Sample records for zn-porphyrin tweezer host-guest

  1. Chiral Recognition by CD-Sensitive Dimeric Zinc Porphyrin Host. 2. Structural Studies of Host-Guest Complexes with Chiral Alcohol and

    E-print Network

    Nesnas, Nasri

    Chiral Recognition by CD-Sensitive Dimeric Zinc Porphyrin Host. 2. Structural Studies of Host: A structural study of complexes formed between a dimeric zinc porphyrin tweezer (host) and chiral monoalcohols the preferred porphyrin helicity of 1:1 host-guest complexes. NMR experiments and molecular modeling of selected

  2. The Design of Molecular Hosts, Guests, and Their Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the origins, definitions, tools, and principles of host-guest chemistry. Gives examples of chiral recognition in complexation, of partial transacylase mimics, of caviplexes, and of a synthetic molecular cell. (Author/RT)

  3. Interfacial assembly of dendritic microcapsules with host-guest chemistry

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yu; Yu, Ziyi; Parker, Richard M.; Wu, Yuchao; Abell, Chris; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-12-16

    microdroplet, the interfacial assembly of pre-formed polymeric materials to form multi-layer amphiphilic microcapsules has not yet been demon- strated. Supramolecular host-guest chemistry has been ap- plied in the preparation of various self... , J., Loh, X. J., Das, D., Lee, T.- C., and Scherman, O. A. Supramolecular peptide amphiphile vesicles through host-guest complexa- tion. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 9633–7 (2012). [17] Kim, E., Kim, D., Jung, H., Lee, J., Paul, S., Selvapalam, N., Yang...

  4. Dual stimuli-responsive, rechargeable micropumps via "host-guest" interactions.

    PubMed

    Patra, Debabrata; Zhang, Hua; Sengupta, Samudra; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-09-24

    We demonstrate a supramolecular approach to the fabrication of self-powered micropumps based on "host-guest" molecular recognition between ?- and ?-cyclodextrin and trans-azobenzene. Both hydrogels and surface coatings based on host-guest partners were used as scaffolds to devise the micropumps. These soft micropumps are dual stimuli-responsive and can be actuated either by light or by introducing guest molecules. Furthermore, the micropumps can be recharged through reversible host-guest interaction. PMID:23947612

  5. An order-disorder ferroelectric host-guest inclusion compound.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2014-02-17

    The host-guest complex [(DIPA)([18]crown-6)](ClO4) (1; DIPA=2,6-diisopropylanilinium) was constructed and found to undergo a sequence of phase transitions (Ibam-Pbcn-Pna21) at T1=278?K and T2=132?K, respectively. Systematic characterizations, such as differential scanning calorimetry, heat capacity, temperature-dependent dielectric constant, and P-E hysteresis loop, reveal that the centrosymmetric-to-polar phase transition at T2 is a paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition. The symmetry breaking was also confirmed by temperature-dependent second-harmonic generation effect and X-ray powder diffraction. The ferroelectric mechanism is attributable to the linear motion of the perchlorate counterions accompanied by the order-disorder transition of the [18]crown-6 molecules and the anions. PMID:24497326

  6. Molecular characterization of two host-guest associating hyaluronan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Mendichi, R

    2003-09-01

    Molecular characteristics were determined of two high-molecular-weight water-soluble hyaluronan derivatives, namely beta-cyclodextrin (HA-beta-CD) and N-acylurea (EDC-HA). The weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) of HA-beta-CD and of EDC-HA, determined with a multi-angle light scattering detector connected on-line to a size exclusion chromatographic system, was respectively 185.3 and 86.8 kDa. However the M(w) value determined for the equimolar mixture of the two HA derivatives equaled 556.0 kDa. Similarly, the gyration radius of the above equimolar mixture, Rg = 80.6 nm, was significantly greater than the values found for the single HA derivative, i.e. 40.2 nm for HA-beta-CD and 23.8 nm for EDC-HA. These data indicate that the two kinds of substituents, bound to the polymeric chains, form host-guest/inclusion complexes resulting in polymacromolecular associates/aggregates. PMID:13680848

  7. Redox-responsive self-healing materials formed from host–guest polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Nakahata; Yoshinori Takashima; Hiroyasu Yamaguchi; Akira Harada

    2011-01-01

    Expanding the useful lifespan of materials is becoming highly desirable, and self-healing and self-repairing materials may become valuable commodities. The formation of supramolecular materials through host–guest interactions is a powerful method to create non-conventional materials. Here we report the formation of supramolecular hydrogels and their redox-responsive and self-healing properties due to host–guest interactions. We employ cyclodextrin (CD) as a host

  8. A semiconducting organic radical cationic host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Sampath, Srinivasan; Late, Dattatray J; Barnes, Jonathan C; Kleinman, Samuel L; Valley, Nicholas; Hartlieb, Karel J; Liu, Zhichang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-11-27

    The self-assembly and solid-state semiconducting properties of single crystals of a trisradical tricationic complex composed of the diradical dicationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(2(•+))) ring and methyl viologen radical cation (MV(•+)) are reported. An organic field effect transistor incorporating single crystals of the CBPQT(2(•+))?MV(•+) complex was constructed using lithographic techniques on a silicon substrate and shown to exhibit p-type semiconductivity with a mobility of 0.05 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The morphology of the crystals on the silicon substrate was characterized using scanning electron microscopy which revealed that the complexes self-assemble into "molecular wires" observable by the naked-eye as millimeter long crystalline needles. The nature of the recognition processes driving this self-assembly, radical-radical interactions between bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY(•+)), was further investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with theoretical investigations of the vibrational modes, and was supported by X-ray structural analyses of the complex and its free components in both their radical cationic and dicationic redox states. These spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the bond order of the BIPY(•+) radical cationic units of host and guest components is not changed upon complexation, an observation which relates to its conductivity in the solid-state. We envision the modularity inherent in this kind of host-guest complexation could be harnessed to construct a library of custom-made electronic organic materials tailored to fit the specific needs of a given electronic application. PMID:23078281

  9. Supramolecular polymers constructed by orthogonal self-assembly based on host-guest and metal-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peifa; Yan, Xuzhou; Huang, Feihe

    2015-02-01

    Supramolecular polymers constructed by orthogonal self-assembly based on host-guest and metal-ligand interactions are attracting increasing attention currently because of their interesting properties and potential applications. Host-guest interactions impart these polymers with good selectivity and convenient enviro-responsiveness, and metal-ligand interactions endow them with various coordination geometries, strong yet tunable coordination binding abilities, as well as magnetic, redox, photophysical, and electrochromic properties. Therefore, supramolecular polymers constructed by orthogonal host-guest and metal-ligand interactions have wide applications in the fields of soft matter, fluorescence sensing, heterocatalysis, electronics, gas storage, etc. In this critical review, we will address the recent development of supramolecular polymeric systems involving metal-ligand interactions and host-guest molecular recognition. Specifically, we classify the related supramolecular polymers depending on the types of macrocyclic hosts, and highlight their intriguing properties originating from the elegant combination of host-guest complexation and metal centers. PMID:25423355

  10. An efficient multiple healing conductive composite via host-guest inclusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Li; Ju, Xin; Li, Luo-Hao; Kang, Yang; Gong, Xiao-Lei; Li, Bang-Jing; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-04-14

    A self-healable conductive composite is developed by combining the small molecules and nanotubes through host-guest interactions. This material shows uniform conductivity, microwave absorption and humidity sensing properties, and can be rapidly healed to over 90% electrical and mechanical properties with the aid of water multiple times. In addition, the produced material is also remouldable and recyclable. PMID:25761433

  11. Supramolecular Chemistry: Induced Circular Dichroism to Study Host-Guest Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendicuti, Francisco; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students obtain information about the structure of a host-guest complex from the interpretation of circular dichroism measurements. The value and sign of the induced circular dichroism (ICD) on an achiral chromophore guest when it complexes with a cyclodextrin can be related to the guest penetration and its…

  12. Cyclodextrin-based host-guest supramolecular nanoparticles for delivery: from design to applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Da; Tang, Gu-Ping; Chu, Paul K

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Efficient assembly in host-guest interactions is crucial to supramolecular nanotechnology. Cyclodextrins (CDs), which possess a hydrophilic exterior surface and hydrophobic interior cavity on the truncated cone, improve the biocompatibility of nanodelivery systems, and hence, supramolecular approaches utilizing CDs can improve and expand the design and applications of functional delivery systems. Owing to good inclusion ability, ?CD and ?CD are commonly used in the design and construction of supramolecular structures. In this Account, we describe the design strategies to adopt CDs in host-guest delivery systems. Modification of CDs with polymers is popular in current research due to the potential benefits rendered by cationic protection and improved capability. While the process has only minor influence on the host characteristics of the CD cavity, the interaction between the CD and the guest moiety imparts new attributes to the nanosystems with guest-decorated functional groups such as adamantyl poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for coating protection, hybrid guests for conformational flexibility, and adamantyl prodrugs for drug delivery. Some specific agents form inclusion complexes with the polymerized ?CDs directly and core-shell nanoparticles with hydrophobic cores and are usually created to carry insoluble drugs while the hydrophilic shells offer protection. These unique designs provide the means to practically adapt special characteristics for additional functions or co-delivery. In order to be accepted clinically, delivery systems need to possess extra functions such as controlled particle size, biodegradability, controlled release, and targeted delivery to overcome the hurdles in delivery. These features can be added to biomaterials by self-assembly of functional groups facilitated by the host-guest interactions. Size control by hybridization of switchable polymer compartments in supramolecular structures contributes to the biodistribution utility and biodegradability by incorporating the moieties with hydrolyzable connections and enhancing intracellular degradation and clearance. Controlled release by application of responsive structures like molecular gatings eased by the host-guest interaction can be triggered by the tumor microenvironment at extreme pH and temperature or by external stimuli such as light. Along with the binding selectivity and controlled release, the host-guest nanoparticles show enhanced efficacy in delivery especially to tumors. Recent developments in supramolecular co-delivery systems are described in this Account. Nanoparticles can be designed to carry adamantyl prodrugs and therapeutic nucleotides to tumors so that the released drugs and gene expression synergistically inhibit malignant tissue growth. Optimization of nanoparticle delivery systems by multifunctional transitions yields better biocompatibility and controlled response, and such novel designs will expedite in vivo applications. Hence, multifunctional CD-based host-guest supramolecular nanoparticles with co-delivery ability are expected to have many potential clinical applications. PMID:24873201

  13. Redox-responsive self-healing materials formed from host–guest polymers

    PubMed Central

    Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Expanding the useful lifespan of materials is becoming highly desirable, and self-healing and self-repairing materials may become valuable commodities. The formation of supramolecular materials through host–guest interactions is a powerful method to create non-conventional materials. Here we report the formation of supramolecular hydrogels and their redox-responsive and self-healing properties due to host–guest interactions. We employ cyclodextrin (CD) as a host molecule because it is environmentally benign and has diverse applications. A transparent supramolecular hydrogel quickly forms upon mixing poly(acrylic acid) (pAA) possessing ?-CD as a host polymer with pAA possessing ferrocene as a guest polymer. Redox stimuli induce a sol?gel phase transition in the supramolecular hydrogel and can control self-healing properties such as re-adhesion between cut surfaces. PMID:22027591

  14. Stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on the recognition of cryptands by organic guests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Xuzhou; Huang, Feihe; Niu, Zhenbin; Gibson, Harry W

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: As the star compounds in host-guest chemistry, the syntheses of crown ethers proclaimed the birth of supramolecular chemistry. Crown ether-based host-guest systems have attracted great attention in self-assembly processes because of their good selectivity, high efficiency, and convenient responsiveness, enabling their facile application to the "bottom-up" approach for construction of functional molecular aggregates, such as artificial molecular machines, drug delivery materials, and supramolecular polymers. Cryptands, as preorganized derivatives of crown ethers, not only possess the above-mentioned properties but also have three-dimensional spatial structures and higher association constants compared with crown ethers. More importantly, the introduction of the additional arms makes cryptand-based host-guest systems responsive to more stimuli, which is crucial for the construction of adaptive or smart materials. In the past decade, we designed and synthesized crown ether-based cryptands as a new type of host for small organic guests with the purpose of greatly increasing the stabilities of the host-guest complexes and preparing mechanically interlocked structures and large supramolecular systems more efficiently while retaining or increasing their stimuli-responsiveness. Organic molecules such as paraquat derivatives and secondary ammonium salts have been widely used in the fabrication of functional supramolecular aggregates. Many host molecules including crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils, pillararenes, and cryptands have been used in the preparation of self-assembled structures with these guest molecules, but among them cryptands exhibit the best stabilities with paraquat derivatives in organic solvents due to their preorganization and additional and optimized binding sites. They enable the construction of sophisticated molecules or supramolecules in high yields, affording a very efficient way to fabricate stimuli-responsive functional supramolecular systems. This Account mainly focuses on the application of cryptands in the construction of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and stimuli-responsive host-guest systems such as molecular switches and supramolecular polymers due to their good host-guest properties. These cryptands are bicyclic derivatives of crown ethers, including dibenzo-24-crown-8, bis(m-phenylene)-26-crown-8, dibenzo-30-crown-10, and bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10. The length of the third arm has a very important influence on the binding strength of these cryptands with organic guests, because it affects not only the size fit between the host and the guest but also the distances and angles that govern the strengths of the noncovalent interactions between the host and the guest. For example, for bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10-based cryptands, a third arm of nine atoms is the best. The environmental responsiveness of these cryptand-based host-guest systems arises from either the crown ether units or the third arms. For example, a dibenzo-24-crown-8 unit introduces potassium cation responsiveness and an azobenzene group on the third arm imbues photoresponsiveness. We believe that studies on stimuli-responsive host-guest systems based on cryptands and organic guests will contribute significantly to future research on molecular devices, supramolecular polymers, and other functional supramolecular materials. PMID:24804805

  15. Pressure dependence of the elastic properties of composite host/guest type crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielcarek, S.; Trzaskowska, A.; Mroz, B.; Breczewski, T.

    2008-09-01

    The elastic properties of host/guest type composite crystals, with urea as the host and an alkane as the guest, have been studied by Brillouin spectroscopy as a function of hydrostatic pressure. The effect of changing hydrostatic pressure in the range from 0 to 1400 bar on the propagation of acoustic phonons has been determined using three gases—helium, nitrogen and argon—as the pressure-exerting media.

  16. ß-Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Complexes Probed under Thermodynamic Equilibrium: Thermodynamics and AFM Force Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasso Auletta; Jong de Menno R; Alart Mulder; Veggel van Frank C. J. M; Jurriaan Huskens; David N. Reinhoudt; Shan Zou; Szczepan Zapotoczny; Holger Schönherr; G. Julius Vancso; Laurens Kuipers

    2004-01-01

    The rupture forces of individual host-guest complexes between ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) heptathioether monolayers on Au(111) and several surface-confined guests were measured in aqueous medium by single molecule force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope. Anilyl, toluidyl, tert-butylphenyl, and adamantylthiols (0.2-1%) were immobilized in mixed monolayers with 2-mercaptoethanol on gold-coated AFM tips. For all guests and for all surface coverages, the force-displacement

  17. Porphyrinic supramolecular daisy chains incorporating pillar[5]arene-viologen host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Fathalla, Maher; Strutt, Nathan L; Sampath, Srinivasan; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Hartlieb, Karel J; Bakr, Osman M; Fraser Stoddart, J

    2015-06-16

    A porphyrin functionalised with pillar[5]arene and a viologen at its 5- and 15-meso positions assembles in a head-to-tail manner, producing linear supramolecular daisy chains in dichloromethane. At high concentrations, it forms an organogel which has been investigated by electron microscopy and rheological measurements, paving the way for the preparation of other functional supramolecular assemblies which harness viologen?pillararene host-guest interactions. PMID:26027650

  18. Self-healing supramolecular gels formed by crown ether based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Chen, Jianzhuang; Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Huang, Feihe

    2012-07-01

    Automatic repair: a polymer with pendent dibenzo[24]crown-8 units (purple in picture) was cross-linked by two bisammonium salts (green) to form two supramolecular gels based on host-guest interactions. These two gels are stimuli-responsive materials that respond to changes of the pH value and are also self-healing materials, as can be seen by eye and as evidenced by rheological data. PMID:22653895

  19. Microcalorimetric determination of thermodynamic parameters for ionophore-siderophore host-guest complex formation.

    PubMed

    Trzaska, S M; Toone, E J; Crumbliss, A L

    2000-03-20

    Thermodynamic parameters (delta H, delta S, and delta G) were determined by microcalorimetry in wet chloroform for host-guest assembly formation involving second-sphere complexation of the siderophore ferrioxamine B by crown ether (18-crown-6, cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, benzo-18-crown-6) and cryptand (2.2.2 cryptand) hosts. Similar data were also collected for the same hosts with the pentylammonium ion guest, which corresponds to the pendant pentylamine side chain of ferroxamine B. Host-guest assembly formation constants (Ka) obtained from microcalorimetry agree with values obtained indirectly from chloroform/water extraction studies in those cases where comparable data are available. On the basis of a trend established by the pentylammonium guest, an enhanced stability relative to the crown ethers is observed for the assembly composed of ferrioxamine B and 2.2.2 cryptand that is due to entropic effects. Trends in delta H and delta S with changes in host and guest structure are discussed and attributed directly to host-guest complex formation, as solvation effects were determined to be insignificant (delta Cp = 0). PMID:12526393

  20. Host-guest complexation of a pyrogallol[4]arene derivative at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Pumilia, Cyrus; Malagon, Andres; Vargas, Edgar F; Li, Shanghao; Leblanc, Roger M

    2015-02-01

    The host-guest properties of acetylated aryl pyrogallol[4]arene (AcPy) were studied as a Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. The self-assembled Langmuir monolayer properties and interactions with monovalent and divalent metal cations were investigated using surface pressure- and surface potential-area isotherms, compression-decompression cycles, stability, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). A favorable interaction is observed for complexation between acetylated aryl pyrogallol[4]arene with divalent calcium and cadmium cations, while no interaction is observed for monovalent sodium and potassium cations. Spectroscopic techniques allow for discrimination between cadmium and calcium complexation. PMID:25588110

  1. Reversible phase transfer of nanoparticles based on photoswitchable host-guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; You, Mingxu; Wu, Cuichen; Han, Da; Öçsoy, Ismail; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2014-03-25

    An azobenzene-containing surfactant was synthesized for the phase transfer of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)-capped gold nanoparticles between water and toluene phases by host-guest chemistry. With the use of the photoisomerization of azobenzene, the reversible phase transfer of gold nanoparticles was realized by irradiation with UV and visible light. Furthermore, the phase transfer scheme was applied for the quenching of a reaction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles, as well as the recovery and recycling of the gold nanoparticles from aqueous solutions. This work will have significant impact on materials transfer and recovery in catalysis and biotechnological applications. PMID:24524295

  2. Reversible Phase Transfer of Nanoparticles Based on Photoswitchable Host–Guest Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An azobenzene-containing surfactant was synthesized for the phase transfer of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)-capped gold nanoparticles between water and toluene phases by host–guest chemistry. With the use of the photoisomerization of azobenzene, the reversible phase transfer of gold nanoparticles was realized by irradiation with UV and visible light. Furthermore, the phase transfer scheme was applied for the quenching of a reaction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles, as well as the recovery and recycling of the gold nanoparticles from aqueous solutions. This work will have significant impact on materials transfer and recovery in catalysis and biotechnological applications. PMID:24524295

  3. Crystallographic observation of 'induced fit' in a cryptophane host–guest model system

    PubMed Central

    Taratula, Olena; Hill, P. Aru; Khan, Najat S.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptophane-A, comprised of two cyclotriguaiacylenes joined by three ethylene linkers, is a prototypal organic host molecule that binds reversibly to neutral small molecules via London forces. Of note are trifunctionalized, water-soluble cryptophane-A derivatives, which exhibit exceptional affinity for xenon in aqueous solution. In this paper, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of cryptophane-A and trifunctionalized derivatives in crown–crown and crown–saddle conformations, as well as in complexes with water, methanol, xenon or chloroform. Cryptophane internal volume varied by more than 20% across this series, which exemplifies 'induced fit' in a model host–guest system. PMID:21266998

  4. Electron collection in host-guest nanostructured hematite photoanodes for water splitting: the influence of scaffold doping density.

    PubMed

    Kondofersky, Ilina; Dunn, Halina K; Müller, Alexander; Mandlmeier, Benjamin; Feckl, Johann M; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Scheu, Christina; Peter, Laurence M; Bein, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructuring has proven to be a successful strategy in overcoming the trade-off between light absorption and hole transport to the solid/electrolyte interface in hematite photoanodes for water splitting. The suggestion that poor electron (majority carrier) collection hinders the performance of nanostructured hematite electrodes has led to the emergence of host-guest architectures in which the absorber layer is deposited onto a transparent high-surface-area electron collector. To date, however, state of the art nanostructured hematite electrodes still outperform their host-guest counterparts, and a quantitative evaluation of the benefits of the host-guest architecture is still lacking. In this paper, we examine the impact of host-guest architectures by comparing nanostructured tin-doped hematite electrodes with hematite nanoparticle layers coated onto two types of conducting macroporous SnO2 scaffolds. Analysis of the external quantum efficiency spectra for substrate (SI) and electrolyte side (EI) illumination reveals that the electron diffusion length in the host-guest electrodes based on an undoped SnO2 scaffold is increased substantially relative to the nanostructured hematite electrode without a supporting scaffold. Nevertheless, electron collection is still incomplete for EI illumination. By contrast, an electron collection efficiency of 100% is achieved by fabricating the scaffold using antimony-doped SnO2, showing that the scaffold conductivity is crucial for the device performance. PMID:25562687

  5. Tunable polymer brush/Au NPs hybrid plasmonic arrays based on host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhaolai; Liu, Wendong; Zhang, Junhu; Xiang, Siyuan; Shen, Huaizhong; Li, Zibo; Yang, Bai

    2014-11-26

    The fabrication of versatile gold nanoparticle (Au NP) arrays with tunable optical properties by a novel host-guest interaction are presented. The gold nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer brushes by host-guest interaction between ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) ligand of gold nanoparticles and dimethylamino group of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). The gold nanoparticle arrays were prepared through the template of PDMAEMA brush patterns which were fabricated combining colloidal lithography and surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The structure parameters of gold nanoparticle patterns mediated by polymer brushes such as height, diameters, periods and distances, could be easily tuned by tailoring the etching time or size of colloidal spheres in the process of colloidal lithography. The change of optical properties induced by different gold nanoparticle structures was demonstrated. The direct utilization of PDMAEMA brushes as guest avoids a series of complicated modification process and the PDMAEMA brushes can be grafted on various substrates, which broaden its applications. The prepared gold naoparticle arrays are promising in applications of nanosensors, memory storage and surface enhanced spectroscopy. PMID:25347749

  6. A stimuli-responsive nanopore based on a photoresponsive host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Meng, Fu-Na; Cao, Chan; Yao, Xuyang; Willner, Itamar; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    The open-close states of the ion channels in a living system are regulated by multiple stimuli such as ligand, pH, potential and light. Functionalizing natural channels by using synthetic chemistry would provide biological nanopores with novel properties and applications. Here we use para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene-based host-guest supramolecular system to develop artificial gating mechanisms aiming at regulating wild-type ?-HL commanded by both ligand and light stimuli. Using the gating property of ?-hemolysin, we studied the host-guest interactions between para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4'-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. Subsequently, we have extended the application of this gating system to the real-time study of light-induced molecular shuttle based on para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4'-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. These experiments provide a more efficient method to develop a general tool to analyze the individual motions of supramolecular systems by using commercially available ?-HL nanopores. PMID:23588705

  7. A Stimuli-Responsive Nanopore Based on a Photoresponsive Host-Guest System

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Meng, Fu-Na; Cao, Chan; Yao, Xuyang; Willner, Itamar; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    The open-close states of the ion channels in a living system are regulated by multiple stimuli such as ligand, pH, potential and light. Functionalizing natural channels by using synthetic chemistry would provide biological nanopores with novel properties and applications. Here we use para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene-based host-guest supramolecular system to develop artificial gating mechanisms aiming at regulating wild-type ?-HL commanded by both ligand and light stimuli. Using the gating property of ?-hemolysin, we studied the host-guest interactions between para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4?-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. Subsequently, we have extended the application of this gating system to the real-time study of light-induced molecular shuttle based on para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene and 4, 4?-dipyridinium-azobenzene at the single-molecule level. These experiments provide a more efficient method to develop a general tool to analyze the individual motions of supramolecular systems by using commercially available ?-HL nanopores. PMID:23588705

  8. Host-guest interactions between molecular clips and multistate systems based on flavylium salts.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel; Parola, A Jorge; Bastkowski, Frank; Polkowska, Jolanta; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit

    2009-07-01

    Flavylium salts contain the basic structure and show a pH-dependent sequence of reactions identical to natural anthocyanins, which are responsible for most of the red and blue colors of flowers and fruits. In this work we investigated the effect of the water-soluble molecular clips C1 and C2 substituted by hydrogen phosphate or sulfate groups on the stability and reactions of the flavylium salts 1-4 by the use of UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopy as well as of the time-resolved pH jump and flash photolysis methods. Clip C1 forms highly stable host-guest complexes with the flavylium salts 1 and 2 and the quinoidal base 3A in methanol. The binding constants were determined by fluorometric titration to be log K = 4.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. Large complexation-induced (1)H NMR shifts of guest signals, Delta delta(max), indicate that in the case of the flavylium salts 1 and 2 the pyrylium ring and in the case of the quinoidal base 3A the o-hydroxyquinone ring are preferentially bound inside the clip cavity. Due to the poor solubility of these host-guest complexes in water, the association constants could be only determined in highly diluted aqueous solution by UV-vis titration experiments for the complex formation of clip C1 with the flavylium salt 3AH(+) at pH = 2 and the quinoidal base 3A at pH = 5.3 to be log K = 4.9 for both complexes. Similar results were obtained for the formation of the complexes of the sulfate-substituted clip C2 with flavylium salt 4AH(+) and its quinoidal base 4A which are slightly better soluble in water (log K = 4.3 and 4.0, respectively). According to the kinetic analysis (performed by using the methods mentioned above) the thermally induced trans-cis chalcone isomerization (4Ct --> 4Cc) and the H(2)O addition to flavylium cation 4AH(+) followed by H(+) elimination leading to hemiketal 4B are both retarded in the presence of clip C2, whereas the photochemically induced trans-cis isomerization (4Ct --> 4Cc) is not affected by clip C2. The results presented here are explained with dominating hydrophobic interactions between the molecular clips and the flavylium guest molecules. The other potential interactions (ion-ion, cation-pi, pi-pi, and CH-pi), which certainly determine the structures of these host-guest complexes to a large extent, seem to be of minor importance for their stability. PMID:19485378

  9. Effect of host–guest versus core–shell structure on electrochemical characteristics of vanadium oxide\\/polypyrrole nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg Yu. Posudievsky; Olga A. Kozarenko; Vyacheslav S. Dyadyun; Scott W. Jorgensen; James A. Spearot; Vyacheslav G. Koshechko; Vitaly D. Pokhodenko

    Reduction in cost of lithium ion batteries is essential to the cost walk of electrified vehicles. Electrode microstructure can significantly affect capacity and thus cost. The effect of structure – host–guest versus core–shell – on electrochemical characteristics of transition metal oxide\\/conducting polymer nanocomposites as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries was studied using two types of

  10. Simple Host-Guest Chemistry To Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    -ismagilov@uchicago.edu Abstract: This paper utilizes cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry in a microfluidic device to modulate- -cyclodextrin (MBCD) can efficiently capture a wide variety of detergents commonly used for the stabilization amount of MBCD to the RC sample captured loosely bound detergent from the protein-detergent complex

  11. Self-healing polymer materials constructed by macrocycle-based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianpeng; Yu, Haojie; Wang, Li; Tong, Rongbai; Akram, Muhammad; Chen, Yongsheng; Zhai, Xiaoting

    2015-02-01

    Self-healing polymers, which can spontaneously recover themselves after being ruptured, result in enhanced lifetimes for materials and open up a fascinating direction in material science. Macrocycle-based host-guest interactions, one of the most crucial non-covalent interactions, play a key role in self-healing material fabrication. This review aims to highlight the very recent and important progress made in the area of self-healing polymer materials by focusing on cyclodextrins (CDs), crown ethers, cucurbit[n]urils (CBs), calix[n]arenes and pillar[n]arenes with special guest groups and tailored structures. In addition, we also propose future research directions and hope that this review can in a way reflect the current situation and future trends in this developing area. PMID:25614350

  12. Networked-cage microcrystals for evaluation of host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shohei; Arai, Tatsuhiko; Ikemoto, Koki; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2014-12-31

    We have developed a new synthetic protocol for the preparation of a microcrystalline powder (median size: X50 = 25 ?m) of networked M6L4 cages 1a for the stationary phase of an affinity column on a greater than 50 g scale. Analogously to large single crystals 1b (X50 ? 0.5 mm), microcrystals 1a accommodate guest molecules tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and fullerene (C60) at up to 32 and 35 wt %, respectively. Importantly, the host-guest interactions within networked cages could be evaluated in terms of the retention time from HPLC analysis by using microcrystals 1a as the stationary phase. In this way, favorable guests for networked cages 1 and even solution M6L4 cage 2 could easily be assessed by HPLC. PMID:25495652

  13. Spatially Controlled Out-of-Equilibrium Host-Guest System under Electrochemical Control.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Sven O; Veerbeek, Janneke; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-06-26

    Self-assembly to create molecular and nanostructures is typically performed at the thermodynamic minimum. To achieve dynamic functionalities, such as adaptability, internal feedback, and self-replication, there is a growing focus on out-of-equilibrium systems. This report presents the dynamic self-assembly of an artificial host-guest system at an interface, under control by a dissipative electrochemical process using (electrical) energy, resulting in an out-of-equilibrium system exhibiting a supramolecular surface gradient. The gradient, its steepness, rate of formation, and complex surface composition after backfilling, as well as the surface compositions after switching between the different states of the system, are assessed and supported by modelling. Our method shows for the first time an artificial surface-confined out-of-equilibrium system. The electrochemical process parameters provide not only control over the system in time, but also in space. PMID:26031483

  14. A Universal Strategy for Aptamer-Based Nanopore Sensing through Host-Guest Interactions inside ?-Hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuru; Xie, Jiani; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2015-06-22

    Nanopore emerged as a powerful single-molecule technique over the past two decades, and has shown applications in the stochastic sensing and biophysical studies of individual molecules. Here, we report a versatile strategy for nanopore sensing by employing the combination of aptamers and host-guest interactions. An aptamer is first hybridized with a DNA probe which is modified with a ferrocene?cucurbit[7]uril complex. The presence of analytes causes the aptamer-probe duplex to unwind and release the DNA probe which can quantitatively produce signature current events when translocated through an ?-hemolysin nanopore. The integrated use of magnetic beads can further lower the detection limit by approximately two to three orders of magnitude. Because aptamers have shown robust binding affinities with a wide variety of target molecules, our proposed strategy should be universally applicable for sensing different types of analytes with nanopore sensors. PMID:25966821

  15. The formation of host-guest complexes between surfactants and cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Valente, Artur J M; Söderman, Olle

    2014-03-01

    Cyclodextrins are able to act as host molecules in supramolecular chemistry with applications ranging from pharmaceutics to detergency. Among guest molecules surfactants play an important role with both fundamental and practical applications. The formation of cyclodextrin/surfactant host-guest compounds leads to an increase in the critical micelle concentration and in the solubility of surfactants. The possibility of changing the balance between several intermolecular forces, and thus allowing the study of, e.g., dehydration and steric hindrance effects upon association, makes surfactants ideal guest molecules for fundamental studies. Therefore, these systems allow for obtaining a deep insight into the host-guest association mechanism. In this paper, we review the influence on the thermodynamic properties of CD-surfactant association by highlighting the effect of different surfactant architectures (single tail, double-tailed, gemini and bolaform), with special emphasis on cationic surfactants. This is complemented with an assessment of the most common analytical techniques used to follow the association process. The applied methods for computation of the association stoichiometry and stability constants are also reviewed and discussed; this is an important point since there are significant discrepancies and scattered data for similar systems in the literature. In general, the surfactant-cyclodextrin association is treated without reference to the kinetics of the process. However, there are several examples where the kinetics of the process can be investigated, in particular those where volumes of the CD cavity and surfactant (either the tail or in special cases the head group) are similar in magnitude. This will also be critically reviewed. PMID:24011696

  16. A Structural Model of Polyglutamine Determined from a Host-Guest Method Combining Experiments and Landscape Theory

    PubMed Central

    Finke, John M.; Cheung, Margaret S.; Onuchic, José N.

    2004-01-01

    Modeling the structure of natively disordered peptides has proved difficult due to the lack of structural information on these peptides. In this work, we use a novel application of the host-guest method, combining folding theory with experiments, to model the structure of natively disordered polyglutamine peptides. Initially, a minimalist molecular model (C?C?) of CI2 is developed with a structurally based potential and captures many of the folding properties of CI2 determined from experiments. Next, polyglutamine “guest” inserts of increasing length are introduced into the CI2 “host” model and the polyglutamine is modeled to match the resultant change in CI2 thermodynamic stability between simulations and experiments. The polyglutamine model that best mimics the experimental changes in CI2 thermodynamic stability has 1), a ?-strand dihedral preference and 2), an attractive energy between polyglutamine atoms 0.75-times the attractive energy between the CI2 host Go-contacts. When free-energy differences in the CI2 host-guest system are correctly modeled at varying lengths of polyglutamine guest inserts, the kinetic folding rates and structural perturbation of these CI2 insert mutants are also correctly captured in simulations without any additional parameter adjustment. In agreement with experiments, the residues showing structural perturbation are located in the immediate vicinity of the loop insert. The simulated polyglutamine loop insert predominantly adopts extended random coil conformations, a structural model consistent with low resolution experimental methods. The agreement between simulation and experimental CI2 folding rates, CI2 structural perturbation, and polyglutamine insert structure show that this host-guest method can select a physically realistic model for inserted polyglutamine. If other amyloid peptides can be inserted into stable protein hosts and the stabilities of these host-guest mutants determined, this novel host-guest method may prove useful to determine structural preferences of these intractable but biologically relevant protein fragments. PMID:15345567

  17. Design and synthesis of Tröger's base ditopic receptors: host-guest interactions, a combined theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar Reddy, Manda; Shailaja, Myadaraboina; Manjula, Alla; Premkumar, Joseph Richard; Sastry, Garikapati Narahari; Sirisha, Katukuri; Sarma, Akella Venkata Subrahmanya

    2015-01-28

    Two flexible Tröger's base ditopic receptors C4TB and C5TB incorporating monoaza crown ether were designed and synthesized for bisammonium ion complexation. A comprehensive study of host-guest interactions was established by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Bisammonium chloride (A1) with a shorter alkyl chain spacer showed the highest affinity for the receptors. M06-2X/cc-pVTZ calculations including the solvent effects on host-guest complexes were employed to explain and rationalize the experimental trends. The short N-H···O or N-H···N hydrogen-bond distances observed in the range of 1.71-1.98 Å indicate the existence of a strong charge assisted hydrogen bonding between the host and the guest. The unusual behaviour (higher binding constant) of A5 in (1)H NMR titration is traced to the conformational folding of the guest. PMID:25425264

  18. Host\\/guest complex of ?-cyclodextrin\\/5-thia pentacene-14-one for photoinitiated polymerization of acrylamide in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demet Karaca Balta; Nergis Arsu

    2008-01-01

    ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) was used to complex the photoinitiator, 5-thia pentacene-14-one (TX-A), yielding a water-soluble host\\/guest complex. IR, UV–Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to characterize complexed ?-CD\\/TX-A. Photoinitiated polymerization of acrylamide in water was achieved with ?-CD\\/TX-A in the presence of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Excellent polymerization yields were observed in air saturated solutions when MDEA was added.

  19. Water soluble octa-functionalized POSS: all-click chemistry synthesis and efficient host-guest encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Zheng, Yaochen; Zheng, Shuai; Li, Sipei; Hu, Tiannan; Tang, Aijin; Gao, Chao

    2014-08-14

    A series of water soluble octa-functionalized POSSs were facilely synthesized via thiol-ene and Menschutkin click chemistry. Among them, octa-alkynyl POSS further reacted with azide-terminal alkyl long chains, resulting in a well-defined, amphiphilic octopus-like POSS. For the first time it was used for host-guest encapsulation and it exhibited an ultrahigh loading capability. PMID:24964315

  20. AIE-induced fluorescent vesicles containing amphiphilic binding pockets and the FRET triggered by host-guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yin, Xianpeng; Tian, Tian; Liang, Yun; Li, Weina; Lan, Yue; Li, Jian; Zhou, Meimei; Ju, Yong; Li, Guangtao

    2015-06-25

    A series of tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-bile acid conjugates was described. It was found that the synergetic combination of the distinct properties of TPE and bile acid units could directly afford uniform fluorescent vesicles with amphiphilic binding pockets in the membrane. This structural features of such vesicles provides a unique opportunity for facile construction of functional chemical systems through host-guest chemistry. PMID:26017005

  1. High Precision Measurement of Isotope Effects on Noncovalent Host-Guest Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mugridge, Jeffrey S.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-06-23

    Isotope effects (IEs) are a powerful tool for examining the reactivity of, and interactions between, molecules. Recently, secondary IEs have been used to probe the nature of noncovalent interactions between guest and host molecules in supramolecular systems. While these studies can provide valuable insight into the specific interactions governing guest recognition and binding properties, IEs on noncovalent interactions are often very small and difficult to measure precisely. The Perrin group has developed an NMR titration method capable of determining ratios of equilibrium constants with remarkable precision. They have used this technique to study small, secondary equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs) on the acidity of carboxylic acids and phenols and on the basicity of amines, measuring differences down to thousandths of a pK{sub a} unit. It occurred to us that this titration method can in principle measure relative equilibrium constants for any process which is fast on the NMR timescale and for which the species under comparison are distinguishable by NMR. Here we report the application of this method to measure very small EIEs on noncovalent host-guest interactions in a supramolecular system.

  2. Host–guest complexes between cryptophane-C and chloromethanes revisited

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Z; Soltesova, M; Kowalewski, J; Lang, J; Brotin, T; Dutasta, J-P

    2013-01-01

    Cryptophane-C is composed of two nonequivalent cyclotribenzylene caps, one of which contains methoxy group substituents on the phenyl rings. The two caps are connected by three OCH2CH2O linkers in an anti arrangement. Host–guest complexes of cryptophane-C with dichloromethane and chloroform in solution were investigated in detail by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Variable temperature proton and carbon-13 spectra show a variety of dynamic processes, such as guest exchange and host conformational transitions. The guest exchange was studied quantitatively by exchange spectroscopy measurements or by line-shape analysis. The conformational preferences of the guest-containing host were interpreted through cross-relaxation measurements, providing evidence of the gauche+2 and gauche?2 conformations of the linkers. In addition, the mobility of the chloroform guest inside the cavity was studied by carbon-13 relaxation experiments. Combining different types of evidence led to a detailed picture of molecular recognition, interpreted in terms of conformational selection. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23132654

  3. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  4. Host-guest interactions derived multilayer perylene diimide thin film constructed on a scaffolding porphyrin monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengyuan; Aryal, Gyan H; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Su, Xiaoye; Schmehl, Russell; Liu, Xue; Hu, Jin; Wei, Jiang; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan

    2015-01-13

    The development of methods to grow well-ordered chromophore thin films on solid substrates is of importance because such surface-associated arrays have potential applications in the generation of functional electronic and optical materials and devices. In this article, we demonstrate a straightforward layer-by-layer (LBL) supramolecular deposition strategy to prepare numerous layers (up to 19) of functionalized perylene diimide (PDI) chromophores built upon a covalent scaffolding multivalent porphyrin monolayer. Our thin film formation strategy employs water as the immersion solvent and exploits the ?-cyclodextrin-adamantane host-guest couple in addition to PDI based aromatic stacking. Within the resultant film the porphyrin scaffold is oriented close to parallel to the glass substrate while the PDI chromophores are aligned closer to the surface normal. Together, the porphyrin monolayer and the multi-PDI layers exhibit a large absorption bandwidth in the visible spectrum. Importantly, because a self-assembly strategy was utilized, when a single monolayer of PDI is deposited on the porphyrin scaffolding layer, this PDI monolayer can be readily disassembled by washing with DMF leading to the regeneration of the porphyrin monolayer. The PDI thin film can subsequently be regrown from the regenerated porphyrin surface. The reported LBL strategy will be of broad interest for researchers developing well-organized chromophoric films and materials due to its simplicity as well as the added advantage of being performed in sustainable and cost-effective aqueous media. PMID:25495000

  5. A supramolecular host-guest carrier system for growth factors employing V(H)H fragments.

    PubMed

    Cabanas-Danés, Jordi; Rodrigues, Emilie Dooms; Landman, Ellie; van Weerd, Jasper; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Verrips, Theo; Huskens, Jurriaan; Karperien, Marcel; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-09-10

    A supramolecular strategy is presented for the assembly of growth factors employing His6-tagged single-domain antibodies (VHH). A combination of orthogonal supramolecular interactions of ?-cyclodextrin (?CD)-adamantyl (Ad) host-guest and N-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-histidine (His) interactions was employed to generate reversible and homogeneous layers of growth factors. A single-domain antibody V(H)H fragment was identified to bind to the human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (hBMP6) growth factor and could be recombinantly expressed in E. coli. The V(H)H fragment was equipped with a C-terminal hexahistidine (His6) tether to facilitate the assembly on ?CD surfaces using a linker that contains an Ad group to bind to the ?CD receptors and an NTA moiety to interact with the His6-tag upon cocomplexation of Ni(2+) ions. After exploring the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the V(H)H assemblies on ?CD surfaces using a variety of experimental techniques including microcontact printing (?CP), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), microscale thermophoresis (MST), and theoretical models for determining the thermodynamic behavior of the system, hBMP6 was assembled onto the V(H)H-functionalized surfaces. After analyzing the immobilized hBMP6 using immunostaining, the biological activity of hBMP6 was demonstrated in cell differentiation experiments. Early osteogenic differentiation was analyzed in terms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of KS483-4C3 mouse progenitor cells, and the results indicated that the reversibly immobilized growth factors were functionally delivered to the cells. In conclusion, the supramolecular strategy used here offers the necessary affinity, reversibility, and temporal control to promote biological function of the growth factors that were delivered by this strategy. PMID:25153343

  6. The synthesis and host-guest applications of synthetic receptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osner, Zachary R.

    2011-12-01

    Host-guest chemistry involves the complimentary binding between two molecules. Host molecules have been synthesized to bind negative, positive, and neutral molecules such as proteins and enzymes, and have been used as optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, supramolecular catalysts, and in the pharmaceutical industry as anti-cancer agents.1 The field of nanoscience has exploited guest-host interactions to create optical sensors with colloidal gold and Dip-Pen nanolithography technologies. Gold nanoparticles, have been functionalized with DNA, and have been developed as a selective colorimetric detection system, that upon binding turns the solution from a red to blue in color.2 Cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) 1 is a common supramolecular scaffold that has been previously employed in guest-host chemistry, and the construction of CTV involves the cyclic trimerization of veratryl alcohol via the veratryl cation.3 Due to the rigid bowl shaped structure of CTV, CTV has been shown to act as a host molecule for fullerene-C60.4 Lectin binding receptor proteins are a specific class of proteins found in bacteria, viruses, plants, and animals that can bind to complimentary carbohydrates. It is these lectins that are believed to be responsible for cell-cell interactions and the formation of biofilms in pathenogenic bacteria.5 P. aeruginosa is a pathenogenic bacterium, shown to have a high resistance to many antibiotics, which can form biofilms in human lung tissue, causing respiratory tract infections in patients with compromised immune systems. 5 I will exploit guest-host interactions to create synthetic supramolecular and carbohydrate receptor molecules to that will be of use as biological sensing devices via self-assembled monolayers on solid surfaces and nanoparticle technologies. *Please refer to dissertation for references/footnotes.

  7. Dissolved oxygen amperometric sensor based on layer-by-layer assembly using host–guest supramolecular interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio S. Damos; Rita C. S. Luz; Auro A. Tanaka; Lauro T. Kubota

    2010-01-01

    The development of a simple, efficient and sensitive sensor for dissolved oxygen is proposed using the host–guest binding of a supramolecular complex at a host surface by combining a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mono-(6-deoxy-6-mercapto)-?-cyclodextrin (?CDSH), iron (III) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (FeTMPyP) and cyclodextrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles (CDAuNP). The supramolecular modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. The reduction potential of oxygen

  8. Luminescent host–guest materials of electrostatically adsorbed Eu{sup 3+}(tta){sub 3}-tpyIL on zeolite L crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Wang, Dongyue [Hebei Provincial Key Lab of Green Chemical Technology and High Efficient Energy Saving, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liang, Dong [Tangshan Zhonghao chemical co. Ltd., Hebei 300130 (China); Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuming [Hebei Provincial Key Lab of Green Chemical Technology and High Efficient Energy Saving, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yige, E-mail: wangyige@hebut.edu.cn [Hebei Provincial Key Lab of Green Chemical Technology and High Efficient Energy Saving, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Luminescent host–guest materials exhibiting tunable emission colors by changing the excitation wavelength are obtained by surface modification of terbium(III) bipyridine-loaded zeolite L crystals with the ionic europium(III) complexes. - Highlights: • Luminescent ionic europium(III) complex was synthesized. • Outer surface of zeolite L was modified by electrostatic adsorption of the ionic complex. • Luminescent host–guest material with tunable emission color was obtained. - Abstract: The surface modification of zeolite L crystals with lanthanide complexes was achieved by electrostatic adsorption of ionic europium(III) complexes that are prepared by the reaction of tris(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate) europium(III) dehydrate with an organic salt containing terpyridine moieties on the negative charge-bearing surfaces of zeolite L crystals. Luminescent host–guest materials exhibiting tunable emission colors by changing the excitation wavelength are obtained by surface modification of terbium(III) bipyridine-loaded zeolite L crystals with the ionic europium(III) complexes.

  9. Exploring host-guest interactions of sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin and phenolic acids by chemiluminescence and site-directed molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xunyu; Zhao, Xinfeng; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a rapid method that allows us to characterize the binding interaction of sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD) with five therapeutically important phenolic acids: ferulic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and vanillic acid. The method utilizes a flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) technique that relies on the inhibition of a cyclodextrin-luminol chemiluminescence (CL) by increasing amounts of the phenolic acids (PAs). This loss of CL with increasing amounts of PAs fits the equation lg[(I0-Is)/Is]=lgKPAs+nlg[PAs], allowing calculation of the binding constant (KPAs) and stoichiometric ratio (n). The five phenolic acids and SBE-?-CD formed complexes with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. The binding constants were on the order of 10(7) M(-1). These results showed a good correlation with the scores calculated by molecular docking. Further investigation by site-directed molecular docking and linear correlation analysis revealed that PAs entered the larger cavity of SBE-?-CD and the formation constants mainly depended on the number of hydrogen bond acceptors in the PAs structures. All these results indicate that the CL-based affinity method can be used for direct determination of host-guest inclusion interactions and has great potential to become a reliable alternative for quantitatively studying host-guest binding and drug-protein interactions. PMID:24882270

  10. Remote-controlled release of DNA in living cells via simultaneous light and host-guest mediations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Nie, Yuhong; Yang, Sheng; Xiao, Yue; Li, Jishan; Li, Yinhui; Yang, Ronghua

    2014-10-21

    Using photons as external triggers to realize remote-controlled release of oligonucleotide is superior to other intracellular or external stimulus. UV light is a valid photon-controlled manner due to high efficiency. However, further applications of these approaches in living cells are hampered by the large dose of UV-light irradiation. To address this issue, a simultaneous light and host/guest mediation was proposed in this paper. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) encoding with mercapto-?-cyclodextrin (?CD) served as a carried agent. Azobenzene (Azo), which was labeled on a releasing oligonucleotide, acted as a photochemically controlled switch. Ferrocene (Fc), an excellent guest for inclusion complexation by ?CD, serves as "enhancers" and shifts the equilibrium of the inclusion-exclusion process between trans-Azo and ?CD under UV-light irradiation, thus making the dose of UV-light irradiation reduced obviously. For further application, transfected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer A549 cells were used to determine cellular uptake and gene silencing mediated by our constructed system in vivo. The results demonstrate that by employing Fc host-guest interaction, about 62.4% gene silencing was achieved within 30 min, which is significantly higher than that without Fc competition. Our strategy provides the potential for orthogonal DNA delivery and therapeutic activation that would be capable of achieving higher levels of site-specific activity and reduced amounts of side effects. PMID:25255368

  11. Large scale affinity calculations of cyclodextrin host-guest complexes: Understanding the role of reorganization in the molecular recognition process

    PubMed Central

    Wickstrom, Lauren; He, Peng; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    Host-guest inclusion complexes are useful models for understanding the structural and energetic aspects of molecular recognition. Due to their small size relative to much larger protein-ligand complexes, converged results can be obtained rapidly for these systems thus offering the opportunity to more reliably study fundamental aspects of the thermodynamics of binding. In this work, we have performed a large scale binding affinity survey of 57 ?-cyclodextrin (CD) host guest systems using the binding energy distribution analysis method (BEDAM) with implicit solvation (OPLS-AA/AGBNP2). Converged estimates of the standard binding free energies are obtained for these systems by employing techniques such as parallel Hamitionian replica exchange molecular dynamics, conformational reservoirs and multistate free energy estimators. Good agreement with experimental measurements is obtained in terms of both numerical accuracy and affinity rankings. Overall, average effective binding energies reproduce affinity rank ordering better than the calculated binding affinities, even though calculated binding free energies, which account for effects such as conformational strain and entropy loss upon binding, provide lower root mean square errors when compared to measurements. Interestingly, we find that binding free energies are superior rank order predictors for a large subset containing the most flexible guests. The results indicate that, while challenging, accurate modeling of reorganization effects can lead to ligand design models of superior predictive power for rank ordering relative to models based only on ligand-receptor interaction energies. PMID:25147485

  12. Long-lived charge separation in a rigid pentiptycene bis(crown ether)-Li(+)@C60 host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Supur, Mustafa; Kawashima, Yuki; Ma, Ying-Xian; Ohkubo, Kei; Chen, Chuan-Feng; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-12-25

    We report long-lived charge separation in a highly rigid host-guest complex of pentiptycene bis(crown ether) and Li(+)@C60, in which the pentiptycene framework is actively involved as an electron donor in a photoinduced electron-transfer process to the excited states of Li(+)@C60 through a rigid distance in the complex. PMID:25372926

  13. A host-guest supramolecular complex with photoregulated delivery of nitric oxide and fluorescence imaging capacity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, Noufal; Malanga, Milo; Fraix, Aurore; Jicsinszky, László; Fenyvesi, Éva; Parisi, Tiziana; Colao, Ivana; Sciortino, Maria Teresa; Sortino, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Herein we report the design, preparation, and properties of a supramolecular system based on a tailored nitric oxide (NO) photodonor and a rhodamine-labeled ?-cyclodextrin conjugate. The combination of spectroscopic and photochemical experiments shows the absence of significant interchromophoric interactions between the host and the guest in the excited states. As a result, the complex is able to release NO under the exclusive control of visible light, as unambiguously demonstrated by direct detection of this transient species through an amperometric technique, and exhibits the typical red fluorescence of the rhodamine appendage. The supramolecular complex effectively internalizes in HeLa cancer cells as proven by fluorescence microscopy, shows a satisfactory biocompatibility in the dark, and induces about 50% of cell mortality upon irradiation with visible light. The convergence of all these properties in one single complex makes the present host-guest ensemble an appealing candidate for further delevopment of photoactivatable nanoscaled systems addressed to photostimulated NO-based therapy. PMID:23015376

  14. Luminescent hybrid materials based on zeolite L crystals and lanthanide complexes: host-guest assembly and ultraviolet-visible excitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Bing

    2014-10-15

    Several kinds of host-guest hybrid materials have been synthesized employing a ship in a bottle method by loading 9-hydroxy-2-methylphenalenone (MHPO) or 9-hydroxyphenalen (HPNP) from gas phase into the nanochannels of Ln(3+)-exchanged zeolite L (ZL) crystals (Ln=Gd or Eu). The resulting hybrids without lanthanide ions, MHPO-ZL, HPNP-ZL and the hybrids with lanthanide ions Ln-MHPO-ZL and Ln-HPNP-ZL are characterized with FT-IR, UV-vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence properties of these hybrid materials have been analyzed and discussed, exhibiting the luminescence of Eu(3+) and ligands under the excitation at ultraviolet-visible region. These results provide useful data and can be expected to have potential application in the practical fields. PMID:24815195

  15. Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Xing; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; You, Yezi; Wu, Decheng

    2014-11-01

    A star polymer, ?-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (?-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (?-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. PMID:25310380

  16. High Affinity Host-Guest FRET Pair for Single-Vesicle Content-Mixing Assay: Observation of Flickering Fusion Events.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bokyoung; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Shetty, Dinesh; Ko, Young Ho; Selvapalam, Narayanan; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Kimoon

    2015-07-22

    Fluorescence-based single-vesicle fusion assays provide a powerful method for studying mechanisms underlying complex biological processes of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release. A crucial element of these assays is the ability of the fluorescent probe(s) to reliably detect key intermediate events of fusion pore opening and content release/mixing. Here, we report a new, reliable, and efficient single-vesicle content-mixing assay using a high affinity, fluorophore tagged host-guest pair, cucurbit[7]uril-Cy3 and adamantane-Cy5 as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair. The power of these probes is demonstrated by the first successful observation of flickering dynamics of the fusion pore by in vitro assay using neuronal SNARE-reconstituted vesicles. PMID:26160008

  17. Emergent ion-gated binding of cationic host-guest complexes within cationic M12L24 molecular flasks.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Carson J; Fujita, Daishi; Hoshino, Manabu; Sato, Sota; Stoddart, J Fraser; Fujita, Makoto

    2014-08-27

    "Molecular flasks" are well-defined supramolecular cages that can encapsulate one or more molecular guests within their cavities and, in so doing, change the physical properties and reactivities of the guests. Although molecular flasks are powerful tools for manipulating matter on the nanoscale, most of them are limited in their scope because of size restrictions. Recently, however, increasingly large and diverse supramolecular cages have become available with enough space in their cavities for larger chemical systems such as polymers, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. Here we report how a class of metallosupramolecular cages known as M12L24 polyhedra have been adapted to serve as nanometer-scale containers for solutions of a pseudorotaxane host-guest complex based on a tetracationic cyclophane host, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), and a 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) guest. Remarkably, the hierarchical integration of pseudorotaxanes and M12L24 superhosts causes the system to express stimulus-responsive behavior, a property which can be described as emergent because neither the DNP?CBPQT(4+) nor the M12L24 assemblies exhibit this behavior independently. The DNP-containing M12L24 molecular flasks are effectively "sealed off" to CBPQT(4+) until ions are added as a stimulus to "open" them. The electrolyte stimulus reduces the electrostatic screening distance in solution, allowing favorable DNP?CBPQT(4+) host-guest interactions to overcome repulsive Coulombic interactions between the cationic M12L24 cages and CBPQT(4+) rings. This unusual example of ion-gated transport into chemical nanocontainers is reminiscent of transmembrane ion channels which act as gates to the cell, with the important difference that this system is reversible and operates at equilibrium. PMID:25046565

  18. Self-Healing, Expansion-Contraction, and Shape-Memory Properties of a Preorganized Supramolecular Hydrogel through Host-Guest Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Kohei; Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2015-07-27

    Supramolecular materials cross-linked between polymer chains by noncovalent bonds have the potential to provide dynamic functions that are not produced by covalently cross-linked polymeric materials. We focused on the formation of supramolecular polymeric materials through host-guest interactions: a powerful method for the creation of nonconventional materials. We employed two different kinds of host-guest inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) with adamantane (Ad) and ferrocene (Fc) to bind polymers together to form a supramolecular hydrogel (?CD-Ad-Fc gel). The ?CD-Ad-Fc gel showed self-healing ability when damaged and responded to redox stimuli by expansion or contraction. Moreover, the ?CD-Ad-Fc gel showed a redox-responsive shape-morphing effect. We thus succeeded in deriving three functions from the introduction of two kinds of functional units into a supramolecular material. PMID:26080301

  19. Design of ?-CD-surfactant complex-coated liquid crystal droplets for the detection of cholic acid via competitive host-guest recognition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jinan; Lu, Xiaoyan; Constant, Colin; Dogariu, Aristide; Fang, Jiyu

    2015-05-14

    ?-CD-C14TAB complex-coated 5CB droplets are designed by the adsorption of ?-CD-C14TAB complexes at the 5CB/aqueous interface. We show that the 5CB droplets can be used as an optical probe for the selective detection of cholic acid in aqueous solution containing uric acid and urea via competitive host-guest recognition. PMID:25892566

  20. Variational Implicit-Solvent Modeling of Host–Guest Binding: A Case Study on Cucurbit[7]uril|

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic host cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) binds aromatic guests or metal complexes with ultrahigh affinity compared with that typically displayed in protein–ligand binding. Due to its small size, CB[7] serves as an ideal receptor–ligand system for developing computational methods for molecular recognition. Here, we apply the recently developed variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), numerically evaluated by the level-set method, to study hydration effects in the high-affinity binding of the B2 bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative to CB[7]. For the unbound host, we find that the host cavity favors the hydrated state over the dry state due to electrostatic effects. For the guest binding, we find reasonable agreement to experimental binding affinities. Dissection of the individual VISM free-energy contributions shows that the major driving forces are water-mediated hydrophobic interactions and the intrinsic (vacuum) host–guest van der Waals interactions. These findings are in line with recent experiments and molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. It is expected that the level-set VISM, with further refinement on the electrostatic descriptions, can efficiently predict molecular binding and recognition in a wide range of future applications. PMID:24039554

  1. pH-Responsive Poly(ethylene glycol)/Poly(l-lactide) Supramolecular Micelles Based on Host-Guest Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Lv, Qiang; Gao, Xiaoye; Chen, Li; Cao, Yue; Yu, Shuangjiang; He, Chaoliang; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-04-29

    pH-responsive supramolecular amphiphilic micelles based on benzimidazole-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-BM) and ?-cyclodextrin-modified poly(l-lactide) (CD-PLLA) were developed by exploiting the host-guest interaction between benzimidazole (BM) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The dissociation of the supramolecular micelles was triggered in acidic environments. An antineoplastic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded into the supramolecular micelles as a model drug. The release of DOX from the supramolecular micelles was clearly accelerated as the pH was reduced from 7.4 to 5.5. The DOX-loaded PEG-BM/CD-PLLA supramolecular micelles displayed an enhanced intracellular drug-release rate in HepG2 cells compared to the pH-insensitive DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLLA counterpart. After intravenous injection into nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts by the tail vein, the DOX-loaded supramolecular micelles exhibited significantly higher tumor inhibition efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity compared to free DOX. Furthermore, the DOX-loaded supramolecular micelles showed a blood clearance rate markedly lower than that of free DOX and comparable to that of the DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLLA micelles after intravenous injection into rats. Therefore, the pH-responsive PEG-BM/CD-PLLA supramolecular micelles hold potential as a smart nanocarrier for anticancer drug delivery. PMID:25856564

  2. Regulation of Protein Binding Capability of Surfaces via Host-Guest Interactions: Effects of Localized and Average Ligand Density.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiujuan; Zhan, Wenjun; Chen, Gaojian; Yu, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Hui; Cao, Limin; Liu, Xiaoli; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The protein binding capability of biomaterial surfaces can significantly affect subsequent biological responses, and appropriate ligand presentation is often required to guarantee the best functions. Herein, a new facile method for regulating this capability by varying the localized and average ligand density is presented. Binding between lysine and plasminogen relevant to a fibrinolysis system was chosen as a model. We integrated different lysine-modified ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) derivatives onto bioinert copolymer brushes via host-guest interactions. The localized and average lysine density can be conveniently modulated by changing the lysine valency on ?-CD scaffolds and by diluting lysine-persubstituted ?-CD with pure ?-CD, respectively. Both the plasminogen adsorption and the plasminogen binding affinity were enhanced by lysine-persubstituted ?-CD compared with those of lysine-monosubstituted ?-CD, which is possibly due to the higher localized lysine density and the multivalent binding of plasminogen on lysine-persubstituted ?-CD surfaces. With a change in the ratio of lysine-persubstituted ?-CD to ?-CD, the average lysine density can be tuned, leading to the linear regulation of the adsorption of plasminogen on surfaces. PMID:25986051

  3. Visual determination of aliphatic diamines based on host-guest recognition of calix[4]arene derivatives capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangyang; Zhang, Jiangjiang; Gao, Yanmin; Lee, Jaebeom; Chen, Hongxia; Yin, Yongmei

    2015-10-15

    Since amine compounds have been widespread pollutants in nature and they are extensively used in pharmaceutical industeries and dye manufacturing, it is highly desirable to develop simple, effective and naked-eye available analytical methods for such aliphatic diamines determination. Calixarenes as macrocycles have drawn intensive interests for fields such as biomedicine, supramolecular chemistry and smart materials. Here, instead of the normal complicated modification strategy, a facile and efficient method for one-pot synthesis of calix[4]arene crown ether (CCE4) capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is proposed. The as-prepared CCE4-AuNPs are not only high water dispersity and stability even after storage for 3 months, but also capable of host-guest recognition of diamines in aqueous systems. Size-selective encapsulation of amine group between CCE4 and diamines carry out the aggregation of CCE4-AuNPs. The determination of diamines such as hexamethylenediamine or spermine can be realized by the UV-vis absorbance change and visual color difference. PMID:26002014

  4. Dissolved oxygen amperometric sensor based on layer-by-layer assembly using host-guest supramolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Damos, Flavio S; Luz, Rita C S; Tanaka, Auro A; Kubota, Lauro T

    2010-04-01

    The development of a simple, efficient and sensitive sensor for dissolved oxygen is proposed using the host-guest binding of a supramolecular complex at a host surface by combining a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mono-(6-deoxy-6-mercapto)-beta-cyclodextrin (betaCDSH), iron (III) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (FeTMPyP) and cyclodextrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles (CDAuNP). The supramolecular modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. The reduction potential of oxygen was shifted about 200 mV toward less negative values with this modified electrode, presenting a peak current much higher than those observed on a bare gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) experiments indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction involves probably 4-electrons with a rate constant (k(obs)) of 7 x 10(4) mol(-1) Ls(-1). A linear response range from 0.2 up to 6.5 mg L(-1), with a sensitivity of 5.5 microA L mg(-1) (or 77.5 microA cm(-2) L mg(-1)) and a detection limit of 0.02 mg L(-1) was obtained with this sensor. The repeatability of the proposed sensor, evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation was 3.0% for 10 measurements of a solution of 6.5 mg L(-1) oxygen. PMID:20363396

  5. Synchronous spectrofluorimetric study of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-cyclodextrin with propranolol: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the use of constant-wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) in comparison to conventional fluorescence spectroscopy (CFS) for the investigation of the supramolecular host-guest interaction of ?-CD with propranolol (PPL) in aqueous solutions. Scanning for the optimal ?? at which the SFS can be performed in the presence of ?-CD was examined. The results obtained revealed three distinguishable shapes for PPL using SFS that can be represented by three different ?? values, namely 10, 40, and 100nm. However, the effect of the ?-CD concentration on the fluorescence intensity of PPL was examined using CFS and SFS of PPL at a ?? of 10 and 100nm. The change in the fluorescence intensity was used to calculate the equilibrium constant (Keq) for the formation of the ?-CD:PPL inclusion complex by applying the Benesi-Hildebrand method. Keq values of 108, 112, and 117M(-1) were obtained using SFS with a ?? of 10 and 100nm, and CFS, respectively. Further, the SFS method was successfully employed to examine the iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity of PPL, where the results obtained revealed a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 42.8M(-1), which is in good agreement with results obtained using CFS. All results obtained using the SFS method were compared with the results obtained using the CFS method. PMID:25875030

  6. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography separations of benzopyrene isomers. Correlation with computationally derived host-guest energies

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, C.L.; Sepaniak, M.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1994-01-01

    General adjustment of system retention is often inadequate to resolve structurally similar compounds in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). The use of cyclodextrins (CDs) as mobile-phase additives is described for separations of structural isomers. CDs are shown to provide dramatic and selective effects on the retention of benzopyrene isomers. Efficient separations of six methyl-substituted and three 1-position-substituted benzopyrene isomers are presented. Derivatized [gamma]-CD discriminates between substitutional isomers less than native [gamma]-CD. A comparison of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (NaC) surfactant systems indicates that SDS-CD mobile phases are more favorable for separation of benzopyrene isomers. Possible separation mechanisms are discussed and evaluated based on results of these studies. The computational procedures of a commercial molecular modeling system are modified and used to determine interaction energies for various host-guest (i.e., [gamma]-CD-benzopyrene) combinations. By use of the average of the five best energy values from interaction energy matrices, correct elution order is predicted for the 1-position-substituted and most of the methyl-substituted benzopyrene isomers. Consideration of different possible CD-benzopyrene orientations must be made to correctly predict elution order. Inspection of the interaction energy matrices revealed no obvious energy barriers that would inhibit inclusion complex formation. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Multiple amplification detection of microRNA based on the host-guest interaction between ?-cyclodextrin polymer and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochen; Yang, Xiaohai; Liu, Pei; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Qing; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Li, Wenshan; Xu, Fengzhou; Song, Chunxia

    2015-06-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various biological processes during the course of life. The levels of miRNAs can be useful biomarkers for cellular events or cancer diagnosis, thus sensitive and accurate analysis of miRNA expression is crucial for better understanding its functions and the early diagnosis of human disease. Here, we developed a multiple amplification detection method for miRNA based on the host-guest interaction between ?-cyclodextrin polymer and pyrene, which takes advantage of the polymerase-aided strand displacement amplification and ? exonuclease-assisted cyclic enzymatic amplification. The proposed method allowed quantitative detection of miRNA-21 in a dynamic range of 1 pM to 5 nM with a detection limit of 0.3 pM and demonstrated good ability to discriminate the target sequence from the single-base mismatched miRNA sequence. Moreover, the assay was applied successfully in a complex biological matrix. We believe that this proposed sensitive and specific assay has great potential as a quantification method for miRNA detection in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25943710

  8. Theoretical prediction of the host-guest interactions between novel photoresponsive nanorings and C60: a strategy for facile encapsulation and release of fullerene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Dang, Jing-Shuang; Guo, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-03-30

    A series of photoresponsive-group-containing nanorings hosts with 12?14 Å in diameter is designed by introducing different number of azo groups as the structural composition units. And the host-guest interactions between fullerene C60 and those nanoring hosts were investigated theoretically at M06-2X/6-31G(d)//M06-L/MIDI! and wB97X-D/6-31G(d) levels. Analysis on geometrical characteristics and host-guest binding energies revealed that the designed nanoring molecule (labeled as 7) which is composed by seven azo groups and seven phenyls is the most feasible host for encapsulation of C60 guest among all candidates. Moreover, inferring from the simulated UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, the C60 guest could be facilely released from the cavity of the host 7 via configuration transformation between trans-form and cis-form of the host under the 563 nm photoirradiation. Additionally, the frontier orbital features, weak interaction regions, infrared, and NMR spectra of the C60@7 host-guest complex have also been investigated theoretically. PMID:25594162

  9. Host-guest complexation affected by pH and length of spacer for hydroxyazobenzene-modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tetsuo; Shiba, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Hiroki; Ozawa, Mayumi; Miyajima, Naoya; Hosoda, Masakazu; Kuramoto, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasutada

    2006-12-21

    Three modified beta-cyclodextrins appended with a hydroxyazobenzene as a dye unit, 1, 2, and 3, each incorporating a different length spacer between the beta-CD and the dye unit with a bis(propyl(oxyethylene)), butylene, and amide bond spacer, respectively, were synthesized in order to investigate their spectroscopic changes induced by pH and host-guest complexation as well as to investigate their conformations and guest-binding properties by means of absorption and induced circular dichroism spectroscopies in aqueous solutions. All hosts accommodated the dye unit in their own CD cavities with an orientation parallel to the CD axis, forming intramolecular complexes. When the pH of the solution changed, the structure changed in response to pH without conformational changes. Existing as the phenol form under acidic condition, they were converted to the yellow phenolate form by dissociation of a proton of the hydroxyl group in the dye unit with increasing pH (pK(a1); 7.62 for 1, 7.44 for 2, 8.00 for 3). Further increase in pH led to the dissociation of the ammonium proton in the secondary amine group in the spacer of 1 and 2 (pK(a2); 8.76 for 1, 8.67 for 2). Upon addition of 1-adamantanol (AN) as a guest, all hosts accommodated AN in their CD cavities, forming 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes. The complexation phenomena were accompanied with changes in the conformation of the hosts, in which the dye units of 1 and 2 are excluded to outside of the cavity, but not for 3. The dye unit of 3 remained in the cavity, where the guest was also included partly. Therefore, the guest-binding abilities of 1 and 2 were larger than that of 3, which has poor binding ability. The binding constants of 1, 2, and 3 for AN are estimated to be 7400, 1940, and 140 M(-1) at pH 3.2, respectively. However, the guest-binding abilities of 1 and 2 were dependent on the pH of the solution. The ability of 1 under weak alkaline condition was stronger than under acidic or alkaline conditions, while that of 2 increased with increasing pH. Under the condition from neutral to weak alkaline media, 1 and 2 demonstrated color changes from colorless to yellow upon formation of inclusion complexes. When 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (AC) was used as the charged guest, 1 and 2 bound to AC with a larger binding constant than AN. On the other hand, 1 and 2 bound to 1-adamantineamine (AA) with a smaller binding constant than AN. All these results demonstrate that the complexation phenomena depend on the pH of the solution as well as the length of the spacer of the hosts and that the electrostatic interaction between the host and the guest is also important for forming a stable complex. PMID:17165879

  10. Molecular recognition: comparative study of a tunable host-guest system by using a fluorescent model system and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry on dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Pittelkow, Michael; Nielsen, Christian B; Broeren, Maarten A C; van Dongen, Joost L J; van Genderen, Marcel H P; Meijer, E W; Christensen, Jørn B

    2005-08-19

    Host-guest interactions between the periphery of adamantylurea-functionalized dendrimers (host) and ureido acetic acid derivatives (guest) were shown to be specific, strong and spatially well-defined. The binding becomes stronger when using phosphonic or sulfonic acid derivatives. In the present work we have quantified the binding constants for the host-guest interactions between two different host motifs and six different guest molecules. The host molecules, which resemble the periphery of a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, have been fitted with an anthracene-based fluorescent probe. The two host motifs differ in terms of the length of the spacer between a tertiary amine and two ureido functionalities. The guest molecules all contain an acidic moiety (either a carboxylic acid, a phosphonic acid, or a sulfonic acid) and three of them also contain an ureido moiety capable of forming multiple hydrogen bonds to the hosts. The binding constants for all 12 host-guest complexes have been determined by using fluorescence titrations by monitoring the increase in fluorescence of the host upon protonation by the addition of the guest. The binding constants could be tuned by changing the design of the acidic part of the guest. The formation of hydrogen bonds gives, in all cases, higher association constants, demonstrating that the host is more than a proton sensor. The host with the longer spacer (propyl) shows higher association constants than the host with the shorter spacer (ethyl). The gain in association constants are higher when the urea function is added to the guests for the host with the longer spacer, indicating a better fit. Collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (CID-MS) is used to study the stability of the six motifs using the corresponding third generation dendrimer. A similar trend is found when the six different guests are compared. PMID:15991204

  11. Thermal-cycling-induced spectral diffusion and thermal barriers in anisole-doped cyclohexane, an unusual multiphase host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Somoza, Mark M; Friedrich, Josef

    2006-09-28

    The host-guest system of anisole incorporated into a cyclohexane matrix was investigated in a series of hole-burning experiments. This system is unusual in that cyclohexane can freeze into coexisting solid phases. The hole-burning experiments support the existence of two crystalline phases and one disordered phase. A second surprising characteristic of this system is that the quasi-line absorption features of the spectra appear inverted at low temperature because of unexpected dominance of fluorescence and phosphorescence. PMID:16986873

  12. Supramolecular side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes formed by orthogonal coordination-driven self-assembly and crown-ether-based host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hao; Wei, Peifa; Yan, Xuzhou

    2014-06-01

    The themes of coordination-driven self-assembly, host-guest interactions, and supramolecular polymerization are unified in an orthogonal noninterfering fashion to deliver side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxanes. Specifically, a bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 derivative 1 bearing two pyridyl groups polymerizes into a side-chain poly[2]pseudorotaxane upon the addition of di-Pt(II) acceptor 4 in the presence of paraquat. Interestingly, by adding a competitive guest 3, the poly[2]pseudorotaxane can realize a conversion in one pot. PMID:24819441

  13. Host-guest energetic nanocomposites based on self-assembly of multi-nitro organic molecules in nanochannels of mesoporous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huaqiang; Yang, Rongji; Yang, Guangcheng; Huang, Hui; Nie, Fude

    2011-07-01

    Host-guest energetic nanocomposites have been synthesized by self-assembly of the high energy density compound HNIW in nanometer-scale channels of an ordered mesoporous material SBA-15. The complete impregnation of HNIW can be achieved in acetone solvent at ambient temperature, and the maximum amount was around 70 wt%. Structural characterizations were systematically provided by XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption, TG, 13C solid-state NMR and FT-IR. The tendency of multi-nitro organic molecules to self-assemble when the solvent evaporated has been described. Hydrogen bond interactions were considered as the main driving force, so the choices of matched host matrix and guest organic compounds were pivotal for implementing this process. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were measured by DSC analysis. Compared with pure HNIW and a physical mixture, the decomposition peak temperature of the confined crystals decreased about 11 °C, while the total amount of heat released slightly increased. This strategy can also be expanded to other similar host-guest systems.

  14. Time-Resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Pd Porphyrin-Quinone and Zn Porphyrin-Quinone Dyads with a Cyclohexylene Spacer.

    PubMed

    Perchanova, Maya; Kurreck, Harry; Berg, Alexander

    2015-07-23

    Peculiarities of the light induced intramolecular electron transfer processes in two ensembles where Pd porphyrin and Zn porphyrin donors with similar peripheral substituents are covalently linked via cyclohexylene spacer with a quinone acceptor, were studied by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in different phases of the magnetically oriented nematic liquid crystal E-7. In the photoexcited PdP-Q the net absorptive signal was observed and ascribed to the thermally equilibrated spectrum of (3)*(PdP(•+)-Q(•-)). In ZnP-Q photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer was also found. It was demonstrated that the multiplet spectrum of the charge-separated state (3)*(ZnP(•+)-Q(•-)) consists of two signals with different widths and decay times. The signals were assigned to two spin-polarized triplets of the radical pairs formed in "stretched" and "folded" ensemble conformers, corresponding to different configurations of the cyclohexylene spacer. These findings were discussed in terms of differences in the properties of the porphyrin metal cores, macrocycle peripheral substituents and geometry of the donor-acceptor cyclohexylene spacer. PMID:26151832

  15. Characterization of the host–guest complex of a curcumin analog with ?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant and evaluation of its anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Poorghorban, Masoomeh; Das, Umashankar; Alaidi, Osama; Chitanda, Jackson M; Michel, Deborah; Dimmock, Jonathan; Verrall, Ronald; Grochulski, Pawel; Badea, Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Curcumin analogs, including the novel compound NC 2067, are potent cytotoxic agents that suffer from poor solubility, and hence, low bioavailability. Cyclodextrin-based carriers can be used to encapsulate such agents. In order to understand the interaction between the two molecules, the physicochemical properties of the host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with ?-cyclodextrin (CD) or ?-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant (CDgemini surfactant) were investigated for the first time. Moreover, possible supramolecular structures were examined in order to aid the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the in vitro anticancer activity of the complex of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant nanoparticles was demonstrated in the A375 melanoma cell line. Methods Physicochemical properties of the complexes formed of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant were investigated by synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and size measurements were employed to assess the supramolecular morphology of the complex formed by NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant. Lastly, the in vitro cell toxicity of the formulations toward A375 melanoma cells at various drug-to-carrier mole ratios were measured by cell viability assay. Results Physical mixtures of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant showed characteristics of the individual components, whereas the complex of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant presented new structural features, supporting the formation of the host–guest complexes. Complexes of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactants formed nanoparticles having sizes of 100–200 nm. NC 2067 retained its anticancer activity in the complex with CDgemini surfactant for different drug-to-carrier mole ratios, with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value comparable to that for NC 2067 without the carrier. Conclusion The formation of host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant has been confirmed and hence the CDgemini surfactant shows good potential to be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents. PMID:25609956

  16. In Vivo Bioavailability and Therapeutic Assessment of Host-Guest Inclusion Phenomena for the Hydrophobic Molecule Etodolac: Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Vivek Ranjan; Amita; Goel, Honey

    2010-01-01

    The aim of present investigation was 1) to evaluate the in vivo bioavailability of an Etodolac (ETD)-?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion complex system prepared by kneading and spray drying techniques in rats, 2) to study the pharmacodynamic parameters in various animal models for analyzing the therapeutic response and, 3) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug administered. Inclusion complexation with ?-CD enhanced the solubility of the drug, improved bioavailability and reduced ulcerogenicity of ETD in rats. Pharmacodynamic studies were carried out in normal LACA mice and pharmacokinetic evaluation was done in male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated for the inclusion complexes revealed good correlation. The minimum dose necessary to produce analgesic or anti-arthritic activity was also decreased, indicating that the host-guest strategy that uses ?-CD and ETD was very effective and could be successfully employed in the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations of anti-arthritics and analgesics. PMID:21179374

  17. Large and fast single-crystal resistive humidity sensitivity of metal pnictide halides containing van der Waals host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Yan, Zhi-Bo; Liu, Dan; Wang, Ke-Feng; Guo, Guo-Cong; Li, Shao-Zhen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Two new metal pnictide halides, (Hg(9.75)As(5.5))(GaCl4)3 and (Hg13Sb8)(ZnBr4)4, have been prepared by solid-state reactions. Their structures feature 3D cationic host frameworks built of mercury pnictide polyhedra and form 1D tunnels filled with discrete guest halide polyanions; the guests and hosts are assembled by van der Waals interactions. Both complexes exhibit good single-crystal humidity sensitivity, with a humidity sensitivity factor as big as three orders of magnitude, a quick resistance response, fast recovery, and good reproducibility. This study provide a new way to design promising resistive humidity detectors by introducing van der Waals host-guest interactions into their structures. PMID:25110860

  18. Self-assembled vehicle construction via boronic acid coupling and host-guest interaction for serum-tolerant DNA transport and pH-responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Xuli; Chen, Si; Zhang, Xianzheng; Zhuo, Renxi; Feng, Jun

    2014-04-01

    By exploiting boronic acid coupling and host-guest chemistry, a pH-responsive drug/gene co-delivery nanoplatform is designed for cancer treatments with the excellently serum-tolerant transfection activity and the capability to load and release hydrophobic drugs in an acidity-accelerated manner. Via boronate linkage, ?-CD is allowed to spontaneously attach onto phenylboronic-acid-modified oligoethylenimine (PEI1.8K-PB2.9 ) at neutral condition. The formed vehicle/DNA nanoformulation is thus surrounded densely by ?-CD moieties to biomimic the carbohydrate-rich cell surface, providing a novel approach to overcome serum-susceptible drawbacks frequently associated with synthetic gene carriers. PEI1.8K-PB2.9 -?-CD conjugates demonstrate significantly improved cell-biocompatibility and transfection activity over PEI1.8K-PB2.9 . Noticeably, serum-associated inhibition effect is negligible for PEI1.8K-PB2.9 -?-CD-mediated transfection whereas marked transfection reduction occurs for PEI25K and PEI1.8K-PB2.9 upon serum exposure. Consequently, PEI1.8K-PB2.9 -?-CDs afford much higher transfection efficiency, that is, 25-fold higher luciferase expression over PEI25K in presence of 30% serum. An anticancer drug of doxorubicin (DOX) is shown to be readily accommodated into the nanoformulation via host-guest chemistry and intracellularly co-delivered together with plasmid DNA. Due to the acidity-labile feature of boronate linkage, DOX/?-CD inclusion complexes would be mostly detached from the nanoformulation triggered by acidity, leading to faster drug release. Furthermore, drug inclusion does not alter the serum-compatible transfection efficiency of PEI1.8K-PB2.9 -?-CD. PMID:23983152

  19. Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules for this month are drawn from the "Research Advances" column by Angela G. King, and represent some of the structures from the research on molecular tweezers (published in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 8124). The structures below are based on the figure on page 1690 showing two types of receptors that switch between U and W shapes upon coordination of soft metal cations, acting in the manner of mechanical tweezers. When viewing these molecules in Chime you must render in ball and stick or space filling modes in order to see the incorporated metal ions. In several cases the torsion angles connecting the anthracene substituents to the rest of the molecule are not well defined and have been drawn as either coplanar or orthogonal to the central ring system. At a moderate level of theory, the torsion angle in those instances where it has been set to 90° displays a broad minimum ranging for 50?130°.

  20. Fluorescent and colorimetric magnetic microspheres as nanosensors for Hg2+ in aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel grafting reaction and host-guest interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Qingbiao; Sun, Mingda; Fei, Xiaoliang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yingmu; Li, Yaoxian

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescent sensing TSRh6G-?-cyclodextrin fluorophore/adamantane-modified inclusion complex magnetic nanoparticles (TFIC MNPs) have been synthesized via the cooperation of a host-guest interaction and sol-gel grafting reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the material. Fluorescence and UV-visible spectra have shown that the resultant multifunctional nanoparticle sensors exhibit selective `turn-on' type fluorescent enhancements and a clear color change from light brown to pink with Hg2+. Owing to a larger surface area and high permeability, TFIC MNPs exhibit remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for Hg2+, and its detection limit measures up to the micromolar level in aqueous solution. Most importantly, magnetic measurements have shown that TFIC magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and they can be separated and collected easily using a commercial magnet. These results not only solve the limitations in practical sensing applications of nanosensors, but also enable the fabrication of other multifunctional nanostructure-based hybrid nanomaterials.Fluorescent sensing TSRh6G-?-cyclodextrin fluorophore/adamantane-modified inclusion complex magnetic nanoparticles (TFIC MNPs) have been synthesized via the cooperation of a host-guest interaction and sol-gel grafting reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the material. Fluorescence and UV-visible spectra have shown that the resultant multifunctional nanoparticle sensors exhibit selective `turn-on' type fluorescent enhancements and a clear color change from light brown to pink with Hg2+. Owing to a larger surface area and high permeability, TFIC MNPs exhibit remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for Hg2+, and its detection limit measures up to the micromolar level in aqueous solution. Most importantly, magnetic measurements have shown that TFIC magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and they can be separated and collected easily using a commercial magnet. These results not only solve the limitations in practical sensing applications of nanosensors, but also enable the fabrication of other multifunctional nanostructure-based hybrid nanomaterials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures and characterization data for new compounds, fluorescence photographs and the curve of fluorescence intensity. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00580a

  1. Spectral investigation and characterization of host-guest inclusion complex of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, R; Kothainayaki, S; Rajamohan, R; Sivakumar, K

    2014-12-19

    The host-guest inclusion complex of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBCA) with beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized using absorption, fluorescence, fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spectral shifts revealed that the aniline ring of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) was entrapped in the beta-cyclodextrin cavity. Nano second time resolved fluorescence studies revealed that 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) exhibits single exponential decay in aqueous medium and bi-exponential in beta-cyclodextrin medium confirmed the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex. The Gibbs free energy change of the complexation process was determined and the complexation process was spontaneous. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the thermal stability of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) was altered in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin. The implementation of molecular docking test confirmed that the complexation could reduce the energy of the system. A mechanism was proposed to explain the mode of inclusion in the inclusion process. PMID:25263927

  2. Azo-capped polysarcosine-b-polylysine as polypeptide gene vector: A new strategy to improve stability and easy optimization via host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianwei; Tian, Ce; Liu, Yajie; Ling, Jun; Wang, Youxiang

    2015-06-01

    Polypeptide has been extensively researched in gene/drug delivery system due to the good biocompatibility. Herein, we synthesized total-polypeptide copolymers, i.e. Azo(azobenzene)-capped polysarcosine-b-polylysine (ASL) with narrow molecular weight distribution by ?-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerization. Although the molecular weight of PLL segment was only about 6kDa, ASL could condense DNA effectively and form about 150nm spherical nanoparticles at N/P ratio of 15. The surface charge was significantly reduced due to the shielding effect of polysarcosine (PSAR) shell. ASL/DNA PeptoPlexes showed good colloidal stability under physiological salt condition and complexation competition stability in the presence of counter polyanion, which might improve the circulation time in vivo. The tip design of azobenzene provided a facile way for ligand modification via host-guest interaction, which could be flexibly optimized by changing its functional tags responding to a request. Our data showed that the introduction of CD-R8 could promote the internalization of gene into cytoplasm and even nucleus owing to the membrane penetrating effect of R8. Cell culture experiments indicated as a total-polypeptide system, ASL showed good cellular viability and comparable gene transfection level as PLL with molecular weight of 50kDa. Overall, PSAR served as an ideal alternative of PEG and this total-polypeptide system showed us a good direction for gene carrier design. PMID:25899841

  3. Formation of 1:1 and 2:1 host-guest inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin with cycloalkanols: A 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Tomoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2014-09-01

    Binding constants (Ka's) for the formation of inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) with cycloalkanols (c-CnOH; n = 4-8) were determined by means of 1H and 13C NMR titration, under two different conditions: (i) only 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes are formed when the guest is in excess; (ii) the formation of 2:1 inclusion complexes occurs only after that of 1:1 inclusion complexes, when the host is in excess. The results of this work showed that ?-CD can include c-C4OH or c-C5OH only when the molar ratio is 1:1; larger ring-sized cycloalkanols such as c-C6OH, c-C7OH or c-C8OH can be included only when the molar ratio is 2:1. These findings, together with those obtained for the four derivatives of ?-CD, per-6-O-methyl-?-CD, per-2-O-methyl-?-CD, per-3-O-methyl-?-CD, and per-2,6-di-O-methyl-?-CD, suggested that ?-CD forms 2:1 inclusion complexes with c-C6OH, c-C7OH or c-C8OH in a tail-to-tail manner, in which the secondary hydroxy sides of the two CD molecules face each other. Two-dimensional ROESY measurements confirmed our results.

  4. Simple Host?Guest Chemistry To Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by Detergent Capture in a Microfluidic Device

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Seddon, Annela M.; Tereshko, Valentina; Ponomarenko, Nina; Ismagilov, Rustem F. (UC)

    2009-01-15

    This paper utilizes cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry in a microfluidic device to modulate the crystallization of membrane proteins and the process of concentration of membrane protein samples. Methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MBCD) can efficiently capture a wide variety of detergents commonly used for the stabilization of membrane proteins by sequestering detergent monomers. Reaction Center (RC) from Blastochloris viridis was used here as a model system. In the process of concentrating membrane protein samples, MBCD was shown to break up free detergent micelles and prevent them from being concentrated. The addition of an optimal amount of MBCD to the RC sample captured loosely bound detergent from the protein-detergent complex and improved sample homogeneity, as characterized by dynamic light scattering. Using plug-based microfluidics, RC crystals were grown in the presence of MBCD, giving a different morphology and space group than crystals grown without MBCD. The crystal structure of RC crystallized in the presence of MBCD was consistent with the changes in packing and crystal contacts hypothesized for removal of loosely bound detergent. The incorporation of MBCD into a plug-based microfluidic crystallization method allows efficient use of limited membrane protein sample by reducing the amount of protein required and combining sparse matrix screening and optimization in one experiment. The use of MBCD for detergent capture can be expanded to develop cyclodextrin-derived molecules for fine-tuned detergent capture and thus modulate membrane protein crystallization in an even more controllable way.

  5. Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    1 Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque Authors: Jan n.h.dekker@tudelft.nl Corresponding author: Nynke H. Dekker Keywords: magnetic tweezers, magnetic torque tweezers, freely-orbiting magnetic tweezers, twist, torque

  6. Theoretical exploration of the nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylenes (n = 10, 8 and 9) and fullerene C60: from single- to three-potential well.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Zhou, Cai-Hua; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylene ([n]CPP; n = 10, 8 and 9) nano-ring and fullerene C60 were explored theoretically. It is found that relatively small variations in the sizes of the [n]CPP host lead to very significant changes in encapsulation property toward the fullerene C60 guest. Expectedly, one stable inclusion-configuration of [10]CPP?C60 and one floating-configuration of [8]CPP?C60 are located on the potential surfaces of the two complexes, respectively. Unexpectedly, besides a floating-configuration (F-[9]CPP?C60), another stable inclusion-configuration (I-[9]CPP?C60) is also located on the potential surface of [9]CPP?C60 host-guest complex. Interaction energies and natural steric analysis show that these complexes are stabilized by balancing concave-convex ?-? attractive and steric repulsive host-guest interactions. In contrast, the steric repulsive energy (Es) between host and guest of I-[9]CPP?C60 is as high as 233.12 kJ mol(-1), which is much larger than those in other complexes. The movements of C60 guest through the cavities of [n]CPP host (n = 10, 8 and 9) are simulated by calculating the energy profile, and the results interestingly reveal that the encapsulation of C60 by [10]CPP is in the manner of a single-potential well, by [8]CPP in the manner of a double-potential well, and by [9]CPP in the special manner of a three-potential well. We predict that the movement of C60 guest through the cavity of [9]CPP host should be experimentally observable owing to the relatively low energy barrier (<50 kJ mol(-1), M06-2X/6-31G(d)). Charge population analysis shows that an obvious charge transfer between host and guest takes place during the formation of I-[9]CPP?C60, which is different from those during the formation of [8]CPP?C60, [10]CPP?C60 and F-[9]CPP?C60. Additionally, the host-guest interaction regions were detected and visualized in real space based on the electron density and reduced density gradient. PMID:26121936

  7. Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA

    E-print Network

    Leuba, Sanford

    Magnetic Tweezers Instrumentation: We have used magnetic tweezers to study chromatin assembly and disassembly and RNA transcription. Magnetic tweezers surface magnetic bead F DNA external magnets F =kBT l/> l F x surface Instrumental set-up video camera beam condenser hollow bearing with magnet 90x oil

  8. Nanoceria-triggered synergetic drug release based on CeO(2) -capped mesoporous silica host-guest interactions and switchable enzymatic activity and cellular effects of CeO(2).

    PubMed

    Xu, Can; Lin, Youhui; Wang, Jiasi; Wu, Li; Wei, Weili; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2013-12-01

    Herein, a pH stimuli-responsive vehicle for intracellular drug delivery using CeO2 capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) is reported. ?-Cyclodextrin-modified CeO2 nanoparticles could cap onto ferrocene-functionalized mesoporous silica through host-guest interactions. After internalization into A549 cells by a lysosomal pathway, the ferrocenyl moieties are oxidized to ferrocenium ions by CeO2 lids, which could trigger the uncapping of the CeO2 and cause the drugs release. Because of the pH-dependent toxicity, the CeO2 here behaves as a multi-purpose entity that not only acts as a lid but also exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect on cancer cells. Meanwhile, the cell protective effect of CeO2 nanoparticles alone is demonstrated, which ensures that the dissolved CeO2 nanoparticles can be non-toxic to normal cells. PMID:23630084

  9. Bright Fluorescence and Host-Guest Sensing with a Nanoscale M4 L6 Tetrahedron Accessed by Self-Assembly of Zinc-Imine Chelate Vertices and Perylene Bisimide Edges.

    PubMed

    Frischmann, Peter D; Kunz, Valentin; Würthner, Frank

    2015-06-15

    A highly luminescent Zn4 L6 tetrahedron is reported with 3.8?nm perylene bisimide edges and hexadentate Zn(II) -imine chelate vertices. Replacing Fe(II) and monoamines commonly utilized in subcomponent self-assembly with Zn(II) and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine provides access to a metallosupramolecular host with the rare combination of structural integrity at concentrations <10(-7) ?mol?L(-1) and an exceptionally high fluorescence quantum yield of ?em =0.67. Encapsulation of multiple perylene or coronene guest molecules is accompanied by strong luminescence quenching. We anticipate this self-assembly strategy may be generalized to improve access to brightly fluorescent coordination cages tailored for host-guest light-harvesting, photocatalysis, and sensing. PMID:25925735

  10. Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Dufresne; Gabriel C. Spalding; Matthew T. Dearing; Steven A. Sheets; David G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Holographic techniques significantly extend the capabilities of laser tweezing, making possible extended trapping patterns for manipulating large numbers of particles and volumes of soft matter. We describe practical methods for creating arbitrary configurations of optical tweezers using computer-generated diffractive optical elements. While the discussion focuses on ways to create planar arrays of identical tweezers, the approach can be generalized to

  11. Quantitative Modeling and Optimization of Magnetic Tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Lipfert; Xiaomin Hao; Nynke H. Dekker

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are a powerful tool to manipulate single DNA or RNA molecules and to study nucleic acid-protein interactions in real time. Here, we have modeled the magnetic fields of permanent magnets in magnetic tweezers and computed the forces exerted on superparamagnetic beads from first principles. For simple, symmetric geometries the magnetic fields can be calculated semianalytically using the Biot-Savart

  12. Magnetic Tweezers for Single-Molecule Experiments

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    , optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy have made important contributions of Technology, Lorentzweg 1 2628 CJ Delft The Netherlands 371P. Hinterdorfer, A. van Oijen (eds.), Handbook, the struc- tural forms of nucleic acids are not necessarily static structures but are instead constantly

  13. Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Magnetic tweezers to study DNA motors Maria Mañosas Ritort lab UB Barcelona Croquette-Bensimon lab ENS France #12;· Introduction to MT (magnetic tweezers) · Applications: 1. Tracking DNA motors: (i) Helicases (ii) Annealing motor 2. Studying a multiprotein system: DNA replication Outline #12;· Atomic force

  14. Magnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Magnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to studyMagnetic tweezers to study DNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motorsDNA motors MariaMariaMariaMaria MañosasMañosasMañosasMañosas RitortCroquetteCroquetteCroquette----BensimonBensimonBensimonBensimon lablablablab ENS FranceENS FranceENS FranceENS France #12;· Introduction to MT (magnetic tweezers

  15. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  16. Antifouling coatings for optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lau, Aldrich N K; Ohta, Aaron T; Phan, Huan L; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Jamshidi, Arash; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Wu, Ming C

    2009-10-21

    Optoelectronic tweezers enables parallel manipulation of individual single cells using optical addressing and optically induced dielectrophoretic force. This provides a useful platform for performing a variety of biological functions, such as cell manipulation, cell sorting, and cell electroporation. However, in order to obtain more reliable cellular manipulation, especially of adherent mammalian cells, antifouling coatings need to be used to avoid non-specific cell adherence. Two antifouling coatings are discussed here, which can reduce the amount of non-specific adherence by as much as a factor of 30. PMID:19789749

  17. Dynamical stabilisation in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Richards, Christopher J.; Smart, Thomas J.; Cubero, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of dynamical stabilisation of an overdamped, microscopic pendulum realised using optical tweezers. We first derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium dynamically stabilised pendulum position in a regime of high damping and high modulation frequency of the pendulum pivot. This model implies a threshold behavior for stabilisation to occur, and a continuous evolution of the angular position which, unlike the underdamped case, does not reach the fully inverted position. We then test the theoretical predictions using an optically trapped microparticle subject to fluid drag force, finding reasonable agreement with the threshold and equilibrium behavior at high modulation amplitude. Analytical theory and experiments are complemented by Brownian motion simulations.

  18. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells’ electrical properties, the cells’ positions, and the OET device’s geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  19. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells' electrical properties, the cells' positions, and the OET device's geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  20. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.W. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hsu, Magnus T. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Bowen, Warwick P. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

  1. A 1H NMR titration study on the binding constants for D- and L-tryptophan inclusion complexes with 6-O-?-D-glucosyl-?-cyclodextrin. Formation of 1:1 and 2:1 (host:guest) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Tomoki; Matsui, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2014-02-01

    A 1H NMR titration study revealed that 6-O-?-D-glucosyl-?-cyclodextrin (G1-?-CD) forms 1:1 and 2:1 (host:guest) inclusion complexes with D- and L-tryptophan in alkaline D2O solutions (pD 11.0). The binding constants (K1's) for the 1:1 complexes of D-isomer at 298 K (59 mol-1 dm3) were virtually equal to that of L-isomer (54 mol-1 dm3). On the other hand, the K2 values for 2:1 complexes of D-isomer (42 mol-1 dm3) were larger than that of L-counterpart (12 mol-1 dm3). These facts suggest that the first CD molecule includes the indole ring moiety of tryptophan, followed by inclusion with the second CD molecule in the vicinity of chiral center, ?-carbon of the guest, to result in the difference in K2's for two enantiomers. Two-dimensional NMR measurement (Rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY, ROESY) supported this interpretation.

  2. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  3. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Nagy; Keir C Neuman

    2008-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. Here we describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations.

  4. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy Keir C Neuman1 & Attila Nagy2 Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most

  5. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells Author States) ABSTRACT Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells. Keywords: Optical trapping, Optical tweezers

  6. Single and dual fiber nanotip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nanoparticles using fiber­optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens,'' Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 45Single and dual fiber nano­tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis Jean­Baptiste Decombe tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano­tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping

  7. Optical Tweezers in Colloid and Interface Science David G. Grier

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    of optical tweezers have been reviewed by Svoboda and Block [6]. This review focuses instead used to focus the laser beam into an optical tweezer can be used to image the particle being trapped is the highly versatile optical tweezer recently made by ter­ minating a tapered optical fiber

  8. Optical tweezers: light for manipulating microscopic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Raktim

    2012-05-01

    Optical tweezers make use of a tightly focused laser beam to trap, move, guide, rotate and even sort microscopic objects solely with light. Although the basic laser tweezers, making use of a TEM00 laser beam to create a single trap point, have proved to be useful for any applications in areas ranging from physics to biology, a major breakthrough in this field came as the use of computer generated holograms enabled researchers to create multiple trap sites from single laser source (holographic optical tweezers). Coupled with microfluidic techniques, holographic optical tweezers have promised development of optical techniques for high throughput sorting of different cell types under a single micro-chip platform. The holographic methods have also helped the use of specialized laser beams like Laguerre-Gaussian beams instead of the conventional laser beam for interesting applications like orienting/rotating the trapped objects or trapping cells with minimum photodamage. Further, combining optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy is becoming increasingly popular for studying single cell biochemistry as use of optical forces to immobilize the cells under investigations not only avoids the negative effects of fixing the cells onto substrate but also improve the quality of the recorded spectra. These advanced optical trapping techniques as outlined above along with some illustrative biophotonics applications have been explored.

  9. Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Weitenberg, Christof [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kuhr, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, SUPA, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Moelmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-09-15

    We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 {mu}s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10{sup -3}. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.

  10. Micro-objective manipulated with optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M.; Kurosawa, T.; Hane, K. [Department of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-77 (Japan)] [Department of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-77 (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    A microscope is described that uses a {mu}m-sized ball lens, which is here termed micro-objective, manipulated with optical tweezers to image the side view of the arbitrary region of a sample. Since this micro-objective is small in size, it can go into a concave region to produce a local image of the inside which the conventional microscope cannot observe. Preliminary results show good lens performance from the micro-objective when combined with optical tweezers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Processing carbon nanotubes with holographic optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    ,'' Nature 330, 608--609 (1987). 13. M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, and I. A. Vorobjev, ``Manipulation M. Mueth, 1 and David G. Grier 2 1 Arryx, Inc., 316 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60601 2 Dept and D. G. Grier, ``Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optical

  12. The host-guest chemistry of resorcinarenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Schneider; U. Schneider

    1994-01-01

    Conformations, acid-base and supramolecular properties of phenolic metacyclophanes obtained from the condensation of resorcinol with aldehydes are discussed, including the mechanisms involved in the formation of these macrocycles. The strong binding of choline-type compounds and the inhibition of acetylcholine hydrolysis with therccc stereoisomers is mechanistically evaluated; arctt isomer shows strong conformational coupling for, e.g., choline binding and simultaneous proton release.

  13. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: c.r.p.courtney@bath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35?MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  14. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  15. The Smallest Tweezers in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewalle, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    A pair of fine tweezers and a steady hand may well be enough to pick up a grain of sand, but what would you use to hold something hundreds of times smaller still, the size of only one micron? The answer is to use a device that is not mechanical in nature but that relies instead on the tiny forces that light exerts on small particles: "optical…

  16. Single-Pair FRET Characterization of DNA Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Single-Pair FRET Characterization of DNA Tweezers Barbara K. Mu1ller, Andreas Reuter, Friedrich C on the single-molecule level. From single-pair FRET investigations, we show that "open" tweezers exist in a single conformation with minimal FRET efficiency, whereas upon addition of a "closing strand", three

  17. Micro Magnetic Tweezers for Nanomanipulation Inside Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel; Kanger, Johannes S.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the design, realization, and characterization of a multi-pole magnetic tweezers that enables us to maneuver small magnetic probes inside living cells. So far, magnetic tweezers can be divided into two categories: I), tweezers that allow the exertion of high forces but consist of only one or two poles and therefore are capable of only exerting forces in one direction; and II), tweezers that consist of multiple poles and allow exertion of forces in multiple directions but at very low forces. The magnetic tweezers described here combines both aspects in a single apparatus: high forces in a controllable direction. To this end, micron scale magnetic structures are fabricated using cleanroom technologies. With these tweezers, magnetic flux gradients of ?B = 8 × 103 T m?1 can be achieved over the dimensions of a single cell. This allows exertion of forces up to 12 pN on paramagnetic probes with a diameter of 350 nm, enabling us to maneuver them through the cytoplasm of a living cell. It is expected that with the current tweezers, picoNewton forces can be exerted on beads as small as 100 nm. PMID:15556976

  18. Micromanipulation of retinal neurons by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Townes-Anderson, E; St Jules, R S; Sherry, D M; Lichtenberger, J; Hassanain, M

    1998-07-30

    Micromanipulation by optical tweezers has been tested in cultures of mature isolated retinal cells to determine its potential for use in creating synaptic circuits in vitro. Rod and cone photoreceptors as well as other retinal nerve cell types could be optically trapped with a 980 nm diode laser mounted on an inverted light microscope using a 40x oil immersion objective numerical aperture of 1.3. Manipulation was done under sterile conditions using transparent culture dishes. To form cell groups, one half of a culture dish was made less adhesive by application of a thin layer of silicone elastomer. Unattached cells were trapped and relocated next to cells lying on an adhesive culture substrate. Optical trapping did not affect the ability of neurons to subsequently attach to the culture substrate. Up to 60% of trapped cells survived for 2 or more days. The pattern and rate of process outgrowth for manipulated cells was comparable to unmanipulated cells and by 2 days, cell-cell contacts were observed. Cultures were fixed at 2 and 5 days for electron microscopy. Organelle, nuclear and cytoplasmic structure of manipulated cells was completely normal and in photoreceptors, synaptic vesicles and ribbons were intact. Optical tweezers, therefore, provide a benign technique with which to micromanipulate whole neurons. The procedures also bestow increased precision to the study of cell-cell interactions by allowing the selection of potentially interacting cell types at a single cell level. PMID:9701608

  19. Potential-well model in acoustic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2010-06-01

    Standing-wave acoustic tweezers are popularly used for non-invasive and non-contact particle manipulation. Because of their good penetration in biological tissue, they also show promising prospects for in vivo applications. According to the concept of an optical vortex, we propose an acoustics-vortex- based trapping model of acoustic tweezers. A four-element 1-MHz planar transducer was used to generate 1-MHz sine waves at 1 MPa, with adjacent elements being driven with a pi/2-rad phase difference. Each element was a square with a side length of 5.08 mm, with kerfs initially set at 0.51 mm. An acoustic vortex constituting the spiral motion of an acoustic wave around the beam axis was created, with an axial null. Applying Gor'kov's theory in the Rayleigh regime yielded the potential energy and radiation force for use in subsequent analysis. In the transverse direction, the vortex structure behaved as a series of potential wells that tended to drive a suspended particle toward the beam axis. They were highly fragmented in the near field that is very close to the transducer where there was spiral interference, and well-constructed in the far field. We found that the significant trapping effect was only present between these two regions in the transverse direction--particles were free to move along the beam axis, and a repulsive force was observed in the outer acoustic vortex. Because the steepness of the potential gradient near an axial null dominates the trapping effect, the far field of the acoustic vortex is inappropriate for trapping. Particles too close to the transducer are not sufficiently trapped because of the fragmented potential pattern. We suggest that the ideal distance from the transducer for trapping particles is in front of one-fourth of the Rayleigh distance, based on the superposition of the wavefronts. The maximum trapping force acting on a 13-mum polystyrene sphere in the produced acoustic vortex was 50.0 pN, and it was possible to trap approximately 10(6) particles within a plane; the maximum repulsive force was 24.5 pN, and this was reduced to less than 13 pN by smoothing the outer gradient. Most stiff and dense particles can be used in this model. The presence of transverse trapping and the long working distance make the model useful for 2-D manipulation, particularly in in vivo applications. This paper details the trapping properties in the acoustic vortex and describes methods for improving the design of the transducer. The results obtained support the feasibility of the potential-well model of acoustic tweezers. PMID:20529720

  20. Exploring the mechanome with optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Brau, Ricardo R. (Ricardo Rafael), 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The combination of optical tweezers and single molecule fluorescence into an instrument capable of making combined, coincident measurements adds an observable dimension that allows for the examination of the localized ...

  1. Optical manipulation of lipid and polymer nanotubes with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Joseph E.; Kishore, Rani; Pfefferkorn, Candace; Wells, Jeffrey; Helmerson, Kristian; Howell, Peter; Vreeland, Wyatt; Forry, Samuel; Locascio, Laurie; Reyes-Hernandez, Darwin; Gaitan, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Using optical tweezers and microfluidics, we stretch either the lipid or polymer membranes of liposomes or polymersomes, respectively, into long nanotubes. The membranes can be grabbed directly with the optical tweezers to produce sub-micron diameter tubes that are several hundred microns in length. We can stretch tubes up to a centimeter in length, limited only by the travel of our microscope stage. We also demonstrate the cross linking of a pulled polymer nanotube.

  2. Multiplexed spectroscopy with holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibula, Matthew A.; McIntyre, David H.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a multiplexed holographic optical tweezers system with an imaging spectrometer to manipulate multiple optically trapped nanosensors and detect multiple fluorescence spectra. The system uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the positions of infrared optical traps in the sample so that multiple nanosensors can be positioned into regions of interest. Spectra of multiple nanosensors are detected simultaneously with the application of an imaging spectrometer. Nanosensors are capable of detecting changes in their environment such as pH, ion concentration, temperature, and voltage by monitoring changes in the nanosensors' emitted fluorescence spectra. We use streptavidin labeled quantum dots bound to the surface of biotin labeled polystyrene microspheres to measure temperature changes by observing a corresponding shift in the wavelength of the spectral peak. The fluorescence is excited at 532 nm with a wide field source.

  3. Characterization of objective transmittance for optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N. B.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.; Mazolli, A.; Neto, P. A. Maia

    2006-06-20

    We have measured the overall transmittance of a laser beam through an oil immersion objective as a function of the transverse size of the laser beam, using the dual-objective method. Our results show that the objective transmittance is not uniform and that its dependence on the radial beam's position can be modeled by a Gaussian function. This property affects the intensity distribution pattern in the sample region and should be taken into account in theoretical descriptions of optical tweezers. Moreover, one must consider this position dependence to determine the local laser power delivered at the sample region by the dual-objective method, especially when the beam overfills the objective's back entrance. If the transmittance is assumed to be uniform, the local power is overestimated.

  4. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  5. Single Bessel tractor-beam tweezers

    E-print Network

    Mitri, F G

    2014-01-01

    The tractor behavior of a zero-order Bessel acoustic beam acting on a fluid sphere, and emanating from a finite circular aperture (as opposed to waves of infinite extent) is demonstrated theoretically. Conditions for an attractive force acting in opposite direction of the radiating waves, determined by the choice of the beam's half-cone angle, the size of the radiator, and its distance from a fluid sphere, are established and discussed. Numerical predictions for the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit energy density and cross-sectional surface, are provided using a partial-wave expansion method stemming from the acoustic scattering. The results suggest a simple and reliable analysis for the design of Bessel beam acoustical tweezers and tractor beam devices.

  6. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De

    Raman scattering is an inelastic collision between the vibrating molecules inside the sample and the incident photons. During this process, energy exchange takes place between the photon and the scattering molecule. By measuring the energy change of the photon, the molecular vibration mode can be probed. The vibrational spectrum contains valuable information about the disposition of atomic nuclei and chemical bonds within a molecule, the chemical compositions and the interactions between the molecule and its surroundings. In this dissertation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) technique is applied for the analysis of biological cells and human cells at single cell level. In LTRS, an individual cell is trapped in aqueous medium with laser tweezers, and Raman scattering spectra from the trapped cell are recorded in real-time. The Raman spectra of these cells can be used to reveal the dynamical processes of cell growth, cell response to environment changes, and can be used as the finger print for the identification of a bacterial cell species. Several biophysical experiments were carried out using LTRS: (1) the dynamic germination process of individual spores of Bacillus thuringiensis was detected via Ca-DPA, a spore-specific biomarker molecule; (2) inactivation and killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by microwave irradiation and wet heat were studied at single cell level; (3) the heat shock activation process of single B. subtilis spores were analyzed, in which the reversible transition from glass-like state at low temperature to liquid-like state at high temperature in spore was revealed at the molecular level; (4) the kinetic processes of bacterial cell lysis of E. coli by lysozyme and by temperature induction of lambda phage were detected real-time; (5) the fixation and rehydration of human platelets were quantitatively evaluated and characterized with Raman spectroscopy method, which provided a rapid way to quantify the quality of freeze-dried therapeutic platelet products for long term preservation; (6) LTRS based depolarized Raman spectroscopy was developed and used to do bacterial cell identification of similar species. From these experiments, several new findings and conclusions have been obtained. (1) single spore dynamic germination was measured for the first time. The result showed the time-to-germinate of a single spore was stochastic and could be discrete. (2) the thermal nature of spore killing in solution by microwaves was identified, Spores killed directly by microwaves showed death marker in Raman spectrum; (3) The Ca-DPA inside the spore core of a spore would undergo a structure modification during heat shock, which was related to the spores' state transition from a glass-like to a rubbery-like state, this structure modification during heat shock was reversible; (4) the kinetic molecular processes of E. coli cell lysis by lysozyme and by temperature induction of bacterial phage were recorded for the first time. The different cellular processes of the lysis were revealed based on the two different mechanisms; (5) LTRS technique was successfully applied to characterize human platelet fixation; a major procedure for long term preservation of therapeutic human platelet products; (6) A depolarization laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (DLTRS) technique was developed to enhance the ability to discriminate similar bacterial species.

  7. Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 1772 Optoacoustic tweezers: a programmable, localized cell

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 1772 Optoacoustic tweezers: a programmable, localized cell activated, surface bubbles, we name it ``optoacoustic tweezers''. The optoacoustic tweezers are capable. Over the past few years, several effective on-chip, cell-concentrating techniques have been developed

  8. Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nanoparticles using fiber-optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 45Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis Jean-Baptiste Decombe tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping

  9. Electromagnetic Torque Tweezers: A Versatile Approach for Measurement of Single-Molecule Twist and Torque

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    Electromagnetic Torque Tweezers: A Versatile Approach for Measurement of Single-Molecule Twist of freedom. Here we present electromagnetic torque tweezers (eMTT) that combine permanent and electromagnets from single-molecules to living cells. KEYWORDS: Electromagnetic torque tweezers, torque spectroscopy

  10. Optical tweezers-assisted measurements of elastic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tuorila, J.; Haapalainen, T.; Karmenyan, A.; Tuchin, V.; Myllylä, R.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers have been used in biophysical studies for over twenty years. Typical application areas are force measurements of subcellular structures and cell biomechanics. Optical tweezers can also be used to manipulate the orientation of objects. Moreover, using various beam shapes, optical tweezers allow measuring light scattering from single and multiple objects by keeping particles and cells in place during the measurement. At single cell level, light scattering yields important information about the object being studied, including its size, shape and refractive index. Also dependent scattering can be studied. In this paper, we review experimental work conducted in this area by our group and show new results relating to optical clearing phenomena at single microparticle level.

  11. Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

  12. A Plasma Tweezer Concept to De-spin an Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereen, Keon; Datta, Iman; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Tweezer is a new concept for controlled de-spinning and deflection of space bodies without mechanical contact. The method shoots plasma jets or beams at the target from a pair of plasma thrusters located at the end of each lever arm of a ``tweezer'' structure. The main spacecraft body is at the fulcrum point of the tweezer and the target is located between the thrusters. This arrangement cancels out the impulse of two plasma jets on the spacecraft and applies forces on opposite sides of the target. Careful timing and orientation of the jets can then provide the necessary forces to despin and redirect the target. This concept is more efficient than the Ion Beam Shepherd method [C. Bombardelli and J. Pelaez, J. Guid. Control Dyn. (2011)] because it does not require a secondary thruster to cancel momentum and can benefit from angular momentum stored in the spacecraft's initial spin stabilization.

  13. Fundamental constraints on particle tracking with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Michael A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2012-01-01

    A general quantum limit to the sensitivity of particle position measurements is derived following the simple principle of the Heisenberg microscope. The value of this limit is calculated for particles in the Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes, and with parameters which are relevant to optical tweezers experiments. The minimum power required to observe the zero-point motion of a levitating bead is also calculated, with the optimal particle diameter always smaller than the wavelength. We show that recent optical tweezers experiments are within two orders of magnitude of quantum limited sensitivity, suggesting that quantum optical resources may soon play an important role in high sensitivity tracking applications.

  14. Fundamental constraints on particle tracking with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2013-02-01

    A general quantum limit to the sensitivity of particle position measurements is derived following the simple principle of the Heisenberg microscope. The value of this limit is calculated for particles in the Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes, and with parameters which are relevant to optical tweezers experiments. The minimum power required to observe the zero-point motion of a levitating bead is also calculated, with the optimal particle diameter always smaller than the wavelength. We show that recent optical tweezers experiments are within two orders of magnitude of quantum limited sensitivity, suggesting that quantum optical resources may soon play an important role in high sensitivity tracking applications.

  15. Tunable optical tweezers for wavelength-dependent measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Brooke; Campbell, Gretchen K.; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Filgueira, Carly Levin; Huschka, Ryan; Halas, Naomi J.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Optical trapping forces depend on the difference between the trap wavelength and the extinction resonances of trapped particles. This leads to a wavelength-dependent trapping force, which should allow for the optimization of optical tweezers systems, simply by choosing the best trapping wavelength for a given application. Here we present an optical tweezer system with wavelength tunability, for the study of resonance effects. With this system, the optical trap stiffness is measured for single trapped particles that exhibit either single or multiple extinction resonances. We include discussions of wavelength-dependent effects, such as changes in temperature, and how to measure them. PMID:22559522

  16. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  17. Highly reduced iron-doped lithium niobate for optoelectronic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esseling, Michael; Zaltron, Annamaria; Argiolas, Nicola; Nava, Giovanni; Imbrock, Jörg; Cristiani, Ilaria; Sada, Cinzia; Denz, Cornelia

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the applicability of highly reduced lithium niobate samples doped with iron for the use as optoelectronic tweezers. Increasing the reduction degree of Fe-doped lithium niobate is well known to increase the photoconductivity and reduce the writing time of internal space-charge fields. Based on our measurements of the photorefractive properties, we determine the optimal conditions for dielectrophoretic trapping and present the application of Fe-doped lithium niobate as optoelectronic tweezers. For higher reduction degrees, an unexpected decrease in the photovoltaic current density and the saturation space-charge field is reported.

  18. Cellular viscoelasticity probed by active rheology in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Khokhlova, Maria D.; Skryabina, Maria N.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to probe viscoelastic properties of cells based on double trap optical tweezers is reported. Frequency dependence of the tangent of phase difference in the movement of the opposite erythrocyte edges while one of the edges is forced to oscillate by optical tweezers appeared to be highly dependent on the rigidity of the cellular membrane. Effective viscoelastic parameters characterizing red blood cells with different stiffnesses (normal and glutaraldehyde-fixed) are determined. It is shown that the photo-induced effects caused by laser trapping at the power level used in the experiments are negligible giving the possibility to use the offered technique for dynamic monitoring of soft materials viscoelastic properties.

  19. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

  20. Design strategies for optimizing holographic optical tweezers set-ups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Martín-Badosa; M. Montes-Usategui; A. Carnicer; J. Andilla; E. Pleguezuelos; I. Juvells

    2007-01-01

    We provide a detailed account of the construction of a system of holographic optical tweezers. While a lot of information is available on the design, alignment and calibration of other optical trapping configurations, those based on holography are relatively poorly described. Inclusion of a spatial light modulator in the set-up gives rise to particular design trade-offs and constraints, and the

  1. Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Stephen C.; Germain, Vincent; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation. PMID:19096726

  2. Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Chapin; Vincent Germain; Eric R. Dufresne

    2006-01-01

    We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation.

  3. In-situ single cell electroporation using optoelectronic tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin K. Valley; Hsan-Yin Hsu; Aaron T. Ohta; Steven Neale; Arash Jamshidi; Ming C. Wu

    2008-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers are used to achieve light-induced, in-situ electroporation of HeLa cells. By controlling electrical bias, patterned light induces either single cell movement or electroporation. Fluorescent dye and dielectrophoretic response are used to monitor electroporation.

  4. A Prototype Optical Tweezer System Employing Adaptive Optics Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nash; S. Bowman; C. Bradley; R. Conan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and characterization of a novel optical tweezer system. The system utilizes a deformable mirror, wavefront sensor and controller to manipulate an optically trapped micro-particle within a small chamber. This method for optical trapping employs technology adopted from astronomical instrumentation; in particular, adaptive optics. A deformable mirror is employed to control the wavefront phase of

  5. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    . The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with differentEffects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers Nicholas Hyun Charlie Chandsawangbhuwana Qingyuan Zhu Linda Z. Shi Collin Yang-Wong Michael W. Berns #12;Effects of viscosity on sperm

  6. Ultrahigh Frequency Lensless Ultrasonic Transducers for Acoustic Tweezers Application

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Lin, Anderson; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Eun Sok; Shung, Kirk Koping

    2014-01-01

    Similar to optical tweezers, a tightly focused ultrasound microbeam is needed to manipulate microparticles in acoustic tweezers. The development of highly sensitive ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducers is crucial for trapping particles or cells with a size of a few microns. As an extra lens would cause excessive attenuation at ultrahigh frequencies, two types of 200-MHz lensless transducer design were developed as an ultrasound microbeam device for acoustic tweezers application. Lithium niobate single crystal press-focused (PF) transducer and zinc oxide self-focused transducer were designed, fabricated and characterized. Tightly focused acoustic beams produced by these transducers were shown to be capable of manipulating single microspheres as small as 5 ?m two-dimensionally within a range of hundreds of micrometers in distilled water. The size of the trapped microspheres is the smallest ever reported in the literature of acoustic PF devices. These results suggest that these lensless ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducers are capable of manipulating particles at the cellular level and that acoustic tweezers may be a useful tool to manipulate a single cell or molecule for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:23042219

  7. Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever Chih-Lang Lin1* , Yi-Hsiung Lee2 , Yi-driven micro-lever fabricated to multiply optical forces using the two-photon polymerization 3D- microfabrication technique. The micro-lever is a second class lever comprising an optical trapping sphere, a beam

  8. RNA-regulated molecular tweezers for sensitive fluorescent detection of microRNA from cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue; Zhou, Wenjiao; Li, Daxiu; Chai, Yaqin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-09-15

    We describe here the construction of the DNA self-assembled molecular tweezers and the application of the tweezers for the monitoring of microRNA (miR-141) from human prostate cancer cells. The self-assembly formation of the DNA tweezers and the regulation of the tweezers upon alternative addition of the fuel miR-141 and the anti-fuel strands are characterized by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The addition of miR-141 to the DNA tweezers turns "off" the tweezers, while subsequent introduction of the anti-fuel strands switches the tweezers back to the "on" state, which verifies the regulatory ability of the tweezers. The miR-141-regulated DNA tweezers are concentration dependent and can be employed for sensitive detection of miR-141 down to 0.6pM. The DNA tweezers also show high selectivity toward the fuel strand and can be used to monitor miR-141 expression in cancer cells, which provides new opportunities for the application of the dynamic DNA devices in clinical diagnostics. PMID:25889350

  9. Probing DNA with micro- and nanocapillaries and optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, L. J.; Otto, O.; Skarstam, D. R.; Jahn, S.; Chimerel, C.; Gornall, J. L.; Keyser, U. F.

    2010-11-01

    We combine for the first time optical tweezer experiments with the resistive pulse technique based on capillaries. Quartz glass capillaries are pulled into a conical shape with tip diameters as small as 27 nm. Here, we discuss the translocation of ?-phage DNA which is driven by an electrophoretic force through the nanocapillary. The resulting change in ionic current indicates the folding state of single ?-phage DNA molecules. Our flow cell design allows for the straightforward incorporation of optical tweezers. We show that a DNA molecule attached to an optically trapped colloid is pulled into a capillary by electrophoretic forces. The detected electrophoretic force is in good agreement with measurements in solid-state nanopores.

  10. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. PMID:25523395

  11. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

  12. Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064?nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ?0.8–5?pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ?0.01–0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ?0.1–12?pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5–15?µm in media with 1–7?cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens. PMID:25359514

  13. Membrane Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells with Optical Tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiwei Li; Bahman Anvari; Masayoshi Takashima; Peter Brecht; Jorge H. Torres; William E. Brownell

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-?m polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499±152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142±49 pN). The difference

  14. Highly parallel magnetic tweezers by targeted DNA tethering.

    PubMed

    De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; van Loenhout, Marijn T J; Pfeiffer, Indriati; Huijts, Julius; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Katan, Allard J; van Langen-Suurling, Anja; van der Drift, Emile; Wyman, Claire; Dekker, Cees

    2011-12-14

    Single-molecule force-spectroscopy methods such as magnetic and optical tweezers have emerged as powerful tools for the detailed study of biomechanical aspects of DNA-enzyme interactions. As typically only a single molecule of DNA is addressed in an individual experiment, these methods suffer from a low data throughput. Here, we report a novel method for targeted, nonrandom immobilization of DNA-tethered magnetic beads in regular arrays through microcontact printing of DNA end-binding labels. We show that the increase in density due to the arrangement of DNA-bead tethers in regular arrays can give rise to a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in data-throughput in magnetic tweezers experiments. We demonstrate the applicability of this technique in tweezers experiments where up to 450 beads are simultaneously tracked in parallel, yielding statistical data on the mechanics of DNA for 357 molecules from a single experimental run. Our technique paves the way for kilo-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, enabling the study of rare events in DNA-protein interactions and the acquisition of large statistical data sets from individual experimental runs. PMID:22017420

  15. Advanced optical tweezers for the study of cellular and molecular biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Brouhard; Henry T. Schek; Alan J. Hunt

    2003-01-01

    Optical tweezers are an important tool for studying cellular and molecular biomechanics. We present a robust optical tweezers device with advanced features including: multiple optical traps, acousto-optic trap steering, and back focal plane interferometry position detection. We integrate these features into an upright microscope, with no compromise to its capabilities (differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), fluorescence microscopy, etc.). Acousto-optic deflectors

  16. Rapid rotation of micron and submicron dielectric particles measured using optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Leake, Mark C.

    (`optical tweezers') and back-focal-plane position detector to measure rapid rotation in aqueous solution]. In the latter technique, the emerging laser beam is collimated by a condenser lens and the back focal plane labelled with smaller beads were held at the centre of a microelectrode array by the optical tweezers

  17. Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changan Xie; De Chen; Yong-Qing Li

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively manipulated into a clean collection chamber with optical tweezers through

  18. Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    Hohng, Sung Chul

    Research Highlights 1. Combination of single-molecule FRET & optical tweezers Understanding as little as possible. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to combine single-molecule FRET and optical tweezers. Prior attempts, however, exposed great technical

  19. HostGuest Systems An Unstable Ligand-Unsupported Cui

    E-print Network

    Coppens, Philip

    . These examples include the dimer of trimers based on a substituted pyrazolate;[9] the dimer of dimers of such predictions.[16] A recent TR diffraction experiment on trimeric [{Cu[3,5- (CF3)2pyrazolate]}3] at 17 K indeed luminescence investigations of a series of substituted Cu/ pyrazolate trimers showed that the lifetime

  20. Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

  1. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woon Ik; Kim, Yongjoo; Jeong, Jae Won; Kim, Kyungho; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Hur, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jong Min; Thomas, Edwin L.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2013-11-01

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their limited thin film morphologies. Here, we report that unusual and spontaneous positioning between host and guest BCP microdomains, even in the absence of H-bond linkages, can create hybridized morphologies that cannot be formed from a neat BCP. Our self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulation results theoretically support that the precise registration of a spherical BCP microdomain (guest, B-b-C) at the center of a perforated lamellar BCP nanostructure (host, A-b-B) can energetically stabilize the blended morphology. As an exemplary application of the hybrid nanotemplate, a nanoring-type Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change memory device with an extremely low switching current is demonstrated. These results suggest the possibility of a new pathway to construct more diverse and complex nanostructures using controlled blending of various BCPs.

  2. Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woon Ik; Kim, YongJoo; Jeong, Jae Won; Kim, Kyungho; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Hur, Yoon Hyung; Kim, Jong Min; Thomas, Edwin L.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their limited thin film morphologies. Here, we report that unusual and spontaneous positioning between host and guest BCP microdomains, even in the absence of H-bond linkages, can create hybridized morphologies that cannot be formed from a neat BCP. Our self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulation results theoretically support that the precise registration of a spherical BCP microdomain (guest, B-b-C) at the center of a perforated lamellar BCP nanostructure (host, A-b-B) can energetically stabilize the blended morphology. As an exemplary application of the hybrid nanotemplate, a nanoring-type Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase-change memory device with an extremely low switching current is demonstrated. These results suggest the possibility of a new pathway to construct more diverse and complex nanostructures using controlled blending of various BCPs. PMID:24217036

  3. Photoswitchable supramolecular catalysis by interparticle host-guest competitive binding.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangliang; Yan, Hong; Ang, Chung Yen; Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Menghuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2012-10-29

    On and off: ester hydrolysis catalyzed by a Zn(II) -coordinated ?-cyclodextrin dimer can be switched on and off using light in the presence of gold nanoparticles with azobenzene units attached to their surfaces. Under visible light, the azobenzene units are trans and bind tightly to the dimer, thus leading to reduced catalysis. Under UV light, the azobenzene units are cis and bind loosely to the dimer, thus allowing substrates to bind and hydrolysis to occur. PMID:22987583

  4. A simple optical tweezers for trapping polystyrene particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiq, Minarni; Nasir, Zulfa; Yogasari, Dwiyana

    2013-09-01

    Optical tweezers is an optical trap. For decades, it has become an optical tool that can trap and manipulate any particle from the very small size like DNA to the big one like bacteria. The trapping force comes from the radiation pressure of laser light which is focused to a group of particles. Optical tweezers has been used in many research areas such as atomic physics, medical physics, biophysics, and chemistry. Here, a simple optical tweezers has been constructed using a modified Leybold laboratory optical microscope. The ocular lens of the microscope has been removed for laser light and digital camera accesses. A laser light from a Coherent diode laser with wavelength ? = 830 nm and power 50 mW is sent through an immersion oil objective lens with magnification 100 × and NA 1.25 to a cell made from microscope slides containing polystyrene particles. Polystyrene particles with size 3 ?m and 10 ?m are used. A CMOS Thorlabs camera type DCC1545M with USB Interface and Thorlabs camera lens 35 mm are connected to a desktop and used to monitor the trapping and measure the stiffness of the trap. The camera is accompanied by camera software which makes able for the user to capture and save images. The images are analyzed using ImageJ and Scion macro. The polystyrene particles have been trapped successfully. The stiffness of the trap depends on the size of the particles and the power of the laser. The stiffness increases linearly with power and decreases as the particle size larger.

  5. Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, D.K.; Sonek, G.J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States); Berns, M.W.; Chapman, C.F.; Tromberg, B.J. [Department of Biophysics, and Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The confinement of liposomes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by infrared (IR) optical tweezers is shown to result in sample heating and temperature increases by several degrees centigrade, as measured by a noninvasive, spatially resolved fluorescence detection technique. For micron-sized spherical liposome vesicles having bilayer membranes composed of the phospholipid 1,2-diacyl-pentadecanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (15-OPC), a temperature rise of {similar_to}1.45{plus_minus}0.15 {degree}C/100 mW is observed when the vesicles are held stationary with a 1.064 {mu}m optical tweezers having a power density of {similar_to}10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} and a focused spot size of {similar_to}0.8 {mu}m. The increase in sample temperature is found to scale linearly with applied optical power in the 40 to 250 mW range. Under the same trapping conditions, CHO cells exhibit an average temperature rise of nearly 1.15{plus_minus}0.25 {degree}C/100 mW. The extent of cell heating induced by infrared tweezers confinement can be described by a heat conduction model that accounts for the absorption of infrared (IR) laser radiation in the aqueous cell core and membrane regions, respectively. The observed results are relevant to the assessment of the noninvasive nature of infrared trapping beams in micromanipulation applications and cell physiological studies. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  7. Mechanical properties of a giant liposome studied using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitamichi, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a micrometer-sized giant liposome are studied by deforming it from the inside using dual-beam optical tweezers. As the liposome is extended, its shape changes from a sphere to a lemon shape, and finally, a tubular part is generated. The surface tension ? and the bending rigidity ? of the lipid membrane are obtained from the measured force-extension curve. In a one-phase liposome, it was found that ? increases as the charged component increases but ? remains approximately constant. In a two-phase liposome, the characteristic deformation and the force-extension curve differ from those observed for the one-phase liposome.

  8. Optical lock-in particle tracking in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael A; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a lock-in particle tracking scheme in optical tweezers based on stroboscopic modulation of an illuminating optical field. This scheme is found to evade low frequency noise sources while otherwise producing an equivalent position measurement to continuous measurement. This was demonstrated to yield up to 20 dB of noise suppression at both low frequencies (< 1 kHz), where low frequency electronic noise was significant, and around 630 kHz where laser relaxation oscillations introduced laser noise. The setup is simple, and compatible with any trapping optics. PMID:23571892

  9. Hybrid optical tweezers for dynamic micro-bead arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Tsutsui, Shogo; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Kitajima, Hiroyuki

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic micro-bead arrays offer great flexibility and potential as sensing tools in various scientific fields. Two optical trapping techniques, the GPC method using a spatial light modulator and a mechanical scanning method using galvano mirrors, are combined in a hybrid optical tweezers system to handle dynamic micro-bead arrays. This system provides greater versatility while the GPC method creates massive micro-bead arrays in a 2D space, where the trapped beads can be manipulated smoothly and very quickly in a 3D space using the mechanical scanning method. Four typical examples are demonstrated in real time.

  10. Orientating Manipulation of Cylindrical Particles with Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiudong; Li, Xuecong; Zhang, Jianlong

    Orientating manipulations of cylindrical particles were performed by optical tweezers. Vertical and horizontal manipulations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were carried out by changing the trapping depth and the focused laser beam shape. It was found that carbon nanotubes bundles (CNTBs) could be rotated in the linear polarized optical trap until it orientated its long axis along the linear polarization direction of the laser beam. However, E.coli could not be orientated in this way. Corresponding mechanisms were discussed based on the anisomeric electric characters of CNTBs. These orientation technologies of cylindrical objects with optical trap have potential applications in assembling nano-electric devices.

  11. Near-field single tractor-beam acoustical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2013-09-01

    The possibility to trap a sphere in the near-field of a single-beam piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a rigid, fluid, elastic, and viscoelastic sphere with arbitrary radius placed in the near-field and centered on the axis of a circular piezoelectric transducer vibrating uniformly, experiences a pulling force, so the acoustical waves act as a "tractor" beam. Numerical predictions illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the distance from the source, the size of the transducer, and the elastic properties of the sphere. Those results can potentially suggest a simple and reliable method in designing acoustical tweezers.

  12. Optical Tweezers Array System Based on 2D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xuechang; Wang, Canhui; Li, Yanshuang; Shen, Shaoxin; Liu, Shou

    A simple optical interference method for creating multiple optical tweezers from a single laser beam, using two dimentional photonic crystals (PhCs) as a diffractive beam splitter, was described. To obtained clear periodic traps, all diffracted beams sould be used and the intensity of each splitted beam should be same. So the period and the surface features of PhCs was adjusted in the present study As a demonstration of this technique, using 2D PhCs with 700 nanometer period, hexagonal lattice patterns with one micrometer period have been implemented. The image of periodic intensity gradient of light fabricated by this method is presented.

  13. Invited Article: A review of haptic optical tweezers for an interactive microworld exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacoret, Cécile; Régnier, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    This paper is the first review of haptic optical tweezers, a new technique which associates force feedback teleoperation with optical tweezers. This technique allows users to explore the microworld by sensing and exerting picoNewton-scale forces with trapped microspheres. Haptic optical tweezers also allow improved dexterity of micromanipulation and micro-assembly. One of the challenges of this technique is to sense and magnify picoNewton-scale forces by a factor of 1012 to enable human operators to perceive interactions that they have never experienced before, such as adhesion phenomena, extremely low inertia, and high frequency dynamics of extremely small objects. The design of optical tweezers for high quality haptic feedback is challenging, given the requirements for very high sensitivity and dynamic stability. The concept, design process, and specification of optical tweezers reviewed here are focused on those intended for haptic teleoperation. In this paper, two new specific designs as well as the current state-of-the-art are presented. Moreover, the remaining important issues are identified for further developments. The initial results obtained are promising and demonstrate that optical tweezers have a significant potential for haptic exploration of the microworld. Haptic optical tweezers will become an invaluable tool for force feedback micromanipulation of biological samples and nano- and micro-assembly parts.

  14. Label-free free-solution nanoaperture optical tweezers for single molecule protein studies.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Ahmed A; Kotnala, Abhay; Wheaton, Skyler; Gelfand, Ryan M; Rajashekara, Yashaswini; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-07-21

    Nanoaperture optical tweezers are emerging as useful label-free, free-solution tools for the detection and identification of biological molecules and their interactions at the single molecule level. Nanoaperture optical tweezers provide a low-cost, scalable, straight-forward, high-speed and highly sensitive (SNR ? 33) platform to observe real-time dynamics and to quantify binding kinetics of protein-small molecule interactions without the need to use tethers or labeling. Such nanoaperture-based optical tweezers, which are 1000 times more efficient than conventional optical tweezers, have been used to trap and isolate single DNA molecules and to study proteins like p53, which has been claimed to be in mutant form for 75% of human cancers. More recently, nanoaperture optical tweezers have been used to probe the low-frequency (in the single digit wavenumber range) Raman active modes of single nanoparticles and proteins. Here we review recent developments in the field of nanoaperture optical tweezers and how they have been applied to protein-antibody interactions, protein-small molecule interactions including single molecule binding kinetics, and protein-DNA interactions. In addition, recent works on the integration of nanoaperture optical tweezers at the tip of optical fiber and in microfluidic environments are presented. PMID:25734189

  15. Precision Assembly of Complex Cellular Microenvironments using Holographic Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M.; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D.; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  16. All-Optical Constant-Force Laser Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rajalakshmi; Gajraj, Arivalagan; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2004-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a powerful tool for the study of single biomolecules. Many applications require that a molecule be held under constant tension while its extension is measured. We present two schemes based on scanning-line optical tweezers to accomplish this, providing all-optical alternatives to force-clamp traps that rely on electronic feedback to maintain constant-force conditions for the molecule. In these schemes, a laser beam is rapidly scanned along a line in the focal plane of the microscope objective, effectively creating an extended one-dimensional optical potential over distances of up to 8 ?m. A position-independent lateral force acting on a trapped particle is created by either modulating the laser beam intensity during the scan or by using an asymmetric beam profile in the back focal plane of the microscope objective. With these techniques, forces of up to 2.69 pN have been applied over distances of up to 3.4 ?m with residual spring constants of <26.6 fN/?m. We used these techniques in conjunction with a fast position measurement scheme to study the relaxation of ?-DNA molecules against a constant external force with submillisecond time resolution. We compare the results to predictions from the wormlike chain model. PMID:15345573

  17. Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chin-Te; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hwang, Jiann-Lih; Chung, Tien-Tung; Baldeck, Patrice L

    2011-10-10

    This study presents a photo-driven micro-lever fabricated to multiply optical forces using the two-photon polymerization 3D-microfabrication technique. The micro-lever is a second class lever comprising an optical trapping sphere, a beam, and a pivot. A micro-spring is placed between the short and long arms to characterize the induced force. This design enables precise manipulation of the micro-lever by optical tweezers at the micron scale. Under optical dragging, the sphere placed on the lever beam moves, resulting in torque that induces related force on the spring. The optical force applied at the sphere is approximately 100 to 300 pN, with a laser power of 100 to 300 mW. In this study, the optical tweezers drives the micro-lever successfully. The relationship between the optical force and the spring constant can be determined by using the principle of leverage. The arm ratio design developed in this study multiplies the applied optical force by 9. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation of spring property. PMID:21997068

  18. Precision assembly of complex cellular microenvironments using holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Glen R; Britchford, Emily; Upton, Thomas; Ware, James; Gibson, Graham M; Devaud, Yannick; Ehrbar, Martin; Padgett, Miles; Allen, Stephanie; Buttery, Lee D; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate study of cellular microenvironments is limited by the lack of technologies that can manipulate cells in 3D at a sufficiently small length scale. The ability to build and manipulate multicellular microscopic structures will facilitate a more detailed understanding of cellular function in fields such as developmental and stem cell biology. We present a holographic optical tweezers based technology to accurately generate bespoke cellular micro-architectures. Using embryonic stem cells, 3D structures of varying geometries were created and stabilized using hydrogels and cell-cell adhesion methods. Control of chemical microenvironments was achieved by the temporal release of specific factors from polymer microparticles positioned within these constructs. Complex co-culture micro-environmental analogues were also generated to reproduce structures found within adult stem cell niches. The application of holographic optical tweezers-based micromanipulation will enable novel insights into biological microenvironments by allowing researchers to form complex architectures with sub-micron precision of cells, matrices and molecules. PMID:25716032

  19. A simple method for evaluating the trapping performance of acoustic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Ho Lam, Kwok; Kirk Shung, K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a rapid and simple method to evaluate the trapping performance of high frequency focused ultrasonic transducers for acoustic tweezer applications. The method takes into consideration the friction between the particle to be trapped and the surface that it resides on. As a result it should be more reliable and accurate than the methods proposed previously. The trapping force produced by a 70-MHz press-focused transducer was measured to evaluate the performance of this approach. This method demonstrates its potential in optimizing the excitation conditions for acoustic tweezer applications and the design of acoustic tweezers. PMID:23526834

  20. TweezPal - Optical tweezers analysis and calibration software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Natan

    2010-11-01

    Optical tweezers, a powerful tool for optical trapping, micromanipulation and force transduction, have in recent years become a standard technique commonly used in many research laboratories and university courses. Knowledge about the optical force acting on a trapped object can be gained only after a calibration procedure which has to be performed (by an expert) for each type of trapped objects. In this paper we present TweezPal, a user-friendly, standalone Windows software tool for optical tweezers analysis and calibration. Using TweezPal, the procedure can be performed in a matter of minutes even by non-expert users. The calibration is based on the Brownian motion of a particle trapped in a stationary optical trap, which is being monitored using video or photodiode detection. The particle trajectory is imported into the software which instantly calculates position histogram, trapping potential, stiffness and anisotropy. Program summaryProgram title: TweezPal Catalogue identifier: AEGR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 44 891 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 792 653 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Borland Delphi Computer: Any PC running Microsoft Windows Operating system: Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP, Vista, 7 RAM: 12 Mbytes Classification: 3, 4.14, 18, 23 Nature of problem: Quick, robust and user-friendly calibration and analysis of optical tweezers. The optical trap is calibrated from the trajectory of a trapped particle undergoing Brownian motion in a stationary optical trap (input data) using two methods. Solution method: Elimination of the experimental drift in position data. Direct calculation of the trap stiffness from the positional variance. Calculation of 1D optical trapping potential from the positional distribution of data points. Trap stiffness calculation by fitting a parabola to the trapping potential. Presentation of X-Y positional density for close inspection of the 2D trapping potential. Calculation of the trap anisotropy. Running time: Seconds

  1. Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory John Bechhoefera)

    E-print Network

    Bechhoefer, John

    used passively, to record the forces induced on a bead, for example, by kinesin molecules3 and myosin'' instability in lipid vesicles.5 The tweezer-induced motion of a bead also can be used to measure local

  2. Automated transportation of single cells using robot-tweezer manipulation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Songyu; Sun, Dong

    2011-08-01

    Manipulation of biological cells becomes increasingly important in biomedical engineering to address challenge issues in cell-cell interaction, drug discovery, and tissue engineering. Significant demand for both accuracy and productivity in cell manipulation highlights the need for automated cell transportation with integrated robotics and micro/nano manipulation technologies. Optical tweezers, which use highly focused low-power laser beams to trap and manipulate particles at micro/nanoscale, have emerged as an essential tool for manipulating single cells. In this article, we propose to use a robot-tweezer manipulation system to solve the problem of automatic transportation of biological cells, where optical tweezers function as special robot end effectors. Dynamics equation of the cell in optical tweezers is analyzed. A closed-loop controller is designed for transporting and positioning cells. Experiments are performed on live cells to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in effective cell positioning. PMID:21764021

  3. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy: comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Jimmy; Jørgensen, Thomas M.

    2007-05-01

    The authors of the work: ‘Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and raman spectroscopy’ [Opt. Express 14, 5385 (2006], claim that they have been able to identify and differentiate between three human chromosomes with an optical-tweezer Raman Spectroscopic experimental (LTRS) set-up. The results and conclusions as they are presented in the paper are questionable, however, when the spectral data and data analysis are studied in greater detail.

  4. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  5. Patterning surfaces with colloidal particles using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, J. P.; Vossen, D. L. J.; Faivre-Moskalenko, C.; Dogterom, M.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2002-06-01

    A method for positioning colloidal particles on surfaces in any designed pattern is described. Optical tweezers are used to bring particles from a reservoir to the substrate where opposite surface charges are used to immobilize particles on the surface. Both chemical surface modification and polyelectrolyte coating of either substrate or colloids make the method generally applicable. We show that using this technique large, two-dimensional patterns can be created that can be dried without distortions by critical point drying. As an example we show the positioning of 79 nm radius metallodielectric particles and we show how two-dimensional patterns can be used to direct three-dimensional epitaxial crystal growth. The method is inexpensive, relatively fast, and can be fully automated.

  6. A tunable line optical tweezers instrument with nanometer spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W. Benjamin; Crocker, John C.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a simple scanning-line optical tweezers instrument for measuring pair interactions between micrometer-sized colloidal particles. Our instrument combines a resonant scanning mirror and an acousto-optic modulator. The resonant scanning mirror creates a time-averaged line trap whose effective one-dimensional intensity profile, and corresponding trapping potential energy landscape can be programmed using the acousto-optic modulator. We demonstrate control over the confining potential by designing and measuring a family of one-dimensional harmonic traps. By adjusting the spring constant, we balance scattering-induced repulsive forces between a pair of trapped particles, creating a flat potential near contact that facilitates interaction measurements. We also develop a simple method for extracting the out-of-plane motion of trapped particles from their relative brightness, allowing us to resolve their relative separation to roughly 1 nm.

  7. Using Optical Tweezers to Study Cell Mechanics during Airway Reopening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Huseyin; Wang, Jing; Ghadiali, Samir; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) must be mechanically ventilated in order to survive. However, these ventilation protocols may generate injurious hydrodynamic stresses especially during low tidal volume (VT) ventilation when the flow of micron-sized air bubbles displace the surrounding liquid. In-vitro studies in our lab revealed that microbubble flows can severally damage lung epithelial cells (EC). The degree of injury was elevated for sub-confluent monolayers in small channel heights. Under these conditions, the micromechanics of individual EC may influence the degree of cellular injury. To investigate the role of cell mechanics, we used an oscillating Optical Tweezers (OT) technique to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of EC before and after the flow of microbubbles. Knowledge of how the EC's micromechanical properties influence cell viability may lead to the development of novel treatment therapies that enhance the EC's ability to withstand injurious hydrodynamic stresses during ventilation treatment.

  8. Speckle optical tweezers: micromanipulation with random light fields.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Giorgio; Kurz, Lisa; Callegari, Agnese; Volpe, Giovanni; Gigan, Sylvain

    2014-07-28

    Current optical manipulation techniques rely on carefully engineered setups and samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, it is still a challenge to manipulate microparticles when the environment is not well controlled and known a priori, since optical imperfections and scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to efficiently perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting. We anticipate that the simplicity of these "speckle optical tweezers" will greatly broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications. PMID:25089434

  9. Optical tweezers formed by pure phase pupil filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Mei; Yun, Maojin

    2013-09-01

    The focusing properties of vector beams have attracted great attention and quickly became the subject of extensive worldwide research due to their applications in lithography, optical storage, microscopy, material processing, and optical trapping. Focusing properties of the radially polarized beam and generalized cylindrical vector beams in high numerical aperture system with designed pure phase filter are analyzed in detail by using vector Debye diffraction theory. By utilizing diffractive optical element to partly change the polarization of vector beams, the energy density of light field in the vicinity of focus is studied by the numerical analysis. Numerical simulation result shows that optical bubbles can be obtained by changing the composition and polarization of the incident beams. At last, optical tweezers are constituted by two optical bubbles around the focus.

  10. Operational Regimes and Physics Present in Optoelectronic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Justin K.; Jamshidi, Arash; Ohta, Aaron T.; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Wu, Ming C.

    2008-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) are a powerful light-based technique for the manipulation of micro- and nanoscopic particles. In addition to an optically patterned dielectrophoresis (DEP) force, other light-induced electrokinetic and thermal effects occur in the OET device. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of various fluidic, optical, and electrical effects present during OET operation. These effects include DEP, light-induced ac electroosmosis, electrothermal flow, and buoyancy-driven flow. We present finite-element modeling of these effects to establish the dominant mode for a given set of device parameters and bias conditions. These results are confirmed experimentally and present a comprehensive outline of the operational regimes of the OET device. PMID:19079767

  11. Simultaneous measurements of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce, Giuseppe; Rusciano, Giulia; Zito, Gianluigi; Sasso, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Herein, charged microbeads handled with optical tweezers are used as a sensitive probe for simultaneous measurements of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces. We first determine the electric charge carried by a single bead by keeping it in a predictable uniform electric field produced by two parallel planar electrodes, then, we examine same bead's response in proximity to a tip electrode. In this case, besides electric forces, the bead simultaneously experiences non-negligible dielectrophoretic forces produced by the strong electric field gradient. The stochastic and deterministic motions of the trapped bead are theoretically and experimentally analysed in terms of the autocorrelation function. By fitting the experimental data, we are able to extract simultaneously the spatial distribution of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces around the tip. Our approach can be used for determining actual, total force components in the presence of high-curvature electrodes or metal scanning probe tips.

  12. A new microsystem for automated electrorotation measurements using laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Reichle, C; Schnelle, T; Müller, T; Leya, T; Fuhr, G

    2000-07-20

    We have developed a new microsystem for fast, automated studies of reactions and kinetics of single cells with biochemical or pharmacological agents. A cell spins in an external rotating electric field and the frequency dependence characterises the passive dielectric properties of membrane and cytoplasm. We use a planar microelectrode chip with microchannel (easily covered with a removable slip) for the application of frequencies exceeding 250 MHz to determine cytoplasmic properties in low and high conductivity electrolyte solutions. The laser tweezers serve as a bearing system, rotation is induced by microelectrodes and rotation speed is recorded automatically. This opens up new possibilities in biotechnology, e.g. for drug screening as demonstrated by measuring the influence of ionomycin on the passive dielectric properties of T-lymphoma cells. Additionally, a possible infrared-induced long-term cell damage could be observed by electrorotation and is discussed. PMID:10924913

  13. Molecular tweezer based on zinc porphyrin-substituted diarylethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Eun; Shin, Eun Ju

    2007-11-01

    A molecular tweezer, zinc porphyrin-dithienylethene-zinc porphyrin (ZnP-DTE-ZnP) triad, has been prepared. Triad ZnPor-DTE-ZnPor showed a little electronic communication among the chromophores judged from the comparison of the steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra for triads and their component compounds. Irradiation of ZnPor-DTE-ZnPor with UV light converts dithienylethene moiety from open form to closed form. The complexation of ZnP-DTE-ZnP with 4,4'-bipyridyl were investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. ZnP-DTE-ZnP forms a 1:1 complex with 4,4'-bipyridyl. The stability constants of log K = 4.0 and 4.2 mol -1 dm 3 were determined by absorption and fluorescence spectral changes, respectively.

  14. Skewed brownian fluctuations in single-molecule magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Daniel R; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383

  15. Skewed Brownian Fluctuations in Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Daniel R.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383

  16. Non-conservative forces in optical tweezers and Brownian vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static, but non-conservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle's thermally-driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force, but rather reflects an interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the non-conservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic machines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that non-conservative optical forces bias the particle's fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.

  17. Dynamic excitations in membranes induced by optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, R; Moses, E; Nelson, P

    1998-01-01

    We present the phenomenology of transformations in lipid bilayers that are excited by laser tweezers. A variety of dynamic instabilities and shape transformations are observed, including the pearling instability, expulsion of vesicles, and more exotic ones, such as the formation of passages. Our physical picture of the laser-membrane interaction is based on the generation of tension in the bilayer and loss of surface area. Although tension is the origin of the pearling instability, it does not suffice to explain expulsion of vesicles, where we observe opening of giant pores and creeping motion of bilayers. We present a quantitative theoretical framework to understand most of the observed phenomenology. The main hypothesis is that lipid is pulled into the optical trap by the familiar dielectric effect, is disrupted, and finally is repackaged into an optically unresolvable suspension of colloidal particles. This suspension, in turn, can produce osmotic pressure and depletion forces, driving the observed transformations. PMID:9649388

  18. Measuring red blood cell aggregation forces using double optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Heloise P; Fontes, Adriana; Thomaz, André; Castro, Vagner; Cesar, Carlos L; Barjas-Castro, Maria L

    2013-04-01

    Classic immunohematology approaches, based on agglutination techniques, have been used in manual and automated immunohematology laboratory routines. Red blood cell (RBC) agglutination depends on intermolecular attractive forces (hydrophobic bonds, Van der Walls, electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds) and repulsive interactions (zeta potential). The aim of this study was to measure the force involved in RBC aggregation using double optical tweezers, in normal serum, in the presence of erythrocyte antibodies and associated to agglutination potentiator solutions (Dextran, low ionic strength solution [LISS] and enzymes). The optical tweezers consisted of a neodymium:yattrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam focused through a microscope equipped with a minicam, which registered the trapped cell image in a computer where they could be analyzed using a software. For measuring RBC aggregation, a silica bead attached to RBCs was trapped and the force needed to slide one RBC over the other, as a function of the velocities, was determined. The median of the RBC aggregation force measured in normal serum (control) was 1 × 10(-3) (0.1-2.5) poise.cm. The samples analyzed with anti-D showed 2 × 10(-3) (1.0-4.0) poise.cm (p < 0.001). RBC diluted in potentiator solutions (Dextran 0.15%, Bromelain and LISS) in the absence of erythrocyte antibodies, did not present agglutination. High adherence was observed when RBCs were treated with papain. Results are in agreement with the imunohematological routine, in which non-specific results are not observed when using LISS, Dextran and Bromelain. Nevertheless, false positive results are frequently observed in manual and automated microplate analyzer using papain enzyme. The methodology proposed is simple and could provide specific information with the possibility of meansuration regarding RBC interaction. PMID:23402665

  19. Extending the range for force calibration in magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Daldrop, Peter; Brutzer, Hergen; Huhle, Alexander; Kauert, Dominik J; Seidel, Ralf

    2015-05-19

    Magnetic tweezers are a wide-spread tool used to study the mechanics and the function of a large variety of biomolecules and biomolecular machines. This tool uses a magnetic particle and a strong magnetic field gradient to apply defined forces to the molecule of interest. Forces are typically quantified by analyzing the lateral fluctuations of the biomolecule-tethered particle in the direction perpendicular to the applied force. Since the magnetic field pins the anisotropy axis of the particle, the lateral fluctuations follow the geometry of a pendulum with a short pendulum length along and a long pendulum length perpendicular to the field lines. Typically, the short pendulum geometry is used for force calibration by power-spectral-density (PSD) analysis, because the movement of the bead in this direction can be approximated by a simple translational motion. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the fluctuations according to the long pendulum geometry and show that for this direction, both the translational and the rotational motions of the particle have to be considered. We provide analytical formulas for the PSD of this coupled system that agree well with PSDs obtained in experiments and simulations and that finally allow a faithful quantification of the magnetic force for the long pendulum geometry. We furthermore demonstrate that this methodology allows the calibration of much larger forces than the short pendulum geometry in a tether-length-dependent manner. In addition, the accuracy of determination of the absolute force is improved. Our force calibration based on the long pendulum geometry will facilitate high-resolution magnetic-tweezers experiments that rely on short molecules and large forces, as well as highly parallelized measurements that use low frame rates. PMID:25992733

  20. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using a stop at the back focal plane of the condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Samadi, Akbar; Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical tweezers are indispensable micro-manipulation tools. It is known that optical tweezers are force rather than position sensors due to the shorter linear range of their position detection system. In this paper, we have shown for the first time, that positioning an optical stop at the BFP of the condenser can overcome this problem by extending the linear detection range. This method would be valuable for the force spectroscopy applications of optical tweezers.

  1. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications. PMID:24216863

  2. Automatic real time evaluation of red blood cell elasticity by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diógenes S; Silva, Diego C N; Williams, Ajoke J; Bezerra, Marcos A C; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2015-05-01

    Optical tweezers have been used to trap, manipulate, and measure individual cell properties. In this work, we show that the association of a computer controlled optical tweezers system with image processing techniques allows rapid and reproducible evaluation of cell deformability. In particular, the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the transport of oxygen through the blood microcirculation. The automatic measurement processes consisted of three steps: acquisition, segmentation of images, and measurement of the elasticity of the cells. An optical tweezers system was setup on an upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a motorized XYZ stage, computer controlled by a Labview platform. On the optical tweezers setup, the deformation of the captured RBC was obtained by moving the motorized stage. The automatic real-time homemade system was evaluated by measuring RBCs elasticity from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia. Approximately 150 erythrocytes were examined, and the elasticity values obtained by using the developed system were compared to the values measured by two experts. With the automatic system, there was a significant time reduction (60 × ) of the erythrocytes elasticity evaluation. Automated system can help to expand the applications of optical tweezers in hematology and hemotherapy. PMID:26026527

  3. Force measurements with optical tweezers inside living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Josep; Farré, Arnau; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Montes-Usategui, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The force exerted by optical tweezers can be measured by tracking the momentum changes of the trapping beam, a method which is more general and powerful than traditional calibration techniques as it is based on first principles, but which has not been brought to its full potential yet, probably due to practical difficulties when combined with high-NA optical traps, such as the necessity to capture a large fraction of the scattered light. We show that it is possible to measure forces on arbitrary biological objects inside cells without an in situ calibration, using this approach. The instrument can be calibrated by measuring three scaling parameters that are exclusively determined by the design of the system, thus obtaining a conversion factor from volts to piconewtons that is theoretically independent of the physical properties of the sample and its environment. We prove that this factor keeps valid inside cells as it shows good agreement with other calibration methods developed in recent years for viscoelastic media. Finally, we apply the method to measuring the stall forces of kinesin and dynein in living A549 cells.

  4. Detection and characterization of individual intermolecular bonds using optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, A L

    2001-01-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques has made it possible to examine protein-protein interactions at the level of individual molecular pairs. A calibrated optical tweezers, along with immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated polystyrene microspheres, has been used to detect individual surface-linked Staphylococcus protein A (SpA) molecules and to characterize the strength of the noncovalent IgG-SpA bond. Microspheres containing, on average, less than one IgG per contact area were held in the optical trap while an SpA-coated substrate was scanned beneath them at a distance of approximately 50 nm. This geometry allows the trapped bead to make contact with the surface, from bond formation to rupture, and results in an enhancement of the force applied to a bond due to leverage supplied by the bead itself. Experiments yielded median single-bond rupture forces from 25 to 44 pN for IgG from four mammalian species, in general agreement with predictions based on free energies of association obtained from solution equilibrium constants. PMID:11371470

  5. Optical tweezers as manufacturing and characterization tool in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Ghadiri, R.; Ksouri, S. I.; Gurevich, E. L.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-09-01

    Pumping and mixing of small volumes of liquid samples are basic processes in microfluidic applications. Among the number of different principles for active transportation of the fluids microrotors have been investigated from the beginning. The main challenge in microrotors, however, has been the driving principle. In this work a new approach for a very simple magnetic driving principle has been realized. More precisely, we take advantage of optical grippers to fabricate various microrotors and introduce an optical force method to characterize the fluid flow generated by rotating the structures through magnetic actuation. The microrotors are built of silica and magnetic microspheres which are initially coated with Streptavidin or Biotin molecules. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) are used to trap, to position, and to assemble the microspheres with the chemical interaction of the biomolecules leading to a stable binding. Using this technique, complex designs of microrotors can be realized. The magnetic response of the magnetic microspheres enables the rotation and control of the structures through an external magnetic field. The generated fluid flow around the microrotor is measured optically by inserting a probe particle next to the rotor. While the probe particle is trapped by optical forces the flow force leads to a displacement of the particle from the trapping position. This displacement is directly related to the flow velocity and can be measured and calibrated. Variations of the microrotor design and rotating speed lead to characteristic flow fields.

  6. Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

  7. Manipulation of Suspended Single Cells by Microfluidics and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Nève, Nathalie; Kohles, Sean S.; Winn, Shelley R.; Tretheway, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Chondrocytes and osteoblasts experience multiple stresses in vivo. The optimum mechanical conditions for cell health are not fully understood. This paper describes the optical and microfluidic mechanical manipulation of single suspended cells enabled by the ?PIVOT, an integrated micron resolution particle image velocimeter (?PIV) and dual optical tweezers instrument (OT). In this study, we examine the viability and trap stiffness of cartilage cells, identify the maximum fluid-induced stresses possible in uniform and extensional flows, and compare the deformation characteristics of bone and muscle cells. These results indicate cell photodamage of chondrocytes is negligible for at least 20 min for laser powers below 30 mW, a dead cell presents less resistance to internal organelle rearrangement and deforms globally more than a viable cell, the maximum fluid-induced shear stresses are limited to ~15 mPa for uniform flows but may exceed 1 Pa for extensional flows, and osteoblasts show no deformation for shear stresses up to 250 mPa while myoblasts are more easily deformed and exhibit a modulated response to increasing stress. This suggests that global and/or local stresses can be applied to single cells without physical contact. Coupled with microfluidic sensors, these manipulations may provide unique methods to explore single cell biomechanics. PMID:20824110

  8. Probing DNA Helicase Kinetics with Temperature-Controlled Magnetic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Gollnick, Benjamin; Carrasco, Carolina; Zuttion, Francesca; Gilhooly, Neville S; Dillingham, Mark S; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Motor protein functions like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis or translocation along molecular substrates take place at nanometric scales and consequently depend on the amount of available thermal energy. The associated rates can hence be investigated by actively varying the temperature conditions. In this article, a thermally controlled magnetic tweezers (MT) system for single-molecule experiments at up to 40 °C is presented. Its compact thermostat module yields a precision of 0.1 °C and can in principle be tailored to any other surface-coupled microscopy technique, such as tethered particle motion (TPM), nanopore-based sensing of biomolecules, or super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument is used to examine the temperature dependence of translocation along double-stranded (ds)DNA by individual copies of the protein complex AddAB, a helicase-nuclease motor involved in dsDNA break repair. Despite moderately lower mean velocities measured at sub-saturating ATP concentrations, almost identical estimates of the enzymatic reaction barrier (around 21–24 kBT) are obtained by comparing results from MT and stopped-flow bulk assays. Single-molecule rates approach ensemble values at optimized chemical energy conditions near the motor, which can withstand opposing loads of up to 14 piconewtons (pN). Having proven its reliability, the temperature-controlled MT described herein will eventually represent a routinely applied method within the toolbox for nano-biotechnology. PMID:25400244

  9. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  10. Tweezers for parahydrogen: a metal-free probe of nonequilibrium nuclear spin states of H? molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Chernichenko, Konstantin; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; Sumerin, Victor; Koptyug, Igor V

    2014-01-15

    To date, only metal-containing hydrogenation catalysts have been utilized for producing substantial NMR signal enhancements by means of parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP). Herein, we show that metal-free compounds known as molecular tweezers are useful in this respect. It is shown that ansa-aminoborane tweezers QCAT provided (20-30)-fold signal enhancements of parahydrogen-originating hydrogens in (1)H NMR spectra. Nuclear polarization transfer from the polarized hydrogens to (11)B nuclei leads to a 10-fold enhancement in the (11)B NMR spectrum. Moreover, our results indicate that dihydrogen activation by QCAT and CAT tweezers is carried out in a pairwise manner, and PHIP can be used for understanding the activation mechanism in metal-free catalytic systems in general. PMID:24359087

  11. Near-field enhanced optical tweezers utilizing femtosecond-laser nanostructured substrates

    E-print Network

    Kotsifaki, Domna G; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of plasmonic-enhanced optical tweezers, of polystyrene beads in deionized water in the vicinity of metal-coated nanostructures. The optical tweezers operate with a continuous wave (CW) near-infrared laser. We employ a Cu/Au bilayer that significantly improves dissipation of heat generated by the trapping laser beam and avoid de-trapping from heat convection currents. We investigate the improvement of the optical trapping force, the effective trapping quality factor, and observe an exponential distance dependence of the trapping force from the nanostructures, expected from the evanescent plasmon field.

  12. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity ? by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  13. Hybrid optical transport trap: loading and unloading of microscale objects using a microfabricated optical fiber into optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mishra, Yogeshwar N.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    High throughput analysis of trapped samples requires effective loading and unloading into the trap in a microfluidic environment. We demonstrate development of a hybrid optical transport trap (HOTT) which combines a tapered fiberoptic 2D trap for transport of microscopic objects into and out of the optical tweezers trap in an orthogonal geometry. For small cone angle of the tip, the microscopic objects (polystyrene and red blood cells) were found to be trapped in two-dimensions and pushed along the axial direction by domination of scattering force. This was found to be in consistence with the estimated axial forces caused by the beam profiles emerging from the small-cone tapered fiber tip. While for loading of the microscopic objects into the optical tweezers trap, the fiber tip was placed ~ 30?m away from the tweezers trap, unloading was carried out in presence of the tip close (<15 ?m) to the tweezers trap. Further, for a fixed fiber trap and tweezers separation (~ 30 ?m), both loading and unloading could be achieved by reducing the tweezers trap power so that the scattering force exerted by the fiber trap exceeded the transverse gradient force of tweezers trap. Since the tapered tip can be easily integrated onto a microfluidic channel, the proposed configuration can find potential applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. We demonstrate analysis of transported microscopic objects using digital holographic microscopy integrated with the HOTT.

  14. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

  15. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers Matthew J. Langa)

    E-print Network

    Block, Steven

    .g., colloids and quasi-crystals. A full theory of optical tweezers, covering the full range of spatial scales design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule unfolding and refolding of proteins or nucleic acids, the strength of receptor-ligand bonding inter- actions

  16. Measurement of the total optical angular momentum transfer in optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Parkin; Gregor Knöner; Timo A. Nieminen; Norman R. Heckenberg; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop

    2006-01-01

    We describe a way to determine the total angular momentum, both spin and orbital, transferred to a particle trapped in optical tweezers. As an example an LG02 mode of a laser beam with varying degrees of circular polarisation is used to trap and rotate an elongated particle with a well defined geometry. The method successfully estimates the total optical torque

  17. High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taejin L Min; Patrick J Mears; Lon M Chubiz; Christopher V Rao; Yann R Chemla; Ido Golding

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-cell motility assay, which allows the quantification of bacterial swimming in a well-controlled environment, for durations of up to an hour and with a temporal resolution greater than the flagellar rotation rates of ?100 Hz. The assay is based on an instrument combining optical tweezers, light and fluorescence microscopy, and a microfluidic chamber. Using this device we

  18. Refractive multiple optical tweezers for parallel biochemical analysis in micro-fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Fabrice; Rohner, Johann; Pascoal, Pedro; Fournier, Jean-Marc; Vogel, Horst; Salathé, René-Paul

    2007-02-01

    We present a multiple laser tweezers system based on refractive optics. The system produces an array of 100 optical traps thanks to a refractive microlens array, whose focal plane is imaged into the focal plane of a high-NA microscope objective. This refractive multi-tweezers system is combined to micro-fluidics, aiming at performing simultaneous biochemical reactions on ensembles of free floating objects. Micro-fluidics allows both transporting the particles to the trapping area, and conveying biochemical reagents to the trapped particles. Parallel trapping in micro-fluidics is achieved with polystyrene beads as well as with native vesicles produced from mammalian cells. The traps can hold objects against fluid flows exceeding 100 micrometers per second. Parallel fluorescence excitation and detection on the ensemble of trapped particles is also demonstrated. Additionally, the system is capable of selectively and individually releasing particles from the tweezers array using a complementary steerable laser beam. Strategies for high-yield particle capture and individual particle release in a micro-fluidic environment are discussed. A comparison with diffractive optical tweezers enhances the pros and cons of refractive systems.

  19. Manipulation of Metal Nanoparticles using Fiber-Optic Laser Tweezers with a Microspherical Focusing Lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Numata; Atsuo Takayanagi; Yukitoshi Otani; Norihiro Umeda

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the laser manipulation of metal nanoparticles and dielectric particles by fiber-optic laser tweezers with a microspherical focusing lens. In this manner, a small ball lens attached to the end of the core focuses light guided through a single-mode optical fiber. Numerical electromagnetic analysis of the microfocusing structure showed the possibility of metal nanoparticle trapping with this method.

  20. Combined Optical Tweezers/Ion Beam Technique to Tune Colloidal Masks for

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    a positive surface charge and then patterned with negatively charged colloidal silica particles using optical the mask can be controlled. To create masks with arbitrary geometry, glass or silicon substrates were given tweezers.18,19 Glass microscope cover slides (diameter 19 mm, Chance, thickness #1) and Si(100) wafers were

  1. Measurement of Local Viscoelasticity and Forces in Living Cells by Magnetic Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Bausch, Andreas

    Measurement of Local Viscoelasticity and Forces in Living Cells by Magnetic Tweezers Andreas R measured the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of J774 macrophages with a recently developed circuit, we measured the shear elastic modulus, the effective viscosities, and the strain relaxation time

  2. Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Guenther; Fällman, Erik; Tuck, Simon; Axner, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful technique for micromanipulation of living cells. Although the technique often has been claimed to be nonintrusive, evidence has appeared that this is not always the case. This work presents evidence that near-infrared continuous-wave laser light from optical tweezers can produce stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. A transgenic strain of C. elegans, carrying an integrated heat-shock-responsive reporter gene, has been exposed to laser light under a variety of illumination conditions. It was found that gene expression was most often induced by light of 760 nm, and least by 810 nm. The stress response increased with laser power and irradiation time. At 810 nm, significant gene expression could be observed at 360 mW of illumination, which is more than one order of magnitude above that normally used in optical tweezers. In the 700-760-nm range, the results show that the stress response is caused by photochemical processes, whereas at 810 nm, it mainly has a photothermal origin. These results give further evidence that the 700-760-nm wavelength region is unsuitable for optical tweezers and suggest that work at 810 nm at normal laser powers does not cause stress at the cellular level. PMID:11916877

  3. Adhesion of nanoparticles to polymer brushes studied with the ghost tweezers method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-01-21

    Mechanisms of interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymer brushes (PBs) are explored using dissipative particle dynamics simulations and an original "ghost tweezers" method that emulates lab experiments performed with optical or magnetic tweezers. The ghost tweezers method is employed to calculate the free energy of adhesion. Ghost tweezers represents a virtual harmonic potential, which tethers NP with a spring to a given anchor point. The average spring force represents the effective force of NP-PB interaction as a function of the NP coordinate. The free energy landscape of NP-PB interactions is calculated as the mechanical work needed to transfer NP from the solvent bulk to a particular distance from the substrate surface. With this technique, we explore the adhesion of bare and ligand-functionalized spherical NPs to polyisoprene natural rubber brush in acetone-benzene binary solvent. We examine two basic mechanisms of NP-PB interactions, NP adhesion at PB exterior and NP immersion into PB, which are governed by interplay between entropic repulsive forces and enthalpic attractive forces caused by polymer adsorption at the NP surface and ligand adsorption at the substrate. The relative free energies of the equilibrium adhesion states and the potential barriers separating these states are calculated at varying grafting density, NP size, and solvent composition. PMID:25612723

  4. An optical tweezer actuated, nanoaperture-grid based Optofluidic Microscope implementation

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab Chip 6, 1274 - 1276 (2006). 2. X. Q. Cui, X tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab Chip 4, 196-200 (2004). 7. A. Ashkin, "Forces of a single

  5. Nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers for efficient trapping and alignment of particles

    E-print Network

    Lin, Lih Y.

    ­1316 (2003). 11. P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 436(7049), 370­372 (2005). 12. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, "Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured

  6. Simulation of heart infarction by laser microbeams and induction of arrhythmias by optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Perner; Shamci Monajembashi; Alexander Rapp; Leo Wollweber; Karl Otto Greulich

    2004-01-01

    Laser microbeam and optical tweezers were used for micromanipulation of a heart tissue model consisting of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes and bibroblasts. Using the laser microbeam a would was created, i.e. a sort of artificial heart infarction was generated. The first steps of wound repair were observed by live cell imaging. A complete filling of teh would primarily by migrating fibroblasts

  7. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte J. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed, changes in the propensity for large deformation of the erythrocyte are known to influence disease states

  8. Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis M. Ribezzi-Crivellari and F. Ritort * Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de of which is the coupling of fluctuations along different spatial directions, which may affect any optical

  9. Development of high frequency focused transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng

    Contactless particle trapping and manipulation have found many potential applications in diverse fields, especially in biological and medical research. Among the various methods, optical tweezers is the most well-known and extensively investigated technique. However, there are some limitations for particle manipulation based on optical tweezers. Due to the conceptual similarity with the optical tweezers and recent advances in high frequency ultrasonic transducer, a single beam acoustic tweezer using high frequency (? 20 MHz) focused transducer has recently been considered, and its feasibility was theoretically and experimentally investigated. This dissertation mainly describes the development of high frequency focused ultrasonic transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers applications. Three different types of transducers were fabricated. First, a 60 MHz miniature focused transducer (<1 mm) was made using press-focusing technique. The single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed to manipulate 15 microm polystyrene microspheres using this transducer. In vitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was also obtained with this device. Second approach is to build a 200 MHz self-focused ZnO transducer by sputtering ZnO film on a curved surface of the aluminum backing material. An individual 10 microm microsphere was effectively manipulated in two dimensions by this type of transducer. Another ultrahigh frequency focused transducer based on silicon lens design has also been developed, where a 330 MHz silicon lens transducer was fabricated and evaluated. Microparticle trapping experiment was carried out to demonstrate that silicon lens transducer can manipulate a single microsphere as small as 5 microm. The realization of single beam acoustic tweezers using high frequency focused transducers can offer wide range of applications in biomedical and chemical sciences including intercellular kinetics studies and cell stimulation. Additionally, we propose a simple and efficient approach to prepare xPMN-PT-(1-x)PZT (where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) composite films with controllable dielectric constant that offers better performance for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications. A 200 MHz single element transducer utilizing 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT thin film was built. This type of xPMN-PT-(1-x)PZT film transducers may satisfy current needs of very high frequency biomedical applications, such as ultrasonic biomicroscopy or acoustic tweezers.

  10. Synthesis of electrochemically responsive TTF-based molecular tweezers: evidence of tight intramolecular TTF pairing in solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A. Azov; Rafael Gómez; Johannes Stelten

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis and conformational studies of TTF-containing molecular tweezers based on a 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene scaffold. In the neutral form the tweezers are expected to adopt the closed conformation, while, upon oxidation, the open conformation should be preferred due to electrostatic repulsion between the oxidized TTF moieties. Cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate electronic pairing with formation of mixed-valence [TTF]2+ species and

  11. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingbo Kong; Pengfei Zhang; Guiwen Wang; Jing Yu; Peter Setlow; Yong-qing Li

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes a method combining phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers to characterize the germination of single bacterial spores. The characterization consists of the following steps: (i) loading heat-activated dormant spores into a temperature-controlled microscope sample holder containing a germinant solution plus a nucleic acid stain; (ii) capturing a single spore with optical tweezers; (iii) simultaneously

  12. An Improved Optical Tweezers Assay for Measuring the Force Generation of Single Kinesin Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Numerous microtubule-associated molecular motors, including several kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, produce opposing forces that regulate spindle and chromosome positioning during mitosis. The motility and force generation of these motors are therefore critical to normal cell division, and dysfunction of these processes may contribute to human disease. Optical tweezers provide a powerful method for studying the nanometer motility and piconewton force generation of single motor proteins in vitro. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we present a set of step-by-step, optimized protocols for expressing a kinesin construct (K560-GFP) in Escherichia coli, purifying it, and studying its force generation in an optical tweezers microscope. We also provide detailed instructions on proper alignment and calibration of an optical trapping microscope. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of similar experiments. PMID:24633799

  13. Stable manipulating of nanowires by line optical tweezers with haptic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Song-Woo; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2007-09-01

    Optical tweezers are widely used for manipulating microscopic objects. Compared to other contact type microscopic manipulators such as micro-grippers that exhibit firm gripping, optical tweezers inherently possess loose gripping. For example, if a user tries to move target objects too fast such that the drag force of the viscous fluid exceeds the trapping force, target objects will escape from the effective trapping region. When this happens in a standard user interface environment with only video feedback, the user would sense this with a visual cue and slow down or slightly reverse the movement of the trap. In this study we enrich the user interface by adding a haptic cue that is a sense of forces and torques so that the user will sense the drag force and torque that is proportional to the gap distance and angle between the line trap and the nanowire. We present some preliminary results of putting haptic cue for manipulating nanowires.

  14. Design of a high-quality optical conjugate structure in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunguang; An, Ran; Zhang, Chengwei; Lei, Hai; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-02-20

    We propose an approach to realize a high-quality optical conjugate of a piezo-driven mirror (PM) in optical tweezers. Misalignments between the optical beam and the steering center of the PM are analyzed mathematically. The decentrations in different directions cause different changes, either a position change of the conjugate plane or a spot variation of the beam during PM steering. On the other hand, these misalignment-introduced problems provide the information to check the assembling errors. Thus a wanted conjugate plane of the PM can be effectively and precisely achieved according to the detection signals. This approach is also available to deal with multifactor coupling error. At the end, the procedure for error analysis is given by testing homebuilt optical tweezers. PMID:25968206

  15. Identification of individual biofilm-forming bacterial cells using Raman tweezers.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šiler, Martin; Šerý, Mojmir; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; R?ži?ka, Filip

    2015-05-01

    A method for in vitro identification of individual bacterial cells is presented. The method is based on a combination of optical tweezers for spatial trapping of individual bacterial cells and Raman microspectroscopy for acquisition of spectral “Raman fingerprints” obtained from the trapped cell. Here, Raman spectra were taken from the biofilm-forming cells without the influence of an extracellular matrix and were compared with biofilm-negative cells. Results of principal component analyses of Raman spectra enabled us to distinguish between the two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thus, we propose that Raman tweezers can become the technique of choice for a clearer understanding of the processes involved in bacterial biofilms which constitute a highly privileged way of life for bacteria, protected from the external environment. PMID:25734616

  16. A new iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optimal design in holographic optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Ferraro, P.; Netti, P. A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a new Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) capable to suppress ghost traps and noise in Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOT), maintaining a high diffraction efficiency in a computational time comparable with the others iterative algorithms. The process consists in the planning of the suitable ideal target of optical tweezers as input of classical IFTA and we show we are able to design up to 4 real traps, in the field of view imaged by the microscope objective, using an IFTA built on fictitious phasors, located in strategic positions in the Fourier plane. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated both for numerical and optical reconstructions and compared with the other techniques known in literature.

  17. Microfluidic Cell Counter\\/Sorter Utilizing Laser Tweezers and Multiple Particle Tracing Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Chen Lin; Angela Chen; New-Jin Ho; Chie-Wei Wu; Che-Hsin Lin

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel microfluidic system for cell\\/microparticle recognition, counting, and sorting utilizing a computer controlled digital image processing technique (DIP) and optical tweezers under microfluidic configuration. Cell samples are firstly sorted using an electrokinetic focus apparatus and flow through a region of interesting (ROI) for digital images inspection. Home-built digital image processing (DIP) system is used to real-time

  18. Redox responsive molecular tweezers with tetrathiafulvalene units: synthesis, electrochemistry, and binding properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej Skibi?ski; Rafael Gómez; Enno Lork; Vladimir A. Azov

    2009-01-01

    Several new molecular tweezers with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) arms as well as mono-TTF derivatives bearing 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzylthio groups to provide enhanced solubility were prepared starting from a bis-cyanoethyl-protected tetrathiafulvalene derivative. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3 and 7a showed highly distorted TTF groups and absence of close TTF–TTF contacts in the crystalline state. Comparative cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements demonstrated that through space

  19. Compact interferometric optical tweezer for patterned trapping and manipulation of polystyrene spheres and SWCNTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjeet Kumar; Chandra Shakher; Dalip Singh Mehta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and compact optical interferometric unit combined with a conventional optical tweezer system for simultaneous multiple trapping and micromanipulation of mono-dispersed polystyrene spheres and aggregation of small-floating clusters of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The interferometric unit was made compact by means of coating a thin layer of aluminum oxide on one side of the cubic beam splitter

  20. Three Powerful Research Tools from Single Cells into Single Molecules: AFM, Laser Tweezers, and Raman Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongkuan Wu; Kun Liu; Kedong Song; Shi Pan

    By using three physical techniques (atomic force microscopy (AFM), laser tweezers, and Raman spectroscopy), many excellent\\u000a works in single-cell\\/molecule research have been accomplished. In this review, we present a brief introduction to the principles\\u000a of these three techniques, and their capabilities toward single-cell\\/molecule research are highlighted. Afterward, the advances\\u000a in single-cell\\/molecule research that have been facilitated by these three techniques

  1. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying, E-mail: yli582@usc.edu; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk [NIH Transducer Resource Center and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1111 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 ?m, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  2. Dislocation reactions, grain boundaries, and irreversibility in two-dimensional lattices using topological tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, William T. M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.; Grier, David G.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Dislocations, disclinations, and grain boundaries are topological excitations of crystals that play a key role in determining out-of-equilibrium material properties. In this article we study the kinetics, creation, and annihilation processes of these defects in a controllable way by applying “topological tweezers,” an array of weak optical tweezers which strain the lattice by weakly pulling on a collection of particles without grabbing them individually. We use topological tweezers to deterministically control individual dislocations and grain boundaries, and reversibly create and destroy dislocation pairs in a 2D crystal of charged colloids. Starting from a perfect lattice, we exert a torque on a finite region and follow the complete step-by-step creation of a disoriented grain, from the creation of dislocation pairs through their reactions to form a grain boundary and their reduction of elastic energy. However, when the grain is rotated back to its original orientation the dislocation reactions do not retrace. Rather, the process is irreversible; the grain boundary expands instead of collapsing. PMID:24009341

  3. Amyloid ?-protein assembly: The effect of molecular tweezers CLR01 and CLR03.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xueyun; Liu, Deyu; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Bowers, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    The early oligomerization of amyloid ?-protein (A?) has been shown to be an important event in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Designing small molecule inhibitors targeting A? oligomerization is one attractive and promising strategy for AD treatment. Here we used ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to study the different effects of the molecular tweezers CLR01 and CLR03 on A? self-assembly. CLR01 was found to bind to A? directly and disrupt its early oligomerization. Moreover, CLR01 remodeled the early oligomerization of A?42 by compacting the structures of dimers and tetramers and as a consequence eliminated higher-order oligomers. Unexpectedly, the negative-control derivative, CLR03, which lacks the hydrophobic arms of the tweezer structure, was found to facilitate early A? oligomerization. Our study provides an example of IMS as a powerful tool to study and better understand the interaction between small molecule modulators and A? oligomerization, which is not attainable by other methods, and provides important insights into therapeutic development of molecular tweezers for AD treatment. PMID:25751170

  4. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm(2), a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 ?m superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle's position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads. PMID:25933874

  5. An integral imaging method for depth extraction with lens array in an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulu; Liu, Wei-Wei; Wang, Anting; Li, Yinmei; Ming, Hai

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a new integral imaging method is proposed for depth extraction in an optical tweezer system. A mutual coherence algorithm of stereo matching are theoretically analyzed and demonstrated feasible by virtual simulation. In our design, optical tweezer technique is combined with integral imaging in a single microscopy system by inserting a lens array into the optical train. On one hand, the optical tweezer subsystem is built based on the modulated light field from a solid laser, and the strong focused beam forms a light trap to capture tiny specimens. On the other hand, through parameters optimization, the microscopic integral imaging subsystem is composed of a microscope objective, a lens array (150x150 array with 0.192mm unit size and 9mm focal length) and a single lens reflex (SLR). Pre-magnified by the microscope objective, the specimens formed multiple images through the lens array. A single photograph of a series of multiple sub-images has recorded perspective views of the specimens. The differences between adjacent sub-images have been analyzed for depth extraction with the mutual coherence algorithm. The experimental results show that the axial resolution can reach to 1?m -1 and lateral resolution can reach to 2 ?m -1.

  6. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  7. Microrheology of non mulberry silk varieties by optical tweezer and video microscopy based techniques

    E-print Network

    Yogesha; Raghu A; Siddaraju G N; G Subramanya; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2011-02-15

    We have carried out a comparative study of the microrheological properties of silk fibroin solutions formed from a variety of silks indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. We present the measured viscoelastic moduli of Tasar silk fibroin solution using both a single and dual optical tweezer at 0.16% and 0.25% (w/v). The bandwidth of the measurements carried out using optical tweezers is extended down to the lower frequency regime by a video microscopy measurement. Further, we have measured the viscoelastic moduli of Eri and Muga varieties of silk fibroin solutions at a higher concentration (1.00% w/v) limiting the tool of measurement to video microscopy, as the reduced optical transparencies of these solutions at higher concentration preclude an optical tweezer based investigation. The choice of a higher concentration of fibroin solution of the latter silk varieties is so as to enable a comparison of the shear moduli obtained from optical methods with their corresponding fibre stiffness obtained from wide angle X-ray scattering data. We report a correlation between the microstructure and microrheological parameters of these silk varieties for the concentration of fibroin solutions studied.

  8. Design and optimization of arrays of neodymium iron boron-based magnets for magnetic tweezers applications.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, Nicholas A; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-05-01

    We present the design methodology for arrays of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnets for use in magnetic tweezers devices. Using finite element analysis (FEA), we optimized the geometry of the NdFeB magnet as well as the geometry of iron yokes designed to focus the magnetic fields toward the sample plane. Together, the magnets and yokes form a magnetic array which is the basis of the magnetic tweezers device. By systematically varying 15 distinct shape parameters, we determined those features that maximize the magnitude of the magnetic field gradient as well as the length scale over which the magnetic force operates. Additionally, we demonstrated that magnetic saturation of the yoke material leads to intrinsic limitations in any geometric design. Using this approach, we generated a compact and light-weight magnetic tweezers device that produces a high field gradient at the image plane in order to apply large forces to magnetic beads. We then fabricated the optimized yoke and validated the FEA by experimentally mapping the magnetic field of the device. The optimization data and iterative FEA approach outlined here will enable the streamlined design and construction of specialized instrumentation for force-sensitive microscopy. PMID:26026529

  9. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, Jenifer F.; Xie, Changan; Li, Yong-Qing; Bertrand, Fred E.; Wiley, John; McConnell, Thomas J.

    2006-06-01

    The ability to identify specific chromosomes with certainty has been established by the development of several cytogenetic techniques based on staining. Here, we report the use of a new optical technique, laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), to capture and manipulate chromosomes in order to obtain their spectral patterns for molecular analysis without the need for staining. The purpose of this study was to obtain Raman spectroscopy patterns for chromosomes number 1, 2, and 3 and to test if the Raman spectroscopy pattern could be used to distinguish these three chromosomes. In our experiment, optical tweezers were used to capture the individual chromosomes and the Raman spectral patterns were collected for the trapped chromosomes. Then, the captured chromosome was manipulated with the optical tweezers and moved to another chamber through a micro - channel, in which the chromosomes were G banded for positive identification as chromosome number 1, 2, or 3. Generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) was used to compare the Raman signatures. This analysis revealed that chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 could be distinguished and identified based on their Raman spectra. Development of this approach will lead to more rapid automatic methods for chromosome analysis and identification without the use of prior staining. Moreover, the Raman spectral patterns may lend themselves to more detailed analysis of chromosomal structure than is currently available with standard staining protocols. Such analysis may some day be useful for rapid, automated screening and diagnosis for certain cancers.

  10. Optical nanofiber integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation and in-situ fiber probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C.; Truong, Viet. G.; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2014-09-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofiber and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofiber at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fiber transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fiber diameter, and may be used as a reference point for in-situ nanofiber or particle size measurement. Therefore we combine SEM size measurements with nanofiber transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fiber assessment. We also demonstrate how the optical tweezers can be used to create a `particle jet' to feed a supply of microspheres to the nanofiber surface, forming a particle conveyor belt. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  11. Micromanipulation and physiological monitoring of cells using two-photon excited fluorescence in cw laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonek, Gregory J.; Liu, Yagang; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1996-05-01

    We report the observation of two-photon fluorescence excitation and cell confinement, simultaneously, in a continuous-wave (cw) single-beam gradient force optical trap, and demonstrate its use as an in-situ probe to study the physiological state of an optically confined cell sample. At the wavelength of 1064 nm, a single focused gaussian laser beam is used to simultaneously confine, and excite visible fluorescence from, a human sperm cell that has been tagged with propidium iodide, a exogenous fluorescent dye that functions as a viability assay of cellular physiological state. The intensity at the dye peak emission wavelength of 620 nm exhibits a near-square-law dependence on incident trapping beam photon laser power, a behavior consistent with a two-photon absorption process. In addition, for a sperm cell held stationary in the optical tweezers for a period of several minutes at a constant trapping power, red fluorescence emission was observed to increase the time, indicating that the cell has gradually transitioned between a live and dead state. Two-photon excited fluorescence was also observed in chinese hamster ovary cells that were confined by cw laser tweezers and stained with either propidium iodide or Snarf, a pH-sensitive dye probe. These results suggest that, for samples suitably tagged with fluorescent probes and vital stains, optical tweezers can be used to generate their own in-situ diagnostic optical probes of cellular viability or induced photodamage, via two-photon processes.

  12. Amyloid ?-Protein Assembly: The Effect of Molecular Tweezers CLR01 and CLR03

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The early oligomerization of amyloid ?-protein (A?) has been shown to be an important event in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Designing small molecule inhibitors targeting A? oligomerization is one attractive and promising strategy for AD treatment. Here we used ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to study the different effects of the molecular tweezers CLR01 and CLR03 on A? self-assembly. CLR01 was found to bind to A? directly and disrupt its early oligomerization. Moreover, CLR01 remodeled the early oligomerization of A?42 by compacting the structures of dimers and tetramers and as a consequence eliminated higher-order oligomers. Unexpectedly, the negative-control derivative, CLR03, which lacks the hydrophobic arms of the tweezer structure, was found to facilitate early A? oligomerization. Our study provides an example of IMS as a powerful tool to study and better understand the interaction between small molecule modulators and A? oligomerization, which is not attainable by other methods, and provides important insights into therapeutic development of molecular tweezers for AD treatment. PMID:25751170

  13. Measurement of macrophage adhesion using optical tweezers with backward-scattered detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sung-Yang; Su, Yi-Jr; Shih, Po-Chen; Yang, Shih-Mo; Hsu, Long

    2010-08-01

    Macrophages are members of the leukocyte family. Tissue damage causes inflammation and release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors, which trigger a local increase in blood flow and capillary permeability. Then, leukocytes accumulate quickly to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process takes place according to a sequence of events that involve tethering, activation by a chemoattractant stimulus, adhesion by integrin binding, and migrating to the infection site. The leukocyte extravasation process reveals that adhesion is an important part of the immune system. Optical tweezers have become a useful tool with broad applications in biology and physics. In force measurement, the trapped bead as a probe usually uses a polystyrene bead of 1 ?m diameter to measure adhesive force between the trapped beads and cell by optical tweezers. In this paper, using the ray-optics model calculated trapping stiffness and defined the linear displacement ranges. By the theoretical values of stiffness and linear displacement ranges, this study attempted to obtain a proper trapped particle size in measuring adhesive force. Finally, this work investigates real-time adhesion force measurements between human macrophages and trapped beads coated with lipopolysaccharides using optical tweezers with backscattered detection.

  14. Measurements of liposome biomechanical properties by combining line optical tweezers and dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Spyratou, Ellas; Cunaj, Efrosini; Tsigaridas, George; Mourelatou, Elena A; Demetzos, Costas; Serafetinides, Alexander A; Makropoulou, Mersini

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Liposomes are well-known cell simulators and are currently studied as drug delivery systems, for a targeted delivery of higher drug concentrations, in specific cells. Novel biophotonic techniques for manipulation and characterization of liposomes have been developed; among which are optical tweezers. In our work, we demonstrate a novel use of line optical tweezers to manipulate and cause liposome deformations. Optical forces induce tension on liposomes, which are stretched along the line optical trap. The method of dielectrophoresis, combined with optical tweezers, was used to measure the exerted optical forces. As a consequence, in the case of reversible liposome deformations, the value of the shear and bending moduli of liposomes was calculated. We anticipate that the selective manipulation of liposomes will help us toward a better understanding of the cellular-liposome interactions. Studying the biomechanical properties of liposomes will provide an insight into the mechanical behavior of individual living cells, which have recently been implicated in many aspects of human physiology and patho-physiology. The biomechanical properties of cells (i.e. deformability, stiffness and elasticity) can be useful biomarkers for various disease processes and changes of the cell state. PMID:25487171

  15. Scanning a DNA Molecule for Bound Proteins Using Hybrid Magnetic and Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Loenhout, Marijn T. J.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Flebus, Benedetta; den Blanken, Johan F.; Zweifel, Ludovit P.; Hooning, Koen M.; Kerssemakers, Jacob W. J.; Dekker, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The functional state of the genome is determined by its interactions with proteins that bind, modify, and move along the DNA. To determine the positions and binding strength of proteins localized on DNA we have developed a combined magnetic and optical tweezers apparatus that allows for both sensitive and label-free detection. A DNA loop, that acts as a scanning probe, is created by looping an optically trapped DNA tether around a DNA molecule that is held with magnetic tweezers. Upon scanning the loop along the ?-DNA molecule, EcoRI proteins were detected with ?17 nm spatial resolution. An offset of 33±5 nm for the detected protein positions was found between back and forwards scans, corresponding to the size of the DNA loop and in agreement with theoretical estimates. At higher applied stretching forces, the scanning loop was able to remove bound proteins from the DNA, showing that the method is in principle also capable of measuring the binding strength of proteins to DNA with a force resolution of 0.1 pN/. The use of magnetic tweezers in this assay allows the facile preparation of many single-molecule tethers, which can be scanned one after the other, while it also allows for direct control of the supercoiling state of the DNA molecule, making it uniquely suitable to address the effects of torque on protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23755219

  16. Single-cell optoporation and transfection using femtosecond laser and optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Waleed, Muhammad; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Kim, Jung-Dae; Shabbir, Irfan; Shin, Sang-Mo; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new single-cell optoporation and transfection technique using a femtosecond Gaussian laser beam and optical tweezers. Tightly focused near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse was employed to transiently perforate the cellular membrane at a single point in MCF-7 cancer cells. A distinct technique was developed by trapping the microparticle using optical tweezers to focus the femtosecond laser precisely on the cell membrane to puncture it. Subsequently, an external gene was introduced in the cell by trapping and inserting the same plasmid-coated microparticle into the optoporated cell using optical tweezers. Various experimental parameters such as femtosecond laser exposure power, exposure time, puncture hole size, exact focusing of the femtosecond laser on the cell membrane, and cell healing time were closely analyzed to create the optimal conditions for cell viability. Following the insertion of plasmid-coated microparticles in the cell, the targeted cells exhibited green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the fluorescent microscope, hence confirming successful transfection into the cell. This new optoporation and transfection technique maximizes the level of selectivity and control over the targeted cell, and this may be a breakthrough method through which to induce controllable genetic changes in the cell. PMID:24049675

  17. High-refractive index particles in counter-propagating optical tweezers - manipulation and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, Astrid

    2006-09-01

    With a tightly focused single laser beam, also called optical tweezers, particles of a few nanometers up to several micrometers in size can be trapped and manipulated in 3D. The size, shape and refractive index of such colloidal particles are of influence on the optical forces exerted on them in the trap. A higher refractive-index difference between a particle and the surrounding medium will increase the forces. The destabilizing scattering force, however, pushing the particle in the direction of the beam, increases more than the gradient force, directed towards the focus. As a consequence, particles with a certain refractive index cannot be trapped in a single-beam gradient trap, and a limit is set to the force that can be exerted. We developed an experimental setup with two opposing high-numerical objectives. By splitting the laser beam, we created counter-propagating tweezers in which the scattering forces were canceled in the axial direction and high-refractive index and metallic particles could also be trapped. With the use of a separate laser beam combined with a quadrant photodiode, accurate position detection on a trapped particle in the counter-propagating tweezers is possible. We used this to determine trap stiffnesses, and show, with measurements and calculations, an enhancement in trap stiffness of at least 3 times for high-index 1.1-micrometer-diameter titania particles as compared to 1.4-micrometer-diameter silica particles under the same conditions. The ability to exert higher forces with lower laser power finds application in biophysical experiments, where laser damage and heating play a role. The manipulation of high-index and metallic particles also has applications in materials and colloid science, for example to incorporate high-index defects in colloidal photonic crystals. We demonstrate the patterning of high-index particles onto a glass substrate. The sample cell was mounted on a high-accuracy piezo stage combined with a long-range stage with motorized actuators. Because we used image analysis of the patterned structure to accurately find back the starting position and compensate for drift of the sample, we could move far away from the patterning region. This enabled us to select particles from a separate reservoir of a mixture of particles, and, one-by-one, position them at chosen locations. By time-sharing the laser beam using acousto-optic deflectors, we created multiple counter-propagating tweezers. We trapped an array of high-refractive index particles, and were able to move those particles individually. We used such a dynamic array of counter-propagating tweezers to create line-optical tweezers in which we trapped semi-conducting high-refractive index nanorods in three dimensions. We demonstrate full 3D translational and in-plane rotational control over the rods, which could not be held in single-beam line-tweezers. The configuration of two opposing objectives was also used for simultaneous trapping with one objective and confocal imaging of the fluorescently labeled particles using the other objective. By trapping particles with a refractive index contrast in a dispersion of index-matched particles, crystallization could be induced, which was imaged in three dimensions using confocal microscopy.

  18. Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes This article has been.1088/0957-4484/21/24/245102 Optical-tweezer-induced microbubbles as scavengers of carbon nanotubes Hema Ramachandran1 , A K fragmentation of the bundles. Thus, microbubbles may be used for scavenging, transporting and dispersal

  19. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 48, February 2006, pp. S222S225 Rotation of Irregularly Shaped Liposome Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    of Irregularly Shaped Liposome Using Optical Tweezers Chung-il Ha and Haeng Sub Wi Department of Physics, Pusan- tating microscopic particles [9­13]. In this paper, we trap an irregularly shaped liposome and rotate it with optical tweezers, even though the liposome does not have a bire- fringent property. We explain

  20. Three-dimensional image and spatial spectrum analysis of behavior of small animal erythrocytes in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui Chi; Shen, Wen-Tai; Kong, Yu-Han; Chuang, Chun-Hao

    2008-02-01

    Because of the softness of membrane, erythrocytes (red blood cell, RBC) have different shapes while being immersed in buffer with different osmotic pressure. While affecting by different viruses and illnesses, RBC may change its shape, or its membrane may become rigid. Moreover, RBC will ford and stretch when it is trapped by optical tweezers. Therefore, the behaviors of RBC in optical tweezers raise more discussion. In this report, we set up an optical tweezers to trap RBC of small animals like feline and canine. By adding a long working distance objective to collect the side-viewing image, a 3-D image system was constructed to detect the motion of trapped RBC. To improve the image quality for side-view, an aperture and narrow glass plate were used. From the video of these images and their spatial spectrum, the shape of trapped RBC was studied.

  1. Three-dimensional parallel particle manipulation and tracking by integrating holographic optical tweezers and engineered point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Conkey, Donald B; Trivedi, Rahul P; Pavani, Sri Rama Prasanna; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Piestun, Rafael

    2011-02-28

    We demonstrate an integrated holographic optical tweezers system with double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) imaging for high precision three-dimensional multi-particle tracking. The tweezers system allows for the creation and control of multiple optical traps in three-dimensions, while the DH-PSF allows for high precision, 3D, multiple-particle tracking in a wide field. The integrated system is suitable for particles emitting/scattering either coherent or incoherent light and is easily adaptable to existing holographic tweezers systems. We demonstrate simultaneous tracking of multiple micro-manipulated particles and perform quantitative estimation of the lateral and axial forces in an optical trap by measuring the fluid drag force exerted on the particles. The system is thus capable of unveiling complex 3D force landscapes that make it suitable for quantitative studies of interactions in colloidal systems, biological materials, and a variety of soft matter systems. PMID:21369208

  2. NanoTracker: force-sensing optical tweezers for quantitative single-molecule nanomanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Helge A.; van Mameren, Joost; Wozniak, Anna; Jaehnke, Torsten

    2010-02-01

    In the past decade, experiments involving the manipulation and observation of nanostructures with light using optical tweezers methodology have developed from proof-of-principle experiments to an established quantitative technique in fields ranging from (bio)physics to cell biology. With optical tweezers, microscopically small objects can be held and manipulated. At the same time, the forces exerted on the trapped objects can be accurately measured. With the Prism-Award winning NanoTracker a platform for performing experiments using specimen from single molecules to whole cells is available. With two time-continuous traps, it allows the controlled trapping and accurate tracking of nanoparticles, suspended either in a microfluidic multichannel flow chamber or even in a temperaturecontrolled open Petri dish. With its 3D detection system, particle displacements in the trap can be recorded with nanometer precision. Moreover, dynamic forces acting on the particle can be measured with better than picoNewton resolution on a microsecond time-scale. Here, we discuss design features of and measurements done with the NanoTracker platform. In particular, we show how one of the hallmarks of single-molecule biophysics, the overstretching transition of DNA, can be studied in a versatile manner and used for protein-DNA interaction mechanics. Moreover, on the lower side of the force range the other benchmark single-molecule biophysics, kinesin's 8-nm steps and stall forces, are shown to be measurable. With the NanoTracker, optical tweezers finally transcend from the labs of self-building scientists who helped the technique mature, to a turn-key system able to serve a much wider community of researchers in the life sciences.

  3. Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonjae; Nam, Seong-Won; Hwang, Hyundoo; Park, Sungsu; Park, Je-Kyun

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a grayscale optoelectronic tweezers (OET) which allows adjustment of the electric field strength at each position of OET. A grayscale light image was used to pattern vertical electric field strength on an OET. As an electric field depends on the brightness at each point, the brighter light patterns generate the stronger electric field in the OET. Its feasibility for application to cell manipulation was demonstrated by aligning highly motile protozoan cells in vertical direction. Depending on the brightness of each pixel, the behaviors of aligned cells varied due to the different electric field strength to each cell.

  4. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuxun; Cheng, Jinping; Kong, Chi-Wing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han Cheng, Shuk; Li, Ronald A.; Sun, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  5. Optical determination of motility forces in human spermatozoa with laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Svaasand, Lars O.; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berns, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Laser tweezers may act as optical force transducers. We report on the determination of intrinsic motility forces of human spermatozoa by employing an 800 nm optical trap. The cellular forces were calculated from calibrated trapping forces. The determination of trapping forces based on a hydrodynamic model for ellipsoidal specimens, the measurement of the minimum laser power required to confine a single cell in the trap, and the calculation of viscus forces during the movement of optically trapped sperm heads through a laminar fluid. A mean motility force of 44 plus or minus 24 pN was calculated for spermatozoa of healthy donors.

  6. Temporal response of three-dimensional biological cells to high-frequency optical jumping tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyao; Sheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the temporal responses of biological cells in the jumping optical tweezers for tugging, wiggling, and stretching the cells in the time-sharing regime with the finite-element method. We showed that the jumping of local stress and local strain is independently omnipresent on the recovery time of the viscoelastic material and the jumping frequency of the load. We demonstrated that the elongation of a three-dimensional (3-D) viscoelastic object under a jumping load cannot be evaluated using the one-dimensional spring-dashpot material model without considering its 3-D structure.

  7. Optoelectronic Tweezers as a Tool for Parallel Single-Cell Manipulation and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Justin K.; Ohta, Aaron T.; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Neale, Steven L.; Jamshidi, Arash; Wu, Ming C.

    2010-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is a promising approach for the parallel manipulation of single cells for a variety of biological applications. By combining the manipulation capabilities of OET with other relevant biological techniques (such as cell lysis and electroporation), one can realize a true parallel, single-cell diagnostic and stimulation tool. Here, we demonstrate the utility of the OET device by integrating it onto single-chip systems capable of performing in-situ, electrode-based electroporation/lysis, individual cell, light-induced lysis, and light-induced electroporation. PMID:20543904

  8. The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: lessons from the use of optical tweezers and other biophysical tools

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Bruno; Frases, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, representing one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. The main virulence factor of C. neoformans is the polysaccharide capsule; however, many fundamental aspects of capsule structure and function remain poorly understood. Recently, important capsule properties were uncovered using optical tweezers and other biophysical techniques, including dynamic and static light scattering, zeta potential and viscosity analysis. This review provides an overview of the latest findings in this emerging field, explaining the impact of these findings on our understanding of C. neoformans biology and resistance to host immune defenses. PMID:26157436

  9. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  10. Fast acoustic tweezers for the two-dimensional manipulation of individual particles in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, S. B. Q.; Marmottant, P.; Thibault, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device that implements standing surface acoustic waves in order to handle single cells, droplets, and generally particles. The particles are moved in a very controlled manner by the two-dimensional drifting of a standing wave array, using a slight frequency modulation of two ultrasound emitters around their resonance. These acoustic tweezers allow any type of motion at velocities up to few ×10 mm/s, while the device transparency is adapted for optical studies. The possibility of automation provides a critical step in the development of lab-on-a-chip cell sorters and it should find applications in biology, chemistry, and engineering domains.

  11. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation.

    PubMed

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M; Huguet, J M; Ritort, F

    2013-04-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces. PMID:23635178

  12. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  13. In situ microparticle analysis of marine phytoplankton cells with infrared laser-based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonek, G. J.; Liu, Y.; Iturriaga, R. H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe the application of infrared optical tweezers to the in situ microparticle analysis of marine phytoplankton cells. A Nd:YAG laser (lambda=3D 1064 nm) trap is used to confine and manipulate single Nannochloris and Synechococcus cells in an enriched seawater medium while spectral fluorescence and Lorenz-Mie backscatter signals are simultaneously acquired under a variety of excitation and trapping conditions. Variations in the measured fluorescence intensities of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phycoerythrin pigments in phytoplankton cells are observed. These variations are related, in part, to basic intrasample variability, but they also indicate that increasing ultraviolet-exposure time and infrared trapping power may have short-term effects on cellular physiology that are related to Chl a photobleaching and laser-induced heating, respectively. The use of optical tweezers to study the factors that affect marine cell physiology and the processes of absorption, scattering, and attenuation by individual cells, organisms, and particulate matter that contribute to optical closure on a microscopic scale are also described. (c)1995 Optical Society of America

  14. A combined double-tweezers and wavelength-tunable laser nanosurgery microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingyuan; Parsa, Shahab; Shi, Linda Z.; Harsono, Marcellinus; Wakida, Nicole M.; Berns, Michael W.

    2009-08-01

    In two previous studies we have conducted combined laser subcellular microsurgery and optical trapping on chromosomes in living cells1, 2. In the latter study we used two separate microscopes, one for the trap and one for the laser scissors, thus requiring that we move the cell specimen between microscopes and relocate the irradiated cells. In the former paper we combined the 1064 nm laser trap and the 532 nm laser scissors into one microscope. However, in neither study did we have multiple traps allowing for more flexibility in application of the trapping force. In the present paper we describe a combined laser scissors and tweezers microscope that (1) has two trapping beams (both moveable via rapid scanning mirrors (FSM- 300, Newport Corp.), (2) uses a short pulsed tunable 200 fs 710-990 nm Ti:Sapphire laser for laser microsurgery, and (3) also has the option to use a 337 nm 4 ns UV laser for subcellular surgery. The two laser tweezers and either of the laser ablation beams can be used in a cell surgery experiment. The system is integrated into the robotic-controlled RoboLase system3. Experiments on mitotic chromosomes of rat kangaroo PTK2 cells are described.

  15. Crosstalk elimination in the detection of dual-beam optical tweezers by spatial filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Dino; Oddershede, Lene B., E-mail: oddershede@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Reihani, S. Nader S. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, 11369-9161 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In dual-beam optical tweezers, the accuracy of position and force measurements is often compromised by crosstalk between the two detected signals, this crosstalk leading to systematic and significant errors on the measured forces and distances. This is true both for dual-beam optical traps where the splitting of the two traps is done by polarization optics and for dual optical traps constructed by other methods, e.g., holographic tweezers. If the two traps are orthogonally polarized, most often crosstalk is minimized by inserting polarization optics in front of the detector; however, this method is not perfect because of the de-polarization of the trapping beam introduced by the required high numerical aperture optics. Here we present a simple and easy-to-implement method to efficiently eliminate crosstalk. The method is based on spatial filtering by simply inserting a pinhole at the correct position and is highly compatible with standard back focal plane photodiode based detection of position and force. Our spatial filtering method reduces crosstalk up to five times better than polarization filtering alone. The effectiveness is dependent on pinhole size and distance between the traps and is here quantified experimentally and reproduced by theoretical modeling. The method here proposed will improve the accuracy of force-distance measurements, e.g., of single molecules, performed by dual-beam optical traps and hence give much more scientific value for the experimental efforts.

  16. Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, F. J.; Fabry, B.; Tsai, K. Y.; Goldmann, W. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    A magnetic tweezer was constructed to apply controlled tensional forces (10 pN to greater than 1 nN) to transmembrane receptors via bound ligand-coated microbeadswhile optically measuring lateral bead displacements within individual cells. Use of this system with wild-type F9 embryonic carcinoma cells and cells from a vinculin knockout mouse F9 Vin (-/-) revealed much larger differences in the stiffness of the transmembrane integrin linkages to the cytoskeleton than previously reported using related techniques that measured average mechanical properties of large cell populations. The mechanical properties measured varied widely among cells, exhibiting an approximately log-normal distribution. The median lateral bead displacement was 2-fold larger in F9 Vin (-/-) cells compared to wild-type cells whereas the arithmetic mean displacement only increased by 37%. We conclude that vinculin serves a greater mechanical role in cells than previously reported and that this magnetic tweezer device may be useful for probing the molecular basis of cell mechanics within single cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

  18. Investigation of the mechanical property of individual cell using axial optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dy, Mary-Clare; Sugiura, Tadao; Minato, Kotaro

    2013-02-01

    Optical tweezers is a technique that can trap and manipulate small objects using a highly focused laser beam. Because optical tweezers can also be used to measure small forces, it has been extensively used for the measurement of the mechanical forces of cells. Previous research works typically study particle manipulation and cell force measurement in the lateral direction, hence excluding valuable insights about the axial mechanical properties of cells. Other works that investigate axial cell force measurements utilize spatial light modulators and other devices that are expensive and complicate the setup. Thus, in our study, we designed a simple scheme that can axially manipulate particles by adjusting the position of one lens, called L1-lens, in our setup. Image processing techniques were utilized to determine the changes in the axial particle translation, providing nanometer sensitivity. We investigated the capability of our system using two different-sized particles and results show that for a given L1-lens default position and movement, a 2-micron particle and a 4.26-micron particle were moved axially for 7.68 µm and 4.83 µm, respectively. Axial trapping stiffness was also measured for the stated bead sizes in different magnification. Using the computed trapping sti_ness, we will investigate the axial reactive forces of cells.

  19. Combined versatile high-resolution optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sirinakis, George; Ren, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. The instrument has complementary design and functionalities compared with similar microscopes previously described. The optical tweezers can be operated in constant force mode for easy data interpretation or in variable force mode for maximum spatiotemporal resolution. The single-molecule fluorescence detection can be implemented in either wide-field or confocal imaging configuration. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new instrument, we imaged a single stretched ? DNA molecule and investigated the dynamics of a DNA hairpin molecule in the presence of fluorophore-labeled complementary oligonucleotide. We simultaneously observed changes in the fluorescence signal and pauses in fast extension hopping of the hairpin due to association and dissociation of individual oligonucleotides. The combined versatile microscopy allows for greater flexibility to study molecular machines or assemblies at a single-molecule level. PMID:23020384

  20. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  1. Simulation of heart infarction by laser microbeams and induction of arrhythmias by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Birgit; Monajembashi, Shamci; Rapp, Alexander; Wollweber, Leo; Greulich, Karl Otto

    2004-10-01

    Laser microbeam and optical tweezers were used for micromanipulation of a heart tissue model consisting of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes and bibroblasts. Using the laser microbeam a would was created, i.e. a sort of artificial heart infarction was generated. The first steps of wound repair were observed by live cell imaging. A complete filling of teh would primarily by migrating fibroblasts but not by cardiomyocytes was detected 18 hours after wounding. In another set of experiments erythrocyte mediated force application (EMFA) by optical tweezers was applied for optomechanical manipulatoin of cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Here we demonstrate induction of dramatic distrubances of calcium waves in a group of synchronously beating cardiomyocytes by an optomechanical input that results in cellular deformation. Surprisingly, it was found that putatively non-excitable fibroblasts respond to this mechanical stress with calcium oscillations. The results reported here indicate that the induction of artificial heart infarction can provide insights into healing processes after mycardial injury. EMFA is capable to examine effects of myocardial overload and to provide important information about processes triggered by mechanical stress on the level of single or very few cells. As a perspective, the preseneted techniques may be used to study the influence of drugs on wound healing and coordination of beating in the heart.

  2. Development of a two-photon polymerization and optical tweezers microscope for fabrication and manipulation of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Ninad; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    We report development of a two-photon polymerization (TPP) microscope, for micro-fabrication of microstructures, which is capable of optical manipulation by use of optical tweezers. The system is based on an inverted Nikon microscope with a tunable Ti: Sapphire femto-second (fs) laser coupled to the upper back port. While in modelocked condition, nanoparticles and wires were fabricated in photo-polymerizable synthetic materials using TPP. By axial positioning of the focused TPP laser beam, 1D-structures (for use as wave guide) were fabricated at desired height above the surface of the substrate. In the mode lock-OFF condition the same tunable laser microbeam was employed as optical tweezers to the hold the nanostructures and manipulate them even in highly viscous medium before immobilizing. Size of the TPP induced structure was found to depend on the fs laser intensity and exposure. Further, by shaping the fs laser beam to line pattern, linear 1D structures could be fabricated without scanning the beam or stage, which remain aligned along the line intensity profile due to anisotropic trapping force of the line tweezers in X and Y-directions. Use of optical tweezers with two-photon polymerization not only allowed in-situ corrective positioning of the polymerized structures, but also the integration of fluorescent microspheres (resonator/detector) with polymerized waveguide.

  3. The stiffness of rabbit skeletal actomyosin cross-bridges determined with an optical tweezers transducer.

    PubMed Central

    Veigel, C; Bartoo, M L; White, D C; Sparrow, J C; Molloy, J E

    1998-01-01

    Muscle contraction is brought about by the cyclical interaction of myosin with actin coupled to the breakdown of ATP. The current view of the mechanism is that the bound actomyosin complex (or "cross-bridge") produces force and movement by a change in conformation. This process is known as the "working stroke." We have measured the stiffness and working stroke of a single cross-bridge (kappa xb, dxb, respectively) with an optical tweezers transducer. Measurements were made with the "three bead" geometry devised by Finer et al. (1994), in which two beads, supported in optical traps, are used to hold an actin filament in the vicinity of a myosin molecule, which is immobilized on the surface of a third bead. The movements and forces produced by actomyosin interactions were measured by detecting the position of both trapped beads. We measured, and corrected for, series compliance in the system, which otherwise introduces large errors. First, we used video image analysis to measure the long-range, force-extension property of the actin-to-bead connection (kappa con), which is the main source of "end compliance." We found that force-extension diagrams were nonlinear and rather variable between preparations, i.e., end compliance depended not only upon the starting tension, but also upon the F-actin-bead pair used. Second, we measured kappa xb and kappa con during a single cross-bridge attachment by driving one optical tweezer with a sinusoidal oscillation while measuring the position of both beads. In this way, the bead held in the driven optical tweezer applied force to the cross-bridge, and the motion of the other bead measured cross-bridge movement. Under our experimental conditions (at approximately 2 pN of pretension), connection stiffness (kappa con) was 0.26 +/- 0.16 pN nm-1. We found that rabbit heavy meromyosin produced a working stroke of 5.5 nm, and cross-bridge stiffness (kappa xb) was 0.69 +/- 0.47 pN nm-1. PMID:9726944

  4. Does Size Really Matter? The Steric Isotope Effect in a Supramolecular Host?Guest Exchange Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-01-29

    Isotope effects (IEs), which arise from differences in zero point energies (ZPEs) between a parent and isotopically substituted bond, have been used extensively by chemists to probe molecular interactions and reactivity. Due to the anharmonicity of the C-H/D vibrational potential energy function and the lower ZPE of a C-D bond, the average C-D bond length is typically {approx}0.005 {angstrom} shorter than an equivalent C-H bond. It is this difference in size that is often invoked to explain the observation of secondary, inverse kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in chemical processes which proceed through a sterically strained transition state. This so-called 'steric isotope effect' (SIE) has been observed in processes such as the racemization of ortho-substituted biphenyls[6] and phenanthrenes, ring flipping of cyclophanes, and more recently in the deslipping of rotaxanes, where substitution of the sterically less demanding deuterium for protium results in rate accelerations for these processes. Herein, we use deuterium substitution in a cationic guest molecule to probe the sensitivity limits of the guest exchange process from a highly-charged supramolecular host.

  5. Self-assembled host-guest nanostructures on gold electrodes for thiodianiline determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Quintana; Carmen S. H. Domínguez; Elías Blanco; Pedro Hernández; Lucas Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of thiolated ?-cyclodextrins on a gold electrode have been developed for the determination of thiodianiline.\\u000a Pentanethiol was employed to fill the empty space between the ?-cyclodextrins on the surface. The formation of a 1:2 inclusion\\u000a complex between thiodianiline and ?-cyclodextrin was studied by electrochemistry. The parameters affecting the modification\\u000a of the electrode and the determination of thiodianiline by

  6. Optical Detection of Aqueous Phase Analytes via Host-Guest Interactions on a Lipid Membrane Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, D.Y.; Waggoner, T.A.

    1999-01-11

    The organization and assembly of molecules in cellular membranes is orchestrated through the recognition and binding of specific chemical signals. A simplified version of the cellular membrane system has been developed using a synthetically prepared membrane receptor incorporated into a biologically derived lipid bilayer. Through an interplay of electrostatic and van der Wards interactions, aggregation or dispersion of molecular components could be executed on command using a specific chemical signal. A pyrene fluorophore was used as an optical probe to monitor the aggregational state of the membrane receptors in the bilayer matrix. The pyrene excimer emission to monomer emission (E/M) intensity ratio gave a relative assessment of the local concentration of receptors in the membrane. Bilayers were prepared with receptors selective for the divalent metal ions of copper, mercury, and lead. Addition of the metal ions produced a rapid dispersion of aggregated receptor components at nano- to micro-molar concentrations. The process was reversible by sequestering the metal ions with EDTA. Receptors for proteins and polyhistidine were also prepared and incorporated into phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. In this case, the guest molecules bound to the membrane through multiple points of interaction causing aggregation of initially dispersed receptor molecules. The rapid, selective, and sensitive fluorescence optical response of these lipid assemblies make them attractive in sensor applications for aqueous phase metal ions and polypeptides.

  7. Enhanced imine synthesis in water: from surfactant-mediated catalysis to host-guest mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meguellati, Kamel; Fallah-Araghi, Ali; Baret, Jean-Christophe; El Harrak, Abdeslam; Mangeat, Thomas; Marques, Carlos M; Griffiths, Andrew D; Ladame, Sylvain

    2013-12-14

    An environment-responsive and fluorogenic reaction is reported and used as a model system to demonstrate experimentally three mechanisms of enhanced imine synthesis in water using either surfactants (below and above their CMC) or double-stranded DNA (acting as a reaction host). PMID:24162811

  8. Silicon Analogues of Triarylmethanol Hosts. Inclusion Properties and Host–guest Structures: A Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Weber; Wilhelm Seichter; Konstantinos Skobridis; Dimitrios Alivertis; Vassiliki Theodorou; Petra Bombicz; Ingeborg Csöregh

    2006-01-01

    The simple triarylmethanol hosts, 2 and 4, and their silicon analogues, 1 and 3, have been studied for comparison of the formation of crystalline inclusion compounds. Clathrate formation experiments showed\\u000a that replacement of the carbinol C atoms in 2 and 4 by Si atoms to give 1 and 3 resulted in a distinct increase of the capability to form inclusion

  9. Observations of host guest interactions specific to molecular matrices: water monomers and dimers in hydrogen matrices.

    PubMed

    Ceponkus, J; Uvdal, P; Nelander, B

    2011-07-14

    Water monomers and dimers have been studied at low temperatures in matrices of solid p-H(2), o-D(2), n-H(2), and n-D(2) using infrared spectroscopy. Our data demonstrate interaction mechanisms between host matrix and guest molecules that are different from the ones observed in atomic noble gas matrices. Notably both guest/host rotational--rotational interaction and matrix induced modifications of the guest libration modes are observed. We also show that different types of interaction influence the relaxation times of some of guest modes. Water rotates freely in p-H(2) and o-D(2) but librates in n-H(2) and n-D(2). Rotational relaxation is faster in o-D(2) than in p-H(2) and faster in p-H(2) than in Ne. This is attributed to interactions between water rotation and matrix molecule rotation in p-H(2) and o-D(2). In n-H(2) and n-D(2), a strong water libration band is observed in the far-infrared, and strong water monomer vibration bands have libration satellites. Water dimer bands, close to matrix rotation bands, are perturbed by the matrix motions. The H-bonded isomer H(2)O--HOD rapidly converts to the D-bonded form H(2)O-DOH in p-H(2) and in o-D(2) but slowly in n-H(2) and n-D(2). PMID:21630675

  10. Host-guest composites for induced hemostasis and therapeutic healing in traumatic injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd A. Ostomel; Peter K. Stoimenov; Patricia A. Holden; Hasan B. Alam; Galen D. Stucky

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The United States military currently outfits our soldiers with a zeolite-based hemostatic agent (HA) that is applied directly onto a traumatic wound to induce hemostasis and prevent loss of life from exsanguination. The\\u000a goals of this work were to identify and implement strategies to attenuate a tissue burning side effect associated with the\\u000a HA, resulting from a large release

  11. Host-guest inclusion compound from nitramine crystals exposed to condensed carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Saint Martin, Sabine; Marre, Samuel; Guionneau, Philippe; Cansell, François; Renouard, Joel; Marchetto, Virginie; Aymonier, Cyril

    2010-12-01

    HNIW or CL20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a nitramine, which is considered as the highest energetic molecular compound known to date, therefore, attracting increasing interest in propulsion applications. Additionally, CL20 is an interesting system for fundamental studies, exhibiting several polymorphs, which can behave as host lattices for trapping guest molecules. Herein, a new CL20 structure that contains inserted CO(2) molecules is reported. A combination of Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermal analyses (thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry) was used to characterize this new material. PMID:20938939

  12. Transfer-Printing and Host?Guest Properties of 3D Supramolecular Particle Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Yi Ling; In Yee Phang; David N. Reinhoudt; G. Julius Vancso; Jurriaan Huskens

    2009-01-01

    Mechanically robust and crystalline supramolecular particle structures have been constructed by decoupling nanoparticle assembly and supramolecular glue infiltration into a sequential process. First, ?-cyclodextrin (CD)-functionalized polystyrene particles (d 500 nm) were assembled on a CD-functionalized surface via convective assembly to form highly ordered, but mechanically unstable, particle crystals. Subsequently, the crystals were infiltrated by a solution of adamantyl-functionalized dendrimers, functioning

  13. Anion- and Spacer-Directed Host-Guest Complexes of Bipyridine with Pyrogallol[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rahul S; Kumari, Harshita; Barnes, Charles L; Atwood, Jerry L

    2015-07-13

    New oval-shaped capsular and bilayer-type hydrogen-bonded arrangements of C-propyl-ol-pyrogallol[4]arene (PgC3-OH) with bipyridine-type spacer complexes are reported here. These complexes are engineered by virtue of derivatization of C-alkyl tails of pyrogallol[4]arene and the use of divergent spacer ligands. Complexes of PgC3-OH, PgC3-OH with bpy (4,4'-bipyridine) and PgC3-OH with bpa (1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)acetylene) have bilayer type arrangements; however, the use of hydrogen chloride causes protonation of bpy molecule, which is then entrapped flat within an offset oval-shaped dimeric hydrogen-bonded PgC3-OH nanocapsule. The presence of chloride anion in the crystal lattice controls the geometry of the resultant nanoassembly. PMID:26046450

  14. Responsive Double Network Hydrogels of Interpenetrating DNA and CB[8] Host–Guest Supramolecular Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, Chuang; Rowland, Matthew J.; Shao, Yu; Cao, Tianyang; Chen, Chun; Jia, Haoyang; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Zhongqiang; Scherman, Oren A.; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-04-20

    and a white precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration as the product 2 in HCl salt form (1.625 g, 31%) and used without further purification. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy (D2O, 500 MHz) ? (ppm) = 7.40-7.20 (5H, m, Ar-H), 4.14-4.08 (1H, t, J = 7.1, CH), 3... .35-3.06 (6H, m, CH2). 13C-NMR Spectroscopy (D2O, 125 MHz) ? (ppm) = 169.11 (CO), 133.75 (ArC), 129.34 (ArCH), 129.10 (ArCH), 127.97 (ArCH), 54.52 (CH), 49.68 (CH2), 38.47 (CH2), 36.83 (CH2). HRMS: Found 234.1360 [C11H16N5O] + calculated 234.1355. FTIR...

  15. Supramolecular solubilization of cyclodextrin-modified carbon nano-onions by host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Wajs, Ewelina; Molina-Ontoria, Agustín; Nielsen, Thorbjørn Terndrup; Echegoyen, Luis; Fragoso, Alex

    2015-01-13

    Small carbon nano-onions (CNOs, 6-12 shells) were prepared in high yields and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation and reacted with ?CD-NH2 to yield CNOs decorated with ?CDs. A biocompatibile dextran polymer with graphted ferrocene groups was employed for the supramolecular self-assembly on the ?CD-CNO surfaces. The ?CDs act as hosts and the polymer ferrocene groups as guests (Fc-Dex) by the formation of inclusion complexes. After their assembly these nanostructures were soluble in aqueous solutions. The resulting product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Moreover, the deposition of successive layers on the surface of the particles was monitored using DLS measurements and zeta potentials. Through-space interactions between the Fc moieties and the CNO cores and the influence of an additional dextran-?CD outer layer were measured electrochemically. PMID:25496567

  16. Host-guest Interaction Mediated Polymeric Assemblies: Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxiang; Sun, Hongli; Ma, Peter X

    2010-01-01

    Novel core-shell structured nano-assemblies are assembled by a ?-cyclodextrin containing positively charged host polymer and a hydrophobic guest polymer. The hydrophobic core of this type of assemblies serves as a nano-container to load and release the hydrophobic drugs, while the positively charged hydrophilic shell is able to condense the plasmid DNA and achieve its transfection/expression in osteoblast cells. These assemblies may be used as a new generation of multi-functional nano-carriers for simultaneous drug delivery and gene therapy. PMID:20112968

  17. Highly ordered alignment of a vinyl polymer by host-guest cross-polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Gaetano; Suzuki, Hirohito; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Isoda, Seiji; Bracco, Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Sozzani, Piero; Uemura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2013-04-01

    Chain alignment can significantly influence the macroscopic properties of a polymeric material, but no general and versatile methodology has yet been reported to obtain highly ordered crystalline packing of polymer chains, with high stability. Here, we disclose a strategy that relies on ‘ordered crosslinks’ to produce polymeric materials that exhibit a crystalline arrangement. Divinyl crosslinkers (2,5-divinyl-terephthalate) were first embedded, as substitutional ligands, into the structure of a porous coordination polymer (PCP), [Cu(terephthalate)triethylenediamine0.5]n. A representative vinyl monomer, styrene, was subsequently polymerized inside the channels of the host PCP. The polystyrene chains that form within the PCP channels also crosslink with the divinyl species. This bridges together the polymer chains of adjacent channels and ensures that, on selective removal of the PCP, the polymer chains remain aligned. Indeed, the resulting material exhibits long-range order and is stable to thermal and solvent treatments, as demonstrated by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Highly ordered alignment of a vinyl polymer by host-guest cross-polymerization.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Gaetano; Suzuki, Hirohito; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Isoda, Seiji; Bracco, Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Sozzani, Piero; Uemura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2013-04-01

    Chain alignment can significantly influence the macroscopic properties of a polymeric material, but no general and versatile methodology has yet been reported to obtain highly ordered crystalline packing of polymer chains, with high stability. Here, we disclose a strategy that relies on 'ordered crosslinks' to produce polymeric materials that exhibit a crystalline arrangement. Divinyl crosslinkers (2,5-divinyl-terephthalate) were first embedded, as substitutional ligands, into the structure of a porous coordination polymer (PCP), [Cu(terephthalate)triethylenediamine0.5]n. A representative vinyl monomer, styrene, was subsequently polymerized inside the channels of the host PCP. The polystyrene chains that form within the PCP channels also crosslink with the divinyl species. This bridges together the polymer chains of adjacent channels and ensures that, on selective removal of the PCP, the polymer chains remain aligned. Indeed, the resulting material exhibits long-range order and is stable to thermal and solvent treatments, as demonstrated by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:23511423

  19. /sup 1/H NMR evidence to support the host/guest model of brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurovs, R.; Lynch, L.J.; Webster, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Many groups have proposed a two-component molecular structure for brown coals. This hypothesis has been investigated by in situ /sup 1/H NMR measurements during heating (to 875 K) of a suite of Australian and New Zealand brown coals, a set of Morwell brown coal lithotypes, and extracts and extract residues of some of these coals. The variation in the behaviour of the coals during heating and pyrolysis, although significant, was not particularly sensitive to lithotype ranking but showed a strong correlation with atomic H/C ratio.

  20. Efficient and low potential operative host\\/guest concentration graded bilayer polymer electrophosphorescence devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Kyu Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Sung M. Cho; Jun Young Lee; Jong Hyeok Park

    This study investigates enhanced electrophosphorescence and its mechanism in poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK): N,N?-diphenyl-N,N?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1-biphenyl]-4,4?-diamine (TPD)\\/2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD): fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] concentration graded bilayer electroluminescence devices. The two layers are partially intermixed at the bilayer interface because the upper layer (composed of Ir(ppy)3 and PBD) was spun cast from a solvent that slightly swells the bottom layer (composed of PVK and TPD). Moreover, PBD

  1. Host-Guest Interaction between Herbicide Oxadiargyl and Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Benfeito, Sofia; Borges, Fernanda; Garrido, E. Manuela

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a growing human population and increased urbanization, the demand for pesticides will simply rise. Farmers must escalate yields on increasingly fewer farm acres. However, the risks of pesticides, whether real or perceived, may force changes in the way these chemicals are used. Scientists are working toward pest control plans that are environmentally sound, effective, and profitable. In this context the development of new pesticide formulations which may improve application effectiveness, safety, handling, and storage can be pointed out as a solution. As a contribution to the area, the microencapsulation of the herbicide oxadiargyl (OXA) in (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was performed. The study was conducted in different aqueous media (ultrapure water and in different pH buffer solutions). In all cases an increment of the oxadiargyl solubility as a function of the HP-?-CD concentration that has been related to the formation of an inclusion complex was verified. UV-Vis and NMR experiments allowed concluding that the stoichiometry of the OXA/HP-?-CD complex formed is 1?:?1. The gathered results can be regarded as an important step for its removal from industrial effluents and/or to increase the stabilizing action, encapsulation, and adsorption in water treatment plants. PMID:24396310

  2. A study of supramolecular host-guest interaction of dothiepin and doxepin drugs with cyclodextrin macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendiran, N.; Sankaranarayanan, R. K.; Saravanan, J.

    2014-06-01

    Inclusion complexation behavior of dothiepin (DOT) and doxepin (DOX) with two cyclodextrins (?-CD and ?-CD) were studied by absorption, fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and molecular modeling methods. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal that both drugs form different types of inclusion complexes with ?-CD and ?-CD. DOT and DOX exhibit short life time in aqueous medium (DOT ? 2.29 ns, DOX ? 1.89 ns) and higher in CD medium (DOT:?-CD ? 3.45 ns, DOT:?-CD ? 4.84 ns, DOX:?-CD ? 3.55 ns and DOT:?-CD ? 4.33 ns). The supramolecular structure of the nano-sized sphere and agglomerate was established by TEM. Alkyl chain and aromatic ring protons of the drug molecule are entrapped in the CD nanocavities. The significant proton chemical shifts give evidence for expected inclusion complex formation. PM3 calculations suggest that the alkyl chain encapsulation is most energetically favored in ?-CD. The positive free energy and entropy changes indicated that both inclusion complexation processes are non-spontaneous and entropy driven.

  3. SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR Simple host-guest chemistry to modulate the process of concentration and

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    unless otherwise stated. 1,2,3-Heptanetriol (high melting point isomer), Methyl- -cyclodextrin (MBCD), and -cyclodextrin were purchased from Fluka Biochemika (St. Louis, MO). Lauryldimethylamine oxide (LDAO) and n to Characterize Stoichiometric Ratio of MBCD/LDAO Complex Formation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was performed

  4. Host-guest interaction between pinocembrin and cyclodextrins: Characterization, solubilization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Ya; Ma, Shui-Xian; Cheng, Hui-Lin; Yang, Li-Juan; Chen, Wen; Yin, Yan-Qing; Shi, Yi-Min; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of pinocembrin with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and its derivative 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) were investigated in both solution and the solid state by means of XRD, DSC, 1H and 2D NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of pinocembrin were obviously increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. This satisfactory water solubility and high stability of the pinocembrin/CD complexes will be potentially useful for their application as herbal medicines or healthcare products.

  5. Preparation and characterization of host-guest system between inosine and ?-cyclodextrin through inclusion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Samikannu; Sivakumar, Krishnamurty; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Rajamohan, Rajaram

    2015-08-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a ?-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine is commonly found in tRNAs. Inosine (INS) has been used widely as an antiviral drug. The inclusion complex of INS with ?-CDx in solution phase is studied by ground and excited state with UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. A binding constant and stoichiometric ratio between INS and ?-CDx are calculated by BH equation. The lifetime and relative amplitude of INS is increases with increasing the concentrations of ?-CDx, confirms the formation of inclusion complex in liquid state. The solid complexes are prepared by kneading method (KM) and co-precipitation method (CP). The solid complex is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). CP method gives the solid product with good yield than that of physical mixture and KM method. The structure of complex is proposed based on the study of Patch - Dock server.

  6. Preparation and characterization of host-guest system between inosine and ?-cyclodextrin through inclusion mode.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Samikannu; Sivakumar, Krishnamurty; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Rajamohan, Rajaram

    2015-08-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a ?-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine is commonly found in tRNAs. Inosine (INS) has been used widely as an antiviral drug. The inclusion complex of INS with ?-CDx in solution phase is studied by ground and excited state with UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. A binding constant and stoichiometric ratio between INS and ?-CDx are calculated by BH equation. The lifetime and relative amplitude of INS is increases with increasing the concentrations of ?-CDx, confirms the formation of inclusion complex in liquid state. The solid complexes are prepared by kneading method (KM) and co-precipitation method (CP). The solid complex is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). CP method gives the solid product with good yield than that of physical mixture and KM method. The structure of complex is proposed based on the study of Patch - Dock server. PMID:25829161

  7. Luminescent cation sensors: from host-guest chemistry, supramolecular chemistry to reaction-based mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Margaret Ching-Lam; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-07-01

    Other than traditional cation detection strategies, which are solely based on the ion-receptor complementarity, the extension of the concept of supramolecular chemistry and the mechanisms of irreversible analyte-specific reactions have also been integrated into the design of luminescent probes for the detection of cation in view of the exploration of highly sensitive and selective sensors. In this highlight, a versatile range of organic and organometallic architectures with cation-sensing capabilities based on the above mechanisms will be discussed. PMID:25588608

  8. Host-guest inclusion system of mangiferin with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuemin; Zhao, Yulin; Chen, Yunjian; Liao, Xiali; Gao, Chuanzhu; Xiao, Dan; Qin, Qixue; Yi, Dong; Yang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    The characterization, inclusion complexation behavior and binding ability of the inclusion complexes of mangiferin (MGF) with ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives (hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin (SBE?CD) and mono (6-ethylene-diamino-6-deoxy)-?-cyclodextrin (EN?CD)) were investigated in both solution and solid state by means of PL spectroscopy, (1)H and 2D NMR, XRD, TG and DSC. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of MGF were significantly increased in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins. The MGF/CDs complexes will be potentially useful for the design of a novel formulation of mangiferin for herbal medicine. PMID:23498273

  9. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  10. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  11. Mechanism of termination of bacteriophage DNA packaging investigated with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delToro, Damian J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    The genomes of many dsDNA viruses are replicated by a mechanism that produces a long concatemer of multiple genomes. These viruses utilize multifunctional molecular motor complexes referred to as "terminases" that can excise a unit genome length of DNA and package it into preformed viral shells. Remarkably, the terminase motor can initiate packaging at the appropriate start point, translocate DNA, sense when a sufficient length has been packaged, and then switch into a mode where it arrests and cleaves the DNA to release a filled virus particle. We have recently developed an improved method to measure single phage lambda DNA packaging using dual-trap optical tweezers and pre-stalled motor-DNA-procapsid complexes. We are applying this method to test proposed mechanisms for the sensor that triggers termination; specifically a velocity-monitor model vs. energy-monitor model vs. capsid-filling monitor model.

  12. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-07-13

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  13. Double nanohole optical tweezers visualize protein p53 suppressing unzipping of single DNA-hairpins

    PubMed Central

    Kotnala, Abhay; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the use of double-nanohole (DNH) optical tweezers as a label-free and free-solution single-molecule probe for protein–DNA interactions. Using this approach, we demonstrate the unzipping of individual 10 base pair DNA-hairpins, and quantify how tumor suppressor p53 protein delays the unzipping. From the Arrhenius behavior, we find the energy barrier to unzipping introduced by p53 to be 2 × 10?20 J, whereas cys135ser mutant p53 does not show suppression of unzipping, which gives clues to its functional inability to suppress tumor growth. This transformative approach to single molecule analysis allows for ultra-sensitive detection and quantification of protein–DNA interactions to revolutionize the fight against genetic diseases. PMID:24940547

  14. Studies of cochlear outer hair cell membrane mechanics using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of outer hair cell (OHC) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell plasma membranes. The effect of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the equilibrium tethering force, (Feq) force relaxation time constant,(?) and effective membrane viscosity (?eff) was measured. The Feq for the OHC lateral wall plasma membrane was ~60 pN and was unchanged by addition of CPZ. A significantly greater ? value was observed in CPZ-treated OHCs (30.5 +/- 12.6 s) than in control OHCs (19.0 +/- 13.2 s). The Feq and ? values for control HEK cells were >60% lower than the respective OHC values but increased by ~3 times following CPZ addition. Effective viscosity ranged between 1.49-1.81 pN•s/?m for CPZ-treated OHCs. This represents a decrease from reported control OHC membrane viscosities.

  15. Optical tweezers study of viscoelastic properties in the outer hair cell plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, David R.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Qian, Feng; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-06-01

    An optical tweezers system was used to study the mechanical characteristics of the outer hair cell (OHC) lateral wall by forming plasma membrane tethers. A 2nd order generalized Kelvin model was applied to describe the viscoelastic behavior of OHC membrane tethers. The measured parameters included equilibrium tethering force, (Feq), force relaxation times (?), stiffness values (?), and coefficients of friction (?). An analysis of force relaxation in membrane tethers indicated that the force decay is a biphasic process containing both an elastic and a viscous phase. In general, we observed an overall negative trend in the measured parameters upon application of the cationic amphipath chlorpromazine (CPZ). CPZ was found to cause up to a 40 pN reduction in Feq in OHCs. A statistically significant reduction in relaxation times and coefficients of friction was also observed, suggesting an increase in rate of force decay and a decrease in plasma membrane viscosity.

  16. Evaluating cell matrix mechanics using an integrated nonlinear optical tweezer-confocal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.

  17. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Sood, A. K.

    2005-11-01

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca^{++} ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

  18. The efficiency of fiber optical tweezers for cell manipulation using distinct fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Soppera, O.; Viegas, J.; Guerreiro, A.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the trapping efficiency of new fiber optical tweezers structures fabricated using photo polymerization and focused ion beam milling techniques is evaluated. The first fabrication methods may present limited capabilities on the tailoring of the structures, and therefore limited operation features. On the other hand, with focused ion beam milling a vast myriad of structures may be accurately fabricated, and contrarily to conventional fabrication methods, more specialized manipulation tools can be developed. In this regard, the performance of FOT for the trapping of yeast cells using spherical lenses (photo polymerization) and spiral phase lenses (FIB) will be presented. In addition, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the full vectorial optical propagation through the designed structures and the corresponding calculation of the optical forces are presented and different designs are evaluated.

  19. Analysis of the influence of manufacturing and alignment related errors on an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, R.; Sinzinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present the design process as well as experimental results of an optical system for trapping particles in air. For positioning applications of micro-sized objects onto a glass wafer we developed a highly efficient optical tweezer. The focus of this paper is the iterative design process where we combine classical optics design software with a ray optics based force simulation tool. Thus we can find the best compromise which matches the optical systems restrictions with stable trapping conditions. Furthermore we analyze the influence of manufacturing related tolerances and errors in the alignment process of the optical elements on the optical forces. We present the design procedure for the necessary optical elements as well as experimental results for the aligned system.

  20. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  1. Two-photon fluorescence excitation in continuous-wave infrared optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Sonek, G. J.; Berns, M. W.; Konig, K.; Tromberg, B. J.

    1995-11-01

    We report the observation of two-photon fluorescence excitation in a continuous-wave (cw) single-beam gradient force optical trap and demonstrate its use as an in situ probe to study the physiological state of an optically confined sample. In particular, a cw Nd:YAG (1064-nm) laser is used simultaneously to confine, and excite visible fluorescence from submicrometer regions of, cell specimens. Two-photon fluorescence emission spectra are presented for motile human sperm cells and immotile Chinese hamster ovary cells that have been labeled with nucleic acid (Propidium Iodide) and pH-sensitive (Snarf) fluorescent probes. The resulting spectra are correlated to light-induced changes in the physiological state experienced by the trapped cells. This spectral technique should prove extremely useful for monitoring cellular activity and the effects of confinement by optical tweezers.

  2. Extended linear detection range for optical tweezers using image-plane detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Faegheh; Masoumeh Mousavi, S.; Khaksar, Zeinab S.; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2014-10-01

    Ability to measure pico- and femto-Newton range forces using optical tweezers (OT) strongly relies on the sensitivity of its detection system. We show that the commonly used back-focal-plane detection method provides a linear response range which is shorter than that of the restoring force of OT for large beads. This limits measurable force range of OT. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that utilizing a second laser beam for tracking could solve the problem. We also propose a new detection scheme in which the quadrant photodiode is positioned at the plane optically conjugate to the object plane (image plane). This method solves the problem without need for a second laser beam for the bead sizes that are commonly used in force spectroscopy applications of OT, such as biopolymer stretching.

  3. Accurate measurement of force and displacement with optical tweezers using DNA molecules as metrology standards

    PubMed Central

    delToro, Damian; Smith, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers facilitate measurement of piconewton-level forces and nanometer-level displacements and have broad applications in biophysics and soft matter physics research. We have shown previously that DNA molecules can be used as metrology standards to define such measurements. Force-extension measurements on two DNA molecules of different lengths can be used to determine four necessary measurement parameters. Here, we show that the accuracy of determining these parameters can be improved by more than 7-fold by incorporating measurements of the DNA overstretching transition and using a multi-step data analysis procedure. This method results in very robust and precise fitting of DNA force-extension measurements to the worm-like chain model. We verify the accuracy through independent measurements of DNA stretching, DNA unzipping, and microsphere contact forces. PMID:25316922

  4. Comparison of T-matrix calculation methods for scattering by cylinders in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoqiong; Nieminen, Timo A; Stilgoe, Alexander B; Loke, Vincent L Y; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-15

    The T-matrix method, or the T-matrix formulation of scattering, is a framework for mathematically describing the scattering properties of an object as a linear relationship between expansion coefficients of the incident and scattering fields in a basis of vector spherical wave functions (VSWFs). A variety of methods can be used to calculate the T-matrix. We explore the applicability of the extended boundary condition method (EBCM) and point matching (PM) method to calculate the T-matrix for scattering by cylinders in optical tweezers and hence the optical force acting on them. We compare both methods with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) to measure their accuracy for different sizes and aspect ratios (ARs) for Rayleigh and wavelength-size cylinders. We determine range of sizes and ARs giving errors below 1% and 10%. These results can help researchers choose the most efficient method to calculate the T-matrix for nonspherical particles with acceptable accuracy. PMID:25121885

  5. Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Ambardekar, Amol; Li, Yong-Qing

    2005-07-01

    We report on optical levitation and manipulation of microscopic particles that are stuck on a glass surface with pulsed optical tweezers. An infrared pulse laser at 1.06 ?m was used to generate a large gradient force (up to 10^-9 N) within a short duration (~45 ?s) that overcomes the adhesive interaction between the particles and the glass surface. Then a low-power continuous-wave diode laser at 785 nm was used to capture and manipulate the levitated particle. We have demonstrated that both stuck dielectric and biological micrometer-sized particles, including polystyrene beads, yeast cells, and Bacillus cereus bacteria, can be levitated and manipulated with this technique. We measured the single-pulse levitation efficiency for 2.0 ?m polystyrene beads as a function of the pulse energy and of the axial displacement from the stuck particle to the pulsed laser focus, which was as high as 88%.

  6. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences.

    PubMed

    König, K

    2000-08-01

    Near infrared (NIR) laser microscopy enables optical micromanipulation, piconewton force determination, and sensitive fluorescence studies by laser tweezers. Otherwise, fluorescence images with high spatial and temporal resolution of living cells and tissues can be obtained via non-resonant fluorophore excitation with multiphoton NIR laser scanning microscopes. Furthermore, NIR femtosecond laser pulses at TW/cm2 intensities can be used to realize non-invasive contact-free surgery of nanometer-sized structures within living cells and tissues. Applications of these novel versatile NIR laser-based tools for the determination of motility forces, coenzyme and chlorophyll imaging, three-dimensional multigene detection, non-invasive optical sectioning of tissues ("optical biopsy"), functional protein imaging, and nanosurgery of chromosomes are described. PMID:11052257

  7. Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; Milstein, Joshua N.

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices.

  8. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

  9. Optical nanofibre integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation, in situ fibre probing, and optical binding studies

    E-print Network

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofibre and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofibre at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fibre transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fibre diameter, and can be used as a reference point for in situ nanofibre or particle size measurement. Thence, we combine scanning electron microscope (SEM) size measurements with nanofibre transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fibre assessment. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  10. Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical?tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard M.; Berg, Howard C.

    1997-01-01

    A cell of the bacterium Escherichia coli was tethered covalently to a glass coverslip by a single flagellum, and its rotation was stopped by using optical tweezers. The tweezers acted directly on the cell body or indirectly, via a trapped polystyrene bead. The torque generated by the flagellar motor was determined by measuring the displacement of the laser beam on a quadrant photodiode. The coverslip was mounted on a computer-controlled piezo-electric stage that moved the tether point in a circle around the center of the trap so that the speed of rotation of the motor could be varied. The motor generated ?4500 pN nm of torque at all angles, regardless of whether it was stalled, allowed to rotate very slowly forwards, or driven very slowly backwards. This argues against models of motor function in which rotation is tightly coupled to proton transit and back-transport of protons is severely limited. PMID:9405630

  11. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  12. Drug-DNA interactions at single molecule level: A view with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Studies of small molecule--DNA interactions are essential for developing new drugs for challenging diseases like cancer and HIV. The main idea behind developing these molecules is to target and inhibit the reproduction of the tumor cells and infected cells. We mechanically manipulate single DNA molecule using optical tweezers to investigate two molecules that have complex and multiple binding modes. Mononuclear ruthenium complexes have been extensively studied as a test for rational drug design. Potential drug candidates should have high affinity to DNA and slow dissociation kinetics. To achieve this, motifs of the ruthenium complexes are altered. Our collaborators designed a dumb-bell shaped binuclear ruthenium complex that can only intercalate DNA by threading through its bases. Studying the binding properties of this complex in bulk studies took hours. By mechanically manipulating a single DNA molecule held with optical tweezers, we lower the barrier to thread and make it fast compared to the bulk experiments. Stretching single DNA molecules with different concentration of drug molecules and holding it at a constant force allows the binding to reach equilibrium. By this we can obtain the equilibrium fractional ligand binding and length of DNA at saturated binding. Fitting these results yields quantitative measurements of the binding thermodynamics and kinetics of this complex process. The second complex discussed in this study is Actinomycin D (ActD), a well studied anti-cancer agent that is used as a prototype for developing new generations of drugs. However, the biophysical basis of its activity is still unclear. Because ActD is known to intercalate double stranded DNA (dsDNA), it was assumed to block replication by stabilizing dsDNA in front of the replication fork. However, recent studies have shown that ActD binds with even higher affinity to imperfect duplexes and some sequences of single stranded DNA (ssDNA). We directly measure the on and off rates by stretching the DNA molecule to a certain force and holding it at constant force while adding the drug and then while washing off the drug. Our finding resolves the long lasting controversy of ActD binding modes, clearly showing that both the dsDNA binding and ssDNA binding converge to the same single mode. The result supports the hypothesis that the primary characteristic of ActD that contributes to its biological activity is its ability to inhibit cellular replication by binding to transcription bubbles and causing cell death.

  13. Combined optical tweezers and laser dissector for controlled ablation of functional connections in neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difato, Francesco; Dal Maschio, Marco; Marconi, Emanuele; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Maccione, Alessandro; Fellin, Tommasso; Berdondini, Luca; Chieregatti, Evelina; Benfenati, Fabio; Blau, Axel

    2011-05-01

    Regeneration of functional connectivity within a neural network after different degrees of lesion is of utmost clinical importance. To test pharmacological approaches aimed at recovering from a total or partial damage of neuronal connections within a circuit, it is necessary to develop a precise method for controlled ablation of neuronal processes. We combined a UV laser microdissector to ablate neural processes in vitro at single neuron and neural network level with infrared holographic optical tweezers to carry out force spectroscopy measurements. Simultaneous force spectroscopy, down to the sub-pico-Newton range, was performed during laser dissection to quantify the tension release in a partially ablated neurite. Therefore, we could control and measure the damage inflicted to an individual neuronal process. To characterize the effect of the inflicted injury on network level, changes in activity of neural subpopulations were monitored with subcellular resolution and overall network activity with high temporal resolution by concurrent calcium imaging and microelectrode array recording. Neuronal connections have been sequentially ablated and the correlated changes in network activity traced and mapped. With this unique combination of electrophysiological and optical tools, neural activity can be studied and quantified in response to controlled injury at the subcellular, cellular, and network level.

  14. The Elasticity of Single Titin Molecules Using a Two-Bead Optical Tweezers Assay

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Mark C.; Wilson, David; Gautel, Mathias; Simmons, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Titin is responsible for the passive elasticity of the muscle sarcomere. The mechanical properties of skeletal and cardiac muscle titin were characterized in single molecules using a novel dual optical tweezers assay. Antibody pairs were attached to beads and used to select the whole molecule, I-band, A-band, a tandem-immunoglobulin (Ig) segment, and the PEVK region. A construct from the PEVK region expressing >25% of the full-length skeletal muscle isoform was chemically conjugated to beads and similarly characterized. By elucidating the elasticity of the different regions, we showed directly for the first time, to our knowledge, that two entropic components act in series in the skeletal muscle titin I-band (confirming previous speculations), one associated with tandem-immunoglobulin domains and the other with the PEVK region, with persistence lengths of 2.9 nm and 0.76 nm, respectively (150 mM ionic strength, 22°C). Novel findings were: the persistence length of the PEVK component rose (0.4–2.7 nm) with an increase in ionic strength (15–300 mM) and fell (3.0–0.3 nm) with a temperature increase (10–60°C); stress-relaxation in 10–12-nm steps was observed in the PEVK construct and hysteresis in the native PEVK region. The region may not be a pure random coil, as previously thought, but contains structured elements, possibly with hydrophobic interactions. PMID:15298915

  15. Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S; Clegg, Simon L

    2015-01-29

    Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments. PMID:25522920

  16. Measuring electrical and mechanical properties of red blood cells with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The fluid lipid bilayer viscoelastic membrane of red blood cells (RBC) contains antigen glycolproteins and proteins which can interact with antibodies to cause cell agglutination. This is the basis of most of the immunohematologic tests in blood banks and the identification of the antibodies against the erythrocyte antigens is of fundamental importance for transfusional routines. The negative charges of the RBCs creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The first counterions cloud strongly binded moving together with the RBC is called the compact layer. This report proposes the use of a double optical tweezers for a new procedure for measuring: (1) the apparent membrane viscosity, (2) the cell adhesion, (3) the zeta potential and (4) the compact layer's size of the charges formed around the cell in the electrolytic solution. To measure the membrane viscosity we trapped silica beads strongly attached to agglutinated RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. The RBC adhesion was measured by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination happens. The compact layer's size was measured using the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage and the zeta potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. We believe that the methodology here proposed can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  17. Rotational analysis of birefringent crystal particles based on modified theory in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Zhu, Yanying; Yao, Wenying; Pei, Huan

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve high-precision, controllable rotation of uniaxial birefringent crystal particles, we study the principle of optical rotation due to the transfer of spin angular momentum from light to birefringent crystal particles. The interaction process between the beam and particles is affected by various factors existed actually, for instance: the reflection of beam on the crystal surface, laser power, the set of angle between the crystal optical axis and surface, radius, phase difference between the ordinary ray and extraordinary ray. According to the analysis of these factors, the theoretical model of optical rotation is reconstructed. The theoretical curves of calcium carbonate and silicon particles chosen as experimental material between the rotational frequency and the radius are simulated and calculated. The result shows that the rotation frequency is inversely proportional to the cube of radius, and compared the performance of modified model with traditional model. The birefringent particles are rotated by optical tweezers in the experiment, and rotation frequency is measured with the same laser power. According to the experimental results of optical rotation, the modified Friese theoretical model is proved to be the reasonably and excellence, in addition, the result shows the maximum frequency of calcium carbonate is 19.1Hz, and the maximum frequency of silicon particles is 11.5Hz. The rationality of our experiment is testified by compared with theoretical analysis. Our study has great directive significance to the design of optical driven micro-mechanical motor and the material selection of rotor.

  18. Automated focusing of nuclei for time lapse experiments on single cells using holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Emma; Engström, David; Scrimgeour, Jan; Goksör, Mattias

    2009-03-30

    Experiments on single cells are currently gaining more and more interest. Single cell studies often concerns the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescent proteins inside living cells, visualized using fluorescence microscopy. In order to extract quantitative information from such experiments it is necessary to image the sample with high spatial and temporal resolution while keeping the photobleaching to a minimum. The analysis of the spatial distribution of proteins often requires stacks of images at each time point, which exposes the sample to unnecessary amounts of excitation light. In this paper we show how holographic optical tweezers combined with image analysis can be used to optimize the axial position of trapped cells in an array in order to bring the nuclei into a single imaging plane, thus eliminating the need for stacks of images and consequently reducing photobleaching. This allows more images to be collected, as well as increasing the time span and/or the time resolution in time lapse studies of single cells. PMID:19333326

  19. Horizontal Magnetic Tweezers for Micromanipulation of Single DNA-Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, C.; Sarkar, A.; Mehl, P.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic force transducer or ``tweezer'' that can apply pico-Newton forces on single DNA molecules in the focus plane. Since the changes in DNA's end-to-end extension are coplanar with the pulling force, there is no need to continually refocus. The DNA constructs (? -DNA end labeled with a 3 ? m polystyrene bead and a 2.8 ? m paramagnetic sphere) and appropriate buffer are introduced to a custom built 400 ? L to 650 ? L closed cell. This closed cell isolates our sample and produces low-noise force and extension measurements. This chamber rests on a stage fixed to a three axis micromanipulator. Entering the flat chamber are two micropipettes, a 2.5 ? m id pipette for aspirating the polystyrene bead and a 20 ? m id pipette for injecting proteins of interest. The suction and the injection pipettes are rigidly mounted to a hydraulic, three-axis micromanipulator. DNA-bead constructs, once introduced to the chamber, can be located by moving the stage over the objective. We have shown that we can easily and reputably find, capture, and manipulate single molecules of DNA within a force range of 0.1pN to 100pN.

  20. Measurement of adhesive forces between bacteria and protein-coated surfaces using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Kathryn H.; Bowden, Gabriela; Hook, Magnus; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-05-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a primary cause of failure in implanted medical devices. Bacteria commonly found in device-related infections, such as S. aureus, have multiple cell surface adhesins which mediate specific adhesion to molecules found in extracellular matrix and blood plasma. Adhesins recognizing fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen, and elastin molecules have been isolated in S. aureus. We have used optical tweezers to measure the adhesive force between a single bacterium and a protein-coated surface. Various concentrations of fibronectin, fibrinogen, or whole plasma were immobilized onto 10-micrometers diameter polystyrene microspheres. We optically trapped a bacterium with a titanium-sapphire laser tuned to 830 nm and contacted the cell with a coated bead. We determined the minimum force necessary to separate the cell and bead. For beads coated with fibronectin and fibrinogen, detachment force values occurred as approximate integer multiples of an estimated single bond detachment force. With plasma-coated beads, only cells lacking the fibrinogen adhesin could be detached; therefore, we believe that either this adhesin is prevalent on wilde-type cells, or it is preferentially adsorbed onto the beads. Additionally, the whole plasma detachment forces appeared random; therefore, we believe that many adhesins participate in boding to plasma.

  1. Haptic Manipulation of Microspheres Using Optical Tweezers Under the Guidance of Artificial Force Fields

    E-print Network

    Bukusoglu, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper; Kurt, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Using optical tweezers and a haptic device, microspheres having diameters ranging from 3 to 4 um (floating in a fluid solution) are manipulated in order to form patterns of coupled optical microresonators by assembling the spheres via chemical binding. For this purpose, biotin-coated microspheres trapped by a laser beam are steered and chemically attached to an immobilized streptavidin-coated sphere (i.e. anchor sphere) one by one using an XYZ piezo scanner controlled by a haptic device. The positions of all spheres in the scene are detected using a CCD camera and a collision-free path for each manipulated sphere is generated using the potential field approach. The forces acting on the manipulated particle due to the viscosity of the fluid and the artificial potential field are scaled and displayed to the user through the haptic device for better guidance and control during steering. In addition, a virtual fixture is implemented such that the desired angle of approach and strength are achieved during the bind...

  2. An Interactive Virtual Reality Simulation for Nanoparticle Manipulation for Nanoassembly using Optical Tweezers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bhavaraju, Krishna

    Nanotechnology and nano devices is believed to be one of the most promising steps that science is taking to the future. This paper proposes virtual reality (VR) as a tool to simulate nano particle manipulation using optical tweezers towards achieving nano- assembly for effectively handling issues such as difficulty in viewing, perceiving and controlling the nano-scale objects. The nano simulation is modeled, using virtual reality, displaying all the forces acting on nano particle during the manipulation. The simulation is developed for particles that belong to Rayleigh region and, represents interactions of OT (a laser beam) with the nano particle. The laser beam aimed on to the nano particle traps the particle by applying optical forces. The trapped particle is then moved by moving the laser beam. The proposed VR based simulation tool with its capabilities can be easily extended and used for creating an open system framework by connecting it to a real OT setup to control nano particles manipulation. In addition, a feedback system can be build to increase of precision of movement.

  3. Mechanics of protein-DNA interaction studied with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The lac operon is a well known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). LacI and other DNA-binding proteins bind their specific target sequences with rates higher than allowed by 3D diffusion alone. Generally accepted models predict a combination of free 3D diffusion and 1D sliding along non-specific DNA. We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with two different DNA constructs: a construct with two copies of the O1 operator separated by 300 bp and a construct containing the native E.coli operator sequences. Our measurements show at least two classes of LacI-DNA interactions: long (in the tens of s range) and short (tens of ms). Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences (long events) and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences (short events). Moreover, we observe continuous sliding of the protein along DNA, passively driven by the force applied with the optical tweezers.

  4. Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W. [Faculty of Engineering, Queens building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Phillips, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Barnes, A. C. [Department of Physics, H.H.Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5??m silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8?MHz standing wave, ??=?220??m, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2?nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

  5. DNA Micromanipulation Using Novel High-Force, In-Plane Magnetic Tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, Christopher; Mehl, Patrick; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2010-03-01

    We report the development of a magnetic force transducer that can apply piconewton forces on single DNA molecules in the focus plane allowing continuous high precision tethered-bead tracking. The DNA constructs, proteins, and buffer are introduced into a 200?L closed cell created using two glass slides separated by rigid spacers interspersed within a thin viscoelastic perimeter wall. This closed cell configuration isolates our sample and produces low-noise force-extension measurements. Specially-drawn micropipettes are used for capturing the polystyrene bead, pulling on the magnetic sphere, introducing proteins of interest, and maintaining flow. Various high-precision micromanipulators allow us to move pipettes and stage as required. The polystyrene bead is first grabbed, and held using suction; then the magnetic particle at the other end of the DNA is pulled by a force created by either two small (1mm x 2mm x 4mm) bar magnets or a micro magnet-tipped pipette. Changes in the end-to-end length of the DNA are observable in real time. We will present force extension data obtained using the magnetic tweezer.

  6. Molecular Tweezers Inhibit Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Assembly and Toxicity by a New Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Dahabada H J; Attar, Aida; Nair, Gayatri; Hayden, Eric Y; Du, Zhenming; McDaniel, Kirsten; Dutt, Som; Bravo-Rodriguez, Kenny; Mittal, Sumit; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Wang, Chunyu; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal

    2015-06-19

    In type-2 diabetes (T2D), islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) self-associates into toxic assemblies causing islet ?-cell death. Therefore, preventing IAPP toxicity is a promising therapeutic strategy for T2D. The molecular tweezer CLR01 is a supramolecular tool for selective complexation of K residues in (poly)peptides. Surprisingly, it inhibits IAPP aggregation at substoichiometric concentrations even though IAPP has only one K residue at position 1, whereas efficient inhibition of IAPP toxicity requires excess CLR01. The basis for this peculiar behavior is not clear. Here, a combination of biochemical, biophysical, spectroscopic, and computational methods reveals a detailed mechanistic picture of the unique dual inhibition mechanism for CLR01. At low concentrations, CLR01 binds to K1, presumably nucleating nonamyloidogenic, yet toxic, structures, whereas excess CLR01 binds also to R11, leading to nontoxic structures. Encouragingly, the CLR01 concentrations needed for inhibition of IAPP toxicity are safe in vivo, supporting its development toward disease-modifying therapy for T2D. PMID:25844890

  7. Development of microfluidic system and optical tweezers for electrophysiological investigations of an individual cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrifaiy, A.; Bitaraf, N.; Lindahl, O.; Ramser, K.

    2010-08-01

    We present a new approach of combining Lab-on-a-chip technologies with optical manipulation technique for accurate investigations in the field of cell biology. A general concept was to develop and combine different methods to perform advanced electrophysiological investigations of an individual living cell under optimal control of the surrounding environment. The conventional patch clamp technique was customized by modifying the open system with a gas-tight multifunctional microfluidics system and optical trapping technique (optical tweezers). The system offers possibilities to measure the electrical signaling and activity of the neuron under optimum conditions of hypoxia and anoxia while the oxygenation state is controlled optically by means of a spectroscopic technique. A cellbased microfluidics system with an integrated patch clamp pipette was developed successfully. Selectively, an individual neuron is manipulated within the microchannels of the microfluidic system under a sufficient control of the environment. Experiments were performed to manipulate single yeast cell and red blood cell (RBC) optically through the microfluidics system toward an integrated patch clamp pipette. An absorption spectrum of a single RCB was recorded which showed that laser light did not impinge on the spectroscopic spectrum of light. This is promising for further development of a complete lab-on-a-chip system for patch clamp measurements.

  8. Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Khaksar, Maryam; Laxa, Miriam; König, Janine; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-11-17

    We investigated the threading and controlled translocation of individual lambda-DNA (?-DNA) molecules through solid-state nanopores with piconewton force sensitivity, millisecond time resolution and picoampere ionic current sensitivity with a set-up combining quantitative 3D optical tweezers (OT) with electrophysiology. With our virtually interference-free OT set-up the binding of RecA and single peroxiredoxin protein molecules to ?-DNA was quantitatively investigated during dynamic translocation experiments where effective forces and respective ionic currents of the threaded DNA molecule through the nanopore were measured during inward and outward sliding. Membrane voltage-dependent experiments of reversible single protein/DNA translocation scans yield hysteresis-free, asymmetric single-molecule fingerprints in the measured force and conductance signals that can be attributed to the interplay of optical trap and electrostatic nanopore potentials. These experiments allow an exact localization of the bound protein along the DNA strand and open fascinating applications for label-free detection of DNA-binding ligands, where structural and positional binding phenomena can be investigated at a single-molecule level. PMID:21339608

  9. Electrical tweezer for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements over a wide frequency bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Ali; Varhue, Walter; Su, Yi-Hsuan; Swami, Nathan S

    2014-07-01

    Electrorotation (ROT) is a powerful tool for characterizing the dielectric properties of cells and bioparticles. However, its application has been somewhat limited by the need to mitigate disruptions to particle rotation by translation under positive DEP and by frictional interactions with the substrate. While these disruptions may be overcome by implementing particle positioning schemes or field cages, these methods restrict the frequency bandwidth to the negative DEP range and permit only single particle measurements within a limited spatial extent of the device geometry away from field nonuniformities. Herein, we present an electrical tweezer methodology based on a sequence of electrical signals, composed of negative DEP using 180-degree phase-shifted fields for trapping and levitation of the particles, followed by 90-degree phase-shifted fields over a wide frequency bandwidth for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements. Through field simulations of the rotating electrical field under this wave-sequence, we illustrate the enhanced spatial extent for electrorotation measurements, with no limitations to frequency bandwidth. We apply this methodology to characterize subtle modifications in morphology and electrophysiology of Cryptosporidium parvum with varying degrees of heat treatment, in terms of shifts in the electrorotation spectra over the 0.05-40 MHz region. Given the single particle sensitivity and the ability for highly parallelized electrorotation measurements, we envision its application toward characterizing heterogeneous subpopulations of microbial and stem cells. PMID:24668830

  10. Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

  11. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  12. The ?PIVOT: an integrated particle image velocimeter and optical tweezers instrument for microenvironment investigations

    PubMed Central

    Nève, N; Lingwood, J K; Zimmerman, J; Kohles, S S; Tretheway, D C

    2008-01-01

    A novel instrument to manipulate and characterize the mechanical environment in and around microscale objects in a fluidic environment has been developed by integrating two laser-based techniques: micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (?PIV) and optical tweezers (OT). This instrument, the ?PIVOT, enables a new realm of microscale studies, yet still maintains the individual capabilities of each optical technique. This was demonstrated with individual measurements of optical trap stiffness (?70 pN ?m?1 for a 20 ?m polystyrene sphere and a linear relationship between trap stiffness and laser power) and fluid velocities within 436 nm of a microchannel wall. The integrated device was validated by comparing computational flow predictions to the measured velocity profile around a trapped particle in either a uniform flow or an imposed, gravity-driven microchannel flow (R2 = 0.988, RMS error = 13.04 ?m s?1). Interaction between both techniques is shown to be negligible for 15 ?m to 35 ?m diameter trapped particles subjected to fluid velocities from 50 ?m s?1 to 500 ?m s?1 even at the highest laser power (1.45 W). The integrated techniques will provide a unique perspective toward understanding microscale phenomena including single-cell biomechanics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and single particle or particle–particle hydrodynamics. PMID:18953424

  13. Induction of sustained glycolytic oscillations in single yeast cells using microfluidics and optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; Adiels, Caroline B.; Goksör, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    Yeast glycolytic oscillations have been studied since the 1950s in cell free extracts and in intact cells. Until recently, sustained oscillations have only been observed in intact cells at the population level. The aim of this study was to investigate sustained glycolytic oscillations in single cells. Optical tweezers were used to position yeast cells in arrays with variable cell density in the junction of a microfluidic flow chamber. The microfluidic flow chambers were fabricated using soft lithography and the flow rates in the different inlet channels were individually controlled by syringe pumps. Due to the low Reynolds number, the solutions mixed by diffusion only. The environment in the junction of the chamber could thus be controlled by changing the flow rates in the inlet channels, with a complete change of environment within 2 s. The optimum position of the cell array was determined by simulations, to ensure complete coverage of the intended solution without any concentration gradients over the cell array. Using a DAPI filter set, the NADH auto fluorescence could be monitored in up to 100 cells simultaneously. Sustained oscillations were successfully induced in individual, isolated cells within specific flow rates and concentrations of glucose and cyanide. By changing the flow rates without changing the surrounding solution, it was found that the cell behavior was dependent on the concentration of chemicals in the medium rather than the flow rates in the range tested. Furthermore, by packing cells tightly, cell-to-cell interaction and synchronization could be studied.

  14. Simultaneous three-dimensional tracking of individual signals from multi-trap optical tweezers using fast and accurate photodiode detection.

    PubMed

    Ott, Dino; Nader, S; Reihani, S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2014-09-22

    Multiple-beam optical traps facilitate advanced trapping geometries and exciting discoveries. However, the increased manipulation capabilities come at the price of more challenging position and force detection. Due to unrivaled bandwidth and resolution, photodiode based detection is preferred over camera based detection in most single/dual-beam optical traps assays. However, it has not been trivial to implement photodiode based detection for multiple-beam optical traps. Here, we present a simple and efficient method based on spatial filtering for parallel photodiode detection of multiple traps. The technique enables fast and accurate 3D force and distance detection of multiple objects simultaneously manipulated by multiple-beam optical tweezers. PMID:25321832

  15. Stretching Short Sequences of DNA with Constant Force Axial Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Raghunathan, Krishnan; Milstein, Joshua N.; Meiners, Jens -Christian

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques for stretching DNA of contour lengths less than a kilobase are fraught with experimental difficulties. However, many interesting biological events such as histone binding and protein-mediated looping of DNA1,2, occur on this length scale. In recent years, the mechanical properties of DNA have been shown to play a significant role in fundamental cellular processes like the packaging of DNA into compact nucleosomes and chromatin fibers3,4. Clearly, it is then important to understand the mechanical properties of short stretches of DNA. In this paper, we provide a practical guide to a single-molecule optical tweezing technique that we have developed to study the mechanical behavior of DNA with contour lengths as short as a few hundred basepairs. The major hurdle in stretching short segments of DNA is that conventional optical tweezers are generally designed to apply force in a direction lateral to the stage5,6, (see Fig. 1). In this geometry, the angle between the bead and the coverslip, to which the DNA is tethered, becomes very steep for submicron length DNA. The axial position must now be accounted for, which can be a challenge, and, since the extension drags the microsphere closer to the coverslip, steric effects are enhanced. Furthermore, as a result of the asymmetry of the microspheres, lateral extensions will generate varying levels of torque due to rotation of the microsphere within the optical trap since the direction of the reactive force changes during the extension. Alternate methods for stretching submicron DNA run up against their own unique hurdles. For instance, a dual-beam optical trap is limited to stretching DNA of around a wavelength, at which point interference effects between the two traps and from light scattering between the microspheres begin to pose a significant problem. Replacing one of the traps with a micropipette would most likely suffer from similar challenges. While one could directly use the axial potential to stretch the DNA, an active feedback scheme would be needed to apply a constant force and the bandwidth of this will be quite limited, especially at low forces. We circumvent these fundamental problems by directly pulling the DNA away from the coverslip by using a constant force axial optical tweezers7,8. This is achieved by trapping the bead in a linear region of the optical potential, where the optical force is constant-the strength of which can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. Trapping within the linear region also serves as an all optical force-clamp on the DNA that extends for nearly 350 nm in the axial direction. We simultaneously compensate for thermal and mechanical drift by finely adjusting the position of the stage so that a reference microsphere stuck to the coverslip remains at the same position and focus, allowing for a virtually limitless observation period. PMID:22025209

  16. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring electrical and mechanical properties with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The basis of the immunohematologic tests is the interaction between antigens and antibodies that causes hemagglutination. The identification of antibodies and antigens is of fundamental importance for the transfusional routine. This agglutination is induced by decreasing the zeta-potential through the introduction of artificial potential substances. This report proposes the use of the optical tweezers to measure the membrane viscosity, the cell adhesion, the zeta-potential and the size of the double layer of charges (CLC) formed around the cell in an electrolytic solution. The adhesion was quantified by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination. The CLC was measured using the force on the bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage. The zeta-potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. For the membrane viscosity experiment, we trapped a bead attached to RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. After we tested the methodology, we performed measurements using antibody and potential substances. We observed that this experiment can provide information about cell agglutination that helps to improve the tests usually performed in blood banks. We also believe that this methodology can be applied for measurements of zeta-potentials in other kind of samples.

  17. Mechanical properties of neuronal growth cone membranes studied by tether formation with laser optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, J.; Sheetz, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    Many cell phenomena involve major morphological changes, particularly in mitosis and the process of cell migration. For cells or neuronal growth cones to migrate, they must extend the leading edge of the plasma membrane as a lamellipodium or filopodium. During extension of filopodia, membrane must move across the surface creating shear and flow. Intracellular biochemical processes driving extension must work against the membrane mechanical properties, but the forces required to extend growth cones have not been measured. In this paper, laser optical tweezers and a nanometer-level analysis system were used to measure the neuronal growth cone membrane mechanical properties through the extension of filopodia-like tethers with IgG-coated beads. Although the probability of a bead attaching to the membrane was constant irrespective of treatment; the probability of forming a tether with a constant force increased dramatically with cytochalasin B or D and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These are treatments that alter the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. The force required to hold a tether at zero velocity (F0) was greater than forces generated by single molecular motors, kinesin and myosin; and F0 decreased with cytochalasin B or D and DMSO in correlation with the changes in the probability of tether formation. The force of the tether on the bead increased linearly with the velocity of tether elongation. From the dependency of tether force on velocity of tether formation, we calculated a parameter related to membrane viscosity, which decreased with cytochalasin B or D, ATP depletion, nocodazole, and DMSO. These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton affects the membrane mechanical properties, including the force required for membrane extension and the viscoelastic behavior. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:7756561

  18. Experimental phase diagram of negatively supercoiled DNA measured by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vlijm, Rifka; Mashaghi, Alireza; Bernard, Stéphanie; Modesti, Mauro; Dekker, Cees

    2015-02-21

    The most common form of DNA is the well-known B-structure of double-helix DNA. Many processes in the cell, however, exert force and torque, inducing structural changes to the DNA that are vital to biological function. Virtually all DNA in cells is in a state of negative supercoiling, with a DNA structure that is complex. Using magnetic tweezers combined with fluorescence imaging, we here study DNA structure as a function of negative supercoiling at the single-molecule level. We classify DNA phases based on DNA length as a function of supercoiling, down to a very high negative supercoiling density ? of -2.5, and forces up to 4.5 pN. We characterize plectonemes using fluorescence imaging. DNA bubbles are visualized by the binding of fluorescently labelled RPA, a eukaryotic single-strand-binding protein. The presence of Z-DNA, a left-handed form of DNA, is probed by the binding of Z?77, the minimal binding domain of a Z-DNA-binding protein. Without supercoiling, DNA is in the relaxed B-form. Upon going toward negative supercoiling, plectonemic B-DNA is being formed below 0.6 pN. At higher forces and supercoiling densities down to about -1.9, a mixed state occurs with plectonemes, multiple bubbles and left-handed L-DNA. Around ? = -1.9, a buckling transition occurs after which the DNA end-to-end length linearly decreases when applying more negative turns, into a state that we interpret as plectonemic L-DNA. By measuring DNA length, Z?77 binding, plectoneme and ssDNA visualisation, we thus have mapped the co-existence of many DNA structures and experimentally determined the DNA phase diagram at (extreme) negative supercoiling. PMID:25615283

  19. Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-08-01

    The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

  20. Combining digital holographic microscopy and optical tweezers: a new route in microfluidic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Paturzo, M.; Finizio, A.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2012-04-01

    An optical configuration is realized to obtain quantitative phase-contrast maps able to characterize particles floating in a microfluidic chamber by interference microscopy. The novelty is the possibility to drive the sample and measure it thorough the same light path. That is realized by an optical setup made of two light beams coming from the same laser source. One beam provides the optical forces for driving the particle along the desired path and, at same time, it works as object beam in the digital holographic microscope (DHM). The second one acts as reference beam, allowing recording of an interference fringe pattern (i.e., the digital hologram) in an out-of-focus image plane. This work finds application in the field of micromanipulation as, the devise developed allows to operate in microfluidic chambers driving samples flowing in very small volumes. Recently, the field of optical particle micro-manipulation has had rapid growth, due to Optical Tweezers development. A particle is trapped or moved along certain trajectories according to the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam used. Here, particles freely floating are driven by optical forces along preferential directions and then analyzed by a DHM to numerically calculate their phase-contrast signature. The improvement is that one laser source is employed for making two jobs: driving and analyze the sample. We use two slightly off-axis laser beams coming from a single laser source. The interference between them gives the possibility to record in real-time a sequence of digital holograms, while one of the beam creates the driving force. By this method, a great amount of particles can be analyzed by a real-time recording of DH movies. This allows one to examine each particle at time and characterize it. The optical configuration and the working method are illustrated. Experimental results are shown for polymeric particles and in-vitro.

  1. Optoacoustic tweezers: a programmable, localized cell concentrator based on opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanhui; Li, Sixing; Rufo, Joseph; Yang, Shikuan; Guo, Feng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    We present a programmable, biocompatible technique for dynamically concentrating and patterning particles and cells in a microfluidic device. Since our technique utilizes opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles, we name it “optoacoustic tweezers.” The optoacoustic tweezers are capable of concentrating particles/cells at any prescribed locations in a microfluidic chamber without the use of permanent structures, rendering it particularly useful for the formation of flexible, complex cell patterns. Additionally, this technique has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and can be conveniently integrated with other microfluidic units. In our experiments, micro-bubbles were generated by focusing a 405 nm diode laser onto a gold-coated glass chamber. By properly tuning the laser, we demonstrate precise control over the position and size of the generated bubbles. Acoustic waves were then applied to activate the surface bubbles, causing them to oscillate at an optimized frequency. The resulting acoustic radiation force allowed us to locally trap particles/cells, including 15 ?m polystyrene beads and HeLa cells, around each bubble. Cell-adhesion tests were also conducted after cell concentrating to confirm the biocompatibility of this technique. PMID:23511348

  2. [Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis of cold-adapted aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Bin; Miao, Jin-Lai; He, Bi-Juan; Liang, Qiang; Liu, Fang-Ming; Zheng, Zhou

    2011-02-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy can help with observing and studying individual cells or organelles in a natural state for a relatively long period. In the present experiment, Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used as a tool to report physiological metabolism such as cells growth and nucleic acid, proteins, lipid and glucose of a single active cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea. After the Raman spectrum was collected and analyzed, the findings are as follows: Raman spectrum identified the components of a single cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strain and there were more proteins and carbohydrate produced during the Planococcus sp. NJ41 and Shewanella sp. NJ49 growth and degradation; but there was more lipid than the proteins produced during the Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ289 growth and degradation; the amount of proteins produced by the strains corresponds with the production of degradation rate-limiting enzyme, and was also related to the capacity of low-temperature degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:21510394

  3. Single-cell adhesion probed in-situ using optical tweezers: A case study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Pignon, Frédéric; Magnin, Albert; Piau, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    A facile method of using optical trapping to measure cell adhesion forces is presented and applied to the adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass, in contact with solutions of different compositions. Trapping yeast cells with optical tweezers (OT) is not perturbed by cell wall deformation or cell deviation from a spherical shape. The trapping force calibration requires correction not only for the hydrodynamic effect of the neighboring wall but also for spherical aberrations affecting the focal volume and the trap stiffness. Yeast cells trapped for up to 5 h were still able to undergo budding but showed an increase of doubling time. The proportion of adhering cells showed the expected variation according to the solution composition. The detachment force varied in the same way. This observation and the fact that the detachment stress was exerted parallel to the substrate surface point to the role of interactions involving solvated macromolecules. Both the proportion of adhering cells and the removal force showed a distribution which, in our experimental conditions, must be attributed to a heterogeneity of surface properties at the cell level or at the subcellular scale. As compared with magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and more conventional ways of studying cell adhesion (shear-flow cells), OT present several advantages that are emphasized in this paper.

  4. Cell-scaffold adhesion dynamics measured in first seconds predicts cell growth on days scale – optical tweezers study.

    PubMed

    Podlipec, Rok; Štrancar, Janez

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the cell-biomaterial interface from the very first contact is of crucial importance for their successful implementation and function in damaged tissues. However, the lack of bio- and mechano-analytical methods to investigate and probe the initial processes on the interface, especially in 3D, raises the need for applying new experimental techniques. In our study, optical tweezers combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy were optimized to investigate the initial cell-scaffold contact and to investigate its correlation with the material-dependent cell growth. By the optical tweezers-induced cell manipulation accompanied by force detection up to 100 pN and position detection by fluorescence microscopy, accurate adhesion dynamics and strength analysis was implemented, where several attachment sites were formed on the interface in the first few seconds. More importantly, we have shown that dynamics of cell adhesion on scaffold surfaces correlates with cell growth on the days scale, which indicates that the first seconds of the contact could markedly direct further cell response. Such a contact dynamics analysis on 3D scaffold surfaces, applied for the first time, can thus serve to predict scaffold biocompatibility. PMID:25764169

  5. Wavefront analysis and optimization from conventional liquid crystal displays for low-cost holographic optical tweezers and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andreas; Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Schröder, Werner

    2011-05-01

    In different study fields the manipulation and imaging of micro-sized particles is essential. The use of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and digital holographic microscopy (DHM) facilitates this task in a non-mechanical way by providing the proper computer generated hologram and the required amount of light. Electrically addressed spatial light modulators (EASLM) found in holographic optical tweezers are typically of the reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type which can achieve a phase shift of more than 2? but they are expensive. Similar components like transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are produced in large quantities, their optical characteristics improve rapidly and they are inexpensive. Under certain circumstances these devices can be used instead of expensive spatial light modulators. Consumer grade objectives are not always well corrected for spherical aberration. In that case conventional liquid crystal displays can also compensate these undesired optical effects. For this purpose software-corrected computer generated holograms are calculated. Procedures to analyze and compensate different parameters of a conventional low-cost liquid crystal display, e.g. phase shift evaluation and aberration correction of objectives by Zernike polynomials approximation are explained. The applied software compensation of the computer generated hologram has shown significant improvement of the focus quality. An important price reduction of holographic devices could be achieved by replacing special optical elements if correction algorithms for conventional liquid crystal displays are provided.

  6. Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

    2007-01-09

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in flow cytometry, open up new possibilities for analyzing cellular processes occurring in single microbial and eukaryotic cells.

  7. Molecular cleft or tweezer compounds derived from trioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonadiene diisocyanate and diacid dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Smounig, Ralf; Belaj, Ferdinand; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The structures of two derivatives of the bisdioxine diisocyanate 1, the bisurea 4 and the biscarbamate 5, are established by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. These compounds possess endo,endo structures, in the case of the bisurea 4 with two nearly parallel pendant chains. The X-ray structures are reproduced very well by DFT calculations. Similar endo,endo conformations are calculated for the bisamide crown ether derivatives 7, where two proximate and nearly parallel crown ether units endow the molecules with a claw-like molecular cleft or tweezer structure as evidenced by an enhanced ability to extract some alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth metal ions. PMID:25670985

  8. The interaction of lipopolysaccharide-coated polystyrene particle with membrane receptor proteins on macrophage measured by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Jowey; Karmenyan, Artashes; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Chiou, Arthur

    2006-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the cell wall components of Gram-positive bacteria recognized by and interacted with receptor proteins such as CD14 on macrophage cells. Such a process plays an important role in our innate immune system. In this paper, we report the application of optical tweezers (? = 1064nm Gaussian beam focused by a water-immersed objective lens with N.A. = 1.0) to the study of the dynamics of the binding of a LPS-coated polystyrene particle (diameter = 1.5?m) onto the plasma membrane of a macrophage cell. We demonstrated that the binding rate increased significantly when the macrophage cell was pre-treated with the extract of Reishi polysaccharides (EORP) which has been shown to enhance the cell surface expression of CD14 (receptor of LPS) on macrophage cells.

  9. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Molecular Machines and Industries GmbH, Breslauerstrasse 2, 85386 Eching (Germany); Center for Clinical Dental Research, University of Bergen, N-5009 Bergen (Norway); Department of Prosthodontics/Dental Material Science, University of Goeteborg, S-40530 Goeteborg, Sweden and Department of Biomaterials, University of Goeteborg, S-40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods.

  10. Hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system based on Zn-porphyrin and multi-walled carbon nanotube composite.

    PubMed

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Lutz, Mario; Pogfay, Tawee; Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have enhanced the capability of an e-nose system based on combined optical and electrochemical transduction within a single gas sensor array. The optical part of this e-nose is based on detection of the absorption changes of light emitted from eight light emitting diodes (LEDs) as measured by a CMOS photo-detector. The electrochemical part works by measuring the change in electrical resistivity of the sensing materials upon contact with the sample vapor. Zinc-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (ZnTPP) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was used as the sensing materials based on its good optoelectronic properties. This sensing layer was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscope and tested with various VOC vapors. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the electronic properties and interaction energies between ZnTPP and analyte molecules. It can be clearly seen that this hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system can classify the vapor of different volatile organic compounds. PMID:22966552

  11. Thermoresponsive Interplay of Water Insoluble Poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline)s Composition and Supramolecular Host–Guest Interactions

    PubMed Central

    R. de la Rosa, Victor; Nau, Werner M.; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A series of water insoluble poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline)] amphiphilic copolymers was synthesized and their solubility properties in the presence of different supramolecular host molecules were investigated. The resulting polymer-cavitand assemblies exhibited a thermoresponsive behavior that could be modulated by variation of the copolymer composition and length. Interestingly, the large number of hydrophobic nonyl units across the polymer chain induced the formation of kinetically-trapped nanoparticles in solution. These nanoparticles further agglomerate into larger aggregates at a temperature that is dependent on the polymer composition and the cavitand type and concentration. The present research expands the understanding on the supramolecular interactions between water insoluble copolymers and supramolecular host molecules. PMID:25849653

  12. Supramolecular host-guest flavylium-loaded zeolite L hybrid materials: network of reactions of encapsulated 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel; Albuquerque, Rodrigo Q; Pina, Fernando; Parola, A Jorge; De Cola, Luisa

    2010-07-30

    We report a spectroscopic study of the network of reactions of a flavylium dye encapsulated in the one-dimensional channels of zeolite L. The positively charged 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium ((+)) is easily incorporated and remains stable in zeolite L channels. Once encapsulated, the flavylium exhibits a red shift in the excitation spectrum comparative to aqueous solutions. Moreover, contrary to the observed behavior in water, no excited state proton transfer takes place in the loaded crystals, corroborating the encapsulation of (+). The trans-chalcone () form from the same flavylium network could also be encapsulated inside the zeolite L, using toluene with 20% triethylamine as solvent and K(+) as counter ion of the negative framework of the zeolite. The encapsulation of is confirmed by changes on the excitation spectrum and by a blue shift in the emission. The encapsulated was shown to generate (+) when the -loaded crystals were suspended in water, which proves that isomerization, tautomerization and dehydration reactions take place inside the zeolite L. PMID:20480099

  13. Thermoresponsive interplay of water insoluble poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline)s composition and supramolecular host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Victor R; Nau, Werner M; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A series of water insoluble poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline)] amphiphilic copolymers was synthesized and their solubility properties in the presence of different supramolecular host molecules were investigated. The resulting polymer-cavitand assemblies exhibited a thermoresponsive behavior that could be modulated by variation of the copolymer composition and length. Interestingly, the large number of hydrophobic nonyl units across the polymer chain induced the formation of kinetically-trapped nanoparticles in solution. These nanoparticles further agglomerate into larger aggregates at a temperature that is dependent on the polymer composition and the cavitand type and concentration. The present research expands the understanding on the supramolecular interactions between water insoluble copolymers and supramolecular host molecules. PMID:25849653

  14. Toward synthetic tubes for NO2/N2O4: design, synthesis, and host-guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zyryanov, Grigory V; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2004-04-01

    Design of molecular nanotubes is proposed for entrapment and conversion of NO2/N2O4 gases. Synthesis of 1,3-alternate bis-calix[4]arene tube 3 of 5 x 11 A internal dimensions is presented, and its reversible reactions with NO2/N2O4 in solution are studied. Exposure of 3 to NO2/N2O4 in chlorinated solvents results in the rapid encapsulation of nitrosonium (NO+) cations within its interior. Mono- and dinitrosonium complexes 4 and 5, respectively, were isolated and characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, and 1H NMR spectroscopies, and also molecular modeling. The NO+ entrapment process is reversible, and addition of water quickly recovered starting tube 3. Encapsulated within the tube NO+ species act as nitrosating agents for secondary amides. These findings open wider perspectives toward NO2/NOx storing and converting materials and also offer a promise for further development of supramolecular chemistry of synthetic nanotubes. PMID:15053616

  15. A cyclodextrin host-guest recognition approach to an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Noori, Abolhassan

    2011-08-15

    An electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) using a ?-cyclodextrin/poly(N-acetylaniline)/carbon nanotube composite modified carbon paste electrode has been developed. Synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in addition to the pre-concentrating effect of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as well as its different inclusion complex stability with 5-HT and DA was used to construct an electrochemical sensor for quantification of these important neurotransmitters. The overlapping anodic peaks of 5-HT and DA at 428 mV on bare electrode resolved in two well-defined voltammetric peaks at 202 and 363 mV vs. Ag/AgCl respectively. The oxidation mechanism of 5-HT and DA on the surface of the electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and it was found that the electrode processes are pH dependent and electrochemical oxidation of 5-HT is totally irreversible while the electrode gave a more reversible process to DA. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of about 4-200 ?M with a detection limits down to sub-?M levels (S/N=3) after 20-s accumulation, for both. The proposed sensor was shown to be remarkably selective for 5-HT and DA in matrices containing different species including ascorbic acid and uric acid. The suitability of the developed method was tested for the determination of 5-HT and DA in the Randox Synthetic Plasma samples and acceptable recoveries were obtained for a set of spiked samples. PMID:21715153

  16. Microcalorimetric study on host-guest complexation of naphtho-15-crown-5 with four ions of alkaline earth metal.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming-zhi; Zhu, Lan-ying; Gao, Xi-ke; Dou, Jian-min; Sun, De-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of complexation of naphto-15-crown-5 with four alkaline earth ions in aqueous media was determined using titration microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The stability of the complexes, thermal effect and entropy effect of the complexation is discussed on the basis of the guest ions structure and the solvent effect. The stability constants tendency to vary with ion radius was interpreted. Complex of naphtha-15-crown-5 with calcium ion is very stable due to the synergism of static electric interaction and size selectivity between the host and the guest. PMID:15593396

  17. Redox-driven host-guest interactions allow the controlled release of captured cells on RGD-functionalized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Dhruv; Coche-Guérente, Liliane; Claron, Michaël; Wenk, Christiane H F; Dejeu, Jérôme; Dumy, Pascal; Labbé, Pierre; Boturyn, Didier

    2014-02-10

    A quartz crystal microbalance technique with dissipation monitoring and a complementary optical microscopy technique were used for monitoring the capture and release of specific cells on a surface displaying a bifunctional molecular device, composed of a molecular scaffold endowed with the cell recognition property of an RGD ligand and a ?-CD/Fc redox-switchable system. PMID:24449469

  18. Free-energy perturbation and quantum mechanical study of SAMPL4 octa-acid host-guest binding energies.

    PubMed

    Mikulskis, Paulius; Cioloboc, Daniela; Andreji?, Milica; Khare, Sakshi; Brorsson, Joakim; Genheden, Samuel; Mata, Ricardo A; Söderhjelm, Pär; Ryde, Ulf

    2014-04-01

    We have estimated free energies for the binding of nine cyclic carboxylate guest molecules to the octa-acid host in the SAMPL4 blind-test challenge with four different approaches. First, we used standard free-energy perturbation calculations of relative binding affinities, performed at the molecular-mechanics (MM) level with TIP3P waters, the GAFF force field, and two different sets of charges for the host and the guest, obtained either with the restrained electrostatic potential or AM1-BCC methods. Both charge sets give good and nearly identical results, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 4 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0.8 compared to experimental results. Second, we tried to improve these predictions with 28,800 density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for selected snapshots and the non-Boltzmann Bennett acceptance-ratio method, but this led to much worse results, probably because of a too large difference between the MM and DFT potential-energy functions. Third, we tried to calculate absolute affinities using minimised DFT structures. This gave intermediate-quality results with MADs of 5-9 kJ/mol and R (2) = 0.6-0.8, depending on how the structures were obtained. Finally, we tried to improve these results using local coupled-cluster calculations with single and double excitations, and non-iterative perturbative treatment of triple excitations (LCCSD(T0)), employing the polarisable multipole interactions with supermolecular pairs approach. Unfortunately, this only degraded the predictions, probably because of a mismatch between the solvation energies obtained at the DFT and LCCSD(T0) levels. PMID:24700414

  19. Directional energy migration in an oriented nanometer-scale host\\/guest composite: semiconducting polymers threaded into mesoporous silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah H Tolbert; Junjun Wu; Adam F Gross; Thuc-Quyen Nguyen; Benjamin J Schwartz

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the semiconducting polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2?-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) can be incorporated into the channels of an aligned mesoporous silica host. Polarized fluorescence spectroscopy is used to show that more than 80% of the polymer in the composite is aligned by incorporation into the host. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy further indicates that the incorporated chains are isolated

  20. Host-guest transformational correlations for a gas inclusion co-crystal on changing gas pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Satoshi; Takasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Ryosuke

    2009-11-21

    The CO(2) adsorption behavior and inclusion structure of a flexible single-crystal host [Cu(2)(bza)(4)(pyz)](n) were studied under various conditions (203-373 K, <15.4 MPa) and the correlation between changes in gas adsorption behavior and the structures of guest arrangement and host component packing were investigated. PMID:19865671

  1. Ultrafast 2DIR probe of a host-guest inclusion complex: Structural and dynamical constraints of nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Derek G.; King, John T.; Dunbar, Josef A.; White, Aaron M.; Kubarych, Kevin J.

    2013-04-01

    Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy is used to study the influence of nanoconfinement on the spectral diffusion dynamics of cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (CpMn(CO)3, CMT) free in solution and confined in the cavity of ?-cyclodextrin. Contrary to the reorientation correlation function of the solvent molecules, determined through molecular dynamics simulations, measurements in three different solvents indicate that CMT confined in ?-cyclodextrin undergoes spectral diffusion that is faster than free CMT. To account for this discrepancy, we propose that spectral diffusion time scales contain a dynamical contribution that is dependent on the effective size of the conformational space presented by the solvation environment. This solvation state space size is related to the number of participating solvent molecules, which in turn is proportional to the solvent accessible surface area (SASA). We test the role of the number of participating solvent molecules using a simple Gaussian-Markov simulation and find that an increase in the number of participating solvent molecules indeed slows the time required to search the available conformational space. Finally, we test this dependence by comparing the spectral diffusion of a previously studied manganese carbonyl, dimanganese decacarbonyl (Mn2(CO)10, DMDC), to CMT and find that DMDC, which has a larger SASA, exhibits slower spectral diffusion. The experimental observations and the supporting simplistic solvation model suggest that vibrational probe molecules, such as CMT, might be able to function as sensors of conformational entropy.

  2. Host-guest interaction between new nitrooxoisoaporphine and ?-cyclodextrins: Synthesis, electrochemical, electron spin resonance and molecular modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Cruz, Fernanda; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Lapier, Michel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Uriarte Villares, Eugenio; Olea-Azar, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    A new nitrooxoisoaporphine derivative was synthetized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance. Its aqueous solubility was improved by complexes formation with ?-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin and (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin. In order to assess the inclusion degree reached by nitrooxoisoaporphine in cyclodextris cavity, the stability constants of formation of the complexes were determined by phase-solubility measurements obtaining in all cases a type-AL diagram. Moreover, electrochemical studies were carried out, where the observed change in the EPC value indicated a lower feasibility of the nitro group reduction. Additionally, a detailed spatial configuration is proposed for inclusion of derivate within the cyclodextrins cavity by 2D NMR techniques. Finally, these results are further interpreted by means of molecular modeling studies. Thus, theoretical results are in complete agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Gating the photochromism of an azobenzene by strong host-guest interactions in a divalent pseudo[2]rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Mirko; Nowosinski, Karol; Traulsen, Nora L; Achazi, Andreas J; von Krbek, Larissa K S; Paulus, Beate; Schalley, Christoph A; Hecht, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The ability of an E-configured azobenzene guest to undergo photoisomerisation is controlled by the presence of a complementary host. Addition of base/acid allowed for a weakening/strengthening of the interactions in the divalent pseudo[2]rotaxane complex and hence could switch on/off photochromic activity. PMID:25929291

  4. Multicolor Fluorescence Writing Based on Host-Guest Interactions and Force-Induced Fluorescence-Color Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yuki; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2015-06-26

    A new strategy is reported for multicolor fluorescence writing on thin solid films with mechanical forces. This concept is illustrated by the use of a green-fluorescent pentiptycene derivative 1, which forms variably colored fluorescent exciplexes: a change from yellow to red was observed with anilines, and fluorescence quenching (a change to black) occurred in the presence of benzoquinone. Mechanical forces, such as grinding and shearing, induced a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in both the pristine and guest-adsorbed solids that led to a change in the fluorescence color (mechanofluorochromism) and a memory of the resulting color. Fluorescence drawings of five or more colors were created on glass or paper and could be readily erased by exposure to air and dichloromethane fumes. The structural and mechanistic aspects of the observations are also discussed. PMID:25982228

  5. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  6. Experimental study of the Stokes-Einstein relation by using oscillating optical tweezers and a position tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Chungil; Kim, Sung-Jin; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-02-01

    Transportation and delivery of microscopic materials in very small and complex systems such as biological organisms are mainly done by physical diffusion. This phenomenon in a fluid system with a low Reynolds number can be explained using the Stokes-Einstein relation D = k B T/?, where D is the diffusion coefficient, T is the temperature of the system, and ? is the viscous friction coefficient of the background fluid. For a spherical particle with radius a in a fluid of viscosity ?, ? = 6 ??a. As far as we know, all the experimental tests of this relation before ours measured only D, ?, a, and T due to the experimental difficulties in measuring ? directly. In this research, we tested this relation from a different perspective. The diffusion coefficient D and the viscous friction coefficient ? were experimentally measured in the same system by using a position tracking method and an oscillating optical tweezers technique, respectively. We found that our experimental results supported the Stokes-Einstein relation very well.

  7. Studies of viral DNA packaging motors with optical tweezers: a comparison of motor function in bacteriophages ?29, ?, and T4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Fuller, Derek N.; Raymer, Dorian M.; Rickgauer, Peter; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Catalano, Carlos E.; Kottadiel, Vishal; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2007-09-01

    A key step in the assembly of many viruses is the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a viral procapsid (an empty protein shell) by the action of an ATP-powered portal motor complex. We have developed methods to measure the packaging of single DNA molecules into single viral proheads in real time using optical tweezers. We can measure DNA binding and initiation of translocation, the DNA translocation dynamics, and the filling of the capsid against resisting forces. In addition to studying bacteriophage ?29, we have recently extended these methods to study the E. coli bacteriophages ? and T4, two important model systems in molecular biology. The three systems have different capsid sizes/shapes, genome lengths, and biochemical and structural differences in their packaging motors. Here, we compare and contrast these three systems. We find that all three motors translocate DNA processively and generate very large forces, each exceeding 50 piconewtons, ~20x higher force than generated by the skeletal muscle myosin 2 motor. This high force generation is required to overcome the forces resisting the confinement of the stiff, highly charged DNA at high density within the viral capsids. However, there are also striking differences between the three motors: they exhibit different DNA translocation rates, degrees of static and dynamic disorder, responses to load, and pausing and slipping dynamics.

  8. FACS-sorted particles reduce the data variance in optical tweezers-assisted dynamic force spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Stangner, T; Singer, D; Wagner, C; Gutsche, C; Ueberschär, O; Hoffmann, R; Kremer, F

    2013-08-01

    By combining optical tweezers-assisted dynamic force spectroscopy experiments with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate a new approach to reducing the data variance in measuring receptor-ligand interactions on a single molecule level by ensuring similar coating densities. Therefore, the carboxyfluorescein-labelled monophosphorylated peptide tau226-240[pThr231] is anchored on melamine resin beads and these beads are sorted by FACS to achieve a homogeneous surface coverage. To quantify the impact of the fluorescence dye on the bond parameters between the phosphorylated peptide and the corresponding phosphorylation specific anti-human tau monoclonal antibody HPT-104, we perform dynamic force spectroscopy and compare the results to data using unsorted beads covered with the non-fluorescence peptide analogue. Finally, we demonstrate that the data variance of the relative binding frequency is significantly decreased by a factor of 3.4 using pre-sorted colloids with a homogeneous ligand coating compared to using unsorted colloids. PMID:23788010

  9. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2014-03-01

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere's radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study.

  10. Combined laser tweezers and dielectric field cage for the analysis of receptor-ligand interactions on single cells.

    PubMed

    Reichle, C; Sparbier, K; Müller, T; Schnelle, T; Walden, P; Fuhr, G

    2001-01-01

    A new technique based on the combination of optical and chip-based dielectrophoretical trapping was developed and employed to manipulate cells and beads with micrometer precision. The beads were trapped with optical tweezers (OT) and brought into contact for defined times with cells held in the dielectrophoretic field cage (DFC). The well-defined ligand-receptor system biotin-streptavidin was used to study the multiple interaction between biotinylated live cells and streptavidin-coated beads. The biotin density on the cell surface was varied down to a few single bonds (3 +/- 2 bonds/microm2) to control the valency of the binding. The quantitative relationship between the contact area, ligand density and its diffusion rate in the outer membrane of the cell could be demonstrated. The increase of the strength of the cell-bead adhesion was strictly dependent on the increase of individual bond numbers in the contact area. This is in part due to accumulation of ligands (D approxiamtely (0.5 +/- 0.1) 10(-8) cm2/s) in the contact area as seen by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Individual receptor-ligand rupture forces were evaluated and are compatible with values obtained by biomembrane force probe techniques. To summarize, the combination leads to a new powerful microsystem for cell handling and pN-force measurements on the single-cell level. PMID:11288894

  11. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; de Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability.

  12. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  13. Disrupting Self-Assembly and Toxicity of Amyloidogenic Protein Oligomers by “Molecular Tweezers” - from the Test Tube to Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs – primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific “molecular tweezers” (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. PMID:23859557

  14. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  15. Comparison of Three Amyloid Assembly Inhibitors: The Sugar scyllo-Inositol, the Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate, and the Molecular Tweezer CLR01

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many compounds have been tested as inhibitors or modulators of amyloid ?-protein (A?) assembly in hope that they would lead to effective, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These compounds typically were either designed to break apart ?-sheets or selected empirically. Two such compounds, the natural inositol derivative scyllo-inositol and the green-tea-derived flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), currently are in clinical trials. Similar to most of the compounds tested thus far, the mechanism of action of scyllo-inositol and EGCG is not understood. Recently, we discovered a novel family of assembly modulators, Lys-specific molecular tweezers, which act by binding specifically to Lys residues and modulate the self-assembly of amyloid proteins, including A?, into formation of nontoxic oligomers by a process-specific mechanism (Sinha, S., Lopes, D. H., Du, Z., Pang, E. S., Shanmugam, A., Lomakin, A., Talbiersky, P., Tennstaedt, A., McDaniel, K., Bakshi, R., Kuo, P. Y., Ehrmann, M., Benedek, G. B., Loo, J. A., Klarner, F. G., Schrader, T., Wang, C., and Bitan, G. (2011) Lysine-specific molecular tweezers are broad-spectrum inhibitors of assembly and toxicity of amyloid proteins. J. Am. Chem. Soc.133, 16958–16969). Here, we compared side-by-side the capability of scyllo-inositol, EGCG, and the molecular tweezer CLR01 to inhibit A? aggregation and toxicity. We found that EGCG and CLR01 had comparable activity whereas scyllo-inositol was a weaker inhibitor. Exploration of the binding of EGCG and CLR01 to A? using heteronuclear solution-state NMR showed that whereas CLR01 bound to the two Lys and single Arg residues in A? monomers, only weak, nonspecific binding was detected for EGCG, leaving the binding mode of the latter unresolved. PMID:22860214

  16. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chih-Ming [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuarn-Jang [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)] [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei-Ting [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chien-Ting [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Jing-Shin [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chien-Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  17. Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2007-02-01

    Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

  18. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  19. Safety and pharmacological characterization of the molecular tweezer CLR01 – a broad-spectrum inhibitor of amyloid proteins’ toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The “molecular tweezer” CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of amyloidoses all without signs of toxicity. With the goal of developing CLR01 as a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer’s disease and other amyloidoses, here we studied its safety and pharmacokinetics. Methods Toxicity studies were performed in 2-m old wild-type mice. Toxicity was evaluated by serum chemical analysis, histopathology analysis, and qualitative behavioral analysis. Brain penetration studies were performed using radiolabeled CLR01 in both wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease at 2-m, 12-m, and 22-m of age. Brain levels were measured from 0.5?-?72 h post administration. Results Examination of CLR01’s effect on tubulin polymerization, representing normal protein assembly, showed disruption of the process only when 55-fold excess CLR01 was used, supporting the compound’s putative “process-specific” mechanism of action. A single-injection of 100 mg/kg CLR01 in mice – 2,500-fold higher than the efficacious dose reported previously, induced temporary distress and liver injury, but no mortality. Daily injection of doses up to 10 mg/kg did not produce any signs of toxicity, suggesting a high safety margin. The brain penetration of CLR01 was found to be 1?-?3% of blood levels depending on age. Though CLR01 was almost completely removed from the blood by 8 h, unexpectedly, brain levels of CLR01 remained steady over 72 h. Conclusion Estimation of brain levels compared to amyloid ?-protein concentrations reported previously suggest that the stoichiometry obtained in vitro and in vivo is similar, supporting the mechanism of action of CLR01. The favorable safety margin of CLR01, together with efficacy shown in multiple animal models, support further development of CLR01 as a disease-modifying agent for amyloidoses. PMID:24735982

  20. Physiological Monitoring of Optically Trapped Cells: Studying the Effects of Confinement by 1064 NM Lazer Tweezers Using Microfluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yagang

    A novel technique that combines microfluorometric detection and optical laser trapping has been developed for in-situ assessing the physiological state of an optically trapped biological sample. This optical diagnostic technique achieves high sensitivity (>30 dB signal -to-noise ratio) and high spatial resolution (~ 1 ?m) over a broad spectral range (>400 nm). The fluorescence spectra derived from exogenous fluorescent probes, including laurdan, acridine orange, propidium iodide and Snarf, are used to assess the effects of optical confinement with respect to temperature, DNA structure, cell viability, and intracellular pH, respectively. In the latter three cases, fluorescence is excited via a two-photon absorption process, using the cw laser trap itself as the fluorescence excitation source. This enables the cw near infrared laser trapping beam to be used simultaneously as an optical diagnostic probe as well as an optical micromanipulator. Using microfluorometry, a temperature increase of less than several degrees centigrade was measured for test samples, including liposomes, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human sperm cells that were held stationary by 1064 nm optical tweezers having a power density of ~10^7 W/cm^2. Additional physiological monitoring experiments indicated that there is no observable denaturation of DNA, or change of intracellular pH under typical continuous wave laser trapping conditions (P <= 400 mW). Under some circumstances, however, it was possible to achieve a decrease in cell viability with cw trapping, as monitored by a live/dead vital stain. In comparison, significant DNA denaturation and cellular physiological changes (e.g. cell death) were observed when a Q-switched pulsed laser at a threshold of ~30mu J/pulse was used as trapping source. These results generally support the conclusion that cw laser trapping at 1064 nm wavelength is a safe, non-invasive process and should prove to be of great value for understanding the mechanisms of laser microirradiation effects on living cells held stationary in a near-infrared trapping beam.

  1. optical tweezers tractor beams

    E-print Network

    . Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, S. M. Block, Science 365, 721 (1993). J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, J., Matteo, J. A., Dinsmore, A. D., and Yodh, A. G. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4352­4355 (1999). Meiners, J. C favourite setup... holograms. Why care? applications etc. Movies! #12;A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E

  2. Investigating Molecular Level Stress-Strain Relationships in Entangled F-Actin Networks by Combined Force-Measuring Optical Tweezers and Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kent; Henze, Dean; Robertson-Anderson, Rae

    2013-03-01

    Actin is an important cytoskeletal protein involved in cell structure and motility, cancer invasion and metastasis, and muscle contraction. The intricate viscoelastic properties of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks allow for the many dynamic roles of actin, thus warranting investigation. Exploration of this unique stress-strain/strain-rate relationship in complex F-actin networks can also improve biomimetic materials engineering. Here, we use optical tweezers with fluorescence microscopy to study the viscoelastic properties of F-actin networks on the microscopic level. Optically trapped microspheres embedded in various F-actin networks are moved through the network using a nanoprecision piezoelectric stage. The force exerted on the microspheres by the F-actin network and subsequent force relaxation are measured, while a fraction of the filaments in the network are fluorescent-labeled to observe filament deformation in real-time. The dependence of the viscoelastic properties of the network on strain rates and amplitudes as well as F-actin concentration is quantified. This approach provides the much-needed link between induced force and deformation over localized regimes (tens of microns) and down to the single molecule level.

  3. The Lys-Specific Molecular Tweezer, CLR01, Modulates Aggregation of the Mutant p53 DNA Binding Domain and Inhibits Its Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Gal; Shmueli, Merav D; Levy, Limor; Engel, Liat; Gazit, Ehud; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Segal, Daniel

    2015-06-23

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a unique role as a central hub of numerous cell proliferation and apoptotic pathways, and its malfunction due to mutations is a major cause of various malignancies. Therefore, it serves as an attractive target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. Because of its intrinsically unstable DNA binding domain, p53 unfolds rapidly at physiological temperature. Certain mutants shift the equilibrium toward the unfolded state and yield high-molecular weight, nonfunctional, and cytotoxic ?-sheet-rich aggregates that share tinctorial and conformational similarities with amyloid deposits found in various protein misfolding diseases. Here, we examined the effect of a novel protein assembly modulator, the lysine (Lys)-specific molecular tweezer, CLR01, on different aggregation stages of misfolded mutant p53 in vitro and on the cytotoxicity of the resulting p53 aggregates in cell culture. We found that CLR01 induced rapid formation of ?-sheet-rich, intermediate-size p53 aggregates yet inhibited further p53 aggregation and reduced the cytotoxicity of the resulting aggregates. Our data suggest that aggregation modulators, such as CLR01, could prevent the formation of toxic p53 aggregates. PMID:26030124

  4. Combination of Raman tweezers and quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy for measurement of dynamics and heterogeneity during the germination of individual bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Kong, Lingbo; Wang, Guiwen; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

    2010-09-01

    Raman tweezers and quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy are combined to monitor the dynamic germination of individual bacterial spores of Bacillus species, as well as the heterogeneity in this process. The DIC bias phase is set properly such that the brightness of DIC images of individual spores is proportional to the dipicolinic acid (DPA) level of the spores, and an algorithm is developed to retrieve the phase image of an individual spore from its DIC image. We find that during germination, the rapid drop in both the intensity of the original DIC image and the intensity of the reconstructed phase image precisely corresponds to the release of all DPA from that spore. The summed pixel intensity of the DIC image of individual spores adhered on a microscope coverslip is not sensitive to the drift of the slide in both horizontal and vertical directions, which facilitates observation of the germination of thousands of individual spores for long periods of time. A motorized stage and synchronized image acquisition system is further developed to effectively expand the field of view of the DIC imaging. This quantitative DIC technique is used to track the germination of hundreds or thousands of individual spores simultaneously.

  5. Single-molecule force measurement via optical tweezers reveals different kinetic features of two BRaf mutants responsible for cardio-facial-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng; Ye, Anpei

    2013-01-01

    BRaf (B- Rapid Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) protein is an important serine/threonine-protein kinase. Two domains on BRaf can independently bind its upstream kinase, Ras (Rat Sarcoma) protein. These are the Ras binding domain (RBD) and cysteine-rich-domain (CRD). Herein we use customized optical tweezers to compare the Ras binding process in two pathological mutants of BRaf responsible for CFC syndrome, abbreviated BRaf (A246P) and BRaf (Q257R). The two mutants differ in their kinetics of Ras-binding, though both bind Ras with similar increased overall affinity. BRaf (A246P) exhibits a slightly higher Ras/CRD unbinding force and a significantly higher Ras/RBD unbinding force versus the wild type. The contrary phenomenon is observed in the Q257R mutation. Simulations of the unstressed-off rate, koff(0), yield results in accordance with the changes revealed by the mean unbinding force. Our approach can be applied to rapidly assess other mutated proteins to deduce the effects of mutation on their kinetics compared to wild type proteins and to each other. PMID:24409384

  6. Flavylium network of chemical reactions in confined media: modulation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavilium reactions by host-guest interactions with cucurbit[7]uril.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Nuno; Pina, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    In moderately acidic aqueous solutions, flavylium compounds undergo a pH-, and in some cases, light-dependent array of reversible chemical reactions. This network can be described as a single acid-base reaction involving a flavylium cation (acidic form) and a mixture of basic forms (quinoidal base, hemiketal and cis and trans chalcones). The apparent pK'a of the system and the relative mole fractions of the basic forms can be modulated by the interaction with cucurbit[7]uril. The system is studied by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, flash photolysis, and steady-state irradiation. Of all the network species, the flavylium cation possesses the highest affinity for cucurbit[7]uril. The rate of interconversion between flavylium cation and the basic species (where trans-chalcone is dominant) is approximately nine times lower inside the cucurbit[7]uril. PMID:24862455

  7. Host-guest interaction in cancer and a reason for the poor efficiency of the immune system in its detection and termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerofolini, G. F.

    2012-03-01

    Organisms (like amoebae, bacteria, etc.), whose population in an unlimited nutritive medium would grow exponentially with time, behave often as aggressive strain with respect to higher organisms. Higher organisms provide a medium very different from the unlimited one considered above; among the various niches where the strain growth is possible, the circulatory system plays a special role. The topological structure of the circulatory system (two interlocked trees addressed to the delivery of O2 and nutritive substances to all tissues forming the higher organism and to the elimination of metabolic wastes) poses constraints to the growth of the strain population. The immune system is devoted to control and eventually to terminate the strain growing inside the organism. In many cases the immune system is sufficiently effective for that; there is a case, however, for which the immune system generally fails—cancer. In this work, after considering a few elementary properties of the growth of strains and higher organisms, I shall consider how the structure of the latter affects the population dynamics of cancer, and identify a possible reason why the immune system is so ineffective in recognizing cancer cells.

  8. Molecular model for host–guest interaction of tetraamino- tert -butylthiacalix[4]arene and tetraamino- tert -butylcalix[4]arene receptors with carboxylate and dicarboxylate guests: an ONIOM study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vithaya Ruangpornvisuti; Banchob Wanno

    2007-01-01

    Geometry optimizations of tetraamino-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene (tatbtc4a) and tetraamino-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (tatbc4a) complexes with acetate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, adipate, and pimelate were carried out using the integrated MO:MO method. Thermodynamic quantities, preorganization energies and complexation energies of these complexes were obtained at the ONIOM(B3LYP\\/6-31G(d):AM1) level of theory. The relative stabilities of the tatbtc4a and tatbc4a complexes with carboxylate guests are reported. The complexes

  9. Transformations of Molecular Frameworks by HostGuest Response: Novel Routes toward Two-Dimensional Self-Assembly at the SolidLiquid Interface

    E-print Network

    -assembly with nanoscale precision, by tuning parameters such as stoichiometry, geometry and non-covalent interactions and medicine.1,2) Surfaces may be ``coated'' and functionalized by using suitable molecular building blocks complex and diverse architectures with high reprodu- cibility and precision. Self-assembly is a process

  10. Supramolecular assembly of isocyanorhodium(i) complexes: an interplay of rhodium(i)···rhodium(i) interactions, hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions, and host-guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan Kwun-Wa; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-06-01

    A series of tetrakis(isocyano)rhodium(I) complexes with different chain lengths of alkyl substituents has been found to exhibit a strong tendency toward solution state aggregation upon altering the concentration, temperature and solvent composition. Temperature- and solvent-dependent UV-vis absorption studies have been performed, and the data have been analyzed using the aggregation model to elucidate the growth mechanism. The aggregation is found to involve extensive Rh(I)···Rh(I) interactions that are synergistically assisted by hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions to give a rainbow array of solution aggregate colors. It is noted that the presence of three long alkyl substituents is crucial for the observed cooperativity in the aggregation. Molecular assemblies in the form of nanoplates and nanovesicles have been observed in the hexane-dichloromethane solvent mixtures, arising from the different formation mechanisms based on the alkyl chain length of the complexes. Benzo-15-crown-5 moieties have been incorporated for selective potassium ion binding to induce dimer formation and drastic color changes, rendering the system as potential colorimetric and luminescent cation sensors and as building blocks for ion-controlled supramolecular assembly. PMID:25984814

  11. Photoluminescence and Raman studies of Sm 3+ and Nd 3+ ions in zirconia matrices: example of energy transfer and host-guest interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R. G.; Raison, P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Photoluminescence and Raman studies on Sm 3+- and Nd 3+-doped zirconia are reported. The Raman studies indicate that the monoclinic (m) phase dominates up to a 10 at.% lanthanide level, while stabilization of the cubic phase is attained at ˜20 and ˜25 at.% of Sm 3+ and Nd 3+, respectively. Both systems are strongly luminescent under photo-excitation. The emission spectrum at 77 K of the ZrO 2:Sm 3+ system consists of a broad band at 505 nm, that corresponds to the zirconia matrix. At room temperature the band maximum blue-shifts to 490 nm. Sharper bands corresponding to f-f transitions within the Sm 3+ion are also exhibited in the longer wavelength region of the spectrum. Exclusive excitation of the zirconia matrix provides sensitized emission from the acceptor Sm 3+ ion. The excitation profile is dominated by a broad band at 325 nm when monitored either at the zirconia or at one of the Sm 3+ emissions. A spectral overlap between the 6H 5/2? 4G 7/2 absorption of the Sm 3+ ion with the zirconia emission leads to an efficient energy transfer process in the systems. Multiple facets of the spectral behavior of the Sm 3+ or Nd 3+ in the zirconia matrices, as well as the effects of compositions on the emission and Raman properties of the materials, and the role of defect centers in photoluminescence and the energy transfer processes are discussed.

  12. Photoluminescence and Raman studies of Sm 3+ and Nd 3+ ions in zirconia matrices: example of energy transfer and host–guest interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zerihun Assefa; R. G Haire; P. E Raison

    2004-01-01

    Photoluminescence and Raman studies on Sm3+- and Nd3+-doped zirconia are reported. The Raman studies indicate that the monoclinic (m) phase dominates up to a 10 at.% lanthanide level, while stabilization of the cubic phase is attained at ?20 and ?25 at.% of Sm3+ and Nd3+, respectively. Both systems are strongly luminescent under photo-excitation. The emission spectrum at 77 K of

  13. Photoluminescence and Raman studies of Sm3+ and Nd3+ ions in zirconia matrices: example of energy transfer and host-guest interactions.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R G; Raison, P E

    2004-01-01

    Photoluminescence and Raman studies on Sm(3+)- and Nd(3+)-doped zirconia are reported. The Raman studies indicate that the monoclinic (m) phase dominates up to a 10 at.% lanthanide level, while stabilization of the cubic phase is attained at approximately 20 and approximately 25 at.% of Sm(3+) and Nd(3+), respectively. Both systems are strongly luminescent under photo-excitation. The emission spectrum at 77 K of the ZrO(2):Sm(3+) system consists of a broad band at 505 nm, that corresponds to the zirconia matrix. At room temperature the band maximum blue-shifts to 490 nm. Sharper bands corresponding to f-f transitions within the Sm(3+)ion are also exhibited in the longer wavelength region of the spectrum. Exclusive excitation of the zirconia matrix provides sensitized emission from the acceptor Sm(3+) ion. The excitation profile is dominated by a broad band at 325 nm when monitored either at the zirconia or at one of the Sm(3+) emissions. A spectral overlap between the 6H(5/2)-->(4)G(7/2) absorption of the Sm(3+) ion with the zirconia emission leads to an efficient energy transfer process in the systems. Multiple facets of the spectral behavior of the Sm(3+) or Nd(3+) in the zirconia matrices, as well as the effects of compositions on the emission and Raman properties of the materials, and the role of defect centers in photoluminescence and the energy transfer processes are discussed. PMID:14670464

  14. Structure of host-guest complexes between dibenzo-18-crown-6 and water, ammonia, methanol, and acetylene: evidence of molecular recognition on the complexation.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Kokubu, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Ebata, Takayuki

    2011-04-21

    Complexes of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6, host) with water, ammonia, methanol, and acetylene (guest) in supersonic jets have been characterized by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), UV-UV hole-burning (UV-UV HB), and IR-UV double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. Firstly, we reinvestigated the conformation of bare DB18C6 (species m1 and m2) and the structure of DB18C6-H(2)O (species a) [R. Kusaka, Y. Inokuchi, T. Ebata, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 6238] by measuring IR-UV DR spectra in the region of the methylene CH stretching vibrations. The IR spectral feature of the methylene CH stretch of DB18C6-H(2)O is clearly different from those of bare DB18C6 conformers, suggesting that DB18C6 changes its conformation when forming a complex with a water molecule. With the aid of Monte Carlo simulation for extensive conformational search and density functional calculations (M05-2X/6-31+G*), we reassigned species m1 and m2 to conformers having C(1) and C(2) symmetry, respectively. Also, we confirmed the DB18C6 part in species a of DB18C6-H(2)O to be "boat" conformation (C(2v)). Secondly, we identified nine, one, and two species for the DB18C6 complexes with ammonia, methanol, and acetylene, respectively, by the combination of LIF and UV-UV HB spectroscopy. From the IR spectroscopic measurement in the methylene CH stretching region, a similar conformational change was identified in the DB18C6-ammonia complexes, but not in the complexes with methanol or acetylene. The structures of all the complexes were determined by analyzing the electronic transition energies, exciton splitting, and IR spectra in the region of the OH, NH, and CH stretching vibrations. In DB18C6-ammonia complexes, an ammonia molecule is incorporated into the cavity of the boat conformation by forming "bifurcated" and "bidentate" hydrogen-bond (H-bond), similar to the case of the DB18C6-H(2)O complex. On the other hand, in the DB18C6-methanol and -acetylene complexes, methanol and acetylene molecules are simply attached to the C(1) and C(2) conformations, respectively. From the difference of the DB18C6 conformations depending on the type of the guest molecules, it is concluded that DB18C6 distinguishes water and ammonia from methanol and acetylene when it forms complexes, depending on whether guest molecules have an ability to form bidentate H-bonding. PMID:21409190

  15. Host-guest chemistry of aromatic-amide-linked bis- and tris-calix[4]pyrroles with bis-carboxylates and citrate anion.

    PubMed

    Cafeo, Grazia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Kohnke, Franz H; Papanikolaou, Georgia; Profumo, Aldo; Rosano, Camillo

    2014-02-01

    A small library of polytopic receptors has been synthesized from meso-p- and meso-m-aminophenylcalix[4]pyrroles and p- or m-phthaloyl or trimesic chloride. Selected bis-carboxylates and the citrate anion, which either exhibit altered distribution profiles in cancerous tissues in comparison with healthy tissues or are metabolites of carcinogenic substances (for example, trans,trans-muconic acid from benzene exposure in humans) were tested as ligands. Varied affinities and binding modes were observed as a function of the number of calix[4]pyrroles and the topology of amide units present in each of the polytopic receptors. The structures of the 1:1 complexes derived by molecular modeling are in excellent agreement with the results of (1)H?NMR complexation studies. PMID:24402826

  16. Host-guest chemistry of a water-soluble pillar[5]arene: evidence for an ionic-exchange recognition process and different complexation modes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Borja; Francisco, Vitor; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Garcia-Rio, Luis; Martín-Pastor, M; Paleo, M Rita; Sardina, F Javier

    2014-09-15

    The complexation of an anionic guest by a cationic water-soluble pillararene is reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), (1)H?NMR, (1)H and (19)F DOSY, and STD NMR experiments were performed to characterize the complex formed under aqueous neutral conditions. The results of ITC and (1)H?NMR analyses showed the inclusion of the guest inside the cavity of the pillar[5]arene, with the binding constant and thermodynamic parameters influenced by the counter ion of the macrocycle. NMR diffusion experiments showed that although a fraction of the counter ions are expelled from the host cavity by exchange with the guest, a complex with both counter ions and the guest inside the pillararene is formed. The results also showed that at higher concentrations of guest in solution, in addition to the inclusion of one guest molecule in the cavity, the pillararene can also form an external complex with a second guest molecule. PMID:25110897

  17. Host-guest interaction between 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-sulfonamide and ?-cyclodextrin: Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seridi, Saida; Seridi, Achour; Berredjem, Malika; Kadri, Mekki

    2013-11-01

    The inclusion complex of 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-sulfonamide with ?-cyclodextrin was investigated experimentally and by molecular modeling studies. The stoichiometric ratio of the complex was found to be 1:1 and the stability constant was evaluated using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Estimation of the thermodynamic parameters of the inclusion complex in vacuum showed that it is an enthalpy driven process phase and an enthalpy-entropy co-driven process in aqueous solution, which is in accord with the experimental results. Semi-empirical calculations using PM3, PM6 and ONIOM2 methods, in vacuum and in water, were performed. The energetically more favorable structure obtained with the ONIOM2 method leads to the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between sulfonamide and ?-cyclodextrin. These interactions were investigated using the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO).

  18. Electrochemical evidence of host–guest interactions. Changes in the redox mechanism of fungicides iprodione and procymidone in the nano-cavity of cyclodextrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Hromadová; L Posp??šil; S Giannarelli; R Fuoco; M. P Colombini

    2002-01-01

    The reduction mechanism of two pesticides, iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide] and procymidone [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-dimethyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,4-dione], was studied in the absence and presence of ?-cyclodextrin in a dimethylsulfoxide solvent. Distribution of the reduction products changed in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin. The complex formation led to protection of the imidazolidine ring of iprodione against cleavage, with a subsequent decrease in aniline-type products. In the case of

  19. Insights into the effects of 2:1 "sandwich-type" crown-ether/metal-ion complexes in responsive host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Rong; Hu, Jia-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-01-29

    In-depth investigations of the specific ion-responsive characteristics based on 2:1 "sandwich" structures and effects of crown ether cavity sizes on the metal-ion/crown-ether complexation are systematically performed with a series of PNIPAM-based responsive copolymers containing similar contents of crown ether units with different cavity dimensions (12-crown-4 (12C4), 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6)). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values of copolymers in deionized water shift to lower temperatures gradually when the crown ether contents increase or the ring sizes decrease from 18C6 to 12C4. With increasing the concentrations of alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) or the contents of pendent crown ether groups, the copolymers with different crown ether cavity sizes exhibit higher selectivity and sensitivity to corresponding cations. Importantly, the ion sensitivities of the copolymers in response to corresponding alkali metal ions increase dramatically with an increase in the crown ether cavity size. Interestingly, a linear relationship between the crown ether cavity size and the diameter of corresponding cation for the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich" complexes is found for the first time, from which the size of metal ions or other guests that able to form 2:1 "sandwich" complexes with crown ethers can be deduced. The results in this work are valuable and useful for further developments and practical applications of various crown-ether-based smart materials. PMID:25562507

  20. Biological Physics Prize talk: Grabbing the Cat by the Tail: Studies of DNA Packaging by Single ? 29 Bacteriophage Particles Using Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Carlos

    2002-03-01

    I will present our recent results on the packaging of DNA by the connector motor at the base of the head of bacteriophage ? 29. As part of their infection cycle, many viruses must package their newly replicated genomes inside a protein capsid to insure its proper transport and delivery to other host cells. Bacteriophage ? 29 packages its 6.6 mm long double-stranded DNA into a 42 nm dia. x 54 nm high capsid via a portal complex that hydrolyses ATP. This process is remarkable because entropic, electrostatic, and bending energies of the DNA must be overcome to package the DNA to near-crystalline density. We have used optical tweezers to pull on single DNA molecules as they are packaged, thus demonstrating that the portal complex is a force generating motor. We find that this motor can work against loads of up to ~57 picoNewtons on average, making it one of the strongest molecular motors ever reported. Movements of over 5 mm are observed, indicating high processivity. Pauses and slips also occur, particularly at higher forces. We establish the force-velocity relationship of the motor and find that the rate-limiting step of the motor's cycle is force dependent even at low loads. Interestingly, the packaging rate decreases as the prohead is filled, indicating that an internal pressure builds up due to DNA compression. We estimate that at the end of the packaging the capsid pressure is ~15 MegaPascals, corresponding to an internal force of ~50 pN acting on the motor. The biological implications of this internal pressure and the mechano-chemical efficiency of the engine are discussed.

  1. Optical tweezers Optical-Tweezers Study of Topoisomerase Inhibition**

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    proliferation as selective actuators against uncontrolled cellular growth. Topoisomerase (Topo) I from wheat are more susceptible to the DNA damage inflicted.[6] Understanding the mechanism of action of the enzyme

  2. Stretching DNA with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M D; Yin, H; Landick, R; Gelles, J; Block, S M

    1997-01-01

    Force-extension (F-x) relationships were measured for single molecules of DNA under a variety of buffer conditions, using an optical trapping interferometer modified to incorporate feedback control. One end of a single DNA molecule was fixed to a coverglass surface by means of a stalled RNA polymerase complex. The other end was linked to a microscopic bead, which was captured and held in an optical trap. The DNA was subsequently stretched by moving the coverglass with respect to the trap using a piezo-driven stage, while the position of the bead was recorded at nanometer-scale resolution. An electronic feedback circuit was activated to prevent bead movement beyond a preset clamping point by modulating the light intensity, altering the trap stiffness dynamically. This arrangement permits rapid determination of the F-x relationship for individual DNA molecules as short as -1 micron with unprecedented accuracy, subjected to both low (approximately 0.1 pN) and high (approximately 50 pN) loads: complete data sets are acquired in under a minute. Experimental F-x relationships were fit over much of their range by entropic elasticity theories based on worm-like chain models. Fits yielded a persistence length, Lp, of approximately 47 nm in a buffer containing 10 mM Na1. Multivalent cations, such as Mg2+ or spermidine 3+, reduced Lp to approximately 40 nm. Although multivalent ions shield most of the negative charges on the DNA backbone, they did not further reduce Lp significantly, suggesting that the intrinsic persistence length remains close to 40 nm. An elasticity theory incorporating both enthalpic and entropic contributions to stiffness fit the experimental results extremely well throughout the full range of extensions and returned an elastic modulus of approximately 1100 pN. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9138579

  3. Study of bacterial motility using optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suddhashil Chattopadhyay

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are arguably the simplest of known microorganisms, forming a fundamental part of the world we live in. Many functions they perform are found in scaled-up versions in higher organisms. Among many advanced functions, bacteria possess the ability to move in search for nutrients and favorable growth conditions. Measurement of the dynamical variables associated with bacterial swimming has proven to

  4. Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan Hyuk Nam; Dongjin Lee; Daehie Hong; Jaewon Chung

    2009-01-01

    Various nano devices such as nanotubes, nanorods, nanoribbon, and nanowires have been extensively studied, since they are\\u000a the essential elements to build nanoelectronic circuits, nanochemical sensors, optical switches, etc. However, because the\\u000a nano devices are very small in size and have different shapes, it is virtually impossible to manipulate them with conventional\\u000a methods. This paper discusses the feasibility of using

  5. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Khan, Manas; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.3272269

    2010-01-01

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  6. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Manas Khan; Harsh Soni; A. K. Sood

    2010-11-15

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  7. Angular Orientation of Nanorods using Nanophotonic Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Erickson, David

    Experiments For a light source a 1064 nm fiber coupled high power diode laser (LU1064M400 Lumics, EL Segundo and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 United States, and ¶Department of Biomedical and outlet holes were made on a coverslip using the Universal Laser Systems, VersaLaser VLS3.50. PDMS pieces

  8. Iptycene-derived crown ether hosts for molecular recognition and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Meng, Zheng; Ma, Ying-Xian; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Synthetic macrocyclic hosts have played key roles in the development of host-guest chemistry. Crown ethers are a class of macrocyclic molecules with unique flexible structures. They have served as the first generation of synthetic hosts, and researchers have extensively studied them in molecular recognition. However, the flexible structures of simple crown ethers and their relatively limited modes of complexation with guests have limited the further applications of these molecules. In recent years, researchers have moved toward fabricating interlocking molecules, supramolecular polymers, and other assemblies with specific structures and properties. Therefore, researchers have developed more complex crown ether-based macrocyclic hosts with multicavity structures and multicomplexation modes that provide more diverse and sophisticated host-guest systems. In this Account, we summarize our research on the synthesis and characterization of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts, their use as host molecules, and their applications in self-assembled complexes. Iptycenes including triptycenes and pentiptycenes are a class of aromatic compounds with unique rigid three-dimensional structures. As a result, they are promising building blocks for the synthesis of novel macrocyclic hosts and the construction of novel self-assembled complexes with specific structures and properties. During the last several years, we have designed and synthesized a new class of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts including macrotricyclic polyethers, molecular tweezer-like hosts, and tritopic tris(crown ether) hosts, which are all composed of rigid iptycene building blocks linked by flexible crown ether chains. We have examined the complexation behavior of these hosts with different types of organic guest molecules. Unlike with conventional crown ethers, the combination of iptycene moieties and crown ether chains provides the iptycene-derived crown ether hosts with complexation properties that differ based on the structure of the guests. The rigid iptycene moieties within these synthetic host molecules both maintain their inherent three-dimensional cavities and generate multicavity structures. The flexible crown ether chains allow the iptycene-derived hosts to adjust their conformations as they encapsulate guest molecules. Moreover, the expanded complexation properties also allow the host-guest systems based on the iptycene-derived crown ethers to respond to multiple external stimuli, resulting in a variety of supramolecular assemblies. Finally, we also describe the construction of mechanically interlocked self-assemblies, molecular switches/molecular machines, and supramolecular polymers using these new host molecules. We expect that the unique structural features and diverse complexation properties of these iptycene-derived crown ether hosts will lead to increasing interest in this field and in supramolecular chemistry overall. PMID:24877894

  9. Tools to study the kinesin mechanome using optical tweezers

    E-print Network

    González Rubio, Ricardo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Molecular motors play an important role in driving some of the most complex and important tasks in biological systems, ranging from transcribing RNA from a DNA template (Polymerases) to muscle contraction (Myosin) and ...

  10. A Theoretical Light Scattering Model of Nanoparticle Laser Tweezers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Accomplishments this reporting period include: 1. derived, programmed, checked, and tested the Mie light scattering theory formulas for the radiation trapping force for both the on-axis and off-axis geometry of the trapping beam plus trapped spherical particle; 2. verified that the computed radiation trapping force for a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam incident on a spherical particle agrees with previous published calculations; 3. compared the small particle size and large particle size limits of the Mie calculation with the results of Rayleigh scattering theory and ray scattering theory, respectively and verified that the comparison is correct for Rayleigh scattering theory but found that ray theory omits an important light scattering effect included in the Mie theory treatment; 4. generalized the calculation of the radiation trapping force on a spherical particle in the on-axis geometry from a freely propagating focused Gaussian laser beam to the realistic situation of a Gaussian beam truncated and focused by a high numerical aperture oil-immersion microscope objective lens and aberrated by the interface between the microscope cover slip and the liquid-filled sample volume; and 5. compared the calculated radiation trapping force for this geometry with the results of previously published experiments and found that the agreement is better than when using previously developed theories.

  11. Supplementary information for: Electromagnetic Torque Tweezers: A Versatile Approach

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    .5 mm diameter) in place. To yield fields of up to several mT, care was taken to design the coil direction. This "flipped" geometry2 gives rise to higher gradient forces compared to the standard of custom-built Helmholtz coils made from PMMA spools that hold coils of enamel- insulated copper wire (1

  12. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z.; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC6(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics.

  13. With microscope and tweezers: the worm from MIT's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon A. Rochlis; Mark W. Eichin

    1989-01-01

    The actions taken by a group of computer scientists at MIT during the worm invasion represents a study of human response to a crisis. The authors also relate the experiences and reactions of other groups throughout the country, especially in terms of how they interacted with the MIT team.

  14. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecevi?ius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  15. Using optical tweezers to study protein-DNA interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Gemmen, Gregory J.; Millin, Rachel; Rickgauer, John P.; Schweitzer, Allan L.; Fuller, Derek N.

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical manipulation of single DNA molecules can provide novel information about protein-DNA interactions. Here we review two examples studied by our group. First, we have studied the forced unraveling of nucleosomes assembled on heterogeneous DNA using core histones, the histone chaperone NAP-1, and ATP-dependent chromatin assembly and remodeling factor (ACF). We measure abrupt events releasing ~55 to 95 base pairs of DNA, which are attributable to non-equilibrium unraveling of individual nucleosomes. Wide variations observed in the unraveling force and sudden DNA re-wrapping events may have an important regulatory influence on DNA directed biochemical processes. Second, we have studied the mechanics and dynamics of single DNA looping and cleavage by "two-site" restriction enzymes. Cleavage is measured as a function of DNA tension, incubation time, and enzyme concentration, distinguishing enzymes that require DNA looping from ones that do not. Forced disruption of fixed DNA loops formed in the absence of Mg2+ is observed, allowing the distribution of number of loops, loop length, and disruption force to be measured as a function of time, DNA tension, and ionic conditions.

  16. Measuring the pressures across microfluidic droplets with an optical tweezer

    E-print Network

    .-Y. Teh, R. Lin, L.-H. Hung, and A. P. Lee, "Droplet microfluidics," Lab Chip 8(2), 198­220 (2008). 4. A of applications?" Lab Chip 8(8), 1244­1254 (2008). 5. A. B. Theberge, F. Courtois, Y. Schaerli, M. Fischlechner, C). 7. C. N. Baroud, F. Gallaire, and R. Dangla, "Dynamics of microfluidic droplets," Lab Chip 10

  17. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman,1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked in higher dimensions. Re- cently, attention has become focused on the transport of viscously damped sample past stationary patterns of optical traps. All particles consequently traveled past the traps

  18. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    OS at Photonics West 2012 Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues X Saturday;Characterization: Raman Benzene breathing in polystyrene #12;Characterization: Fluorescence Fluorescence of dyed

  19. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Gecevi?ius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas, E-mail: rd1c12@orc.soton.ac.uk; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  20. Transfer of trapped atoms between two optical tweezer potentials

    E-print Network

    Matthias Schulz; Herbert Crepaz; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Juergen Eschner; Rainer Blatt

    2006-06-01

    Trapped, laser-cooled rubidium atoms are transferred between two strongly focused, horizontal, orthogonally intersecting laser beams. The transfer efficiency is studied as a function of the vertical distance between the beam axes. Optimum transfer is found when the distance equals the beam waist radius. Numerical simulations reproduce well the experimental results.

  1. User guide for Optical tweezers toolbox 1.2

    E-print Network

    Nieminen, Timo

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2.2 Incoherent beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.3 Counter microscopic dielectric (including metallic) particles as a function of a particles position and orientation

  2. Cell trapping in a blood capillary phantom using laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klykov, Sergei S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    As a phantom of native blood capillary the plastic capillary tube and as a model of red blood cells the yeast cells are considered. Plastic capillary has circular a cross-section with diameter ranging between 20 and 40 ?. For velocity estimation of polystyrene beads which had a role of tracers in water the particle image velocimetry method is realized using NI Labview Vision standard functions of image processing. It is shown that in spite of the presence of uncompensated spherical aberration emerging from refraction incident beam in curved plastic capillary walls yeast cells can be confined in stable 3D trap.

  3. Cleaved fiber optic double nanohole optical tweezers for trapping nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ryan M; Wheaton, Skylar; Gordon, Reuven

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the trapping of single 20 and 40 nm polystyrene spheres at the cleaved end of a fiber optic with a double nanohole aperture in gold and without any microscope optics. An optical transmission increase of 15% indicates a trapping event for the 40 nm particle, and the jump is 2% for the 20 nm particle. This modular technique can be used to replace those used with current optical trapping setups that require complicated free space optics and frequent calibration, with one that is modular and requires no free space optics. This simple arrangement with the potential for fiber translation is of interest for future biosensor and optical nano-pipette devices. PMID:25490482

  4. Absolute Position Total Internal Reflection Microscopy with an Optical Tweezer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lulu; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, in-situ calibration method for Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 $\\mu$m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in-situ, rather than relying on calculations or inexact system analogs for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.

  5. Encapsulation of [X2(H2O)4]2- (X = F/Cl) clusters by pyridyl terminated tripodal amide receptor in aqueous medium: single crystal X-ray structural evidence.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Dutta, Ranjan; Arunachalam, M; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2014-02-01

    A new tris-amide receptor L based on 1,3,5-methyl substituted benzene platform and pyridyl as an attached unit is synthesized and explored towards anion recognition in aqueous environment. The presence of pyridyl terminal in L facilitates its aqueous solubility. The binding of halides and oxyanions towards L are examined by (1)H-NMR technique in solution and by single crystal X-ray crystallography in solid state studies. Crystallization of fluoride and chloride with L is carried out in acetone-water (1 : 1, v/v) binary solvent mixture that yields crystals for respective host-guest complexes, [L]2·[F2(H2O)4]·[TBA]2 (1) and [L]2·[Cl2(H2O)4]·[TBA]2 (2) suitable for single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. On the other hand, complexation of L with fluoride in dioxane-acetone (1 : 1, v/v) solvent mixture, results the formation of SiF6(2-) encapsulated complex, [L]2·[SiF6(H2O)2]·[TBA]2 (3). Crystallographic result shows the formation of [F2(H2O)4](2-) and [Cl2(H2O)4](2-) zipped 1D-polymeric tweezer-like assemblies of L in acetone-water (1 : 1, v/v) binary solvent mixture in complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Solution state (1)H-NMR studies in D2O-acetone-d6 (1 : 19, v/v) support 1 : 4 (host-guest) binding stoichiometry of F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HSO4(-) and H2PO4(-) with L. Binding constants of these investigated anions with L by 1 : 1 binding model are calculated which show the following binding order: NO3(-) ? HSO4(-) > F(-) ? Cl(-) ? Br(-) > H2PO4(-). Further, solution state (19)F-NMR studies are also carried out to establish the F(-) binding with L in DMSO-d6. PMID:24281328

  6. ARBEITSGRUPPEN DEPARTEMENT FR CHEMIE UND BIOCHEMIE

    E-print Network

    Mühlemann, Oliver

    K. van Veen, Arantzazu Zabala Ruiz Light-harvesting host-guest antenna materials for quantum solar Lutkouskaya, Gion Calzaferri Transfer of Electronic Excitation Energy between Randomly Mixed Dye Molecules, Huanrong Li, Olivia Bossart, Le-Quyenh Dieu Light-harvesting host-guest antenna materials for photonic

  7. 1 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.com A Versatile Multicomponent Assembly via -cyclodextrin

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    -functionalized graphene nanosheet (GNS/-CD) enables"host­guest"chemistry between the nanohybrid and functional"payloads Multicomponent Assembly via -cyclodextrin Host­Guest Chemistry on Graphene for Biomedical Applications Haiqing functionalities. The surface components, made of individual -cyclodextrin molecules, are the "hosts

  8. Light and hostguest inclusion mediated salmon sperm DNA/surfactant interactions Yiyang Lin a

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    single-tailed surfactants [13­22], Gemini surfactants [23­31], double-tailed surfactants [32­35], etcLight and host­guest inclusion mediated salmon sperm DNA/surfactant interactions Yiyang Lin complexation Surfactant Light Host­guest interaction Azobenzene a b s t r a c t DNA/cationic surfactant

  9. Imidazole Metalloporphyrins as Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy: Role of Molecular Charge, Central Metal and Hydroxyl Radical Production

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Bhaumik, Jayeeta; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Aly, Zarmeneh; Kamal, Zahra; Khalid, Laiqua; Kee, Hooi Ling; Bocian, David F.; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The in vitro photodynamic therapy activity of four imidazole-substituted metalloporphyrins has been studied using human (HeLa) and mouse (CT26) cancer cell lines: an anionic Zn porphyrin and a homologous series of three cationic Zn, Pd or InCl porphyrins. A dramatic difference in phototoxicity was found: Pd cationic > InCl cationic > Zn cationic > Zn anionic. HeLa cells were more susceptible than CT26 cells. Induction of apoptosis was demonstrated using a fluorescent caspase assay. The anionic Zn porphyrin localized in lysosomes while the cationic Zn porphyrin localized in lysosomes and mitochondria, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Studies using fluorescent probes suggested that the cationic Pd porphyrin produced more hydroxyl radicals as the reactive oxygen species. Thus, the cationic Pd porphyrin has high potential as a photosensitizer and gives insights into characteristics for improved molecular designs. PMID:19346065

  10. Bioorthogonal catalysis: Rise of the nanobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unciti-Broceta, Asier

    2015-07-01

    Bioorthogonal catalysis provides new ways of mediating artificial transformations in living environs. Now, researchers have developed a nanodevice whose catalytic activity can be regulated by host-guest chemistry.

  11. Hard Numbers for Large Molecules: Toward Exact Energetics for Supramolecular Systems

    E-print Network

    Alfè, Dario

    -Teller contributions to the van der Waals dispersion energy. SECTION: Molecular Structure, Quantum Chemistry Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Noncovalent interactions are ubiquitous in molecular and condensed stabilized by noncovalent interactions. Hence, host-guest complexes serve as prototypes for molecular

  12. Supramolecular assembly of enzyme on functionalized graphene for electrochemical biosensing

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    Supramolecular assembly Cyclodextrin a b s t r a c t The self-assembly of cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized and biological molecules into their cavities to form stable host­guest inclusion complexes with high molecular

  13. Molecular simulation studies of gas adsorption and separation in metalorganic frameworks 

    E-print Network

    Zoroufchian Moghadam, Peyman; Moghadam, Peyman Zoroufchian

    2013-07-01

    Adsorption in porous materials plays a significant role in industrial separation processes. Here, the host-guest interaction and the pore shape influence the distribution of products. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are ...

  14. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-06-01

    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  15. Elasto-optical effect in composite crystal based on urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzaskowska, A.; Mielcarek, S.; Mroz, B.; Breczewski, T.

    2008-03-01

    Behaviour of bulk phonons propagating in clathrate compounds based on thiourea has been studied by Brillouin spectroscopy for different polarizations of incident and scattered beams. Elasto-optical coefficients p12, p13, p44 and p31 have been determined for host-guest type crystals. Pressure dependence of the intensity of excitations propagating in a structure of the host-guest type has been studied by the non-invasive method of Brillouin spectroscopy.

  16. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Assessment of Rates of Molecular Transport through Mesoporous Thin-Films of Porphyrinic "Molecular Squares"

    E-print Network

    Thin-Films of Porphyrinic "Molecular Squares" Mary Elizabeth Williams and Joseph T. Hupp* Department through thin films of meso- and microporous materials composed of porphyrinic "molecular squares". SECM members of the existing library of meso- and microporous molecular compounds is the neutral, Zn porphyrin

  17. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 204707 (2011) Unoccupied states in Cu and Zn octaethyl-porphyrin and phthalocyanine

    E-print Network

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    2011-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 204707 (2011) Unoccupied states in Cu and Zn octaethyl-porphyrin 2011) Copper and zinc phthalocyanines and porphyrins are used in organic light emitting diodes and dye, and in Refs. 26­28 for Zn porphyrin. For the crystallo- graphic structure, see Refs. 29­31 for Cu

  18. Synthesis of disulfide-based biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane nanoparticles for two-photon imaging and therapy of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Croissant, Jonas G; Mauriello-Jimenez, Chiara; Maynadier, Marie; Cattoën, Xavier; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Raehm, Laurence; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Maillard, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2015-07-16

    Biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanomaterials for two-photon-excited (TPE) imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells were described. A versatile synthesis was developed to design monodisperse tetra-alkoxysilylated diamino-diphenylbutadiene or Zn-porphyrin-based nanospheres of 30 to 50 nm. PMID:26138409

  19. Fabrication of a material assembly of silver nanoparticles using the phase gradients of optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zijie; Sajjan, Manas; Scherer, Norbert F

    2015-04-10

    Optical matter can be created using the intensity gradient and electrodynamic (e.g., optical binding) forces that nano- and microparticles experience in focused optical beams. Here we show that the force associated with phase gradient is also important. In fact, in optical line traps the phase gradient force is crucial in determining the structure and stability of optical matter arrays consisting of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). NP lattices can be repeatedly assembled and disassembled simply by changing the sign of the phase gradient. The phase gradient creates a compressive force (and thus a stress) in the optically bound Ag NP lattices, causing structural transitions (a stress response) from 1D "chains" to 2D lattices, and even to amorphous structures. The structural transitions and dynamics of driven transport are well described by electrodynamics simulations and modeling using a drift-diffusion Langevin equation. PMID:25910124

  20. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle using Low Numerical Aperture Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Šiler, Martin; Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Karásek, Vít?zslav; Paták, Aleš; Pokorná, Zuzana; Mika, Filip; Zemánek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250?nm. We offer a possible explanation based on the fact that metal nanoparticles naturally occur in various non-spherical shapes and their optical properties differ significantly due to changes in localized plasmon excitation. We demonstrate experimentally and support theoretically three-dimensional confinement of large gold nanoparticles in an optical trap based on very low numerical aperture optics. We showed theoretically that the unique properties of gold nanoprisms allow an increase of trapping force by an order of magnitude at certain aspect ratios. These results pave the way to spatial manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles using an optical fibre, with interesting applications in biology and medicine. PMID:25630432

  1. Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Gittes, F; Schmidt, C F

    1998-01-01

    The lateral position of an optically trapped object in a microscope can be monitored with a quadrant photodiode to within nanometers or better by measurement of intensity shifts in the back focal plane of the lens that is collimating the outgoing laser light. This detection is largely independent of the position of the trap in the field of view. We provide a model for the essential mechanism of this type of detection, giving a simple, closed-form analytic solution with simplifying assumptions. We identify intensity shifts as first-order far-field interference between the outgoing laser beam and scattered light from the trapped particle, where the latter is phase advanced owing to the Gouy phase anomaly. This interference also reflects momentum transfer to the particle, giving the spring constant of the trap. Our response formula is compared with the results of experiments. PMID:18084394

  2. Sensitivity map of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy for single-cell analysis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feng; Qin, Yejun; Chen, Kun

    2007-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy on single, living epithelial cells captured in a laser trap is shown to have diagnostic power over colorectal cancer. This new single-cell technology comprises three major components: primary culture processing of human tissue samples to produce single-cell suspensions, Raman detection on singly trapped cells, and diagnoses of the cells by artificial neural network classifications. It is compared with DNA flow cytometry for similarities and differences. Its advantages over tissue Raman spectroscopy are also discussed. In the actual construction of a diagnostic model for colorectal cancer, real patient data were taken to generate a training set of 320 Raman spectra and a test set of 80. By incorporating outlier corrections to a conventional binary neural classifier, our network accomplished significantly better predictions than logistic regressions, with sensitivity improved from 77.5% to 86.3% and specificity improved from 81.3% to 86.3% for the training set and moderate improvements for the test set. Most important, the network approach enables a sensitivity map analysis to quantitate the relevance of each Raman band to the normal-to-cancer transform at the cell level. Our technique has direct clinic applications for diagnosing cancers and basic science potential in the study of cell dynamics of carcinogenesis. PMID:17614710

  3. Remotely Controllable Mobile Microrobots Acting as Nano Positioners and Intelligent Tweezers in Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand Schmoeckel; Heinz Wörn

    2001-01-01

    In the scanning electron microscope, many studies require micromanipulation tools that can be flexibly and comfortably used for the handling and positioning of objects ranging from a few millimeters down to fractions of microns. In the paper, some aspects of the control of small mobile microrobots by teleoperation are addressed facing the special behavior of their piezoelectric actuators and the

  4. Mapping DNA-Lac repressor interaction with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The lac operon is a well-known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with different DNA constructs. Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences.

  5. Force Unfolding Kinetics of RNA Using Optical Tweezers. I. Effects of Experimental Variables on Measured Results

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    hybrid RNA/DNA handles; one bead was trapped by dual-beam lasers and the other was held by a micropipette, including magnesium ions. For example, the Tetra- hymena ribozyme does not form a stable structure in low Mg21 concentrations, whereas Mg21 -stabilized kinetic traps (misfolded species) slow the folding

  6. Raman tweezers in microfluidic systems for analysis and sorting of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Zden?k.; Ježek, Jan; Ka?ka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    We have devised an analytical and sorting system combining optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy in microfluidic environment, dedicated to identification and sorting of biological objects, such as living cells of various unicellular organisms. Our main goal was to create a robust and universal platform for non-destructive and non-contact sorting of micro-objects based on their Raman spectral properties. This approach allowed us to collect spectra containing information about the chemical composition of the objects, such as the presence and composition of pigments, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, avoiding artificial chemical probes such as fluorescent markers. The non-destructive nature of this optical analysis and manipulation allowed us to separate individual living cells of our interest in a sterile environment and provided the possibility to cultivate the selected cells for further experiments. We used a mixture of polystyrene micro-particles and algal cells to test and demonstrate the function of our analytical and sorting system. The devised system could find its use in many medical, biotechnological, and biological applications.

  7. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle using Low Numerical Aperture Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Šiler, Martin; Trojek, Jan; Chvátal, Lukáš; Karásek, Vít?zslav; Paták, Aleš; Pokorná, Zuzana; Mika, Filip; Zemánek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250 nm. We offer a possible explanation based on the fact that metal nanoparticles naturally occur in various non-spherical shapes and their optical properties differ significantly due to changes in localized plasmon excitation. We demonstrate experimentally and support theoretically three-dimensional confinement of large gold nanoparticles in an optical trap based on very low numerical aperture optics. We showed theoretically that the unique properties of gold nanoprisms allow an increase of trapping force by an order of magnitude at certain aspect ratios. These results pave the way to spatial manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles using an optical fibre, with interesting applications in biology and medicine.

  8. Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2010, page 1 Experiment 6: Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Williams, Mark C.

    objective will cause small dielectric particles (which in these experiments are usually floating in water, 1 and 2. The resultant force on the bead due to refraction is towards the focus. #12;Northeastern this to fill the cell. Also, fill a syringe with bead solution and connect it to the flow valve. Before

  9. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-print Network

    that collision rate should be enhanced at small velocities due to thermal excitations. However, in the current into an optical trap that was translated from the `production chamber' into a separate vacuum chamber: the `science chamber'. Typically, we transferred 2-3 million condensed atoms in less than 2 s. This transport

  10. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarchyk, M. A.; Botvinick, E. L.; Putnam, A. J.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 µm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  11. Quantitative Modeling and Optimization of Magnetic Tweezers Jan Lipfert, Xiaomin Hao, and Nynke H. Dekker*

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Nynke

    ­21), the design of coils and pole pieces and the control of magnetizing currents presents an additional, requires feedback control (20,21). In general, the field strengths and gradient forces that can be reached

  12. With Microscope and Tweezers: An Analysis of the Internet Virus of November 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Eichin; Jon A. Rochlis

    1989-01-01

    In early November 1988 the Internet, a collection of networksconsisting of 60,000 host computers implementingthe TCP\\/IP protocol suite, was attacked by a virus, a programwhichbroke into computers on the network and whichspread from one machine to another. This paper is a detailedanalysis of the virus programitself, as well as the reactionsof the besieged Internet community. We discuss thestructure of the

  13. Real-time nonlinear correction of back-focal-plane detection in optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Tanuj; Salapaka, Murti [University of Minnesota, 200 Union St SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Photodiode based detection of laser trapped beads using forward scattered light is a frequently employed technique for position measurement. There is a nonlinear relationship between photodiode outputs and bead position but for small displacements linear approximation holds well. Traditionally, the nonlinearity is compensated by normalizing the photodiode's position signal with the intensity signal and then using a polynomial fit in the range where voltage to position mapping is one to one. In this article, this range is extended by using the intensity signal as an independent input along with the two position signals. A map from the input signals to the actual position values is obtained. This mapping is one-to-one for a larger range that results in an increased detection range. An artificial neural network that facilitates implementation is employed for this purpose. This scheme is implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array based data acquisition and control hardware with closed loop bandwidth of 50 kHz. Detection of the order of 350 nm from the center of detection laser is demonstrated for a 500 nm diameter bead compared to 180 nm achieved by a polynomial fit.

  14. Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-print Network

    Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

  15. Dielectrophoretic Tweezers as a Platform for Single Molecular Force Spectroscopy in a Highly Parallel Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Barrett, Michael; Oliver, Piercen; Vezenov, Dmitri

    2012-02-01

    Miniaturization has driven down the cost of tools used in bioanalysis and diagnostics, with single molecules becoming the ultimate detection limit. I will describe how one can exploit mechanical properties of individual biomolecules to determine changes in their state or structure. Our aim is to build a force-spectroscopy-on-a-chip device that can detect and manipulate many (millions) single molecules in parallel. A critical element of this approach is the design of materials properties of molecular handles or probes. By tuning interactions of these probes with electric fields which generate by a simple electrode geometry, we are able to apply piconewton forces to individual DNA molecules and record their response with a single base sensitivity. I will present how we determined the approximate crossover frequency between negative and positive DEP using plain electrodes instead of conventional micro-structures. The technique is attractive not only for conducting single molecule force spectroscopy but also for label-free single cell detection. I will discuss potential applications of this approach to high throughput analyses such as genome sequencing and HIV detection.

  16. 3D interferometric optical tweezers using a single spatial light modulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan Schonbrun; Rafael Piestun; Pamela Jordan; Jon Cooper; Kurt D. Wulff; Johannes Courtial; Miles Padgett

    2005-01-01

    Hexagonal arrays of micron sized silica beads have been trapped in three-dimensions within an optical lattice formed by the interference of multiple plane-waves. The optical lattice design with sharply peaked intensity gradients produces a stronger trapping force than the traditionally sinusoidal intensity distributions of other interferometric systems. The plane waves were generated using a single, phase-only, spatial light modulator (SLM),

  17. Single molecule biochemistry using optical tweezers Amit D. Mehta*, Katherine A. Pullen, James A. Spudich

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    studied example is kinesin, a two-headed motor observed to transport vesicles along microtubules. A single Biochemical Societies. Key words: Optical trap; Single molecule; Myosin; Kinesin; Titin 1. Introduction kinesin molecule can move along its microtubule track for micrometres before dissociating [3

  18. Nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers for efficient trapping and alignment of particles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Benjamin K.; Mentele, Tim; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H.; Lin, Lih Y.

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to trap and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with periodic nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam, we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 ?m down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, alignment of non-spherical dielectric particles to a 1-D periodic nanostructure was achieved with low laser intensity without attachment to birefringent crystals. Bacterial cells were trapped and aligned with incident optical intensity as low as 17 ?W/?m2. PMID:20720985

  19. Single micro electrode dielectrophoretic tweezers for manipulation of suspended cells and particles.

    PubMed

    Schnelle, T; Müller, T; Hagedorn, R; Voigt, A; Fuhr, G

    1999-06-28

    Cells or particles in aqueous suspension close to a single capacitively coupled micro electrode (CCME) driven with high frequency electric fields experience dielectrophoretic forces. The effects near the CCME can be used for trapping and manipulation of single cells using externally metallised glass pipettes and might be used to develop a microscope based on force or capacitance measurements in conductive media. PMID:10366764

  20. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy: reply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, Jenifer F.; Xie, Changan; Li, Yong-Qing; Bertrand, Fred E.; Wiley, John; McConnell, Thomas J.

    2007-05-01

    We appreciate the authors’ comments in their reply: “On the identification of chromosomes with Raman spectroscopy: a critical comment” [Opt. Express 15, 5997 (2007)]. Their main concern with our paper is asking if the collected spectra have shown the identification or differentiation between three human chromosomes. We think this comment is flawed because the authors misunderstood the main points of the original paper and interpreted the presented spectra data (Fig. 3 and Table 1) incorrectly.

  1. Chromosomal analysis and identification based on optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy: reply.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Jenifer F; Xie, Changan; Li, Yong-Qing; Bertrand, Fred E; Wiley, John; McConnell, Thomas J

    2007-05-14

    We appreciate the authors' comments in their reply: "On the identification of chromosomes with Raman spectroscopy: a critical comment" [Opt. Express 15, 5997 (2007)]. Their main concern with our paper is asking if the collected spectra have shown the identification or differentiation between three human chromosomes. We think this comment is flawed because the authors misunderstood the main points of the original paper and interpreted the presented spectra data (Fig. 3 and Table 1) incorrectly. PMID:19546903

  2. A supramolecular approach to combining enzymatic and transition metal catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Jane; Clary, Kristen N; Bergman, Robert G; Raymond, Kenneth N; Toste, F Dean

    2013-02-01

    The ability of supramolecular host-guest complexes to catalyse organic reactions collaboratively with an enzyme is an important goal in the research and discovery of synthetic enzyme mimics. Herein we present a variety of catalytic tandem reactions that employ esterases, lipases or alcohol dehydrogenases and gold(I) or ruthenium(II) complexes encapsulated in a Ga(4)L(6) tetrahedral supramolecular cluster. The host-guest complexes are tolerated well by the enzymes and, in the case of the gold(I) host-guest complex, show improved reactivity relative to the free cationic guest. We propose that supramolecular encapsulation of organometallic complexes prevents their diffusion into the bulk solution, where they can bind amino-acid residues on the proteins and potentially compromise their activity. Our observations underline the advantages of the supramolecular approach and suggest that encapsulation of reactive complexes may provide a general strategy for carrying out classic organic reactions in the presence of biocatalysts. PMID:23344446

  3. A supramolecular approach to combining enzymatic and transition metal catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Clary, Kristen N.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Toste, F. Dean

    2013-02-01

    The ability of supramolecular host-guest complexes to catalyse organic reactions collaboratively with an enzyme is an important goal in the research and discovery of synthetic enzyme mimics. Herein we present a variety of catalytic tandem reactions that employ esterases, lipases or alcohol dehydrogenases and gold(I) or ruthenium(II) complexes encapsulated in a Ga4L6 tetrahedral supramolecular cluster. The host-guest complexes are tolerated well by the enzymes and, in the case of the gold(I) host-guest complex, show improved reactivity relative to the free cationic guest. We propose that supramolecular encapsulation of organometallic complexes prevents their diffusion into the bulk solution, where they can bind amino-acid residues on the proteins and potentially compromise their activity. Our observations underline the advantages of the supramolecular approach and suggest that encapsulation of reactive complexes may provide a general strategy for carrying out classic organic reactions in the presence of biocatalysts.

  4. Improved complexation of paraquat derivatives by the formation of crown ether-based cryptands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhu, Kelong; Huang, Feihe

    2010-11-21

    Self-assembly allows the construction of advanced molecular or supramolecular systems from small building blocks. Host-guest recognition, for its self-selectivity, environmental responsiveness and convenient application to complex molecular devices, plays a significant role in self-assembled systems. During this process, the association constant between the host and guest is an important standard to identify the properties of the systems. In order to prepare mechanically interlocked structures and large supramolecular systems efficiently from small molecules based on a host-guest recognition motif, it is necessary to increase host-guest association constants. Crown ether-based cryptands have been designed and prepared to improve the binding of paraquat derivatives. This feature article aims to describe the design and syntheses of crown ether-based cryptand hosts for paraquat derivatives and the application of the cryptand/paraquat recognition motif in the fabrication of threaded structures, molecular switches and supramolecular polymers. PMID:20830438

  5. Polysaccharide-porphyrin-fullerene supramolecular conjugates as photo-driven DNA cleavage reagents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Zhao, Di; Liu, Yu

    2015-07-16

    Two water-soluble polysaccharide-porphyrin-fullerene supramolecular conjugates were constructed from the non-covalent incorporation of triphenyl Zn-porphyrin-modified ?-cyclodextrins, adamantyl-modified hyaluronate and C60. Significantly, these supramolecular conjugates, which exist as cross-linked or discrete nanoparticles with a diameter of 50-200 nm, can completely cleave closed supercoiled DNA to nicked DNA under light irradiation. PMID:26179740

  6. Chemically-responsive complexation of a diquaternary salt with bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10 derivatives and host substituent effect on complexation geometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuzhou; Li, Zhengtao; Wei, Peifa; Huang, Feihe

    2013-02-01

    A chemically responsive diquaternary salt with ?-extended surface was made. The host-guest complexation with chemo-responsiveness between three bis(m-phenylene)-32-crown-10 (BMP32C10) derivatives and this diquaternary salt guest was studied through the sequential addition of basic and acidic reagents (diethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid, respectively). Furthermore, the host-substituent effect on the complexation geometries of these three host-guest complexes, from taco to taco-type threaded to threaded structures by changing the substituent on BMP32C10 as shown by crystal structures, was also addressed. PMID:23320925

  7. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of glucose in aqueous aerosol studied in single levitated droplets by laser Raman tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. King; O. R. Hunt; A. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted that cloud processing of atmospheric contaminants changes the optical properties of these clouds. Airborne particulate matter plays a crucial role in determining the climate and weather of the Earth. The chemical composition of particulate matter affects climate directly, by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly, owing to its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei,

  8. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 000000 (2011)1 Soft magnetic tweezers: A proof of principle2

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    of a nonlinear coupling regime that appears when a fast rotating magnetic field is applied to a superparamagnetic such as E. coli7,8 33 are propelled by rotating a flagella which implies the ac-34 tive generation of torque. As far as DNA is concerned,35 torque has been demonstrated to be a key element to in-36 duce structural

  9. During the past decade, physical techniques such as optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy were used to study the

    E-print Network

    Liphardt, Jan

    the course of its biological reactions. Processes like protein-induced DNA bending, induced-fit molecular a variety of forces, for example, hydrodynamic drag [1­3], magnetic beads [4], glass nee- dles [5 over the sample. Bending of the cantilever can be monitored by the deflection of a laser beam reflected

  10. Laser microtreatment for genetic manipulations and DNA diagnostics by a combination of microbeam and photonic tweezers (laser microbeam trap)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, Karl-Otto; Monajembashi, Shamci; Celeda, D.; Endlich, N.; Eickhoff, Holger; Hoyer, Carsten; Leitz, G.; Weber, Gerd; Scheef, J.; Rueterjans, H.

    1994-12-01

    Genomes of higher organisms are larger than one typically expects. For example, the DNA of a single human cell is almost two meters long, the DNA in the human body covers the distance Earth-Sun approximately 140 times. This is often not considered in typical molecular biological approaches for DNA diagnostics, where usually only DNA of the length of a gene is investigated. Also, one basic aspect of sequencing the human genome is not really solved: the problem how to prepare the huge amounts of DNA required. Approaches from biomedical optics combined with new developments in single molecule biotechnology may at least contribute some parts of the puzzle. A large genome can be partitioned into portions comprising approximately 1% of the whole DNA using a laser microbeam. The single DNA fragment can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction in order to obtain a sufficient amount of molecules for conventional DNA diagnostics or for analysis by octanucleotide hybridization. When not amplified by biotechnological processes, the individual DNA molecule can be visualized in the light microscope and can be manipulated and dissected with the laser microbeam trap. The DNA probes obtained by single molecule biotechnology can be employed for fluorescence in situ introduced into plant cells and subcellular structures even when other techniques fail. Since the laser microbeam trap allows to work in the interior of a cell without opening it, subcellular structures can be manipulated. For example, in algae, such structures can be moved out of their original position and used to study intracellular viscosities.

  11. Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of motile sperm cells and CHO cells in an optical trap (laser tweezers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Liu, Yagang; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Patrizio, Pasquale; Tadir, Yona; Sonek, Gregory J.; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    We describe fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging studies of optically trapped single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and motile human sperm cells. The NIR trapping beam was provided by a tunable, multimode continuous wave Ti:Sapphire laser. The beam was introduced into an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Fluorescence of cells in the single- beam gradient force optical trap was excited with a 488 nm microbeam (laser scanning microscopy) or with 365 nm radiation from a high- pressure mercury lamp. Modifications to NADH-attributed autofluorescence and Rhodamine- and Propidium Iodide-attributed xenofluorescence indicate a significant cell-damaging effect of 760 nm trapping beams. 760 nm effects produce a biological response comparable to UVA-induced oxidative stress and appear to be a consequence to two-photon absorption.

  12. Colloidal transport through optical tweezer arrays Yael Roichman, 1 Victor Wong, 2 and David G. Grier 1

    E-print Network

    Grier, David

    driven past an evenly spaced array of potential energy wells or barriers may become kinetically locked in higher dimensions. Re­ cently, attention has become focused on the transport of viscously damped past stationary patterns of optical traps. All particles consequently traveled past the traps

  13. Scientists at the Ris National Laboratory in Roskilde, Denmark, have developed an optical tweezers system that moves tiny particles in

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    optical imaging methods of the skin detected singly backscattered photons to achieve spatial resolution mm with rat skin, but the team believes that they can obtain much higher penetrations--up to 5 cm, and depth information was obtained by measuring the time of return of the ultrasound pulse. A 15- m depth

  14. Chemical incorporation of thioxanthone into ?-cyclodextrin and its use in aqueous photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demet Karaca Balta; Emine Bagdatli; Nergis Arsu; Nuket Ocal; Yusuf Yagci

    2008-01-01

    Photoinitiated free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in aqueous solution via hydrogen abstraction mechanism was described. For this purpose, thioxanthone (TX) chromophoric group was chemically incorporated into ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) by a simple esterification process. The resulting thioxanthone photoinitiator (TX–?-CD) exhibited similar spectral characteristics and photoactivity to that of the parent TX molecule. Host guest complexes of MMA with TX–?-CD

  15. ARBEITSGRUPPEN DEPARTEMENT FR CHEMIE UND BIOCHEMIE

    E-print Network

    Mühlemann, Oliver

    Transfer from Dye-Zeolite L Antenna Crystals to Bulk Silicon ChemPhysChem, 2, 239 - 242 (2004). 13. A. Devaux, C. Minkowski, G. Calzaferri Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Fluorenone in the Channels- Harvesting Host-Guest Antenna Systems Proceedings European Coatings Conference, Smart Coatings III, Berlin

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite for Demonstrating

    E-print Network

    Peck, Mason A.

    CMGs, Violet is capable of hosting guest investigators' steering algorithms for a variety of CMG ultraviolet telescope, which includes flight-spare Deep Impact CCDs and serves as a representative payload enables a satellite to slew its payload quickly through large angles, which helps maximize the time during

  17. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  18. Metallosupramolecular assemblies : development of novel cyclometalated Pt(II) and Ir(III)-based capsules 

    E-print Network

    Chepelin, Oleg

    2014-06-28

    4 triflate counterions. Through a series of titration experiments the ability of the capsules to act as anion sensors was also exposed. Further exploration into the host-guest chemistry of the Ir6tcb4 capsule is reported in Chapter 4. Subsequent...

  19. A radical spin on viologen polymers: organic spin crossover materials in water.

    PubMed

    Juetten, Mark J; Buck, Alexander T; Winter, Arthur H

    2015-03-28

    A polymer containing viologen radical cation monomer units is shown to reversibly switch between paramagnetic and diamagnetic states via non-covalent host-guest interactions or temperature control in water. Cycling between diamagnetic and paramagnetic forms is accompanied by changes in optical and magnetic properties. PMID:25267450

  20. A Quantum Chemistry Study of Natural Gas Hydrates Mert Atilhan,1

    E-print Network

    Pala, Nezih

    , with shiftings rising from host-guest interactions, and useful patterns in the terahertz region rising from water and academia because of the massive amounts of gas in the form of hydrates in ocean bed and under permafrost of natural gas hydrates requires low temperature (typically lower than 300 K) and moderate pressure