in the gas phase have been investigated by ultraviolet (UV) fragmentation spectroscopy. As host CEs, we chose 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), 24-crown-8 (24C8), and dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8), and as guests protonated-aniline (aniline·H(+)) and protonated-dibenzylamine (dBAM·H(+)) were chosen. The ions generated by an electrospray ionization (ESI) source were cooled in a quadrupole ion-trap (QIT) using a cryogenic cooler, and UV spectra were obtained by UV photodissociation (UVPD) spectroscopy. UV spectroscopy was complemented by quantum chemical calculations of the most probable complex structures. The UV spectrum of aniline·H(+)·CEs is very sensitive to the symmetry of CEs; aniline·H(+)·18C6 shows a sharp electronic spectrum similar to aniline·H(+), while aniline·H(+)·15C5 shows a very broad structure with poor Franck-Condon factors. In addition, a remarkable cage effect in the fragmentation process after UV excitation was observed in both complex ions. In aniline·H(+)·CE complexes, the cage effect completely removed the dissociation channels of the aniline·H(+) moiety. A large difference in the fragmentation yield between dBAM·H(+)·18C6 and dBAM·H(+)·24C8 was observed due to a large barrier for releasing dBAM·H(+) from the axis of rotaxane in the latter complex. PMID:26095662

  13. Prediction of SAMPL3 host-guest binding affinities: evaluating the accuracy of generalized force-fields.

    PubMed

    Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2012-05-01

    We used the second-generation mining minima method (M2) to compute the binding affinities of the novel host-guest complexes in the SAMPL3 blind prediction challenge. The predictions were in poor agreement with experiment, and we conjectured that much of the error might derive from the force field, CHARMm with Vcharge charges. Repeating the calculations with other generalized force-fields led to no significant improvement, and we observed that the predicted affinities were highly sensitive to the choice of force-field. We therefore embarked on a systematic evaluation of a set of generalized force fields, based upon comparisons with PM6-DH2, a fast yet accurate semi-empirical quantum mechanics method. In particular, we compared gas-phase interaction energies and entropies for the host-guest complexes themselves, as well as for smaller chemical fragments derived from the same molecules. The mean deviations of the force field interaction energies from the quantum results were greater than 3 kcal/mol and 9 kcal/mol, for the fragments and host-guest systems respectively. We further evaluated the accuracy of force-fields for computing the vibrational entropies and found the mean errors to be greater than 4 kcal/mol. Given these errors in energy and entropy, it is not surprising in retrospect that the predicted binding affinities deviated from the experiment by several kcal/mol. These results emphasize the need for improvements in generalized force-fields and also highlight the importance of systematic evaluation of force-field parameters prior to evaluating different free-energy methods. PMID:22274835

  14. Luminescent host–guest materials of electrostatically adsorbed Eu{sup 3+}(tta){sub 3}-tpyIL on zeolite L crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Wang, Dongyue; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuming; Wang, Yige

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Luminescent host–guest materials exhibiting tunable emission colors by changing the excitation wavelength are obtained by surface modification of terbium(III) bipyridine-loaded zeolite L crystals with the ionic europium(III) complexes. - Highlights: • Luminescent ionic europium(III) complex was synthesized. • Outer surface of zeolite L was modified by electrostatic adsorption of the ionic complex. • Luminescent host–guest material with tunable emission color was obtained. - Abstract: The surface modification of zeolite L crystals with lanthanide complexes was achieved by electrostatic adsorption of ionic europium(III) complexes that are prepared by the reaction of tris(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate) europium(III) dehydrate with an organic salt containing terpyridine moieties on the negative charge-bearing surfaces of zeolite L crystals. Luminescent host–guest materials exhibiting tunable emission colors by changing the excitation wavelength are obtained by surface modification of terbium(III) bipyridine-loaded zeolite L crystals with the ionic europium(III) complexes.

  15. Signal amplification for electrochemical immunosensing by in situ assembly of host-guest linked gold nanorod superstructure on immunocomplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dajie; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2013-07-15

    An amplification strategy for signal tracing was developed by introducing a host-guest binding reaction into the assembly process of gold nanorods (AuNRs) superstructure. The amplification pathway firstly used a thio-?-cyclodextrin (SH-?-CD) functionalized gold nanoparticles to label signal antibody, and then in situ assembled multi-layer SH-?-CD end-functionalized AuNRs to sandwich immunocomplex on immunosensor surface by using 4,4,4,4-(21H, 23H-porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl) tetrakis (benzoic acid) as a bridge to achieve simple and convenient host-guest reaction. The built end-to-end AuNRs superstructure showed excellent performance for the signal amplification in connection with the electrochemical biosensing by preoxidation and then voltammetric analysis of gold element. Using ?-fetoprotein as an analyte, the immunosensor was constructed by covalently binding capture antibody to chitosan-carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) modified electrode. The superstructure rich in AuNRs brought an enhanced detection sensitivity of protein, which could detect ?-fetoprotein in a linear range from 0.5 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit down to 0.032 pg mL(-1). The immunoassay exhibited good stability and acceptable reproducibility and accuracy. The in situ superstructure assembly could be extended to other labeled recognition systems, providing a promising novel avenue for signal amplification and potential applications in bioanalysis and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23500363

  16. Smart protein biogate as a mediator to regulate competitive host-guest interaction for sensitive ratiometric electrochemical assay of prion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jiawan; Xiong, Erhu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    A novel competitive host-guest strategy regulated by protein biogate was developed for sensitive and selective analysis of prion protein. The methylene blue (MB)-tagged prion aptamer (MB-Apt) was introduced to the multiwalled carbon nanotubes-?-cyclodextrins (MWCNTs-?-CD) composites-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode through the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and MB. In the absence of prion, MB-Apt could be displaced by ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) due to its stronger binding affinity to ?-CD, resulting in a large oxidation peak of FCA. However, in the presence of prion, the specific prion-aptamer interaction drove the formation of protein biogate to seal the cavity of ?-CD, which hindered the guest displacement of MB by FCA and resulted in the oxidation peak current of MB (IMB) increased and that of FCA (IFCA) decreased. The developed aptasensor showed good response towards the target (prion protein) with a low detection limit of 160?fM. By changing the specific aptamers, this strategy could be easily extended to detect other proteins, showing promising potential for extensive applications in bioanalysis. PMID:26531259

  17. Smart protein biogate as a mediator to regulate competitive host-guest interaction for sensitive ratiometric electrochemical assay of prion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jiawan; Xiong, Erhu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jinhua

    2015-11-01

    A novel competitive host-guest strategy regulated by protein biogate was developed for sensitive and selective analysis of prion protein. The methylene blue (MB)-tagged prion aptamer (MB-Apt) was introduced to the multiwalled carbon nanotubes-?-cyclodextrins (MWCNTs-?-CD) composites-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode through the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and MB. In the absence of prion, MB-Apt could be displaced by ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) due to its stronger binding affinity to ?-CD, resulting in a large oxidation peak of FCA. However, in the presence of prion, the specific prion-aptamer interaction drove the formation of protein biogate to seal the cavity of ?-CD, which hindered the guest displacement of MB by FCA and resulted in the oxidation peak current of MB (IMB) increased and that of FCA (IFCA) decreased. The developed aptasensor showed good response towards the target (prion protein) with a low detection limit of 160?fM. By changing the specific aptamers, this strategy could be easily extended to detect other proteins, showing promising potential for extensive applications in bioanalysis.

  18. Large scale affinity calculations of cyclodextrin host-guest complexes: Understanding the role of reorganization in the molecular recognition process

    PubMed Central

    Wickstrom, Lauren; He, Peng; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    Host-guest inclusion complexes are useful models for understanding the structural and energetic aspects of molecular recognition. Due to their small size relative to much larger protein-ligand complexes, converged results can be obtained rapidly for these systems thus offering the opportunity to more reliably study fundamental aspects of the thermodynamics of binding. In this work, we have performed a large scale binding affinity survey of 57 ?-cyclodextrin (CD) host guest systems using the binding energy distribution analysis method (BEDAM) with implicit solvation (OPLS-AA/AGBNP2). Converged estimates of the standard binding free energies are obtained for these systems by employing techniques such as parallel Hamitionian replica exchange molecular dynamics, conformational reservoirs and multistate free energy estimators. Good agreement with experimental measurements is obtained in terms of both numerical accuracy and affinity rankings. Overall, average effective binding energies reproduce affinity rank ordering better than the calculated binding affinities, even though calculated binding free energies, which account for effects such as conformational strain and entropy loss upon binding, provide lower root mean square errors when compared to measurements. Interestingly, we find that binding free energies are superior rank order predictors for a large subset containing the most flexible guests. The results indicate that, while challenging, accurate modeling of reorganization effects can lead to ligand design models of superior predictive power for rank ordering relative to models based only on ligand-receptor interaction energies. PMID:25147485

  19. Smart protein biogate as a mediator to regulate competitive host-guest interaction for sensitive ratiometric electrochemical assay of prion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jiawan; Xiong, Erhu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    A novel competitive host-guest strategy regulated by protein biogate was developed for sensitive and selective analysis of prion protein. The methylene blue (MB)-tagged prion aptamer (MB-Apt) was introduced to the multiwalled carbon nanotubes-?-cyclodextrins (MWCNTs-?-CD) composites-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode through the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and MB. In the absence of prion, MB-Apt could be displaced by ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) due to its stronger binding affinity to ?-CD, resulting in a large oxidation peak of FCA. However, in the presence of prion, the specific prion-aptamer interaction drove the formation of protein biogate to seal the cavity of ?-CD, which hindered the guest displacement of MB by FCA and resulted in the oxidation peak current of MB (IMB) increased and that of FCA (IFCA) decreased. The developed aptasensor showed good response towards the target (prion protein) with a low detection limit of 160?fM. By changing the specific aptamers, this strategy could be easily extended to detect other proteins, showing promising potential for extensive applications in bioanalysis. PMID:26531259

  20. Colorimetric and fluorescent nanofibrous film as a chemosensor for Hg(2+) in aqueous solution prepared by electrospinning and host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Yapeng; Sun, Mingda; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao

    2012-02-15

    A fluorescent sensing film for Hg(2+) ions was fabricated by host-guest interaction and electrospinning. When the nanofibrous film was put into a solution of Hg(2+) ions, it gave rise to orange fluorescence, causing a clear color change from white to pink-red. PMID:22334338

  1. Host-guest complexation of di-cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril and hexa-cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril with alkyldiammonium ions: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guo-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Qi; Zhao, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Rui-Lian; Tao, Zhu; Liu, Jing-Xin

    2015-12-23

    The host-guest complexation of symmetrical di-cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril (Cy2Q[6]) and hexa-cyclohexanocucurbit[6]uril (Cy6Q[6]) with a series of alkyldiammonium ions (H(3+)N(CH(2))nNH(3+), n = 2-8) has been studied both in solution and in the gas phase. (1)H NMR data indicate that all alkyldiammonium ions have inclusion interactions with both hosts except for the ethanediammonium ion. In addition, if the alkyl chain of the alkyldiammonium ion is longer than n = 5 methylene groups, compressed conformation may occur, which depends on the cavity shape of the hosts and the length of the alkyl chain. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies point out that the host-guest complexations of both hosts with the latter five alkyldiammonium ions are enthalpically driven. The comparison of the thermodynamic data reveals that the enthalpies of the van der Waals interactions contribute more to the host-guest complexation enthalpy than the ion-dipole interactions. The enthalpic gain arises from the van der Waals interactions and the reduction of entropy upon the host-guest complexation is strongly affected by the cavity shape of the host. Gas phase structures of long alkyldiammonium guests within both hosts are completely different from those in aqueous solution. PMID:26551664

  2. Synthesis and Small Molecule Exchange Studies of a Magnesium Bisformate Metal-Organic Framework: An Experiment in Host-Guest Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    concepts of host-guest chemistry and size exclusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The experiment has been successfully carried out in both introductory and advanced-level inorganic chemistry laboratories. Students synthesized the porous MOF, alpha-Mg[subscript…

  3. Solution concentration controlled self-assembling structure with host-guest recognition at the liquid-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Junyong; Deng, Ke; Xie, Jingli; Duan, Wubiao; Zeng, Qingdao

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, we reported the fabrication of a chicken-wire porous 2D network formed by triphenylene-2,6,10-tricarboxylic acid (H3TTCA) at the liquid-solid interface. When coronene (COR) molecules were added into the system, the H3TTCA honey-comb network was broken and the reconstructed structures of the H3TTCA/COR host-guest systems were subsequently formed. Scanning tunneling microscopic (STM) measurements and density function theory (DFT) calculations were utilized to reveal the structural variety in the co-assembly of H3TTCA/COR controlled by the solution concentration at 1-heptanoic acid/HOPG interface. PMID:26339697

  4. A novel, smart microsphere with K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties based on a responsive host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Yue; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Fang, Lu; Liu, Zhuang; Yu, Hai-Rong; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Chen, Qianming; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of smart microspheres with K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties is designed and developed on the basis of a K(+)-recognition host-guest system. The microspheres are composed of cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acryloylamidobenzo-15-crown-5) (P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5)) networks. Due to the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich-type" host-guest complexes between 15-crown-5 units and K(+) ions, the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres significantly exhibit isothermally and synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties at a low K(+) concentration, while other cations (e.g., Na(+), H(+), NH4(+), Mg(2+), or Ca(2+)) cannot trigger such response behaviors. Effects of chemical compositions of microspheres on the K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating behaviors are investigated systematically. The K(+)-induced aggregating sensitivity of the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres can be enhanced by increasing the content of crown ether units in the polymeric networks; however, it is nearly not influenced by varying the monomer and cross-linker concentrations in the microsphere preparation. State diagrams of the dispersed-to-aggregated transformation of P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres in aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and K(+) concentration are constructed, which provide valuable information for tuning the dispersed/aggregated states of microspheres by varying environmental K(+) concentration and temperature. The microspheres with synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties proposed in this study provide a brand-new model for designing novel targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:25325533

  5. Emergent ion-gated binding of cationic host-guest complexes within cationic M12L24 molecular flasks.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Carson J; Fujita, Daishi; Hoshino, Manabu; Sato, Sota; Stoddart, J Fraser; Fujita, Makoto

    2014-08-27

    "Molecular flasks" are well-defined supramolecular cages that can encapsulate one or more molecular guests within their cavities and, in so doing, change the physical properties and reactivities of the guests. Although molecular flasks are powerful tools for manipulating matter on the nanoscale, most of them are limited in their scope because of size restrictions. Recently, however, increasingly large and diverse supramolecular cages have become available with enough space in their cavities for larger chemical systems such as polymers, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. Here we report how a class of metallosupramolecular cages known as M12L24 polyhedra have been adapted to serve as nanometer-scale containers for solutions of a pseudorotaxane host-guest complex based on a tetracationic cyclophane host, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), and a 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) guest. Remarkably, the hierarchical integration of pseudorotaxanes and M12L24 superhosts causes the system to express stimulus-responsive behavior, a property which can be described as emergent because neither the DNP?CBPQT(4+) nor the M12L24 assemblies exhibit this behavior independently. The DNP-containing M12L24 molecular flasks are effectively "sealed off" to CBPQT(4+) until ions are added as a stimulus to "open" them. The electrolyte stimulus reduces the electrostatic screening distance in solution, allowing favorable DNP?CBPQT(4+) host-guest interactions to overcome repulsive Coulombic interactions between the cationic M12L24 cages and CBPQT(4+) rings. This unusual example of ion-gated transport into chemical nanocontainers is reminiscent of transmembrane ion channels which act as gates to the cell, with the important difference that this system is reversible and operates at equilibrium. PMID:25046565

  6. Binding Enthalpy Calculations for a Neutral Host-Guest Pair Yield Widely Divergent Salt Effects across Water Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kaifu; Yin, Jian; Henriksen, Niel M; Fenley, Andrew T; Gilson, Michael K

    2015-10-13

    Dissolved salts are a part of the physiological milieu and can significantly influence the kinetics and thermodynamics of various biomolecular processes, such as binding and catalysis; thus, it is important for molecular simulations to reliably describe their effects. The present study uses a simple, nonionized host-guest model system to study the sensitivity of computed binding enthalpies to the choice of water and salt models. Molecular dynamics simulations of a cucurbit[7]uril host with a neutral guest molecule show striking differences in the salt dependency of the binding enthalpy across four water models, TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4P-Ew, and OPC, with additional sensitivity to the choice of parameters for sodium and chloride. In particular, although all of the models predict that binding will be less exothermic with increasing NaCl concentration, the strength of this effect varies by 7 kcal/mol across models. The differences appear to result primarily from differences in the number of sodium ions displaced from the host upon binding the guest rather than from differences in the enthalpy associated with this displacement, and it is the electrostatic energy that contributes most to the changes in enthalpy with increasing salt concentration. That a high sensitivity of salt affecting the choice of water model, as observed for the present host-guest system despite it being nonionized, raises issues regarding the selection and adjustment of water models for use with biological macromolecules, especially as these typically possess multiple ionized groups that can interact relatively strongly with ions in solution. PMID:26574247

  7. Sulfonamide antibiotics embedded in high silica zeolite Y: a combined experimental and theoretical study of host-guest and guest-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Braschi, Ilaria; Gatti, Giorgio; Paul, Geo; Gessa, Carlo E; Cossi, Maurizio; Marchese, Leonardo

    2010-06-15

    A combined experimental and computational study of the interactions of three sulfonamides--sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfachloropyridazine--embedded into the cages of high silica zeolite Y is here proposed. For all host-guest systems, the close vicinity of aromatic rings with zeolite framework was evidenced by multidimensional and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (29)Si) SS-NMR measurements. Host-guest and guest-guest interactions were also elucidated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy and confirmed by ab initio computational modeling. Single molecules of sulfamethazine and sulfachloropyridazine were stabilized inside the zeolite cage by the vicinity of methyl and amino groups, respectively. Sulfadiazine is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Multiple weak H-bonds and van der Waals type interactions between organic molecules and zeolite are responsible for the irreversible extraction from water of all the examined sulfa drugs. PMID:20184353

  8. Polymers with customizable optical and rheological properties based on an epoxy acrylate based host-guest system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiβner, U.; Hobmaier, J.; Hanemann, T.

    2015-09-01

    We report an easy way to tune the optical refractive index and viscosity of an epoxy acrylate-based host-guest system which can be used for the fabrication of optical waveguides. This allows fast and precise modification of the material system for different replication methods like hot embossing, inkjet printing or spin coating. To modify the refractive index n, an electron-rich organic dopant such as phenanthrene is added to a commercially available reactive polymer based resin. Moreover, changes in viscosity can be achieved by using a comonomer with suitable properties like benzyl methacrylate (BMA). We used a commercially available UV-curable epoxy acrylate based polymer matrix to investigate both the influence of phenanthrene and of benzyl methacrylate. First, mixtures of the pure polymer and benzyl methacrylate with a ratio of 30, 50, and 80 wt% benzyl methacrylate were produced. Second, phenanthrene was added with 5 and 10 wt%, respectively. All components were mixed and then polymerized by UV-irradiation and with a thermal postcure. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased at 20°C linearly from 1.5 Pa·s (30 wt%) to 8 mPa·s (80 wt%), whereas the refractive index decreased at the same time by a small amount from 1.570 to 1.568 (@589 nm, 20 °C). By adding phenanthrene refractive index increased to a maximum of n = 1.586 (50 wt% BMA, 10 wt% phenanthrene). Abbe numbers for the compositions without phenanthrene ranged from 35 to 38.

  9. Synchronous spectrofluorimetric study of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin with propranolol: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the use of constant-wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) in comparison to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy (CFS) for the investigation of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-CD with propranolol (PPL) in aqueous solutions. Scanning for the optimal ?? at which the SFS can be performed in the presence of ?-CD was examined. The results obtained revealed three distinguishable shapes for PPL using SFS that can be represented by three different ?? values, namely 10, 40, and 100 nm. However, the effect of the ?-CD concentration on the fluorescence intensity of PPL was examined using CFS and SFS of PPL at a ?? of 10 and 100 nm. The change in the fluorescence intensity was used to calculate the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the formation of the ?-CD:PPL inclusion complex by applying the Benesi-Hildebrand method. Keq values of 108, 112, and 117 M-1 were obtained using SFS with a ?? of 10 and 100 nm, and CFS, respectively. Further, the SFS method was successfully employed to examine the iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity of PPL, where the results obtained revealed a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 42.8 M-1, which is in good agreement with results obtained using CFS. All results obtained using the SFS method were compared with the results obtained using the CFS method.

  10. Host–guest chemistry for tuning colloidal solubility, self-organization and photoconductivity of inorganic-capped nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host–guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 1011 Jones with a fast response (3?dB cut-off at 3?kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200?nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs. PMID:26647828

  11. pH-Responsive Poly(ethylene glycol)/Poly(L-lactide) Supramolecular Micelles Based on Host-Guest Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Lv, Qiang; Gao, Xiaoye; Chen, Li; Cao, Yue; Yu, Shuangjiang; He, Chaoliang; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-04-29

    pH-responsive supramolecular amphiphilic micelles based on benzimidazole-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-BM) and ?-cyclodextrin-modified poly(L-lactide) (CD-PLLA) were developed by exploiting the host-guest interaction between benzimidazole (BM) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The dissociation of the supramolecular micelles was triggered in acidic environments. An antineoplastic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded into the supramolecular micelles as a model drug. The release of DOX from the supramolecular micelles was clearly accelerated as the pH was reduced from 7.4 to 5.5. The DOX-loaded PEG-BM/CD-PLLA supramolecular micelles displayed an enhanced intracellular drug-release rate in HepG2 cells compared to the pH-insensitive DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLLA counterpart. After intravenous injection into nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts by the tail vein, the DOX-loaded supramolecular micelles exhibited significantly higher tumor inhibition efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity compared to free DOX. Furthermore, the DOX-loaded supramolecular micelles showed a blood clearance rate markedly lower than that of free DOX and comparable to that of the DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLLA micelles after intravenous injection into rats. Therefore, the pH-responsive PEG-BM/CD-PLLA supramolecular micelles hold potential as a smart nanocarrier for anticancer drug delivery. PMID:25856564

  12. Mixed-Metal Coordination Cages Constructed with Pyridyl-Functionalized ?-Diketonate Metalloligands: Syntheses, Structures and Host-Guest Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Long; Lin, Yue-Jian; Jin, Guo-Xin

    2015-10-12

    The design and synthesis of mixed-metal coordination cages, which can act as hosts to encapsule guest molecules, is a subject of intensive research, and the utilization of metalloligand is an effective method to construct a designed heterometallic architecture. Herein, a series of heterometallic cages with half-sandwich Rh, Ir and Ru fragments using Cu(II) -metalloligand as a building block by a stepwise approach is reported. The cavity sizes of the cages could be controlled easily by the lengths of the organic ligands. Because the metalloligands in the oxalate-based cage are somewhat distorted and concave, there are weak Cu???O interactions in the molecules, forming a binuclear copper unit. By increasing the height of the cages using longer ligands, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (H2 CA), the organometallic boxes display interesting host-guest behavior, which are made large enough to accommodate some large molecules, such as pyrene and [Pt(acac)2 ]. Interestingly, the heterometallic cage with larger cavity size can transfer into a homometallic hexanuclear prism in the presence of pyrazine. PMID:26315696

  13. Synchronous spectrofluorimetric study of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin with propranolol: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the use of constant-wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) in comparison to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy (CFS) for the investigation of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-CD with propranolol (PPL) in aqueous solutions. Scanning for the optimal ?? at which the SFS can be performed in the presence of ?-CD was examined. The results obtained revealed three distinguishable shapes for PPL using SFS that can be represented by three different ?? values, namely 10, 40, and 100 nm. However, the effect of the ?-CD concentration on the fluorescence intensity of PPL was examined using CFS and SFS of PPL at a ?? of 10 and 100 nm. The change in the fluorescence intensity was used to calculate the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the formation of the ?-CD:PPL inclusion complex by applying the Benesi-Hildebrand method. Keq values of 108, 112, and 117 M(-1) were obtained using SFS with a ?? of 10 and 100 nm, and CFS, respectively. Further, the SFS method was successfully employed to examine the iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity of PPL, where the results obtained revealed a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 42.8 M(-1), which is in good agreement with results obtained using CFS. All results obtained using the SFS method were compared with the results obtained using the CFS method. PMID:25875030

  14. Predicting paramagnetic 1H NMR chemical shifts and state-energy separations in spin-crossover host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Isley, William C; Zarra, Salvatore; Carlson, Rebecca K; Bilbeisi, Rana A; Ronson, Tanya K; Nitschke, Jonathan R; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-06-14

    The behaviour of metal-organic cages upon guest encapsulation can be difficult to elucidate in solution. Paramagnetic metal centres introduce additional dispersion of signals that is useful for characterisation of host-guest complexes in solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, paramagnetic centres also complicate spectral assignment due to line broadening, signal integration error, and large changes in chemical shifts, which can be difficult to assign even for known compounds. Quantum chemical predictions can provide information that greatly facilitates the assignment of NMR signals and identification of species present. Here we explore how the prediction of paramagnetic NMR spectra may be used to gain insight into the spin crossover (SCO) properties of iron(II)-based metal organic coordination cages, specifically examining how the structure of the local metal coordination environment affects SCO. To represent the tetrahedral metal-organic cage, a model system is generated by considering an isolated metal-ion vertex: fac-ML3(2+) (M = Fe(II), Co(II); L = N-phenyl-2-pyridinaldimine). The sensitivity of the (1)H paramagnetic chemical shifts to local coordination environments is assessed and utilised to shed light on spin crossover behaviour in iron complexes. Our data indicate that expansion of the metal coordination sphere must precede any thermal SCO. An attempt to correlate experimental enthalpies of SCO with static properties of bound guests shows that no simple relationship exists, and that effects are likely due to nuanced dynamic response to encapsulation. PMID:24752730

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting efficiency of a hematite-ordered Sb:SnO2 host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Palacios-Padrós, Anna; Kirchgeorg, Robin; Tighineanu, Alexei; Schmuki, Patrik

    2014-02-01

    Host-guest systems such as hematite/SnO2 have attracted a great deal of interest as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In the present work we form an ordered porous tin oxide layer formed by self-organizing anodization of Sn films on a FTO substrate. Subsequently the anodic tin oxide nanostructure is doped with antimony (ATO) by a simple impregnation and annealing treatment, and then decorated with hematite using anodic deposition. Photoelectrochemical water splitting experiments show that compared to conventional SnO2 nanostructures, using a Sb doped nanochannel SnO2 as a host leads to a drastic increase of the water splitting photocurrent response up to 1.5 mA cm(-2) at 1.6 V (vs. RHE) in 1 M KOH under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm(-2) ) conditions compared to 0.04 mA cm(-2) for the non-Sb doped SnO2 scaffold. PMID:24449523

  16. What causes the weakest host to act as the strongest one? A theoretical study on the host-guest chemistry of five azacryptands and fluoride anions.

    PubMed

    Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Gholiee, Yasin

    2015-12-01

    In this work we have attempted to computationally analyze the important parameters affecting the selectivity in host-guest systems in order to show that the solvent effect in some host-guest systems is even more important than the hole-size fitting and/or host-guest interaction energy. For this purpose, the fluoride anion selectivities of the five most studied azacryptands with different affinities, moieties, cavity sizes and degrees of preorganization, in their fully protonated forms, were studied at PBE/TZVP and B3P86/TZVP levels of theory. The factors affecting the selectivity such as hole size fitting, steric effects, electronic properties, preorganization of hosts, as well as solvent effects were investigated. The results showed that among the five studied azacryptands, one of them, which ranks fifth for selectivity according to its weak interaction energy with fluoride anions, ranks fourth due to its good preorganization. However, a surprising improvement occurs when its selectivity for fluoride anions ranks first due to the existence of less solvent hindrance. The results of the calculations were further confirmed by a good correlation between the calculated and experimental formation constants. PMID:26291305

  17. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Host-Guest Studies of Aminoquinonato-Bridged Re(I) Supramolecular Rectangles.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, R; Nagarajaprakash, R; Manimaran, Bala

    2015-11-16

    Aminoquinonato bridged Re(I)-based metallarectangles have been constructed via an orthogonal bonding approach. Self-assembly of Re2(CO)10 and aminoquinone ligands in the presence of ditopic linear pyridyl ligands has resulted in the formation of metallarectangles of the general formula [{(CO)3Re(?-?(4)-L)Re(CO)3}2(?-N-L'-N)2] (1-4), wherein 1, L = 2,5-bis(n-butylamino)-1,4-benzoquinonato (bbbq) and N-L'-N = 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy); 2, L = 2,5-bis(phenethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinonato (bpbq) and N-L'-N = 4,4'-bipyridine; 3, L = 2,5-bis(n-butylamino)-1,4-benzoquinonato (bbbq) and N-L'-N = trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe) and 4, L = 2,5-bis(phenethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinonato (bpbq) and N-L'-N = trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe). Metallarectangles 1-4 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structures of 1 and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The molecular recognition capability of 1 and 3 with pyrene and triphenylene has been investigated using UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques. The formation of host-guest complex has been further corroborated by the single-crystal X-ray structural evidence of carceplex system (3?pyrene)·(DMF). PMID:26528890

  18. Theoretical exploration of the nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylenes (n = 10, 8 and 9) and fullerene C??: from single- to three-potential well.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Zhou, Cai-Hua; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-07-28

    The nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylene ([n]CPP; n = 10, 8 and 9) nano-ring and fullerene C60 were explored theoretically. It is found that relatively small variations in the sizes of the [n]CPP host lead to very significant changes in encapsulation property toward the fullerene C60 guest. Expectedly, one stable inclusion-configuration of [10]CPP?C60 and one floating-configuration of [8]CPP?C60 are located on the potential surfaces of the two complexes, respectively. Unexpectedly, besides a floating-configuration (F-[9]CPP?C60), another stable inclusion-configuration (I-[9]CPP?C60) is also located on the potential surface of [9]CPP?C60 host-guest complex. Interaction energies and natural steric analysis show that these complexes are stabilized by balancing concave-convex ?-? attractive and steric repulsive host-guest interactions. In contrast, the steric repulsive energy (Es) between host and guest of I-[9]CPP?C60 is as high as 233.12 kJ mol(-1), which is much larger than those in other complexes. The movements of C60 guest through the cavities of [n]CPP host (n = 10, 8 and 9) are simulated by calculating the energy profile, and the results interestingly reveal that the encapsulation of C60 by [10]CPP is in the manner of a single-potential well, by [8]CPP in the manner of a double-potential well, and by [9]CPP in the special manner of a three-potential well. We predict that the movement of C60 guest through the cavity of [9]CPP host should be experimentally observable owing to the relatively low energy barrier (<50 kJ mol(-1), M06-2X/6-31G(d)). Charge population analysis shows that an obvious charge transfer between host and guest takes place during the formation of I-[9]CPP?C60, which is different from those during the formation of [8]CPP?C60, [10]CPP?C60 and F-[9]CPP?C60. Additionally, the host-guest interaction regions were detected and visualized in real space based on the electron density and reduced density gradient. PMID:26121936

  19. Supramolecular side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes formed by orthogonal coordination-driven self-assembly and crown-ether-based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hao; Wei, Peifa; Yan, Xuzhou

    2014-06-01

    The themes of coordination-driven self-assembly, host-guest interactions, and supramolecular polymerization are unified in an orthogonal noninterfering fashion to deliver side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes. Specifically, a bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 derivative 1 bearing two pyridyl groups polymerizes into a side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxane upon the addition of di-Pt(II) acceptor 4 in the presence of paraquat. Interestingly, by adding a competitive guest 3, the poly[2]pseudorotaxane can realize a conversion in one pot. PMID:24819441

  20. Anomalous cage effect of the excited state dynamics of catechol in the 18-crown-6-catechol host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Fumiya; Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Ebata, Takayuki

    2015-02-12

    We determined the number of isomers and their structures for the 18-crown-6 (18C6)-catechol host-guest complex, and examined the effect of the complex formation on the S1 ((1)??*) dynamics of catechol under a supersonically cooled gas phase condition and in cyclohexane solution at room temperature. In the gas phase experiment, UV-UV hole-burning spectra of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex indicate that there are three stable isomers. For bare catechol, it has been reported that two adjacent OH groups have an intramolecular hydrogen (H) bond. The IR-UV double resonance spectra show two types of isomers in the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex; one of the three 18C6-catechol 1:1 isomers has the intramolecular H-bond between the two OH groups, while in the other two isomers the intramolecular H-bond is broken and the two OH groups are H-bonded to oxygen atoms of 18C6. The complex formation with 18C6 substantially elongates the S1 lifetime from 7 ps for bare catechol and 2.0 ns for the catechol-H2O complex to 10.3 ns for the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex. Density functional theory calculations of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex suggest that this elongation is attributed to a larger energy gap between the S1 ((1)??*) and (1)??* states than that of bare catechol or the catechol-H2O complex. In cyclohexane solution, the enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of catechol was found by adding 18C6, due to the formation of the 18C6-catechol complex in solution, and the complex has a longer S1 lifetime than that of catechol monomer. From the concentration dependence of the fluorescence intensity, we estimated the equilibrium constant K for the 18C6 + catechol ? 18C6-catechol reaction. The obtained value (log K = 2.3) in cyclohexane is comparable to those for alkali metal ions or other molecular ions, indicating that 18C6 efficiently captures catechol in solution. Therefore, 18C6 can be used as a sensitive sensor of catechol derivatives in solution with its high ability of fluorescence enhancement. PMID:25350575

  1. Tridentate Lewis Acids Based on 1,3,5-Trisilacyclohexane Backbones and an Example of Their Host-Guest Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Weisheim, Eugen; Reuter, Christian G; Heinrichs, Peter; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2015-08-24

    Directed tridentate Lewis acids based on the 1,3,5-trisilacyclohexane skeleton with three ethynyl groups [CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 were synthesised and functionalised by hydroboration with HB(C6F5)2, yielding the ethenylborane {CH2Si(Me)[C2H2B(C6F5)2]}3, and by metalation with gallium and indium organyls affording {CH2Si(Me)[C2M(R)2]}3 (M = Ga, In, R = Me, Et). In the synthesis of the backbone the influence of substituents (MeO, EtO and iPrO groups at Si) on the orientation of the methyl group was studied with the aim to increase the abundance of the all-cis isomer. New compounds were identified by elemental analyses, multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy and in some cases by IR spectroscopy. Crystal structures were obtained for cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(Cl)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(H)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3, cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 and all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2SiMe3)]3. A gas-phase electron diffraction experiment for all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 provides information on the relative stabilities of the all-equatorial and all-axial form; the first is preferred in both solid and gas phase. The gallium-based Lewis acid {CH2Si(Me)[C2Ga(Et)2]}3 was reacted with a tridentate Lewis base (1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) in an NMR titration experiment. The generated host-guest complexes involved in the equilibria during this reaction were identified by DOSY NMR spectroscopy by comparing measured diffusion coefficients with those of the suitable reference compounds of same size and shape. PMID:26213228

  2. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for CEA through host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene and Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles with adamantine-modified antibody.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhankui; Su, Fengjie; Gao, Liang; Pang, Xuehui; Cao, Wei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-01-15

    A novel non-enzymatic immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) using ?-cyclodextrin functionalized Cu@Ag (Cu@Ag-CD) core-shell nanoparticles as labels and ?-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene nanosheet (CD-GN) as sensor platform. CD-GN has excellent conductivity which promoted the electric transmission between base solution and electrode surface and enhanced sensitivity of immunosensor. In addition, owing to supramolecular recognition of CD-GN for the guest molecule, quite a few synthesized adamantine-modified primary antibodies (ADA-Ab1) were immobilized on the CD-GN by supramolecular host-guest interaction between CD and ADA. Cu@Ag-CD as a signal tag could be captured by ADA-modified secondary antibody (ADA-Ab2) through a host-guest interaction, leading to a large loading of Cu@Ag nanoparticles with high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. The fabricated immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for the measurement of CEA with wide range linear (0.0001-20 ng/mL), low detection limit (20 fg/mL), good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability, which provide an enormous application prospect in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25129508

  3. Automation of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Chang, Bo-Jui; Hsu, Long

    2000-07-01

    Optical tweezers is a newly developed instrument, which makes possible the manipulation of micro-optical particles under a microscope. In this paper, we present the automation of an optical tweezers which consists of a modified optical tweezers, equipped with two motorized actuators to deflect a 1 W argon laser beam, and a computer control system including a joystick. The trapping of a single bead and a group of lactoacidofilus was shown, separately. With the aid of the joystick and two auxiliary cursers superimposed on the real-time image of a trapped bead, we demonstrated the simple and convenient operation of the automated optical tweezers. By steering the joystick and then pressing a button on it, we assign a new location for the trapped bead to move to. The increment of the motion 0.04 (mu) m for a 20X objective, is negligible. With a fast computer for image processing, the manipulation of the trapped bead is smooth and accurate. The automation of the optical tweezers is also programmable. This technique may be applied to accelerate the DNA hybridization in a gene chip. The combination of the modified optical tweezers with the computer control system provides a tool for precise manipulation of micro particles in many scientific fields.

  4. Oligofluorene derivative in a host-guest system with a red-emitter: molecular packing effect on the host bimolecular recombination and guest ASE threshold reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanillas-Gonzalez, Juan; Toffanin, Stefano; Capelli, Raffaella; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Muccini, Michele

    2008-08-01

    The dynamics of triplet recombination in fluorene trimers have been studied using steady state photoinduced absorption (PA) spectroscopy. We investigated two type of oligomeric films, deposited by different techniques: thermal evaporation and spincoating. The different molecular arrangement in both films is manifested in a red-shift of the absorption, PL and T1-Tn triplet PA spectra of the sublimated film relative to the spincoated one. Triplet recombination dynamics follow a dispersive bimolecular recombination model away from the trap filling regime. Moreover we report on the characteristics of a host-guest lasing system obtained by co-evaporation of the most promising oligofluorene derivative (T3) with the red-emitter 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (DCM). The blend satisfies the necessary condition for an efficient Förster energy transfer to take place from T3 matrix to DCM molecules.

  5. Selective Host-Guest Interaction between Metal Ions and Metal-Organic Frameworks using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhiyong; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Lin-Lin; Goh, Tian Wei; Xiao, Chaoxian; Caporini, Marc A; Rosay, Melanie; Johnson, Duane D; Pruski, Marek; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-08

    The host–guest interaction between metal ions (Pt2+ and Cu2+) and a zirconium metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH2) was explored using dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 15N{1H} CPMAS NMR spectroscopy supported by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The combined experimental results conclude that each Pt2+ coordinates with two NH2 groups from the MOF and two Cl? from the metal precursor, whereas Cu2+ do not form chemical bonds with the NH2 groups of the MOF framework. Density functional calculations reveal that Pt2+ prefers a square-planar structure with the four ligands and resides in the octahedral cage of the MOF in either cis or trans configurations.

  6. Core-shell structured nanoassemblies based on ?-cyclodextrin containing block copolymer and poly(?-benzyl L-aspartate) via host-guest complexation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxiang; Ma, Peter X

    2011-01-01

    Double hydrophilic copolymers (PEG-b-PCDs) with one PEG block and another block containing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) units were synthesized by macromolecular substitution reaction. Via a dialysis procedure, complex assemblies with a core-shell structure were prepared using PEG-b-PCDs in the presence of a hydrophobic homopolymer poly(?-benzyl L-aspartate) (PBLA). The hydrophobic PBLA resided preferably in the cores of assemblies, while the extending PEG chains acted as the outer shell. Host-guest interaction between ?-CD and hydrophobic benzyl group was found to mediate the formation of the assemblies, where PEG-b-PCD and PBLA served as the host and guest macromolecules, respectively. The particle size of the assemblies could be modulated by the composition of the host PEG-b-PCD copolymer. The molecular weight of the guest polymer also had a significant effect on the size of the assemblies. The assemblies prepared from the host and guest polymer pair were stable during a long-term storage. These assemblies could also be successfully reconstituted after freeze-drying. The assemblies may therefore be used as novel nanocarriers for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:22046058

  7. Can we beat the biotin-avidin pair?: cucurbit[7]uril-based ultrahigh affinity host-guest complexes and their applications.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Dinesh; Khedkar, Jayshree K; Park, Kyeng Min; Kim, Kimoon

    2015-12-01

    The design of synthetic, monovalent host-guest molecular recognition pairs is still challenging and of particular interest to inquire into the limits of the affinity that can be achieved with designed systems. In this regard, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), an important member of the host family cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n], n = 5-8, 10, 14), has attracted much attention because of its ability to form ultra-stable complexes with multiple guests. The strong hydrophobic effect between the host cavity and guests, ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions of guests with CB portals helps in cooperative and multiple noncovalent interactions that are essential for realizing such strong complexations. These highly selective, strong yet dynamic interactions can be exploited in many applications including affinity chromatography, biomolecule immobilization, protein isolation, biological catalysis, and sensor technologies. In this review, we summarize the progress in the development of high affinity guests for CB[7], factors affecting the stability of complexes, theoretical insights, and the utility of these high affinity pairs in different challenging applications. PMID:26434388

  8. Competing Noncovalent Host-guest Interactions and H/D Exchange: Reactions of Benzyloxycarbonyl-Proline Glycine Dipeptide Variants with ND3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladi, Mahsan; Olaitan, Abayomi D.; Zekavat, Behrooz; Solouki, Touradj

    2015-11-01

    A combination of density functional theory calculations, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) reactions, ion mobility-mass spectrometry, and isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry was used to study gas-phase "host-guest" type interactions of a benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-capped proline (P) glycine (G) model dipeptide (i.e., Z-PG) and its various structural analogues with ND3. It is shown that in a solvent-free environment, structural differences between protonated and alkali metal ion (Na+, K+, or Cs+)-complexed species of Z-PG affect ND3 adduct formation. Specifically, [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG-OCH3 + H]+ formed gas-phase ND3 adducts ([Z-PG (or Z-PG-OCH3) + H + ND3]+) but no ND3 adducts were observed for [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ or [Z-PG + H - CO2]+. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated collision cross sections (CCSs) of protonated and alkali metal ion-complexed Z-PG species showed similar trends that agreed with the observed structural differences from molecular modeling results. Moreover, results from theoretical ND3 affinity calculations were consistent with experimental HDX observations, indicating a more stable ND3 adduct for [Z-PG + H]+ compared to [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ species. Molecular modeling and experimental MS results for [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ suggest that optimized cation-? and hydrogen bonding interactions of carbonyl groups in final products are important for ND3 adduct formation.

  9. Efficient free energy calculations on small molecule host-guest systems - a combined linear interaction energy/one-step perturbation approach.

    PubMed

    Oostenbrink, Chris

    2009-01-30

    Two efficient methods to calculate binding affinities of ligands with proteins have been critically evaluated by using sixteen small ligand host-guest complexes. It is shown that both the one-step (OS) perturbation method and the linear interaction energy (LIE) method have complementing strengths and weaknesses and can be optimally combined in a new manner. The OS method has a sound theoretical basis to address the free energy of cavity formation, whereas the LIE approach is more versatile and efficient to calculate the free energy of adding charges to such cavities. The off-term, which is neglected in the original LIE equation, can be calculated without additional costs from the OS, offering a powerful synergy between the two methods. The LIE/OS approach presented here combines the best of two worlds and for the model systems studied here, is more accurate than and as efficient as the original methods. It has a sound theoretical background and no longer requires any empirical parameters. The method appears very well suited for application in lead-optimization programmes in drug research, where the structure and dynamics of a series of molecules is of interest, together with an accurate calculation of the binding free energy. PMID:18785242

  10. Simple Host?Guest Chemistry To Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by Detergent Capture in a Microfluidic Device

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Seddon, Annela M.; Tereshko, Valentina; Ponomarenko, Nina; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-15

    This paper utilizes cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry in a microfluidic device to modulate the crystallization of membrane proteins and the process of concentration of membrane protein samples. Methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MBCD) can efficiently capture a wide variety of detergents commonly used for the stabilization of membrane proteins by sequestering detergent monomers. Reaction Center (RC) from Blastochloris viridis was used here as a model system. In the process of concentrating membrane protein samples, MBCD was shown to break up free detergent micelles and prevent them from being concentrated. The addition of an optimal amount of MBCD to the RC sample captured loosely bound detergent from the protein-detergent complex and improved sample homogeneity, as characterized by dynamic light scattering. Using plug-based microfluidics, RC crystals were grown in the presence of MBCD, giving a different morphology and space group than crystals grown without MBCD. The crystal structure of RC crystallized in the presence of MBCD was consistent with the changes in packing and crystal contacts hypothesized for removal of loosely bound detergent. The incorporation of MBCD into a plug-based microfluidic crystallization method allows efficient use of limited membrane protein sample by reducing the amount of protein required and combining sparse matrix screening and optimization in one experiment. The use of MBCD for detergent capture can be expanded to develop cyclodextrin-derived molecules for fine-tuned detergent capture and thus modulate membrane protein crystallization in an even more controllable way.

  11. Host-Guest Interaction-Based Self-Engineering of Nano-Sized Vesicles for Co-Delivery of Genes and Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Dong, Xing; Lei, Qi; Zhuo, Renxi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xianzheng

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of host-guest interactions, this study reported a kind of linear-hyperbranched supramolecular amphiphile and its assembled vesicles for the combined achievement of drug encapsulation and DNA delivery. Amine-attached ?-cyclodextrin-centered hyperbranched polyglycerol and linear adamantane-terminated octadecane were arranged to spontaneously interlink together and then self-assemble into nanoscale vesicles. As the model of a hydrophilic agent, DOX·HCl was demonstrated to be readily loaded into the hollow cavity of the vesicles. The drug release pattern could be controlled by adjusting the environmental acidity, favoring the intracellularly fast drug liberation in response to the cellular lysosomal microenvironment. The nanovesicles displayed superior serum-tolerant transgene ability and significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to those of PEI25K, the gold standard of gene delivery vectors. The drug-loaded nanovesicle can co-deliver DNA payloads into cells and allow the preferable accumulation of two payloads in nuclei. The drug encapsulation was found to have little influence on the transfection. This co-delivery vehicle presents a good example of rational design of cationic supramolecular vesicles for stimulus-responsive drug/DNA transport. PMID:26398113

  12. Supramolecular host-guest pseudocomb conjugates composed of multiple star polycations tied tunably with a linear polycation backbone for gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Chai, M Y; Yang, W T; Xu, F J

    2013-06-19

    A series of novel supramolecular pseudocomb polycations (l-PGEA-Ad/CD-PGEAs) were synthesized by tying multiple low-molecular-weight ?-cyclodextrin (CD)-cored, ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGEA) star polymers (CD-PGEAs) with an adamantine-modified linear PGEA (l-PGEA-Ad) backbone via the host-guest interaction. The pseudocomb carriers were studied in terms of their DNA binding capabilities, cytotoxicities, and gene transfection efficiencies in the HepG2 and HEK293 cell lines. The pseudocomb l-PGEA-Ad/CD-PGEAs exhibited better plasmid DNA-condensing abilities than their counterparts, CD-PGEA and l-PGEA. Meanwhile, the pseudocomb carriers displayed low cytotoxicity, similar to CD-PGEA and l-PGEA. Moreover, the gene transfection efficiencies of the pseudocomb carriers were much higher than those of CD-PGEA and l-PGEA at various PGEA nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratios. Such supramolecular preparation of pseudocomb gene carriers could provide a flexible approach for adjusting the structure and functionality of supramolecular polymers via the proper use of non-covalent interactions. PMID:23682960

  13. Are electron tweezers possible?

    PubMed

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Howe, James M

    2011-11-01

    Positively answering the question in the title, we demonstrate in this work single electron beam trapping and steering of 20-300nm solid Al nanoparticles generated inside opaque submicron-sized molten Al-Si eutectic alloy spheres. Imaging of solid nanoparticles and liquid alloy in real time was performed using energy filtering in an analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM). Energy-filtering TEM combined with valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy enabled us to investigate in situ nanoscale transformations of the internal structure, temperature dependence of plasmon losses, and local electronic and optical properties under melting and crystallization of individual binary alloy particles. For particles below 20nm in size, enhanced vibrations of the dynamic solid-liquid interface due to instabilities near the critical threshold were observed just before melting. The obtained results indicate that focused electron beams can act as a tool for manipulation of metal nanoparticles by transferring linear and angular mechanical momenta. Such thermally assisted electron tweezers can be utilized for touchless manipulation and processing of individual nano-objects and potentially for fabrication of assembled nanodevices with atomic level sensitivity and lateral resolution provided by modern electron optical systems. This is by three orders of magnitude better than for light microscopy utilized in conventional optical tweezers. New research directions and potential applications of trapping and tracking of nano-objects by focused electron beams are outlined. PMID:21946000

  14. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of organic framework of macrocylic OONNOO-donor ligand with its metal organic framework: Host/guest stability measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, R. P.; Singh, R. P.

    2008-11-01

    In this study, we synthesized 1,2-di( o-aminophenoxy)ethane, as the starting material, used in the preparation of a novel hexadentate OONNOO-donor macrocyclic ligand-1,4,11,14-tetraoxo-7,8-diaza-5,6:9,10;15,16:19,20-terabezocyclododeca-8,17-iene. It has twenty membered organic framework (OF), which has been designed, synthesized and characterized. Our main findings of this paper are related to the organic framework of ligand, its capacity to digest the metal ions and the stability of metal organic framework (MOFs) with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and manganese(II). The authenticity of the used organic framework and its metal complexes have been detected and observed in solid state as well as in aqueous solutions. The main observations were made on the basis of physiochemical measurements viz.: elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, electronic, ESR spectroscopy. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and electrochemistry measurements have been made. The 1H NMR spectra suggest stereochemistry and proton movement interaction. Considering the used organic framework there are a lot of carbon atoms in the molecule reflected by the 13C NMR spectrum. All these observations gave a clear view to confirming the encapsulation; arrive at the composition, structure and geometry of encapsulated complexes. In simple words, it confirms the host/guest coordination and its stability. Electrochemical properties of the complexes have been investigated to confirm the various changes in oxidation state of metals with change in potentials with respect to current at different scan rate.

  15. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of organic framework of macrocylic OONNOO-donor ligand with its metal organic framework: host/guest stability measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, R P; Singh, R P

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we synthesized 1,2-di(o-aminophenoxy)ethane, as the starting material, used in the preparation of a novel hexadentate OONNOO-donor macrocyclic ligand-1,4,11,14-tetraoxo-7,8-diaza-5,6:9,10;15,16:19,20-terabezocyclododeca-8,17-iene. It has twenty membered organic framework (OF), which has been designed, synthesized and characterized. Our main findings of this paper are related to the organic framework of ligand, its capacity to digest the metal ions and the stability of metal organic framework (MOFs) with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and manganese(II). The authenticity of the used organic framework and its metal complexes have been detected and observed in solid state as well as in aqueous solutions. The main observations were made on the basis of physiochemical measurements viz.: elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, electronic, ESR spectroscopy. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and electrochemistry measurements have been made. The 1H NMR spectra suggest stereochemistry and proton movement interaction. Considering the used organic framework there are a lot of carbon atoms in the molecule reflected by the 13C NMR spectrum. All these observations gave a clear view to confirming the encapsulation; arrive at the composition, structure and geometry of encapsulated complexes. In simple words, it confirms the host/guest coordination and its stability. Electrochemical properties of the complexes have been investigated to confirm the various changes in oxidation state of metals with change in potentials with respect to current at different scan rate. PMID:18243048

  16. Competing Noncovalent Host-guest Interactions and H/D Exchange: Reactions of Benzyloxycarbonyl-Proline Glycine Dipeptide Variants with ND3.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Mahsan; Olaitan, Abayomi D; Zekavat, Behrooz; Solouki, Touradj

    2015-11-01

    A combination of density functional theory calculations, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) reactions, ion mobility-mass spectrometry, and isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry was used to study gas-phase "host-guest" type interactions of a benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-capped proline (P) glycine (G) model dipeptide (i.e., Z-PG) and its various structural analogues with ND3. It is shown that in a solvent-free environment, structural differences between protonated and alkali metal ion (Na(+), K(+), or Cs(+))-complexed species of Z-PG affect ND3 adduct formation. Specifically, [Z-PG + H](+) and [Z-PG-OCH3 + H](+) formed gas-phase ND3 adducts ([Z-PG (or Z-PG-OCH3) + H + ND3](+)) but no ND3 adducts were observed for [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) or [Z-PG + H - CO2](+). Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated collision cross sections (CCSs) of protonated and alkali metal ion-complexed Z-PG species showed similar trends that agreed with the observed structural differences from molecular modeling results. Moreover, results from theoretical ND3 affinity calculations were consistent with experimental HDX observations, indicating a more stable ND3 adduct for [Z-PG + H](+) compared to [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) species. Molecular modeling and experimental MS results for [Z-PG + H](+) and [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) suggest that optimized cation-? and hydrogen bonding interactions of carbonyl groups in final products are important for ND3 adduct formation. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26289383

  17. Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    1 Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque Authors: Jan n.h.dekker@tudelft.nl Corresponding author: Nynke H. Dekker Keywords: magnetic tweezers, magnetic torque tweezers, freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, twist, torque

  18. Optical tweezers on biaxial crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we propose optical tweezers based on a biaxial crystal. To control the movement of opaque particles, we use the shift polarization interferometer. The results of experimental study of laser tweezers are shown. We demonstrates movement of a microparticle of toner using singular-optical trap, rotate a particle due to orbital momentum, conversion of two traps when changing the plane of polarizer transmission and converging of two traps.

  19. Application of host-guest chemistry in nanotube-based device fabrication: photochemically controlled immobilization of azobenzene nanotubes on patterned alpha-CD monolayer/Au substrates via molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ipsita A; Yu, Lingtao; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2003-08-13

    Azobenzene-functionalized nanotubes recognized and attached onto well-defined complementary regions of thiolated alpha-CD SAM/Au substrates via host-guest molecular recognition. The binding between the azobenzene nanotubes and the alpha-CD SAM/Au substrates was controlled by UV irradiation. The light-induced attachment-detachment of the azobenzene nanotubes on the alpha-CD SAMs was reversible. Some of the nanotubes were capable of interconnecting two Au substrates. This smart building block may be applied to build photoactive nanometer-sized mechanical switches in electronics. PMID:12903992

  20. Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and calibration of an optical tweezer setup in the Instrumentation and Controls Division (5520). I am utilizing a custom LabVIEW Virtual Instrument program for data collection and microscope stage control. Helping me in my assignment are the following people: Mentor Susan Wrbanek (5520), Dr. Baha Jassemnejad (UCO) and Technicians Ken Weiland (7650) and James Williams (7650). Without their help, my task would not be possible.

  1. Undergraduate Construction of Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    I will present a poster on the construction of optical tweezers. This will demonstrate the full process one must go through when working on a research project. First I sifted through the internet for papers and information pertaining to the tweezers. Afterwards I discussed the budget with the lab manager. Next I made purchases, however some items, such as the sample mount, needed to be custom made. These I built in the machine shop. Once the tweezers were operational I spent some time ensuring that the mirrors and lenses were adjusted just right, so that the trap performed at full strength. Finally, I used video data of the Brownian motion of trapped silica microspheres to get a reasonable estimate of the trapping stiffness with such particles. As a general note, all of this was done with the intent of leaving the tweezers for future use by other undergraduates. Because of this extra effort was taken to ensure the tweezers were as safe to use as possible. For this reason a visible LASER was chosen over an infrared LASER, in addition, the LASER was oriented parallel to the surface of the table in order to avoid stray upwards beams.

  2. Distinct host-guest interaction and subdued fluorescence in a coordination network of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(phenylthio)triphenylene and silver(I) triflate

    SciTech Connect

    Li Kunhao; Huang Guo; Xu Zhengtao . E-mail: zhengtao@cityu.edu.hk; Carroll, Patrick J.

    2006-12-15

    This paper reports our recent efforts in using host-guest interactions to control the fluorescent properties of coordination networks containing polycyclic aromatic units. The polycyclic aromatic ligand 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(phenylthio)triphenylene (HPhTT) coordinates with AgTf (Tf: trifluoromethanesulfonate) in nitrobenzene to form single crystals of a 2-D host network consisting of octameric (i.e., containing eight AgTf units) and dimeric AgTf moieties linked to the HPhTT molecules through the Ag-thioether coordination bonds. The HPhTT adopts a starburst and rather irregular conformation, which apparently contributes to the formation of empty space between the 2-D coordination networks. Such voids are occupied by the nitrobenzene guest molecules, resulting in distinct aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions with the triphenylene units (interplanar distances: 3.46 and 3.60 A). In comparison to a previous Ag-HPhTT network with toluene as weaker-interacting guests, the current system shows a significantly suppressed fluorescent emission from the triphenylene core, apparently due to the quenching effect from the nitrobenzene guests. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined host-guest interactions are observed and apparently lead to subdued fluorescence in a coordination network of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(phenylthio)triphenylene and silver(I) triflate.

  3. Polarization effects in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Neto, P. A. Maia; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2007-08-01

    We extend the MDSA (Mie Debye spherical aberration) theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers, previously developed for circularly polarized trapping beams, to linear polarization. Although it does not significantly affect the trap stiffness, linear polarization may introduce a strong axial asymmetry of the optical forces near the edge of a trapped microsphere, arising from Mie resonance effects.

  4. Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA

    E-print Network

    Leuba, Sanford

    Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA transcription. Magnetic tweezers surface magnetic bead F DNA external magnets F =kBT l/> l F x surface Instrumental set-up video camera beam condenser hollow bearing with magnet 90x oil

  5. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  6. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, N. B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.

    2006-03-01

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ("geometrical optics") approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and "jump" effects are also confirmed.

  7. Dynamical stabilisation in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Richards, Christopher J.; Smart, Thomas J.; Cubero, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of dynamical stabilisation of an overdamped, microscopic pendulum realised using optical tweezers. We first derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium dynamically stabilised pendulum position in a regime of high damping and high modulation frequency of the pendulum pivot. This model implies a threshold behavior for stabilisation to occur, and a continuous evolution of the angular position which, unlike the underdamped case, does not reach the fully inverted position. We then test the theoretical predictions using an optically trapped microparticle subject to fluid drag force, finding reasonable agreement with the threshold and equilibrium behavior at high modulation amplitude. Analytical theory and experiments are complemented by Brownian motion simulations.

  8. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2009-12-15

    Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

  9. Conformational studies on host-guest peptides containing chiral alpha-methyl-alpha-amino acids. Comparison of the helix-inducing potential of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, (S)-2-ethylalanine and (S)-2-methylserine.

    PubMed

    Altmann, E; Altmann, K H; Nebel, K; Mutter, M

    1988-11-01

    The conformational behaviour of host-guest peptides of the type Ac-Ala-Xxx-Ala-Ala-Xxx-Ala-Ala-Xxx-Ala-Ala-NH-PEGM (Xxx = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), (S)-2-ethylalanine ((S)-Iva), (S)-2-methylserine ((S)-alpha-MeSer)) has been studied by CD spectroscopy in CF3CH2OH, CH3OH, and water and by i.r. spectroscopy in CHCl3 and in the solid state. In this way the relative helix-inducing potential of the two chiral alpha-methyl-alpha-amino acids (S)-Iva and (S)-alpha-MeSer could be established in comparison to the strong helix-former Aib. The results show that (S)-Iva exerts a comparable helix-inducing effect as Aib, making this amino acid a valuable complementary tool for the stabilization or induction of helices. No significant helix-promoting effect was observed for (S)-alpha-MeSer in polar solvents; however, the i.r.-spectroscopic data in CHCl3 and in the solid state point to a helical conformation under these conditions. Possible reasons for the different behaviour of (S)-Iva and (S)-alpha-MeSer are briefly discussed. PMID:3145251

  10. Characterizing conical refraction optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C; McDougall, C; Rafailov, E; McGloin, D

    2014-12-01

    Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focusing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots, and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focusing on the trap stiffness, and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot, but benefit from rotational control. PMID:25490654

  11. Optical tweezers based on polarization interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Dominikov, Mykola M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose optical tweezers based on a biaxial crystal. To control the movement of opaque particles, we use the shift polarization interferometer. The results of experimental study of laser tweezers are shown. We demonstrates movement of a microparticle of toner using singular-optical trap, rotate a particle due to orbital momentum, conversion of two traps when changing the plane of polarizer transmission and converging of two traps.

  12. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic (direct current), or a combination of radio...

  13. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic (direct current), or a combination of radio...

  14. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  15. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  16. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5360 - Tweezer-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. The tweezer-type epilator is an electrical device intended to remove hair. The energy provided at the tip of the tweezer used to remove hair may be radio frequency, galvanic...

  19. Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, Jan; Lee, Mina; Ordu, Orkide; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques include so-called force spectroscopy approaches such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, flow stretching, and magnetic tweezers. Amongst these approaches, magnetic tweezers have distinguished themselves by their ability to apply torque while maintaining a constant stretching force. Here, it is illustrated how such a “conventional” magnetic tweezers experimental configuration can, through a straightforward modification of its field configuration to minimize the magnitude of the transverse field, be adapted to measure the degree of twist in a biological molecule. The resulting configuration is termed the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers. Additionally, it is shown how further modification of the field configuration can yield a transverse field with a magnitude intermediate between that of the “conventional” magnetic tweezers and the freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, which makes it possible to directly measure the torque stored in a biological molecule. This configuration is termed the magnetic torque tweezers. The accompanying video explains in detail how the conversion of conventional magnetic tweezers into freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers can be accomplished, and demonstrates the use of these techniques. These adaptations maintain all the strengths of conventional magnetic tweezers while greatly expanding the versatility of this powerful instrument. PMID:24894412

  20. Tomographic phase microscopy using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habaza, Mor; Gilboa, Barak; Roichman, Yael; Shaked, Natan T.

    2015-07-01

    We review our technique for tomographic phase microscopy with optical tweezers [1]. This tomographic phase microscopy approach enables full 3-D refractive-index reconstruction. Tomographic phase microscopy measures quantitatively the 3- D distribution of refractive-index in biological cells. We integrated our external interferometric module with holographic optical tweezers for obtaining quantitative phase maps of biological samples from a wide range of angles. The close-tocommon- path, off-axis interferometric system enables a full-rotation tomographic acquisition of a single cell using holographic optical tweezers for trapping and manipulating with a desired array of traps, while acquiring phase information of a single cell from all different angles and maintaining the native surrounding medium. We experimentally demonstrated two reconstruction algorithms: the filtered back-projection method and the Fourier diffraction method for 3-D refractive index imaging of yeast cells.

  1. Optical Tweezers Physics 464 Applied Optics,

    E-print Network

    Optical Tweezers Physics 464 ­ Applied Optics, By Scott Cline #12;Project Topics · Brief history · Typical set-up · How they work · Common use #12;Discovery · Effects of optical scattering and gradient forces discovered by Arthur Ashkin 1970 · Method of creating an "optical trap" established in 1986

  2. An optical tweezer for complex plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schablinski, Jan; Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the experimental realization of an optical trap for microparticles levitating in the plasma sheath. Single particles can be trapped in a laser beam comparable to optical tweezers known from colloidal suspensions. The trapping mechanism is discussed and two applications of the system are shown.

  3. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2014-04-14

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35?MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  4. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  5. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  6. Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers

    E-print Network

    Stefano Zippilli; Bernd Mohring; Eric Lutz; Giovanna Morigi; Wolfgang Schleich

    2011-04-15

    The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied for initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

  7. Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Zippilli, Stefano; Mohring, Bernd; Schleich, Wolfgang; Lutz, Eric; Morigi, Giovanna

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied to initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

  8. Towards absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Viana, N B; Mazolli, A; Mesquita, O N; Nussenzveig, H M; Rocha, M S

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at absolute force calibration of optical tweezers, following a critical review of proposed theoretical models, we present and test the results of MDSA (Mie-Debye-Spherical Aberration) theory, an extension of a previous (MD) model, taking account of spherical aberration at the glass/water interface. This first-principles theory is formulated entirely in terms of experimentally accessible parameters (none adjustable). Careful experimental tests of the MDSA theory, undertaken at two laboratories, with very different setups, are described. A detailed description is given of the procedures employed to measure laser beam waist, local beam power at the transparent microspheres trapped by the tweezers, microsphere radius and the trap transverse stiffness, as a function of radius and height in the (inverted microscope) sample chamber. We find generally very good agreement with MDSA theory predictions, for a wide size range, from the Rayleigh domain to large radii, including the values most often employed in pra...

  9. Probing the Casimir force with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Ether, D S; Umrath, S; Martinez, D; Ayala, Y; Pontes, B; Araújo, G R de S; Frases, S; Ingold, G -L; Rosa, F S S; Viana, N B; Nussenzveig, H M; Neto, P A Maia

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use optical tweezers to probe the Casimir interaction between microspheres inside a liquid medium for geometric aspect ratios far beyond the validity of the widely employed proximity force approximation. This setup has the potential for revealing unprecedented features associated to the non-trivial role of the spherical curvatures. For a proof of concept, we measure femtonewton double layer forces between polystyrene microspheres at distances above $400$ nm by employing very soft optical tweezers, with stiffness of the order of fractions of a fN/nm. As a future application, we propose to tune the Casimir interaction between a metallic and a polystyrene microsphere in saline solution from attraction to repulsion by varying the salt concentration. With those materials, the screened Casimir interaction may have a larger magnitude than the unscreened one. This line of investigation has the potential for bringing together different fields including classical and quantum optics, statistical physics an...

  10. The Smallest Tweezers in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewalle, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical…

  11. Probing the Casimir force with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    D. S. Ether Jr; L. B. Pires; S. Umrath; D. Martinez; Y. Ayala; B. Pontes; G. R. de S. Araújo; S. Frases; G. -L. Ingold; F. S. S. Rosa; N. B. Viana; H. M. Nussenzveig; P. A. Maia Neto

    2015-11-06

    We propose to use optical tweezers to probe the Casimir interaction between microspheres inside a liquid medium for geometric aspect ratios far beyond the validity of the widely employed proximity force approximation. This setup has the potential for revealing unprecedented features associated to the non-trivial role of the spherical curvatures. For a proof of concept, we measure femtonewton double layer forces between polystyrene microspheres at distances above $400$ nm by employing very soft optical tweezers, with stiffness of the order of fractions of a fN/nm. As a future application, we propose to tune the Casimir interaction between a metallic and a polystyrene microsphere in saline solution from attraction to repulsion by varying the salt concentration. With those materials, the screened Casimir interaction may have a larger magnitude than the unscreened one. This line of investigation has the potential for bringing together different fields including classical and quantum optics, statistical physics and colloid science, while paving the way for novel quantitative applications of optical tweezers in cell and molecular biology.

  12. Probing the Casimir force with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ether, D. S., Jr.; Pires, L. B.; Umrath, S.; Martinez, D.; Ayala, Y.; Pontes, B.; Araújo, G. R. de S.; Frases, S.; Ingold, G.-L.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Viana, N. B.; Nussenzveig, H. M.; Neto, P. A. Maia

    2015-11-01

    We propose to use optical tweezers to probe the Casimir interaction between microspheres inside a liquid medium for geometric aspect ratios far beyond the validity of the widely employed proximity force approximation. This setup has the potential for revealing unprecedented features associated to the non-trivial role of the spherical curvatures. For a proof of concept, we measure femtonewton double-layer forces between polystyrene microspheres at distances above 400 nm by employing very soft optical tweezers, with stiffness of the order of fractions of a fN/nm. As a future application, we propose to tune the Casimir interaction between a metallic and a polystyrene microsphere in saline solution from attraction to repulsion by varying the salt concentration. With those materials, the screened Casimir interaction may have a larger magnitude than the unscreened one. This line of investigation has the potential for bringing together different fields including classical and quantum optics, statistical physics and colloid science, while paving the way for novel quantitative applications of optical tweezers in cell and molecular biology.

  13. Optical Tweezers in Colloid and Interface Science David G. Grier

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezers in Colloid and Interface Science David G. Grier The James Franck Institute with radiation pressure, otherwise known as optical trapping, has emerged as a powerful experimental tool of a particular trapping technique known colloquially as ``optical tweezers.'' Even though the theory of optical

  14. Optical Tweezers Array and Nimble Tweezers Probe Generated by Spatial- Light Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Seibel, Robin E.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    An optical tweezers is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center as a visiblelight interface between ubiquitous laser technologies and the interrogation, visualization, manufacture, control, and energization of nanostructures such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanotubes. The tweezers uses one or more focused laser beams to hold micrometer-sized particles called tools (sometimes called tips in atomic-force-microscope terminology). A strongly focused laser beam has an associated light-pressure gradient that is strong enough to pull small particles to the focus, in spite of the oppositely directed scattering force; "optical tweezers" is the common term for this effect. The objective is to use the tools to create carefully shaped secondary traps to hold and assemble nanostructures that may contain from tens to hundreds of atoms. The interaction between a tool and the nanostructures is to be monitored optically as is done with scanning probe microscopes. One of the initial efforts has been to create, shape, and control multiple tweezers beams. To this end, a programmable spatial-light modulator (SLM) has been used to modify the phase of a laser beam at up to 480 by 480 points. One program creates multiple, independently controllable tweezer beams whose shapes can be tailored by making the SLM an adaptive mirror in an interferometer (ref. 1). The beams leave the SLM at different angles, and an optical Fourier transform maps these beams to different positions in the focal plane of a microscope objective. The following figure shows two arrays of multiple beams created in this manner. The patterns displayed above the beam array control the intensity-to-phase transformation required in programming the SLM. Three of the seven beams displayed can be used as independently controllable beams.

  15. Micromechanics of Dipolar Chains Using Optical Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furst, Eric M.; Gast, Alice P.

    1999-01-01

    Here we present our initial study of the micromechanical properties of dipolar chains and columns in a magnetorheological (MR) suspension. Using dual-trap optical tweezers, we are able to directly measure the deformation of the dipolar chains parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. We observe the field dependence of the mechanical properties such as resistance to deformation, chain reorganization, and rupturing of the chains. These forms of energy dissipation are important for understanding and tuning the yield stress and rheological behavior of an MR suspension.

  16. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  17. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  18. Towards absolute calibration of optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Viana, N B; Rocha, M S; Mesquita, O N; Mazolli, A; Maia Neto, P A; Nussenzveig, H M

    2007-02-01

    Aiming at absolute force calibration of optical tweezers, following a critical review of proposed theoretical models, we present and test the results of Mie-Debye-spherical aberration (MDSA) theory, an extension of a previous (MD) model, taking account of spherical aberration at the glass-water interface. This first-principles theory is formulated entirely in terms of experimentally accessible parameters (none adjustable). Careful experimental tests of the MDSA theory, undertaken at two laboratories, with very different setups, are described. A detailed description is given of the procedures employed to measure laser beam waist, local beam power at the transparent microspheres trapped by the tweezers, microsphere radius, and the trap transverse stiffness, as a function of radius and height in the (inverted microscope) sample chamber. We find generally very good agreement with MDSA theory predictions, for a wide size range, from the Rayleigh domain to large radii, including the values most often employed in practice, and at different chamber heights, both with objective overfilling and underfilling. The results asymptotically approach geometrical optics in the mean over size intervals, as they should, and this already happens for size parameters not much larger than unity. MDSA predictions for the trapping threshold, position of stiffness peak, stiffness variation with height, multiple equilibrium points, and "hopping" effects among them are verified. Remaining discrepancies are ascribed to focus degradation, possibly arising from objective aberrations in the infrared, not yet included in MDSA theory. PMID:17358374

  19. Towards absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, N. B.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2007-02-01

    Aiming at absolute force calibration of optical tweezers, following a critical review of proposed theoretical models, we present and test the results of Mie-Debye-spherical aberration (MDSA) theory, an extension of a previous (MD) model, taking account of spherical aberration at the glass-water interface. This first-principles theory is formulated entirely in terms of experimentally accessible parameters (none adjustable). Careful experimental tests of the MDSA theory, undertaken at two laboratories, with very different setups, are described. A detailed description is given of the procedures employed to measure laser beam waist, local beam power at the transparent microspheres trapped by the tweezers, microsphere radius, and the trap transverse stiffness, as a function of radius and height in the (inverted microscope) sample chamber. We find generally very good agreement with MDSA theory predictions, for a wide size range, from the Rayleigh domain to large radii, including the values most often employed in practice, and at different chamber heights, both with objective overfilling and underfilling. The results asymptotically approach geometrical optics in the mean over size intervals, as they should, and this already happens for size parameters not much larger than unity. MDSA predictions for the trapping threshold, position of stiffness peak, stiffness variation with height, multiple equilibrium points, and “hopping” effects among them are verified. Remaining discrepancies are ascribed to focus degradation, possibly arising from objective aberrations in the infrared, not yet included in MDSA theory.

  20. Exploring the mechanome with optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Brau, Ricardo R. (Ricardo Rafael), 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence into an instrument capable of making combined, coincident measurements adds an observable dimension that allows for the examination of the localized ...

  1. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  2. Single Bessel tractor-beam tweezers

    E-print Network

    Mitri, F G

    2014-01-01

    The tractor behavior of a zero-order Bessel acoustic beam acting on a fluid sphere, and emanating from a finite circular aperture (as opposed to waves of infinite extent) is demonstrated theoretically. Conditions for an attractive force acting in opposite direction of the radiating waves, determined by the choice of the beam's half-cone angle, the size of the radiator, and its distance from a fluid sphere, are established and discussed. Numerical predictions for the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit energy density and cross-sectional surface, are provided using a partial-wave expansion method stemming from the acoustic scattering. The results suggest a simple and reliable analysis for the design of Bessel beam acoustical tweezers and tractor beam devices.

  3. Multiplexed spectroscopy with holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibula, Matthew A.; McIntyre, David H.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a multiplexed holographic optical tweezers system with an imaging spectrometer to manipulate multiple optically trapped nanosensors and detect multiple fluorescence spectra. The system uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the positions of infrared optical traps in the sample so that multiple nanosensors can be positioned into regions of interest. Spectra of multiple nanosensors are detected simultaneously with the application of an imaging spectrometer. Nanosensors are capable of detecting changes in their environment such as pH, ion concentration, temperature, and voltage by monitoring changes in the nanosensors' emitted fluorescence spectra. We use streptavidin labeled quantum dots bound to the surface of biotin labeled polystyrene microspheres to measure temperature changes by observing a corresponding shift in the wavelength of the spectral peak. The fluorescence is excited at 532 nm with a wide field source.

  4. How safe is gamete micromanipulation by laser tweezers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.

    1998-04-01

    Laser tweezers, used as novel sterile micromanipulation tools of living cells, are employed in laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (IVF). For example, controlled spermatozoa transport with 1064 nm tweezers to human egg cells has been performed in European clinics in cases of male infertility. The interaction of approximately 100 mW near infrared (NIR) trapping beams at MW/cm2 intensity with human gametes results in low mean less than 2 K temperature increases and less than 100 pN trapping forces. Therefore, photothermal or photomechanical induced destructive effects appear unlikely. However, the high photon flux densities may induce simultaneous absorption of two NIR photons resulting in nonlinear interactions. These nonlinear interactions imply non-resonant two-photon excitation of endogenous cellular chromophores. In the case of less than 800 nm tweezers, UV- like damage effects may occur. The destructive effect is amplified when multimode cw lasers are used as tweezer sources due to longitudinal mode-beating effects and partial mode- locking. Spermatozoa damage within seconds using 760 nm traps due to formation of unstable ps pulses in a cw Ti:Sa ring laser is demonstrated. We recommend the use of greater than or equal to 800 nm traps for optical gamete micromanipulation. To our opinion, further basic studies on the influence of nonlinear effects of laser tweezers on human gamete are necessary.

  5. Mechanisms of HCV NS3 Helicase Monitored by Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    As one of the essential enzymes for viral genome replication, the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase is one of the best characterized RNA helicases to date in understanding the mechanistic cycles in a helicase-catalyzed strand separation reaction. Recently, single-molecule studies on NS3, in particular the use of optical tweezers with sub-base pair spatial resolution, have allowed people to examine the potential elementary steps of NS3 in unwinding the double-stranded RNA fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis. In this chapter, I detail the essential technical elements involved in conducting a high-resolution optical tweezers study of NS3 helicase, starting from the purification of the recombinant helicase protein from E. coli to setting up a high-resolution single-molecule experiment using optical tweezers. PMID:25579590

  6. Optical tweezers based on near infrared diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grego, S.; Arimondo, Ennio; Frediani, Carlo

    1997-07-01

    Emission from a single-mode 100 mW diode laser at 840 nm is used to create optical tweezers: the trapping laser beam is introduced into a microscope and focused by the objective. The microscope also allows monitoring of the motion of the trapped particles. The optical tweezers were monitored with objectives having different numerical apertures between 0.65 and 1.3. The optical trapping of polystyrene spheres with a radius between 0.11 and 7.45 micrometers and of biological objects, the flagellated alga Tetraselmis, with typical dimensions of 8 X 8 X 13 micrometers 3 were studied. The efficiency of the optical tweezers has been characterized through a parameter Q and compared with theoretical models.

  7. A mode-division-multiplexing single fiber optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Enming; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yaxun; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2015-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a mode division multiplexing single fiber optical tweezers. By using this tweezers, one can trap a yeast cell and then launch it away from the fiber tip with a certain speed to a certain position without moving the optical fiber in a single fiber optical trapping apparatus. We excite both LP01 and LP11 mode beams in a same normal communication fiber core to generate the optical launching force and trapping force by molding the fiber tip into a special tapered-tip shape. A yeast cell of 6?m diameter is trapped and then being launched away. We construct the optical trapping and launching potential wells by controlling the power of two mode beams. This micro particle directional launching function expands new features of fiber optical tweezers based on the normal communication fiber, providing for the possibility of more practical applications in the biomedical research fields.

  8. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

  9. Quantum dot thermal spectroscopy for biological optical tweezer applications

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    , mitochondrial activity and DNA integrity. The specific toxic effects of quantum dots has been shown to varyQuantum dot thermal spectroscopy for biological optical tweezer applications William T Ramsay1 useful thermal probes for biological materials. This particular application seeks to illustrate

  10. Unraveling chromatin structure using magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, John

    2010-03-01

    The compact, yet dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in regulating gene expression. Although the static structure of chromatin fibers has been studied extensively, the controversy about the higher order folding remains. The compaction of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin has been implicated in the regulation of all DNA processes. To understand the relation between gene regulation and chromatin structure it is essential to uncover the mechanisms by which chromatin fibers fold and unfold. We used magnetic tweezers to probe the mechanical properties of individual nucleosomes and chromatin fibers consisting of a single, well-defined array of 25 nucleosomes. From these studies five major features appeared upon forced extension of chromatin fibers: the elastic stretching of chromatin's higher order structure, the breaking of internucleosomal contacts, unwrapping of the first turn of DNA, unwrapping of the second turn of DNA, and the dissociation of histone octamers. These events occur sequentially at the increasing force. Neighboring nucleosomes stabilize DNA folding into a nucleosome relative to isolated nucleosomes. When an array of nucleosomes is folded into a 30 nm fiber, representing the first level of chromatin condensation, the fiber stretched like a Hookian spring at forces up to 4 pN. Together with a nucleosome-nucleosome stacking energy of 14 kT this points to a solenoid as the underlying topology of the 30 nm fiber. Surprisingly, linker histones do not affect the length or stiffness of the fibers, but stabilize fiber folding up to forces of 7 pN. The stiffness of the folded chromatin fiber points at histone tails that mediate nucleosome stacking. Fibers with a nucleosome repeat length of 167 bp instead of 197 bp are significantly stiffer, consistent with a two-start helical arrangement. The extensive thermal breathing of the chromatin fiber that is a consequence of the observed high compliance provides a structural basis for understanding the balance between chromatin condensation and transparency for DNA transactions. The kinetics of force induced nucleosome unstacking was resolved using a Hidden Markov analysis. Overall, our results reveal a highly dynamic structure that combines high level of compaction of DNA with transient accessibility.

  11. A Step-by-step Guide to the Realisation of Advanced Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Pesce, Giuseppe; Marago, Onofrio M; Jones, Philip H; Gigain, Sylvain; Sasso, Antonio; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Arthur Ashkin, optical tweezers have become an indispensable tool for contactless manipulation of micro- and nanoparticles. Nowadays optical tweezers are employed in a myriad of applications demonstrating the importance of these tools. While the basic principle of optical tweezers is the use of a strongly focused laser beam to trap and manipulate particles, ever more complex experimental set-ups are required in order to perform novel and challenging experiments. With this article, we provide a detailed step- by-step guide for the construction of advanced optical manipulation systems. First, we explain how to build a single-beam optical tweezers on a home-made microscope and how to calibrate it. Improving on this design, we realize a holographic optical tweezers, which can manipulate independently multiple particles and generate more sophisticated wavefronts such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Finally, we explain how to implement a speckle optical tweezers, which permit one to employ ...

  12. Single-sided lateral-field and phototransistor-based optoelectronic tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohta, Aaron (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Hsu, Hsan-Yin (Inventor); Jamshidi, Arash (Inventor); Wu, Ming-Chiang (Inventor); Neale, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Described herein are single-sided lateral-field optoelectronic tweezers (LOET) devices which use photosensitive electrode arrays to create optically-induced dielectrophoretic forces in an electric field that is parallel to the plane of the device. In addition, phototransistor-based optoelectronic tweezers (PhOET) devices are described that allow for optoelectronic tweezers (OET) operation in high-conductivity physiological buffer and cell culture media.

  13. Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064?nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ?0.8–5?pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ?0.01–0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ?0.1–12?pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5–15?µm in media with 1–7?cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens. PMID:25359514

  14. Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064 nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ~0.8-5 pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ~0.01-0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ~0.1-12 pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5-15 µm in media with 1-7 cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens.

  15. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. PMID:25523395

  16. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

  17. Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Cheng, D K; Sonek, G J; Berns, M W; Chapman, C F; Tromberg, B J

    1995-01-01

    The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of approximately 1.45 +/- 0.15 degrees C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 microns optical tweezers having a power density of approximately 10(7) W/cm2 and a focused spot size of approximately 0.8 micron. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15 +/- 0.25 degrees C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:7612858

  18. Using Laser Tweezers For Manipulating Isolated Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Robert; Wang, Jianfeng; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper and video, we describe the protocols used in our laboratory to study the targeting preferences of regenerating cell processes of adult retinal neurons in vitro. Procedures for preparing retinal cell cultures start with the dissection, digestion and trituration of the retina, and end with the plating of isolated retinal cells on dishes made especially for use with laser tweezers. These dishes are divided into a cell adhesive half and a cell repellant half. The cell adhesive side is coated with a layer of Sal-1 antibodies, which provide a substrate upon which our cells grow. Other adhesive substrates could be used for other cell types. The cell repellant side is coated with a thin layer of poly-HEMA. The cells plated on the poly-HEMA side of the dish are trapped with the laser tweezers, transported and then placed adjacent to a cell on the Sal-1 side to create a pair. Formation of cell groups of any size should be possible with this technique. "Laser-tweezers-controlled micromanipulation" means that the investigator can choose which cells to move, and the desired distance between the cells can be standardized. Because the laser beam goes through transparent surfaces of the culture dish, cell selection and placement are done in an enclosed, sterile environment. Cells can be monitored by video time-lapse and used with any cell biological technique required. This technique may help investigations of cell-cell interactions. PMID:19066536

  19. Toward optical-tweezers-based force microscopy for airborne microparticles.

    PubMed

    Power, Rory M; Burnham, Daniel R; Reid, Jonathan P

    2014-12-20

    Optical tweezers have found widespread application in biological and colloidal physics for the measurement of pN forces over nanometer to micrometer length scales. Similar aerosol-phase measurements of interparticle force have not been reported in spite of the potential to better resolve particle coagulation kinetics. Various refractive index mismatches in the beam path as well as the need to explicitly account for gravity and inertial particle motion provide a number of challenges that must be overcome to make such measurements tractable. In this regard, we demonstrate schemes by which the particle position and trap stiffness may be unambiguously measured using bright-field microscopy with resolution comparable with analogous condensed-phase measurements. Moreover, some of the challenges of working with highly dynamic aqueous particles are introduced and exploited to observe size-dependent phenomena in aerosol optical tweezers. Notably, when combined with cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, this provides a unique opportunity to explore trapping forces over a continuum of particle size and refractive index. It is expected that the methods developed will provide a basis for the measurement of pairwise interaction forces in aerosol optical tweezers while providing a probe of fundamental airborne particle trapping dynamics. PMID:25608202

  20. Magnetic Forces and DNA Mechanics in Multiplexed Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Loenhout, Marijn T. J.; Burnham, Daniel R.; Dekker, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers (MT) are a powerful tool for the study of DNA-enzyme interactions. Both the magnet-based manipulation and the camera-based detection used in MT are well suited for multiplexed measurements. Here, we systematically address challenges related to scaling of multiplexed magnetic tweezers (MMT) towards high levels of parallelization where large numbers of molecules (say 103) are addressed in the same amount of time required by a single-molecule measurement. We apply offline analysis of recorded images and show that this approach provides a scalable solution for parallel tracking of the xyz-positions of many beads simultaneously. We employ a large field-of-view imaging system to address many DNA-bead tethers in parallel. We model the 3D magnetic field generated by the magnets and derive the magnetic force experienced by DNA-bead tethers across the large field of view from first principles. We furthermore experimentally demonstrate that a DNA-bead tether subject to a rotating magnetic field describes a bicircular, Limaçon rotation pattern and that an analysis of this pattern simultaneously yields information about the force angle and the position of attachment of the DNA on the bead. Finally, we apply MMT in the high-throughput investigation of the distribution of the induced magnetic moment, the position of attachment of DNA on the beads, and DNA flexibility. The methods described herein pave the way to kilo-molecule level magnetic tweezers experiments. PMID:22870220

  1. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    E-print Network

    Park, Woon Ik

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their ...

  2. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woon Ik; Kim, YongJoo; Jeong, Jae Won; Kim, Kyungho; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Hur, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jong Min; Thomas, Edwin L.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their limited thin film morphologies. Here, we report that unusual and spontaneous positioning between host and guest BCP microdomains, even in the absence of H-bond linkages, can create hybridized morphologies that cannot be formed from a neat BCP. Our self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulation results theoretically support that the precise registration of a spherical BCP microdomain (guest, B-b-C) at the center of a perforated lamellar BCP nanostructure (host, A-b-B) can energetically stabilize the blended morphology. As an exemplary application of the hybrid nanotemplate, a nanoring-type Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change memory device with an extremely low switching current is demonstrated. These results suggest the possibility of a new pathway to construct more diverse and complex nanostructures using controlled blending of various BCPs. PMID:24217036

  3. Nanopatterning of a covalent organic framework host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Plas, Jan; Ivasenko, Oleksandr; Martsinovich, Natalia; Lackinger, Markus; De Feyter, Steven

    2015-12-15

    We have used a boroxine-based COF as a template for C60-fullerene self-assembly on graphite. Local removal of the COF by STM based nanomanipulation creates nanocorrals that may host other species. PMID:26514994

  4. Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, D.K.; Sonek, G.J.; Berns, M.W.; Chapman, C.F.; Tromberg, B.J.

    1995-05-01

    The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of {similar_to}1.45{plus_minus}0.15 {degree}C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 {mu}m optical tweezers having a power density of {similar_to}10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} and a focused spot size of {similar_to}0.8 {mu}m. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15{plus_minus}0.25 {degree}C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. A simple optical tweezers for trapping polystyrene particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiq, Minarni; Nasir, Zulfa; Yogasari, Dwiyana

    2013-09-01

    Optical tweezers is an optical trap. For decades, it has become an optical tool that can trap and manipulate any particle from the very small size like DNA to the big one like bacteria. The trapping force comes from the radiation pressure of laser light which is focused to a group of particles. Optical tweezers has been used in many research areas such as atomic physics, medical physics, biophysics, and chemistry. Here, a simple optical tweezers has been constructed using a modified Leybold laboratory optical microscope. The ocular lens of the microscope has been removed for laser light and digital camera accesses. A laser light from a Coherent diode laser with wavelength ? = 830 nm and power 50 mW is sent through an immersion oil objective lens with magnification 100 × and NA 1.25 to a cell made from microscope slides containing polystyrene particles. Polystyrene particles with size 3 ?m and 10 ?m are used. A CMOS Thorlabs camera type DCC1545M with USB Interface and Thorlabs camera lens 35 mm are connected to a desktop and used to monitor the trapping and measure the stiffness of the trap. The camera is accompanied by camera software which makes able for the user to capture and save images. The images are analyzed using ImageJ and Scion macro. The polystyrene particles have been trapped successfully. The stiffness of the trap depends on the size of the particles and the power of the laser. The stiffness increases linearly with power and decreases as the particle size larger.

  6. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  7. Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension ? and the bending rigidity ? of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that ? increases as the charged component increases but ? remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

  8. Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimisation and calibration

    E-print Network

    Hanes, Richard D L; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

    2009-01-01

    We have combined a spatial light modulator (SLM) and galvanometer-mounted mirrors into an optical tweezers set-up. This provides great flexibility by allowing us to create an array of traps which can be moved in a smooth and fast way. To optimise the performance we investigated the effect of incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response. Although it is possible to use the SLM at an incidence of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a more constant response with a full $2\\pi$ phase shift. We calibrate the traps using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution technique.

  9. Optical Tweezers for Sample Fixing in Micro-Diffraction Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amenitsch, H.; Rappolt, M.; Sartori, B.; Laggner, P.; Cojoc, D.; Ferrari, E.; Garbin, V.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, Ch.

    2007-01-19

    In order to manipulate, characterize and measure the micro-diffraction of individual structural elements down to single phospholipid liposomes we have been using optical tweezers (OT) combined with an imaging microscope. We were able to install the OT system at the microfocus beamline ID13 at the ESRF and trap clusters of about 50 multi-lamellar liposomes (< 10 {mu}m large cluster). Further we have performed a scanning diffraction experiment with a 1 micrometer beam to demonstrate the fixing capabilities and to confirm the size of the liposome cluster by X-ray diffraction.

  10. Translation and manipulation of silicon nanomembranes using holographic optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of holographic optical tweezers for trapping and manipulating silicon nanomembranes. These macroscopic free-standing sheets of single-crystalline silicon are attractive for use in next-generation flexible electronics. We achieve three-dimensional control by attaching a functionalized silica bead to the silicon surface, enabling non-contact trapping and manipulation of planar structures with high aspect ratios (high lateral size to thickness). Using as few as one trap and trapping powers as low as several hundred milliwatts, silicon nanomembranes can be rotated and translated in a solution over large distances. PMID:21867504

  11. Optical tweezers: Characterization and systems approach to high bandwidth force estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Hullas

    In recent times, the hard boundaries between classical fields of sciences have almost disappeared. There is a cross-pollination of ideas between sciences, engineering and mathematics. This work investigates a modern tool of micro-manipulation of microscopic particles that is used primarily by bio-physicists and bio-chemists for single cell, single molecule studies. This tool called the Optical Tweezers can trap microscopic dielectric particles using radiation pressure of light. Optical tweezers is increasingly being used in bio-assays as it provides a means to observe bio-molecules non invasively and offers a spatial resolution in nanometers and force resolution in femto-Newtons at millisecond timescales. In this work, physics governing the operating principle behind optical tweezers is presented, followed by a step by step procedure to build an optical tweezers system having measurement and actuation capability along with a controller logic for feedback implementation. The working of optical tweezers system is presented using a spring mass damper model and the traditional methods of optical tweezers characterization are discussed. A comprehensive view of Optical tweezers is then presented from a system theoretic perspective, underlying the limitations of traditional methods of tweezers characterization that are based on the first principle. The role of feedback in Optical tweezers is presented along with the fundamental limitations that the plant model imposes on optical tweezers performance to be used as a force sensor for fast dynamics input force. The purpose of optical tweezers as a pico-newton force probe is emphasized and a classical controls based method to improve the bandwidth of force estimation using an ad-hoc approach of system inversion is presented. The efficacy of system inversion based method in improving the force probe capability of feedback enhanced optical tweezers is validated by experimental results. It is shown experimentally that the system inversion method results in an order of magnitude improvement in the bandwidth of external force estimation. Finally, a robust control strategy is presented, where the problem of estimation of high bandwidth force is casted as an H-infinity optimization problem along with other performance objectives. This strategy is then compared with the traditional method using PI-controllers and experimental results presented. The robust control strategy is found to further improve the ability of optical tweezers as a force sensor for fast changing force profile by approximately three times over the system inversion approach.

  12. Precision Assembly of Complex Cellular Microenvironments using Holographic Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M.; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D.; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  13. A measurement of the maximal forces in plasmonic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Dae; Choi, Jun-Hee; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonic tweezers that are designed to trap nanoscale objects create many new possibilities for single-molecule targeted studies. Numerous novel designs of plasmonic nanostructures are proposed in order to attain stronger forces and weaker laser intensity. Most experiments have consisted only of immobilization observations—that is, particles stick when the laser is turned on and fall away when the laser is turned off. Studies of the exertable forces were only theoretical. A few studies have experimentally measured trap stiffness. However, as far as we know, no studies have addressed maximal forces. In this paper, we present a new experimental design in which the motion of the trapped particle can be monitored in either parallel or orthogonal directions to the plasmonic structure’s symmetric axis. We measured maximal trapping force through such monitoring. Although stiffness would be useful for force-calibration or immobilization purposes, for which most plasmonic tweezers are used, we believe that the maximal endurable force is significant and thus, this paper presents this aspect.

  14. Use of optical tweezers to probe epithelial mechanosensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Cellular mechanosensation mechanisms have been implicated in a variety of disease states. Specifically in renal tubules, the primary cilium and associated mechanosensitive ion channels are hypothesized to play a role in water and salt homeostasis, with relevant disease states including polycystic kidney disease and hypertension. Previous experiments investigating ciliary-mediated cellular mechanosensation have used either fluid flow chambers or micropipetting to elicit a biological response. The interpretation of these experiments in terms of the ``ciliary hypothesis'' has been difficult due the spatially distributed nature of the mechanical disturbance-several competing hypotheses regarding possible roles of primary cilium, glycocalyx, microvilli, cell junctions, and actin cytoskeleton exist. I report initial data using optical tweezers to manipulate individual primary cilia in an attempt to elicit a mechanotransduction response-specifically, the release of intracellular calcium. The advantage of using laser tweezers over previous work is that the applied disturbance is highly localized. I find that stimulation of a primary cilium elicits a response, while stimulation of the apical surface membrane does not. These results lend support to the hypothesis that the primary cilium mediates transduction of mechanical strain into a biochemical response in renal epithelia.

  15. Micro-tweezers for studying vibrating carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Arthur; Zhang, Mian; Lipson, Michal; McEuen, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Vibrational modes in suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are incredibly soft, which makes them sensitive to small forces and a prime candidate as force sensors. This same property, combined with the stiffness of the CNT to stretching, makes them an unusual mechanical system characterized both by large thermally-activated fluctuations and strong nonlinear interactions between the resonance modes. How do these thermal fluctuations manifest themselves in the resonance behavior? To address this question, we developed an electrically-contacted micro-tweezer platform that is capable of lifting a pristine CNT off of its growth substrate, directly applying strain to the free-standing doubly-clamped CNT, and controlling its proximity to electrical gates and optical ring (microdisk) resonators for sensing. We measure both the mechanical resonance frequencies and quality factors of the CNT as a function of strain and temperature and compare these to recent predictions that account for the entropic effects of fluctuations on CNTs. In addition, we use these tweezers to couple a CNT to a high-Q optical resonator and demonstrate remarkably strong optomechanical coupling.

  16. Inducing trauma into neuroblastoma cells and synthetic neural networks using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Patrick William

    The laser tweezers have become a very useful tool in the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology. My intent is to use the laser tweezers to induce trauma into neuroblastoma cells, cells that resemble neural cells when treated with retinoic acid, to try to surmise what happens when neural cells and networks are disrupted or destroyed. The issues presented will deal with the obtaining, maintenance, and differentiation of the cells, as well as the inner operations of the laser tweezers themselves, and what kind of applications it has been applied to, as well as to my work in this project.

  17. Construction of force measuring optical tweezers instrumentation and investigations of biophysical properties of bacterial adhesion organelles

    E-print Network

    Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a technique in which microscopic-sized particles, including living cells and bacteria, can be non-intrusively trapped with high accuracy solely using focused light. The technique has therefore become a powerful tool in the field of biophysics. Optical tweezers thereby provide outstanding manipulation possibilities of cells as well as semi-transparent materials, both non-invasively and non-destructively, in biological systems. In addition, optical tweezers can measure minute forces (organelles, so called pili, mediate adhesion to host cells and are therefore crucial...

  18. Investigation of shape memory of red blood cells using optical tweezers and quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2012-03-01

    RBC has been shown to possess shape memory subsequent to shear-induced shape transformation. However, this property of RBC may not be generalized to all kinds of stresses. Here, we report our observation on the action of radiation pressure forces on RBC's shape memory using optical manipulation and quantitative phase microscopy (OMQPM). QPM, based on Mach-Zehnder interferrometry, allowed measurement of dynamic changes of shape of RBC in optical tweezers at different trapping laser powers. In high power near-infrared optical tweezers (>200mW), the RBC was found to deform significantly due to optical forces. Upon removal of the tweezers, hysteresis in recovering its original resting shape was observed. In very high power tweezers or long-term stretching events, shape memory was almost erased. This irreversibility of the deformation may be due to temperature rise or stress-induced phase transformation of lipids in RBC membrane.

  19. Skewed Brownian Fluctuations in Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Daniel R.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383

  20. Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimization, and calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, Richard D. L.; Jenkins, Matthew C.; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.

    2009-08-15

    A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers setup. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps, which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimize performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 deg., smaller angles give a full 2{pi} phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method.

  1. Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: Construction, optimisation and calibration

    E-print Network

    Richard D. L. Hanes; Matthew C. Jenkins; Stefan U. Egelhaaf

    2009-07-21

    A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers set-up. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimise performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a full 2pi phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method.

  2. Combined holographic-mechanical optical tweezers: construction, optimization, and calibration.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Richard D L; Jenkins, Matthew C; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

    2009-08-01

    A spatial light modulator (SLM) and a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors (GMM) were combined into an optical tweezers setup. This provides great flexibility as the SLM creates an array of traps, which can be moved smoothly and quickly with the GMM. To optimize performance, the effect of the incidence angle on the SLM with respect to phase and intensity response was investigated. Although it is common to use the SLM at an incidence angle of 45 degrees, smaller angles give a full 2pi phase shift and an output intensity which is less dependent on the magnitude of the phase shift. The traps were calibrated using an active oscillatory technique and a passive probability distribution method. PMID:19725658

  3. Speckle optical tweezers: micromanipulation with random light fields.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Giorgio; Kurz, Lisa; Callegari, Agnese; Volpe, Giovanni; Gigan, Sylvain

    2014-07-28

    Current optical manipulation techniques rely on carefully engineered setups and samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, it is still a challenge to manipulate microparticles when the environment is not well controlled and known a priori, since optical imperfections and scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to efficiently perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting. We anticipate that the simplicity of these "speckle optical tweezers" will greatly broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications. PMID:25089434

  4. Speckle Optical Tweezers: Micromanipulation with Random Light Fields

    E-print Network

    Giorgio Volpe; Lisa Kurz; Agnese Callegari; Giovanni Volpe; Sylvain Gigan

    2014-03-03

    Current optical manipulation techniques rely on carefully engineered setups and samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, it is still a challenge to manipulate microparticles when the environment is not well controlled and known a priori, since optical imperfections and scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to efficiently perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting. We anticipate that the simplicity of these "speckle optical tweezers" will greatly broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications.

  5. Dynamic excitations in membranes induced by optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, R; Moses, E; Nelson, P

    1998-01-01

    We present the phenomenology of transformations in lipid bilayers that are excited by laser tweezers. A variety of dynamic instabilities and shape transformations are observed, including the pearling instability, expulsion of vesicles, and more exotic ones, such as the formation of passages. Our physical picture of the laser-membrane interaction is based on the generation of tension in the bilayer and loss of surface area. Although tension is the origin of the pearling instability, it does not suffice to explain expulsion of vesicles, where we observe opening of giant pores and creeping motion of bilayers. We present a quantitative theoretical framework to understand most of the observed phenomenology. The main hypothesis is that lipid is pulled into the optical trap by the familiar dielectric effect, is disrupted, and finally is repackaged into an optically unresolvable suspension of colloidal particles. This suspension, in turn, can produce osmotic pressure and depletion forces, driving the observed transformations. PMID:9649388

  6. Compact microscope-based 850-nm optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frediani, Carlo; Grego, S.; Guidoni, L.; Arimondo, Ennio

    1996-01-01

    Emission from a single mode 100 mW laser diode at 850 nm is used for realizing optical tweezers: the laser beam is introduced into a microscope and focused by the objective into the object plane. Injection of the beam into a 40X microscope objective has been studied and the position and the size of the waist measured. The trap performance was studied as a function of the dimensions of the trapped particles. Trapping of polystyrene latex spheres of different size (from 0.2 micrometer to 6 micrometer) was observed in different conditions of laser power and transverse velocity of the spheres. Biological objects, Tetraselmis, of large dimension (around 10 micrometer) were also studied. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal range of size of the particles to be trapped. Furthermore we measure minimum trapping power required for trapping and the maximum speed of the trapped objects as a function of the dimensions.

  7. A molecular tweezer antagonizes seminal amyloids and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lump, Edina; Castellano, Laura M; Meier, Christoph; Seeliger, Janine; Erwin, Nelli; Sperlich, Benjamin; Stürzel, Christina M; Usmani, Shariq; Hammond, Rebecca M; von Einem, Jens; Gerold, Gisa; Kreppel, Florian; Bravo-Rodriguez, Kenny; Pietschmann, Thomas; Holmes, Veronica M; Palesch, David; Zirafi, Onofrio; Weissman, Drew; Sowislok, Andrea; Wettig, Burkhard; Heid, Christian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Weil, Tanja; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Winter, Roland; Shorter, James; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission and contains amyloid fibrils that enhance viral infection. Available microbicides that target viral components have proven largely ineffective in preventing sexual virus transmission. In this study, we establish that CLR01, a 'molecular tweezer' specific for lysine and arginine residues, inhibits the formation of infectivity-enhancing seminal amyloids and remodels preformed fibrils. Moreover, CLR01 abrogates semen-mediated enhancement of viral infection by preventing the formation of virion-amyloid complexes and by directly disrupting the membrane integrity of HIV and other enveloped viruses. We establish that CLR01 acts by binding to the target lysine and arginine residues rather than by a non-specific, colloidal mechanism. CLR01 counteracts both host factors that may be important for HIV transmission and the pathogen itself. These combined anti-amyloid and antiviral activities make CLR01 a promising topical microbicide for blocking infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted viruses. PMID:26284498

  8. Trapping particles using waveguide-coupled gold bowtie plasmonic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Tso; Chu, Heng-Yi; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-12-21

    We propose and demonstrate a trapping configuration integrating coupled waveguides and gold bowtie structures to form near-field plasmonic tweezers. Compared with excitation from the top, waves coupled through the waveguide can excite specific bowties on the waveguide and trap particles precisely. Thus this scheme is more efficient and compact, and will assist the circuit design on a chip. With lightning rod and gap effects, the gold bowtie structures can generate highly concentrated resonant fields and induce trapping forces as strong as 652 pN W(-1) on particles with diameters as small as 20 nm. This trapping capability is investigated numerically and verified experimentally with observations of the transport, trapping, and release of particles in the system. PMID:25288366

  9. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Fallman, Erik; Schedin, Staffan; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quate...

  10. Automated analysis of single cells using Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Casabella, S; Scully, P; Goddard, N; Gardner, P

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made into the label-free detection and discrimination of individual cancer cells using Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy (LTRS). However, the majority of examples reported have involved manual trapping of cells, which is time consuming and may lead to different cell lines being analysed in discrete batches. A simple, low-cost microfluidic flow chamber is introduced which allows single cells to be optically trapped and analysed in an automated fashion, greatly reducing the level of operator input required. Two implementations of the flow chamber are discussed here; a basic single-channel device in which the fluid velocity is controlled manually, and a dual-channel device which permits the automated capture and analysis of multiple cell lines with no operator input. Results are presented for the discrimination of live epithelial prostate cells and lymphocytes, together with a consideration of the consequences of traditional 'batch analysis' typically used for LTRS of live cells. PMID:26587766

  11. Optical tweezers for free-solution label-free single bio-molecule studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnala, Abhay; Al-Balushi, Ahmed A.; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-09-01

    Nanoaperture based trapping has developed as a significant tool among the various optical tweezer systems for trapping of very small particles down to the single nanometer range. The double nanohole aperture based trap provides a method for efficient, highly-sensitive, label-free, low-cost, free-solution single molecule trapping and detection. We use the double nanohole tweezer to understand biomolecular phenomena like protein unfolding, binding, structural conformation of DNA, protein-DNA interactions, and protein small molecule interactions.

  12. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  13. Extending the range for force calibration in magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Daldrop, Peter; Brutzer, Hergen; Huhle, Alexander; Kauert, Dominik J; Seidel, Ralf

    2015-05-19

    Magnetic tweezers are a wide-spread tool used to study the mechanics and the function of a large variety of biomolecules and biomolecular machines. This tool uses a magnetic particle and a strong magnetic field gradient to apply defined forces to the molecule of interest. Forces are typically quantified by analyzing the lateral fluctuations of the biomolecule-tethered particle in the direction perpendicular to the applied force. Since the magnetic field pins the anisotropy axis of the particle, the lateral fluctuations follow the geometry of a pendulum with a short pendulum length along and a long pendulum length perpendicular to the field lines. Typically, the short pendulum geometry is used for force calibration by power-spectral-density (PSD) analysis, because the movement of the bead in this direction can be approximated by a simple translational motion. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the fluctuations according to the long pendulum geometry and show that for this direction, both the translational and the rotational motions of the particle have to be considered. We provide analytical formulas for the PSD of this coupled system that agree well with PSDs obtained in experiments and simulations and that finally allow a faithful quantification of the magnetic force for the long pendulum geometry. We furthermore demonstrate that this methodology allows the calibration of much larger forces than the short pendulum geometry in a tether-length-dependent manner. In addition, the accuracy of determination of the absolute force is improved. Our force calibration based on the long pendulum geometry will facilitate high-resolution magnetic-tweezers experiments that rely on short molecules and large forces, as well as highly parallelized measurements that use low frame rates. PMID:25992733

  14. Aromatic interactions by molecular tweezers and clips in chemical and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas

    2013-04-16

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings, such as ?-stacking and CH-?, occur throughout a range of fundamental processes including self-assembly and (bio)catalysis. Molecular clips and tweezers possess a central parallel or torus-shaped cavity with a surrounding belt of convergent aromatic rings; hence these structures exploit multiple aromatic interactions in a positively cooperative manner. Both clips and tweezers demonstrate selective binding of cationic or neutral guests that bear acceptor groups. The electrostatic surface potentials (ESP) explain this unexpected behavior: calculated ESPs were highly negative inside the tweezer or clip cavity, providing complementary profiles to the positive ESP plots of their preferred guest molecules. This Account presents more complex systems that use aromatic clips and tweezers to alter the reactivities of included guest species, to distinguish between guest enantiomers, and to interfere with biological processes such as enzymatic activity and protein aggregation. Napthalene tweezers show potential applications in organocatalysis. When pyridinium moieties are bound within the spacious cavity of naphthyl-spaced tweezers, the resulting complex significantly influences the first step of single-electron reductions of (bi)pyridinium salts. In addition, the environment within the tweezer cavity strongly accelerates the Menshutkin reaction (the alkylation of pyridine derivatives). Introduction of phosphonate, phosphate, or sulfate anions into the central aromatic bridge renders clips and tweezers water-soluble. Larger systems form extremely tight intertwined dimers that rely on the nonclassical hydrophobic effect for their stability. Smaller clips and tweezers with a simple benzene bridge remain monomeric in buffered aqueous solution and display a complementary binding profile. While the clips with parallel sidewalls prefer flat aromatic cations such as pyridinium salts, the torus-shaped tweezers bind to basic amino acids lysine and arginine via a threading process. These mutually exclusive binding modes make water-soluble clips and tweezers valuable tools for probing critical biological interactions with positively charged amino acid side chains and cofactors. Molecular clips and tweezers can be employed for the complete inhibition of dehydrogenases. The clip extracts NAD(+) from its Rossman fold, while the tweezer complexes access strategic lysine residues around the active site. Our new enzyme inhibitors recognize the protein surface and thus offer additional targets for medicinal chemistry. Finally, the ability of molecular tweezers to cap critical lysine residues can be used to interfere with the pathology of protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, because many of them involve noncovalent interactions with these critical residues during their early stages. When the key protein produces a ?-sheet-rich nucleus, this structure undergoes spontaneous polymerization into highly toxic oligomers, ultimately leading to mature fibrils. The benzene-spaced phosphate tweezer forms a specific complex with lysine residues 16 and 28 in A?42 and thus prevents the formation of misfolded oligomers rich in ?-sheets. This entirely new process-specific mechanism that prevents pathologic protein aggregation also operates in many other related amyloidogenic proteins. PMID:22725723

  15. Automated multi-parametric sorting of micron-sized particles via multi-trap laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputa, Daniel S.

    The capabilities of laser tweezers have rapidly expanded since the first demonstration by Ashkin and co-workers in 1970 of the ability to trap particles using optical energy. Laser tweezers have been used to measure piconewton forces in many biological and material science application, sort bacteria, measure DNA bond strength, and even perform microsurgery. The laser tweezers system developed for this dissertation foreshadows the next generation of laser tweezer systems that provide automated particle sorted based upon multiple criteria. Many laser tweezer sorting applications today entail the operator sorting cells from a bulk sample, one by one. This dissertation demonstrates the technologies of pattern recognition and image processing that allow for an entire microscope slide to be sorted without any operator intervention. We already live in an automated world where the cars we drive are built by machines instead of humans. The technology is there, and the only factors limiting the advancements of fully automated biological instrumentation is the lack of developers with the appropriate knowledge sets. This dissertation introduces the concept of sorting particles via a multi-parametric approach where several parameters such as size, fluorescence, and Raman spectra are used as sorting criteria. Since the advent of laser tweezers, several groups have demonstrated the ability to sort cells and other particle by size, or by fluorescence, or by any other parameter, but to our knowledge there does not exist a laser tweezer sorting system that can sort particles based upon multiple parameters. Sorting via a single parameter can be a severe limitation as the method lacks the robustness and class specificity that exists when sorting based upon multiple parameters. Simply put, it makes more sense to determine the worth of a baseball card by considering it's condition as well as it's age, rather then solely upon its condition. By adding another parameter such as the name of the player in the card, one can start collecting Babe Ruth rookie cards instead of mint condition cards of bench warmers. In the future, even better multi-parametric laser tweezer particle sorting systems will be developed that make use of pulsed radiation in order to stimulate nonlinear optical phenomena. This dissertation discusses the feasibility of combining a rapid, non-invasive chemical imaging technology called coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with a laser tweezer sorting system. This would allow for the birth of a laser tweezer particle sorting system of unprecedented speed and chemical specificity the likes of which the world has not yet seen.

  16. 1 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.com Since its invention nearly 35 years ago optical tweezers have

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Cees

    near silicon nanomembranes[15] and nanowires,[16] optical tweezers are used as an irreplaceable tool of optical tweezers to solid-state nanopore sensors for accurate control and biophysical investigation

  17. Computer-automated program for calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. D.; Foley, T. W.; Chang, A. N.; Mowa, S.; Burris, J. L.; Hester, B. C.

    2012-10-01

    An optical tweezers (OT) system uses focused laser light to contain and manipulate nano-scale to micro-scale particles. Trap stiffness is the quantitative measurement of the ability to trap a particle. For some techniques, this measurement depends on an accurate knowledge of the particle's position in time. A position sensing detector (PSD) is used to track particle motion by detecting laser light from the trapping region. The PSD outputs voltages corresponding to the x- and y-coordinates of particle motion, providing a means of knowing the location of the particle in time. An OT system requires a calibration to convert the measured voltages into accurate distances. This process is time-consuming and frequently needs to be repeated, however, with the growing availability of computer-aided data acquisition and control, the complete process can now be automated, reducing time spent by researchers and increasing level of accuracy of future measurements. We have developed a program written in LabVIEW that will, after initialization, 1) via image processing, calibrate the pixel size of the camera, 2) calibrate the optical tweezer position detector by controlling a motorized mirror to move a trapped bead through a detection laser with simultaneous position detector signal measurements, 3) re-align the trap beam and the detection beam by motorized mirror control, 4) measure position data for the same trapped particle being illuminated by the detection beam, and 5) analyze the position signal via the power spectrum method and equipartition method to give two trap stiffness values for comparison. Previous automated calibration methods require additional and sometimes costly equipment as well as some precalibration of stage motion or pixel size. Here, the user only needs to input the known size of the bead (provided by the manufacturer) into the program, insert their prepared slide into their microscope, input some parameters and make selections, and click "start" in order to achieve experimental values of the camera and position detector calibrations, as well as trap stiffness. We intend to implement many other calibration techniques that require additional equipment, but have designed this initial system for use in a standard position-detection-capable OT setup as long as it has a digital camera and motorized mirror that can be controlled with LabVIEW.

  18. Automatic real time evaluation of red blood cell elasticity by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diógenes S; Silva, Diego C N; Williams, Ajoke J; Bezerra, Marcos A C; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2015-05-01

    Optical tweezers have been used to trap, manipulate, and measure individual cell properties. In this work, we show that the association of a computer controlled optical tweezers system with image processing techniques allows rapid and reproducible evaluation of cell deformability. In particular, the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the transport of oxygen through the blood microcirculation. The automatic measurement processes consisted of three steps: acquisition, segmentation of images, and measurement of the elasticity of the cells. An optical tweezers system was setup on an upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a motorized XYZ stage, computer controlled by a Labview platform. On the optical tweezers setup, the deformation of the captured RBC was obtained by moving the motorized stage. The automatic real-time homemade system was evaluated by measuring RBCs elasticity from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia. Approximately 150 erythrocytes were examined, and the elasticity values obtained by using the developed system were compared to the values measured by two experts. With the automatic system, there was a significant time reduction (60×) of the erythrocytes elasticity evaluation. Automated system can help to expand the applications of optical tweezers in hematology and hemotherapy. PMID:26026527

  19. Automatic real time evaluation of red blood cell elasticity by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Diógenes S.; Silva, Diego C. N.; Williams, Ajoke J.; Bezerra, Marcos A. C.; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E.

    2015-05-01

    Optical tweezers have been used to trap, manipulate, and measure individual cell properties. In this work, we show that the association of a computer controlled optical tweezers system with image processing techniques allows rapid and reproducible evaluation of cell deformability. In particular, the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the transport of oxygen through the blood microcirculation. The automatic measurement processes consisted of three steps: acquisition, segmentation of images, and measurement of the elasticity of the cells. An optical tweezers system was setup on an upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a motorized XYZ stage, computer controlled by a Labview platform. On the optical tweezers setup, the deformation of the captured RBC was obtained by moving the motorized stage. The automatic real-time homemade system was evaluated by measuring RBCs elasticity from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia. Approximately 150 erythrocytes were examined, and the elasticity values obtained by using the developed system were compared to the values measured by two experts. With the automatic system, there was a significant time reduction (60 × ) of the erythrocytes elasticity evaluation. Automated system can help to expand the applications of optical tweezers in hematology and hemotherapy.

  20. Probing DNA Helicase Kinetics with Temperature-Controlled Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Gollnick, Benjamin; Carrasco, Carolina; Zuttion, Francesca; Gilhooly, Neville S; Dillingham, Mark S; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Motor protein functions like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis or translocation along molecular substrates take place at nanometric scales and consequently depend on the amount of available thermal energy. The associated rates can hence be investigated by actively varying the temperature conditions. In this article, a thermally controlled magnetic tweezers (MT) system for single-molecule experiments at up to 40 °C is presented. Its compact thermostat module yields a precision of 0.1 °C and can in principle be tailored to any other surface-coupled microscopy technique, such as tethered particle motion (TPM), nanopore-based sensing of biomolecules, or super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument is used to examine the temperature dependence of translocation along double-stranded (ds)DNA by individual copies of the protein complex AddAB, a helicase-nuclease motor involved in dsDNA break repair. Despite moderately lower mean velocities measured at sub-saturating ATP concentrations, almost identical estimates of the enzymatic reaction barrier (around 21–24 kBT) are obtained by comparing results from MT and stopped-flow bulk assays. Single-molecule rates approach ensemble values at optimized chemical energy conditions near the motor, which can withstand opposing loads of up to 14 piconewtons (pN). Having proven its reliability, the temperature-controlled MT described herein will eventually represent a routinely applied method within the toolbox for nano-biotechnology. PMID:25400244

  1. Dielectrophoretic Tweezers and Micropost Arrays for Cell and Particle Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Tom; Lee, Hakho; Westervelt, Robert

    2005-03-01

    We describe a micromanipulator system that uses dielectrophoresis to capture and release cells or particles. Dielectrophoretic tweezers are capable of applying hundreds of piconewtons of force to micron scale objects suspended in liquid and precisely positioning objects in three dimensions. Metal electrodes on either side of a sharp pipette tip provide the electric field gradient necessary. This manipulation technique compliments our micropost array (1) for the manipulation of particles in a microfluidic system. We will discuss applications of dielectrophoresis using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic devices (2) with applications that include cell sorting and tissue assembly. This work made possible by a gift from Phillip Morris and the NSEC NSF grant PHY-0117795. 1. T. P. Hunt H. Lee and R. M. Westervelt, ``Addressable micropost array for the dielectrophoretic manipulation of particles in fluid," Appl. Phys. Lett. In Press. 2. H. Lee, et Al. ``An IC/ microfluidic hybrid microsystem for 2D magnetic manipulation of individual biological cells," To appear in IEEE ISSCC, Feb. 2005.

  2. Particle interaction measurements using laser tweezers optical trapping.

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Grillet, Anne M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-08-01

    Laser tweezers optical trapping provides a unique noninvasive capability to trap and manipulate particles in solution at the focal point of a laser beam passed through a microscope objective. Additionally, combined with image analysis, interaction forces between colloidal particles can be quantitatively measured. By looking at the displacement of particles within the laser trap due to the presence of a neighboring particle or looking at the relative diffusion of two particles held near each other by optical traps, interparticle interaction forces ranging from pico- to femto-Newtons can be measured. Understanding interaction forces is critical for predicting the behavior of particle dispersions including dispersion stability and flow rheology. Using a new analysis method proposed by Sainis, Germain, and Dufresne, we can simultaneously calculate the interparticle velocity and particle diffusivity which allows direct calculation of the interparticle potential for the particles. By applying this versatile tool, we measure difference in interactions between various phospholipid bilayers that have been coated onto silica spheres as a new type of solid supported liposome. We measure bilayer interactions of several cell membrane lipids under various environmental conditions such as pH and ionic strength and compare the results with those obtained for empty liposomes. These results provide insight into the role of bilayer fluctuations in liposome fusion, which is of fundamental interest to liposome based drug delivery schemes.

  3. Manipulation of Suspended Single Cells by Microfluidics and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Nève, Nathalie; Kohles, Sean S.; Winn, Shelley R.; Tretheway, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Chondrocytes and osteoblasts experience multiple stresses in vivo. The optimum mechanical conditions for cell health are not fully understood. This paper describes the optical and microfluidic mechanical manipulation of single suspended cells enabled by the ?PIVOT, an integrated micron resolution particle image velocimeter (?PIV) and dual optical tweezers instrument (OT). In this study, we examine the viability and trap stiffness of cartilage cells, identify the maximum fluid-induced stresses possible in uniform and extensional flows, and compare the deformation characteristics of bone and muscle cells. These results indicate cell photodamage of chondrocytes is negligible for at least 20 min for laser powers below 30 mW, a dead cell presents less resistance to internal organelle rearrangement and deforms globally more than a viable cell, the maximum fluid-induced shear stresses are limited to ~15 mPa for uniform flows but may exceed 1 Pa for extensional flows, and osteoblasts show no deformation for shear stresses up to 250 mPa while myoblasts are more easily deformed and exhibit a modulated response to increasing stress. This suggests that global and/or local stresses can be applied to single cells without physical contact. Coupled with microfluidic sensors, these manipulations may provide unique methods to explore single cell biomechanics. PMID:20824110

  4. Probing DNA helicase kinetics with temperature-controlled magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Benjamin; Carrasco, Carolina; Zuttion, Francesca; Gilhooly, Neville S; Dillingham, Mark S; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2015-03-18

    Motor protein functions like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis or translocation along molecular substrates take place at nanometric scales and consequently depend on the amount of available thermal energy. The associated rates can hence be investigated by actively varying the temperature conditions. In this article, a thermally controlled magnetic tweezers (MT) system for single-molecule experiments at up to 40 °C is presented. Its compact thermostat module yields a precision of 0.1 °C and can in principle be tailored to any other surface-coupled microscopy technique, such as tethered particle motion (TPM), nanopore-based sensing of biomolecules, or super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument is used to examine the temperature dependence of translocation along double-stranded (ds)DNA by individual copies of the protein complex AddAB, a helicase-nuclease motor involved in dsDNA break repair. Despite moderately lower mean velocities measured at sub-saturating ATP concentrations, almost identical estimates of the enzymatic reaction barrier (around 21-24 k(B)T) are obtained by comparing results from MT and stopped-flow bulk assays. Single-molecule rates approach ensemble values at optimized chemical energy conditions near the motor, which can withstand opposing loads of up to 14 piconewtons (pN). Having proven its reliability, the temperature-controlled MT described herein will eventually represent a routinely applied method within the toolbox for nano-biotechnology. PMID:25400244

  5. Optical tweezers as manufacturing and characterization tool in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Ghadiri, R.; Ksouri, S. I.; Gurevich, E. L.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-09-01

    Pumping and mixing of small volumes of liquid samples are basic processes in microfluidic applications. Among the number of different principles for active transportation of the fluids microrotors have been investigated from the beginning. The main challenge in microrotors, however, has been the driving principle. In this work a new approach for a very simple magnetic driving principle has been realized. More precisely, we take advantage of optical grippers to fabricate various microrotors and introduce an optical force method to characterize the fluid flow generated by rotating the structures through magnetic actuation. The microrotors are built of silica and magnetic microspheres which are initially coated with Streptavidin or Biotin molecules. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) are used to trap, to position, and to assemble the microspheres with the chemical interaction of the biomolecules leading to a stable binding. Using this technique, complex designs of microrotors can be realized. The magnetic response of the magnetic microspheres enables the rotation and control of the structures through an external magnetic field. The generated fluid flow around the microrotor is measured optically by inserting a probe particle next to the rotor. While the probe particle is trapped by optical forces the flow force leads to a displacement of the particle from the trapping position. This displacement is directly related to the flow velocity and can be measured and calibrated. Variations of the microrotor design and rotating speed lead to characteristic flow fields.

  6. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  7. Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Di#ractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Di#ractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne)) We describe a simple method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam using di#ractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 × 4 square array

  8. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments. PMID:26203364

  9. Calibration of a dual-trap optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqing; Hu, Chunguang; Gao, Xiaoqing; Su, Chenguang; Wang, Sirong; Lei, Hai; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-10-01

    Optical tweezers has shown its significant advantages in applying pico-Newton force on micro beads and handling them with nanometer-level precision, and becomes a powerful tool for single-molecule biology. Many excellent researching results in use of the optical tweezers have been reported. Most of them focus on the single-trap optical tweezers experiments. However, when a single-trap optical tweezers is applied to biological molecule, there is often an obvious noise from the sample chamber holder to which one end of the sample molecule is tethered. In contrast, a dual-trap optical tweezers can intrinsically avoid this problem because both ends of the sample tethered to microspheres are manipulated with two separate optical traps. In order to force the molecule precisely, it is of importance to do calibrations for both traps. Many approaches have been studied to obtain the stiffness and sensitivity of the trap, but those are not quite suitable for making calibration during experiment. Here, we use a modified method of power spectrum density (PSD) for the calibrations of the stiffness and sensitivity of the traps, which combines a sinusoidal motion of the sample stage. The main strength of the method is that the beads used for the calibration also can be used in experiment later. In addition, the calibration can be performed during experiment. Finally, an experiment using a dsDNA molecule to test the system is presented. The results show that the calibration approach for the dual-trap optical tweezers is efficient and accurate.

  10. RBCs under optical tweezers as cellular motors and rockers: microfluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Samarendra; Mohanty, Khyati; Gupta, Pradeep

    2006-08-01

    Recently, we have reported self-rotation of normal red blood cells (RBC), suspended in hypertonic buffer, and trapped in unpolarized laser tweezers. Here, we report use of such an optically driven RBC-motor for microfluidic applications such as pumping/centrifugation of fluids. Since the speed of rotation of the RBC-motor was found to vary with the power of the trapping beam, the flow rate could be controlled by controlling the laser power. In polarized optical tweezers, preferential alignment of trapped RBC was observed. The aligned RBC (simulating a disk) in isotonic buffer, could be rotated in a controlled manner for use as a microfluidic valve by rotation of the plane of polarization of the trapping beam. The thickness of the discotic RBC could be changed by changing the osmolarity of the solution and thus the alignment torque on the RBC due to the polarization of the trapping beam could be varied. Further, in polarized tweezers, the RBCs in hypertonic buffer showed rocking motion while being in rotation. Here, the RBC rotated over a finite angular range, stopped for some time at a particular angle, and then started rotating till it was back to the aligned position and this cycle was found repetitive. This can be attributed to the fact that though the RBCs were found to experience an alignment torque to align with plane of polarization of the tweezers due to its form birefringence, it was smaller in magnitude as compared to the rotational torque due to its structural asymmetry in hypertonic solution. Changes in the laser power caused a transition from/to rocking to/from motor behavior of the RBC in a linearly polarized tweezers. By changing the direction of polarization caused by rotation of an external half wave plate, the stopping angle of rocking could be changed. Further, RBCs suspended in intermediate hypertonic buffer and trapped with polarized tweezers showed fluttering about the vertical plane.

  11. Near-field enhanced optical tweezers utilizing femtosecond-laser nanostructured substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsifaki, D. G.; Kandyla, M.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental evidence of plasmonic-enhanced optical tweezers, of polystyrene beads in deionized water in the vicinity of metal-coated nanostructures. The optical tweezers operate with a continuous wave near-infrared laser. We employ a Cu/Au bilayer that significantly improves dissipation of heat generated by the trapping laser beam and avoid de-trapping from heat convection currents. We investigate the improvement of the optical trapping force and the effective trapping quality factor, and observe an exponential distance dependence of the trapping force from the nanostructures, indicative of evanescent plasmonic enhancement.

  12. Rate of growth pattern of yeast cells studied under optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrunchon, Sookpichaya; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2013-06-01

    Cell growth and division has been of scientists' interest for over generations. Several mathematical models have been reported derived from conventional method of cell culture. Here we applied optical tweezers to guide cell division directionally. The patterns of Saccharonmyces bayanus yeast growth was studied under 1064 nm line optical tweezers generated by time-shared multiple optical traps. Yeast growth was found following the path of the generated laser patterns in linear, circular, square and L shapes, speculatively as a result of localized heating effect due to absorption at the focal point.

  13. Near-field enhanced optical tweezers utilizing femtosecond-laser nanostructured substrates

    E-print Network

    Kotsifaki, Domna G; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of plasmonic-enhanced optical tweezers, of polystyrene beads in deionized water in the vicinity of metal-coated nanostructures. The optical tweezers operate with a continuous wave (CW) near-infrared laser. We employ a Cu/Au bilayer that significantly improves dissipation of heat generated by the trapping laser beam and avoid de-trapping from heat convection currents. We investigate the improvement of the optical trapping force, the effective trapping quality factor, and observe an exponential distance dependence of the trapping force from the nanostructures, expected from the evanescent plasmon field.

  14. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallman, Erik G.; Andersson, Magnus J.; Schedin, Staffan S.; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2004-10-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quaternary (helical) structure of the PapA rod. It was shown that this unfolding takes place at an elongation independent force of 27 +/- 2 pN. We have also recently performed studies on its folding properties and shown that the unfolding/folding of the PapA rod is completely reversible. Here we present a study of the dynamical properties of the PapA rod. We show, among other things, that the unfolding force increases and that the folding force decreases with the speed of unfolding and folding respectively. Moreover, the PapA rod can be folded-unfolded a significant number of times without loosing its characteristics, a phenomenon that is believed to be important for the bacterium to keep close contact to the host tissue and consequently helps the bacterium to colonize the host tissue.

  15. Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).

  16. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity ? by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  17. Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Guenther; Fällman, Erik; Tuck, Simon; Axner, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful technique for micromanipulation of living cells. Although the technique often has been claimed to be nonintrusive, evidence has appeared that this is not always the case. This work presents evidence that near-infrared continuous-wave laser light from optical tweezers can produce stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. A transgenic strain of C. elegans, carrying an integrated heat-shock-responsive reporter gene, has been exposed to laser light under a variety of illumination conditions. It was found that gene expression was most often induced by light of 760 nm, and least by 810 nm. The stress response increased with laser power and irradiation time. At 810 nm, significant gene expression could be observed at 360 mW of illumination, which is more than one order of magnitude above that normally used in optical tweezers. In the 700-760-nm range, the results show that the stress response is caused by photochemical processes, whereas at 810 nm, it mainly has a photothermal origin. These results give further evidence that the 700-760-nm wavelength region is unsuitable for optical tweezers and suggest that work at 810 nm at normal laser powers does not cause stress at the cellular level. PMID:11916877

  18. Optical tweezers with fluorescence detection for temperature-dependent microrheological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P.; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a setup of optical tweezers, capable of carrying out temperature-dependent rheological measurements of soft materials. In our setup, the particle displacement is detected by imaging a bright spot due to fluorescence emitted from a dye-labeled particle against a dark background onto a quadrant photodiode. This setup has a relatively wide space around the sample that allows us to further accessorize the optical tweezers by a temperature control unit. The applicability of the setup was examined on the basis of the rheological measurements using a typical viscoelastic system, namely a worm-like micelle solution. The temperature and frequency dependences of the local viscoelastic functions of the worm-like micelle solution obtained by this setup were in good accordance with those obtained by a conventional oscillatory rheometer, confirming the capability of the optical tweezers as a tool for the local rheological measurements of soft materials. Since the optical tweezers measurements only require a tiny amount of sample (˜40 ?L), the rheological measurements using our setup should be useful for soft materials of which the available amount is limited.

  19. Red blood cell micromanipulation with elliptical laser beam profile optical tweezers in different osmolarity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this work optical tweezers with elliptical beam profiles have been developed in order to examine the effect of optical force on fresh red blood cells (RBC) in isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic buffer solutions. Considering that the optical force depends essentially on the cell surface and the cytoplasmic refractive index, it is obvious that biochemical modifications associated with different states of the cell will influence its behaviour in the optical trap. Line optical tweezers were used to manipulate simultaneously more than one red blood cell. After we have been manipulated a RBC with an elliptical laser beam profile in an isotonic or hypertonic buffer, we noticed that it rotates by itself when gets trapped by optical tweezers and undergoes folding. Further shape deformations can be observed attributed to the competition between alignment and rotational torque which are transferred by laser light to the cell. In hypotonic buffer RBCs become spherical and do not rotate or fold since the resultant force due to rays emerging from diametrically opposite points of the cell leads to zero torque. Manipulation of fresh red blood cells in isotonic solution by line optical tweezers leads to folding and elongation of trapped RBCs. Membrane elasticity properties such as bending modulus can be estimated by measuring RBC's folding time in function with laser power.

  20. Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition.

  1. Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-01-21

    Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition. PMID:25612723

  2. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  3. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria are caused by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. All the symptoms of the disease are caused

  4. High Spatiotemporal-Resolution Magnetic Tweezers: Calibration and Applications for DNA Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dulin, David; Cui, Tao Ju; Cnossen, Jelmer; Docter, Margreet W; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2015-11-17

    The observation of biological processes at the molecular scale in real time requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Magnetic tweezers are straightforward to implement, free of radiation or photodamage, and provide ample multiplexing capability, but their spatiotemporal resolution has lagged behind that of other single-molecule manipulation techniques, notably optical tweezers and AFM. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a new high-resolution magnetic tweezers apparatus. We systematically characterize the achievable spatiotemporal resolution for both incoherent and coherent light sources, different types and sizes of beads, and different types and lengths of tethered molecules. Using a bright coherent laser source for illumination and tracking at 6 kHz, we resolve 3 Å steps with a 1 s period for surface-melted beads and 5 Å steps with a 0.5 s period for double-stranded-dsDNA-tethered beads, in good agreement with a model of stochastic bead motion in the magnetic tweezers. We demonstrate how this instrument can be used to monitor the opening and closing of a DNA hairpin on millisecond timescales in real time, together with attendant changes in the hairpin dynamics upon the addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate. Our approach opens up the possibility of observing biological events at submillisecond timescales with subnanometer resolution using camera-based detection. PMID:26588570

  5. An Improved Optical Tweezers Assay for Measuring the Force Generation of Single Kinesin Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Numerous microtubule-associated molecular motors, including several kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, produce opposing forces that regulate spindle and chromosome positioning during mitosis. The motility and force generation of these motors are therefore critical to normal cell division, and dysfunction of these processes may contribute to human disease. Optical tweezers provide a powerful method for studying the nanometer motility and piconewton force generation of single motor proteins in vitro. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we present a set of step-by-step, optimized protocols for expressing a kinesin construct (K560-GFP) in Escherichia coli, purifying it, and studying its force generation in an optical tweezers microscope. We also provide detailed instructions on proper alignment and calibration of an optical trapping microscope. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of similar experiments. PMID:24633799

  6. Identification of individual biofilm-forming bacterial cells using Raman tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šiler, Martin; Šerý, Mojmir; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; R?ži?ka, Filip

    2015-05-01

    A method for in vitro identification of individual bacterial cells is presented. The method is based on a combination of optical tweezers for spatial trapping of individual bacterial cells and Raman microspectroscopy for acquisition of spectral "Raman fingerprints" obtained from the trapped cell. Here, Raman spectra were taken from the biofilm-forming cells without the influence of an extracellular matrix and were compared with biofilm-negative cells. Results of principal component analyses of Raman spectra enabled us to distinguish between the two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thus, we propose that Raman tweezers can become the technique of choice for a clearer understanding of the processes involved in bacterial biofilms which constitute a highly privileged way of life for bacteria, protected from the external environment.

  7. Optical tweezers-based probe of charge transfer in organic semiconductors at microscopic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grollman, Rebecca R.; Busche, Jacob; Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2015-03-01

    We present a technique to study the (dis)charging of organic semiconductor films at microscopic scales, and in various environments, using an optical tweezers-based method combined with fluorescence spectroscopy. The 1 µm silica spheres were coated with either pristine organic semiconductor or a donor-acceptor blend, trapped using optical tweezers, and their fluorescence was measured concurrently with the effective surface charge. The effective surface charge in uncoated silica spheres suspended in water was a factor of ˜70 higher as compared to that from similar spheres in a nonpolar toluene. In contrast, the coated silica spheres exhibited low effective charge densities in both environments, which is indicative of minimal interaction of organic semiconductors under study with these environments. This serves as a proof-of-principle experiment towards systematic studies of nanoscale photoinduced charge-based interactions between organic semiconductor molecules, with a resolution down to an elementary charge, and depending on the dielectric environment.

  8. Neural Network for Image-to-Image Control of Optical Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Anderson, Robert C.; Weiland, Kenneth E.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2004-01-01

    A method is discussed for using neural networks to control optical tweezers. Neural-net outputs are combined with scaling and tiling to generate 480 by 480-pixel control patterns for a spatial light modulator (SLM). The SLM can be combined in various ways with a microscope to create movable tweezers traps with controllable profiles. The neural nets are intended to respond to scattered light from carbon and silicon carbide nanotube sensors. The nanotube sensors are to be held by the traps for manipulation and calibration. Scaling and tiling allow the 100 by 100-pixel maximum resolution of the neural-net software to be applied in stages to exploit the full 480 by 480-pixel resolution of the SLM. One of these stages is intended to create sensitive null detectors for detecting variations in the scattered light from the nanotube sensors.

  9. Measurement of particle motion in optical tweezers embedded in a Sagnac interferometer

    E-print Network

    Galinskiy, Ivan; Salgado, Israel Rebolledo; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Mehlig, Bernhard; Hanstorp, Dag

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a counterpropagating optical tweezers setup embedded in a Sagnac interferometer in order to increase the sensitivity of position tracking for particles in the geometrical optics regime. The enhancement of the position determination using a Sagnac interferometer has previously been described theoretically by Taylor et al. [Journal of Optics 13, 044014 (2011)] for Rayleigh-regime particles trapped in an antinode of a standing wave. We have extended their theory to a case of arbitrarily-sized particles trapped with orthogonally-polarized counterpropagating beams. The working distance of the setup was sufficiently long to optically induce particle oscillations orthogonally to the axis of the tweezers with an auxiliary laser beam. Using these oscillations as a reference, we have experimentally shown that Sagnac-enhanced back focal plane interferometry is capable of providing an improvement of more than 5 times in the signal-to-background ratio, corresponding to a more than 30-fold improvement o...

  10. In Vivo Quantification of Peroxisome Tethering to Chloroplasts in Tobacco Epidermal Cells Using Optical Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongbo; Metz, Jeremy; Teanby, Nick A; Ward, Andy D; Botchway, Stanley W; Coles, Benjamin; Pollard, Mark R; Sparkes, Imogen

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly motile organelles that display a range of motions within a short time frame. In static snapshots, they can be juxtaposed to chloroplasts, which has led to the hypothesis that they are physically interacting. Here, using optical tweezers, we tested the dynamic physical interaction in vivo. Using near-infrared optical tweezers combined with TIRF microscopy, we were able to trap peroxisomes and approximate the forces involved in chloroplast association in vivo in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and observed weaker tethering to additional unknown structures within the cell. We show that chloroplasts and peroxisomes are physically tethered through peroxules, a poorly described structure in plant cells. We suggest that peroxules have a novel role in maintaining peroxisome-organelle interactions in the dynamic environment. This could be important for fatty acid mobilization and photorespiration through the interaction with oil bodies and chloroplasts, highlighting a fundamentally important role for organelle interactions for essential biochemistry and physiological processes. PMID:26518344

  11. Time-shared optical tweezers with a microlens array for dynamic microbead arrays

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic arrays of microbeads and cells offer great flexibility and potential as platforms for sensing and manipulation applications in various scientific fields, especially biology and medicine. Here, we present a simple method for assembling and manipulating dense dynamic arrays based on time-shared scanning optical tweezers with a microlens array. Three typical examples, including the dynamic and simultaneous bonding of microbeads in real-time, are demonstrated. The optical design and the hardware setup for our approach are also described. PMID:26504619

  12. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 ?m, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  13. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-10-27

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 ?m, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  14. Acoustic tweezers for studying intracellular calcium signaling in SKBR-3 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Yoon, Chi Woo; Lim, Hae Gyun; Park, Jin Man; Yoon, Sangpil; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (FNT) play crucial roles in cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. For better understanding of these associated cellular activities, various microscopic manipulation tools have been used to study their intracellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has appeared that acoustic tweezers may possess similar capabilities in the study. Therefore, we here demonstrate that our newly developed acoustic tweezers with a high-frequency lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer have potentials to study intracellular calcium signaling by FNT-binding to human breast cancer cells (SKBR-3). It is found that intracellular calcium elevations in SKBR-3 cells, initially occurring on the microbead-contacted spot and then eventually spreading over the entire cell, are elicited by attaching an acoustically trapped FNT-coated microbead. Interestingly, they are suppressed by either extracellular calcium elimination or phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition. Hence, this suggests that our acoustic tweezers may serve as an alternative tool in the study of intracellular signaling by FNT-binding activities. PMID:26150401

  15. An integral imaging method for depth extraction with lens array in an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulu; Liu, Wei-Wei; Wang, Anting; Li, Yinmei; Ming, Hai

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a new integral imaging method is proposed for depth extraction in an optical tweezer system. A mutual coherence algorithm of stereo matching are theoretically analyzed and demonstrated feasible by virtual simulation. In our design, optical tweezer technique is combined with integral imaging in a single microscopy system by inserting a lens array into the optical train. On one hand, the optical tweezer subsystem is built based on the modulated light field from a solid laser, and the strong focused beam forms a light trap to capture tiny specimens. On the other hand, through parameters optimization, the microscopic integral imaging subsystem is composed of a microscope objective, a lens array (150x150 array with 0.192mm unit size and 9mm focal length) and a single lens reflex (SLR). Pre-magnified by the microscope objective, the specimens formed multiple images through the lens array. A single photograph of a series of multiple sub-images has recorded perspective views of the specimens. The differences between adjacent sub-images have been analyzed for depth extraction with the mutual coherence algorithm. The experimental results show that the axial resolution can reach to 1?m -1 and lateral resolution can reach to 2 ?m -1.

  16. Combining optical tweezers and patch clamp for studies of cell membrane electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng; Ermilov, Sergey; Murdock, David; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-09-01

    We have designed and implemented a novel experimental setup which combines optical tweezers with patch-clamp apparatus to investigate the electromechanical properties of cellular plasma membranes. In this system, optical tweezers provide measurement of forces at piconewton scale, and the patch-clamp technique allows control of the cell transmembrane potential. A micron-size bead trapped by the optical tweezers is brought in contact with the membrane of a voltage-clamped cell, and subsequently moved away to form a plasma membrane tether. Bead displacement from the trapping center is monitored by a quadrant photodetector for dynamic measurements of tether force. Fluorescent beads and the corresponding fluorescence imaging optics are used to eliminate the shadow of the cell projected on the quadrant photodetector. Salient information associated with the mechanical properties of the membrane tether can thus be obtained. A unique feature of this setup is that the patch-clamp headstage and the manipulator for the recording pipette are mounted on a piezoelectric stage, preventing relative movements between the cell and the patch pipette during the process of tether pulling. Tethers can be pulled from the cell membrane at different holding potentials, and the tether force response can be measured while changing transmembrane potential. Experimental results from mammalian cochlear outer hair cells and human embryonic kidney cells are presented.

  17. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zacchia, Nicholas A.; Valentine, Megan T.

    2015-05-15

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy.

  18. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  19. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm2, a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 ?m superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle's position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  20. Scanning a DNA Molecule for Bound Proteins Using Hybrid Magnetic and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Loenhout, Marijn T. J.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Flebus, Benedetta; den Blanken, Johan F.; Zweifel, Ludovit P.; Hooning, Koen M.; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dekker, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The functional state of the genome is determined by its interactions with proteins that bind, modify, and move along the DNA. To determine the positions and binding strength of proteins localized on DNA we have developed a combined magnetic and optical tweezers apparatus that allows for both sensitive and label-free detection. A DNA loop, that acts as a scanning probe, is created by looping an optically trapped DNA tether around a DNA molecule that is held with magnetic tweezers. Upon scanning the loop along the ?-DNA molecule, EcoRI proteins were detected with ?17 nm spatial resolution. An offset of 33±5 nm for the detected protein positions was found between back and forwards scans, corresponding to the size of the DNA loop and in agreement with theoretical estimates. At higher applied stretching forces, the scanning loop was able to remove bound proteins from the DNA, showing that the method is in principle also capable of measuring the binding strength of proteins to DNA with a force resolution of 0.1 pN/. The use of magnetic tweezers in this assay allows the facile preparation of many single-molecule tethers, which can be scanned one after the other, while it also allows for direct control of the supercoiling state of the DNA molecule, making it uniquely suitable to address the effects of torque on protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23755219

  1. A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers Zhongbo Yu, David Dulin, Jelmer Cnossen, Mariana Kber, Maarten M. van Oene, Orkide Ordu, Bojk A.

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    A force calibration standard for magnetic tweezers Zhongbo Yu, David Dulin, Jelmer Cnossen, Mariana and experimental analysis of the forced LacI-AraC oscillator with a minimal gene regulatory model Chaos 23, 025109 (2013); 10.1063/1.4809786 High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology

  2. Optical macro-tweezers: trapping of highly motile micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalhammer, G.; Steiger, R.; Bernet, S.; Ritsch-Marte, M.

    2011-04-01

    Optical micromanipulation stands for contact-free handling of microscopic particles by light. Optical forces can manipulate non-absorbing objects in a large range of sizes, e.g., from biological cells down to cold atoms. Recently much progress has been made going from the micro- down to the nanoscale. Less attention has been paid to going the other way, trapping increasingly large particles. Optical tweezers typically employ a single laser beam tightly focused by a microscope objective of high numerical aperture to stably trap a particle in three dimensions (3D). As the particle size increases, stable 3D trapping in a single-beam trap requires scaling up the optical power, which eventually induces adverse biological effects. Moreover, the restricted field of view of standard optical tweezers, dictated by the use of high NA objectives, is particularly unfavorable for catching actively moving specimens. Both problems can be overcome by traps with counter-propagating beams. Our 'macro-tweezers' are especially designed to trap highly motile organisms, as they enable three-dimensional all-optical trapping and guiding in a volume of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. Here we report for the first time the optical trapping of large actively swimming organisms, such as for instance Euglena protists and dinoflagellates of up to 70 µm length. Adverse bio-effects are kept low since trapping occurs outside high intensity regions, e.g., focal spots. We expect our approach to open various possibilities in the contact-free handling of 50-100 µm sized objects that could hitherto not be envisaged, for instance all-optical holding of individual micro-organisms for taxonomic identification, selective collecting or tagging.

  3. Preliminary study for the development of a tweezers-type coincidence detector for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Higashi, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Senda, Michio

    2005-08-01

    We have conducted a preliminary study for development of a tweezer-type coincidence detector for tumor detection in procedures such as FDG-guided surgery. The detector consists of a pair of LSO scintillators, optical fibers, a pair of photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), and a coincidence circuit. Because the LSO scintillators are located on the tips of tweezers, a target organ such as a lymph node or the colon can be positioned between them. The size of a single LSO was 3.7 mm×3.7 mm×10 mm, and the scintillation photons are transferred to the PMTs via 2-mm-diameter, 1-m long optical fibers. The results show that the light loss due to the fiber was significant but there was sufficient light to observe the photo-peak of the 511-keV gamma photons. Sensitivity response function perpendicular to the detector has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 2.5 mm, while that parallel to the detector has a FWHM of 5.5 mm. Background counts due to the natural radioisotope in 176Lu can be observed when the distance between these two scintillators is small. Results also show that the absolute sensitivity was 0.057% at the center of the detector when the two LSOs were 10 mm apart and that the optical fiber was insensitive to bending up to a radius of 10 cm. From these results, we conclude that the proposed tweezers-type coincidence detector could be some interest for tumor detection using FDG, such as that in radio-guided surgery.

  4. Optoelectronic Tweezers as a Tool for Parallel Single-Cell Manipulation and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Justin K.; Ohta, Aaron T.; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Neale, Steven L.; Jamshidi, Arash; Wu, Ming C.

    2010-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is a promising approach for the parallel manipulation of single cells for a variety of biological applications. By combining the manipulation capabilities of OET with other relevant biological techniques (such as cell lysis and electroporation), one can realize a true parallel, single-cell diagnostic and stimulation tool. Here, we demonstrate the utility of the OET device by integrating it onto single-chip systems capable of performing in-situ, electrode-based electroporation/lysis, individual cell, light-induced lysis, and light-induced electroporation. PMID:20543904

  5. Photovoltaic tweezers an emergent tool for applications in nano and bio-technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, M.; García-Cabañes, A.; Jubera, M.; Elvira, I.; Burgos, H.; Bella, J. L.; Agulló-López, F.; Muñoz-Martínez, J. F.; Alcázar, A.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the work recently conducted by our group on the development and applications of photovoltaic tweezers is presented. It includes the analysis of the physical basis of the method and the main achievements in its experimental implementation. Particular attention will be paid to the main potential applications and first demonstrations of its use in nano- and bio-technology. Specifically: i) fabrication of metallic nanoestructures for plasmonic applications, ii) development of diffractive components, iii) manipulation and patterning (1D and 2D) of various types of bio-objects (spores or pollen…) and iv) effects of PV fields of LiNbO3 in tumour cells.

  6. Fast acoustic tweezers for the two-dimensional manipulation of individual particles in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, S. B. Q.; Marmottant, P.; Thibault, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device that implements standing surface acoustic waves in order to handle single cells, droplets, and generally particles. The particles are moved in a very controlled manner by the two-dimensional drifting of a standing wave array, using a slight frequency modulation of two ultrasound emitters around their resonance. These acoustic tweezers allow any type of motion at velocities up to few ×10 mm/s, while the device transparency is adapted for optical studies. The possibility of automation provides a critical step in the development of lab-on-a-chip cell sorters and it should find applications in biology, chemistry, and engineering domains.

  7. Template stripped double nanohole in a gold film for nano-optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Zinck, Aurora A; Gelfand, Ryan M; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-12-12

    Double nanohole (DNH) laser tweezers can optically trap and manipulate objects such as proteins, nanospheres, and other nanoparticles; however, precise fabrication of those DNHs has been expensive with low throughput. In this work, template stripping was used to pattern DNHs with gaps as small as 7 nm, in optically thick Au films. These DNHs were used to trap streptavidin as proof of operation. The structures were processed multiple times from the same template to demonstrate reusability. Template stripping is a promising method for high-throughput, reproducible, and cost efficient fabrication of DNH apertures for optical trapping. PMID:25407447

  8. Template stripped double nanohole in a gold film for nano-optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Zinck, Aurora A.; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-12-01

    Double nanohole (DNH) laser tweezers can optically trap and manipulate objects such as proteins, nanospheres, and other nanoparticles; however, precise fabrication of those DNHs has been expensive with low throughput. In this work, template stripping was used to pattern DNHs with gaps as small as 7 nm, in optically thick Au films. These DNHs were used to trap streptavidin as proof of operation. The structures were processed multiple times from the same template to demonstrate reusability. Template stripping is a promising method for high-throughput, reproducible, and cost efficient fabrication of DNH apertures for optical trapping.

  9. Plasmon-exciton interactions on single thermoresponsive platforms demonstrated by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Silvia; Bastús, Neus G; Pietsch, Andrea; Weller, Horst; Arias-Gonzalez, J R; Juárez, Beatriz H

    2011-11-01

    Optical and hydrodynamic-size studies on single bare thermo-responsive microspheres, and microspheres covered either with Au nanoparticles, CdSe/CdS quantum dots, or a combination of both have been performed by optical tweezers. The photothermal heating of water in the focal region boosts the shrinkage of the microspheres, an effect that is intensified in the presence of Au nanoparticles. In contrast, bigger microspheres are measured when they are covered with quantum dots. Plasmon-exciton interactions are observable in the trap in the combined Au and quantum dots hybrid systems. PMID:22003895

  10. Three-dimensional force measurements in optical tweezers formed with high-NA micromirrors.

    PubMed

    Merenda, Fabrice; Grossenbacher, Mathieu; Jeney, Sylvia; Forró, László; Salathé, René-Paul

    2009-04-01

    The three-dimensional trap stiffness of optical tweezers formed with high-NA micromirrors is investigated by back-focal-plane interferometry and power spectrum analysis. Normalized stiffness values of kappaxy/Ptrap=1.2(microN/m)/mW and kappaz/Ptrap=0.52(microN/m)/mW in the transverse and axial directions, respectively, have been measured for polystyrene spheres with a radius of 1.03 microm. Compared with high-NA microscope objectives, micromirrors achieve much better trapping performances, particularly in the axial direction. PMID:19340220

  11. Nano-bio-optomechanics: nanoaperture tweezers probe single nanoparticles, proteins, and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Reuven

    2015-09-01

    Nanoparticles in the single digit nanometer range can be easily isolated and studied with low optical powers using nanoaperture tweezers. We have studied individual proteins and their interactions with small molecules, DNA and antibodies. Recently, using the fluctuations of the trapped object, we have pioneered a new way to "listen" to the vibrations of nanoparticles in the 100 GHz - 1 THz range; the approach is called extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR). EAR gives unprecedented low frequency spectra of individual proteins in solution, allowing for identification and analysis, as well as probing their role in biological functions. We have also used EAR to study the elastic properties, shape and size of various individual nanoparticles.

  12. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong; Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk; Kong, Chi-Wing; Li, Ronald A.

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  13. Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonjae; Nam, Seong-Won; Hwang, Hyundoo; Park, Sungsu; Park, Je-Kyun

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a grayscale optoelectronic tweezers (OET) which allows adjustment of the electric field strength at each position of OET. A grayscale light image was used to pattern vertical electric field strength on an OET. As an electric field depends on the brightness at each point, the brighter light patterns generate the stronger electric field in the OET. Its feasibility for application to cell manipulation was demonstrated by aligning highly motile protozoan cells in vertical direction. Depending on the brightness of each pixel, the behaviors of aligned cells varied due to the different electric field strength to each cell.

  14. Measuring stall forces in vivo with optical tweezers through light momentum changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, J.; Farré, A.; López-Quesada, C.; Fernández, X.; Martín-Badosa, E.; Montes-Usategui, M.

    2011-10-01

    The stall forces of processive molecular motors have been widely studied previously in vitro. Even so, in vivo experiments are required for determining the actual performance of each molecular motor in its natural environment. We report the direct measurement of light momentum changes in single beam optical tweezers as a suitable technique for measuring forces inside living cells, where few alternatives exist. The simplicity of this method, which does not require force calibration for each trapped object, makes it convenient for measuring the forces involved in fast dynamic biological processes such us intracellular traffic. Here we present some measurements of the stall force of processive molecular motors inside living Allium cepa cells.

  15. Polymeric optical fiber tweezers as a tool for single cell micro manipulation and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Soppera, O.; Guerreiro, A.; Jorge, P. A...

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a new type of polymeric fiber optic tweezers for single cell manipulation is reported. The optical trapping of a yeast cell using a polymeric micro lens fabricated by guided photo polymerization at the fiber tip is demonstrated. The 2D trapping of the yeast cells is analyzed and maximum optical forces on the pN range are calculated. The experimental results are supported by computational simulations using a FDTD method. Moreover, new insights on the potential for simultaneous sensing and optical trapping, are presented.

  16. Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, F. J.; Fabry, B.; Tsai, K. Y.; Goldmann, W. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    A magnetic tweezer was constructed to apply controlled tensional forces (10 pN to greater than 1 nN) to transmembrane receptors via bound ligand-coated microbeadswhile optically measuring lateral bead displacements within individual cells. Use of this system with wild-type F9 embryonic carcinoma cells and cells from a vinculin knockout mouse F9 Vin (-/-) revealed much larger differences in the stiffness of the transmembrane integrin linkages to the cytoskeleton than previously reported using related techniques that measured average mechanical properties of large cell populations. The mechanical properties measured varied widely among cells, exhibiting an approximately log-normal distribution. The median lateral bead displacement was 2-fold larger in F9 Vin (-/-) cells compared to wild-type cells whereas the arithmetic mean displacement only increased by 37%. We conclude that vinculin serves a greater mechanical role in cells than previously reported and that this magnetic tweezer device may be useful for probing the molecular basis of cell mechanics within single cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Dino; Oddershede, Lene B.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-05-15

    In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts.

  18. Optical tweezers and cell biomechanics in macro- and nano-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, Alexander A.; Makropoulou, Mersini; Spyratou, Ellas

    2013-03-01

    The mechanical properties of cells, as well as their dysfunction, have been implicated in many aspects of human physiology and patho-physiology. Hence, new biophysical techniques, as optical tweezers, are of great importance for biomechanical measurements in both cells and cell simulators (e.g. liposomes). Liposomes are used, among other applications, as drug delivery nanosystems in cancer therapy. In this work, experimental measurements of the optical forces exerted by line optical tweezers on trapped cells (erythrocytes) and liposomes, using the dielectrophoresis method for calibration, are presented. Folding and elongation of trapped red blood cells was observed, in the direction of the electric field of incident beam, while, upon removal of the optical trap, the red blood cells were observed to unfold to their original biconcave shape. By measuring the folding and unfolding times, membrane elasticity properties such as bending modulus were estimated. Shear and bending modulus of liposomes were also estimated by measuring the liposome deformations, induced by optical forces along the beam long axis. The optical force is quasi-linearly increased with the increase of liposome diameter. In the elasticity regime, when the laser was turned off, the liposome acquired gradually its initial shape without any hysteresis.

  19. A modular assembling platform for manufacturing of microsystems by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Aumann, Andreas; Ghadiri, Reza; Prüfer, Michael; Baer, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Due to the increased complexity in terms of materials and geometries for microsystems new assembling techniques are required. Assembling techniques from the semiconductor industry are often very specific and cannot fulfill all specifications in more complex microsystems. Therefore, holographic optical tweezers are applied to manipulate structures in micrometer range with highest flexibility and precision. As is well known non-spherical assemblies can be trapped and controlled by laser light and assembled with an additional light modulator application, where the incident laser beam is rearranged into flexible light patterns in order to generate multiple spots. The complementary building blocks are generated by a two-photon-polymerization process. The possibilities of manufacturing arbitrary microstructures and the potential of optical tweezers lead to the idea of combining manufacturing techniques with manipulation processes to "microrobotic" processes. This work presents the manipulation of generated complex microstructures with optical tools as well as a storage solution for 2PP assemblies. A sample holder has been developed for the manual feeding of 2PP building blocks. Furthermore, a modular assembling platform has been constructed for an `all-in-one' 2PP manufacturing process as a dedicated storage system. The long-term objective is the automation process of feeding and storage of several different 2PP micro-assemblies to realize an automated assembly process.

  20. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and laser tweezers based experiments to understand dentine-bacteria interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sum Chee; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gupta, P. K.; Kishen, Anil

    2007-02-01

    Failure of endodontic treatment is commonly due to Enterococcal infection. In this study influence of chemical treatments of type-I collagen membrane by chemical agents commonly used in endodontic treatment on Enterococcus faecalis cell adherence was evaluated. In order to determine the change in number of adhering bacteria after chemical treatment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used. For this, overnight culture of E faecalis in All Culture broth was applied to chemically treated type-I collagen membrane. It was found that Ca(OH) II treated groups had statistically significant (p value=0.05) increase in population of bacteria adherence. The change in adhesion force between bacteria and collagen was determined by using optical tweezers (1064 nm). For this experiment, Type-I collagen membrane was soaked for 5 mins in a media that contained 50% all culture media and 50% saturated Ca(OH) II . The membrane was spread on the coverslip, on which diluted bacterial suspension was added. The force of laser tweezers on the bacteria was estimated at different trap power levels using viscous drag method and trapping stiffness was calculated using Equipartition theorem method. Presence of Ca(OH) II was found to increase the cell-substrate adherence force from 0.38pN to >2.1pN. Together, these experiments show that it was highly probable that the increase in adherence to collagen was due to a stronger adhesion in the presence of Ca (OH) II.

  1. Natural user interface as a supplement of the holographic Raman tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomori, Zoltan; Kanka, Jan; Kesa, Peter; Jakl, Petr; Sery, Mojmir; Bernatova, Silvie; Antalik, Marian; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Holographic Raman tweezers (HRT) manipulates with microobjects by controlling the positions of multiple optical traps via the mouse or joystick. Several attempts have appeared recently to exploit touch tablets, 2D cameras or Kinect game console instead. We proposed a multimodal "Natural User Interface" (NUI) approach integrating hands tracking, gestures recognition, eye tracking and speech recognition. For this purpose we exploited "Leap Motion" and "MyGaze" low-cost sensors and a simple speech recognition program "Tazti". We developed own NUI software which processes signals from the sensors and sends the control commands to HRT which subsequently controls the positions of trapping beams, micropositioning stage and the acquisition system of Raman spectra. System allows various modes of operation proper for specific tasks. Virtual tools (called "pin" and "tweezers") serving for the manipulation with particles are displayed on the transparent "overlay" window above the live camera image. Eye tracker identifies the position of the observed particle and uses it for the autofocus. Laser trap manipulation navigated by the dominant hand can be combined with the gestures recognition of the secondary hand. Speech commands recognition is useful if both hands are busy. Proposed methods make manual control of HRT more efficient and they are also a good platform for its future semi-automated and fully automated work.

  2. Manipulation of particles by laser tweezers-induced gradient of order in the nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škarabot, Miha; Osterman, Natan; Lokar, Žiga; Muševi?, Igor

    2014-09-01

    Manipulation and transport of microparticles and even fluorescent molecules by thermally induced gradient of the order parameter is demonstrated in the nematic liquid crystal. IR light absorption of a focused beam of the laser tweezers is used to heat locally a thin layer of the nematic liquid crystal by several degrees, thus creating a spatial gradient of temperature of the nematic liquid crystal over tens of micrometers. It is observed that a colloidal particle with dipolar symmetry of the director configuration is attracted into the hot spot of the tweezers. The strength of trapping potential increases linearly with particle radius, which indicates that the trapping is due to elastic energy of the distorted nematic liquid crystal around the particle. By using fluorescent molecules instead of colloidal particles, we observed that this thermal trapping of colloidal particles is efficient down to the nanoscale, as fluorescent molecules are also attracted to the hotter regions of the liquid crystal. This effect is absent in the isotropic phase.

  3. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  4. Probing Mechanical Properties of Jurkat Cells under the Effect of ART Using Oscillating Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoid leukemia is a common type of blood cancer and chemotherapy is the initial treatment of choice. Quantifying the effect of a chemotherapeutic drug at the cellular level plays an important role in the process of the treatment. In this study, an oscillating optical tweezer was employed to characterize the frequency-dependent mechanical properties of Jurkat cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent, artesunate (ART). A motion equation for a bead bound to a cell was applied to describe the mechanical characteristics of the cell cytoskeleton. By comparing between the modeling results and experimental results from the optical tweezer, the stiffness and viscosity of the Jurkat cells before and after the ART treatment were obtained. The results demonstrate a weak power-law dependency of cell stiffness with frequency. Furthermore, the stiffness and viscosity were increased after the treatment. Therefore, the cytoskeleton cell stiffness as the well as power-law coefficient can provide a useful insight into the chemo-mechanical relationship of drug treated cancer cells and may serve as another tool for evaluating therapeutic performance quantitatively. PMID:25928073

  5. Optical properties of red blood cells: an optical tweezer based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, B. V.; Lakkegowda, Yogesha; Pratibha, R.; Praveen, P.; Bhattacharya, Sarbari; Ananthamurthy, Sharath

    2014-03-01

    A microscopic object finds an equilibrium orientation under a laser tweezer such that a maximum of its volume lies in the region of highest electric field. Furthermore, birefringent microscopic objects show no rotational diffusion after reorienting under a linearly polarized optical trap and also are seen to follow the plane of polarization when the latter is changed using a half wave plate. We observe that a healthy human Red Blood Cell (RBC) reproduces these observations in an optical tweezer, which confirms it to be birefringent. Polarization microscopy based measurements reveal that the birefringence is confined to the cell's dimple region and the mean value of retardation for polarized green light (? = 546nm) is 9 +/- 1.5nm. We provide a simple geometrical model that attributes the birefringence to the nature of arrangement of the phospholipid molecules of the bilayer. This predicts the observed variation in the measured birefringence, from the dimple to the rim of the cell which we further show, can serve to demarcate the extent of the dimple region. This points to the value of birefringence measurements in revealing cell membrane contours. . We extend this technique to understand the birefringence of a chicken RBC, an oblate shaped cell, wherein the slow axis is identified to be coincident with the long axis of the cell. Further, we observe the birefringence to be confined to the edges of the cell. Experiments to probe the optomechanical response of the chicken RBC are in progress.

  6. Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2012-06-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

  7. Measurement of particle motion in optical tweezers embedded in a Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Galinskiy, Ivan; Isaksson, Oscar; Salgado, Israel Rebolledo; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Mehlig, Bernhard; Hanstorp, Dag

    2015-10-19

    We have constructed a counterpropagating optical tweezers setup embedded in a Sagnac interferometer in order to increase the sensitivity of position tracking for particles in the geometrical optics regime. Enhanced position determination using a Sagnac interferometer has previously been described theoretically by Taylor et al. [Journal of Optics 13, 044014 (2011)] for Rayleigh-regime particles trapped in an antinode of a standing wave. We have extended their theory to a case of arbitrarily-sized particles trapped with orthogonally-polarized counter-propagating beams. The working distance of the setup was sufficiently long to optically induce particle oscillations orthogonally to the axis of the tweezers with an auxiliary laser beam. Using these oscillations as a reference, we have experimentally shown that Sagnac-enhanced back focal plane interferometry is capable of providing an improvement of more than 5 times in the signal-to-background ratio, corresponding to a more than 30-fold improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results obtained are consistent with our theoretical predictions. In the experimental setup, we used a method of optical levitator-assisted liquid droplet delivery in air based on commercial inkjet technology, with a novel method to precisely control the size of droplets. PMID:26480368

  8. Optical Tweezers Experiments Resolve Distinct Modes of DNA-Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Optical tweezers are ideally suited to perform force microscopy experiments that isolate a single biomolecule, which then provides multiple binding sites for ligands. The captured complex may be subjected to a spectrum of forces, inhibiting or facilitating ligand activity. In the following experiments, we utilize optical tweezers to characterize and quantify DNA binding of various ligands. High Mobility Group Type B (HMGB) proteins, which bind to double-stranded DNA, are shown to serve the dual purpose of stabilizing and enhancing the flexibility of double stranded DNA. Unusual intercalating ligands are observed to thread into and lengthen the double-stranded structure. Proteins binding to both double- and single-stranded DNA, such as the alpha polymerase subunit of E. coli Pol III, are characterized and the subdomains containing the distinct sites responsible for binding are isolated. Finally, DNA binding of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins are measured for a range of salt concentrations, illustrating a binding model for proteins that slide along double-stranded DNA, ultimately binding tightly to ssDNA. These recently developed methods quantify both the binding activity of the ligand as well as the mode of binding. PMID:19173290

  9. In situ calibrating optical tweezers with sinusoidal-wave drag force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Zhou, Jin-Hua; Hu, Xin-Yao; Zhong, Min-Cheng; Gong, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Hao-Wei; Li, Yin-Mei

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a corrected sinusoidal-wave drag force method (SDFM) into optical tweezers to calibrate the trapping stiffness of the optical trap and conversion factor (CF) of photodetectors. First, the theoretical analysis and experimental result demonstrate that the correction of SDFM is necessary, especially the error of no correction is up to 11.25% for a bead of 5 ?m in diameter. Second, the simulation results demonstrate that the SDFM has a better performance in the calibration of optical tweezers than the triangular-wave drag force method (TDFM) and power spectrum density method (PSDM) at the same signal-to-noise ratio or trapping stiffness. Third, in experiments, the experimental standard deviations of calibration of trapping stiffness and CF with the SDFM are about less than 50% of TDFM and PSDM especially at low laser power. Finally, the experiments of stretching DNA verify that the in situ calibration with the SDFM improves the measurement stability and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11302220, 11374292, and 31100555) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB910402).

  10. A combined double-tweezers and wavelength-tunable laser nanosurgery microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingyuan; Parsa, Shahab; Shi, Linda Z.; Harsono, Marcellinus; Wakida, Nicole M.; Berns, Michael W.

    2009-08-01

    In two previous studies we have conducted combined laser subcellular microsurgery and optical trapping on chromosomes in living cells1, 2. In the latter study we used two separate microscopes, one for the trap and one for the laser scissors, thus requiring that we move the cell specimen between microscopes and relocate the irradiated cells. In the former paper we combined the 1064 nm laser trap and the 532 nm laser scissors into one microscope. However, in neither study did we have multiple traps allowing for more flexibility in application of the trapping force. In the present paper we describe a combined laser scissors and tweezers microscope that (1) has two trapping beams (both moveable via rapid scanning mirrors (FSM- 300, Newport Corp.), (2) uses a short pulsed tunable 200 fs 710-990 nm Ti:Sapphire laser for laser microsurgery, and (3) also has the option to use a 337 nm 4 ns UV laser for subcellular surgery. The two laser tweezers and either of the laser ablation beams can be used in a cell surgery experiment. The system is integrated into the robotic-controlled RoboLase system3. Experiments on mitotic chromosomes of rat kangaroo PTK2 cells are described.

  11. Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

  12. A novel single fiber optical tweezers based on light-induced thermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Zhihai; Liang, Peibo; Zhang, Yaxun; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2015-07-01

    We present and demonstrate a novel single fiber optical tweezers which can trap and launch (clean) a target polystyrene (PS) microsphere (diameter~10?m) with independent control by using two wavelengths beams: 980nm and 1480nm. We employ 980nm laser beam to trap the target PS microsphere by molding the fiber tip into a special tapered-shape; and we employ 1480nm laser beam to launch the trapped PS microsphere with a certain velocity by using the thermophoresis force generated from the thermal effect due to the high absorption of the 1480nm laser beams in water. When the launching force is smaller than the trapping force, the PS microsphere will be trapped near the fiber tip, and the launching force will blow away other PS microspheres in the workspace realizing the cleaning function; When the launching force is larger than the trapping force, the trapped PS microsphere will be launched away from the fiber tip with a certain velocity and towards a certain direction, realizing the launching function. This PS microsphere launching and cleaning functions expanded new features of single fiber optical tweezers, providing for the possibility of more practical applications in the micro manipulation research fields.

  13. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien

    2006-06-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system.

  14. Kirkham, G. R. et al. (2015) Precision assembly of complex cellular microenvironments using holographic optical tweezers. Scientific Reports,

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    architectural position of cells within a particular microenvironment provides the basis for bio- logical of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers

  15. Dynamic Excitations in Membranes Induced by Optical Tweezers Roy Bar-Ziv,* Elisha Moses,* and Philip Nelson#

    E-print Network

    Moses, Elisha

    picture of the laser-membrane interaction is based on the generation of tension in the bilayer and loss and water, with laser tweezers as the energy source. Artificial membrane vesicles made of lipids ("lipo. These include elasticity, equilibrium shapes and shape transitions, fluctu- ations, and adhesion (Deuling

  16. Light-matter Interactions: From the Photophysics of Organic Semiconductors to High Spatial Resolution Optical Tweezer-controlled Nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Mark J.

    Studies of light-matter interactions in organic semiconductors and in optical tweezer trapping of nanoparticles are presented. In the research related to organic semiconductor materials, a variety of novel materials and their composites have been characterized, and physical mechanisms behind their optoelectronic properties have been established. Three novel functionalized hexacene derivatives were deemed sufficiently stable to enable characterization of these materials in devices. From dark current and photocurrent measurements of the hexacene thin-films, it was determined that all three derivatives are photoconductive in the near-infrared, and space charge limited mobility values were obtained. In addition, physical mechanisms behind charge transfer, charge carrier photogeneration, and charge transport in small-molecule donor/acceptor composite films have been systematically studied. In these studies, it was determined that the charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor molecule can result in either an emissive charge transfer exciton (exciplex) or a non-emissive charge transfer exciton formation, depending on the energy difference between LUMO of the donor and the acceptor. However, the most dramatic trends in photoluminescent and photoconductive properties of the donor/acceptor composites were correlated with the separation between the donor and acceptor molecules at the donor/acceptor interface. In particular, composite films with larger separations exhibited electric field-assisted charge transfer exciton dissociation, which contributed to nanosecond time-scale photocurrents under a 500 ps pulsed photoexciation. Large donor/acceptor separation also resulted in reduced charge carrier recombination, which led to a factor of 5-10 increase in continuous wave photocurrents in certain donor/acceptor composites, as compared to those in pristine donor films. In the optical tweezer based studies, work towards the development of high spatial resolution optical tweezer controlled nanoprobes is presented. In particular, the possibility of exploiting the optical resonance of a particle to increase the optical tweezer forces acting on it within the trap has been investigated. Such an increase in the force would improve the potential spatial resolution of an optical tweezer controlled probe. Experimental results and numerical simulations on micron sized resonant dielectric particles showed a small increase in the optical forces that confine such particles within the trap, when tweezer trapping is conducted at wavelengths on the red-side of the optical resonance. Preliminary work on optical tweezer controlled ion/pH sensitive probes and on surface charge measurements is also reported.

  17. Host-guest interaction between pinocembrin and cyclodextrins: Characterization, solubilization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Ya; Ma, Shui-Xian; Cheng, Hui-Lin; Yang, Li-Juan; Chen, Wen; Yin, Yan-Qing; Shi, Yi-Min; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of pinocembrin with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and its derivative 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) were investigated in both solution and the solid state by means of XRD, DSC, 1H and 2D NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of pinocembrin were obviously increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. This satisfactory water solubility and high stability of the pinocembrin/CD complexes will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicines or healthcare products.

  18. Insights into the Complexity of Weak Intermolecular Interactions Interfering in Host-Guest Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Chatelet, Bastien; Serrano, Eloisa; Perraud, Olivier; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Robert, Vincent; Martinez, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    The recognition properties of heteroditopic hemicryptophane hosts towards anions, cations, and neutral pairs, combining both cation-? and anion-? interaction sites, were investigated to probe the complexity of interfering weak intermolecular interactions. It is suggested from NMR experiments, and supported by CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations, that the binding constants of anions can be modulated by a factor of up to 100 by varying the fluorination sites on the electron-poor aromatic rings. Interestingly, this subtle chemical modification can also reverse the sign of cooperativity in ion-pair recognition. Wavefunction calculations highlight how short- and long-range interactions interfere in this recognition process, suggesting that a disruption of anion-? interactions can occur in the presence of a co-bound cation. Such molecules can be viewed as prototypes for examining complex processes controlled by the competition of weak interactions. PMID:26401973

  19. Host-guest interactions in fluorinated polymer electrolytes: A 7Li-13C NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustarelli, P.; Quartarone, E.; Capiglia, C.; Tomasi, C.; Ferloni, P.; Magistris, A.

    1999-08-01

    Gel-type electrolytes based on fluorinated polymers are of interest for electrochemical devices. We present a 7Li-13C solid-state NMR and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) study of gel electrolytes based on a copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-hexafluoropropylene (HFP) activated with a nonaqueous solution ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-LiN(CF3SO2)2. We show that the narrowing of the Li lineshape is decoupled from the glass transition. The behavior of the longitudinal relaxation times, T1, confirms that the host polymer matrix simply behaves like a quasiinert cage for the solution. These results are confirmed by 13C NMR at the magic angle (MAS) data, which show that the presence of the polymer does not significantly affect the chemical shift changes induced in the EC/PC carbons by the imide salt.

  20. Preparation and characterization of host-guest system between inosine and ?-cyclodextrin through inclusion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Samikannu; Sivakumar, Krishnamurty; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Rajamohan, Rajaram

    2015-08-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a ?-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine is commonly found in tRNAs. Inosine (INS) has been used widely as an antiviral drug. The inclusion complex of INS with ?-CDx in solution phase is studied by ground and excited state with UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. A binding constant and stoichiometric ratio between INS and ?-CDx are calculated by BH equation. The lifetime and relative amplitude of INS is increases with increasing the concentrations of ?-CDx, confirms the formation of inclusion complex in liquid state. The solid complexes are prepared by kneading method (KM) and co-precipitation method (CP). The solid complex is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). CP method gives the solid product with good yield than that of physical mixture and KM method. The structure of complex is proposed based on the study of Patch - Dock server.

  1. SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR Simple host-guest chemistry to modulate the process of concentration and

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    obtained from 3M (St. Paul, MN). Chloroform, Ammonium Hydroxide, Methanol, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4 and Tris at 0.15 mM in 3.8 mM LDAO and 50 mM Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4. Two stock solutions were prepared and used to make

  2. Comparison of host-guest Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer formation by two different amphiphilic cyclodextrins

    SciTech Connect

    Parazak, D.P.; Khan, A.R.; D`Souza, V.T.; Stine, K.J.

    1996-08-07

    We report here our results for Langmuir monolayers of the derivatives of cyclodextrin shown: hexakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylamino)-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (1a), heptakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylamino)-{beta}-cyclodextrin (1b), and heptakis(6-deoxy-6-dodecylthio)-{beta}-cyclodextrin (2b ), which was found to be partially substituted. Langmuir films of these derivatives were examined using {Pi}-A isotherm measurements and Brewster angle microscopy. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) multilayer films of these derivatives were deposited from subphases containing p-nitrophenol to determine the extent of incorporation of the guest molecule in the LB film. The transfer ratios of the film exhibited a noteworthy evolution with the transfer pressure. The variation in the extent of guest molecule incorporation is discussed and compared with the binding behavior in solution of unmodified cyclodextrins. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Does Size Really Matter? The Steric Isotope Effect in a Supramolecular Host?Guest Exchange Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-01-29

    Isotope effects (IEs), which arise from differences in zero point energies (ZPEs) between a parent and isotopically substituted bond, have been used extensively by chemists to probe molecular interactions and reactivity. Due to the anharmonicity of the C-H/D vibrational potential energy function and the lower ZPE of a C-D bond, the average C-D bond length is typically {approx}0.005 {angstrom} shorter than an equivalent C-H bond. It is this difference in size that is often invoked to explain the observation of secondary, inverse kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in chemical processes which proceed through a sterically strained transition state. This so-called 'steric isotope effect' (SIE) has been observed in processes such as the racemization of ortho-substituted biphenyls[6] and phenanthrenes, ring flipping of cyclophanes, and more recently in the deslipping of rotaxanes, where substitution of the sterically less demanding deuterium for protium results in rate accelerations for these processes. Herein, we use deuterium substitution in a cationic guest molecule to probe the sensitivity limits of the guest exchange process from a highly-charged supramolecular host.

  4. Solution and air stable host/guest architectures from a single layer covalent organic framework.

    PubMed

    Cui, D; MacLeod, J M; Ebrahimi, M; Perepichka, D F; Rosei, F

    2015-11-01

    We show that the surface-supported two-dimensional covalent organic framework (COF) known as COF-1 can act as a host architecture for C60 fullerene molecules, predictably trapping the molecules under a range of conditions. The fullerenes occupy the COF-1 lattice at the solution/solid interface, and in dried films of the COF-1/fullerene network that can be synthesized through either drop-deposition of fullerene solution or by a dipstick-type synthesis in which the surface-supported COF-1 is briefly dipped into the fullerene solution. PMID:26417872

  5. Host-Guest Chemistry of a Chiral Cyclohexanediamine-Viologen Cyclophane in Solution

    E-print Network

    in interlamellar spacing. Adsorption isotherms corresponding to indole intercalation and complexation were with chiral reagents followed by fractional crystallization and asymmetric syntheses, tend to be idiosyncratic thermodynamic work and therefore leads to a concentration threshold in the binding isotherm of 2; in addition

  6. Host-guest Interaction Mediated Polymeric Assemblies: Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxiang; Sun, Hongli; Ma, Peter X

    2010-01-01

    Novel core-shell structured nano-assemblies are assembled by a ?-cyclodextrin containing positively charged host polymer and a hydrophobic guest polymer. The hydrophobic core of this type of assemblies serves as a nano-container to load and release the hydrophobic drugs, while the positively charged hydrophilic shell is able to condense the plasmid DNA and achieve its transfection/expression in osteoblast cells. These assemblies may be used as a new generation of multi-functional nano-carriers for simultaneous drug delivery and gene therapy. PMID:20112968

  7. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, Nosoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-06-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions.

  8. Experimental quantification of anion-? interactions in solution using neutral host-guest model systems.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Pablo

    2013-04-16

    Chemical intuition suggests that anions and ?-aromatic systems would repel each other. Typically, we think of cations as being attracted to electron-rich ?-systems of aromatic rings, and the cation-? interaction, a well-established noncovalent interaction, plays an important role in nature. Therefore the anion-? interaction can be considered the opposite of the cation-? interaction. Computational studies of simple models of anion-? interactions have provided estimates of the factors that govern the binding geometry and the binding energy, leading to a general consensus about the nature of these interactions. In order to attract an anion, the charge distribution of the aromatic system has to be reversed, usually through the decoration of the aromatic systems with strongly electron-withdrawing groups. Researchers have little doubt about the existence of attractive anion-? interactions in the gas phase and in the solid state. The bonding energies assigned to anion-? interactions from quantum chemical calculations and gas phase experiments are significant and compare well with the values obtained for cation-? interactions. In solution, however, there are few examples of attractive anion-? interactions. In this Account, I describe several examples of neutral molecular receptors that bind anions in solution either solely through anion-? interactions or as a combination of anion-? interactions and hydrogen bonding. In the latter cases, the strength of the anion-? interaction is indirectly detected as a modulation of the stronger hydrogen bonding interaction (enforced proximity). The dissection of the energy contribution of the anion-? interaction to the overall binding is complex, which requires the use of appropriate reference systems. This Account gives an overview the experimental efforts to determine the binding energies that can be expected from anion-? interactions in solution with examples that center around the recognition of halides. The studies show that anion-? interactions also exist in solution, and the free energy of binding estimated for these attractive interactions is less than 1 kcal/mol for each substituted phenyl groups. The quantification of anion-? interactions in solution relies on the use of molecular recognition model systems; therefore researchers need to consider how the structure of the model system can alter the magnitude of the observed energy values. In addition, the recognition of anions in solution requires the use of salts (ion pairs) as precursors, which complicates the analysis of the titration data and the corresponding estimate of the binding strength. In solution, the weak binding energies suggest that anion-? interactions are not as significant for the selective or enhanced binding of anions but offer potential applications in catalysis and transport within functional synthetic and biological systems. PMID:22621170

  9. Host-guest encapsulation of materials by assembled virus protein cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    1998-05-01

    Self-assembled cage structures of nanometre dimensions can be used as constrained environments for the preparation of nanostructured materials, and the encapsulation of guest molecules, with potential applications in drug delivery and catalysis. In synthetic systems the number of subunits contributing to cage structures is typically rather small,. But the protein coats of viruses (virions) commonly comprise hundreds of subunits that self-assemble into a cage for transporting viral nucleic acids. Many virions, moreover, can undergo reversible structural changes that open or close gated pores to allow switchable access to their interior. Here we show that such a virion - that of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus - can be used as a host for the synthesis of materials. We report the mineralization of two polyoxometalate species (paratungstate and decavanadate) and the encapsulation of an anionic polymer inside this virion, controlled by pH-dependent gating of the virion's pores. The diversity in size and shape of such virus particles make this a versatile strategy for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment.

  10. Optical Detection of Aqueous Phase Analytes via Host-Guest Interactions on a Lipid Membrane Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, D.Y.; Waggoner, T.A.

    1999-01-11

    The organization and assembly of molecules in cellular membranes is orchestrated through the recognition and binding of specific chemical signals. A simplified version of the cellular membrane system has been developed using a synthetically prepared membrane receptor incorporated into a biologically derived lipid bilayer. Through an interplay of electrostatic and van der Wards interactions, aggregation or dispersion of molecular components could be executed on command using a specific chemical signal. A pyrene fluorophore was used as an optical probe to monitor the aggregational state of the membrane receptors in the bilayer matrix. The pyrene excimer emission to monomer emission (E/M) intensity ratio gave a relative assessment of the local concentration of receptors in the membrane. Bilayers were prepared with receptors selective for the divalent metal ions of copper, mercury, and lead. Addition of the metal ions produced a rapid dispersion of aggregated receptor components at nano- to micro-molar concentrations. The process was reversible by sequestering the metal ions with EDTA. Receptors for proteins and polyhistidine were also prepared and incorporated into phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. In this case, the guest molecules bound to the membrane through multiple points of interaction causing aggregation of initially dispersed receptor molecules. The rapid, selective, and sensitive fluorescence optical response of these lipid assemblies make them attractive in sensor applications for aqueous phase metal ions and polypeptides.

  11. Two-photon holography in a 3D photopolymer host-guest matrix.

    PubMed

    Diamond, C; Boiko, Y; Esener, S

    2000-01-31

    We demonstrate for the first time two-photon induced holographic recording at an arbitrary point in three dimensional photopolymeric cube by overlapping two coherent pulses from a 200 femtosecond Ti: Sapphire tunable laser operating at 710 nm. Spatial overlap is achieved by a novel pupil division method. The polymer material is made of epoxy host, which is fully polymerized and filled with liquid photopolymerisable formulation comprising acrylate type monomer and two-photon photoinitiator. Measured diffraction efficiency is measured to be 3.5%. PMID:19401746

  12. Tailoring the optical and rheological properties of an epoxy acrylate based host-guest system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleißner, Uwe; Hanemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Polymers with individually adjusted optical and rheological properties are gaining more and more importance in industrial applications like in information technology. To modify the refractive index n, an electron-rich organic dopant is added to a commercially available polymer based resin. Changes in viscosity for applications like ink-jet printing can be achieved by using a comonomer with suitable properties. Therefore we used a commercially available epoxy acrylate based UV-curable polymer matrix to investigate the influence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) on viscosity and phenanthrene on refractive index. Refractive index was measured at a wavelength of 589 nm and 20 °C using an Abbe refractometer. As a result the change in viscosity decreased linearly from 47 Pa·s to 4 mPa·s which is a more suitable region for inkjet printing. However, the refractive index decreased at the same time from 1.548 to 1.514. Adding phenanthrene the refractive index increased linearly from 1.548 up to 1.561. It was shown that both, viscosity and refractive index can be successfully adjusted in a wide range depending on desired properties.

  13. Two-photon holography in a 3D photopolymer host-guest matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Cornelius; Boiko, Yuri B.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time two-photon induced holographic recording at an arbitrary point in three dimensional photopolymeric cube by overlapping two coherent pulses from a 200 femtosecond Ti: Sapphire tunable laser operating at 710 nm. Spatial overlap is achieved by a novel pupil division method. The polymer material is made of epoxy host, which is fully polymerized and filled with liquid photopolymerisable formulation comprising acrylate type monomer and two-photon photoinitiator. Measured diffraction efficiency is measured to be 3.5%.

  14. Binary Crystallized Supramolecular Aerogels Derived from Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Xuetong

    2015-11-24

    Aerogels with low density and high porosity show outstanding properties such as large surface area and low thermal and acoustic conductivity. However, great challenges remain to convert hydrophilic polymer based hydrogels to corresponding aerogels. Here, we report a structurally new type of aerogels, supramolecular aerogels (SMAs), derived from supramolecular hydrogels formed by self-assembling of poly(ethylene glycol) and ?-/?-cyclodextrin. The SMAs posses a characteristic binary crystallized nanosheet structure due to their supramolecular cross-linking nature, and their specific surface areas and nanosheet structures are tunable. Furthermore, we demonstrated application of the aerogels as solid-solid phase change materials with tunable latent heat, reversible melting-crystallization cycle while keeping the microstructure of the SMAs unchanged. PMID:26513140

  15. Theoretical calculation of relative binding affinity in host-guest systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lybrand, T P; McCammon, J A; Wipff, G

    1986-01-01

    The relative free energy of binding the anions Cl- and Br- to the macrotricyclic receptor SC24 in water has been computed by a computer simulation technique. This result and an incidental result for the relative free energy of hydration of the anions are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The simulation approach to ligand-receptor interactions that is described here has significant potential as a predictive tool in chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Images PMID:3456569

  16. Enhanced imine synthesis in water: from surfactant-mediated catalysis to host-guest mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meguellati, Kamel; Fallah-Araghi, Ali; Baret, Jean-Christophe; El Harrak, Abdeslam; Mangeat, Thomas; Marques, Carlos M; Griffiths, Andrew D; Ladame, Sylvain

    2013-12-14

    An environment-responsive and fluorogenic reaction is reported and used as a model system to demonstrate experimentally three mechanisms of enhanced imine synthesis in water using either surfactants (below and above their CMC) or double-stranded DNA (acting as a reaction host). PMID:24162811

  17. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  18. Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10-10 M-2.5 × 10-4 M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.

  19. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  20. Rationally designed cooperatively enhanced receptors to magnify host-guest binding in water.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Roshan W; Zhao, Yan

    2015-01-21

    When disengaged interactions within a receptor are turned on by its guest, these intrahost interactions will contribute to the overall binding energy. Although such receptors are common in biology, their synthetic mimics are rare and difficult to design. By engineering conflictory requirements between intrareceptor electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, we enabled complementary guests to eliminate the "electrostatic frustration" within the host and turn on the intrahost interactions. The result was a binding constant of Ka >10(5) M(-1) from ammonium-carboxylate salt bridges that typically function poorly in water. These cooperatively enhanced receptors displayed excellent selectivity in binding, despite a large degree of conformational flexibility in the structure. PMID:25531747

  1. Responsive Double Network Hydrogels of Interpenetrating DNA and CB[8] Host–Guest Supramolecular Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, Chuang; Rowland, Matthew J.; Shao, Yu; Cao, Tianyang; Chen, Chun; Jia, Haoyang; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Zhongqiang; Scherman, Oren A.; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-04-20

    . 2012, 51, 7396; c) H. K. Lau, K. L. Kiick, Biomacromolecules 2014, 16, 28. [2] a) L. H. Sperling, V. Mishra, Polym. Adv. Technol. 1996, 7, 197; b) L. H. Sperling, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002. [3... into a dialysis tube (Spectrum Labs, Spectra/Por, standard grade regenerated cellulose dialysis membrane 6, MWCO 2000 Daltons) which was subsequently submerged in appropriate aqueous solutions. The external solutions were stirred at room temperature...

  2. Energy Landscape of Alginate-Epimerase Interactions Assessed by Optical Tweezers and Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Håti, Armend Gazmeno; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mannuronan C-5 epimerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze epimerization of alginates at the polymer level. This group of enzymes thus enables the tailor-making of various alginate residue sequences to attain various functional properties, e.g. viscosity, gelation and ion binding. Here, the interactions between epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 and alginate substrates as well as epimerization products were determined. The interactions of the various epimerase-polysaccharide pairs were determined over an extended range of force loading rates by the combined use of optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. When studying systems that in nature are not subjected to external forces the access to observations obtained at low loading rates, as provided by optical tweezers, is a great advantage since the low loading rate region for these systems reflect the properties of the rate limiting energy barrier. The AlgE epimerases have a modular structure comprising both A and R modules, and the role of each of these modules in the epimerization process were examined through studies of the A- module of AlgE6, AlgE6A. Dynamic strength spectra obtained through combination of atomic force microscopy and the optical tweezers revealed the existence of two energy barriers in the alginate-epimerase complexes, of which one was not revealed in previous AFM based studies of these complexes. Furthermore, based on these spectra estimates of the locations of energy transition states (x?), lifetimes in the absence of external perturbation (?0) and free energies (?G#) were determined for the different epimerase-alginate complexes. This is the first determination of ?G# for these complexes. The values determined were up to 8 kBT for the outer barrier, and smaller values for the inner barriers. The size of the free energies determined are consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme and substrate are thus not tightly locked at all times but are able to relocate. Together with the observed different affinities determined for AlgE4-polymannuronic acid (poly-M) and AlgE4-polyalternating alginate (poly-MG) macromolecular pairs these data give important contribution to the growing understanding of the mechanisms underlying the processive mode of these enzymes. PMID:26496653

  3. Energy Landscape of Alginate-Epimerase Interactions Assessed by Optical Tweezers and Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Håti, Armend Gazmeno; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mannuronan C-5 epimerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze epimerization of alginates at the polymer level. This group of enzymes thus enables the tailor-making of various alginate residue sequences to attain various functional properties, e.g. viscosity, gelation and ion binding. Here, the interactions between epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 and alginate substrates as well as epimerization products were determined. The interactions of the various epimerase–polysaccharide pairs were determined over an extended range of force loading rates by the combined use of optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. When studying systems that in nature are not subjected to external forces the access to observations obtained at low loading rates, as provided by optical tweezers, is a great advantage since the low loading rate region for these systems reflect the properties of the rate limiting energy barrier. The AlgE epimerases have a modular structure comprising both A and R modules, and the role of each of these modules in the epimerization process were examined through studies of the A- module of AlgE6, AlgE6A. Dynamic strength spectra obtained through combination of atomic force microscopy and the optical tweezers revealed the existence of two energy barriers in the alginate-epimerase complexes, of which one was not revealed in previous AFM based studies of these complexes. Furthermore, based on these spectra estimates of the locations of energy transition states (x?), lifetimes in the absence of external perturbation (?0) and free energies (?G#) were determined for the different epimerase–alginate complexes. This is the first determination of ?G# for these complexes. The values determined were up to 8 kBT for the outer barrier, and smaller values for the inner barriers. The size of the free energies determined are consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme and substrate are thus not tightly locked at all times but are able to relocate. Together with the observed different affinities determined for AlgE4-polymannuronic acid (poly-M) and AlgE4-polyalternating alginate (poly-MG) macromolecular pairs these data give important contribution to the growing understanding of the mechanisms underlying the processive mode of these enzymes. PMID:26496653

  4. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  5. Interrogating the activities of conformational deformed enzyme by single-molecule fluorescence-magnetic tweezers microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; He, Yufan; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the impact of fluctuating enzyme conformation on enzymatic activity is critical in understanding the structure–function relationship and enzymatic reaction dynamics. Different from studying enzyme conformations under a denaturing condition, it is highly informative to manipulate the conformation of an enzyme under an enzymatic reaction condition while monitoring the real-time enzymatic activity changes simultaneously. By perturbing conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules using our home-developed single-molecule total internal reflection magnetic tweezers, we successfully manipulated the enzymatic conformation and probed the enzymatic activity changes of HRP in a catalyzed H2O2–amplex red reaction. We also observed a significant tolerance of the enzyme activity to the enzyme conformational perturbation. Our results provide a further understanding of the relation between enzyme behavior and enzymatic conformational fluctuation, enzyme–substrate interactions, enzyme–substrate active complex formation, and protein folding–binding interactions. PMID:26512103

  6. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  7. Optical tweezers assisted imaging of the Z-ring in Escherichia coli: measuring its radial width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmon, G.; Kumar, P.; Feingold, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using single-beam, oscillating optical tweezers we can trap and rotate rod-shaped bacterial cells with respect to the optical axis. This technique allows imaging fluorescently labeled three-dimensional sub-cellular structures from different, optimized viewpoints. To illustrate our method we measure D, the radial width of the Z-ring in unconstricted Escherichia coli. We use cells that express FtsZ-GFP and have their cytoplasmic membrane stained with FM4-64. In a vertically oriented cell, both the Z-ring and the cytoplasmic membrane images appear as symmetric circular structures that lend themselves to quantitative analysis. We found that D ? 100 nm, much larger than expected.

  8. Accurate measurement of force and displacement with optical tweezers using DNA molecules as metrology standards.

    PubMed

    delToro, Damian; Smith, Douglas E

    2014-04-01

    Optical tweezers facilitate measurement of piconewton-level forces and nanometer-level displacements and have broad applications in biophysics and soft matter physics research. We have shown previously that DNA molecules can be used as metrology standards to define such measurements. Force-extension measurements on two DNA molecules of different lengths can be used to determine four necessary measurement parameters. Here, we show that the accuracy of determining these parameters can be improved by more than 7-fold by incorporating measurements of the DNA overstretching transition and using a multi-step data analysis procedure. This method results in very robust and precise fitting of DNA force-extension measurements to the worm-like chain model. We verify the accuracy through independent measurements of DNA stretching, DNA unzipping, and microsphere contact forces. PMID:25316922

  9. Accurate measurement of force and displacement with optical tweezers using DNA molecules as metrology standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delToro, Damian; Smith, Douglas E.

    2014-04-01

    Optical tweezers facilitate measurement of piconewton-level forces and nanometer-level displacements and have broad applications in biophysics and soft matter physics research. We have shown previously that DNA molecules can be used as metrology standards to define such measurements. Force-extension measurements on two DNA molecules of different lengths can be used to determine four necessary measurement parameters. Here, we show that the accuracy of determining these parameters can be improved by more than 7-fold by incorporating measurements of the DNA overstretching transition and using a multi-step data analysis procedure. This method results in very robust and precise fitting of DNA force-extension measurements to the worm-like chain model. We verify the accuracy through independent measurements of DNA stretching, DNA unzipping, and microsphere contact forces.

  10. Mechanism of termination of bacteriophage DNA packaging investigated with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delToro, Damian J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    The genomes of many dsDNA viruses are replicated by a mechanism that produces a long concatemer of multiple genomes. These viruses utilize multifunctional molecular motor complexes referred to as "terminases" that can excise a unit genome length of DNA and package it into preformed viral shells. Remarkably, the terminase motor can initiate packaging at the appropriate start point, translocate DNA, sense when a sufficient length has been packaged, and then switch into a mode where it arrests and cleaves the DNA to release a filled virus particle. We have recently developed an improved method to measure single phage lambda DNA packaging using dual-trap optical tweezers and pre-stalled motor-DNA-procapsid complexes. We are applying this method to test proposed mechanisms for the sensor that triggers termination; specifically a velocity-monitor model vs. energy-monitor model vs. capsid-filling monitor model.

  11. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using image-plane detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Khaksar, Zeinab S.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-10-01

    Ability to measure pico- and femto-Newton range forces using optical tweezers (OT) strongly relies on the sensitivity of its detection system. We show that the commonly used back-focal-plane detection method provides a linear response range which is shorter than that of the restoring force of OT for large beads. This limits measurable force range of OT. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that utilizing a second laser beam for tracking could solve the problem. We also propose a new detection scheme in which the quadrant photodiode is positioned at the plane optically conjugate to the object plane (image plane). This method solves the problem without need for a second laser beam for the bead sizes that are commonly used in force spectroscopy applications of OT, such as biopolymer stretching.

  12. Double nanohole optical tweezers visualize protein p53 suppressing unzipping of single DNA-hairpins.

    PubMed

    Kotnala, Abhay; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-06-01

    Here we report on the use of double-nanohole (DNH) optical tweezers as a label-free and free-solution single-molecule probe for protein-DNA interactions. Using this approach, we demonstrate the unzipping of individual 10 base pair DNA-hairpins, and quantify how tumor suppressor p53 protein delays the unzipping. From the Arrhenius behavior, we find the energy barrier to unzipping introduced by p53 to be 2 × 10(-20) J, whereas cys135ser mutant p53 does not show suppression of unzipping, which gives clues to its functional inability to suppress tumor growth. This transformative approach to single molecule analysis allows for ultra-sensitive detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions to revolutionize the fight against genetic diseases. PMID:24940547

  13. Micro- and nano-particle trapping using fibered optical nano-tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decombe, Jean-Baptiste; Dantelle, Géraldine; Gacoin, Thierry; Valdivia-Valero, Francisco J.; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Huant, Serge; Fick, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    We present the stable trapping of luminescent 300-nm cerium-doped YAG particles in aqueous suspension using a dual fiber tip optical tweezers. The particles were elaborated using a specific glycothermal synthesis route together with an original protected annealing step. We obtained harmonic trap potentials in the direction transverse to the optical fiber axes. In the longitudinal direction, the potential shows some sub-structure revealed by two peaks in the distribution statistics with a distance of about half the wavelength of the trapping laser. We calculated intensity normalized trapping stiffness of 36 pN•?m-1W-1. These results are compared to previous work of microparticle trapping and discussed thanks to numerical simulations based on finite element method.

  14. High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Jun; Valentine, Megan T.

    2012-05-15

    We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to {approx}4.5 {mu}m paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as {approx}1 kPa.

  15. Evaluating cell matrix mechanics using an integrated nonlinear optical tweezer-confocal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.

  16. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Sood, A. K.

    2005-11-01

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca^{++} ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

  17. Mechanical tweezer action by self-tightening knots in surfactant nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Dommersnes, Paul; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Bassereau, Patricia; Karlsson, Mattias; Orwar, Owe

    2004-01-01

    Entanglements and trefoil knots on surfactant nanotubes in the liquid phase were produced by a combination of network self-organization and micromanipulation. The resulting knots are self-tightening, and the tightening is driven by minimization of surface free energy of the surfactant membrane material. The formation of the knot and the steady-state knot at quasi-equilibrium can be directly followed and localized by using fluorescence microscopy. Knots on nanotubes can be used as nanoscale mechanical tweezers for trapping and manipulation of single nano- and micrometer-sized high-aspect ratio objects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that by controlling the surface tension, objects captured by a knot can be transported along given trajectories defined by the nanotube axes. PMID:15141081

  18. The efficiency of fiber optical tweezers for cell manipulation using distinct fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Soppera, O.; Viegas, J.; Guerreiro, A.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the trapping efficiency of new fiber optical tweezers structures fabricated using photo polymerization and focused ion beam milling techniques is evaluated. The first fabrication methods may present limited capabilities on the tailoring of the structures, and therefore limited operation features. On the other hand, with focused ion beam milling a vast myriad of structures may be accurately fabricated, and contrarily to conventional fabrication methods, more specialized manipulation tools can be developed. In this regard, the performance of FOT for the trapping of yeast cells using spherical lenses (photo polymerization) and spiral phase lenses (FIB) will be presented. In addition, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the full vectorial optical propagation through the designed structures and the corresponding calculation of the optical forces are presented and different designs are evaluated.

  19. Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; Milstein, Joshua N.

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices.

  20. Characterization of the mechanical properties of HL-1 cardiomyocytes with high throughput magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, La; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-08-01

    We characterized the mechanical properties of cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells using our recently developed multi-pole magnetic tweezers. With the optimized design, both high force and high throughput are achieved at the same time. Force up to 100 pN can be applied on a 1 ?m diameter superparamagnetic bead in a workspace with 60 ?m radius, which is encircled symmetrically by 3 sharp magnetic tips. By adjusting the coil currents, both the strength and direction of force can be controlled. The result shows that both viscosity and shear elastic modulus of HL-1 cells exhibit an approximately log-normal distribution. The cells became stiffer as they matured, consistent with a transition from proliferating cells to contractile muscle tissue. Moreover, the mechanical properties of HL-1 cells show high heterogeneity, which agrees well with their physiological structure.

  1. Time-series methods in analysis of the optical tweezers recordings.

    PubMed

    Drobczynski, S?awomir; ?l?zak, Jakub

    2015-08-10

    In this paper we treat optical tweezers as discrete-time linear filters and analyze the recorded trajectories of the trapped beads using time-series methods. Using these techniques we obtain a simple analytical formula for the aliased power-spectrum density. Moreover, we separate influences of the noise and blur induced by the video camera from the physical content of the measurements, providing simple tools to detect and account for these distortions. Finally, checking how our tools work on the real data, we identify what parameters of video camera calibration the blur is dominating and what the additive noise is dominating. We also detect a range where these two distortions cancel each other so that the data can be mistakenly classified as undisturbed. PMID:26368383

  2. Optoelectronic tweezers for the measurement of the relative stiffness of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Steven L.; Mody, Nimesh; Selman, Colin; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we describe the first use of Optoelectronic Tweezers (OET), an optically controlled micromanipulation method, to measure the relative stiffness of erythrocytes in mice. Cell stiffness is an important measure of cell health and in the case of erythrocytes, the most elastic cells in the body, an increase in cell stiffness can indicate pathologies such as type II diabetes mellitus or hypertension (high blood pressure). OET uses a photoconductive device to convert an optical pattern into and electrical pattern. The electrical fields will create a dipole within any polarisable particles in the device, such as cells, and non-uniformities of the field can be used to place unequal forces onto each side of the dipole thus moving the particle. In areas of the device where there are no field gradients, areas of constant illumination, the force on each side of the dipole will be equal, keeping the cell stationary, but as there are opposing forces on each side of the cell it will be stretched. The force each cell will experience will differ slightly so the stretching will depend on the cells polarisability as well as its stiffness. Because of this a relative stiffness rather than absolute stiffness is measured. We show that with standard conditions (20Vpp, 1.5MHz, 10mSm-1 medium conductivity) the cell's diameter changes by around 10% for healthy mouse erythrocytes and we show that due to the low light intensities required for OET, relative to conventional optical tweezers, multiple cells can be measured simultaneously.

  3. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

  4. Optical nanofibre integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation, in situ fibre probing, and optical binding studies

    E-print Network

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofibre and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofibre at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fibre transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fibre diameter, and can be used as a reference point for in situ nanofibre or particle size measurement. Thence, we combine scanning electron microscope (SEM) size measurements with nanofibre transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fibre assessment. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  5. 3D manipulation and visualization of in-vitro cells by optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, F.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Di Caprio, G.; Coppola, G.; Netti, P.; Ferraro, P.

    2014-03-01

    We present the possibility to trap cells (mouse fibroblasts, bovine spermatozoa and diatoms), to manage their position and to induce rotation, by using optical tweezers. The aim is to place them in desired positions, in order to record holographic images in a microscope configuration. Then we are able to recover the 3D shape and to calculate the biovolume of the cells starting from the reconstructed quantitative phase maps (QPMs).

  6. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  7. Spectrin-level modeling of the cytoskeleton and optical tweezers stretching of the erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Dao, M; Lim, C T; Suresh, S

    2005-05-01

    We present a three-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin-level energetics. Random network models consisting of degree-2, 3, ..., 9 junction complexes and spectrin links are used to populate spherical and biconcave surfaces and intermediate shapes, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are then performed with spectrin connectivities fixed. A sphere is first filled with cytosol and gradually deflated while preserving its total surface area, until cytosol volume consistent with the real RBC is reached. The equilibrium shape is determined through energy minimization by assuming that the spectrin tetramer links satisfy the worm-like chain free-energy model. Subsequently, direct stretching by optical tweezers of the initial equilibrium shape is simulated to extract the variation of axial and transverse diameters with the stretch force. At persistence length p = 7.5 nm for the spectrin tetramer molecule and corresponding in-plane shear modulus mu(0) approximately 8.3 microN/m, our models show reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements on the large deformation of RBC with optical tweezers. We find that the choice of the reference state used for the in-plane elastic energy is critical for determining the equilibrium shape. If a position-independent material reference state such as a full sphere is used in defining the in-plane energy, then the bending modulus kappa needs to be at least a decade larger than the widely accepted value of 2 x 10(-19) J to stabilize the biconcave shape against the cup shape. We demonstrate through detailed computations that this paradox can be avoided by invoking the physical hypothesis that the spectrin network undergoes constant remodeling to always relax the in-plane shear elastic energy to zero at any macroscopic shape, at some slow characteristic timescale. We have devised and implemented a liquefied network structure evolution algorithm that relaxes shear stress everywhere in the network and generates cytoskeleton structures that mimic experimental observations. PMID:15749778

  8. Blind predictions of DNA and RNA tweezers experiments with force and torque.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

    2014-08-01

    Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's "spring-like" conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that 'nucleosome-excluding' poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for understanding the flexibility of dsDNA and dsRNA in sequence contexts and under mechanical stresses relevant to their biology. PMID:25102226

  9. Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Lipfert, Jan; Das, Rhiju

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tweezers measurements of double-stranded nucleic acids (dsDNA and dsRNA) provide unprecedented opportunities to dissect how these fundamental molecules respond to forces and torques analogous to those applied by topoisomerases, viral capsids, and other biological partners. However, tweezers data are still most commonly interpreted post facto in the framework of simple analytical models. Testing falsifiable predictions of state-of-the-art nucleic acid models would be more illuminating but has not been performed. Here we describe a blind challenge in which numerical predictions of nucleic acid mechanical properties were compared to experimental data obtained recently for dsRNA under applied force and torque. The predictions were enabled by the HelixMC package, first presented in this paper. HelixMC advances crystallography-derived base-pair level models (BPLMs) to simulate kilobase-length dsDNAs and dsRNAs under external forces and torques, including their global linking numbers. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations and accurately predicted that dsRNA's “spring-like” conformation would give a two-fold decrease of stretch modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed inaccuracies in current BPLM theory, including three-fold discrepancies in torsional persistence length at the high force limit and the incorrect sign of dsRNA link-extension (twist-stretch) coupling. Beyond these experiments, HelixMC predicted that ‘nucleosome-excluding’ poly(A)/poly(T) is at least two-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three-fold stiffer than random-sequence dsDNA, with a near-zero link-extension coupling; and non-negligible effects from base pair step correlations. We propose that experimentally testing these predictions should be powerful next steps for understanding the flexibility of dsDNA and dsRNA in sequence contexts and under mechanical stresses relevant to their biology. PMID:25102226

  10. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.; Dao, M.; Lim, C. T.; Suresh, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin-level energetics. Random network models consisting of degree-2, 3, …, 9 junction complexes and spectrin links are used to populate spherical and biconcave surfaces and intermediate shapes, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are then performed with spectrin connectivities fixed. A sphere is first filled with cytosol and gradually deflated while preserving its total surface area, until cytosol volume consistent with the real RBC is reached. The equilibrium shape is determined through energy minimization by assuming that the spectrin tetramer links satisfy the worm-like chain free-energy model. Subsequently, direct stretching by optical tweezers of the initial equilibrium shape is simulated to extract the variation of axial and transverse diameters with the stretch force. At persistence length p = 7.5 nm for the spectrin tetramer molecule and corresponding in-plane shear modulus ?0 ? 8.3 ?N/m, our models show reasonable agreement with recent experimental measurements on the large deformation of RBC with optical tweezers. We find that the choice of the reference state used for the in-plane elastic energy is critical for determining the equilibrium shape. If a position-independent material reference state such as a full sphere is used in defining the in-plane energy, then the bending modulus ? needs to be at least a decade larger than the widely accepted value of 2 × 10?19 J to stabilize the biconcave shape against the cup shape. We demonstrate through detailed computations that this paradox can be avoided by invoking the physical hypothesis that the spectrin network undergoes constant remodeling to always relax the in-plane shear elastic energy to zero at any macroscopic shape, at some slow characteristic timescale. We have devised and implemented a liquefied network structure evolution algorithm that relaxes shear stress everywhere in the network and generates cytoskeleton structures that mimic experimental observations. PMID:15749778

  11. Optical tweezers reveal relationship between microstructure and nanoparticle penetration of pulmonary mucus

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Julian; Schneider, Andreas; Abou, Bérengère; Hopf, Alexander; Schaefer, Ulrich F.; Schneider, Marc; Schall, Christian; Wagner, Christian; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the mobility of nanoparticles in mucus and similar hydrogels as model systems was assessed to elucidate the link between microscopic diffusion behavior and macroscopic penetration of such gels. Differences in particle adhesion to mucus components were strongly dependent on particle coating. Particles coated with 2 kDa PEG exhibited a decreased adhesion to mucus components, whereas chitosan strongly increased the adhesion. Despite such mucoinert properties of PEG, magnetic nanoparticles of both coatings did not penetrate through native respiratory mucus, resisting high magnetic forces (even for several hours). However, model hydrogels were, indeed, penetrated by both particles in dependency of particle coating, obeying the theory of particle mobility in an external force field. Comparison of penetration data with cryogenic scanning EM images of mucus and the applied model systems suggested particularly high rigidity of the mucin scaffold and a broad pore size distribution in mucus as reasons for the observed particle immobilization. Active probing of the rigidity of mucus and model gels with optical tweezers was used in this context to confirm such properties of mucus on the microscale, thus presenting the missing link between micro- and macroscopical observations. Because of high heterogeneity in the size of the voids and pores in mucus, on small scales, particle mobility will depend on adhesive or inert properties. However, particle translocation over distances larger than a few micrometers is restricted by highly rigid structures within the mucus mesh. PMID:23091027

  12. Holographic Raman tweezers controlled by multi-modal natural user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomori, Zoltán; Keša, Peter; Nikorovi?, Matej; Ka?ka, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Šerý, Mojmír; Bernatová, Silvie; Valušová, Eva; Antalík, Marián; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Holographic optical tweezers provide a contactless way to trap and manipulate several microobjects independently in space using focused laser beams. Although the methods of fast and efficient generation of optical traps are well developed, their user friendly control still lags behind. Even though several attempts have appeared recently to exploit touch tablets, 2D cameras, or Kinect game consoles, they have not yet reached the level of natural human interface. Here we demonstrate a multi-modal ‘natural user interface’ approach that combines finger and gaze tracking with gesture and speech recognition. This allows us to select objects with an operator’s gaze and voice, to trap the objects and control their positions via tracking of finger movement in space and to run semi-automatic procedures such as acquisition of Raman spectra from preselected objects. This approach takes advantage of the power of human processing of images together with smooth control of human fingertips and downscales these skills to control remotely the motion of microobjects at microscale in a natural way for the human operator.

  13. Measuring the viscosity of embryonic epithelia in vivo by magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Angarita, M. Paula; Frierson, Mershard; Sheldon, Drew; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During early development, sheets of epithelial cells are reshaped by cellular forces. Several recent investigations in fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos have used laser microsurgery and video force microscopy to measure these forces; however, these measurements are actually limited to force/viscosity ratios because the effective viscosity of epithelial cells in a living embryo is largely unknown. This effective viscosity may vary spatially within the embryo and temporally as development progresses. To address this issue, we use microinjection, magnetic tweezers and confocal microscopy to measure the effective viscosity of epithelial cells in fruit fly embryos in vivo. We inject fluorescent magnetic beads (2- ? m diameter) into GFP-labeled embryos at the multi-nuclear syncytial blastoderm stage. The beads are pulled to embryo's surface by a permanent magnet and become engulfed by individual epithelial cells during cellularization. During later stages of development, we supply current pulses to an electromagnet to apply force pulses to the beads with a magnitude of ~ 100 pN. The effective viscosity is inferred from the movement of these beads as tracked by confocal microscopy. We will report initial results on amnioserosa cells during dorsal closure. This Work Supported by NSF Grant IOB-0545679.

  14. Probing Protein Folding Kinetics with High-resolution, Stabilized Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wesley; Halvorsen, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Single-molecule techniques provide a powerful means of exploring molecular transitions such as the unfolding and refolding of a protein. However, the quantification of bi-directional transitions and near-equilibrium phenomena poses unique challenges, and is often limited by the detection resolution and long-term stability of the instrument. We have developed unique optical tweezers methods that address these problems, including an interference-based method for high-resolution 3D bead tracking (˜1 nm laterally, ˜0.3 nm vertically, at > 100 Hz), and a continuous autofocus system that stabilizes the trap height to within 1-2 nm longterm [1,2]. We have used our instruments to quantify the force-dependent unfolding and refolding kinetics of single protein domains (e.g. spectrin in collaboration with E. Evans). These single-molecule studies are presented, together with the accompanying probabilistic analysis that we have developed. References: 1. W.P. Wong, V. Heinrich, E. Evans, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 790, P5.1-P5.10 (2004). 2. V. Heinrich, W.P. Wong, K. Halvorsen, E. Evans, Langmuir, 24, 1194-1203 (2008).

  15. The ?PIVOT: an integrated particle image velocimeter and optical tweezers instrument for microenvironment investigations

    PubMed Central

    Nève, N; Lingwood, J K; Zimmerman, J; Kohles, S S; Tretheway, D C

    2008-01-01

    A novel instrument to manipulate and characterize the mechanical environment in and around microscale objects in a fluidic environment has been developed by integrating two laser-based techniques: micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (?PIV) and optical tweezers (OT). This instrument, the ?PIVOT, enables a new realm of microscale studies, yet still maintains the individual capabilities of each optical technique. This was demonstrated with individual measurements of optical trap stiffness (?70 pN ?m?1 for a 20 ?m polystyrene sphere and a linear relationship between trap stiffness and laser power) and fluid velocities within 436 nm of a microchannel wall. The integrated device was validated by comparing computational flow predictions to the measured velocity profile around a trapped particle in either a uniform flow or an imposed, gravity-driven microchannel flow (R2 = 0.988, RMS error = 13.04 ?m s?1). Interaction between both techniques is shown to be negligible for 15 ?m to 35 ?m diameter trapped particles subjected to fluid velocities from 50 ?m s?1 to 500 ?m s?1 even at the highest laser power (1.45 W). The integrated techniques will provide a unique perspective toward understanding microscale phenomena including single-cell biomechanics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and single particle or particle–particle hydrodynamics. PMID:18953424

  16. Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Khaksar, Maryam; Laxa, Miriam; König, Janine; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the threading and controlled translocation of individual lambda-DNA (?-DNA) molecules through solid-state nanopores with piconewton force sensitivity, millisecond time resolution and picoampere ionic current sensitivity with a set-up combining quantitative 3D optical tweezers (OT) with electrophysiology. With our virtually interference-free OT set-up the binding of RecA and single peroxiredoxin protein molecules to ?-DNA was quantitatively investigated during dynamic translocation experiments where effective forces and respective ionic currents of the threaded DNA molecule through the nanopore were measured during inward and outward sliding. Membrane voltage-dependent experiments of reversible single protein/DNA translocation scans yield hysteresis-free, asymmetric single-molecule fingerprints in the measured force and conductance signals that can be attributed to the interplay of optical trap and electrostatic nanopore potentials. These experiments allow an exact localization of the bound protein along the DNA strand and open fascinating applications for label-free detection of DNA-binding ligands, where structural and positional binding phenomena can be investigated at a single-molecule level.

  17. Space-time-wavelength mapping: a new approach for electronic control of optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Rahman, Shah; Zhao, Qiancheng; Atasever, Tuva; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for electronic control of optical tweezers. The key technique, called 'space-time-wavelength mapping', involves time-domain modulation which is translated onto spatial domain by diffraction and enables direct control of location and polarity of force hot-spots created by Lorentz force (gradient force). In this study 150 fs optical pulses are dispersed in time and space to achieve a focused elliptical beam that is ~20 {\\mu}m long and ~2 {\\mu}m wide. In order to manipulate the intensity gradient along the beam at the focal spot, we use an electro-optic modulator to modulate power spectral distribution of the femtosecond beam after temporal dispersion. The electro-optic modulator is supplied with a chosen RF waveform that dictates the manipulation of the power spectral distribution. By choosing the appropriate RF waveform, it is possible to create force fields for cell stretching and compression as well as multiple hot spots (of > 200 pN force) for attractive or repulsive forces. We pre...

  18. The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VII. Spring forceps (tweezers), hooks and simple retractors.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1996-01-01

    Instruments manufactured by bending a basic metal strip or rod, either about its middle to create spring forceps (tweezers), or towards one extremity to create hooks and retractors are related structures. Spring forceps depend on tension mediated at the bend (hoop) or fixed end which is transmitted as dynamic 'spring' to the jaws, whereas the bend of hooks and retractors remains fixed and static. If such instruments refine the digital postures of pinch, pincer and retraction during surgery, they have not supplanted these manual actions entirely. After a brief historical introduction, the structure, modifications, functions and controls of spring forceps are analysed. Importantly, this instrument enjoys both right and left-handed functions, some of which are ancient, some transient as haemostats and needle-holders, and some, including left-handed dissection, surprisingly recent. Hooks are sharp or blunt and, among other functions, pre-date the left-handed spring forceps for dissection; in general hooks function as retractors. Hand-held retractors are enlarged blunt hooks, the wide retracting contact surface reducing trauma to wound margins and viscera. The physical effort of employing these retractors deep in body cavities is abated by applying them autostatically around a square or circular frame. Images Figure 1 PMID:8943642

  19. Optical tweezers reveal a dynamic mechanical response of cationic peptide-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy; Zheng, Tai; Sucayan, Sarah; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tricoli, Lucas; Hustedt, Jason; Kahn, Jason; Mixson, A. James; Seog, Joonil

    2013-03-01

    Nonviral carriers have been developed to deliver nucleic acids by forming nanoscale complexes; however, there has been limited success in achieving high transfection efficiency. Our hypothesis is that a factor affecting gene delivery efficiency is the mechanical response of the condensed complex. To begin to test this hypothesis, we directly measured the mechanical properties of DNA-carrier complexes using optical tweezers. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymer, Asparagine-lysine (NK) polymer and poly-L-lysine were used to form complexes with a single DNA molecule. As carriers were introduced, a sudden decrease in DNA extension occurrs at a force level which is defined as critical force (Fc). Fc is carrier and concentration dependent. Pulling revealed reduction in DNA extension length for HK-DNA complexes. The characteristics of force profiles vary by agent and can be dynamically manipulated by changes in environmental conditions such as ionic strength of the buffer as well as pH. Heparin can remove cationic reagents which are otherwise irreversibly bound to DNA. The implications for optimizing molecular interactions to enhance transfection efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Single-molecule kinetics under force: probing protein folding and enzymatic activity with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wesley

    2010-03-01

    Weak non-covalent bonds between and within single molecules govern many aspects of biological structure and function (e.g. DNA base-paring, receptor-ligand binding, protein folding, etc.) In living systems, these interactions are often subject to mechanical forces, which can greatly alter their kinetics and activity. My group develops and applies novel single-molecule manipulation techniques to explore and quantify these force-dependent kinetics. Using optical tweezers, we have quantified the force-dependent unfolding and refolding kinetics of different proteins, including the cytoskeletal protein spectrin in collaboration with E. Evans's group [1], and the A2 domain of the von Willebrand factor blood clotting protein in collaboration with T. Springer's group [2]. Furthermore, we have studied the kinetics of the ADAMTS13 enzyme acting on a single A2 domain, and have shown that physiolgical forces in the circulation can act as a cofactor for enzymatic cleavage, regulating hemostatic activity [2]. References: 1. E. Evans, K. Halvorsen, K. Kinoshita, and W.P. Wong, Handbook of Single Molecule Biophysics, P. Hinterdorfer, ed., Springer (2009). 2. X. Zhang, K. Halvorsen, C.-Z. Zhang, W.P. Wong, and T.A. Springer, Science 324 (5932), 1330-1334 (2009).

  1. Calculating the torque of the optical vortex tweezer to the ellipsoidal micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lie; Guo, Zhongyi; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Jingran; Zhang, Anjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yi; li, Yan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we have accurately computed the torque of the optical vortex tweezers to the ellipsoidal micro-particles with the method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). The transferred orbital angular momentum (OAM) from the vortex beam to the micro-particles can be obtained based on the scattering phase function (SPF) of the micro-particles. We have verified that the calculated SPF of a spherical particle by FDTD agrees well with that by Mie theory, which indicates that the SPF of micro-particles with any shapes can be calculated by FDTD accurately. In addition, with the method of FDTD, we have obtained the SPFs of the different-shape ellipsoidal micro-particles with same volume, including prolate ellipsoids and oblate ellipsoids. Meanwhile, the transferred OAM between the light and the ellipsoidal micro-particles have been deduced analytically by the relative formulas. And the rotating angular velocities of the trapped ellipsoidal micro-particles have been investigated and discussed in detail based on the obtained corresponding SPFs.

  2. Cell viability in optical tweezers: high power red laser diode versus Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hendinger, Anita; Sailer, Reinhard; Gschwend, Michael H.; Strauss, Wolfgang S.; Bauer, Manfred; Schuetze, Karin

    2000-01-01

    Viability of cultivated Chinese hamster ovary cells in optical tweezers was measured after exposure to various light doses of red high power laser diodes ((lambda) equals 670 - 680 nm) and a Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser ((lambda) equals 1064 nm). When using a radiant exposure of 2.4 GJ/cm2, a reduction of colony formation up to a factor 2 (670 - 680 nm) or 1.6 (1064 nm) as well as a delay of cell growth were detected in comparison with nonirradiated controls. In contrast, no cell damage was found at an exposure of 340 MJ/cm2 applied at 1064 nm. Cell viabilities were correlated with fluorescence excitation spectra and with literature data of wavelength dependent cloning efficiencies. Fluorescence excitation maxima of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and flavins were detected at 365 and 450 nm, respectively. This is half of the wavelengths of the maxima of cell inactivation, suggesting that two-photon absorption by these coenzymes may contribute to cellular damage. Two-photon excitation of NAD(P)H and flavins may also affect cell viability after exposure to 670 - 680 nm, whereas one-photon excitation of water molecules seems to limit cell viability at 1064 nm.

  3. Mechanics of protein-DNA interaction studied with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The lac operon is a well known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). LacI and other DNA-binding proteins bind their specific target sequences with rates higher than allowed by 3D diffusion alone. Generally accepted models predict a combination of free 3D diffusion and 1D sliding along non-specific DNA. We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with two different DNA constructs: a construct with two copies of the O1 operator separated by 300 bp and a construct containing the native E.coli operator sequences. Our measurements show at least two classes of LacI-DNA interactions: long (in the tens of s range) and short (tens of ms). Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences (long events) and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences (short events). Moreover, we observe continuous sliding of the protein along DNA, passively driven by the force applied with the optical tweezers.

  4. Tomographic phase microscopy with 180° rotation of live cells in suspension by holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Habaza, Mor; Gilboa, Barak; Roichman, Yael; Shaked, Natan T

    2015-04-15

    We present a new tomographic phase microscopy (TPM) approach that allows capturing the three-dimensional refractive index structure of single cells in suspension without labeling, using 180° rotation of the cells. This is obtained by integrating an external off-axis interferometer for wide-field wave front acquisition with holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) for trapping and micro-rotation of the suspended cells. In contrast to existing TPM approaches for cell imaging, our approach does not require anchoring the sample to a rotating stage, nor is it limited in angular range as is the illumination rotation approach. Thus, it allows noninvasive TPM of suspended live cells in a wide angular range. The proposed technique is experimentally demonstrated by capturing the three-dimensional refractive index map of yeast cells, while collecting interferometric projections at an angular range of 180° with 5° steps. The interferometric projections are processed by both the filtered back-projection method and the diffraction theory method. The experimental system is integrated with a spinning disk confocal fluorescent microscope for validation of the label-free TPM results. PMID:25872098

  5. Horizontal Magnetic Tweezers for Micromanipulation of Single DNA-Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, C.; Sarkar, A.; Mehl, P.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic force transducer or ``tweezer'' that can apply pico-Newton forces on single DNA molecules in the focus plane. Since the changes in DNA's end-to-end extension are coplanar with the pulling force, there is no need to continually refocus. The DNA constructs (? -DNA end labeled with a 3 ? m polystyrene bead and a 2.8 ? m paramagnetic sphere) and appropriate buffer are introduced to a custom built 400 ? L to 650 ? L closed cell. This closed cell isolates our sample and produces low-noise force and extension measurements. This chamber rests on a stage fixed to a three axis micromanipulator. Entering the flat chamber are two micropipettes, a 2.5 ? m id pipette for aspirating the polystyrene bead and a 20 ? m id pipette for injecting proteins of interest. The suction and the injection pipettes are rigidly mounted to a hydraulic, three-axis micromanipulator. DNA-bead constructs, once introduced to the chamber, can be located by moving the stage over the objective. We have shown that we can easily and reputably find, capture, and manipulate single molecules of DNA within a force range of 0.1pN to 100pN.

  6. Force measuring optical tweezers system for long time measurements of P pili stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2006-02-01

    A force-measuring optical tweezers instrumentation and long time measurements of the elongation and retraction of bacterial fimbriae from Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) under strain are presented. The instrumentation is presented in some detail. Special emphasis is given to measures taken to reduce the influence of noise and drifts in the system and from the surrounding, which makes long term force measurements possible. Individual P pili from UPEC bacteria were used as a biological model system for repetitive unfolding and refolding cycles of bacterial fimbriae under equilibrium conditions. P pili have evolved into a three-dimensional helix-like structure, the PapA rod, that can be successively and significantly elongated and/or unfolded when exposed to external forces. The instrumentation is used for characterization of the force-vs.-elongation response of the PapA rod of individual P pili, with emphasis on the long time stability of the forced unfolding and refolding of the helical structure of the PapA rod. The results show that the PapA rod is capable of withstanding extensive strain, leading to a complete unfolding of the helical structure, repetitive times during the life cycle of a bacterium without any noticeable alteration of the mechanical properties of the P pili. This function is believed to be importance for UPEC bacteria in vivo since it provides a close contact to a host cell (which is an initial step of invasion) despite urine cleaning attempts.

  7. On chip single-cell separation and immobilization using optical tweezers and thermosensitive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Arai, Fumihito; Ng, Chinaik; Maruyama, Hisataka; Ichikawa, Akihiko; El-Shimy, Haitham; Fukuda, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    A novel approach appropriate for rapid separation and immobilization of a single cell by concomitantly utilizing laser manipulation and locally thermosensitive hydrogelation is proposed in this paper. We employed a single laser beam as optical tweezers for separating a target cell and locating it adjacent to a fabricated, transparent micro heater. Simultaneously, the target cell is immobilized or partially entrapped by heating the thermosensitive hydrogel with the micro heater. The state of the thermosensitive hydrogel can be switched from sol to gel and gel to sol by controlling the temperature through heating and cooling by the micro heater. After other unwanted cells are removed by the high-speed cleaning flow in the microchannel, the entrapped cell is successfully isolated. It is possible to collect the immobilized target cell for analysis or culture by switching off the micro heater and releasing the cell from the entrapment. We demonstrated that the proposed approach is feasible for rapid manipulation, immobilization, cleaning, isolation and extraction of a single cell. The experimental results are shown here. PMID:16286972

  8. Label-free measurements of membrane tether thickness using optical tweezers combined with SLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarshar, Mohammad; Wong, Winson T.; Anvari, Bahman

    2015-03-01

    Various cellular activities such as motility, division, and endocytosis involve a change in the cell shape. The mechanical interactions between the cell membrane and cytoskeleton play an important role in regulating changes in the cell shape. Tether formation from cell membranes provides a technique to characterize the mechanical properties of cell membranes and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. Accurate measurement of the nano-scale tether diameter is relevant to quantification of membrane tension, bending modulus, and adhesion energy of the membrane-cytoskeleton structure. We have integrated optical tweezers with quantitative phase imaging, based on spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM), to simultaneously form tethers from HEK-293 cells and measure their diameters. Tether thickness along the illumination axis was measured using the quantitative phase map of the sample, and the refractive index (RI) mismatch between the sample and the surrounding media. The RI of the tethers ranged from 1.354 to 1.368 (cell culture medium RI=1.337). Our SLIM imaging system provided a 38 nm resolution in tether thickness measurements. Tether diameter fluctuations of <100 nm were resolved on tethers that ranged between 600-900 nm in diameter. Our integrated platform also provides the ability to simultaneously manipulate and image cell organelles in a non-contact and marker-free manner at nanometer spatial resolution.

  9. Removal forces and adhesion properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass substrates probed by optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Castelain, Mickaël; Pignon, Frédéric; Piau, Jean-Michel; Magnin, Albert; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Schmitz, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    In agroindustry, the hygiene of solid surfaces is of primary importance in order to ensure that products are safe for consumers. To improve safety, one of the major ways consists in identifying and understanding the mechanisms of microbial cell adhesion to nonporous solid surfaces or filtration membranes. In this paper we investigate the adhesion of the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 5 mum in diameter) to a model solid surface, using well-defined hydrophilic glass substrates. An optical tweezer device developed by Piau [J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 144, 1 (2007)] was applied to yeast cells in contact with well-characterized glass surfaces. Two planes of observation were used to obtain quantitative measurements of removal forces and to characterize the corresponding mechanisms at a micrometer length scale. The results highlight various adhesion mechanisms, depending on the ionic strength, contact time, and type of yeast. The study has allowed to show a considerable increase of adhering cells with the ionic strength and has provided a quantitative measurement of the detachment forces of cultured yeast cells. Force levels are found to grow with ionic strength and differences in mobility are highlighted. The results clearly underline that a microrheological approach is essential for analyzing the adhesion mechanisms of biological systems at the relevant local scales. PMID:17919057

  10. Removal forces and adhesion properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass substrates probed by optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Pignon, Frédéric; Piau, Jean-Michel; Magnin, Albert; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Schmitz, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    In agroindustry, the hygiene of solid surfaces is of primary importance in order to ensure that products are safe for consumers. To improve safety, one of the major ways consists in identifying and understanding the mechanisms of microbial cell adhesion to nonporous solid surfaces or filtration membranes. In this paper we investigate the adhesion of the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 5?m in diameter) to a model solid surface, using well-defined hydrophilic glass substrates. An optical tweezer device developed by Piau [J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 144, 1 (2007)] was applied to yeast cells in contact with well-characterized glass surfaces. Two planes of observation were used to obtain quantitative measurements of removal forces and to characterize the corresponding mechanisms at a micrometer length scale. The results highlight various adhesion mechanisms, depending on the ionic strength, contact time, and type of yeast. The study has allowed to show a considerable increase of adhering cells with the ionic strength and has provided a quantitative measurement of the detachment forces of cultured yeast cells. Force levels are found to grow with ionic strength and differences in mobility are highlighted. The results clearly underline that a microrheological approach is essential for analyzing the adhesion mechanisms of biological systems at the relevant local scales.

  11. Acoustical tweezers using single spherically focused piston, X-cut, and Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Farid G

    2015-10-01

    Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates are derived for circular spherically focused piston (i.e., apodized by a uniform velocity amplitude normal to its surface), X-cut (i.e., apodized by a velocity amplitude parallel to the axis of wave propagation), and Gaussian (i.e., apodized by a Gaussian distribution of the velocity amplitude) beams. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSEs assuming weakly focused beams (with focusing angle ? ? 20°) in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (parabolic) approximation. In contrast with previous analytical models, the derived expressions allow computing the scattering and acoustic radiation force from a sphere of radius a without restriction to either the Rayleigh (a ? ?, where ? is the wavelength of the incident radiation) or the ray acoustics (a ??) regimes. The analytical formulations are valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the focused acoustic radiator, when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected, and when the sphere is translated along the axis of wave propagation. Computational results illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the sphere's elastic properties and the axial distance to the center of the concave surface, with close connection of the emergence of negative trapping forces. Potential applications are in single-beam acoustical tweezers, acoustic levitation, and particle manipulation. PMID:26470046

  12. Electrical tweezer for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements over a wide frequency bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Ali; Varhue, Walter; Su, Yi-Hsuan; Swami, Nathan S

    2014-07-01

    Electrorotation (ROT) is a powerful tool for characterizing the dielectric properties of cells and bioparticles. However, its application has been somewhat limited by the need to mitigate disruptions to particle rotation by translation under positive DEP and by frictional interactions with the substrate. While these disruptions may be overcome by implementing particle positioning schemes or field cages, these methods restrict the frequency bandwidth to the negative DEP range and permit only single particle measurements within a limited spatial extent of the device geometry away from field nonuniformities. Herein, we present an electrical tweezer methodology based on a sequence of electrical signals, composed of negative DEP using 180-degree phase-shifted fields for trapping and levitation of the particles, followed by 90-degree phase-shifted fields over a wide frequency bandwidth for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements. Through field simulations of the rotating electrical field under this wave-sequence, we illustrate the enhanced spatial extent for electrorotation measurements, with no limitations to frequency bandwidth. We apply this methodology to characterize subtle modifications in morphology and electrophysiology of Cryptosporidium parvum with varying degrees of heat treatment, in terms of shifts in the electrorotation spectra over the 0.05-40 MHz region. Given the single particle sensitivity and the ability for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements, we envision its application toward characterizing heterogeneous subpopulations of microbial and stem cells. PMID:24668830

  13. Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Phillips, D. B.; Barnes, A. C.

    2014-04-21

    Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5??m silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8?MHz standing wave, ??=?220??m, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2?nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

  14. Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Tolic-Noerrelykke, Simon F.; Schaeffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon; Pavone, Francesco S.; Juelicher, Frank; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2006-10-15

    We explain and demonstrate a new method of force and position calibrations for optical tweezers with back-focal-plane photodetection. The method combines power spectral measurements of thermal motion and the response to a sinusoidal motion of a translation stage. It consequently does not use the drag coefficient of the trapped object as an input. Thus, neither the viscosity, nor the size of the trapped object, nor its distance to nearby surfaces needs to be known. The method requires only a low level of instrumentation and can be applied in situ in all spatial dimensions. It is both accurate and precise: true values are returned, with small error bars. We tested this experimentally, near and far from surfaces in the lateral directions. Both position and force calibrations were accurate to within 3%. To calibrate, we moved the sample with a piezoelectric translation stage, but the laser beam could be moved instead, e.g., by acousto-optic deflectors. Near surfaces, this precision requires an improved formula for the hydrodynamical interaction between an infinite plane and a microsphere in nonconstant motion parallel to it. We give such a formula.

  15. Proof-of-principle for simple microshelter-assisted buffer exchange in laser tweezers: interaction of hypericin with single cells.

    PubMed

    Omar, Moktar A; Miskovsky, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    Microshelters (i.e. thin dead-end side-arms of fluid channels) are used to aid buffer exchange in optical tweezers experiments. The basic idea is to transfer trapped objects into microshelters during the buffer exchange process. Particles "hidden" in microshelters become insensitive to extreme flow conditions in the main fluid channel, which minimizes the requirements for the applied flow system. The construction scheme of a simple microshelter system is described. The concept has been tested by fluorescence measurements on hypericin interaction with trapped yeast cells in different environments. PMID:24632728

  16. Stretching short sequences of DNA with constant force axial optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Krishnan; Milstein, Joshua N; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques for stretching DNA of contour lengths less than a kilobase are fraught with experimental difficulties. However, many interesting biological events such as histone binding and protein-mediated looping of DNA, occur on this length scale. In recent years, the mechanical properties of DNA have been shown to play a significant role in fundamental cellular processes like the packaging of DNA into compact nucleosomes and chromatin fibers. Clearly, it is then important to understand the mechanical properties of short stretches of DNA. In this paper, we provide a practical guide to a single-molecule optical tweezing technique that we have developed to study the mechanical behavior of DNA with contour lengths as short as a few hundred basepairs. The major hurdle in stretching short segments of DNA is that conventional optical tweezers are generally designed to apply force in a direction lateral to the stage (see Fig. 1). In this geometry, the angle between the bead and the coverslip, to which the DNA is tethered, becomes very steep for submicron length DNA. The axial position must now be accounted for, which can be a challenge, and, since the extension drags the microsphere closer to the coverslip, steric effects are enhanced. Furthermore, as a result of the asymmetry of the microspheres, lateral extensions will generate varying levels of torque due to rotation of the microsphere within the optical trap since the direction of the reactive force changes during the extension. Alternate methods for stretching submicron DNA run up against their own unique hurdles. For instance, a dual-beam optical trap is limited to stretching DNA of around a wavelength, at which point interference effects between the two traps and from light scattering between the microspheres begin to pose a significant problem. Replacing one of the traps with a micropipette would most likely suffer from similar challenges. While one could directly use the axial potential to stretch the DNA, an active feedback scheme would be needed to apply a constant force and the bandwidth of this will be quite limited, especially at low forces. We circumvent these fundamental problems by directly pulling the DNA away from the coverslip by using a constant force axial optical tweezers. This is achieved by trapping the bead in a linear region of the optical potential, where the optical force is constant-the strength of which can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. Trapping within the linear region also serves as an all optical force-clamp on the DNA that extends for nearly 350 nm in the axial direction. We simultaneously compensate for thermal and mechanical drift by finely adjusting the position of the stage so that a reference microsphere stuck to the coverslip remains at the same position and focus, allowing for a virtually limitless observation period. PMID:22025209

  17. Experimental phase diagram of negatively supercoiled DNA measured by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlijm, Rifka; Mashaghi, Alireza; Bernard, Stéphanie; Modesti, Mauro; Dekker, Cees

    2015-02-01

    The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers combined with fluorescence imaging, we here study DNA structure as a function of negative supercoiling at the single-molecule level. We classify DNA phases based on DNA length as a function of supercoiling, down to a very high negative supercoiling density ? of -2.5, and forces up to 4.5 pN. We characterize plectonemes using fluorescence imaging. DNA bubbles are visualized by the binding of fluorescently labelled RPA, a eukaryotic single-strand-binding protein. The presence of Z-DNA, a left-handed form of DNA, is probed by the binding of Z?77, the minimal binding domain of a Z-DNA-binding protein. Without supercoiling, DNA is in the relaxed B-form. Upon going toward negative supercoiling, plectonemic B-DNA is being formed below 0.6 pN. At higher forces and supercoiling densities down to about -1.9, a mixed state occurs with plectonemes, multiple bubbles and left-handed L-DNA. Around ? = -1.9, a buckling transition occurs after which the DNA end-to-end length linearly decreases when applying more negative turns, into a state that we interpret as plectonemic L-DNA. By measuring DNA length, Z?77 binding, plectoneme and ssDNA visualisation, we thus have mapped the co-existence of many DNA structures and experimentally determined the DNA phase diagram at (extreme) negative supercoiling.The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers combined with fluorescence imaging, we here study DNA structure as a function of negative supercoiling at the single-molecule level. We classify DNA phases based on DNA length as a function of supercoiling, down to a very high negative supercoiling density ? of -2.5, and forces up to 4.5 pN. We characterize plectonemes using fluorescence imaging. DNA bubbles are visualized by the binding of fluorescently labelled RPA, a eukaryotic single-strand-binding protein. The presence of Z-DNA, a left-handed form of DNA, is probed by the binding of Z?77, the minimal binding domain of a Z-DNA-binding protein. Without supercoiling, DNA is in the relaxed B-form. Upon going toward negative supercoiling, plectonemic B-DNA is being formed below 0.6 pN. At higher forces and supercoiling densities down to about -1.9, a mixed state occurs with plectonemes, multiple bubbles and left-handed L-DNA. Around ? = -1.9, a buckling transition occurs after which the DNA end-to-end length linearly decreases when applying more negative turns, into a state that we interpret as plectonemic L-DNA. By measuring DNA length, Z?77 binding, plectoneme and ssDNA visualisation, we thus have mapped the co-existence of many DNA structures and experimentally determined the DNA phase diagram at (extreme) negative supercoiling. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04332d

  18. Quantitative High-Resolution Sensing of DNA Hybridization Using Magnetic Tweezers with Evanescent Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Piercen M.; Park, Jin Seon; Vezenov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    We applied the combined approach of evanescent nanometry and force spectroscopy using magnetic tweezers to quantify the degree of hybridization of a single synthetic single-stranded DNA oligomer to a resolution approaching a single-base. In this setup, the 200 nucleotide long DNA was covalently attached to the surface of an optically transparent solid support at one end and to the surface of a superparamagnetic fluorescent microsphere (force probe) at the other end. The force was applied to the probes using an electromagnet. The end-to-end molecular distance (i.e. out-of-image-plane position of the force probe) was determined from the intensity of the probe fluorescent image observed with total-internal reflectance microscopy. An equation of state for single stranded DNA molecules under tension (extensible freely jointed chain) was used to derive the penetration depth of the evanescent field and to calibrate the magnetic properties of the force probes. The parameters of the magnetic response of the force probes obtained from the equation of state remained constant when changing the penetration depth, indicating a robust calibration procedure. The results of such a calibration were also confirmed using independently measured probe-surface distances for probes mounted onto cantilevers of an atomic force microscope. Upon hybridization of the complementary 50 nucleotide-long oligomer to the surface-bound 200-mer, the changes in the force-distance curves were consistent with the quantitative conversion of 25% of the original single-stranded DNA to its double-stranded form, which was modeled as an elastic rod. The method presented here for quantifying the hybridization state of the single DNA molecules has potential for determining the degree of hybridization of individual molecules in a single molecule array with high accuracy. PMID:21103547

  19. Optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Axner, Ove; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Fällman, Erik

    2006-08-01

    Instrumentation and methodologies for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles by the use of force measuring optical tweezers have been developed. A thorough study of the biomechanical properties of fimbrial adhesion organelles expressed by uropathogenic E. coli, so-called pili, is presented. Steady-state as well as dynamic force measurements on P pili, expressed by E. coli causing pyelonephritis, have revealed, among other things, various unfolding and refolding properties of the helical structure of P pili, the PapA rod. Based on these properties an energy landscape model has been constructed by which specific biophysical properties of the PapA rod have been extracted, e.g. the number of subunits, the length of a single pilus, bond lengths and activation energies for bond opening and closure. Moreover, long time repetitive measurements have shown that the rod can be unfolded and refolded repetitive times without losing its intrinsic properties. These properties are believed to be of importance for the bacteria's ability to maintain close contact with host cells during initial infections. The results presented are considered to be of importance for the field of biopolymers in general and the development of new pharmaceuticals towards urinary tract infections in particular. The results show furthermore that the methodology can be used to gain knowledge of the intrinsic biomechanical function of adhesion organelles. The instrumentation is currently used for characterization of type 1 pili, expressed by E. coli causing cystitis, i.e. infections in the bladder. The first force spectrometry investigations of these pili will be presented.

  20. Escape forces and trajectories in optical tweezers and their effect on calibration.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ann A M; Stilgoe, Alexander B; Khatibzadeh, Nima; Nieminen, Timo A; Berns, Michael W; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-09-21

    Whether or not an external force can make a trapped particle escape from optical tweezers can be used to measure optical forces. Combined with the linear dependence of optical forces on trapping power, a quantitative measurement of the force can be obtained. For this measurement, the particle is at the edge of the trap, away from the region near the equilbrium position where the trap can be described as a linear spring. This method provides the ability to measure higher forces for the same beam power, compared with using the linear region of the trap, with lower risk of optical damage to trapped specimens. Calibration is typically performed by using an increasing fluid flow to exert an increasing force on a trapped particle until it escapes. In this calibration technique, the particle is usually assumed to escape along a straight line in the direction of fluid-flow. Here, we show that the particle instead follows a curved trajectory, which depends on the rate of application of the force (i.e., the acceleration of the fluid flow). In the limit of very low acceleration, the particle follows the surface of zero axial optical force during the escape. The force required to produce escape depends on the trajectory, and hence the acceleration. This can result in variations in the escape force of a factor of two. This can have a major impact on calibration to determine the escape force efficiency. Even when calibration measurements are all performed in the low acceleration regime, variations in the escape force efficiency of 20% or more can still occur. We present computational simulations using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory and experimental measurements to show how the escape force efficiency depends on rate of increase of force and trapping power, and discuss the impact on calibration. PMID:26406637

  1. Single-cell adhesion probed in-situ using optical tweezers: A case study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Pignon, Frédéric; Magnin, Albert; Piau, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    A facile method of using optical trapping to measure cell adhesion forces is presented and applied to the adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass, in contact with solutions of different compositions. Trapping yeast cells with optical tweezers (OT) is not perturbed by cell wall deformation or cell deviation from a spherical shape. The trapping force calibration requires correction not only for the hydrodynamic effect of the neighboring wall but also for spherical aberrations affecting the focal volume and the trap stiffness. Yeast cells trapped for up to 5 h were still able to undergo budding but showed an increase of doubling time. The proportion of adhering cells showed the expected variation according to the solution composition. The detachment force varied in the same way. This observation and the fact that the detachment stress was exerted parallel to the substrate surface point to the role of interactions involving solvated macromolecules. Both the proportion of adhering cells and the removal force showed a distribution which, in our experimental conditions, must be attributed to a heterogeneity of surface properties at the cell level or at the subcellular scale. As compared with magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and more conventional ways of studying cell adhesion (shear-flow cells), OT present several advantages that are emphasized in this paper.

  2. Optoacoustic tweezers: a programmable, localized cell concentrator based on opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Zhao, Chenglong; Zhao, Yanhui; Li, Sixing; Rufo, Joseph; Yang, Shikuan; Guo, Feng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-05-01

    We present a programmable, biocompatible technique for dynamically concentrating and patterning particles and cells in a microfluidic device. Since our technique utilizes opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles, we name it "optoacoustic tweezers". The optoacoustic tweezers are capable of concentrating particles/cells at any prescribed locations in a microfluidic chamber without the use of permanent structures, rendering it particularly useful for the formation of flexible, complex cell patterns. Additionally, this technique has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and can be conveniently integrated with other microfluidic units. In our experiments, micro-bubbles were generated by focusing a 405 nm diode laser onto a gold-coated glass chamber. By properly tuning the laser, we demonstrate precise control over the position and size of the generated bubbles. Acoustic waves were then applied to activate the surface bubbles, causing them to oscillate at an optimized frequency. The resulting acoustic radiation force allowed us to locally trap particles/cells, including 15 ?m polystyrene beads and HeLa cells, around each bubble. Cell-adhesion tests were also conducted after cell concentrating to confirm the biocompatibility of this technique. PMID:23511348

  3. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F.G.

    2014-03-15

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

  4. Remarkably efficient photocurrent generation based on a [60]fullerene-triosmium cluster/Zn-porphyrin/boron-dipyrrin triad SAM.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Yeon; Jang, Jae Kwon; Kim, Chul Hoon; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jihee; Choi, Wonyong; Han, Young-Kyu; Joo, Taiha; Park, Joon T

    2010-05-17

    A new artificial photosynthetic triad array, a [60]fullerene-triosmium cluster/zinc-porphyrin/boron-dipyrrin complex (1, Os(3)C(60)/ZnP/Bodipy), has been prepared by decarbonylation of Os(3)(CO)(8)(CN(CH(2))(3)Si(OEt)(3))(mu(3)-eta(2):eta(2):eta(2)-C(60)) (6) with Me(3)NO/MeCN and subsequent reaction with the isocyanide ligand CNZnP/Bodipy (5) containing zinc porphyrin (ZnP) and boron dipyrrin (Bodipy) moieties. Triad 1 has been characterized by various spectroscopic methods (MS, NMR, IR, UV/Vis, photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy). The electrochemical properties of 1 in chlorobenzene (CB) have been examined by cyclic voltammetry; the general feature of the cyclic voltammogram of 1 is nine reversible one-electron redox couples, that is, the sum of those of 5 and 6. DFT has been applied to study the molecular and electronic structures of 1. On the basis of fluorescence-lifetime measurements and transient absorption spectroscopic data, 1 undergoes an efficient energy transfer from Bodipy to ZnP and a fast electron transfer from ZnP to C(60); the detailed kinetics involved in both events have been elucidated. The SAM of triad 1 (1/ITO; ITO=indium-tin oxide) has been prepared by immersion of an ITO electrode in a CB solution of 1 and diazabicyclo-octane (2:1 equiv), and characterized by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The photoelectrochemical properties of 1/ITO have been investigated by a standard three-electrode system in the presence of an ascorbic acid sacrificial electron donor. The quantum yield of the photoelectrochemical cell has been estimated to be 29 % based on the number of photons absorbed by the chromophores. Our triad 1 is unique when compared to previously reported photoinduced electron-transfer arrays, in that C(60) is linked by pi bonding with little perturbation of the C(60) electron delocalization. PMID:20401879

  5. Molecular cleft or tweezer compounds derived from trioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonadiene diisocyanate and diacid dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Smounig, Ralf; Belaj, Ferdinand; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The structures of two derivatives of the bisdioxine diisocyanate 1, the bisurea 4 and the biscarbamate 5, are established by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. These compounds possess endo,endo structures, in the case of the bisurea 4 with two nearly parallel pendant chains. The X-ray structures are reproduced very well by DFT calculations. Similar endo,endo conformations are calculated for the bisamide crown ether derivatives 7, where two proximate and nearly parallel crown ether units endow the molecules with a claw-like molecular cleft or tweezer structure as evidenced by an enhanced ability to extract some alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth metal ions. PMID:25670985

  6. Developing a new biophysical tool to combine magneto-optical tweezers with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Zhaokun; Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel experimental setup in which magnetic and optical tweezers are combined for torque and force transduction onto single filamentous molecules in a transverse configuration to allow simultaneous mechanical measurement and manipulation. Previously we have developed a super-resolution imaging module which in conjunction with advanced imaging techniques such as Blinking assisted Localisation Microscopy (BaLM) achieves localisation precision of single fluorescent dye molecules bound to DNA of ~30 nm along the contour of the molecule; our work here describes developments in producing a system which combines tweezing and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument also features an acousto-optic deflector that temporally divides the laser beam to form multiple traps for high throughput statistics collection. Our motivation for developing the new tool is to enable direct observation of detailed molecular topological transformation and protein binding event localisation in a stretching/twistin...

  7. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann

    2007-07-15

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods.

  8. Thermoresponsive Interplay of Water Insoluble Poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline)s Composition and Supramolecular Host–Guest Interactions

    PubMed Central

    R. de la Rosa, Victor; Nau, Werner M.; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A series of water insoluble poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline)] amphiphilic copolymers was synthesized and their solubility properties in the presence of different supramolecular host molecules were investigated. The resulting polymer-cavitand assemblies exhibited a thermoresponsive behavior that could be modulated by variation of the copolymer composition and length. Interestingly, the large number of hydrophobic nonyl units across the polymer chain induced the formation of kinetically-trapped nanoparticles in solution. These nanoparticles further agglomerate into larger aggregates at a temperature that is dependent on the polymer composition and the cavitand type and concentration. The present research expands the understanding on the supramolecular interactions between water insoluble copolymers and supramolecular host molecules. PMID:25849653

  9. Copper(I) and silver(I) 2-methylimidazolates: extended isomerism, isomerization, and host-guest properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; He, Chun-Ting; Liu, Yi-Jiang; Zhao, Tian-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2012-04-16

    Syntheses, structures, and properties of univalent coinage metal 2-methylimidazolate supramolecular isomers [M(mim)] (1, M = Cu; 2, M = Ag) were investigated in detail. In addition to the known isomers, namely, zigzag chains [Cu(mim)] (1a) and [Ag(mim)] (2a), molecular octagon [Cu(8)(mim)(8)]·C(6)H(6) (1b), decagon [Cu(10)(mim)(10)]·C(8)H(10) (1c), helical chain [Ag(4)(mim)(4)]·C(6)H(6) (2b), and S-shaped chain [Ag(4)(mim)(4)]·C(8)H(10) (2c), two new structures including a polyrotaxane [Cu(10)(mim)(10)]·[Cu(mim)] (1d, C2/m, a = 14.452(4) Å, b = 27.712(7) Å, c = 11.427(3) Å, ? = 125.899(4)°, V = 3707(2) Å(3)) and a new octagon [Ag(8)(mim)(8)]·Me(2)CO (2d, C2/c, a = 21.852(3) Å, b = 12.101(2) Å, c = 20.907(3) Å, ? = 90.875(2)°, V = 5528(2) Å(3)) were discovered. The potential porous properties of guest-containing [M(mim)] isomers were studied by thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, vacuum thermal desorption, and CO(2) sorption experiments. The isomers show distinctly different guest removal behaviors depending on their pore structures. By heating, the guest-containing isomers, 1b-1c and 2b-2d, undergo irreversible, two-step, crystal-to-crystal structural transformations to form the guest-free isomers 1a or 2a, respectively. Except 1b, other guest-containing isomers can retain their porous structures after removal of the template molecules, which were confirmed by CO(2) sorption experiments. PMID:22468792

  10. Host-guest system of hesperetin and ?-cyclodextrin or its derivatives: Preparation, characterization, inclusion mode, solubilization and stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Juan; Xia, Sha; Ma, Shui-Xian; Zhou, Shu-Ya; Zhao, Xue-Qiu; Wang, Shu-Hui; Li, Min-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of hesperetin with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives were investigated in both the solution and solid state by means of XRD, DSC, SEM, (1)H and 2D NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the water solubility and stability of hesperetin were obviously increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. This satisfactory water solubility and high stability of the hesperetin/CD complexes will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicines or healthcare products. PMID:26652460

  11. Microfluidic Assembly of Cationic-?-Cyclodextrin:Hyaluronic Acid-Adamantane Host:Guest pDNA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Verheul, Ross; Defrees, Kyle; Collins, Christopher J; Schuldt, Ryan A; Vlahu, Alexander; Thompson, David H

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, transfection complexes are typically formed by bulk mixing, producing particles with high polydispersity and limited control over vector size. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a commercial micro-reactor to assemble pDNA:cationic cyclodextrin:pendant polymer nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach. Our studies reveal that the particles formulated via microfluidic assembly have much smaller sizes, lower polydispersity, lower ?-potentials, and comparable cell viability and transfection profiles in HeLa cells than bulk mixed particles. The complexes also show a flow rate-dependent stability, with particles formed at slower flow rates giving rise to more stable complexes as determined by heparin challenge. Our findings suggest that microfluidic reactors offer an attractive method for assembling reproducible, size-controlled complexes from multi-component transfection complex assemblies. PMID:24349706

  12. Gating the photochromism of an azobenzene by strong host-guest interactions in a divalent pseudo[2]rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Mirko; Nowosinski, Karol; Traulsen, Nora L; Achazi, Andreas J; von Krbek, Larissa K S; Paulus, Beate; Schalley, Christoph A; Hecht, Stefan

    2015-06-18

    The ability of an E-configured azobenzene guest to undergo photoisomerisation is controlled by the presence of a complementary host. Addition of base/acid allowed for a weakening/strengthening of the interactions in the divalent pseudo[2]rotaxane complex and hence could switch on/off photochromic activity. PMID:25929291

  13. Antimicrobial films based on cellulose-derived hydrocolloids. A synergetic effect of host-guest interactions on quality and functionality.

    PubMed

    Rutenberg, Roi; Bernstein, Solange; Paster, Nachman; Fallik, Eli; Poverenov, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A series of active films based on biodegradable cellulose-derived hydrocolloids capable of controlled release of antimicrobial propionic acid (PA) was prepared. ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD), usually used for encapsulation of lipophilic compounds, was utilized in this research to host the hydrophilic PA. It was found that addition of ?-CD to the film forming solutions notably enhanced the hydrocolloid matrix capacity and resulted in up to a ten-fold increase in the amount of uploaded PA. In addition, ?-CD resulted in a two-fold prolongation of the effective PA release duration. ?-CD alone caused undesired effects on the physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the hydrocolloid films. Interestingly, when ?-CD was combined with PA in the film formulation, its undesired effects were significantly subdued. The antifungal activity of the films was demonstrated on fresh harvested wheat grains. Films containing ?-CD and PA were found to be effective in preventing fungal growth on wheat grains. Thus, incorporation of ?-CD and PA in hydrocolloids matrices demonstrated a synergetic effect and resulted in the formation of biodegradable active films that benefit good physical and mechanical properties, high active agent content, prolonged release ability and effective antimicrobial properties. PMID:26143711

  14. Variational Implicit-Solvent Modeling of Host-Guest Binding: A Case Study on Cucurbit[7]uril

    E-print Network

    Li, Bo

    in the high-affinity binding of #12;the B2 bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative to CB[7]. For the unbound host, we[n]uril hosts thanks to its good balance between the number of water molecules confined in the host cavity[2.2.2]octane derivative (B2), is a highly suitable candidate for the development of computational

  15. Simple Host-Guest Chemistry To Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    to break up free detergent micelles and prevent them from being concentrated. The addition of an optimal was used here as a model system. In the process of concentrating membrane protein samples, MBCD was shown matrix screening and optimization in one experiment. The use of MBCD for detergent capture can

  16. Free-energy perturbation and quantum mechanical study of SAMPL4 octa-acid host-guest binding energies.

    PubMed

    Mikulskis, Paulius; Cioloboc, Daniela; Andreji?, Milica; Khare, Sakshi; Brorsson, Joakim; Genheden, Samuel; Mata, Ricardo A; Söderhjelm, Pär; Ryde, Ulf

    2014-04-01

    We have estimated free energies for the binding of nine cyclic carboxylate guest molecules to the octa-acid host in the SAMPL4 blind-test challenge with four different approaches. First, we used standard free-energy perturbation calculations of relative binding affinities, performed at the molecular-mechanics (MM) level with TIP3P waters, the GAFF force field, and two different sets of charges for the host and the guest, obtained either with the restrained electrostatic potential or AM1-BCC methods. Both charge sets give good and nearly identical results, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 4 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0.8 compared to experimental results. Second, we tried to improve these predictions with 28,800 density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for selected snapshots and the non-Boltzmann Bennett acceptance-ratio method, but this led to much worse results, probably because of a too large difference between the MM and DFT potential-energy functions. Third, we tried to calculate absolute affinities using minimised DFT structures. This gave intermediate-quality results with MADs of 5-9 kJ/mol and R (2) = 0.6-0.8, depending on how the structures were obtained. Finally, we tried to improve these results using local coupled-cluster calculations with single and double excitations, and non-iterative perturbative treatment of triple excitations (LCCSD(T0)), employing the polarisable multipole interactions with supermolecular pairs approach. Unfortunately, this only degraded the predictions, probably because of a mismatch between the solvation energies obtained at the DFT and LCCSD(T0) levels. PMID:24700414

  17. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Arletti, Rossella; Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna; Bagatin, Roberto

    2012-10-15

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

  18. Selective Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Organophosphorus Sensor Employing a Host-Guest Self-Assembly Monolayer of ?-Cyclodextrin Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Mu, Ning; Shao, Shengyu; Yang, Liu; Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; He, Shitang

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly and molecular imprinting technologies are very attractive technologies for the development of artificial recognition systems and provide chemical recognition based on need and not happenstance. In this paper, we employed a ?-cyclodextrin derivative surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor for detecting the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) sarin (O-Isoprophyl methylphosphonofluoridate, GB). Using sarin acid (isoprophyl hydrogen methylphosphonate) as an imprinting template, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylene)thio

  19. Selective Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Organophosphorus Sensor Employing a Host-Guest Self-Assembly Monolayer of ?-Cyclodextrin Derivative.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong; Mu, Ning; Shao, Shengyu; Yang, Liu; Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; He, Shitang

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly and molecular imprinting technologies are very attractive technologies for the development of artificial recognition systems and provide chemical recognition based on need and not happenstance. In this paper, we employed a b-cyclodextrin derivative surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor for detecting the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) sarin (O-Isoprophyl methylphosphonofluoridate, GB). Using sarin acid (isoprophyl hydrogen methylphosphonate) as an imprinting template, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylene)thio

  20. Comparative study of methods to calibrate the stiffness of a single-beam gradient-force optical tweezers over various laser trapping powers

    PubMed Central

    Sarshar, Mohammad; Wong, Winson T.; Anvari, Bahman

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Optical tweezers have become an important instrument in force measurements associated with various physical, biological, and biophysical phenomena. Quantitative use of optical tweezers relies on accurate calibration of the stiffness of the optical trap. Using the same optical tweezers platform operating at 1064 nm and beads with two different diameters, we present a comparative study of viscous drag force, equipartition theorem, Boltzmann statistics, and power spectral density (PSD) as methods in calibrating the stiffness of a single beam gradient force optical trap at trapping laser powers in the range of 0.05 to 1.38 W at the focal plane. The equipartition theorem and Boltzmann statistic methods demonstrate a linear stiffness with trapping laser powers up to 355 mW, when used in conjunction with video position sensing means. The PSD of a trapped particle’s Brownian motion or measurements of the particle displacement against known viscous drag forces can be reliably used for stiffness calibration of an optical trap over a greater range of trapping laser powers. Viscous drag stiffness calibration method produces results relevant to applications where trapped particle undergoes large displacements, and at a given position sensing resolution, can be used for stiffness calibration at higher trapping laser powers than the PSD method. PMID:25375348

  1. tweezercalib 2.0: Faster version of MatLab package for precise calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Poul Martin; Toli?-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2006-03-01

    We present a vectorized version of the MatLab (MathWorks Inc.) package tweezercalib for calibration of optical tweezers with precision. The calibration is based on the power spectrum of the Brownian motion of a dielectric bead trapped in the tweezers. Precision is achieved by accounting for a number of factors that affect this power spectrum, as described in vs. 1 of the package [I.M. Toli?-Nørrelykke, K. Berg-Sørensen, H. Flyvbjerg, Matlab program for precision calibration of optical tweezers, Comput. Phys. Comm. 159 (2004) 225-240]. The graphical user interface allows the user to include or leave out each of these factors. Several "health tests" are applied to the experimental data during calibration, and test results are displayed graphically. Thus, the user can easily see whether the data comply with the theory used for their interpretation. Final calibration results are given with statistical errors and covariance matrix. New version program summaryTitle of program: tweezercalib Catalogue identifier: ADTV_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTV_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Reference in CPC to previous version: I.M. Toli?-Nørrelykke, K. Berg-Sørensen, H. Flyvbjerg, Comput. Phys. Comm. 159 (2004) 225 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADTV Does the new version supersede the original program: Yes Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: General computer running MatLab (Mathworks Inc.) Operating systems under with the program has been tested: Windows2000, Windows-XP, Linux Programming language used: MatLab (Mathworks Inc.), standard license Memory required to execute with typical data: Of order four times the size of the data file High speed storage required: none No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 135 989 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 527 611 Distribution format: tar. gz Nature of physical problem: Calibrate optical tweezers with precision by fitting theory to experimental power spectrum of position of bead doing Brownian motion in incompressible fluid, possibly near microscope cover slip, while trapped in optical tweezers. Thereby determine spring constant of optical trap and conversion factor for arbitrary-units-to-nanometers for detection system. Method of solution: Elimination of cross-talk between quadrant photo-diode's output channels for positions (optional). Check that distribution of recorded positions agrees with Boltzmann distribution of bead in harmonic trap. Data compression and noise reduction by blocking method applied to power spectrum. Full accounting for hydrodynamic effects: Frequency-dependent drag force and interaction with nearby cover slip (optional). Full accounting for electronic filters (optional), for "virtual filtering" caused by detection system (optional). Full accounting for aliasing caused by finite sampling rate (optional). Standard non-linear least-squares fitting. Statistical support for fit is given, with several plots facilitating inspection of consistency and quality of data and fit. Summary of revisions: A faster fitting routine, adapted from [J. Nocedal, Y.x. Yuan, Combining trust region and line search techniques, Technical Report OTC 98/04, Optimization Technology Center, 1998; W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes. The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986], is applied. It uses fewer function evaluations, and the remaining function evaluations have been vectorized. Calls to routines in Toolboxes not included with a standard MatLab license have been replaced by calls to routines that are included in the present package. Fitting parameters are rescaled to ensure that they are all of roughly the same size (of order 1) while being fitted. Generally, the program package has been updated to comply with MatLab, vs. 7.0, and optimized for speed. Restrictions on the complexity of the prob

  2. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  3. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; de Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability.

  4. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  5. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  6. Magnetic tweezers-based 3D microchannel electroporation for high-throughput gene transfection in living cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lingqian; Howdyshell, Marci; Liao, Wei-Ching; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Lu, Wu; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Lee, L James; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-04-17

    A novel high-throughput magnetic tweezers-based 3D microchannel electroporation system capable of transfecting 40 000 cells/cm(2) on a single chip for gene therapy, regenerative medicine, and intracellular detection of target mRNA for screening cellular heterogeneity is reported. A single cell or an ordered array of individual cells are remotely guided by programmable magnetic fields to poration sites with high (>90%) cell alignment efficiency to enable various transfection reagents to be delivered simultaneously into the cells. The present technique, in contrast to the conventional vacuum-based approach, is significantly gentler on the cellular membrane yielding >90% cell viability and, moreover, allows transfected cells to be transported for further analysis. Illustrating the versatility of the system, the GATA2 molecular beacon is delivered into leukemia cells to detect the regulation level of the GATA2 gene that is associated with the initiation of leukemia. The uniform delivery and a sharp contrast of fluorescence intensity between GATA2 positive and negative cells demonstrate key aspects of the platform for gene transfer, screening and detection of targeted intracellular markers in living cells. PMID:25469659

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Protein L in the Low-Force Regime by Electromagnetic Tweezers/Evanescent Nanometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruchuan; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Sarkar, Atom; Badilla, Carmen L.; Fernández, Julio M.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical manipulation at the single molecule level of proteins exhibiting mechanical stability poses a technical challenge that has been almost exclusively approached by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. However, due to mechanical drift limitations, AFM techniques are restricted to experimental recordings that last less than a minute in the high-force regime. Here we demonstrate a novel combination of electromagnetic tweezers and evanescent nanometry that readily captures the forced unfolding trajectories of protein L at pulling forces as low as 10 ? 15 pN. Using this approach, we monitor unfolding and refolding cycles of the same polyprotein for a period of time longer than 30 min. From such long-lasting recordings, we obtain ensemble averages of unfolding step sizes and rates that are consistent with single-molecule AFM data obtained at higher stretching forces. The unfolding kinetics of protein L at low stretching forces confirms and extends the observations that the mechanical unfolding rate is exponentially dependent on the pulling force within a wide range of stretching forces spanning from 13 pN up to 120 pN. Our experiments demonstrate a novel approach for the mechanical manipulation of single proteins for extended periods of time in the low-force regime. PMID:19413987

  8. Measurements and modeling of water transport and osmoregulation in a single kidney cell using optical tweezers and videomicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio, A. D.; Santos, R. A.; Mesquita, O. N.

    2003-10-01

    With an optical tweezer installed in our optical microscope we grab a single Madin Darby Canine kidney cell and keep it suspended in the medium without touching the glass substrate or other cells. Since the optically trapped cell remains with a closely round shape, we can directly measure its volume by using videomicroscopy with digital image analysis. We submit this cell to a hyperosmotic shock (up-shock) and video record the process: the cell initially shrinks due to osmotic efflux of water and after a while, due to regulatory volume increase (RVI), an osmoregulation response, it inflates again (water influx) until it reaches a new volume (the regulatory volume VR). In addition to considering standard osmotic water transport, we model RVI using a simple phenomenological model. We obtain an expression for cell volume variation as a function of time that fits very well with our experimental data, where two characteristic times appear naturally: one related to water transport and the other related to RVI. From the fit we obtain water permeability, osmolyte influx rate for RVI, and regulatory volume. With the addition of the hormone vasopressin, water permeability increases while the regulatory volume decreases until inhibition of RVI. In summary, we present a technique to measure directly volume changes of a single isolated kidney cell under osmotic shock and a phenomenological analysis of water transport that takes into account osmoregulation.

  9. The study of adhesive forces between the type-3 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae and collagen-coated surfaces by using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chiahan; Fan, Chia-chieh; Huang, Ying-Jung; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Long, Hsu

    2004-10-01

    Adherence to host cells by a bacterial pathogen is a critical step for establishment of infection. It will contribute greatly to the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis by studying the biological force between a single pair of pathogen and host cell. In our experiment, we use a calibrated optical tweezers system to detach a single Klebsiella pneumoniae, the pathogen, from collagen, the host. By gradually increasing the laser power of the optical tweezers until the Klebsiella pneumoniae is detached from the collagen, we obtain the magnitude of the adhesive force between them. This happens when the adhesive force is barely equal to the trapping force provided by the optical tweezers at that specific laser power. This study is important because Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which causes suppurative lesions, urinary and respiratory tract infections. It has been proved that type 3 fimbrial adhesin (mrkD) is strongly associated with the adherence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Besides, four polymorphic mrkD alleles: namely, mrkDv1, v2, v3, and v4, are typed by using RFLP. In order to investigate the relationship between the structure and the function for each of these variants, DNA fragments encoding the major fimbrial proteins mrkA, mrkB, mrkC are expressed together with any of the four mrkD adhesins in E. coli JM109. Our study shows that the E. coli strain carrying the mrkDv3 fimbriae has the strongest binding activity. This suggests that mrkDv3 is a key factor that enhances the adherence of Klebsiella Pneumoniae to human body.

  10. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan ; Lee, Yuarn-Jang; Wang, Wei-Ting; Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Hsu, Chien-Ting; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Tsai, Jing-Shin; Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; Wu, Chien-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang; Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan ; and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  11. Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2007-02-01

    Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

  12. A balanced, phase sensitive back-focal plane interferometry technique to determine dynamics of a trapped bead in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Basudev; Pal, Sambit Bikas; Haldar, Arijit; Gupta, Ratnesh Kumar; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Banerjee, Ayan

    2012-04-01

    Back-focal plane interferometry is typically used to determine displacements of a trapped bead which lead to trapping force measurements in optical tweezers. In most cases, intensity shifts of the back-scattered interference pattern due to displacements of the bead are measured by a position sensitive detector placed in the microscope back-focal plane. However, in intensity-based measurements, the axial displacement resolution is typically worse than the lateral resolution since for axial displacements, the inherent resolution of the position detector cannot be used. In this paper, we demonstrate that measurement of the phase of the back-scattered light yields high axial displacement resolution, and can also be used for lateral displacement measurement. In our experiments, we separate out the back-scattered light from the trapped bead and reflected light from the top surface of the sample chamber by a confocal arrangement consisting of a spatial filter used in combination with two apertures. We proceed to beat the two separated components in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer where we employ balanced detection to improve our fringe contrast, and thus the sensitivity of the phase measurement. For lateral displacement sensing, we match experimental results to within 10% with a theoretical simulation determining the shift of the overall phase contour of the back-scattered light due to a given lateral displacement by using plane wave decomposition in conjunction with Mie scattering theory. Our technique is also able to track the Brownian motion of trapped beads from the phase jitter so that, similar to intensity-based measurements, we can use it to determine the spring constant of the trap, and thus the trapping force. The sensitivity of our technique is limited by path drifts of the external interferometer which we have currently stabilized by locking it to a frequency stabilized diode laser to obtain displacement measurement resolution ~200 pm.

  13. tweezercalib 2.1: Faster version of MatLab package for precise calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Poul Martin; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2006-10-01

    New version program summaryTitle of program: tweezercalib Catalogue identifier:ADTV_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTV_v2_1 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 134 188 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 050 368 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MatLab (Mathworks Inc.), standard license Computer:General computer running MatLab (Mathworks Inc.) Operating system:Windows2000, Windows-XP, Linux RAM:Of order four times the size of the data file Classification:3, 4.14, 18, 23 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADTV_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 518 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: yes Nature of problem:Calibrate optical tweezers with precision by fitting theory to experimental power spectrum of position of bead doing Brownian motion in incompressible fluid, possibly near microscope cover slip, while trapped in optical tweezers. Thereby determine spring constant of optical trap and conversion factor for arbitrary-units-to-nanometers for detection system. The theoretical underpinnings of the procedure may be found in Ref. [3]. Solution method:Elimination of cross-talk between quadrant photo-diodes, output channels for positions (optional). Check that distribution of recorded positions agrees with Boltzmann distribution of bead in harmonic trap. Data compression and noise reduction by blocking method applied to power spectrum. Full accounting for hydrodynamic effects; Frequency-dependent drag force and interaction with nearby cover slip (optional). Full accounting for electronic filters (optional), for "virtual filtering" caused by detection system (optional). Full accounting for aliasing caused by finite sampling rate (optional). Standard non-linear least-squares fitting with custom written routines based on Refs. [1,2]. Statistical support for fit is given, with several plots facilitating inspection of consistency and quality of data and fit. Reasons for the new version:Recent progress in the field has demonstrated a better approximation of the formula for the theoretical power spectrum with corrections due to frequency dependence of motion and distance to a surface nearby. Summary of revisions:The expression for the theoretical power spectrum when accounting for corrections to Stokes law, P(f), has been updated to agree with a better approximation of the theoretical spectrum, as discussed in Ref. [4] The units of the kinematic viscosity applied in the program is now stated in the input window. Greek letters and exponents are inserted in the input window. The graphical output has improved: The figures now bear a meaningful title and four figures that test the quality of the fit are now combined in one figure with four parts. Restrictions: Data should be positions of bead doing Brownian motion while held by optical tweezers. For high precision in final results, data should be time series measured over a long time, with sufficiently high experimental sampling rate; The sampling rate should be well above the characteristic frequency of the trap, the so-called corner frequency. Thus, the sampling frequency should typically be larger than 10 kHz. The Fast Fourier Transform used works optimally when the time series contain 2 data points, and long measurement time is obtained with n>12-15. Finally, the optics should be set to ensure a harmonic trapping potential in the range of positions visited by the bead. The fitting procedure checks for harmonic potential. Running time:seconds ReferencesJ. Nocedal, Y.x. Yuan, Combining trust region and line search techniques, Technical Report OTC 98/04, Optimization Technology Center, 1998. W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes. The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986. (The theoretical underpinnings for the procedure) K. Berg

  14. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  15. A split G-quadruplex-based DNA nano-tweezers structure as a signal-transducing molecule for the homogeneous detection of specific nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Keisuke; Shigeto, Hajime; Kuroda, Akio; Funabashi, Hisakage

    2015-12-15

    A portable method of specific nucleic acid detection would be very useful for monitoring public health in a variety of settings for point-of-care and point-of-need testing. However, conventional methods for the detection of nucleic acids are not ideal for use in the field, as they require skilled operators and complex equipment. Here, we constructed a method for specific nucleic acid detection using a split G-quadruplex (Gq) structure that can recognize target nucleic acids without competitive reactions in a bimolecular reaction and directly produce a detectable signal based on peroxidase activity. We developed a single signal-transducing molecule with a split Gq-based DNA-nano tweezers (NT) structure that self-assembles from three single-stranded DNAs through simple mixing, and detects its target without requiring any washing steps. A model target, a partial norovirus mRNA (NV-RNA), was specifically recognized by the split Gq-based DNA-NT, causing it to undergo a structural change that restored its peroxidase activity. The peroxidase activity was measured by following the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), which gave a greenish colorimetric response, and was proportional to the NV-RNA concentration. The lower detection limit was 4 nM. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting specific nucleic acids with a split Gq-based DNA-NT structure as a nucleic acid signal-transducing molecule in a homogenous assay format. Also the target recognition sites of split Gq-based DNA-NT can easily be designed without delicate optimization of tweezers structure. Thus a split Gq-based DNA-NT technique is readily applicable to a basic platform for the development of a portable device. PMID:26143462

  16. Identification of stepped changes of binding affinity during interactions between the disintegrin rhodostomin and integrin ?IIb?3 in living cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chia-Fen; Chang, Bo-Jui; Pai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Lin, Chi-Hung

    2004-10-01

    Integrin receptors serve as both mechanical links and signal transduction mediators between the cell and its environment. Experimental evidence demonstrates that conformational changes and lateral clustering of the integrin proteins may affect their binding to ligands and regulate downstream cellular responses; however, experimental links between the structural and functional correlations of the ligand-receptor interactions are not yet elucidated. In the present report, we utilized optical tweezers to measure the dynamic binding between the snake venom rhodostomin, coated on a microparticle and functioned as a ligand, and the membrane receptor integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) expressed on a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell. A progressive increase of total binding affinity was found between the bead and CHO cell in the first 300 sec following optical tweezers-guided contact. Further analysis of the cumulative data revealed the presence of "unit binding force" presumably exerted by a single rhodostomin-integrin pair. Interestingly, two such units were found. Among the measurements of less total binding forces, presumably taken at the early stage of ligand-receptor interactions, a unit of 4.15 pN per molecule pair was derived. This unit force dropped to 2.54 pN per molecule pair toward the later stage of interactions when the total binding forces were relatively large. This stepped change of single molecule pair binding affinity was not found when mutant rhodostomin proteins were used as ligands (a single unit of 1.81 pN per pair was found). These results were interpreted along with the current knowledge about the conformational changes of integrins during the "molecule activation" process.

  17. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  18. Heat in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rosal, B.; Haro-González, P.; Ramsay, W. T.; Maestro, L. M.; Santacruz-Gómez, K.; Iglesias-de la Cruz, M. C.; Sanz-Rodríguez, F.; Chooi, J. Y.; Rodríguez-Sevilla, P.; Choudhury, D.; Kar, A. K.; García Solé, J.; Patterson, L.; Jaque, D.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced thermal effects in optically trapped microspheres and single cells have been investigated by Luminescence Thermometry. Thermal spectroscopy has revealed a non-localized temperature distribution around the trap that extends over tens of microns, in agreement with previous theoretical models. Solvent absorption has been identified as the key parameter to determine laser-induced heating, which can be reduced by establishing a continuous fluid flow of the sample. Our experimental results of thermal loading at a variety of wavelengths reveal that an optimum trapping wavelength exists for biological applications close to 820 nm. This has been corroborated by a simultaneous analysis of the spectral dependence of cellular heating and damage in human lymphocytes during optical trapping. Minimum intracellular heating, well below the cytotoxic level (43 °C), has been demonstrated to occur for optical trapping with 820 nm laser radiation, thus avoiding cell damage.

  19. optical tweezers tractor beams

    E-print Network

    ; force/extension) cell membrane mech props molecular motors (kinesin stepping on microtubules) In vitro fertilization; sperm cell motility optical scissors (chromosomes dissection + manipulation) In vivo..? K

  20. The Lys-Specific Molecular Tweezer, CLR01, Modulates Aggregation of the Mutant p53 DNA Binding Domain and Inhibits Its Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Gal; Shmueli, Merav D; Levy, Limor; Engel, Liat; Gazit, Ehud; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Segal, Daniel

    2015-06-23

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a unique role as a central hub of numerous cell proliferation and apoptotic pathways, and its malfunction due to mutations is a major cause of various malignancies. Therefore, it serves as an attractive target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. Because of its intrinsically unstable DNA binding domain, p53 unfolds rapidly at physiological temperature. Certain mutants shift the equilibrium toward the unfolded state and yield high-molecular weight, nonfunctional, and cytotoxic ?-sheet-rich aggregates that share tinctorial and conformational similarities with amyloid deposits found in various protein misfolding diseases. Here, we examined the effect of a novel protein assembly modulator, the lysine (Lys)-specific molecular tweezer, CLR01, on different aggregation stages of misfolded mutant p53 in vitro and on the cytotoxicity of the resulting p53 aggregates in cell culture. We found that CLR01 induced rapid formation of ?-sheet-rich, intermediate-size p53 aggregates yet inhibited further p53 aggregation and reduced the cytotoxicity of the resulting aggregates. Our data suggest that aggregation modulators, such as CLR01, could prevent the formation of toxic p53 aggregates. PMID:26030124

  1. Investigating Molecular Level Stress-Strain Relationships in Entangled F-Actin Networks by Combined Force-Measuring Optical Tweezers and Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kent; Henze, Dean; Robertson-Anderson, Rae

    2013-03-01

    Actin is an important cytoskeletal protein involved in cell structure and motility, cancer invasion and metastasis, and muscle contraction. The intricate viscoelastic properties of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks allow for the many dynamic roles of actin, thus warranting investigation. Exploration of this unique stress-strain/strain-rate relationship in complex F-actin networks can also improve biomimetic materials engineering. Here, we use optical tweezers with fluorescence microscopy to study the viscoelastic properties of F-actin networks on the microscopic level. Optically trapped microspheres embedded in various F-actin networks are moved through the network using a nanoprecision piezoelectric stage. The force exerted on the microspheres by the F-actin network and subsequent force relaxation are measured, while a fraction of the filaments in the network are fluorescent-labeled to observe filament deformation in real-time. The dependence of the viscoelastic properties of the network on strain rates and amplitudes as well as F-actin concentration is quantified. This approach provides the much-needed link between induced force and deformation over localized regimes (tens of microns) and down to the single molecule level.

  2. Reversible formation of supramolecular polymer networks via orthogonal pillar[10]arene-based host-guest interactions and metal ion coordinations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lintao; Han, Chun; Wu, Xi; Wang, Lei; Caochen, Yaozi; Jing, Xiaobi

    2015-12-21

    Supramolecular polymer networks, assembled via the combination of orthogonal terpyridine-Zn(2+), carbene-Ag(+), and pillar[10]arene/alkyl chain recognition motifs, exhibit dynamic properties responsive to various external stimuli. PMID:26569051

  3. Insights into the effects of 2:1 "sandwich-type" crown-ether/metal-ion complexes in responsive host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Rong; Hu, Jia-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-01-29

    In-depth investigations of the specific ion-responsive characteristics based on 2:1 "sandwich" structures and effects of crown ether cavity sizes on the metal-ion/crown-ether complexation are systematically performed with a series of PNIPAM-based responsive copolymers containing similar contents of crown ether units with different cavity dimensions (12-crown-4 (12C4), 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6)). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values of copolymers in deionized water shift to lower temperatures gradually when the crown ether contents increase or the ring sizes decrease from 18C6 to 12C4. With increasing the concentrations of alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) or the contents of pendent crown ether groups, the copolymers with different crown ether cavity sizes exhibit higher selectivity and sensitivity to corresponding cations. Importantly, the ion sensitivities of the copolymers in response to corresponding alkali metal ions increase dramatically with an increase in the crown ether cavity size. Interestingly, a linear relationship between the crown ether cavity size and the diameter of corresponding cation for the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich" complexes is found for the first time, from which the size of metal ions or other guests that able to form 2:1 "sandwich" complexes with crown ethers can be deduced. The results in this work are valuable and useful for further developments and practical applications of various crown-ether-based smart materials. PMID:25562507

  4. Tuning the depth of bowl-shaped phosphine hosts: capsule and pseudo-cage architectures in host-guest complexes with C60 fullerene.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Masaki; Sukegawa, Kimiya; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    Bowl-shaped phosphine molecules, whose bowl geometry can be controlled by a variation of the axial substituent, were synthesized, and used as host molecules to encapsulate C60. Host molecules with relatively shallow bowls formed a chiral capsule, while hosts with deeper bowls formed an achiral pseudo-cage. PMID:26120943

  5. Biosynthesis of ketomycin. (II) biomimetic model for beta-lactamase catalysis: host-guest interactions in cyclodextrin-penicillin inclusion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The antibiotic ketomycin is formed from shikimic acid via chorismic acid and prephenic acid. Phenylalanine and 2',5'-dihydrophenylalanine derived from shikimic acid are not intermediates in the biosynthesis. Degradation of ketomycin derived from (1,6-/sup 14/C)shikimic acid showed that prephenic acid is converted into ketomycin with stereospecific discrimination between the two enantiotopic edges of the ring, the pro-S-R edge giving rise to the C-2', C-3' side of the cyclohexane ring of ketomycin. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the action of ..beta..-lactam antibiotics is mainly ascribed to their ability to produce ..beta..-lactamase to cleave the ..beta..-lactam ring. It is essential to understand the molecular nature of ..beta..-lactamase-penicillin recognition for designing and formulating more effective ..beta..-lactam antibiotics. A biomimetic study of ..beta..-lactamase is therefore initiated. To meet the requirements of hydrophobic and serine protease characteristics of ..beta..-lactamase, ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin is chosen as a biomimetic model for ..beta..-lactamase. The structural specificity and the chemical dynamics of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-phenoxymethyl penicillin inclusion complex in solid state and in solution have been determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The spectral results strongly indicate that the phenyl portion of the phenoxymethyl penicillin forms a stable inclusion complex with the hydrophobic cavity of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin in solution as well as in the solid state. Kinetic studies followed by /sup 1/HNMR and HPLC analyses under alkaline condition have shown that the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mimics the catalytic function of serine of ..beta..-lactamase in the stereospecific hydrolysis of the ..beta..-lactam ring of phenoxymethyl penicillin.

  6. A lab-on-a-chip for hypoxic patch clamp measurements combined with optical tweezers and spectroscopy- first investigations of single biological cells.

    PubMed

    Alrifaiy, Ahmed; Borg, Johan; Lindahl, Olof A; Ramser, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The response and the reaction of the brain system to hypoxia is a vital research subject that requires special instrumentation. With this research subject in focus, a new multifunctional lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with control over the oxygen content for studies on biological cells was developed. The chip was designed to incorporate the patch clamp technique, optical tweezers and absorption spectroscopy. The performance of the LOC was tested by a series of experiments. The oxygen content within the channels of the LOC was monitored by an oxygen sensor and verified by simultaneously studying the oxygenation state of chicken red blood cells (RBCs) with absorption spectra. The chicken RBCs were manipulated optically and steered in three dimensions towards a patch-clamp micropipette in a closed microfluidic channel. The oxygen level within the channels could be changed from a normoxic value of 18% O 2 to an anoxic value of 0.0-0.5% O 2. A time series of 3 experiments were performed, showing that the spectral transfer from the oxygenated to the deoxygenated state occurred after about 227 ± 1 s and a fully developed deoxygenated spectrum was observed after 298 ± 1 s, a mean value of 3 experiments. The tightness of the chamber to oxygen diffusion was verified by stopping the flow into the channel system while continuously recording absorption spectra showing an unchanged deoxygenated state during 5400 ± 2 s. A transfer of the oxygenated absorption spectra was achieved after 426 ± 1 s when exposing the cell to normoxic buffer. This showed the long time viability of the investigated cells. Successful patching and sealing were established on a trapped RBC and the whole-cell access (Ra) and membrane (Rm) resistances were measured to be 5.033 ± 0.412 M ? and 889.7 ± 1.74 M ? respectively. PMID:25907197

  7. Uptake of and Resistance to the Antibiotic Berberine by Individual Dormant, Germinating and Outgrowing Bacillus Spores as Monitored by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Jing; Suvira, Milomir; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid originally extracted from the plant Coptis chinensis and other herb plants, has been used as a pharmacological substance for many years. The therapeutic effect of berberine has been attributed to its interaction with nucleic acids and blocking cell division. However, levels of berberine entering individual microbial cells minimal for growth inhibition and its effects on bacterial spores have not been determined. In this work the kinetics and levels of berberine accumulation by individual dormant and germinated spores were measured by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy and differential interference and fluorescence microscopy, and effects of berberine on spore germination and outgrowth and spore and growing cell viability were determined. The major conclusions from this work are that: (1) colony formation from B. subtilis spores was blocked ~ 99% by 25 ?g/mL berberine plus 20 ?g/mL INF55 (a multidrug resistance pump inhibitor); (2) 200 ?g/mL berberine had no effect on B. subtilis spore germination with L-valine, but spore outgrowth was completely blocked; (3) berberine levels accumulated in single spores germinating with ? 25 ?g/mL berberine were > 10 mg/mL; (4) fluorescence microscopy showed that germinated spores accumulated high-levels of berberine primarily in the spore core, while dormant spores accumulated very low berberine levels primarily in spore coats; and (5) during germination, uptake of berberine began at the time of commitment (T1) and reached a maximum after the completion of CaDPA release (Trelease) and spore cortex lysis (Tlysis). PMID:26636757

  8. Optical tweezers Optical-Tweezers Study of Topoisomerase Inhibition**

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    are especially attractive targets for cancer therapy since their role in controlling DNA topology is crucial] we prepared a library of open lactone analogues of the natural product (open chain Lam-D, OCLam

  9. Magnetic tweezers for DNA micromanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Charbel; Wirtz, Denis

    2000-12-01

    We detail the design of an electromagnetic assembly capable of generating a constant magnetic field superimposed to a large magnetic field gradient (between 40 and 100 T/m), which was uniform over a large gap (between 1.5 and 2 cm). Large gaps allowed the use of wide high numerical-aperture lenses to track microspheres attached to DNA molecules with an inverted light microscope. Given the geometric constraints of the microscope, computer-aided design was used to optimize the magnetic field gradient linearity, homogeneity, and amplitude, as well as the arrangement of the magnetic coils, the currents, and the mechanical stability of the assembly. The assembly was used to apply forces of controlled amplitude, direction, and time dependence on superparamagnetic microspheres by using magnetic coils instead of permanent magnets. A streptavidin-coated microsphere was attached to the 3' end of a ?-phage DNA molecule through a single biotin molecule. The 5' end of the ?-phage DNA molecule was tethered to a glass coverslip by conjugating the DNA's overhang to a complementary 12 base-pair primer, which was itself cross-linked to a heterobifunctional group placed on the glass coverslip. By tracking the centroid of this microsphere, the mechanical response of a single ?-phage DNA molecule was measured as a function of the applied magnetic force. The resulting force-extension curve was fitted with the worm-like-chain model to obtain ?-phage DNA's persistence length and contour length, which were in agreement with previous reports.

  10. Stretching DNA with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M D; Yin, H; Landick, R; Gelles, J; Block, S M

    1997-01-01

    Force-extension (F-x) relationships were measured for single molecules of DNA under a variety of buffer conditions, using an optical trapping interferometer modified to incorporate feedback control. One end of a single DNA molecule was fixed to a coverglass surface by means of a stalled RNA polymerase complex. The other end was linked to a microscopic bead, which was captured and held in an optical trap. The DNA was subsequently stretched by moving the coverglass with respect to the trap using a piezo-driven stage, while the position of the bead was recorded at nanometer-scale resolution. An electronic feedback circuit was activated to prevent bead movement beyond a preset clamping point by modulating the light intensity, altering the trap stiffness dynamically. This arrangement permits rapid determination of the F-x relationship for individual DNA molecules as short as -1 micron with unprecedented accuracy, subjected to both low (approximately 0.1 pN) and high (approximately 50 pN) loads: complete data sets are acquired in under a minute. Experimental F-x relationships were fit over much of their range by entropic elasticity theories based on worm-like chain models. Fits yielded a persistence length, Lp, of approximately 47 nm in a buffer containing 10 mM Na1. Multivalent cations, such as Mg2+ or spermidine 3+, reduced Lp to approximately 40 nm. Although multivalent ions shield most of the negative charges on the DNA backbone, they did not further reduce Lp significantly, suggesting that the intrinsic persistence length remains close to 40 nm. An elasticity theory incorporating both enthalpic and entropic contributions to stiffness fit the experimental results extremely well throughout the full range of extensions and returned an elastic modulus of approximately 1100 pN. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9138579

  11. Micromechanics in magnetic suspensions with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Alice

    2000-03-01

    The key to understanding and controlling the rheological response of a colloidal system lies in characterizing the suspension microstructure and dynamics. The formation of well-defined microstructures in magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER)suspensions offers a clear example of the interplay between structure and rheology. When an external magnetic or electric field is applied to an MR or ER suspension, the particles acquire dipole moments. At field strengths sufficient to overcome thermal motion, the particles aggregate into chains aligned in the field direction. Because energy is required to deform and rupture the chains, this microstructural transition is responsible for the onset of a large, ``tunable,'' finite yield stress. Applications for MR and ER suspensions include active shock absorbers, clutches, and brakes. We apply optical trapping techniques to directly measure mechanical properties of an MR dipolar chain, such as the rupturing stress and strain under tensile and affine deformations. Our results under these conditions are in good agreement with calculations of the rupturing stress and strain using a self-consistent point dipole model of the particle interaction that takes into account induction and multi-body effects along the chain. Additionally, we observe energy-dissipating "rearrangements" of chains as a stress is applied, such as the inclusion of neighboring particles into the chain. Similar mechanical measurements on columns of laterally-aggregated chains show that column formation significantly increases the microstructure resistance to applied stresses. Also, rearrangements in columns indicate mechanisms for "strain-hardening" effects at intermediate field strengths. Direct microscopic manipulation allows us to investigate the lateral interaction between chains. In MR suspensions,Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations are thought to cause a lateral attraction between chains that influences the long-time suspension structure, such as the formation of columns or "cross-linking" between chains at high particle concentrations.

  12. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    to probe the strength and location of receptor binding15 and adhesion or to mea- sure traction and adhesion,National Heart,Lung,and Blood Institute,National Institutes of Health,Building 50,50 South Drive

  13. Iptycene-derived crown ether hosts for molecular recognition and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Meng, Zheng; Ma, Ying-Xian; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Synthetic macrocyclic hosts have played key roles in the development of host-guest chemistry. Crown ethers are a class of macrocyclic molecules with unique flexible structures. They have served as the first generation of synthetic hosts, and researchers have extensively studied them in molecular recognition. However, the flexible structures of simple crown ethers and their relatively limited modes of complexation with guests have limited the further applications of these molecules. In recent years, researchers have moved toward fabricating interlocking molecules, supramolecular polymers, and other assemblies with specific structures and properties. Therefore, researchers have developed more complex crown ether-based macrocyclic hosts with multicavity structures and multicomplexation modes that provide more diverse and sophisticated host-guest systems. In this Account, we summarize our research on the synthesis and characterization of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts, their use as host molecules, and their applications in self-assembled complexes. Iptycenes including triptycenes and pentiptycenes are a class of aromatic compounds with unique rigid three-dimensional structures. As a result, they are promising building blocks for the synthesis of novel macrocyclic hosts and the construction of novel self-assembled complexes with specific structures and properties. During the last several years, we have designed and synthesized a new class of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts including macrotricyclic polyethers, molecular tweezer-like hosts, and tritopic tris(crown ether) hosts, which are all composed of rigid iptycene building blocks linked by flexible crown ether chains. We have examined the complexation behavior of these hosts with different types of organic guest molecules. Unlike with conventional crown ethers, the combination of iptycene moieties and crown ether chains provides the iptycene-derived crown ether hosts with complexation properties that differ based on the structure of the guests. The rigid iptycene moieties within these synthetic host molecules both maintain their inherent three-dimensional cavities and generate multicavity structures. The flexible crown ether chains allow the iptycene-derived hosts to adjust their conformations as they encapsulate guest molecules. Moreover, the expanded complexation properties also allow the host-guest systems based on the iptycene-derived crown ethers to respond to multiple external stimuli, resulting in a variety of supramolecular assemblies. Finally, we also describe the construction of mechanically interlocked self-assemblies, molecular switches/molecular machines, and supramolecular polymers using these new host molecules. We expect that the unique structural features and diverse complexation properties of these iptycene-derived crown ether hosts will lead to increasing interest in this field and in supramolecular chemistry overall. PMID:24877894

  14. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal clusters: From the isolation of ligand-stabilized solid fragments to the tuning of magnetic anisotropy and host-guest selectivity, and, Approaches to science teaching: Development of an observation instrument with a measurement model based on item response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hee, Allan George

    Part I. The work presented herein describes efforts to develop general techniques for the synthesis of transition metal clusters and the manipulation of their properties. In Chapter 2, it is demonstrated that a modified metal atom reactor allows for the vaporization, passivation, and isolation of metal-chalcogenide clusters from their parent binary solids. Among the clusters produced by this method were Cr6S8(PEt3)6, Fe4S 4(PEt3)4, Co6S8(PEt 3)6, Cu6S4(PEt3)6, Cu12S6(PEt3)8, and Cu26Se 13(PEt3)14. To create single-molecule magnets with higher demagnetization barriers, we are developing metal-cyanide systems which exhibit highly adjustable magnetic behavior. Chapter 3 reports an attempt to introduce magnetic anisotropy into a MnCr6 cluster. Replacement of CrIII with Mo III resulted in the assembly of K[(Me3tacn)6MnMo 6(CN)18](ClO4)3 (Me3tacn = N,N',N? -trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane)---the first well-documented example of a cyano-bridged single-molecule magnet. Recently, it was demonstrated that replacing Me3tacn with the less sterically hindering tach (tach = cis,cis-1,3,5-triaminocyclohexane) in the face-centered cubic cluster [(tach)8Cr8Ni 6(CN)24]Br12 provides greater access to the cluster cavity. Chapter 4 describes my efforts to probe the selectivity of this cluster toward inclusion of various guests. Part II. Successful implementation of student-centered curricula reforms requires the creation of a measurement instrument for monitoring whether the curricula are being used as intended. The creation and development of an observation instrument would greatly contribute to this effort. To develop a theoretically sound construct map, it is necessary to review the literature and conduct our own investigations of approaches to science teaching. Chapter 2 presents the findings of these investigations and their contributions to our understanding of the construct. Using these findings, the Science Teaching Observation Protocol (STOP) was created and designed to measure two subconstructs: intentions and strategies. Chapter 3 details the first pilot test of STOP and analysis of the collected data. In Chapter 4, the theoretical shortcomings of the instrument are analyzed and discussed. Modified versions of the intention and strategy subconstruct maps are presented.

  15. Mechanical switching of magnetic interaction by tweezers-type complex.

    PubMed

    Doistau, Benjamin; Cantin, Jean-Louis; Chamoreau, Lise-Marie; Marvaud, Valérie; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Vives, Guillaume

    2015-08-21

    A control of the interaction between two spin centers was achieved by using a mechanical motion in a terpy(Cu-salphen)2 complex. Upon coordination a conformation change and switching from a paramagnetic to an antiferromagnetically coupled system was observed by EPR and SQUID measurements. PMID:26178460

  16. Nanopore tweezers: Voltage-controlled trapping and releasing of analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Luchian, Tudor; Cecconi, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Several devices for single-molecule detection and analysis employ biological and artificial nanopores as core elements. The performance of such devises strongly depends on the amount of time the analytes spend into the pore. This residence time needs to be long enough to allow the recording of a high signal-to-noise ratio analyte-induced blockade. We propose a simple approach, dubbed nanopore tweezing, for enhancing the trapping time of molecules inside the pore via a proper tuning of the applied voltage. This method requires the creation of a strong dipole that can be generated by adding a positive and a negative tail at the two ends of the molecules to be analyzed. Capture rate is shown to increase with the applied voltage while escape rate decreases. In this paper we rationalize the essential ingredients needed to control the residence time and provide a proof of principle based on atomistic simulations.

  17. Measuring the pressures across microfluidic droplets with an optical tweezer

    E-print Network

    approach based on agarose droplet polymerase chain reaction for efficient and cost-effective aptamer, "Microgram-scale testing of reaction conditions in solution using nanoliter plugs in microfluidics

  18. Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lulu; Woolf, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle’s absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 ?m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10× improvement in error and 3× improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique’s advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle’s scattering intensity vs. height profile in situ, rather than relying on assumptions, inexact system analogs, or detailed knowledge of system parameters for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle. PMID:25512542

  19. Tools to study the kinesin mechanome using optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    González Rubio, Ricardo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Molecular motors play an important role in driving some of the most complex and important tasks in biological systems, ranging from transcribing RNA from a DNA template (Polymerases) to muscle contraction (Myosin) and ...

  20. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Gecevi?ius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.

    2014-06-09

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  1. Use tweezers to grasp the tick at the surface of

    E-print Network

    disease. Severe headaches and neck pain stiffness. Arthritis will develop in 60% of patients. Neurological, headache, fever and chills, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and a non-productive cough

  2. Cleaved fiber optic double nanohole optical tweezers for trapping nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ryan M; Wheaton, Skylar; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the trapping of single 20 and 40 nm polystyrene spheres at the cleaved end of a fiber optic with a double nanohole aperture in gold and without any microscope optics. An optical transmission increase of 15% indicates a trapping event for the 40 nm particle, and the jump is 2% for the 20 nm particle. This modular technique can be used to replace those used with current optical trapping setups that require complicated free space optics and frequent calibration, with one that is modular and requires no free space optics. This simple arrangement with the potential for fiber translation is of interest for future biosensor and optical nano-pipette devices. PMID:25490482

  3. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman,1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked transport through an array of holographic optical traps. (a) Holographic trapping system. (b) Phase hologram

  4. OPTICAL TWEEZERSOPTICAL TWEEZERS FelixFelix RitortRitort

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    · Elasticity and unzipping of biopolymers · Folding/Unfolding of RNA/Proteins · DNA/Protein interactions (condensation, regulation) · Protein/Protein interactions (ligand- receptor binding) · Molecular motors. A. Rice, Wiley publications The importance of being small #12;· Molecular systems transform

  5. Absolute Position Total Internal Reflection Microscopy with an Optical Tweezer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lulu; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, in-situ calibration method for Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 $\\mu$m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in-situ, rather than relying on calculations or inexact system analogs for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.

  6. MAGNETIC TWEEZERS FOR THE STUDY OF DNA TRACKING MOTORS

    PubMed Central

    Manosas, Maria; Meglio, Adrien; Spiering, Michelle M.; Ding, Fangyuan; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Barre, François-Xavier; Saleh, Omar A.; Allemand, Jean François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation methods have opened a new vista on the study of molecular motors. Here we describe the use of magnetic traps for the investigation of the mechanism of DNA based motors, in particular helicases and translocases. PMID:20627163

  7. A Theoretical Light Scattering Model of Nanoparticle Laser Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Accomplishments this reporting period include: 1. derived, programmed, checked, and tested the Mie light scattering theory formulas for the radiation trapping force for both the on-axis and off-axis geometry of the trapping beam plus trapped spherical particle; 2. verified that the computed radiation trapping force for a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam incident on a spherical particle agrees with previous published calculations; 3. compared the small particle size and large particle size limits of the Mie calculation with the results of Rayleigh scattering theory and ray scattering theory, respectively and verified that the comparison is correct for Rayleigh scattering theory but found that ray theory omits an important light scattering effect included in the Mie theory treatment; 4. generalized the calculation of the radiation trapping force on a spherical particle in the on-axis geometry from a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam to the realistic situation of a Gaussian beam truncated and focused by a high numerical aperture oil-immersion microscope objective lens and aberrated by the interface between the microscope cover slip and the liquid-filled sample volume; and 5. compared the calculated radiation trapping force for this geometry with the results of previously published experiments and found that the agreement is better than when using previously developed theories.

  8. Inserting and Manipulating DNA in a Nanopore with Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    Weifu Lee and Robert S. Foote (eds.), Micro and Nano Technologies in Bioanalysis, Methods in Molecular and identification of biomolecules by measur- ing both the ionic current and the force seems feasible. Finally aureus would circumvent common problems like the long-term stability of lipid membranes, while providing

  9. Controlling local temperature in water using femtosecond optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Dipankar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of directly observing the effect of temperature rise in water at the vicinity of optical trap center is presented. Our approach relies on changed values of corner frequency of the optical trap that, in turn, is realized from its power spectra. Our two color experiment is a unique combination of a non-heating femtosecond trapping laser at 780 nm, coupled to a femtosecond infrared heating laser at 1560 nm, which precisely controls temperature at focal volume of the trap center using low powers (100-800 µW) at high repetition rate. The geometric ray optics model quantitatively supports our experimental data. PMID:26417491

  10. Magnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors MariaMariaMariaMaria MañosasMañosasMañosasMañosas Ritort) · Applications: 1. Tracking DNA motors: (i) Helicases (ii) Annealing motor 2. Studying a multiprotein system: DNA hexamers (Dong et al, JBC 1995) Tracking DNA motors: (i) Helicases #12;Passive: helicase behaves

  11. Cell trapping in a blood capillary phantom using laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klykov, Sergei S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    As a phantom of native blood capillary the plastic capillary tube and as a model of red blood cells the yeast cells are considered. Plastic capillary has circular a cross-section with diameter ranging between 20 and 40 ?. For velocity estimation of polystyrene beads which had a role of tracers in water the particle image velocimetry method is realized using NI Labview Vision standard functions of image processing. It is shown that in spite of the presence of uncompensated spherical aberration emerging from refraction incident beam in curved plastic capillary walls yeast cells can be confined in stable 3D trap.

  12. Supplementary information for: Electromagnetic Torque Tweezers: A Versatile Approach

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    of custom-built Helmholtz coils made from PMMA spools that hold coils of enamel- insulated copper wire (1 due to resistive heating. The voltages that control the power supplies are generated using a DAQ is applied. To protect the coils from high temperatures due to resistive heating, each pair is fitted

  13. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-06-01

    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  14. The 27th Annual Chemical Physics

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    -covalent linkages in peptidic host-guest complexes through gas phase cryogenic ion vibrational spectroscopy 10 1:30 ­ 2:15 Vladimir Mandelshtam (University of California at Irvine) Simulations of Quantum Liquids

  15. A Quantum Chemistry Study of Natural Gas Hydrates Mert Atilhan,1

    E-print Network

    Pala, Nezih

    , with shiftings rising from host-guest interactions, and useful patterns in the terahertz region rising from water and academia because of the massive amounts of gas in the form of hydrates in ocean bed and under permafrost

  16. Molecular simulation studies of gas adsorption and separation in metalorganic frameworks 

    E-print Network

    Zoroufchian Moghadam, Peyman; Moghadam, Peyman Zoroufchian

    2013-07-01

    Adsorption in porous materials plays a significant role in industrial separation processes. Here, the host-guest interaction and the pore shape influence the distribution of products. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are ...

  17. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kotlarchyk, M A; Botvinick, E L; Putnam, A J

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 ?m in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures. PMID:20877437

  18. Blind Predictions of DNA and RNA Tweezers Experiments with Force and Torque

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    random- sequence dsDNA in bending, stretching, and torsional behaviors; Z-DNA to be at least three. These calculations recovered the experimental bending persistence length of dsRNA within the error of the simulations modulus relative to dsDNA. Further blind predictions of helix torsional properties, however, exposed

  19. A general method for manipulating DNA sequences from any organism with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    transcription fac- tors, nucleases, repair proteins, topoisomerases, structural pro- teins, and DNA and RNA were pelleted at $3000 g in a micro- centrifuge tube and the pellet was lightly dabbed with a sterile

  20. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zdenëk; Ježek, Jan; Ka?ka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment in order to identify and sort biological objects, such as living cells of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Our main objective was to create a robust and universal platform for non-contact sorting of microobjects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids without using artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive and non-contact nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used differently treated cells of algae to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  1. Calibration of Optical Tweezers for In Vivo Force Measurements: How do Different Approaches Compare?

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Yonggun; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Narayanareddy, Babu R.J.; Mattson-Hoss, Michelle K.; Gross, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    There is significant interest in quantifying force production inside cells, but since conditions in vivo are less well controlled than those in vitro, in vivo measurements are challenging. In particular, the in vivo environment may vary locally as far as its optical properties, and the organelles manipulated by the optical trap frequently vary in size and shape. Several methods have been proposed to overcome these difficulties. We evaluate the relative merits of these methods and directly compare two of them, a refractive index matching method, and a light-momentum-change method. Since in vivo forces are frequently relatively high (e.g., can exceed 15 pN for lipid droplets), a high-power laser is employed. We discover that this high-powered trap induces local temperature changes, and we develop an approach to compensate for uncertainties in the magnitude of applied force due to such temperature variations. PMID:25229154

  2. Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Smalyukh, Ivan I; Kaputa, Daniel S; Kachynski, Aliaksandr V; Kuzmin, Andrey N; Prasad, Paras N

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation of structures and defects in liquid crystals (LCs). The effective refractive index depends on the LC molecular orientations and the laser beam's polarization. We use the orientation-mediated refractive index contrast for the laser trapping in LCs with a homogeneous composition, but with spatially-varying patterns of molecular orientations. Tightly-focused polarized beams allow for optical trapping of disclinations and their clusters, dislocations and oily streaks, cholesteric fingers and focal conic domains, etc. We calculate the optical gradient forces for typical structures and explain the trapping properties at low laser powers. We also show that when a high-power beam causes local molecular realignment, the laser trapping properties change for two reasons: (1) the refractive index pattern and optical gradient forces are modified; (2) additional elastic structural forces arise to minimize the elastic free energy. PMID:19532681

  3. Investigating the thermodynamics of small biosystems with optical tweezers Alessandro Mossa a

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    smaller than Avogadro's number, the energy exchanged between the system and its environment and the macroscopic levels. At such scale the typical number of microscopic components is much larger than 1 but much

  4. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wolfgang Ketterle John D. MacArthur Professor of Physics Thesis Supervisor Accepted

  5. Microrheology with Optical Tweezers: Measuring the relative viscosity of solutions `at a glance'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassieri, Manlio; Giudice, Francesco Del; Robertson, Emma J.; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina; Wilson, Rab; Glidle, Andrew; Greco, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Bicanic, Tihana; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2015-03-01

    We present a straightforward method for measuring the relative viscosity of fluids via a simple graphical analysis of the normalised position autocorrelation function of an optically trapped bead, without the need of embarking on laborious calculations. The advantages of the proposed microrheology method are evident when it is adopted for measurements of materials whose availability is limited, such as those involved in biological studies. The method has been validated by direct comparison with conventional bulk rheology methods, and has been applied both to characterise synthetic linear polyelectrolytes solutions and to study biomedical samples.

  6. Mega-pixel PQR laser chips for interconnect, display ITS, and biocell-tweezers OEIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O'Dae; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. E.; Kim, S. S.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a photonic quantum ring (PQR) laser device of three dimensional toroidal whispering gallery cavity. We have succeeded in fabricating the first genuine mega-pixel laser chips via regular semiconductor technology. This has been realized since the present injection laser emitting surface-normal dominant 3D whispering gallery modes (WGMs) can be operated CW with extremely low operating currents (?A-nA per pixel), together with the lasing temperature stabilities well above 140 deg C with minimal redshifts, which solves the well-known integration problems facing the conventional VCSEL. Such properties unusual for quantum well lasers become usual because the active region, involving vertically confining DBR structure in addition to the 2D concave WGM geometry, induces a 'photonic quantum ring (PQR)-like' carrier distribution through a photonic quantum corral effect. A few applications of such mega-pixel PQR chips are explained as follows: (A) Next-generation 3D semiconductor technologies demand a strategy on the inter-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect schemes with a key to the high-density emitter array. (B) Due to mounting traffic problems and fatalities ITS technology today is looking for a revolutionary change in the technology. We will thus outline how 'SLEEP-ITS' can emerge with the PQR's position-sensing capability. (C) We describe a recent PQR 'hole' laser of convex WGM: Mega-pixel PQR 'hole' laser chips are even easier to fabricate than PQR 'mesa' lasers. Genuine Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam patterns of PQR holes are very promising for biocell manipulations like sorting mouse myeloid leukemia (M1s) cells. (D) Energy saving and 3D speckle-free POR laser can outdo LEDs in view of red GaAs and blue GaN devices fabricated recently.

  7. Near infrared optical tweezers and nanosecond ablation on yeast and algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsifaki, D. G.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, lasers for optical trapping and micromanipulation of microscopic particles or cells and sub cellular structures, both in vivo and in vitro, have gained remarkable interest in biomedical research and applications. Although the principles and the mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation have been well described for macroscopic interventions, the microbeam operation under microscopic guidance necessitates further investigation. In this work, we present the research and development efforts towards a pulsed ultraviolet microbeam laser system, the design and realization efforts towards a near infrared laser trapping device and the results obtained on yeast cells and algae by the combined system. We investigated the optical dissection of the cells versus the presence of optical trapping forces and the presence of rhodamine dye. We characterized the optical ablation of the cell walls and resulting cavitation as plasma formation effects which create shock waves due to their occurrence only in nanosecond pulse irradiation mode. We estimated the minimum energy of the microbeam for optical dissection of yeast cell, under the influence of optical trapping forces, as lower as 3 ?J, while in the presence of rhodamine as lower as 2 ?J. Lastly, using the techniques of optical microsurgery we demonstrated the minimum energy value for sub cellular dissection on an algae cell equal to 27 ?J.

  8. Evidence for non-equilibrium dynamics in viral DNA packaging from optical tweezers measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndsen, Zachary T.; Keller, Nicholas; Smith, Douglas E.

    2013-09-01

    In many viruses molecular motors generate large forces to package DNA to high densities. The dynamics and energetics of this process is a subject of wide debate and is of interest as a model for studying confined polymer physics in general. Here we present preliminary results showing that DNA in bacteriophage phi29 undergoes nonequilibrium conformational dynamics during packaging with a relaxation time >60,000x longer than for free DNA and >3000x longer than reported for DNA confined in nanochannels. Nonequilibrium dynamics significantly increases the load on the motor, causes heterogeneity in the rates of packaging, and causes frequent pausing in motor translocation.

  9. Parallel transport of biological cells using individually addressable VCSEL arrays as optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Esener, Sadik C.

    Parallel transport of biological cells using individually addressable VCSEL arrays as optical (VCSELs) for optical trapping and active manipulation of live biological cells and microspheres. We have experimentally verified that the Laguerre­Gaussian laser mode output from the VCSEL functions just as well

  10. Raman spectroscopy of single nanoparticles in a double-nanohole optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Steven; Balushi, Ahmed A. Al; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-10-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal was observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Single Nanoparticles in a Double-Nanohole Optical Tweezer System

    E-print Network

    Jones, Steven; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal is observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification.

  12. Quantification of high-efficiency trapping of nanoparticles in a double nanohole optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Kotnala, Abhay; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-02-12

    We measure the dynamics of 20 nm polystyrene particles in a double nanohole trap to determine the trap stiffness for various laser powers. Both the autocorrelation analysis of Brownian fluctuations and the trapping transient analysis provide a consistent value of ? 0.2 fN/nm stiffness for 2 mW of laser power, which is similar to theoretical calculations for aperture trapping. As expected, the stiffness increases linearly with laser power. This is comparable to the stiffness obtained for conventional optical traps for trapping, but for ten times smaller dielectric particles and less power. This approach will allow us to quantitatively evaluate future aperture-based optical traps, with the goal of studying the folding dynamics of smaller proteins (? 10 kDa) and small-molecule interactions. PMID:24404888

  13. [6]Helicene as a novel molecular tweezer for the univalent silver cation: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepetá?ová, Blanka; Makrlík, Emanuel; Dytrtová, Jana Jaklová; Böhm, Stanislav; Va?ura, Petr; Storch, Jan

    2015-10-01

    By employing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the [6]helicene-Ag+ complex (i.e., [Ag(C26H16)]+) exists in the gas phase. Further, applying quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of this cationic complex [Ag(C26H16)]+ was derived. Finally, in the solid state, the complex [6]helicene-silver perchlorate-monohydrate (i.e., C26H16-AgClO4-H2O), crystallizing in the monoclinic system with the centro-symmetric P21/c space group, was prepared and analyzed by X-ray crystallography.

  14. Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap.

    PubMed

    Steubing, R W; Cheng, S; Wright, W H; Numajiri, Y; Berns, M W

    1991-01-01

    A single-beam gradient force optical trap was combined with a pulsed UV laser microbeam in order to perform laser induced cell fusion. This combination offers the possibility to selectively fuse two single cells without critical chemical or electrical treatment. The optical trap was created by directing a Nd:YAG laser, at a wavelength of 1.06 microns, into a microscope and focusing the laser beam with a high numerical aperture objective. The UV laser microbeam, produced by a nitrogen-pumped dye laser (366 nm), was collinear with the trapping beam. Once inside the trap, two cells could be fused with several pulses of the UV laser microbeam, attenuated to an energy of approximately 1 microJ/pulse in the object plane. This method of laser induced cell fusion should provide increased selectivity and efficiency in generating viable hybrid cells. PMID:1764975

  15. Measurements of forces produced by the mitotic spindle using optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Sheykhani, Rozhan; Zhu, Qingyuan; Duquette, Michelle L.; Berns, Michael W.; Forer, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We used a trapping laser to stop chromosome movements in Mesostoma and crane-fly spermatocytes and inward movements of spindle poles after laser cuts across Potorous tridactylus (rat kangaroo) kidney (PtK2) cell half-spindles. Mesostoma spermatocyte kinetochores execute oscillatory movements to and away from the spindle pole for 1–2 h, so we could trap kinetochores multiple times in the same spermatocyte. The trap was focused to a single point using a 63× oil immersion objective. Trap powers of 15–23 mW caused kinetochore oscillations to stop or decrease. Kinetochore oscillations resumed when the trap was released. In crane-fly spermatocytes trap powers of 56–85 mW stopped or slowed poleward chromosome movement. In PtK2 cells 8-mW trap power stopped the spindle pole from moving toward the equator. Forces in the traps were calculated using the equation F = Q?P/c, where P is the laser power and c is the speed of light. Use of appropriate Q? coefficients gave the forces for stopping pole movements as 0.3–2.3 pN and for stopping chromosome movements in Mesostoma spermatocytes and crane-fly spermatocytes as 2–3 and 6–10 pN, respectively. These forces are close to theoretical calculations of forces causing chromosome movements but 100 times lower than the 700 pN measured previously in grasshopper spermatocytes. PMID:23485565

  16. Mapping DNA-Lac repressor interaction with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The lac operon is a well-known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with different DNA constructs. Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences.

  17. Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, page 1 Experiment 6: Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Williams, Mark C.

    with two glass cover slips glued to each side to form a sealed container with an input and output tube in Figure 3. Make sure the clamp screw is tightened so there is no flow. Fill the input container, which has

  18. Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-print Network

    Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

  19. An optical tweezer actuated, nanoaperture-grid based Optofluidic Microscope implementation

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    -resolution on-chip optofluidic microscope," submitted (2007). 3. B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761-7774 (2000). 4. D. Courjon, Near-field microscopy

  20. Dynamic measurements of forces between thrombus-inducing proteins using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Maneesh; Romo, Gabriel M.; Lopez, Jose A.; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    Both hemostasis and thrombosis occur as a result of platelet adhesion to the subendothelial matrix, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation. The first stage in hemostasis and thrombosis is the binding of the platelet membrane receptor, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex, to its ligand, von Willebrand factor (VWF), in the subendothelium. In particular, the A1 domain of VWF is responsible for binding GP Ib-IX. After immobilizing A1 on a 2.0 ?m diameter polystyrene bead, we optically trapped the bead using a titanium-sapphire laser tuned to 830 nm. The A1-coated bead was then moved towards a transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell which expressed the GP Ib-IX complex, and allowed to adhere to the cell. We subsequently detached the cell from the bead at different constant loading rates, ranging over three orders of magnitude, by using a piezoelectrically-driven translational stage. Displacement of the bead was simultaneously monitored from the trapping center using a quadrant photodetector to determine the force required to detach A1 from GP Ib-IX. These dynamic measurements of unbinding force emphasize the important role that shear rate plays in the initial stage of thrombus formation.

  1. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle using Low Numerical Aperture Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Šiler, Martin; Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Karásek, Vít?zslav; Paták, Aleš; Pokorná, Zuzana; Mika, Filip; Zemánek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250 nm. We offer a possible explanation based on the fact that metal nanoparticles naturally occur in various non-spherical shapes and their optical properties differ significantly due to changes in localized plasmon excitation. We demonstrate experimentally and support theoretically three-dimensional confinement of large gold nanoparticles in an optical trap based on very low numerical aperture optics. We showed theoretically that the unique properties of gold nanoprisms allow an increase of trapping force by an order of magnitude at certain aspect ratios. These results pave the way to spatial manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles using an optical fibre, with interesting applications in biology and medicine.

  2. Antibody-Antigen assay design for combined optical tweezers and fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Ta, Jenny, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    The recent development in combined optical trapping and fluorescence technology promises to enable unbindinig force studies of receptor-ligand interactions, whose specificity play a crucial role in the function of many ...

  3. Optical Tweezers Cause Physiological Damage to Escherichia coli and Listeria Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, M. B.; Oddershede, L. B.; Siegumfeldt, H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the degree of physiological damage to bacterial cells caused by optical trapping using a 1,064-nm laser. The physiological condition of the cells was determined by their ability to maintain a pH gradient across the cell wall; healthy cells are able to maintain a pH gradient over the cell wall, whereas compromised cells are less efficient, thus giving rise to a diminished pH gradient. The pH gradient was measured by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy by incorporating a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, green fluorescent protein or 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, inside the bacterial cells. We used the gram-negative species Escherichia coli and three gram-positive species, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Bacillus subtilis. All cells exhibited some degree of physiological damage, but optically trapped E. coli and L. innocua cells and a subpopulation of L. monocytogenes cells, all grown with shaking, showed only a small decrease in pH gradient across the cell wall when trapped by 6 mW of laser power for 60 min. However, another subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes cells exhibited signs of physiological damage even while trapped at 6 mW, as did B. subtilis cells. Increasing the laser power to 18 mW caused the pH gradient of both Listeria and E. coli cells to decrease within minutes. Moreover, both species of Listeria exhibited more-pronounced physiological damage when grown without shaking than was seen in cells grown with shaking, and the degree of damage is therefore also dependent on the growth conditions. PMID:18310432

  4. Dielectrophoretic Tweezers as a Platform for Single Molecular Force Spectroscopy in a Highly Parallel Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Barrett, Michael; Oliver, Piercen; Vezenov, Dmitri

    2012-02-01

    Miniaturization has driven down the cost of tools used in bioanalysis and diagnostics, with single molecules becoming the ultimate detection limit. I will describe how one can exploit mechanical properties of individual biomolecules to determine changes in their state or structure. Our aim is to build a force-spectroscopy-on-a-chip device that can detect and manipulate many (millions) single molecules in parallel. A critical element of this approach is the design of materials properties of molecular handles or probes. By tuning interactions of these probes with electric fields which generate by a simple electrode geometry, we are able to apply piconewton forces to individual DNA molecules and record their response with a single base sensitivity. I will present how we determined the approximate crossover frequency between negative and positive DEP using plain electrodes instead of conventional micro-structures. The technique is attractive not only for conducting single molecule force spectroscopy but also for label-free single cell detection. I will discuss potential applications of this approach to high throughput analyses such as genome sequencing and HIV detection.

  5. Fabrication of a Material Assembly of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Phase Gradients of Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zijie; Sajjan, Manas; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2015-04-01

    Optical matter can be created using the intensity gradient and electrodynamic (e.g., optical binding) forces that nano- and microparticles experience in focused optical beams. Here we show that the force associated with phase gradient is also important. In fact, in optical line traps the phase gradient force is crucial in determining the structure and stability of optical matter arrays consisting of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). NP lattices can be repeatedly assembled and disassembled simply by changing the sign of the phase gradient. The phase gradient creates a compressive force (and thus a stress) in the optically bound Ag NP lattices, causing structural transitions (a stress response) from 1D "chains" to 2D lattices, and even to amorphous structures. The structural transitions and dynamics of driven transport are well described by electrodynamics simulations and modeling using a drift-diffusion Langevin equation.

  6. Using Optical Tweezers for the Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Solutions with Very Low Viscoelasticity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently, optical tweezing has been used to provide a method for microrheology addressed to measure the rheological properties of small volumes of samples. In this work, we corroborate this emerging field of microrheology by using these optical methods for the characterization of polyelectrolyte solutions with very low viscoelasticity. The influence of polyelectrolyte (i.e., polyacrylamide, PAM) concentration, specifically its aging, of the salt concentration is shown. The close agreement of the technique with classical bulk rheological measurements is demonstrated, illustrating the advantages of the technique. PMID:23786307

  7. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zden?k.; Ježek, Jan; Ka?ka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment, dedicated to identification and sorting of biological objects, such as living cells of various unicellular organisms. Our main goal was to create a robust and universal platform for non-destructive and non-contact sorting of micro-objects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect spectra containing information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of pigments, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, avoiding artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used a mixture of polystyrene micro-particles and algal cells to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  8. Measurements of forces produced by the mitotic spindle using optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Sheykhani, Rozhan; Zhu, Qingyuan; Duquette, Michelle L; Berns, Michael W; Forer, Arthur

    2013-05-01

    We used a trapping laser to stop chromosome movements in Mesostoma and crane-fly spermatocytes and inward movements of spindle poles after laser cuts across Potorous tridactylus (rat kangaroo) kidney (PtK2) cell half-spindles. Mesostoma spermatocyte kinetochores execute oscillatory movements to and away from the spindle pole for 1-2 h, so we could trap kinetochores multiple times in the same spermatocyte. The trap was focused to a single point using a 63× oil immersion objective. Trap powers of 15-23 mW caused kinetochore oscillations to stop or decrease. Kinetochore oscillations resumed when the trap was released. In crane-fly spermatocytes trap powers of 56-85 mW stopped or slowed poleward chromosome movement. In PtK2 cells 8-mW trap power stopped the spindle pole from moving toward the equator. Forces in the traps were calculated using the equation F = Q'P/c, where P is the laser power and c is the speed of light. Use of appropriate Q' coefficients gave the forces for stopping pole movements as 0.3-2.3 pN and for stopping chromosome movements in Mesostoma spermatocytes and crane-fly spermatocytes as 2-3 and 6-10 pN, respectively. These forces are close to theoretical calculations of forces causing chromosome movements but 100 times lower than the 700 pN measured previously in grasshopper spermatocytes. PMID:23485565

  9. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    (Mohandas and Evans, 1994) in such cases as sickle cell anemia (Platt, 1995) and malaria (Cooke et al., 2001-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed

  10. Effect of donor-acceptor orientation on ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer and dark charge recombination in porphyrin-quinone molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Yoshiteru; Tsue, Hirohito ); O'Neil, M.P.; Wiederrecht, G.P.; Wasielewski, M.R. )

    1994-07-27

    A series of four zinc porphyrin-spacer-benzoquinone molecules were studied in which the spacer is either spiro[4,4]nonane or trans-decalin. The benzoquinone is attached to the porphyrin at two fixed distances each possessing two fixed orientations of the porphyrin relative to the quinone. The rate constants for photoinduced electron transfer from the lowest excited singlet state of the porphyrin to the quinone to form the Zn porphyrin[sup +]-quinone[sup [minus

  11. Amino Acid-Porphyrin Conjugates: Synthesis and Study of their Photophysical and Metal Ion Recognition Properties.

    PubMed

    Paul, Albish K; Karunakaran, Suneesh C; Joseph, Joshy; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis, photophysical and metal ion recognition properties of a series of amino acid-linked free-base and Zn-porphyrin derivatives (5-9) are reported. These porphyrin derivatives showed favorable photophysical properties including high molar extinction coefficients (>1 × 10(5)  m(-1)  cm(-1) for the Soret band), quantum yields of triplet excited states (63-94%) and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies (59-91%). Particularly, the Zn-porphyrin derivatives, 6 and 9 showed higher molar extinction coefficients, decreased fluorescence quantum yields, and higher triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields compared to the corresponding free-base porphyrin derivatives. Further, the study of their interactions with various metal ions indicated that the proline-conjugated Zn-porphyrins (6 and 9) showed high selectivity toward Cu(2+) ions and signaled the recognition through changes in fluorescence intensity. Our results provide insights on the role of nature of amino acid and metallation in the design of the porphyrin systems for application as probes and sensitizers. PMID:26494428

  12. Encapsulation of chromen-4-one Schiff's bases by C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene and its structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Sowrirajan; Enoch, Israel V. M. V.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the encapsulation of Chromen-4-one Schiff's base derivatives with the host molecule C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene. The stoichiometry, binding constant, and the mode of association of the guest molecules with C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene are investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, and two dimensional Rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser spectroscopic techniques. The stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes is 1:2. The binding constants of the complexes are of the order of 104. The structures of the host-guest complexes are proposed.

  13. Chemically-responsive complexation of a diquaternary salt with bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10 derivatives and host substituent effect on complexation geometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuzhou; Li, Zhengtao; Wei, Peifa; Huang, Feihe

    2013-02-01

    A chemically responsive diquaternary salt with ?-extended surface was made. The host-guest complexation with chemo-responsiveness between three bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10 (BMP32C10) derivatives and this diquaternary salt guest was studied through the sequential addition of basic and acidic reagents (diethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid, respectively). Furthermore, the host-substituent effect on the complexation geometries of these three host-guest complexes, from taco to taco-type threaded to threaded structures by changing the substituent on BMP32C10 as shown by crystal structures, was also addressed. PMID:23320925

  14. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman, 1 Victor Wong, 2 and David G. Grier 1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked transport through an array of holographic optical traps. (a) Holographic trapping system. (b) Phase hologram

  15. Three dimensional optical manipulation and structural imaging of soft materials by use of laser tweezers and multimodal nonlinear microscopy

    E-print Network

    Rahul P. Trivedi; Taewoo Lee; Kris A. Bertness; Ivan I. Smalyukh

    2010-11-17

    We develop an integrated system of holographic optical trapping and multimodal nonlinear microscopy and perform simultaneous three-dimensional optical manipulation and non-invasive structural imaging of composite soft-matter systems. We combine different nonlinear microscopy techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, multi-photon excitation fluorescence and multi-harmonic generation, and use them for visualization of long-range molecular order in soft materials by means of their polarized excitation and detection. The combined system enables us to accomplish both, manipulation in composite soft materials such as colloidal inclusions in liquid crystals as well as imaging of each separate constituents of the composite material in different nonlinear optical modalities. We also demonstrate optical generation and control of topological defects and simultaneous reconstruction of their three-dimensional long-range molecular orientational patterns from the nonlinear optical images.

  16. Laser microtreatment for genetic manipulations and DNA diagnostics by a combination of microbeam and photonic tweezers (laser microbeam trap)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, Karl-Otto; Monajembashi, Shamci; Celeda, D.; Endlich, N.; Eickhoff, Holger; Hoyer, Carsten; Leitz, G.; Weber, Gerd; Scheef, J.; Rueterjans, H.

    1994-12-01

    Genomes of higher organisms are larger than one typically expects. For example, the DNA of a single human cell is almost two meters long, the DNA in the human body covers the distance Earth-Sun approximately 140 times. This is often not considered in typical molecular biological approaches for DNA diagnostics, where usually only DNA of the length of a gene is investigated. Also, one basic aspect of sequencing the human genome is not really solved: the problem how to prepare the huge amounts of DNA required. Approaches from biomedical optics combined with new developments in single molecule biotechnology may at least contribute some parts of the puzzle. A large genome can be partitioned into portions comprising approximately 1% of the whole DNA using a laser microbeam. The single DNA fragment can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction in order to obtain a sufficient amount of molecules for conventional DNA diagnostics or for analysis by octanucleotide hybridization. When not amplified by biotechnological processes, the individual DNA molecule can be visualized in the light microscope and can be manipulated and dissected with the laser microbeam trap. The DNA probes obtained by single molecule biotechnology can be employed for fluorescence in situ introduced into plant cells and subcellular structures even when other techniques fail. Since the laser microbeam trap allows to work in the interior of a cell without opening it, subcellular structures can be manipulated. For example, in algae, such structures can be moved out of their original position and used to study intracellular viscosities.

  17. Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Inclusion Complexes in Competitive Media Including the Interior of Living Cells

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Inclusion Complexes in Competitive Media Including the Interior,6-dicarboxamidopyridine units. Squaraine encapsulation also occurs in highly competitive media such as mixed aqueous membranes.6 Programmed host-guest assembly under these competitive conditions is particularly challenging

  18. Ship-in-a-bottle synthesis of amine-functionalized ionic liquids in NaY zeolite for CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinghao; Mai, Jingzhang; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui; Jiang, Zheng; Wang, Furong

    2014-08-01

    CO2 capture on solid materials possesses significant advantages on the operation cost, process for large-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) that stimulates great interest in exploring high-performance solid CO2 adsorbents. A ship-in-a-bottle strategy was successfully developed to prepare the [APMIM]Br@NaY host-guest system in which an amine-functionalized ionic liquid (IL), 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([APMIM]Br), was in-situ encapsulated in the NaY supercages. The genuine host-guest systems were thoroughly characterized and tested in CO2 capture from simulated flue gas. It was evidenced the encapsulated ILs are more stable than the bulk ILs. These host-guest systems exhibited superb overall CO2 capture capacity up to 4.94 mmol g-1 and the chemically adsorbed CO2 achieved 1.85 mmol g-1 depending on the [APMIM]Br loading amount. The chemisorbed CO2 can be desorbed rapidly by flushing with N2 gas at 50°C. The optimized [APMIM]Br@NaY system remains its original CO2 capture capacity in multiple cycling tests under prolonged harsh adsorption-desorption conditions. The excellent physicochemical properties and the CO2 capture performance of the host-guest systems offer them great promise for the future practice in the industrial CO2 capture.

  19. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite for Demonstrating

    E-print Network

    Peck, Mason A.

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 092407 1 Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite University, Ithaca, NY, 14850 Violet is a highly agile nanosatellite whose primary mission CMGs, Violet is capable of hosting guest investigators' steering algorithms for a variety of CMG

  20. Enhancement of mycotoxin fluorescence with cyclodextrins, and analytical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain of the mycotoxins are known to form host-guest complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs), cyclic oligosaccharides containing a relatively hydrophobic pore. The interactions between mycotoxins and CDs can alter the properties of the mycotoxin, namely the fluorescence, absorption, or chromatographic...

  1. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-print Network

    Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal- Organic Framework Joseph E. Mondloch introduce a new synthetic strategy capable of metallating MOFs from the gas phase: atomic layer deposition and in some instances host- guest interactions may lead to unstable metal@MOFs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD

  2. Light induced processes in thin films of indandione type organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzikante, Inta; Rutkis, Martins; Fonavs, Egils; Stiller, Burkhard; Neher, Dieter; Kampars, Valdis; Pastors, Pauls

    2007-02-01

    The optically induced switching of material properties is important for investigations of opto-electronic effects and optomechanical properties. Investigated organic materials contain chromophore dipole consisting of acceptor and donor groups bridged by a delocalized ?-electron system. Both calculations and experimental data show a reversible highly dipolar photoinduced intra molecular charge transfer in indandione type molecules (DMABI) accompanied by change of the sign and the value of the dipole moment. Investigations of optical properties of thin host-guest polymer films show that the photoinduced process of DMABI is related to the photoinduced switching between two equally stable states of the molecule. In this work first results of formation of the surface relief in polymer films incorporated with DMABI derivatives will be presented. The refractive index gratings of DMABI host-guest films show that red light is less diffracted than blue one. The reversible surface potential changes on irradiation in photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer band in polymer host-guest films is observed. The DMABI molecules in solid state have nonlinear optical properties, which can be used and investigated in host-guest polymer matrix. The influence of concentration of DMABI molecules on photoinduced processes is discussed.

  3. Interactions between Copper(II) Complexes of Mono-, Bis-, and Tris(macrocyclic) Ligands and Inorganic or Organic Guests

    E-print Network

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    FULL PAPER Interactions between Copper(II) Complexes of Mono-, Bis-, and Tris(macrocyclic) Ligands. Prikhod'ko,[b] and Hans Pritzkow[a] Keywords: Copper / Host-guest complexes / Macrocycles / Molecular recognition Template synthesis The copper(II)-assisted condensation of [Cu(2,3,2-tet)]2+ [2,3,2-tet = bis

  4. Supramolecular Assembly of an Evolved Miniprotein Host and Fluorogenic Guest Pair.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi; Zhou, Xinqi; Stains, Cliff I

    2015-11-18

    Small-molecule-induced assembly of defined protein structures could have broad implications for the fabrication of new materials as well as biological signaling pathways. However, the design of new host-guest pairs capable of small-molecule-induced assembly in a biologically relevant context remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a series of miniprotein hosts, evolved from the tenth type III domain of fibronectin (Fn3), that display remarkable binding affinity toward a red-shifted environment-sensitive merocyanine derivative, termed sI-Pht. Importantly, the consensus binder isolated from directed evolution experiments (6.2.18) forms a higher order assembly in response to addition of sI-Pht, as assessed by analytical ultracentrifugation. sI-Pht-induced assembly of 6.2.18 results in a 570-fold increase in fluorescence compared to free dye. This property enables the direct visualization of host-guest assemblies by fluorescence microscopy. As a demonstration, we show that supramolecular assembly of the 6.2.18-sI-Pht system can be visualized on the surface of living yeast cells. This new host-guest pair provides a tool for the potential development of new materials as well as pathway engineering. In a broader context, this work details a new design paradigm for the discovery of host-guest systems that function in the context of living cells. PMID:26523606

  5. High-Pressure Diffraction Studies of Rubidium Phase IV 

    E-print Network

    Lundegaard, Lars Fahl

    2007-01-01

    Rb-IV is the stable high-pressure phase of rubidium between 16 and 21 GPa. The structure of Rb-IV has long been known to be complex, but it is only recently that it has been solved as being an incommensurate host-guest ...

  6. A new Fe[superscript II] quaterpyridyl M[subscript 4]L[subscript 6] tetrahedron exhibiting selective anion binding

    SciTech Connect

    Glasson, Christopher R.K.; Meehan, George V.; Clegg, Jack K.; Lindoy, Leonard F.; Turner, Peter; Duriska, Martin B.; Willis, Rick

    2008-11-03

    A rigid linear bis-bidentate quaterpyridine undergoes metal directed self-assembly with iron(II) salts yielding M{sub 4}L{sub 6} host-guest complexes; selective anion binding for PF{sub 6}{sup -} over BR{sub 4}{sup -} is observed.

  7. Ditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes as unique receptors for efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Wu, Lei; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Wen; Liu, Ning; Xu, Dingguo; Li, Shoujian; Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-03-11

    A unique host-guest recognition process involving a new class of homoditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes and lanthanides was revealed to proceed in a stepwise manner, and correlated with the efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III) under acidic feed conditions. PMID:25671799

  8. A case of cyclodextrin-catalyzed self-assembly of an amphiphile into microspheres

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    A case of cyclodextrin-catalyzed self-assembly of an amphiphile into microspheres Li Zhao-containing amphiphile TTC4L into microspheres. TT4CL can form precipitates when CDs are not present, whereas it self-assembly of cucurbit[n]uril. An amphiphile is required to form host­guest inclusion complexes before the self

  9. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  10. The role of dimeric molecules of metalloporphyrins in phototransfer of an electron through liposome membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yusupov, R.G.; Asanov, A.N.; Khairutdinov, R.F.

    1985-08-10

    The possibility of the participation of dimers of Mg and Zn porphyrins in phototransfer of an electron through the liposome membrane is demonstrated. The authors discovered and investigated two-quantum photoionization of the dimers of some metalloporphyrins (MP) with electron transfer to great distances in glassy concentrated solutions of MP in alcohol matrices in the absence of photoionization of the monomeric molecules. Charge separation in solutions of liposomes sensitized by MP at low temperatures and apparently also at ca 20 degrees C takes place according to a mechanism of two-quantum photoionization of dimeric molecules of the metalloporphyrins.

  11. Using Hansen solubility parameters to study the encapsulation of caffeine in MOFs.

    PubMed

    Paseta, Lorena; Potier, Grégory; Abbott, Steven; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-02-14

    Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) have found their greatest use in the evaluation of solvent-polymer chemical interactions. Given their great interest among the scientific community, host-guest interactions in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with organic and inorganic moieties, could benefit from a HSP approach. In this work we have initiated the application of HSP to the study of caffeine encapsulation in MOFs ZIF-8 and NH2-MIL-88B(Fe). However, the availability of HSP for MOFs is nearly zero. As a first step to evaluating the potential of HSP for rational design we have made the simplifying assumption that the HSP distance of the caffeine-ligand interaction (i.e. ignoring the metal and the MOF structure) dominates the ability to form a MOF host-guest system. Although much work remains to be done, the first indications are that this approach has much potential. PMID:25474549

  12. The Synthesis and Anion Recognition Property of Symmetrical Chemosensors Involving Thiourea Groups: Theory and Experiments.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xuefang; Yang, Zhenhua; Fu, Jiajia; Zhao, Peipei; Xu, Xiufang

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of four symmetrical compounds containing urea/thiourea and anthracene/nitrobenzene groups was optimized. N,N'-Di((anthracen-9-yl)-methylene) thio-carbonohydrazide showed sensitive and selective binding ability for acetate ion among the studied anions. The presence of other competitive anions including F(-), H?PO?(-), Cl(-), Br(-) and I(-) did not interfere with the strong binding ability. The mechanism of the host-guest interaction was through multiple hydrogen bonds due to the conformational complementarity and higher basicity. A theoretical investigation explained that intra-molecular hydrogen bonds existed in the compound which could strengthen the anion binding ability. In addition, molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay were introduced in order to explain the red-shift phenomenon in the host-guest interaction process. Compounds based on thiourea and anthracene derivatives can thus be used as a chemosensor for detecting acetate ion in environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:26561816

  13. One-dimensional chain melting in incommensurate potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, E. E.; Munro, K. A.; Stinton, G. W.; Husband, R. J.; Briggs, R.; Liermann, H.-P.; McMahon, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    Between 19 and 54 GPa, potassium has a complex composite incommensurate host-guest structure which undergoes two intraphase transitions over this pressure range. The temperature dependence of these host-guest phases is further complicated by the onset of an order-disorder transition in their guest chains. Here, we report single-crystal, quasi-single-crystal, and powder synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements of this order-disorder phenomenon in incommensurate potassium to 47 GPa and 750 K. The so-called chain melting transition is clearly visible over a 22 GPa pressure range, and there are significant changes in the slope of the phase boundary which divides the ordered and disordered phases, one of which results from the intraphase transitions in the guest structure.

  14. External and Internal Guest Binding of a Highly Charged Supramolecular Host in Water: Deconvoluting the Very Different Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sgarlata, Carmelo; Mugridge, Jeffrey; Pluth, Michael; Tiedemann,, Bryan; Zito, Valeria; Arena, Giuseppe; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-07-22

    NMR, UV-vis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements probe different aspects of competing host-guest equilibria as simple alkylammonium guest molecules interact with both the exterior (ion-association) and interior (encapsulation) of the [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} supramolecular assembly in water. Data obtained by each independent technique measure different components of the host-guest equilibria and only when analyzed together does a complete picture of the solution thermodynamics emerge. Striking differences between the internal and external guest binding are found. External binding is enthalpy driven and mainly due to attractive interactions between the guests and the exterior surface of the assembly while encapsulation is entropy driven as a result of desolvation and release of solvent molecules from the host cavity.

  15. Monitoring the Wet-Heat Inactivation Dynamics of Single Spores of Bacillus Species by Using Raman Tweezers, Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy, and Nucleic Acid Dye Fluorescence Microscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Kong, Lingbo; Wang, Guiwen; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic processes during wet-heat treatment of individual spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis at 80 to 90°C were investigated using dual-trap Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and nucleic acid stain (SYTO 16) fluorescence microscopy. During spore wet-heat treatment, while the spores' 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ with dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) was released rapidly at a highly variable time Tlag, the levels of spore nucleic acids remained nearly unchanged, and the Tlag times for individual spores from the same preparation were increased somewhat as spore levels of CaDPA increased. The brightness of the spores' DIC image decreased by ?50% in parallel with CaDPA release, and there was no spore cortex hydrolysis observed. The lateral diameters of the spores' DIC image and SYTO 16 fluorescence image also decreased in parallel with CaDPA release. The SYTO 16 fluorescence intensity began to increase during wet-heat treatment at a time before Tlag and reached maximum at a time slightly later than Trelease. However, the fluorescence intensities of wet-heat-inactivated spores were ?15-fold lower than those of nutrient-germinated spores, and this low SYTO 16 fluorescence intensity may be due in part to the low permeability of the dormant spores' inner membranes to SYTO 16 and in part to nucleic acid denaturation during the wet-heat treatment. PMID:21602365

  16. This document contains the draft version of the following paper: A. G. Banerjee, S. Chowdhury, and S. K. Gupta. Optical Tweezers: Autonomous

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    that typically consists of a liquid-filled glass slide. The trapped cell can, thus, be translated and rotated manipulation, thereby avoiding dam- ages due to contact friction or surface chemistry. Cells are also easily of split beams that can be generated and goes up to a hundred. A representative holographic OT set-up

  17. Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 Nanotechnology 21 245102 Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 245102 (9pp) doi:10 be transported both along and against the flow of surrounding fluid, and can also be exploded to cause

  18. Towards multielectron photocatalysis: a porphyrin array for lateral hole transfer and capture on a metal oxide surface.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bradley J; Durrell, Alec C; Koepf, Matthieu; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-05-21

    Current molecular water-oxidation photoelectrocatalytic cells have substantial kinetic limitations under normal solar photon flux where electron-hole recombination processes may outcompete charge buildup on the catalytic centers. One method of overcoming these limitations is to design a system where multiple light-harvesting dyes work cooperatively with a single catalyst. We report a porphyrin monomer/dyad array for analysis of lateral hole transfer on a SnO2 surface consisting of a free-base porphyrin that functions to absorb light and initiate charge injection into the conduction band of SnO2, which leaves a positive charge on the organic moiety, and a free-base porphyrin/Zn-porphyrin dyad molecule that functions as a thermodynamic trap for the photoinduced holes. By using transient absorption spectroscopy, we have determined that the holes on the surface-bound free-base porphyrins are highly mobile via electron self-exchange between close-packed neighbors. The lateral charge-transfer processes were modelled by treating the system statistically with a random-walk method that utilizes experimentally derived kinetic parameters. The results of the modelling indicate that each self-exchange (hop) occurs within 25 ns and that the holes are efficiently transferred to the Zn-porphyrin. This hole-harvesting scheme provides a framework for enhancing the efficiency of multielectron photoelectrocatalytic reactions such as the four-electron oxidation of water. PMID:25904199

  19. Metallosupramolecular poly[2]pseudorotaxane constructed by metal coordination and crown-ether-based molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peifa; Li, Jinying; Yan, Xuzhou; Zhou, Qizhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10 derivative bearing two ?-extended pyridyl groups was synthesized, and its host-guest complexation with a paraquat derivative to form a threaded [2]pseudorotaxane was studied. Subsequently, a poly[2]pseudorotaxane was constructed with a metallosupramolecular polymer backbone via metal coordination, which was comprehensively confirmed by the combination of (1)H NMR, (31)P{(1)H} NMR, DOSY NMR, DLS, and EDX techniques. PMID:24328434

  20. A novel supramolecular polymer gel constructed by crosslinking pillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers through metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pi; Xing, Hao; Xia, Danyu; Ji, Xiaofan

    2015-12-21

    A novel heteroditopic A-B monomer was synthesized and used to construct linear supramolecular polymers utilizing pillar[5]arene-based host-guest interactions. Specifically, upon addition of Cu(2+) ions, the supramolecular polymer chains are crosslinked through metal-ligand interactions, resulting in the formation of a supramolecular polymer gel. Interestingly, this self-organized supramolecular polymer can be used as a novel fluorescent sensor for detecting Cu(2+) ions. PMID:26466511