These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Connected Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Connected Chemistry, a novel learning environment for teaching chemistry, is appropriate for use in both high school and undergraduate chemistry classrooms. Connected Chemistry comprises several molecular simulations designed to enable instructors to teach chemistry using the perspective of emergent phenomena. That is, it allows students to see observed macro-level chemical phenomena, like many other scientific phenomena, as resultant from the interactions of many individual agents on a micro-level. This perspective is especially appropriate to the study of chemistry where the interactions between multitudes of molecules on the atomic level give rise to the macro-level concepts that students study in the classroom. Connected Chemistry comprises molecular simulations embedded in the NetLogo modeling software (1). The collection contains several predesigned simulations of closed chemical systems to teach specific chemistry concepts. Currently, Connected Chemistry contains models for teaching Brønsted Lowry acid base theory, enzyme kinetics, radical polymerization, buffer chemistry, kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and crystallization. Instructors and students can individually tailor the predesigned simulations or generate new simulations as they are needed in the context of a particular lesson, classroom, or department.

2

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

3

Connected Chemistry—Incorporating Interactive Simulations into the Chemistry Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe a novel modeling and simulation package, connected chemistry, and assess its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected chem- istry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Its design goal is to present a variety of chemistry concepts from the perspective of \\

Mike Stieff; Uri Wilensky

2003-01-01

4

Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

2009-01-01

5

The Dual Dust Chemistry - Binarity Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence points to a binary nature for the Wolf-Rayet ([WC]) central stars, a group that constitutes about 15% of all central stars of planetary nebula. From ISO observations, a dual dust chemistry (oxygen- and carbon-rich) has been shown to be almost exclusively associated with [WC] central stars, a fact that could be explained by O-rich dust residing in a

O. De Marco; M. J. Barlow; M. Cohen; H. E. Bond; D. Harmer; A. F. Jones

2004-01-01

6

The dual dust chemistry - binarity connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence points to a binary nature for the Wolf-Rayet ([WC])\\u000acentral stars, a group that constitutes about 15% of all central stars of\\u000aplanetary nebula. From ISO observations, a dual dust chemistry (oxygen- and\\u000acarbon-rich) has been shown to be almost exclusively associated with [WC]\\u000acentral stars, a fact that could be explained by O-rich dust residing in a

Orsola De Marco; A. F. Jones; M. J. Barlow; M. Cohen

2003-01-01

7

The dual dust chemistry - binarity connection  

E-print Network

Accumulating evidence points to a binary nature for the Wolf-Rayet ([WC]) central stars, a group that constitutes about 15% of all central stars of planetary nebula. From ISO observations, a dual dust chemistry (oxygen- and carbon-rich) has been shown to be almost exclusively associated with [WC] central stars, a fact that could be explained by O-rich dust residing in a disk, while the C-rich dust being more widely distributes. HST/STIS space resolved spectroscopy of the [WC10] central star CPD-568032, is interpreted as revealing a dust disk or torus around the central star. This, together with CPD-568032's variable lightcurve is taken as an indirect indication of binarity. Finally, we present here, for the first time, preliminary results from a radial velocity survey of central stars. Out of 18 stars with excellent data at least 8 are radial velocity variables. If these turn out to be binaries, it is likely that the central star binary fraction is as high as about 50%.

De Marco, O; Barlow, M J; Cohen, M; Marco, Orsola De

2003-01-01

8

The dual dust chemistry - binarity connection  

E-print Network

Accumulating evidence points to a binary nature for the Wolf-Rayet ([WC]) central stars, a group that constitutes about 15% of all central stars of planetary nebula. From ISO observations, a dual dust chemistry (oxygen- and carbon-rich) has been shown to be almost exclusively associated with [WC] central stars, a fact that could be explained by O-rich dust residing in a disk, while the C-rich dust being more widely distributes. HST/STIS space resolved spectroscopy of the [WC10] central star CPD-568032, is interpreted as revealing a dust disk or torus around the central star. This, together with CPD-568032's variable lightcurve is taken as an indirect indication of binarity. Finally, we present here, for the first time, preliminary results from a radial velocity survey of central stars. Out of 18 stars with excellent data at least 8 are radial velocity variables. If these turn out to be binaries, it is likely that the central star binary fraction is as high as about 50%.

Orsola De Marco; A. F. Jones; M. J. Barlow; M. Cohen

2003-09-29

9

EDITORIAL: Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice in the environment, whether in the form of ice particles in clouds or sea ice and snow at the Earth's surface, has a profound influence on atmospheric composition and climate. The interaction of trace atmospheric gases with snow and sea ice surfaces largely controls atmospheric composition in polar regions. The heterogeneous chemistry of ice particles in clouds also plays critical roles in polar stratospheric ozone depletion and in tropospheric chemistry. A quantitative physical understanding of the interactions of snow and ice with trace gases is critical for predicting the effects of climate change on atmospheric composition, for the interpretation of ice core chemical records, and for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The motivation behind this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), and the special session at the Fall 2007 meeting of the American Geophysical Union that generated it, was to enhance communication and interactions among field and laboratory scientists and modelers working in this area. Members of these three groups are each working toward a mutual goal of understanding and quantifying the connections between the chemistry of snow and ice in the environment and atmospheric composition, and communication and collaboration across these traditional disciplinary boundaries pose a challenge for the community. We are pleased to present new work from several current leaders in the field and laboratory communities in this focus issue. Topics include the interaction of organics and mercury with snow and ice surfaces, halogen activation from halide ice, and the emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides from snow. Novel experimental techniques are presented that make progress towards overcoming the experimental challenges of quantifying the chemistry of realistic snow samples and ice chemistry at temperatures relevant to the polar boundary layer. Several of the papers in this issue also touch on one of the significant gaps in our current understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of ice: the role of a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or quasi-brine layer (QBL) at the ice surface. The studies presented here advance our understanding of the complex interactions of snow and ice with important reactive components in our atmosphere. It has become clear in recent years that the polar regions do not act as an ultimate sink for many compounds—the release of halogens and reactive nitrogen oxides from ice and snow are examples of this. Two notable implications arise from these findings (i) the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in our environment may extend further than we fully appreciate with current global atmospheric chemistry models and (ii) our interpretation of chemical records in ice cores requires that we fundamentally understand and quantify air-snow and air-ice interactions. Additionally, laboratory studies are elucidating the details of heterogeneous reactions that are prevalent on ice and snow surfaces throughout the troposphere, and we are poised to make significant strides in the near future quantifying these effects on regional and global scales. We look forward to continued progress in this field in the coming years, and we will continue to work to connect those conducting modeling, field and laboratory studies. Focus on Connections between Atmospheric Chemistry and Snow and Ice Contents HONO emissions from snow surfaces Harry Beine, Agustín J Colussi, Antonio Amoroso, Giulio Esposito, Mauro Montagnoli and Michael R Hoffmann Heterogeneous ozonation kinetics of phenanthrene at the air-ice interface T F Kahan and D J Donaldson Release of gas-phase halogens from sodium halide substrates: heterogeneous oxidation of frozen solutions and desiccated salts by hydroxyl radicals S J Sjostedt and J P D Abbatt Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature J P D Abbatt, T Bartels-Rausch, M Ullerstam and T J Ye Interaction of gaseous elemental mercury with snow surfaces: laboratory investigation Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Thomas Huthwelker, Martin Jöri, Heinz W Gägge

McNeill, V. Faye; Hastings, Meredith G.

2008-12-01

10

Altered functional connectivity in seizure onset zones revealed by fMRI intrinsic connectivity  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate functional connectivity (FC) changes in epileptogenic networks in intractable partial epilepsy obtained from resting-state fMRI by using intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC), a voxel-based network measure of degree that reflects the number of connections to each voxel. Methods: We measured differences between intrahemispheric- and interhemispheric-ICC (ICCintra?inter) that could reveal localized connectivity abnormalities in epileptogenic zones while more global network changes would be eliminated when subtracting these values. The ICCintra?inter map was compared with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) based on intracranial EEG (icEEG) recordings in 29 patients with at least 1 year of postsurgical follow-up. Two independent reviewers blindly interpreted the icEEG and fMRI data, and the concordance rates were compared for various clinical factors. Results: Concordance between the icEEG SOZ and ICCintra?inter map was observed in 72.4% (21/29) of the patients, which was higher in patients with good surgical outcome, especially in those patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or lateral temporal seizure localization. Concordance was also better in the extratemporal lobe epilepsy than the TLE group. In 85.7% (18/21) of the cases, the ICCintra?inter values were negative in the SOZ, indicating decreased FC within the epileptic hemisphere relative to between hemispheres. Conclusions: Assessing alterations in FC using fMRI-ICC map can help localize the SOZ, which has potential as a noninvasive presurgical diagnostic tool to improve surgical outcome. In addition, the method reveals that, in focal epilepsy, both intrahemispheric- and interhemispheric-FC may be altered, in the presence of both regional as well as global network abnormalities. PMID:25391304

Arora, Jagriti; Papademetris, Xenophon; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Negishi, Michiro; Scheinost, Dustin; Farooque, Pue; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spencer, Dennis D.; Constable, R. Todd

2014-01-01

11

Groundwater phosphate dynamics in a river riparian zone: effects of hydrologic flowpaths, lithology and redox chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of riparian zone hydrology, lithology and redox chemistry on groundwater phosphate dynamics. Patterns of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and ferrous iron (Fe 2+) in combination with hydrologic data and sediment characteristics were studied in a forested floodplain connected to a large upland sand aquifer in an agricultural region of southern Ontario, Canada. Groundwater discharge from the upland aquifer flowed laterally beneath peat in a 2-4 m thick zone of permeable sands across the floodplain to the river. Within the sands, low SRP concentrations (<25 ?g L -1) occurred in a plume of groundwater with DO concentrations >3 mg L -1 and Fe 2+ concentrations <0.2 mg L -1 which extended for a horizontal distance of 100-140 m across the riparian zone. High SRP concentrations (50-950 ?g L -1) were associated with low DO and high Fe 2+ concentrations which exceeded 1 mg L -1 in buried channel sediments near the river bank. Sediment P fractionation indicated that the buried channel sediments contained a much higher pool of total P and Fe+Al-P than the sands. Groundwater SRP concentrations at the river bank were 25-80 ?g L -1 compared to <10 ?g L -1 in river water indicating that the floodplain was a source of SRP to the river. Areas of elevated SRP and Fe 2+ within the floodplain expanded in August when DO concentrations in groundwater were lower than in late spring or autumn. These data suggest that the microbial reduction of Fe 3+ to soluble Fe 2+ in anaerobic conditions influences groundwater SRP concentrations in the riparian zone. This study shows that well-organized patterns of groundwater SRP concentrations occur in riparian zones which reflect the interaction of hydrologic flowpaths and environments of different redox state. Internal sources of P associated with buried channel sediments can also influence subsurface SRP transport and release to streams.

Carlyle, G. C.; Hill, A. R.

2001-07-01

12

Identifying fracture-zone geometry using simulated annealing and hydraulic-connection data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new approach is presented to condition geostatistical simulation of high-permeability zones in fractured rock to hydraulic-connection data. A simulated-annealing algorithm generates three-dimensional (3-D) realizations conditioned to borehole data, inferred hydraulic connections between packer-isolated borehole intervals, and an indicator (fracture zone or background-K bedrock) variogram model of spatial variability. We apply the method to data from the U.S. Geological Survey Mirror Lake Site in New Hampshire, where connected high-permeability fracture zones exert a strong control on fluid flow at the hundred-meter scale. Single-well hydraulic-packer tests indicate where permeable fracture zones intersect boreholes, and multiple-well pumping tests indicate the degree of hydraulic connection between boreholes. Borehole intervals connected by a fracture zone exhibit similar hydraulic responses, whereas intervals not connected by a fracture zone exhibit different responses. Our approach yields valuable insights into the 3-D geometry of fracture zones at Mirror Lake. Statistical analysis of the realizations yields maps of the probabilities of intersecting specific fracture zones with additional wells. Inverse flow modeling based on the assumption of equivalent porous media is used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage and to identify those fracture-zone geometries that are consistent with hydraulic test data.

Day-Lewis, F. D.; Hsieh, P.A.; Gorelick, S.M.

2000-01-01

13

Exploring organic chemistry in planet-forming zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Over the last few years, the chemistry of molecules other than CO in the planet-forming zones of disks is starting to be explored with Spitzer and high-resolution ground-based data. However, these studies have focused only on a few simple molecules. Aims: The aim of this study is to put observational constraints on the presence of more complex organic and sulfur-bearing molecules predicted to be abundant in chemical models of disks and to simulate high resolution spectra in view of future missions. Methods: High signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) Spitzer spectra of the near edge-on disks IRS 46 and GV Tau are used to search for mid-infrared absorption bands of various molecules. These disks are good laboratories because absorption studies do not suffer from low line/continuum ratios that plague emission data. Simple local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) slab models are used to infer column densities (or upper limits) and excitation temperatures. Results: Mid-infrared bands of HCN, C2H2 and CO2 are clearly detected toward both sources. The HCN and C2H2 absorption arises in warm gas with excitation temperatures of 400-700 K, whereas the CO2 absorption originates in cooler gas of ~250 K. Column densities and their ratios are comparable for the two sources. No other absorption features are detected at the 3? level. Column density limits of the majority of molecules predicted to be abundant in the inner disk - C2H4, C2H6, C6H6, C3H4, C4H2, CH3, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN, NH3 and SO2 - are determined and compared with disk models. Conclusions: The inferred abundance ratios and limits with respect to C2H2 and HCN are roughly consistent with models of the chemistry in high temperature gas. Models of UV irradiated disk surfaces generally agree better with the data than pure X-ray models. The limit on NH3/HCN implies that evaporation of NH3-containing ices is only a minor contributor. The inferred abundances and their limits also compare well with those found in comets, suggesting that part of the cometary material may derive from warm inner disk gas. The high resolution simulations show that future instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) can probe up to an order of magnitude lower abundance ratios and put important new constraints on the models, especially if pushed to high S/Ns. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Bast, J. E.; Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

2013-03-01

14

Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation... and Chemistry with Nanotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features and the development of various new acids and bases activity sets that combines chemistry with nanotechnology are being described. These sets lead to the generation of many nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases.

Criswell, Brett

2007-01-01

15

COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

16

THE MAGNETIC CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONVECTION ZONE AND CORONA IN THE QUIET SUN  

E-print Network

THE MAGNETIC CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONVECTION ZONE AND CORONA IN THE QUIET SUN W. P. Abbett Space connection between the convectively unstable layers below the visible surface of the Sun and the overlying application of this numerical model, we present a series of simulations of the quiet Sun in a domain

Abbett, Bill

17

Prepared for Chemistry and Biodiversity APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR CONNECTIVITY AND ELECTRO-TOPOLOGICAL INDICES IN  

E-print Network

of Medicinal Chemistry, # Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, and $ Center for the Study for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, 800 East Leigh Street, Suite 212, Richmond, VA 23219. Ph. (804 connectivity and atom level E-state indices. Different quantitative structure-activity and structure

Desai, Umesh R

18

Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

2008-01-01

19

Finite element analysis of plastic failure in heat-affected zone of welded aluminium connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element analyses of plastic failure in the heat-affected zone of a generic welded aluminium connection are presented. The analyses include process history through multi-scale modelling. The heterogeneous material properties of the heat-affected zone are calculated using welding simulations to obtain the temperature history as input to coupled precipitation, yield strength and work-hardening models. Thermal history-dependent material parameters are mapped

Cato Dørum; Odd-Geir Lademo; Ole Runar Myhr; Torodd Berstad; Odd Sture Hopperstad

2010-01-01

20

Collboration: Interfacial Soil Chemistry of Radionuclides in the Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide immoblization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone; high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs, Sr and I; determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate; establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminbants upon exposure of the solids to more natural soil solutaions afer remofal of the caustic waste source; and integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time.

Karl T. Mueller; Don Chorover; Peggy O'Day; R. Jeff Serne; Garry Crosson; Geoffrey Bowers; Nelson Rivera

2006-12-11

21

Porosity and Connectivity Anisotropy of The Pyrgaki Fault Zone, South Part of The Corinth Rift.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitatively assessing the impact of fault zone on fluid flow in seismically active area requires an accurate conceptual model of fractures, matrix porosity, chemical and physical properties. Three main volumes compose a fault zone: the gouge, the damage zone and the protolith. As a fault zone evolves, its structure and properties, especially hydraulic, thermal and mechanical vary on time and space in value and anisotropy. This behavior depends as well as on the fracture network than the matrix transforma- tion. Indeed, multi-scalar approach becomes necessary to develop a coherent numeri- cal model. In the aim to contribute to the model development, characterization of the porous network is performed using mercury porosimetry and SEM observations. The Pyrgaki fault zone is twenty kilometers in the South of Aigion (Greece) in the south part of the corinth rift, fault zones have limestone in the both hanging wall and foot- wall. A cross section through the fault zone samples 5 meters in the footwall and 4 meters in the hanging wall. Two material types compose the gouge, the first has low grain size and low macroporosity value, and the second material has large grain size and high macroporosity value. Mercury injection gives data about different porosity volumes; the connectivity anisotropy defined using a new is procedure of mercury test. The porous network is mainly formed by tubes in the gouge zone and by cracks in the damage zone. In the gouge zone the crack content is higher in the second types of material than in the first one. Porosity volumes, connectivity anisotropy and void shapes are used to build a porous network usable to modeling hydraulic, mechanical and chemical properties.

Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.

22

Thalamic and extrathalamic connections of the dysgranular unresponsive zone in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).  

PubMed

The connections of the cortical dysgranular "unresponsive zone" (UZ) (Sur et al.: J. Comp. Neurol. 179:425-450, '78) in the grey squirrel were studied with horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic techniques. The results of these experiments show that the major subcortical connections of the unresponsive zone are in large part reciprocal. Connections are distributed within the thalamus in a poorly defined region including restricted portions of several nuclei that lie along the rostral, dorsal, and caudal borders of the ventral posterior nucleus. Additional thalamic connections of the UZ terminate in the reticular nucleus and are reciprocally related to the paralaminar and central median nuclei. Extrathalamic terminations were observed in the zona incerta, the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus, the red nucleus, and several subdivisions of the pontine nuclei. The similarity between the pattern of subcortical connections of the UZ in the grey squirrel and patterns reported for the parietal septal region in rats (Chapin and Lin: J. Comp. Neurol. 229:199-213, '84) and for area 3a in primates (Friedman and Jones: J. Neurophysiol. 45:59-85, '81), suggests that the UZ in the grey squirrel may represent a counterpart of at least part of area 3a as described in primates. The results are further discussed with respect to a possible role of the thalamus in control or modulation of interhemispheric circuits and of the UZ in the modulation of nociceptive and kinesthetic pathways through the thalamus. Finally, the term parietal dysgranular cortex (PDC) is proposed as an alternative to denote the region currently called the unresponsive zone. PMID:2477399

Gould, H J; Whitworth, R H; LeDoux, M S

1989-09-01

23

Investigating macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic connections in a college-level general chemistry laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to experience chemistry macroscopically as well as symbolically. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how chemistry lab students explained chemical phenomenon on the macroscopic, submicroscopic, and representational/symbolic level. The participants were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory level general chemistry lab course. Students' background information (gender, the number of previous chemistry courses), scores on final exams, and final average for the course were collected. Johnstone's triangle of representation guided the design and implementation of this study. A semi-structured interview was also conducted to bring out student explanations. The questionnaires required students to draw a molecule of water, complete acid base reaction equations, represent, submicroscopically, the four stages of an acid-base titration, and provide definitions of various terms. Students were able represent the submicroscopic level of water. Students were not able to represent the submicroscopic level of the reaction between an acid and a base. Students were able to represent the macroscopic level of an acid base reaction. Students were able to symbolically represent the reaction of an acid and a base. These findings indicate that students can use all three levels of chemical representation. However, students showed an inability to connect the levels in relation to acid-base chemistry. There was no relationship between a student's ability to use the levels and his or her final score in the course.

Thadison, Felicia Culver

24

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These sites willhelp you gain greater understanding of Chemistry! Weather is also available Three areas to be on the test. STUDY HARD!!!! Equations Types of Equations Types of Equations text/htmlMichigan Teacher Network Matter Density of solids Density of solids text/htmlICSD ScienceZone Metals Kidneys and Metals Problem Set Kidneys and Metals Problem Set image/tiffCenter for Digital Curriculum Research POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS text/html Let it snow Interactive Weather Maker Interactive Weather Maker urlexample ...

Riley

2006-04-22

25

Mixing and connectivity of groundwater and surface water within the near-stream saturated zone of a small headwater catchment (Luxembourg)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-stream, surface saturated zones are key areas where stream runoff occurs. These areas comprise a small proportion of a catchment but play a disproportionate role in routing rainfall to the stream channel and are often the hotspots for geochemical and biogeochemical transformation. Despite their importance to streamflow generation and chemistry, little is known about mixing processes that occur in these saturated areas, where subsurface, surface water and event rainfall meet, mix and move to the stream channel. Detection and quantification of surface saturated area mixing and connectivity has proved to be a substantial measurement challenge. Recently however, a novel technique using ground-based infrared imagery has been used to document surface saturated area expansion as well as detect groundwater inputs to the stream. Here, we combine ground-based infrared imagery, geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as subsurface hydrometrics to quantify mixing and connectivity between surface and subsurface streamflow sources and their connectivity to the storm hydrograph. We instrumented a small riparian zone at the headwater of the 45 ha Weierbach catchment (Luxembourg), whose shallow soils and underlying schist bedrock offer an ideal location for investigating surface-subsurface mixing and connectivity. A FLIR SC325 infrared camera was installed to measure surface saturation dynamics during multiple rainfall events while subsurface exfiltration was estimated using vertical flux rods and a series of piezometers at the riparian/hillslope interface. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of rainfall, surface and subsurface sources was obtained for three rainfall events during the study period. We anticipate that results from this ongoing work will help to quantify surface and subsurface mixing within the near-stream saturated zone as well as identify controls on connectivity of surface and subsurface streamflow sources during rainfall events.

Frentress, J. J.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J. J.

2013-12-01

26

Adenine Synthesis in a Model Prebiotic Reaction: Connecting Origin of Life Chemistry with Biology  

PubMed Central

Many high school laboratory experiments demonstrate concepts related to biological evolution, but few exist that allow students to investigate life’s chemical origins. This series of laboratory experiments has been developed to allow students to explore and appreciate the deep connection that exists between prebiotic chemistry, chemical evolution, and contemporary biological systems. In the first experiment of the series, students synthesize adenine, one of the purine nucleobases of DNA and RNA, from plausibly prebiotic precursor molecules. Students compare their product to authentic standards using thin-layer chromatography. The second and third experiments of the series allow students to extract DNA from a familiar organism, the strawberry, and hydrolyze it, releasing adenine, which they can then compare to the previously chemically-synthesized adenine. A fourth, optional experiment is included where the technique of thin-layer chromatography is introduced and chromatographic skills are developed for use in the other three experiments that comprise this series. Concepts relating to organic and analytical chemistry, as well as biochemistry and DNA structure, are incorporated throughout, allowing this series of laboratory experiments to be easily inserted into existing laboratory courses and to reinforce concepts already included in any high school chemistry or biology curriculum. PMID:22075932

2011-01-01

27

Implications of hydrologic connectivity between hillslopes and riparian zones on streamflow composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological responses in mountainous headwater catchments are often highly non-linear with a distinct threshold-related behavior, which is associated to steep hillslopes, shallow soils and strong climatic variability. A holistic understanding of the dominant physical processes that control streamflow generation and non-linearity is required in order to assess potential negative effects of agricultural land use and water management in those areas. Therefore, streamflow generation in a small pre-Alpine headwater catchment (Upper Rietholzbach (URHB), ~ 1 km2) was analyzed over a 2-year period by means of rainfall-response analysis and water quality data under explicit consideration of the joint behaviors of climate forcing and shallow groundwater dynamics. The runoff coefficients indicate that only a small fraction of the total catchment area (1-26%) generates streamflow during rainfall events. Hereby, the valley bottom areas (riparian zones) were the most important event-water source whereas only the lower parts of the hillslopes became hydrologically connected to the river network with higher antecedent moisture conditions. However, a distinct threshold-like behavior could not be observed, suggesting a more continuous shift from a riparian-zone to a more hillslope-dominated streamflow hydrograph. Regular manure application on the hillslopes in combinations with lateral hillslope groundwater flux and long groundwater residence times in the riparian zones resulted in a higher mineralization (e.g., total phosphorous) and significant denitrification in the valley bottom area. Despite the important role of the riparian zones for event-flow generation in the URHB, their nutrient buffer capacity is expected to be small due to the low permeability of the local subsurface material. The findings of this integrated analysis are summarized in a conceptual framework describing the hydrological functioning of hillslopes and riparian zones in the URHB.

von Freyberg, Jana; Radny, Dirk; Gall, Heather E.; Schirmer, Mario

2014-11-01

28

Geometric Structure of 3D Spinal Curves: Plane Regions and Connecting Zones  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new study of the geometric structure of 3D spinal curves. The spine is considered as an heterogeneous beam, compound of vertebrae and intervertebral discs. The spine is modeled as a deformable wire along which vertebrae are beads rotating about the wire. 3D spinal curves are compound of plane regions connected together by zones of transition. The 3D spinal curve is uniquely flexed along the plane regions. The angular offsets between adjacent regions are concentrated at level of the middle zones of transition, so illustrating the heterogeneity of the spinal geometric structure. The plane regions along the 3D spinal curve must satisfy two criteria: (i) a criterion of minimum distance between the curve and the regional plane and (ii) a criterion controlling that the curve is continuously plane at the level of the region. The geometric structure of each 3D spinal curve is characterized by the sizes and orientations of regional planes, by the parameters representing flexed regions and by the sizes and functions of zones of transition. Spinal curves of asymptomatic subjects show three plane regions corresponding to spinal curvatures: lumbar, thoracic and cervical curvatures. In some scoliotic spines, four plane regions may be detected. PMID:25031873

Berthonnaud, E.; Hilmi, R.; Dimnet, J.

2012-01-01

29

Geometric Structure of 3D Spinal Curves: Plane Regions and Connecting Zones.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new study of the geometric structure of 3D spinal curves. The spine is considered as an heterogeneous beam, compound of vertebrae and intervertebral discs. The spine is modeled as a deformable wire along which vertebrae are beads rotating about the wire. 3D spinal curves are compound of plane regions connected together by zones of transition. The 3D spinal curve is uniquely flexed along the plane regions. The angular offsets between adjacent regions are concentrated at level of the middle zones of transition, so illustrating the heterogeneity of the spinal geometric structure. The plane regions along the 3D spinal curve must satisfy two criteria: (i) a criterion of minimum distance between the curve and the regional plane and (ii) a criterion controlling that the curve is continuously plane at the level of the region. The geometric structure of each 3D spinal curve is characterized by the sizes and orientations of regional planes, by the parameters representing flexed regions and by the sizes and functions of zones of transition. Spinal curves of asymptomatic subjects show three plane regions corresponding to spinal curvatures: lumbar, thoracic and cervical curvatures. In some scoliotic spines, four plane regions may be detected. PMID:25031873

Berthonnaud, E; Hilmi, R; Dimnet, J

2012-01-01

30

Connecting onshore structures in the Algarve with the southern Portuguese continental margin: The Carcavai fault zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Algarve is located a few hundred kilometres north of the crossing of the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary and is characterised by a moderate seismicity, with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing loss of lives and significant material damages. The area is affected not only by plate boundary generated earthquakes but also by local events capable of generating moderate to large earthquakes. The assessment of onshore local sources and its connections with the plate border is therefore of vital importance for an evaluation of the regional seismic hazard. This paper discusses the application of geophysical data to study a large fault zone which is the offshore prolonging of the Carcavai fault zone (CF), an onshore outcropping structure more than 20 km long which is seen to deform sediments of Plio-Quaternary age. Offshore and onshore aeromagnetic data, offshore gravimetric and seismic reflection data shows the existence of a long (over 200 km) WSW-ENE trending fault zone affecting the Palaeozoic basement with a normal geometry which is probably segmented by NNW-SSE to N-S faults. Seismic data shows that this fault zone has been reactivated as a left-lateral strike-slip fault and inverted in the Cenozoic with the upthrust of the northwestern block, in agreement with the onshore CF characteristics. Recent work carried out onshore and offshore near the coastline that shows deformation of Plio-Quaternary sediments suggests that this is an active fault. Some of the faults segments have instrumental seismicity associated. Though faults very rarely rupture along its entire length, several fault segments have a length of about 30 km and may produce an earthquake of magnitude about7. The proximity of the onshore segment to the city of Faro and of the offshore segments to the main population centres of the Algarve makes it a serious threat to the Algarve.

Carvalho, João; Matias, Hugo; Rabeh, Taha; Menezes, Paulo T. L.; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.; Dias, Ruben; Carrilho, Fernando

2012-10-01

31

Coupled effects of solution chemistry and hydrodynamics on the mobility and transport of quantum dot nanomaterials in the Vadose Zone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate the coupled effects of solution chemistry and vadose zone processes on the mobility of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, laboratory scale transport experiments were performed. The complex coupled effects of ionic strength, size of QD aggregates, surface tension, contact angle, infiltrat...

32

Introductory College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Stoichiometry: Connections between Conceptual and Computational Understandings and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies of college chemistry students have found a gap between students' success in solving computational chemistry problems and their success in solving conceptual chemistry problems. This paper examines college students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry, the particulate nature of matter, and chemistry problem solving. This…

Wolfer, Adam J.; Lederman, Norman G.

33

Connections  

MedlinePLUS

... Press Releases News Archives FCA Blog Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions Professional Inquiry Form Publication Order Form - A A + A You are here Home » Caregiver Connect Connections Newsletter Printer-friendly version FCA's Connections newsletter focuses on issues and information ...

34

Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of Lasuen Knoll. The eastern strand trends toward the Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ) as imaged offshore near Dana Point. These connections suggest that the CBFZ is linked at depth with other prominent fault zones to the north (PVFZ and NIFZ) as well as to the south (RCFZ).

Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

2003-12-01

35

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry, by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, M. Larry Peck, George G. Stanley published by Brooks/Cole, 2010.

36

Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report details the changes in the chemistry of pore water as it infiltrates areas undisturbed and disturbed by waste-disposal operations. The report (1) describes the techniques used to obtain representative samples of geologic materials and water from the unsaturated zone; (2) describes the chemistry of geologic materials and water in the unsaturated and saturated zones at off-site and on-site

C. A. Peters; R. G. Striegl; P. C. Mills; R. W. Healy

1993-01-01

37

Connecting Geometry and Chemistry: A Three-Step Approach to Three-Dimensional Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-step active-learning approach is described to enhance the spatial abilities of general chemistry students with respect to three-dimensional molecular drawing and visualization. These activities are used in a medium-sized lecture hall with approximately 150 students in the first semester of the general chemistry course. The first activity…

Donaghy, Kelley J.; Saxton, Kathleen J.

2012-01-01

38

Effects of carbon dioxide variations in the unsaturated zone on water chemistry in a glacial-outwash aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The research site at Otis Air Base, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has been developed for hydrogeological and geochemical studies of sewage-effluent contaminated groundwater since 1982. Research of hydrologic properties, transport, and chemical and biological processes is ongoing, but the origin of background water chemistry has not been determined. The principal geochemical process giving rise to the observed background water chemistry is CO2-controlled hydrolysis of Na feldspar. Geochemical modeling demonstrated that CO2 sources could vary over the project area. Analyses of unsaturated zone gases showed variations in CO2 which were dependent on land use and vegetative cover in the area of groundwater recharge. Measurements of CO2 in unsaturated-zone gases showed that concentrations of total inorganic C in recharge water should range from about 0.035 to 1.0 mmoles/L in the vicinity of Otis Air Base. Flux of CO2 from the unsaturated zone varied for a principal land uses, ranging from 86 gC/m2/yr for low vegetated areas to 1630 gC/m2/yr for a golf course. Carbon dioxide flux from woodlands was 220 gC/m2/yr, lower than reported fluxes of 500 to 600 gC/m2/yr for woodlands in a similar climate. Carbon dioxide flux from grassy areas was 540 gC/m2/yr, higher than reported fluxes of 230 to 490 gC/m2/yr for grasslands in a similar climate.

Lee, R.W.

1997-01-01

39

THE BASE OF THE CONVECTION ZONE AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC CYCLE: SEISMIC DETECTION OF THEIR CONNECTION  

E-print Network

495 THE BASE OF THE CONVECTION ZONE AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC CYCLE: SEISMIC DETECTION of the transition at the bot- tom of the solar convection zone, as determined from the periodic signal in the frequencies. Such measure- ments may allow us to establish whether and in what manner the deeper convection

Monteiro, Mário João

40

Investigating the Influence of Riparian Zone Geology on Stream Water Chemistry in the Scottish Highlands Using a GIS Framework.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciated watersheds of the Scottish highlands are characterized by high precipitation, resistant geologies, steep hillslopes and thin acidic soils. Streams draining these watersheds are often prone to "acid-episodes" during frequent high flow events which can result in damage to salmon fisheries, particularly in areas subject to forest management. Traditional hydrological studies assumed that such watersheds are dominated by rapid, near-surface hydrological pathways and have limited groundwater influence. However, recent hydrometric and tracer-based process investigations in experimental watersheds have shown that groundwater makes a significant contribution to streamflow generation even during hydrological events. Moreover, it exerts a strong influence on stream water chemistry throughout the storm hydrograph, often buffering the effects of acid soil waters. The riparian zones of watersheds in these areas are usually distinct topographic features in the landscape. They are clearly differentiated from surrounding hillslopes in terms of drift geology, soils and vegetation. This differentiation is usually apparent in the riparian zones of streams draining watersheds that vary in size from ca. 1km2 to ca. 2000km2. Thus, at a range of spatial scales, hillslope waters appear to be hydraulically de-coupled from the channel network and must pass through the riparian zone, usually via subsurface flow paths, on route to streams. To examine more extensively the influence of riparian zones on stream hydrochemistry, a GIS was used to combine geospatial data sets and simple hydrological models at a range of scales within a large Scottish watershed. The study, based in the 2300km2 Dee catchment in NE Scotland, found that digitized geological maps and associated weathering indices provided a suitable framework for predicting water quality parameters associated with weathering and acid sensitivity (alkalinity, Ca and other base cations). In particular, it was found that the geochemistry of the riparian zone geology, when combined with a simple hydrological flow path model within the GIS, could predict stream water chemistry at a range of flows (zone mixes with, and is displaced by, hillslope water during hydrological events. This work highlights the critical role that the riparian zone plays in the functioning of Scottish watershed ecosystems. It also provides a GIS-based methodology that has potential in watershed management both in terms of guiding forestry operations and fisheries protection in acid-sensitive systems.

Soulsby, C.; Smart, R.; Cresser, M.; Wade, A.

2001-12-01

41

Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

Grush, Mary, Ed.

2006-01-01

42

Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean has altered carbonate chemistry in surface waters since pre-industrial times and is expected to continue to do so in the coming centuries. Changes in carbonate chemistry can modify the rates and fates of marine primary production and calcification. These modifications can in turn lead to feed-backs on increasing atmospheric CO2. We show

Alberto V. Borges; Gypens Nathalie

2010-01-01

43

For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

2010-01-01

44

Investigating Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Connections in a College-Level General Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to…

Thadison, Felicia Culver

2011-01-01

45

Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

1987-01-01

46

The recoil transfer chamber—An interface to connect the physical preseparator TASCA with chemistry and counting setups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performing experiments with transactinide elements demands highly sensitive detection methods due to the extremely low production rates (one -atom -at -a -time conditions). Preseparation with a physical recoil separator is a powerful method to significantly reduce the background in experiments with sufficiently long-lived isotopes ( t1/2?0.5 s). In the last years, the new gas-filled TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) was installed and successfully commissioned at GSI. Here, we report on the design and performance of a Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC) for TASCA—an interface to connect various chemistry and counting setups with the separator. Nuclear reaction products recoiling out of the target are separated according to their magnetic rigidity within TASCA, and the wanted products are guided to the focal plane of TASCA. In the focal plane, they pass a thin Mylar window that separates the ˜1 mbar atmosphere in TASCA from the RTC kept at ˜1 bar. The ions are stopped in the RTC and transported by a continuous gas flow from the RTC to the ancillary setup. In this paper, we report on measurements of the transportation yields under various conditions and on the first chemistry experiments at TASCA—an electrochemistry experiment with osmium and an ion exchange experiment with the transactinide element rutherfordium.

Even, J.; Ballof, J.; Brüchle, W.; Buda, R. A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Gorshkov, A.; Gromm, E.; Hild, D.; Jäger, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Liebe, D.; Mendel, M.; Nayak, D.; Opel, K.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Reichert, P.; Runke, J.; Sabelnikov, A.; Samadani, F.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Scheid, N.; Schimpf, E.; Semchenkov, A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Toyoshima, A.; Türler, A.; Vicente Vilas, V.; Wiehl, N.; Wunderlich, T.; Yakushev, A.

2011-05-01

47

Connecting Active Subduction to Aseismic Remnant Slabs: Evolution of Petrologic Anomalies in the Mantle Transition Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of slab penetration through the mantle transition zone (TZ) is a key issue in mantle convection and geochemical mixing. For the most part, both proponents and opponents of deep slab penetration have relied upon the detection of high seismic wave speeds as evidence for regions of low temperature, a proxy for subducted material. For instance, under the Northern

M. R. Brudzinski; W. Chen; R. Pillet; T. Tseng

2005-01-01

48

Stream-upland connectivity through the riparian zone: lessons learned and future research needs (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian zones act both as a conduit and a buffer for water and solutes as they transit from the upland environment to the stream. However, the traditional view of riparian hydrological functioning whereby the flow of water and solutes is generally from upland to stream has recently been challenged in some settings. For instance, in large outwash floodplains of the US Midwest, streams and rivers can have a dominant influence on riparian water table dynamics and associated biogeochemistry (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, mercury). In glacial till settings of the US Northeast, stream meander curvature has been shown to have a large impact on near stream zone hydrology and biogeochemistry. In the US southeast, stream restoration practices have far reaching impacts in the near stream zone. This talk will provide a framework to conceptualize riparian function as a function of stream channel morphology and landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics. The implications of this work on riparian zone hydrology and biogeochemistry within the context of stream restoration and watershed management will be discussed along with key research needs for years to come.

Vidon, P.

2013-12-01

49

Water chemistry and plankton composition in the mixing zone of the Selenga River with Lake Baikal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and inter-annual variations of chemical components, bacterio- and phytoplankton and autotrophic picoplankton (APP) were studied in the distributaries of the Selenga River, Selenga shallow waters (Selenga shoal) and Lake Baikal for 2003-2013. Major variations in the chemical composition of river waters were recorded at a distance of 1-3 km off the mouths of the Selenga River distributaries (mixing zone). The total quantity of major ions and plankton composition and abundance served as indicators to distinguish between river and lake waters. Phytoplankton concentration was high in the mixing zone and caused the reduction of nutrients in this area. Changes in species composition of phytoplankton, APP, dominant groups of bacterioplankton were observed in the Selenga shoal. River phytoplankton prevailed near the mouths of distributaries, in the mixing zone these were replaced by lake species, and at a distance of 7 km offshore phytoplankton composition was typical of Lake Baikal. Organotrophic microorganisms dominated in the Selenga River water. In the mixing zone, all bacterial groups were represented in equal proportions. Oligotrophic and psychrotolerant bacteria prevailed in Lake Baikal. As the distance from the river delta increased, phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria were replaced by phycoerythrin-rich picocyanobacteria and the contribution of picoplankton biomass to total phytoplankton biomass was raised. Near the mouth of distributaries, APP biomass was 5 times lower than the phytoplankton biomass whilst at a distance of 7 km it was 2 times higher than typical values for Baikal phytoplankton.

Tomberg, Irina; Sorokovikova, larisa; Popovskaya, Galina; Belykh, Olga; Bashenkhaeva, Nadya; Parfenova, Valentina

2014-05-01

50

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org | 9002011, Vol. 10 Stream Water Chemistry along  

E-print Network

for at least some biogeochemical processes when there is a switch from the snow to rain transition in annual of biogeochemical cycling with increasing air temperature at lower elevations. However, the low-elevation catchment, acid-neutralizing capacity; BAR, Barker Reservoir site; BC-CZO, Boul- der Creek Critical Zone

Williams, Mark W.

51

APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR CONNECTIVITY INDEXES AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a data matrix of 90 variables calculated from molecular connectivity indices for 19,972 chemicals in the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) inventory of industrial chemicals. The first three principal components convey generalized information on chemica...

52

Interactions Between Diffuse Groundwater Recharge and Hyporheic Zone Chemistry in Spring-Fed River: Implications for Metal, Nutrient & Carbonate Cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse groundwater flow through stream-bed sediments can represent water with a chemically distinct composition, influencing elemental cycling and ecosystem dynamics. Diffuse flow may be particularly important in systems where hyporheic exchange is small. The entirely spring-sourced Ichetucknee River (north-central Florida) is a model system for distinguishing the processes controlling solute sources and cycling due to its stable discharge (6-9 m3/s), constant but distinct spring chemistry through time, and minimal hyporheic exchange. Most stream solute concentrations exhibit large diel cycles, but these changes do not explain all observed longitudinal changes in river chemistry. Ca, Fe, and PO4 concentrations are all elevated in river water over the flow-weighted average of the source springs (Ca = 1.37 vs 1.31 mM; Fe = 8 vs. 0.4 ?g/L; PO4 = 54 vs. 49 ?g/L) despite evidence of in-stream removal of these solutes by biotic and abiotic processes. Cl concentrations are also elevated in the river over the spring sources and previous calculations estimated an additional 0.75 m3/s of water was needed to close the Cl budget of the river. Diffuse groundwater flow could be the source of these additional solutes and flow. To estimate the impact of diffuse flow interacting with hyporheic zone chemistry on the metal, nutrient, and carbonate chemistry of the Ichetucknee River we compared the chemistry of the springs and river with measurements of pore-water chemistry and hydraulic gradients within the unconsolidated channel sediments. A cross-river transect of four pore-water chemical profiles indicate that pore-water chemistry is dominated by the mineralization of organic carbon, resulting in pore-waters undersaturated with respect to calcite and elevated in Ca, Fe, and PO4 concentrations (ca. 1.44 mM, 2000 ?g/L, and 150-300 ?g/L, respectively) relative to the river. A diffuse flow rate through the river sediments of 0.2-0.7 m3/s, would account for the addition of both PO4 and Ca in the river, and is comparable with previous calculations based on the Cl budget. This flow rate would cause Fe concentrations of the river to exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the measured Fe concentrations. However, most of this Fe is likely oxidized at the sediment-water interface as it reaches the water column and thus sequestered as solid Fe-oxides. Hydraulic heads in the pore-waters, measured at 70-140 cm deep stilling wells co-located with the chemical profiles, are consistently higher in the pore-waters relative to the river (?h = 6-9 cm), confirming that diffuse flow could be contributing to the river. Diffuse flow calculated from these vertical head gradients and measurements of hydraulic conductivity indicate a maximum flow rate of only 0.06 m3/s, when integrated across the area of the stream bed. The discrepancy between the hydrology- and solute-based flow rates likely results from heterogeneity in the river-groundwater flow system resulting from features such as channel incision into the river sediments and higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivities in the sediment. This heterogeneity in diffuse flow illustrates the necessity of applying a range of hydrologic and geochemical techniques when estimating diffuse groundwater inputs to streams.

Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cohen, M.

2012-12-01

53

Chemical Fluxes in Subduction Zones: Implications for Forearc and Ocean Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction zone pore fluid chemical and isotopic profiles and recent modeling of the fluid flow regimes and solute fluxes indicate rapid and intense altration of the accreted and subducted sediments and mostly episodic expulsion of considerably altered seawater (pore water) into the ocean. Fluid flow is along higher permeability conduits. The extent of altration and the fluid fluxes involved vary, they depend on the type of sediments involved, the ratio of accreted to subducted sediments, the subduction rate, the thermal regime, and the geophysical properties of the subduction zone. The important diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions which modify the fluid compositions, and concurrently the physical and thermal properties of the solids through which they flow are: bacterial and thermal degradation of organic matter; carbonate precipitation and recrystallization; formation and dissociation of gas hydrates; dehydration and transformation of hydrous minerals, especially of clay minerals and opal-A; volcanic ash hydration and alteration, principally zeolitization and smectite formation; and higher temperatures hydrous silicates formation. These fluid-sediment diagenetic and low-grade methemorphic reactions alter the sediment properties of the subduction system. The degree to which these fluid regimes influence the global chemical and isotopic systems, for example the seawater and mantle Cl isotopic compositions, are significant for some components and insignificant for others. An evaluation of the fluid fluxes and associated Li, Cl, Sr, Ca, and Mg chemical and or isotopic budgets will be considered, assuming that the ocean is circulating through the global subduction zones once in 200 to 300 million years. The fluid-sediment reactions and fluid and solutes expelled may alter the bulk chemical composition of the underthrust sediments. If so, it would alter the original concentrations of some typical sediment signatures in volcanic arcs.

Kastner, M.; Martin, J.; Deyhle, A.

2001-12-01

54

Comparative mineral chemistry and textures of SAFOD fault gouge and damage-zone rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Creep in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drillhole is localized to two foliated gouges, the central deforming zone (CDZ) and southwest deforming zone (SDZ). The gouges consist of porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock dispersed in a foliated matrix of Mg-smectite clays that formed as a result of shearing-enhanced reactions between the serpentinite and quartzofeldspathic rocks. The CDZ takes up most of the creep and exhibits differences in mineralogy and texture from the SDZ that are attributable to its higher shearing rate. In addition, a ?0.2-m-wide sector of the CDZ at its northeastern margin (NE-CDZ) is identical to the SDZ and may represent a gradient in creep rate across the CDZ. The SDZ and NE-CDZ have lower clay contents and larger porphyroclasts than most of the CDZ, and they contain veinlets and strain fringes of calcite in the gouge matrix not seen elsewhere in the CDZ. Matrix clays in the SDZ and NE-CDZ are saponite and corrensite, whereas the rest of the CDZ lacks corrensite. Saponite is younger than corrensite, reflecting clay crystallization under declining temperatures, and clays in the more actively deforming portions of the CDZ have better equilibrated to the lower-temperature conditions.

Moore, Diane E.

2014-01-01

55

Comparative mineral chemistry and textures of SAFOD fault gouge and damage-zone rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drillhole is localized to two foliated gouges, the central deforming zone (CDZ) and southwest deforming zone (SDZ). The gouges consist of porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock dispersed in a foliated matrix of Mg-smectite clays that formed as a result of shearing-enhanced reactions between the serpentinite and quartzofeldspathic rocks. The CDZ takes up most of the creep and exhibits differences in mineralogy and texture from the SDZ that are attributable to its higher shearing rate. In addition, a ?0.2-m-wide sector of the CDZ at its northeastern margin (NE-CDZ) is identical to the SDZ and may represent a gradient in creep rate across the CDZ. The SDZ and NE-CDZ have lower clay contents and larger porphyroclasts than most of the CDZ, and they contain veinlets and strain fringes of calcite in the gouge matrix not seen elsewhere in the CDZ. Matrix clays in the SDZ and NE-CDZ are saponite and corrensite, whereas the rest of the CDZ lacks corrensite. Saponite is younger than corrensite, reflecting clay crystallization under declining temperatures, and clays in the more actively deforming portions of the CDZ have better equilibrated to the lower-temperature conditions.

Moore, Diane E.

2014-11-01

56

For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

2010-06-01

57

Chemistry, isotopic composition, and origin of a methane-hydrogen sulfide hydrate at the Cascadia subduction zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the presence of extensive gas hydrate on the Cascadia margin, offshore from the western U.S. and Canada, has been inferred from marine seismic records and pore water chemistry, solid gas hydrate has only been found at one location. At Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892, offshore from central Oregon, gas hydrate was recovered close to the sediment - water interface at 2-19 m below the seafloor, (mbsf) at 670 m water depth. The gas hydrate occurs as elongated platy crystals or crystal aggregates, mostly disseminated irregularly, with higher concentrations occurring in discrete zones, thin layers, and/or veinlets parallel or oblique to the bedding. A 2-to 3-cm thick massive gas hydrate layer, parallel to bedding, was recovered at ???17 mbsf. Gas from a sample of this layer was composed of both CH4 and H2S. This sample is the first mixed-gas hydrate of CH4-H2S documented in ODP; it also contains ethane and minor amounts of CO2. Measured temperature of the recovered core ranged from 2 to - 18??C and are 6 to 8 degrees lower than in-situ temperatures. These temperature anomalies were caused by the partial dissociation of the CH4-H2S hydrate during recovery without a pressure core sampler. During this dissociation, toxic levels of H2S (??34S, +27.4???) were released. The ??13C values of the CH4 in the gas hydrate, -64.5 to -67.5???(PDB), together with ??D values of - 197 to - 199???(SMOW) indicate a primarily microbial source for the CH4. The ??18O value of the hydrate H2O is +2.9???(SMOW), comparable with the experimental fractionation factor for sea-ice. The unusual composition (CH4-H2S) and depth distribution (2-19 mbsf) of this gas hydrate indicate mixing between a methane-rich fluid with a pore fluid enriched in sulfide; at this site the former is advecting along an inclined fault into the active sulfate reduction zone. The facts that the CH4-H2S hydrate is primarily confined to the present day active sulfate reduction zone (2-19 mbsf), and that from here down to the BSR depth (19-68 mbsf) the gas hydrate inferred to exist is a ???99% CH4 hydrate, suggest that the mixing of CH4 and H2S is a geologically young process. Because the existence of a mixed CH4-H2S hydrate is indicative of moderate to intense advection of a methane-rich fluid into a near surface active sulfate reduction zone, technically active (faulted) margins with organic-rich sediments and moderate to high sedimentation rates are the most likely regions of occurrence. The extension of such a mixed hydrate below the sulfate reduction zone should reflect the time-span of methane advection into the sulfate reduction zone. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Kastner, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

1998-01-01

58

Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote better understanding of students' ideas and her mindset shifted to place more value on the diversity of students' thinking and help them be more aware of their ideas. This study illustrates the complexities of enacting formative assessment practices in particular classrooms because teachers may interpret and use these tools in different ways. Thus, when teachers enacted these mediating tools, their interaction with the activity system's components produced different instructional outcomes and tensions. Similarly, this study describes how the use of artifacts of practice can be a vehicle between professional development and classrooms, especially in early stages of professional development. This study presents implications for professional development and formative assessment research and practice. Professional development needs to support teachers in reflecting on their practice in terms of activity systems, use a solid and research-based understanding of formative assessment, and promote opportunities to teachers to create, enact, and reflect on formative assessment artifacts and tools.

Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

59

Fluid Chemistry Dynamics Before and After Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest wildfire in New Mexico state history (prior to the Whitewater-Baldy fire of 2012) burned the eastern portion of the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (JRB CZO) in June-July 2011. This Los Conchas fire burned large stands of ponderosa pine and mixed conifer (MC) forest within the East Fork Jemez River watershed generating massive post-fire erosion. We asked the question: What are the implications of wildfire on pulsed carbon and other bio-active element redistributions in impacted soils and catchments? As soon as possible following the fire, our research group installed sensor and sampler instrumentation in soil profiles in an intensively burned zero order basin (ZOB), enabling the initiation of comparisons to a similarly instrumented, unburned MC ZOB. The signal of biomass combustion was propagated through soil and stream. Post-burn solute fluxes were dominated by highly-aromatic character DOM, as well as elevated DIC, sulfate, chloride and non-hydrolyzing cation (Ca, Mg, K) concentrations deriving from biomass combustion. Supporting an apparent trend of increasing wildfire in western montane forests, the Thompson Ridge wildfire burned MC forest throughout much of the western previously unburned portion of the Valles Caldera National Preserve in June 2013, including the (until then) "unburned" MC ZOB sites comprising CZO sensor and sampler network arrays. Post-burn soil samples were collected for geochemical, physical, and microbial composition characterizations. Solute and gas fluxes were monitored in situ to compare CZ response following this high intensity burn to three years of pre-burn data. Results indicate that the post-fire pulse of water soluble, biomass-derived ions and carbon into underlying and downslope soils is generating landscape-scale element distribution that could affect recolonization by biota in the ensuing secondary succession.

Chorover, J.; Perdrial, J. N.; Field, J. P.; Pelletier, J. D.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Losleben, M. V.; Lasharr, K.; Amistadi, M.; Brooks, P. D.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Gallery, R.; Rich, V. I.; Rasmussen, C.; Schaap, M. G.; Breshears, D. D.

2013-12-01

60

Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide  

PubMed Central

Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 ?M, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h?1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

2012-01-01

61

Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites  

SciTech Connect

Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4} precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days. Carbon mass balance, with the consideration of particle inventory changes included, indicated that over 98% and 96% of primary produced C{sub org} was remineralized shallower than 500 m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Production of CaCO3 was estimated to be {approx}0.06, 0.89 and 0.02 mmols m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at ALOHA and at K2 during two separate week long study periods, respectively. Similarly, Si production was estimated to be {approx}0.08, 10.7, and 4.2 mols m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. An estimated 50% and 65% of produced Si was remineralized by 500m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Little carbonate dissolution was seen in the upper 500 m at ALOHA, a reflection of 400% super saturation of surface waters and the 700 m deep saturation horizon. Over 92% of produced CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved shallower than 500 m at K2 and biological enhancement of dissolution was readily apparent in waters above the 200 m calcite saturation horizon.

Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.

2008-03-25

62

Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by ˜100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting 3 weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75°N 158°W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47 °N 161°E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C org, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 ?m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C org and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient ( C P) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 ?M m -1 conversion factor. At K2, C P profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed ˜40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 ?m C org of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 ?m C org, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 ?m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO 4 precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days. Carbon mass balance, with the consideration of particle inventory changes included, indicated that over 98% and 96% of primary produced C org was remineralized shallower than 500 m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Production of CaCO 3 was estimated to be ˜0.06, 0.89, and 0.02 mmol m -2 d -1 at ALOHA and at K2 during two separate week long study periods, respectively. Similarly, Si production was estimated to be ˜0.08, 10.7, and 4.2 mol m -2 d -1. An estimated 50% and 65% of produced Si was remineralized by 500 m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Little carbonate dissolution was seen in the upper 500 m at ALOHA, a reflection of 400% super saturation of surface waters and the 700 m deep saturation horizon. Over 92% of produced CaCO 3 was dissolved shallower than 500 m at K2 and biological enhancement of dissolution was readily apparent in waters above the 200 m calcite saturation horizon.

Bishop, James K. B.; Wood, T. J.

2008-12-01

63

The trace and Pb isotope chemistry of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone and the extinct Aegir Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinct Aegir Ridge (AR) was active during the early opening of the N-Atlantic, 54 to 25 Ma, when spreading jumped to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. Crustal thickness produced by the AR is low (3.5 to 6 km), and the magmatically starved Norway Basin appears as a hole in the surrounding excess volcanism of the Iceland hotspot. Two possible alternatives are; either the lithospheric structure of the Jan Mayen micro-continent (JMMC) blocked the plume flow to the AR, and/or Iceland plume material reaching the ridge experienced a previous melt extraction, leading to relatively low melt production. We report the trace element and Pb isotope systematics of the mafic rocks dredged from the AR ~64-69° N and adjacent Jan Mayen FZ. On the basis of the immobile trace element chemistry, several groups are identified, with a large range of Zr/Nb (2.7-60.7). A very-depleted group ([Ce/Yb]N = 0.3) was found in the Jan Mayen FZ, while the most enriched, OIB-like group ([Ce/Yb]N = 12.4) was recovered from the ridge flank scarps. A notable feature of the Aegir samples is variable Th enrichment relative Nb (Th/Nb = 0.07-0.49), similar to subduction zone signatures. In terms of Pb isotopes, the samples show significant variations that correlate with trace element chemistry (206Pb/204Pb: 207Pb/204Pb: 208Pb/204Pb = 16.63-18.81:15.16-15.55:36.67-38.62). The Pb systematics of the Aegir rocks are compatible with a three-component mixing model with mixing trends between the C-like Iceland plume component and a mixture that is composed of EM-1-type material and depleted MORB asthenosphere. The presence of the C-like isotope compositions in the Aegir samples from the Jan Mayen FZ and ridge flank scarps suggests that Iceland plume material has been tapped. However, the very-depleted trace element signatures indicate that the plume component was previously melt depleted. Apparently, the JMMC impeaded flow of enriched plume material to the AR. The Aegir rocks Pb isotope signature may represent pollution of the NA MORB source, during early opening of the ocean basin, by material dispersed during interaction of the Iceland plume and the continental lithosphere.

Sayit, K.; Hanan, B. B.; Ito, G.; Howell, S. M.; Vogt, P. R.; Breivik, A. J.; Mjelde, R.; Pedersen, R.

2012-12-01

64

Storm-associated hydrodynamics drive transient solute and redox chemistry within the floodplain aquifer and hyporheic zone of a piedmont stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian and hyporheic zones are dynamic settings where fluctuations in pore water flow influence redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes and solute transport. We instrumented a riparian-hyporheic zone transect with pressure transducers, redox probes, and pore water samplers to measure hydrology, redox potential, and water chemistry before, during and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. The transect spanned opposing, topographically distinct floodplains, consisting of a broad, flat western side and narrow, steep eastern side. The water table on both sides of the stream rose rapidly with rising stage and promoted continuous groundwater discharge to the stream throughout the storm hydrograph. Soil moisture and oxygen isotope data suggest that preferential recharge through macropores drove the rapid water table response. Macropore flow was also implicated in the delivery of oxygenated, carbon-rich water from the land surface into the floodplain aquifer, driving a shift in redox conditions at depth. Groundwater chemistry changed dramatically: DOC concentrations increased while nitrate and metal concentrations decreased. Greater shifts in groundwater chemistry occurred on the steep eastern side and required more time to reestablish after the storm. The eastern floodplain aquifer also drained more rapidly. Topographic variations across the floodplain transect influenced fluid flow paths and residence times that ultimately controlled the spatial and temporal dynamics of groundwater biogeochemistry. Use of paired sensors such as redox and pressure sensors can improve our understanding of hydrobiogeochemical dynamics during storms.

Sawyer, A. H.; Kaplan, L. A.; Lazareva, O.; Michael, H. A.

2013-12-01

65

Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on- site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rain water or snowmelt changed to an ionic canposition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The methods of constructing, installing, and sampling with lysimeters were evaluated to ensure data reliability. These evaluations indicate that, with respect to most constituents, the samples retrieved from the lysimeters accurately represented pore-water chemistry.

Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

1992-01-01

66

Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Ill. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal, naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on-site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rainwater or snowmelt changed to an ionic composition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The methods of constructing, installing, and sampling with lysimeters were evaluated to ensure data reliability. These evaluations indicate that, with respect to most constituents, the samples retrieved from the lysimeters accurately represented pore-water chemistry.

Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

1992-01-01

67

Riparian zone influence on stream water chemistry at different spatial scales: a GIS-based modelling approach, an example for the Dee, NE Scotland.  

PubMed

A geographical information system (GIS-ARC/INFO) was used to collate existing spatial data sets on catchment characteristics to predict stream water quality using simple empirical models. The study, based on the river Dee catchment in NE Scotland, found that geological maps and associated geochemical information provided a suitable framework for predicting chemical parameters associated with acidification sensitivity (including alkalinity and base cation concentrations). In particular, it was found that in relatively undisturbed catchments, the parent material and geochemistry of the riparian zone, when combined with a simple hydrological flow path model, could be used to accurately predict stream water chemistry at a range of flows (Q95 to > Q5) and spatial scales (1-1000 km2). This probably reflects the importance of the riparian zone as an area where hydrological inputs to stream systems occur via flow paths in the soil and groundwater zones. Thus, evolution of drainage water chemistry appears to retain the geochemical characteristics of the riparian area as it enters the channel network. In more intensively managed catchments, riparian land use is a further influential factor, which can be incorporated into models to improve predictions for certain base cations. The utility in providing simple hydrochemical models, based on readily available data sets, to assist environmental managers in planning land use in catchment systems is discussed. PMID:11763266

Smart, R P; Soulsby, C; Cresser, M S; Wade, A J; Townend, J; Billett, M F; Langan, S

2001-12-01

68

Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: The case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed fluid geochemistry studies on hydrothermal quartz veins from the Rouyn-Noranda and Val-d'Or areas along the transcrustal Cadillac Tectonic Zone (CTZ) indicate that unmineralized (with respect to gold) sections of the CTZ contained a distinct CO2-dominated, H2S-poor hydrothermal fluid. In contrast, both gold mineralized sections of the CTZ (e.g., at Orenada #2) and associated higher order shear zones have a H2O-CO2 ?? CH4-NaCl hydrothermal fluid. Their CO2/H2S ratios indicate H2S-rich compositions. The Br/Cl compositions in fluid inclusions trapped in these veins indicate that hydrothermal fluids have been equilibrated with the crust. Oxygen isotope ratios from hydrothermal quartz veins in the CTZ are consistently 2??? more enriched than those of associated higher order shear zones, which are interpreted to be a function of greater fluid/rock ratios in the CTZ and lower fluid/rock ratios, and more efficient equilibration of the hydrothermal fluid with the wall rock, in higher order shear zones. An implication from this study is that the lower metal endowment of the transcrustal CTZ, when compared with the higher metal endowment in higher order shear zones (ratio of about 1 : 1000), may be the result of the lack of significant amounts of H2O-H2S rich fluids in most of the CTZ. In contrast, gold mineralization in the higher order shear zones appear to be controlled by the high H2S activity of the aqueous fluids, because gold was likely transported in a bisulfide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wall rock and phase separation in the quartz veins. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Banks, D.A.; Yardley, B.W.D.; Couture, J.-F.; Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.

2007-01-01

69

33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Captain of the Port (COTP) North Carolina. (1) Red warning flags or red warning lights will be displayed on towers located at both ends of the safety zone (Bear Creek and Cedar Point) while firing exercises are in...

2014-07-01

70

33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Captain of the Port (COTP) North Carolina. (1) Red warning flags or red warning lights will be displayed on towers located at both ends of the safety zone (Bear Creek and Cedar Point) while firing exercises are in...

2011-07-01

71

33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Captain of the Port (COTP) Wilmington. (1) Red warning flags or red warning lights will be displayed on towers located at both ends of the safety zone (Bear Creek and Cedar Point) while firing exercises are in...

2010-07-01

72

33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Captain of the Port (COTP) North Carolina. (1) Red warning flags or red warning lights will be displayed on towers located at both ends of the safety zone (Bear Creek and Cedar Point) while firing exercises are in...

2012-07-01

73

33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Captain of the Port (COTP) North Carolina. (1) Red warning flags or red warning lights will be displayed on towers located at both ends of the safety zone (Bear Creek and Cedar Point) while firing exercises are in...

2013-07-01

74

Making every SAR point count: the development of Chemistry Connect for the large-scale integration of structure and bioactivity data.  

PubMed

The increase in drug research output from patent applications, together with the expansion of public data collections, such as ChEMBL and PubChem BioAssay, has made it essential for pharmaceutical companies to integrate both internal and external 'SAR estate'. The AstraZeneca response has been the development of an enterprise application, Chemistry Connect, containing 45 million unique chemical structures from 18 internal and external data sources. It includes merged compound-to-assay-to-result-to-target relationships extracted from patents, papers and internal data. Users can explore connections between these by searching using drug names or synonyms, chemical structures, patent numbers and target protein identifiers at a scale not previously available. PMID:22024215

Muresan, Sorel; Petrov, Plamen; Southan, Christopher; Kjellberg, Magnus J; Kogej, Thierry; Tyrchan, Christian; Varkonyi, Peter; Xie, Paul Hongxing

2011-12-01

75

General Chemistry: Expanding the Learning Outcomes and Promoting Interdisciplinary Connections through the Use of a Semester-Long Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked…

Wenzel, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

76

Connection between Cell Phone use, p53 Gene Expression in Different Zones of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Survival Prognoses  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in patients who use cell phones ?3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females), diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size), as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65%) with the highest level of cell phone use (?3 hours/day) had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034). Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ?3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ?3 hours a day. PMID:25276320

Akhavan-Sigari, Reza; Baf, Morteza Mazloum Farsi; Ariabod, Vahid; Rohde, Veit; Rahighi, Saeed

2014-01-01

77

Vadose Zone Processes and Chemical Transport Effects of Spent Mushroom Substrate Weathering on the Chemistry of Underlying Soils  

E-print Network

that the but did alter soil pH, and significantly increased EC, WSOC, and top 0.9 m of soil may retain from 20, Ca,indicating that these soils may have little capacity for retaining and P levels were significantly on the Chemistry of Underlying Soils Mingxin Guo, Jon Chorover,* and Richard H. Fox ABSTRACT mushroom production

Chorover, Jon

78

Atmospheric Chemistry on Planets in the Habitable Zone of F, G, K and M Main Sequence Stars (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric chemistry of a planet is mainly driven by the UV radiation received from its parent star. Given a constant surface production of a biogenic compound (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide) on a planet, the concentration of that compound in the planetary atmosphere will mostly depend on the photochemistry. This is relevant for the characterization of habitable planets using planned

A. Segura; V. S. Meadows; J. F. Kasting; L. Walkowicz; M. Cohen

2009-01-01

79

PROGRESS REPORT. DNAPL SURFACE CHEMISTRY: ITS IMPACT ON DNAPL DISTRIBUTION IN THE VADOSE ZONE AND ITS MANIPULATION TO ENHANCE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis of this work is that surface-active chemicals and/or microorganisms present in the unsaturated zone can significantly alter interfacial phenomena governing the migration of DNAPLs, thereby affecting the accessibility of a DNAPL during remediation efforts. T...

80

ANNUAL REPORT. DNAPL SURFACE CHEMISTRY: ITS IMPACT ON DNAPL DISTRIBUTION IN THE VADOSE ZONE AND ITS MANIPULATION TO ENHANCE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis of this work is that surface-active chemicals and/or microorganisms present in the unsaturated zone can significantly alter interfacial phenomena governing the migration of DNAPLs, thereby affecting the accessibility of a DNAPL during remediation efforts. T...

81

DNAPL Surface Chemistry: Its Impact on DNAPL Distribution in the Vadose Zone and its Manipulation to Enhance Remediation  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of DNAPLs in subsurface environments is often limited by the heterogeneous distribution of the organic fluid. The fraction of DNAPL that is in the high conductivity regions of the subsurface can often be recovered relatively easily, although DNAPL in lower conductivity regions is much more difficult to extract, either through direct pumping or remediation measures based on interface mass transfer. The distribution of DNAPL within the vadose zone is affected by a complex interplay of heterogeneities in the porous matrix and the interfacial properties defining the interactions among all fluid and solid phases. Decreasing the interfacial tension between a DNAPL and water in the vadose zone could change the spreading of the DNAPL, thereby increase the surface area for mass transfer and the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation.

Suan Power; Stefan Grimberg; Miles Denham

2003-06-16

82

Connected operators and pyramids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the notion of connected operators in the context of mathematical morphology. In the case of gray level functions, the flat zones over a space E are defined as the largest connected components of E on which the function is constant (a flat zone may be reduced to a single point). Hence, the flat zones of every

Jean C. Serra; Philippe Salembier

1993-01-01

83

Limits to magma mixing based on chemistry and mineralogy of pumice fragments erupted from a chemically zoned magma body  

SciTech Connect

The chemical variation among pumice fragments from the Pahute Mesa Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain volcanic center, southwestern Nevada) is consistent with magma withdrawal from a chemically zoned magma body. The top of this magma body contained little chemical variations, the lowest concentration of light REEs, and the highest concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, heavy REEs, and Th. The pumice fragments derived from the top of the magma body contain nearly pure ferrohedenbergite and fayalite. The next discrete zone in the magma body contained lower SiO/sub 2/, heavy REEs, and Th concentrations, and very high concentrations of light REEs. The lowest erupted layer contained relatively low concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, Th, and light and heavy REEs. Pumice fragments with polymodal disequilibrium phenocryst populations are a priori evidence of magma mixing. The magma mixing process is constrained by: the systematic vertical distribution of chemically distinct pumice fragments throughout the ash-flow sheet; the presence of disequilibrium phenocrysts within some pumice fragments in all but the lowermost part of the sheet; and the presence of compositionally uniform glass in most pumice fragments, including those with widely varying phenocryst compositions. Negligible mixing occurred at the top of the magma body; limited mixing occurred in the second and third layers. Because mixing did not destroy the original layering, the amount of guest magma must have been small. In order for unzoned disequilibrium phenocrysts to not become zoned, they must have been preserved in the magma body only a short time. And yet, in order to produce the homogeneous liquid that surrounds these phenocrysts, mechanical mixing must have been very efficient. 44 references.

Vogel, T.A.; Ryerson, F.J.; Noble, D.C.; Younker, L.W.

1987-09-01

84

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 2. Influence of fluid chemistry on flow and functionally connected pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedding-parallel permeability of illite-rich shale of the Wilcox formation has been investigated using distilled water and 1 M solutions of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 as pore fluids. Despite low modal concentrations of swelling clays, specimens expand upon fluid saturation and permeabilities depend on fluid composition. Permeabilities to flow of 1 M CaCl2 are 3-5 times greater than values measured for the other pore fluids, suggesting sensitivity to exchange of divalent cations for monovalent cations at clay mineral surfaces. Permeabilities of individual samples exhibit nonrecoverable changes with sequential changes in composition of incoming fluid. Permeabilities k at varying effective pressure Pe fit a cubic law k = k0 [1 - (Pe/P1)m]3, where m and P1 are independent of fluid composition, and k0 is greater for transport of 1 M CaCl2 than that for transport of the other pore fluids. Assuming that fluid conduits have crack-like dimensions, the lack of sensitivity of m and P1 to fluid composition suggests that surface roughness and asperity stiffness of conduits are unaffected by cation exchange, while changes in k0 reflect changes in the clay-fluid interfaces of the connected pore space.

Kwon, Ohmyoung; Herbert, Bruce E.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.

2004-10-01

85

Identifying of deep seated geterogenities in upper mantle under mid-oceanic ridges by travel-time tomography (connection to heat-flow, petrochemical zoning and hydrothermal activity)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the approach to study the deep seated structure under Mid-Atlantic, Juan-de-Fuca, Explorer and Gorda mid-oceanic ridges by the seismical tomography method. The difficulties connected with installation of the seismological networks in the regions of Mid-Oceanic ridges (MOR) have resulted in, that an exploration of these locations in global practice to last moment was limited. Only the development of inverse-teleseismical scheme (ITS)(Koulakov, 1998) has allowed to receive detailed patterns of the seismical heterogeneities under any seismically-active areas. We constructed seismotomographical profiles on depths of 100-700 kms (an interval of 100 kms) for all investigated MOR sites. Comparison of obtained schemes of mantle heterogeneities with allocation of a heat flow, petrochemical features and schemes of distribution of hydrothermal ore mineralization in limits of investigated regions has allowed to make the following conclusions: 1)the correlation between local allocation of low-velocity mantle anomalies with allocation of a heat-flow, sites of hydrothermal mineralization development and petrochemical zoning in limits of the Mid-Atlantic ridge is observed. It suggests about the temperature character of the revealed mantle anomalies. 2)for investigated MOR site of the east part of Pacific Ocean the identical correlations is observed.

Zhmodik, A.; Kulakov, I.; Bushenkova, N.; Glazirin, Y.; Kolobov, V.

2003-04-01

86

147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem)  

E-print Network

147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem) Bayly Foundation PROFESSORS FRANCE, PLEVA ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS ALty A student may complete only one of the majors listed in the Department of Chemistry. The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 44 credits as follows: 1. Chemistry 111, 112

Dresden, Gregory

87

Kitchen Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a great deal of chemistry going on in every kitchen, even though most cooks may not be cognizant of the various interactions going on in the pot, wok, or oven. MIT's popular OpenCourseWare Initiative has recently made the contents of Dr. Patricia Christie's course on kitchen chemistry available on this site. Visitors to the site can download the syllabus, take in some assigned readings (and recipes), and look over the assignments. The assignments include investigations that involve emulsifiers, ice cream, peer teaching, and pancakes, among other things. The site also includes links to helpful readings, such as those on chocolate, the health benefits of capsicum, and the world of gluten. For people who wish to bring back the frayed connective tissue between chemistry and the culinary arts, this site is absolutely essential.

Christie, Patricia

2006-01-01

88

Soil chemistry and ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, 1998 and 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Navy, began an investigation to determine background ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer and soil chemistry at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, and to compare these data to two abandoned solid- waste disposal areas (referred to by the U.S. Navy as Sites 5 and 16). The quality of water in the water-table zone generally is within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water regulation. The pH of ground water in the study area ranged from 4.0 to 7.6 standard units, with a median value of 5.4. Water from 29 wells is above the pH range and 3 wells are within the range of the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation (formerly known as the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level or SMCL) of 6.5 to 8.5 standard units. Also, water from one well at Site 5 had a chloride concentration of 570 milligrams per liter (mg/L,), which is above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Sulfate concentrations in water from two wells at Site 5 are above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Of 22 soil-sampling locations for this study, 4 locations had concentrations above the detection limit for either volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral acids (BNAs), or pesticides. VOCs detected in the study area include toluene in one background sample; and acetone in one background sample and one sample from Site 16--however, detection of these two compounds may be a laboratory artifact. Pesticides detected in soil at the Submarine Base include two degradates of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT): 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD) in one background sample, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4'-DDE) in one background sample and one sample from Site 16; and dibenzofuran in one sample from Site 16. BNAs were detected in one background sample and in two samples from Site 16. Hypothesis testing, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney test), indicates no statistical difference between ground-water constituent concentrations from Sites 5 and 16, and background concentrations. Hypothesis testing, however, indicates the concentration of barium in background ground-water samples is greater than in ground-water samples collected at Site 16.

Leeth, David C.

2002-01-01

89

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry UCLA Chemistry, Biochemistry & Chemistry Material Science  

E-print Network

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry UCLA Chemistry, Biochemistry & Chemistry Material Science ...........................................................................................................................................4 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office..............................................................................................6 Majors in Chemistry & Biochemistry

Levine, Alex J.

90

Forging the Link: Using a Conservative Mixing Framework to Characterize Connections between Rivers and Great Lakes in River-lake Transition Zones  

EPA Science Inventory

River-to-Great Lake transition zones are hydrologically, biogeochemically and biologically dynamic areas that regulate nutrient and energy fluxes between rivers and Great Lakes. Our goal is to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the river-lake transition zones and under...

91

Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate  

DOEpatents

A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

2003-12-09

92

WATER-PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, OBSERVABLE FEATURES, AND THE CASE OF KEPLER-62e AND -62f  

SciTech Connect

Planets composed of large quantities of water that reside in the habitable zone are expected to have distinct geophysics and geochemistry of their surfaces and atmospheres. We explore these properties motivated by two key questions: whether such planets could provide habitable conditions and whether they exhibit discernable spectral features that distinguish a water-planet from a rocky Earth-like planet. We show that the recently discovered planets Kepler-62e and -62f are the first viable candidates for habitable zone water-planets. We use these planets as test cases for discussing those differences in detail. We generate atmospheric spectral models and find that potentially habitable water-planets show a distinctive spectral fingerprint in transit depending on their position in the habitable zone.

Kaltenegger, L. [Max Planck Institute of Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute of Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Sasselov, D.; Rugheimer, S., E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-01

93

Coastal rainforest connections disclosed through a Late Quaternary vegetation, climate, and fire history investigation from the Mountain Hemlock Zone on southern Vancouver Island, British Colombia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-glacial vegetation and fire history of high-elevation regions on southern Vancouver Island is described using palynological and charcoal records from Porphyry and Walker lakes. A zone consisting mainly of Artemisia, Poaceae, and ferns occurs in the basal clay at Porphyry Lake and may represent a non-arboreal ecosystem in a late-Wisconsin glacial refugium. At both sites, a fire-free Pinus contorta

K. J. Brown; R. J. Hebda

2003-01-01

94

Coupled physical, chemical, and microbiological measurements suggest a connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality in the Southern California Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal waves have been implicated in the cross-shore transport of scalars such as larvae, nutrients, and pollutants at locations around the world. The present study combines physical measurements with a comprehensive set of surf zone water quality measurements to evaluate the possible impact of cross-shore internal wave transport on surf zone water quality during two study periods. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 m depth offshore of the beach to observe internal waves. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at night at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) by measuring concentration of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. The baroclinic component accounted for about 30% of the total variance in water column velocity, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very nearshore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong baroclinic onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, demonstrating shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the diurnal and high frequency bands also contained a substantial fraction of total variance. The bottom cross-shore baroclinic current was proposed as a proxy for shoreward transport potential by internal waves and was positively correlated with phosphate concentration in both years, silicate in 2005, and fecal indicator bacteria measurements in 2006. The results suggest internal waves are an important transport mechanism of nutrient-rich subthermocline water to the very nearshore in the Southern California Bight, and may facilitate the transport of FIB into the surf zone or enhance persistence of land-derived FIB.

Wong, Simon H. C.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Hench, James L.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2012-02-01

95

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry Prerequisite: Chemistry 242,syntheticmethodology,mod- ernsyntheticreactions,protectinggroups,naturalprod- uctssynthesis,andcombinatorialchemistry.France. Spring Chemistry 350 (3)--Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Prerequisites: Chemistry 250, 252, and 262. Anintro

Dresden, Gregory

96

Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreholes open to the unsaturated zone at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were variously sampled for CO2 (including 13C and 14C), CH4, N2, O2, Ar, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 from 1986 to 1993. Air enters the mountain in outcrops, principally on the eastern slope, is enriched in CO2 by mixing with soil gas, and is advected to the mountain

Donald C. Thorstenson; Herbert Haas; Eurybiades Busenberg; L. Niel Plummer; Charles A. Peters

1998-01-01

97

[JSPS Asia and Africa scientific platform program development for the medicinal chemistry based on biologically active natural products in the subtropical zone].  

PubMed

In 2005, the independent administrative institution the "Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS)" initiated the "Asia and Africa Science Platform Program", which is a new project aimed to create high potential research hubs in selected fields within the Asian and African region, while fostering the next generation of leading researchers. Another goal is to establish sustainable collaborative relationships among universities and research institutes in Japan and other Asian and African countries. In this project, we consider natural sources existing in partner countries to be the most important factor in the production of medicine. We will search for target compounds and analyze their structures by screening biologically active natural products. Additionally, we will design functional molecules and create process for retrieving a large supply of target compounds based on a bioprospecting strategy. Thailand, Indonesia, and India share the vision of enhancing collaborative efforts. By conducting this researche, we will focus on academic research that is necessary for the development of the pharmaceutical and medical products industry in partner countries. There are four selected research topics as followeds: 1) Development of New Antitumor Agents based on Marine Natural Products; 2) Development of New Anticoagulants and Anti-VEGF; 3) Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Development of Novel Diagnosis and Therapeutic Agents; and 4) Medicinal Chemistry on Biologically Active Natural Products from the Traditional Condiments and Medicines. The exchanges might take the form of joint research seminars. The first Medicinal Chemistry Seminar of the AA Scientific Platform Program was co-organized with the 23th Annual Research Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Thailand at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, on December 14-15, 2006. The 2nd JSPS seminar was co-organized with the 1st Bioactive Natural Products from Marine Organisms and Endophytic Fungi (BNPME) seminar and held in Phuket, Thailand between October 25-28, 2007. The JSPS 3rd Medicinal Chemistry Seminar of the Asia/Africa Scientific Platform Program was co-organized with The 2nd International Seminar of MPU-AACDD in Tokyo on January 14-15, 2009. PMID:19336994

Saito, Naoki; Morita, Takashi

2009-04-01

98

Insights from trace element geochemistry as to the roles of subduction zone geometry and subduction input on the chemistry of arc magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction zones of continental, transitional, and oceanic settings, relative to the nature of the overriding plate, are compared in terms of trace element compositions of mafic to intermediate arc rocks, in order to evaluate the relationship between subduction parameters and the presence of subduction fluids. The continental Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and the transitional to oceanic Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) show increasing degrees of melting with increasing involvement of slab fluids, as is typical for hydrous flux melting beneath arc volcanoes. At the SVZ, the central segment with the thinnest continental crust/lithosphere erupted the highest-degree melts from the most depleted sources, similar to the oceanic-like Nicaraguan segment of the CAVA. The northern part of the SVZ, located on the thickest continental crust/lithosphere, exhibits features more similar to Costa Rica situated on the Caribbean Large Igneous Province, with lower degrees of melting from more enriched source materials. The composition of the slab fluids is characteristic for each arc system, with a particularly pronounced enrichment in Pb at the SVZ and in Ba at the CAVA. A direct compositional relationship between the arc rocks and the corresponding marine sediments that are subducted at the trenches clearly shows that the compositional signature of the lavas erupted in the different arcs carries an inherited signal from the subducted sediments.

Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Jacques, Guillaume; Mahlke, Julia; Schumann, Kai

2014-10-01

99

Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment of the pH to near-neutral values in well 17PS-02 may have made that well relatively favorable to VC production compared with much of the rest of the injection zone, possibly accounting for acceleration of VC production at that well. Following a Phase-II injection in which Solutions-IES, Inc., injected pH-buffered emulsified vegetable oil with an improved efficiency injection approach, 1,1-dichloroethene, TCE, and cDCE rapidly decreased in concentration and are now (2009) undetectable in the injection zone, with the exception of a low concentration (43 micrograms per liter, August 2009) of cDCE in well 17PS-01. In August 2009, VC was still present in groundwater at the test wells in concentrations ranging from 150 to 640 micrograms per liter. The Phase-II injection, however, appears to have locally decreased aquifer permeability, possibly resulting in movement of contamination around, rather than through, the treatment area.

Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

2010-01-01

100

A multi-proxy approach to local and regional variations in magma chemistry between 36.5 and 41°S in the Chilean Volcanic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction zone magmatism is the result of complex interactions among subducted slab, mantle wedge, and overlying crust. Separating the relative importance of the various processes requires a multi-proxy approach within the context of a natural experiment where parameters are well controlled. The Chilean southern volcanic zone (SVZ) provides such an opportunity. The convergence rate is roughly constant, while volcano elevation and crustal thickness increase progressively northwards. We have carried out a detailed investigation of the southern part of the SVZ. During field seasons in 2010 and 2011, 250 samples were collected from 13 volcanic centers in the SVZ between 36.5 and 41°S. These samples, as well as about 100 previously collected samples, have all been analyzed for major and trace elements by XRF and ICPMS. 70 of these samples were then selected for Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analysis by MC-ICPMS. Many of the same samples are being analyzed for U-Series, 10Be and oxygen isotopes (e.g. see Cooper et al, this meeting). Though element-element variation diagrams of samples from individual continental arc volcanoes typically reflect multiple processes, a careful and systematic selection of samples from each volcano enables incompatible elements to be independently corrected for the effects of crystal fractionation. Incompatible element concentrations that have been fractionation-corrected back to 6% MgO, such as Na6 and Nb6, were estimated on this basis. Trace element and major element data broadly confirms the results of previous geochemical studies conducted in the SVZ. The Na6, Nb6 and La/Yb ratios generally increase northwards and correlate with crustal thickness and elevation. While these trends at first seem consistent with a decrease in the extent of melting as crustal thickness increases, in detail there is much complexity. In contrast to predictions from simple melting models, Yb6 decreases northwards. Assimilation of low Yb compositions found in some basement samples could contribute to this trend. Such assimilation does not readily account for changes in Na6 and Nb6, however. Careful examination of each individual volcanic center reveals additional complexities, including apparent changes in the composition of the mantle wedge as reflected in high field strength elements. Crustal contamination appears to be most prevalent in the northern section of the study area (Chillan, Antuco, and Llaima), and less so towards the south, particularly at Osorno and Villarica. A composite model where extent of melting decreases and crustal assimilation increases towards the north best accounts for the current data. Forthcoming 10Be and O isotope data will allow us to understand these trends in even greater detail.

Turner, S. J.; Langmuir, C. H.; Dungan, M. A.; Cooper, L. B.; Escrig, S.; Bindeman, I. N.; Schaefer, J. M.

2012-12-01

101

Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Boreholes open to the unsaturated zone at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were variously sampled for CO2 (including 13C and 14C), CH4, N2, O2, Ar, CFC-11, CFC12, and CFC-113 from 1986 to 1993. Air enters the mountain in outcrops, principally on the eastern slope, is enriched in CO2 by mixing with soil gas, and is advected to the mountain crest, where it returns to the atmosphere. The CFC data indicate that travel times of the advecting gas in the shallow Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit are ???5 years. The 14C activities are postbomb to depths of 100 m, indicating little retardation of 14CO2 in the shallow flow systems. The 14C activities from 168 to 404 m in the Topopah Spring hydrogeologic unit are 85-90 pMC at borehole USW-UZ6. The CFC data show that the drilling of USW-UZ6 in 1984 has altered the natural system by providing a conduit through the Paintbrush Nonwelded unit, allowing flow from Topopah Spring outcrops in Solitario Canyon on the west to USW-UZ6, upward in the borehole through the Paintbrush, to the shallow Tiva Canyon flow systems, and out of the mountain.

Thorstenson, D.C.; Weeks, E.P.; Haas, H.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Peters, C.A.

1998-01-01

102

Aquifer Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution to a Public-Supply Well in Woodbury, Connecticut, 2002-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut, was studied to identify factors that affect the groundwater quality in the zone of contribution to a community public-supply well. Water samples were collected during 2002-06 from the public-supply well and from 35 monitoring wells in glacial stratified deposits, glacial till, and fractured bedrock. The glacial aquifer is vulnerable to contamination from a variety of sources due to the short groundwater residence times and the urban land use in the contributing recharge area to the public-supply well. The distribution and concentrations of pH, major and trace elements, stable isotope ratios, recharge temperatures, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions, were used to identify recharge source areas, aquifer source material, anthropogenic sources, chemical processes, and groundwater-flow paths from recharge areas to the public-supply well, PSW-1. The major chemical sources to groundwater and the tracers or conditions used to identify them and their processes throughout the aquifer system include (1) bedrock and glacial stratified deposits and till, characterized by high pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonate, uranium (U), radon-222, and arsenic (As) relative to those of other wells, reducing redox conditions, enriched delta sulfur-34 (d34S) and delta carbon-13 (d13C) values, depleted delta oxygen-18 (d18O) and delta deuterium (dD) values, calcite near saturation, low recharge temperatures, and groundwater ages of more than about 9 years; (2) natural organic matter, either in sediments or in an upgradient riparian zone, characterized by high concentrations of DOC or manganese (Mn), low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate (NO3-), enriched d34S values, and depleted d18O and dD values; (3) road salt (halite), characterized by high concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca), and indicative chloride/bromide (Cl:Br) mass concentration ratios; (4) septic-system leachate, characterized by high concentrations of NO3-, DOC, Na, Cl-, Ca, and boron (B), delta nitrogen-15 (d15N) and d18O values, and indicative Cl:Br ratios; (5) organic solvent spills, characterized by detections of perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE); (6) gasoline station spills, characterized by detections of fuel oxygenates and occasionally benzene; and (7) surface-water leakage, characterized by enriched d18O and dD values and sometimes high DOC and Mn-reducing conditions. Evaluation of Cl- concentrations and Cl:Br ratios indicates that most samples were composed of mixtures of groundwater and some component of road salt or septic-system leachate. Leachate from septic-tank drainfields can cause locally anoxic conditions with NO3- concentrations of as much as 19 milligrams per liter (mg/L as N) and may provide up to 15 percent of the nitrogen in water from well PSW-1, based on mixing calculations with d15N of NO3-. Most of the water that contributes to PSW-1 is young (less than 7 years) and derived from the glacial stratified deposits. Typically, groundwater is oxic, but localized reducing zones that result from abundances of organic matter can affect the mobilization of trace elements and the degradation of VOCs. Groundwater from fractured bedrock beneath the valley bottom, which is old (more than 50 years), and reflects a Mn-reducing to methanic redox environment, constitutes as much as 6 percent of water samples collected from monitoring wells screened at the bottom of the glacial aquifer. Dissolved As and U concentrations generally are near the minimum reporting level (MRL) (0.2 micrograms per liter or ?g/L and 0.04 ?g/L, respectively), but water from a few wells screened in glacial deposits, likely derived from underlying organic-rich Mesozoic rocks, contain As concentrations up to 7 ?g/L. At one location, concentrations of As and U were high

Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Trombley, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

103

Science Connects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Connects has been chosen to run the STEMNET program for the West of Scotland, and their work will be of great interest to science educators. The STEM ambassador program is what distinguishes the STEMNET program from other STEM programs. The UK-wide program works with "volunteers from a wide range of disciplines, such as forensic science, geology, mechanical engineering, parasitology...etc. who want to share their enthusiasm for their careers to encourage pupils to take an interest in STEM Subjects." The "Case Studies" tab on the left side of any page offers visitors a look at what some ambassadors have done with their field of study. Visitors should check out case study #4, about one Dr. Linda Thomson, who teaches young kids about chemistry and forensics. Visitors will also want to check out case study #9, about Alistair McNeil, who happens to be a health, safety and environment manager who recommends a career in construction. All told, the site is well worth a visit for those interested in promoting STEM education.

104

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, green chemistry links (including conferences), and an online preview of the ACS-published book Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry are all found at the site. Five video clips on green chemistry from the standpoint of academia, industry, and small business are also featured (Windows Media Player). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students. Check back often for updates.

2002-01-01

105

Superacid catalyzed coal conversion chemistry. 1st and 2nd quarterly technical progress reports, September 1, 1983-March 30, 1984. [Model compound consisting of 2 benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide, etc  

SciTech Connect

In our laboratories we have previously developed a mild coal conversion process. This involves the use of a superacid system consisting of HF and BF/sub 3/ in presence of hydrogen and/or a hydrogen donor solvent. In order to understand the chemistry involved in the process of depolymerization of coal by the HF:BF/sub 3/:H/sub 2/ system we are carrying out a systematic study of a number of coal model compounds. The model compounds selected for present study have two benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide etc. From studies so far carried out it appears that high pyridine extractibilities achieved by treating coal at temperature below 100/sup 0/C results from the cleavage of bridges such as present in bibenzyl, diphenyl methane, dibenzyl ether, dibenzyl sulfide etc. On the other hand the increased cyclohexane extractibility and distillability observed at relatively higher temperatures and hydrogen pressures reflects the hydrogenation and cleavage of the aromatic backbone in coal structure similar to what is seen in the conversion of model compounds such as biphenyl, diphenyl ether, diphenyl sulfide, anthracene, etc.

Olah, G.A.

1984-01-01

106

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

107

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

108

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

109

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

110

Technological Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the analysis of technological zones. A technological zone can be understood as a space within which differences between technical practices, procedures and forms have been reduced, or common standards have been established. Such technological zones take broadly one of three forms: (1) metrological zones associated with the development of common forms of measurement; (2)

Andrew Barry

2006-01-01

111

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

112

CLUSTER CHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

Muetterties, Earl L.

1980-05-01

113

Computational Chemistry for Chemistry Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 15-session course on the technologies, techniques, and tools of computational chemistry. By using the same computational tools as research computational chemists, educators will have the opportunity to study chemistry in a manner very different than traditional teaching and education in chemistry.

Shodor Computational Science Institute

114

CHEMISTRY 320 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 320 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I Fall 2009 9:00 am - 10:30 am, MW CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR INFORMATION of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 320 presents chemical principles from a fundamental physical point of view. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics (heat, work

Findley, Gary L.

115

The cometary connection with prebiotic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino-acids, purines and pyrimidines may have been formed in space and brought down to Earth by comets during the final stage of the Earth's cold accretion from dust. Present-day comets seem to be the remnants of the building blocks of the early solar system, put for 4.6 billion years in “parking orbits” in the deep cold of space by the

A. H. Delsemme

1984-01-01

116

Organophosphorus chemistry  

E-print Network

2087 Organophosphorus chemistry Paul R. Hanson Editorial Open Access Address: Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582, USA Email: Paul R. Hanson - phanson@ku.edu. Keywords: organophosphorus... Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 2087–2088. doi:10.3762/bjoc.10.217 Received: 28 July 2014 Accepted: 06 August 2014 Published: 04 September 2014 This article is part of the Thematic Series "Organophosphorus chemistry" Guest Editor: P. R. Hanson © 2014...

Hanson, Paul R.

2014-09-04

117

Technetium chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barrera, J. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); Hall, K. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Burrell, A. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)

1996-04-01

118

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

119

Doing Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes over 150 chemistry experiments in the following areas: Atomic Structure, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Colligative Properties, Condensed States, Electrochemistry, Equilibrium Gases, Instrumentation, Limiting Reactant and more.

Brooks, David W.

120

Chemistry beyond positivism.  

PubMed

Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education. PMID:12796119

Brandt, Werner W

2003-05-01

121

A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords "context-based", "contextual learning" and "chemistry

Ultay, Neslihan; Calik, Muammer

2012-01-01

122

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

123

Connecting Chemical Dynamics in Gases and Liquids  

E-print Network

Connecting Chemical Dynamics in Gases and Liquids Christopher G. Elles and F. Fleming Crim, Annu the energies slightly : intimate part of the chemistry #12;Introduction Goal in this review ­ Examine recent : extensively studied : infancy #12;Theory #12;Transition state Unifying concept in chemistry Influence

Ihee, Hyotcherl

124

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty perform research in molecular machines, exotic CHEMISTRY FACULTY RESEARCH INTERESTS Anne M. Andrews, Professor-in-Residence: Understanding how areas of interest include cross- coupling reactions, green chemistry, heterocycle synthesis, and natural

Levine, Alex J.

125

Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie "Apollo 13."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions for incorporating topics that relate to the Apollo 13 space mission into a chemistry course. Discusses connections between the study of chemistry and space exploration, including fuels and oxidants used, reasons for an oxygen tank rupture, and lithium hydroxide-containing carbon dioxide filters. Contains 11 references. (WRM)

Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J.

1999-01-01

126

Circumstellar chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

1987-01-01

127

for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS  

E-print Network

, Geochemistry, Hazardous Waste Management, Inorganic Chemistry, Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry, OilHANDBOOK for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Fall 2010 #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS A Career in Chemistry - What It Means ___________________________________________ 4 What do

Stuart, Steven J.

128

Windows into Deep Subsurface Chemistry Near and Far (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's deep biosphere may be just one of many deep biospheres within our solar system. But for many of these worlds we are, and will be for the near future, limited to observations and measurements of the surface chemistry to serve as a window into any activity related to geochemical or biochemical disequilibrium. Mars, Europa, and Enceladus serve as three examples of worlds where the surface of the lithospheres (one silicate, the other two of water ice) may connect to rich subsurface aqueous chemical environments. Here I will present results from recent observations of the surface chemistry of Europa and the organic- and salt-rich plume material of Enceladus. Interestingly, for at least the case of Europa, the redox chemistry of the deep lithosphere may be inverted when compared to that of the Earth. On Earth, the rocks of the lithosphere serve as the reductant and the fluid and dissolved gases provide the oxidants. On Europa, the rock of its lithosphere is water ice that is likely permeated with oxygen, peroxides, and sulfate compounds. The lithosphere may be reductant limited. Coupled with these observations I will also present recent results from work on Arctic methane seeps and Hadal zone observations of biological and geochemical processes. These environments provide a unique window into the deep biosphere and illuminate some of the challenges of differentiating biochemical products from geochemical products.

Hand, K. P.

2013-12-01

129

Numerical simulations of turbulent premixed H2/O2/N2 flames with complex chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Premixed stoichiometric H2/O2/N2 flames propagating in two-dimensional turbulence were studied using direct numerical simulation (simulations in which all fluid and thermochemical scales are fully resolved) including realistic chemical kinetics and molecular transport. Results are compared with earlier zero-chemistry (flame sheet) and one-step chemistry simulations. Consistent with the simpler models, the turbulent flame with realistic chemistry aligns preferentially with extensive strain rates in the tangent plane and flame curvature probability density functions are close to symmetric with near-zero means. By contrast to simple-chemistry results with non-unity Lewis numbers (ratio of thermal to species diffusivity), local flame structure does not correlate with curvature but rather with tangential strain rate. Turbulent straining results in substantial thinning of the flame relative to the steady unstrained laminar case. Heat release and H2O2 contours remain thin and connected ('flamelet-like') while species including H-atom and OH are more diffuse. Peak OH concentration occurs well behind the peak heat-release zone. The feasibility of incorporating realistic chemistry into full turbulence simulations to address issues such as pollutant formation in hydrocarbon-air flames is suggested.

Baum, M.; Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.

1992-01-01

130

Dead Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth currently has more than 400 "dead zones"--marine expanses covering hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles that periodically become virtually lifeless. Explore the surprising causes of Oregon's dead zones, and the pioneering methods used to research them.

131

Radioanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a course on the use of radionuclides in analytical chemistry. Types of radioactive decay are discussed as well as the techniques of scintillation counting, neutron activation analysis, and gamma spectroscopy.

2011-05-20

132

Catalytic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

Borer, Londa; And Others

1996-01-01

133

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about a study in which participants discovered contaminants in their homes, and how green chemistry may provide alternatives to such everyday toxins, in this video adapted from Contaminated Without Consent.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-03-21

134

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

135

Cooperative Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concept mapping in the organic chemistry laboratory can supplant cookbook activities with higher cognitive exercises. The common thread of most organic lab experiments is the synthesis, isolation, purification, and characterization of a carbon compound. T

Allan A. Gahr

2003-02-01

136

Chemistry Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California State University Stanislaus developed these interactive chemistry Web tutorials to assist college students in mass spectrometry, proton NMR chemical shifts, and more. With the many animations and figures, visitors will find assistance with the subtraction and absorption of light and with infrared absorption frequencies for numerous compounds. The titration tutorials simulate laboratory experiments without the hazards of dealing with chemicals. Students will also find a very informative lesson describing how to use Excel to record and analyze their chemistry data.

137

Physical Chemistry in Practice: Evaluation of DVD Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physical Chemistry in Practice (PCIP) DVD contains video programs (modules) and experimental data that present the research of scientists working in applications of physical chemistry. The DVD allows students to learn about cutting edge research in physical chemistry while making connections to the theoretical concepts learned in lecture.…

Dyer, James U.; Towns, Marcy; Weaver, Gabriela C.

2007-01-01

138

Exploring Lithologic Controls on Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SHCZO) team has found that soil chemistry does not correlate with variability in pore fluid chemistry, suggesting the presence of macropores. Because of such heterogeneity, it is often difficult to relate short-term event chemistry to what we know about the chemistry of waters in catchments. Additionally, it is not clear what role the shale

K. Singha; B. W. Kuntz; L. Toran

2009-01-01

139

Making Connections--The Big Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to make essential connections of science content is often difficult, yet necessary to ensure a true understanding of science. A teacher offers insights on how pyruvic acid can be used to help students make connections in chemistry and biology. (ZWH)

Halyard, Rebecca A.

1994-01-01

140

Computational Chemistry for Chemistry Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper we describe an ongoing project where the goal is to develop competence and confidence among chemistry faculty so they are able to utilize computational chemistry as an effective teaching tool. Advances in hardware and software have made research-grade tools readily available to the academic community. Training is required so that faculty can take full advantage of this technology, begin to transform the educational landscape, and attract more students to the study of science.

Shawn C. Sendlinger

141

Radiation Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

Wojnárovits, L.

142

Lycos Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

143

New Perspectives on Context-Based Chemistry Education: Using a Dialectical Sociocultural Approach to View Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-based chemistry education aims to improve student interest and motivation in chemistry by connecting canonical chemistry concepts with real-world contexts. Implementation of context-based chemistry programmes began 20 years ago in an attempt to make the learning of chemistry meaningful for students. This paper reviews such programmes…

King, Donna

2012-01-01

144

Chemistry & Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.

145

Making connections  

PubMed Central

Deleting a gene called Sema5A, which has been linked to autism in humans, causes neurons to form more connections in mice, and also alters how these mutant mice interact with other mice. PMID:25407769

Kenney, Justin W

2014-01-01

146

NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE  

E-print Network

N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE

Kainen, Paul C.

147

Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

1999-01-01

148

Polymer Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

2010-01-01

149

Tropospheric chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

1985-01-01

150

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

151

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

152

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

153

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

154

Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features lecture notes for first and second level courses in analytical chemistry. Topics include titrations, gravimetry, kinetics and electrochemistry (redox). Potentiometry, coulometry, voltammetry, spectroscopic and separation methods are presented as well, and are illustrated with QuickTime animations.

Hardy, James K.

155

Bad Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Princeton Section of the American Chemical Society consists of articles about common chemical misconceptions along with examinations of the scientific explanation. The purpose of this page is to reveal common misconceptions in the field of Chemistry. The intended audience is secondary school students and their teachers. The page is at present just beginning, and additions are welcome.

Kevin Lehmann

156

Confectionary Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

Levine, Elise Hilf

1996-01-01

157

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This audio segment from PRI's The World Science Podcast explores the science of Green Chemistry. Hear about companies that are developing greener chemicals, and learn why they are fast becoming an attractive alternative for the multi-billion dollar chemical industry.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-02-12

158

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

159

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

160

Atmospheric Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of links provides access to resources on atmospheric chemistry, especially acid deposition, air pollution, and air quality. The sites include personal and government pages, universities and research groups, non-governmental organizations and meetings, and products and services. There are also links to related search topics.

161

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

162

Hydrocarbon chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this book is to provide a conprehensive up-to-date treatment of the field encompassing both basic chemistry and practical application. Topics include the following: basic information about hydrocarbons, their definitions, uses as energy sources, synthesis and conversion; hydrocarbon production from petroleum and natural gas and synthesis C1 sources; and various aspects of transformations of hydrocarbons.

Olah, G.A.; Molnar, A.

1995-08-01

163

Reinventing chemistry.  

PubMed

Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures. PMID:25682927

Whitesides, George M

2015-03-01

164

Nuclear Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Chemistry Fundamentals program and the Shodor Education Foundation, discusses five different types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta negative, gamma, positron emission, and electron capture. After examining the numerous equations, students can test their dating skills by solving three practice problems. Solutions are included.

165

In situ experiment of ontogenetic variability in the otolith chemistry of Stegastes partitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otolith chemistry can be used to assess pelagic larval fish connectivity by comparing spatially variable otolith edge chemistry (corresponding to the site of collection) to otolith core chemistry (corresponding to the site of hatching). However, because the otolith’s edge and core represent different life stages, the deposition of elements may differ, thus complicating direct comparisons of edge and core chemistry

P. M. Chittaro; J. D. Hogan; J. Gagnon; B. J. Fryer; P. F. Sale

2006-01-01

166

UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY ORIENTATION HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12;Table of Contents Introduction .............................................................................................................................................2 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office ................................................................................................................................................4 Biochemistry

Levine, Alex J.

167

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01

168

Dead Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from the independent film Big River: A King Corn Companion, the filmmakers explain how agricultural runoff from the Midwest has contributed to a massive "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico. A cornfield treated with conventional chemical fertilizer promises a bumper crop, but chemical runoff from the farm enters the Iowa River, eventually draining into the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf, these dissolved nutrients allow algae to flourish. The algae's decay depletes the water of oxygen, creating a dead zone where shrimp and fish are starved of oxygen and die. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

169

Kids Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kids Zone is the Atomic Energy of Canada Web site for kids that explores nuclear energy, electricity, and how energy interacts with our environment. The interactive lessons use animations, games, colorful cartoon characters, and other attention grabbing methods to help drive home the "energy is good" theme.

1969-12-31

170

Reading Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success in the study of literature depends on the student's ability to establish connections between word and object, between words and phrases, and between memorable experiences in all fields of learning and the reading of literature, which is interdisciplinary by nature. In understanding a literary work, a reader must make affective memory…

DeGuise, Richard A.

171

Get Connected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

2013-01-01

172

Making Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways to overcome seventh and eight graders' negative feelings of diversity in the context of a study of the Holocaust. Describes the use of poetry, music and lyrics, and memoirs and novels that reflect a wide range of viewpoints to help students feel more connected to their own world. (LRW)

Landsman, Julie

1999-01-01

173

Building Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity guides students to make connections between linear and polynomial functions through exploring their graphs. This lesson plan is outlined with step-by-step directions for teachers to follow as well as guiding questions and assessment options to ensure ample feedback on students' progress and mastery levels.

NCTM

2012-08-01

174

Making Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We used to send out books that looked like this," says Barbara Dreyer, as she holds the 500-page volume from one of the first-ever courses offered online by Connections Academy. "You could look at this information online, but, frankly, a lot of people were doing this," she adds, thumbing through the book's pages. Dreyer,…

Quillen, Ian

2014-01-01

175

Getting Connected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

That the world outside schools is changing faster than ever is old news. Unfortunately, that the world "inside" schools is changing at a glacial pace is even older news. As school leaders, principals have an important choice to make as they move into the second decade of the 21st century. School leaders have a moral obligation to connect and…

Larkin, Patrick

2011-01-01

176

Environmental Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity with several mini experiments, learners explore the chemistry that helps scientists learn about the environment and how they can help save it. Learners will determine if pollutants that have entered the ground water can also enter plants. Then, learners examine fossils to see if any changes have occurred over time in a particular species of sea mollusks. Finally, learners act as chemists to recycle paper by making paper from toilet paper.

2012-07-24

177

Computational chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

Arnold, J. O.

1987-01-01

178

Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011)  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

Mather, Patrick T.

2011-01-01

179

Chemistry 106X -Spring 2011 General Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 106X - Spring 2011 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 1 and can be purchased in the UAF bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1 or 2 semester) · TurningPoint Technologies ResponseCard RF

Wagner, Diane

180

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry Fall Semester 2011 Professor James Hougland675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course that can be continued in the Spring semester as CHE685. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure

Mather, Patrick T.

181

Chemistry 106X -Fall 2010 General Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 106X - Fall 2010 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 9 bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. by Kotz, Treichel, and Townsend-0-495-38703-9 Electronic Book - ISBN 978-0-495-68043-7 · OWL pin number for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1

Wagner, Diane

182

Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010)  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye: M-W 4:00-5:00, and by appointment Credits: 3 Text: (Required) Shriver & Atkins, "Inorganic Chemistry. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

Mather, Patrick T.

183

Connecting Organelles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This perspective discusses a recent report demonstrating the existence of a complex of proteins connecting mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are organelles that form a dynamic network in most eukaryotic cell types. Although originally considered to be semi-autonomous powerhouses, they are intimately connected to the rest of the cell through metabolic and signaling pathways, and play a central role in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Sites of close proximity between mitochondria and the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum have long been known from electron micrographs, yet their molecular nature remained elusive. In a recent report, Kornmann et al. show that a complex of proteins that controls mitochondrial shape and protein biogenesis bridge these two organelles.

Nils Wiedemann (Universität Freiburg; Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Zentrum für Biochemie und Molekulare Zellforschung and Centre for Biological Signalling Studies)

2009-07-24

184

Livelihoods Connect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department for International Development (DFID), tbe British government agency responsible for promoting economic development and reducing poverty, has created Livelihoods Connect, a Website devoted to "creating sustainable livelihoods to eliminate poverty." Through distance learning materials, traditional online resources, email updates, and online discussions, Livelihoods Connect strives to offer information pertinent and helpful to members of the DFID, those NGOs and consultants working with the DFID, and a host of other NGOs, including the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the International Fund for Agriculture Development. The featured section of the site, Information Resources, offers concise, helpful resources on sustainable livelihoods, including key documents, a Sustainable Livelihood toolbox of draft presentations and project documentation, guidance sheets from the DFID, and distance learning materials. The site also contains information on partnerships and research and an interactive message board.

185

Connect Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem offers students an opportunity to analyze an interactive Flash game similar to "First Connect Three" (cataloged separately) which involves adding and subtracting positive and negative numbers. This advanced version includes a game board with the integers from -12 to 12. Each player rolls the dice, (one with the numbers 1, 2, 3, ?4, ?5, ?6 and the other with the numbers ?1, ?2, ?3, 4, 5, 6), chooses which number to begin with and whether to add or subtract the other number to produce either a negative or positive result shown on the board. The goal is to be first player to complete a row of three counters either horizontally, vertically or diagonally on the game board. There a link to a resource, "Playing Connect Three" (cataloged separately).

186

School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level  

E-print Network

School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level Tutorial Groups 2013/14 Name Programme Tutor Ahmed, Zacher Medicinal Chemistry Arif, Saboor Chemistry Bagnall, Samuel Chemistry Barbara, David Chemistry Beaumont, Nicholas Chemistry Quinn, Michael J Chemistry Bennett, Matthew Chemistry Booth, Natalie

Rzepa, Henry S.

187

Making Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article examines the reading comprehension strategy known as making connections. It involves linking what is being read (the text) to what is already known (schema, or background knowledge). The author provides links to four online resources that will help readers use the strategy in K-5 science and literacy classrooms. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which integrates science and literacy instruction.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

188

Chemistry References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site highlights chemistry resources that we consider essentiala fabulous periodic table, a database of chemical compounds, a set of demonstrations of chemical reactions that are just plain spectacular, and, dont forget, laboratory safety. Articles from the web sites Whats That Stuff? and Science News for Kids can be used as supplemental reading all through the year. This site explains the history and characteristics of over 20 substances, such as sunscreen, Cheese Whiz, baseballs, fluoride, new car smell, ink, lipstick, bug spray, and licorice. The individual articles are nontechnical for the most part and are presented in a fun way that readers will enjoy. Also, if a ...

Kim

2007-08-08

189

Industrial Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site addresses Professor Dr. J. Gmehling's research group activities in "the synthesis and design of chemical processes with an emphasis on thermal separation processes." Ranging from the development of thermodynamic models to the construction of software tools and data banks, their research at the University of Oldenburg, covers a broad range in the field of Industrial Chemistry. Students and educators can view informative figures and images such as the Isothermal Flow Calorimeter and the Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Users can download the free software, Dortmund Data Bank (DDB), which searches the literature for experimental information.

190

Interstellar chemistry  

PubMed Central

In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

Klemperer, William

2006-01-01

191

Hypercarbon chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This text points out the emerging significance of higher-valent carbon compounds. It describes the compounds of carbon with coordination numbers greater than four and explores the delocalized bonds of ..pi.. aromatic molecules as a basis for rational description of orbitals; localized multicentered orbitals; the interactions of metallic ions with other atoms and molecules; the skeletal electron counts as a guide for synthesis; and the isolobal concept. Illustrated are the ways in which these subjects bring together structure and reactivity in the great diversity of novel carbon chemistry and its relationship to that of boron, lithium, hydrogen, the metals, and others.

Olah, G.A.; Prakash, G.K.S.; Wade, K.; Field, I.D.; Williams, R.E.

1987-01-01

192

Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry

Avi Hofstein; Miri Kesner

2006-01-01

193

Cosmic Connections  

E-print Network

A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

John Ellis

2003-10-31

194

Computational Chemistry List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Chemistry List (CCL) was established as an independent electronic forum for chemistry researchers and educators from around the world. The discussions cover all aspects of computational chemistry.

195

CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009  

E-print Network

of Science Journals: D-G WEEK 4 (28 January): Green Chemistry Journals: H-N WEEK 5 (4 February): Green Chemistry Journals: O-Z WEEK 6 (11 February): Green Chemistry; Group Presentations (Life-cycle analysis

Stuart, Steven J.

196

Stratospheric chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent improvements in the data base for the currently identified reactions describing the chemistry of the major families of trace gas species, HO(x), NO(x), ClO(x), and hydrocarbons are assessed. The important coupling reactions between the families are introduced progressively. Chemical aspects such as heterogeneous reactions and reactions of sodium species, the importance of which are not yet completely established, are discussed. Recent attempts to reconcile some of the more unexpected kinetic behavior which has emerged from the extensive experimental studies of key reactions with current reaction rate theory are also examined. The uncertainties in the current kinetic and photochemical data base is given. The prospects for improvement of data for known reactions of atmospheric importance as well as for the identification of gaps in the chemical description of the atmosphere.

Cox, R. A.; Demore, W. B.; Ferguson, E. E.; Lesclaux, R.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Sander, S. P.; Sze, N. D.; Zellner, R.

1985-01-01

197

Combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

198

Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified  

E-print Network

Chemistry Lab I AND 1 CH 4110 Pharmaceutical Chemistry I 3 CH 1153 University Chemistry I Recitation 1 CH 4120 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II 3 OR CH 4320 Inorganic Chemistry II 3 CH 1112 University ChemistryChemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified Total Credits Required: 128 Required

199

Fluid pressure and flow at great depth in the continental crust. A discussion in relation to topography, temperature and salinity distribution using as an example the KTB Fault Zones in connection with the Eger Rift Hot Spot.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic investigations in and between the two KTB boreholes have shown that groundwater flow is possible at great depth in the crystalline crust. Remarkable permeability was found particularly in the SE1 and SE2 fault zones. The results from a long term pump and injection test, and the related three-dimensional groundwater modelling (Graesle et al., 2006), document the existence of a large-scale (more than 10 km) hydraulic reservoir in the crystalline crust. According to this calculation, an overpressure of 0.4 MPa can be still be expected in KTB-HB in 2009, 4 years after the end of the injection. The good match with the measurement data confirms groundwater pathways at a scale of more than 10 km. The isotopic water composition recovered from the KTB pilot hole indicates a downward water flow along the SE2 fault zone, which is in contact with the Franconian Line. Moreover, there is a deep upward groundwater flow 60 km away in the western Eger Rift Valley as indicated e.g. by the temperature signature and gas flow observations. Therefore, the demand for fluid mass continuity means that water is being supplied by a downstream groundwater flow, probably from the Franconian Line. The question of potential driving processes must be answered to understand and quantify the flow in the deeper crust at a scale of 10 km to 100 km. The processes must result in a sufficient horizontal pressure gradient to allow groundwater flow at great depth. The density variations of groundwater with depth are highly relevant for the calculation of horizontal pressure differences. The two independent potential fields of gravity and pressure have to be considered. Differentiation into 4 relevant driving processes is required: \\bullet The groundwater surface topography related to the groundwater recharge and mean regional distance between neighbouring valleys \\bullet Geothermal gradient and water density depending on temperature and pressure \\bullet Different salt contents in adjacent geological formations \\bullet Gas content in the water and gas dissolution The interpretation of these processes for the Eger Rift Franconian Line area results in horizontal pressure gradients up to 0.5 MPa/km. With these pressure gradients in deep fault zones similar to the KTB fault zones SE1 and SE2, a remarkable groundwater flow is also possible in the deep crystalline crust. For only a 1 MPa pressure difference between the Franconian Line and the Eger Rift Valley, which lie nearly 60 km apart, we get a tracer velocity of 1.0 to 5.0 m/a (using the Darcy relation and porosities for the hydraulic KTB data). The flow system at great depth is determined mainly by the counteractive forces of salinity and temperature with a nonlinear relation to the water density. References GRAESLE, W., KESSELS, W., KUEMPEL, H.-J., LI, XUAN (2006): HYDRAULIC OBSERVATIONS FROM A ONE YEAR FLUID PRODUCTION TEST IN THE 4000 M DEEP KTB PILOT BOREHOLE. GEOFLUIDS, 6, 8 23 KESSELS, W., KUECK, J. (1995): HYDRAULIC COMMUNICATION IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK BETWEEN THE TWO BOREHOLES OF THE CONTINENTAL DEEP DRILLING PROJECT IN GERMANY. INT. J. ROCK MECH. MIN. SCI. &GEOMECH. ABSTR., 32, 37 47

Kessels, W.; Kuhlmann, S.; Li, X.

2006-12-01

200

Business Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Times On the Web has recently added a new section, Business Connections, to its highly selective collection of Web links. The section provides one-stop shopping for the most authoritative business-related network resources available. For example, the Markets listings include links to all U.S. exchanges, foreign exchanges, and selected market information sites. The Investing section offers a dozen links to general information and a half-dozen more to the top investment companies and trading services such as Merrill Lynch, Paine Webber, and Charles Schwab. Company Information provides traditional sources such as Dun & Bradstreet along with the Web 100--the top US and international companies on the Web. A good selection of business directories is included, in addition to separate listings for business and financial news, banking & finance, and government & public organizations. Note that free registration to The New York Times On the Web is required before entry into any of their pages.

201

CHEMISTRY 3020-42232 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 3020-42232 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I Fall 2011 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MWF CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR interpretations of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 3020 presents chemical principles from a fundamental physical point of view. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics

Findley, Gary L.

202

CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II Spring 2014 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MWF CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR interpretations of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 3022 presents chemical principles consequences. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics (heat, work, internal energy

Findley, Gary L.

203

Art and Chemistry: Designing a Study-Abroad Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three related courses examining the connection between chemistry and art have been developed for study-abroad programs in Florence, Italy, by faculty members at Gonzaga University and Mount Saint Mary's University. These courses are described with the intent of providing a general framework for the development of chemistry and art courses in other…

Smieja, Joanne A.; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D.; Richman, Robert M.

2010-01-01

204

Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

Hackman, Desiree; And Others

205

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined

Doyle, Robert

206

Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ?20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ?31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled outward as S-rich Mn-Cu alloy crust. Remains in the Samran smelter sites suggest the use of charcoal as a source of energy, quartzite as a flux and an air-cooling technique was used.

Surour, Adel A.

2015-01-01

207

Hydrological connectivity as indicated by transport of diatoms through the riparian-stream system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are one of the most common and diverse algal groups (ca. 200 000 species, ?10-200 ?m, unicellular, eukaryotic). Here we investigate the potential of terrestrial and aerophytic diatoms (i.e. diatoms nearly exclusively occurring outside water bodies, on wet, moist or temporarily dry places) to infer surface hydrological connectivity between hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) landscape units during storm runoff events. We present data from the Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2, NW Luxembourg) that quantifies the relative abundance of terrestrial and aerophytic diatom species on hillslopes and in riparian zones (i.e. surface soils, litter, bryophytes and vegetation) and within streams (i.e. stream water, epilithon and epipelon). We tested the hypothesis that different diatom species assemblages inhabit specific moisture domains of the catchment (i.e. HRS units) and, consequently, the presence of certain species assemblages in the stream during runoff events offers the potential for recording if there was or not hydrological connectivity between these domains. We found that a higher percentage of terrestrial and aerophytic diatom species was present in samples collected from the riparian and hillslope zones than inside the stream. However, diatoms were absent on hillslopes covered by dry litter, limiting their use to infer hillslope-riparian zone connectivity in some parts of the catchment. Our results also showed that terrestrial and aerophytic diatom abundance in the stream increased systematically during all sampled events (n = 11, 2010-2011) in response to incident precipitation and increasing discharge. This transport of terrestrial and aerophytic diatoms during events suggested a rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream. Diatom transport data was compared to two-component hydrograph separation, and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) using stream water chemistry and stable isotope data. This research suggests that diatoms were likely sourced exclusively from the riparian zone, since it was not only the largest terrestrial and aerophytic diatom reservoir, but also riparian zone water was a major streamflow source during rainfall events under both wet and dry antecedent condition.

Martínez-Carreras, N.; Wetzel, C. E.; Frentress, J.; Ector, L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.

2015-02-01

208

Chemistry for the Public: Our Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes our experience at McGill University in developing a strong connection not only with a large number of students but also with the general public. This has led to the establishment of a cooperative team to deliver useful information about chemistry and science broadly via the radio, television, the Internet, lectures,…

Harpp, David N.; Fenster, A. E.; Schwarcz, J. A.

2011-01-01

209

Trace Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

1999-01-01

210

Sweet Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This laboratory exercise is an introduction to spectrophotometry suitable for college freshmen and high school students. It involves food dyes and brown M&M candy. The spectra of "primary" dyes are measured and represented graphically as absorbance vs wavelength to show that minimum absorption of light occurs in the spectral region corresponding to the color of the dye. The spectra of dye combinations illustrate the fact that some common colors are actually mixtures of colors. Finally, the Beer-Lambert law is verified by using the single-wavelength absorbance (620 nm, blue) of mixtures. This project illustrates the absorption of light by substances and its dependence on wavelength, the change of light absorption with the concentration of dissolved substance (Beer-Lambert law), and the explicit correspondence of colors with spectral features. It uses safe chemicals and connects everyday objects and substances with laboratory measurements.

Aurian-Blajeni*, Benedict; Sam, Jonathan; Sisak, Michael

1999-01-01

211

33 CFR 165.1120 - Security Zone; Naval Amphibious Base, San Diego, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District...Zone; Naval Amphibious Base, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: the waters of San Diego Bay, enclosed by lines connecting the following...

2010-07-01

212

ACS Green Chemistry Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, and green chemistry links (including conferences). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students.

213

Radiation applications of physical chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In the USSR, the development in this field is associated with the name of N. N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems. The new Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences is dealing with some of them. An overview of the Institute's work on radiation applications is presented. Examples of the use of radiation in the power industry (e.g., in coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production, and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for extensive utilization is demonstrated.

Talrose, V. L.

1991-05-01

214

Temperate Oceans: Light Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides an overview of the three zones into which the ocean can be divided based on the amount of light recieved: the sunlit (or euphotic) zone, the twilight (or disphotic) zone, and the midnight (or aphotic) zone. The descriptions are accompanied by diagrams and a brief listing of the organisms that live in each zone.

215

Extreme warming, photic zone euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain; connecting marginal marine biotic signals, nutrient cycling and ocean deoxygenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) was a ~200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen and nutrient cycling remain largely unclear. We identify the PETM in a sediment core from the US margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Biomarker-based paleotemperature proxies (MBT/CBT and TEX86) indicate that continental air and sea surface temperatures warmed from 27-29 °C to ~35 °C, although variations in the relative abundances of terrestrial and marine biomarkers may have influenced the record. Vegetation changes as recorded from pollen assemblages supports profound warming. Lithology, relative abundances of terrestrial vs. marine palynomorphs as well as dinoflagellate cyst and biomarker assemblages indicate sea level rise during the PETM, consistent with previously recognized eustatic rise. The recognition of a maximum flooding surface during the PETM changes regional sequence stratigraphic interpretations, which allows us to exclude the previously posed hypothesis that a nearby fossil found in PETM-deposits represents the first North American primate. Within the PETM we record the biomarker isorenieratane, diagnostic of euxinic photic zone conditions. A global data compilation indicates that deoxygenation occurred in large regions of the global ocean in response to warming, hydrological change, and carbon cycle feedbacks, particularly along continental margins, analogous to modern trends. Seafloor deoxygenation and widespread anoxia likely caused phosphorus regeneration from suboxic and anoxic sediments. We argue that this fuelled shelf eutrophication, as widely recorded from microfossil studies, increasing organic carbon burial along continental margins as a negative feedback to carbon input and global warming. If properly quantified with future work, the PETM offers the opportunity to assess the biogeochemical effects of enhanced phosphorus regeneration, as well as the time-scales on which this feedback operates in view of modern and future ocean deoxygenation.

Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G. J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J. A.; LeVay, L. J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C. P.

2013-12-01

216

Delights of Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the University of Leeds, the Delights of Chemistry promotes the art of chemistry demonstrations. Users can find illustrations and explanations of forty chemistry experiments. Many animations of demonstrations including the magnesium lamp, thermite reaction, and the volcano reaction are available. The website is full of pictures of chemistry equipment and scientists at work. Through this site, students and educators are able to explore fun chemistry experiments without having to worry about the many hazards associated with working with chemicals.

217

Applications of Chemistry Through Climate Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lessons are intended for a high school chemistry course as stand-alone topics embedded within existing chemistry curriculum. The goal is not to teach the entirety of climate change but rather to give students an understanding of chemistry through the lens of climate change. Additionally, it is intended to provide students with a better view of how science is done, what other careers are available for students besides "research scientist," and to connect their high school chemistry course with the real world. There are eight units within the module including: black carbon, pollution and aerosols, greenhouse gases, science and careers, isotopes and ice cores, ozone, societal impacts of climate change, and finding solutions to climate change. Each has a unique activity for the students (i.e. jigsaw reading, lab experiments, comic strips, Socratic seminar, etc) and any information given to students is visually-driven (pictures, animations, videos, etc).

2012-01-01

218

Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling  

E-print Network

Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree gives you the understanding to contribute to our future in very topical areas) in Chemistry BSc (Hons) in Chemistry MChem (Hons) in Chemistry (with an industrial placement year) MChem (Hons

Sussex, University of

219

The bottom intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bottom intertidal area remains under water except during low tides. This zone is most abundant of the intertidal zones and contains seaweeds and other plants, invertebrates, and fishes. The bottom zone is subject to the most intense wave action.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-08

220

The bottom intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bottom intertidal area remains under water except during low tides. This zone is most abundant of the intertidal zones and contains seaweeds and other plants, invertebrates, and fishes. The bottom zone is subject to the most intense wave action.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

221

Zone separator for multiple zone vessels  

DOEpatents

A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

Jones, John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

1983-02-01

222

Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

Burns, Mary Sue

2001-01-01

223

Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone  

PubMed Central

Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

2013-01-01

224

Marine fragrance chemistry.  

PubMed

The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

2008-06-01

225

Igniting Chemistry in Fireworks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the concepts of spectral chemistry, combustion, and the nature of fire through the use of visually rich fireworks resources. Optional resources address chemical reactions for those who want a more advanced chemistry lesson.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2004-01-29

226

Chemistry for Potters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

Denio, Allen A.

1980-01-01

227

Environmental chemistry: Volume A  

SciTech Connect

This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

Yen, T.F.

1999-08-01

228

Computational Chemistry Robots  

E-print Network

Computational Chemistry Robots ACS Sep 2005 Computational Chemistry Robots J. A. Townsend, P. Murray-Rust, S. M. Tyrrell, Y. Zhang jat45@cam.ac.uk Can high-throughput computation provide a reliable “experimental” resource for molecular...

Townsend, Joseph A; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tyrrell, Simon M; Zhang, Yong

229

Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

1987-01-01

230

An Introduction to Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cost-free resource is a chapter from a textbook on introductory chemistry, developed for learners with little background in physics or chemistry. This chapter deals with the atomic nucleus and radiation, nuclear energy, and uses of radioactive substances. It is appropriate for teachers seeking additional content knowledge, high school physics and chemistry courses, and college-level preparatory chemistry. It builds a foundation to understand the physical forces in the nucleus (electrostatic force and strong force), and explains how chemical reactions differ from nuclear reactions. Graphs and diagrams depict what happens in radioactive decay. The section on chemical nuclear equations is straightforward and comprehensible for non-scientists. This collection is part of An Introduction to Chemistry, a set of resources developed by Mark Bishop which includes two textbooks, 15 animated tutorials, downloadable Power Point presentations for teachers, concept maps, and 3D molecular models.

2011-07-22

231

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These materials and documents are typical of those presented in an undergraduate course in general chemistry, analytical chemistry, and analytical instrumentation. Resources for educators include Excel spreadsheet simulations for analytical and physical chemistry, prototype JavaScripts and PERL scripts, lists of web workshops and publications, and links to the most recent papers and presentations from the Chemistry Hypermedia Project. There are also tutorials for equilibrium practice problems and analytical spectroscopy.

232

Connective Tissue Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

233

Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science  

E-print Network

Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree allows you to understand and to contribute to our future. Chemistry is challenging: understanding the very fabric of matter is both stimulating and rewarding. Studying chemistry

Sussex, University of

234

Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified  

E-print Network

of the following courses Course Credits CH 1110 University Chemistry I 4 Course Credits AND CH 4110 Pharmaceutical Chemistry I 3 CH 1111 University Chemistry Lab I 1 CH 4120 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II 3 OR CH 4320Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified Total Credits Required: 128 Required

235

Chemistry Division Department of Biological  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry Division Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Illinois Institute-13 Chemistry Division invites nominations for Kilpatrick Fellowship for the academic year 2012's Chemistry Department from 1947­1960. Mary Kilpatrick was a chemistry faculty member from 1947

Heller, Barbara

236

Kinematics of the Eastern California shear zone: Evidence for slip transfer from Owens and Saline Valley fault zones to Fish Lake Valley fault zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late Quaternary slip rates and satellite-based geodetic data for the western Great Basin constrain regional fault-slip distribution and evolution. The geologic slip rate on the Fish Lake Valley fault zone (the northwest extension of the Furnace Creek fault zone) increases northward from about 3 to 5 mm/yr, in agreement with modeled geodetic data. The increase coincides with the intersections of the Deep Springs fault, connected to the Owens Valley fault zone, and of other faults connected to the Saline Valley fault. The combined geologic and geodetic data suggest that (1) the northwest-striking faults of the Eastern California shear zone north of the Garlock fault are connected by north- to northeast-striking normal faults that transfer slip in a series of right steps, and (2) the amount and distribution of slip among the many faults of this broad, complex plate boundary have changed through time.

Reheis, M.C.; Dixon, T.H.

1996-01-01

237

Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

Sahyun, M. R. V.

1974-01-01

238

Chemistry on Stamps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

Schreck, James O.

1986-01-01

239

CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER ­ I Chemistry-I: Physical principles (2:1) Atomic structure. Gas laws, mean free path, viscosity, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of velocity, real gases, van der-state approximation, Arrhenius equation and collision theory and catalysis. SEMESTER ­ II Chemistry-II: Structure

Srinivasan, N.

240

Teaching School Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…

Waddington, D. J., Ed.

241

Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry  

E-print Network

#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation

Thomas, David D.

242

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania in the ChemistryDepartment. It brings together material not collected in other places and is not meant Resources 2 Programs in Chemistry and The General Education Curriculum Record Form 3 The Major Requirements

Hardy, Christopher R.

243

History of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

Servos, John W.

1985-01-01

244

Chemistry as General Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

Tro, Nivaldo J.

2004-01-01

245

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact to Chemistry and Biochemistry entering graduate students who have asked for consideration to serve as research senior in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry based on faculty recommendation for undergraduate

Almor, Amit

246

Green Chemistry and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

2000-01-01

247

Vadose zone microbiology  

SciTech Connect

The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

2001-01-17

248

Groundwater flows in weathered crystalline rocks: Impact of piezometric variations and depth-dependent fracture connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in shallow weathered and fractured crystalline rock aquifers is often the only perennial water resource, especially in semi-arid region such as Southern India. Understanding groundwater flows in such a context is of prime importance for sustainable aquifer management. Here, we describe a detailed study of fracture properties and relate the hydraulic connectivity of fractures to groundwater flows at local and watershed scales. Investigations were carried out at a dedicated Experimental Hydrogeological Park in Andhra Pradesh (Southern India) where a large network of observation boreholes has been set up. Twenty-height boreholes have been drilled in a small area of about 18,000 m2 in which borehole loggings and hydraulic tests were carried out to locate the main flowing fractured zones and investigate fractures connectivity. Several hydraulic tests (nineteen slug tests and three pumping tests) performed under two water level conditions revealed contrasting behavior. Under high water level conditions, the interface including the bottom of the saprolite and the first flowing fractured zone in the upper part of the granite controls groundwater flows at the watershed-scale. Under low water level conditions, the aquifer is characterized by lateral compartmentalization due to a decrease in the number of flowing fractures with depth. Depending on the water level conditions, the aquifer shifts from a watershed flow system to independent local flow systems. A conceptual groundwater flow model, which includes depth-dependent fracture connectivity, is proposed to illustrate this contrasting hydrological behavior. Implications for watershed hydrology, groundwater chemistry and aquifer vulnerability are also discussed.

Guihéneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Bour, O.; Dewandel, B.; Perrin, J.; Dausse, A.; Viossanges, M.; Chandra, S.; Ahmed, S.; Maréchal, J. C.

2014-04-01

249

Alcohol, Chemistry and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

Boggan, William

250

CONNECTS communities: making connections for success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CONNECTS communities consist of first generation, high ability, low socio-economic students. CONNECTS has two primary concerns: 1) providing financial support and 2) creating a community of scholars to help in the transition to college and the commitment to academic excellence. The program consists of several components that are designed to address these concerns: 1) financial support - a scholarship

Marsha Lee; César Malavé; Jan Rinehart

2003-01-01

251

33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a...zone: (1) The waters of the Cape Fear River bounded by a line connecting the...

2013-07-01

252

33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a...zone: (1) The waters of the Cape Fear River bounded by a line connecting the...

2010-07-01

253

33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a...zone: (1) The waters of the Cape Fear River bounded by a line connecting the...

2012-07-01

254

33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a...zone: (1) The waters of the Cape Fear River bounded by a line connecting the...

2011-07-01

255

33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a...zone: (1) The waters of the Cape Fear River bounded by a line connecting the...

2014-07-01

256

50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries...ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone...00 W 60 06.15 N Note: The area is delineated by connecting...

2013-10-01

257

50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries...ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone...00 W 60 06.15 N Note: The area is delineated by connecting...

2012-10-01

258

50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries...ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone...00 W 60 06.15 N Note: The area is delineated by connecting...

2011-10-01

259

50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries...ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone...00 W 60 06.15 N Note: The area is delineated by connecting...

2014-10-01

260

Comets: chemistry and chemical evolution.  

PubMed

Lasting commitment to cosmic chemistry and an awareness of the fascinating role of comets in that study was a consequence of an association with Harold Urey early in my astronomical career. Urey's influence on cometary research spread as colleagues with whom I was associated, in turn, developed their own programs in cometary chemistry. One phase of the Chicago research shows that Whipple's icy nucleus would be below about 250 K. This property, combined with their small internal pressure, means cometary interiors remain essentially unchanged during their lifetime. Observations of cometary spectra indicate that they are rich in simple organic species. Experiments on comet-like ice mixture suggests that the extensive array of interstellar molecules also may be found in comets. The capture of cometary debris by the earth or the impact of comets would have been an early source of biochemically significant molecules. Recent hypotheses on radiogenic heating and melting of water ice in the central zone of nuclei do not seem consistent with recent observations or ideas of structure. Thus comets are not a likely place for life to develop. PMID:7097774

Donn, B

1982-01-01

261

Figure This: Time Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity featuring a time zone map useful when teaching an interdisciplinary social studies and math unit focusing on geography and the time zones. It underscores the role of the earth's rotation in everyday life, and the need to understand the relationships between earth rotation, day and night, and time zones around the world.

2004-01-01

262

Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

Worthy, Ward

1980-01-01

263

Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project’s general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students’ achievements and to probe into the students’ perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad’s and Van den Akker’s curriculum representations.

Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

2006-07-01

264

Metamorphic chemical geodynamics of subduction zones Gray E. Bebout  

E-print Network

Frontiers Metamorphic chemical geodynamics of subduction zones Gray E. Bebout Lehigh University.N. Halliday Available online 12 June 2007 Abstract Study of metamorphic suites directly representing the deep-pressure (UHP) metamorphic suites incorporating knowledge of mineral chemistry and reactions, kinetics

Bebout, Gray E.

265

The Workshop Chemistry Project: Peer-Led Team-Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Workshop Chemistry model embraces dimensions of student experience that are essential for learning: the freedom to discuss and debate chemistry in a challenging but supportive environment, the connection to mentors, and the power of working as part of a team. The workshop model calls for the traditional recitation, or a modest amount of lecture, to be replaced by a new curricular structure: a two-hour student-led workshop. In the first two and a half years of the project, more than 6000 students have participated in workshop courses in allied health, general, and organic chemistry, conducted by 27 faculty and more than 800 workshop leaders.

Gosser, David K.; Roth, Vicki

1998-02-01

266

Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 #12;2 Introduction Imperial College is a world leading University. As the central science Chemistry has been a major contributor to this success. The Chemistry Department is at the forefront of modern Chemistry research, both in our core discipline and at the interfaces of Chemistry

267

Chemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core  

E-print Network

393 3 Physical polymer science CHM 394 3 Organic polymer science BS Pharmaceutical Chemistry CourseChemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core CHM 40, 41 (or CHM 30, 31) 8 Introductory chemistry CHM 110,111,112,113 8 Organic chemistry CHM 332 3 Analytical chemistry CHM 201*** 2 Technical writing CHM

Napier, Terrence

268

April Ulery Associate Professor, Soil Environmental Chemistry, Plant and Environmental  

E-print Network

; Staff Research Assistant at U.C. Riverside Primary Research Interests Soil salinity and plant growth or native plants to stabilize arid zone military firing range soils; salt cedar impacts on soil propertiesApril Ulery Associate Professor, Soil Environmental Chemistry, Plant and Environmental Sciences

Johnson, Eric E.

269

Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry - a synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesopelagic zone is the oceanic region through which carbon and other elements must pass in order to reach deeper waters or the sea floor. However, the food web interactions that occur in the mesopelagic zone are difficult to measure and so, despite their crucial importance to global elemental cycles, are not very well known. Recent developments in technology and new approaches have advanced the study of the variability in and controls upon the distribution and diversity of organisms in the mesopelagic zone, including the roles of respiration, recycling, and repackaging of particulate and dissolved organic material. However, there are remarkably few syntheses of the ecology and biogeochemistry of the microbes and metazoa that permanently reside or habitually visit this 'twilight zone'. Without this synthesis, it is difficult to assess the impact of ongoing changes in ocean hydrography and chemistry, due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, on the biological carbon pump. This paper reviews what is known about the distribution of microbes and metazoa in the mesopelagic zone in relation to their activity and impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Thus, gaps in our knowledge are identified and suggestions made for priority research programmes that will improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration.

Robinson, Carol; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Carlson, Craig A.; Frost, Jessica R.; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Hernández-León, Santiago; Jackson, George A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Quéguiner, Bernard; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Wishner, Karen F.; Zhang, Jing

2010-08-01

270

MedlinePlus Connect  

MedlinePLUS

... Connect also accepts text strings for medication requests Laboratory Tests • LOINC® (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) MedlinePlus ... How does MedlinePlus Connect work? Problems/Diagnoses Medications Laboratory Tests

271

Chemistry and quality of groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of groundwater in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India shows pollution to varying extent. The relative contribution of ions in six zones divided based on TDS indicates unsuitability of groundwater here for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. The water is brackish except in first zone and further alkaline. TDS is less than 1,000 mg/L in first zone, while it is more in other zones. This classification of groundwater into zones is also investigated by hydrogeochemical facies, genetic classification, mechanisms of groundwater chemistry and geochemical signatures. Hydrogeochemical facies of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+: {{HCO}}3^{ - } > Cl- > SO 4^{2 - } is observed from zone I, while that of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+:Cl- > HCO 3^{ - } > SO 4^{2 - } from second to sixth zones. The genetic classification of groundwater in first and second zones is HCO 3^{ - } type and supported by good drainage conditions, while zones III to VI belong to Cl- category evident from poor drainage scenario. The location of six zones on mechanisms of groundwater chemistry supports sluggish drainage conditions of second to six zones, while predominate rock-water interaction in first zone. The geochemical signatures (HCO 3^{ - } :Cl- > 1 and Na+:Cl- < 1) also endorse the pollution. The quantities of chemical species (Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl ^{ - } , SO 4^{2 - } , NO 3^{ - } and F ^{ - } ) and TDS in all zones are far greater than the stipulated limits for drinking. The United States Salinity Laboratory plots discriminated the suitability of groundwater in second to sixth zones for irrigation after only special soil treatment. Higher concentrations of TDS, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl- and SO 4^{2 - } in all zones render it unsuitable for industry too. This information is crucial for public and civic authorities for taking up strategic management plan for preventing further deterioration of hydrogeochemical environmental conditions of this part of the coastal region.

Rao, N. Subba; Vidyasagar, G.; Surya Rao, P.; Bhanumurthy, P.

2014-11-01

272

IML-CZO: Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensively managed landscapes, regions of significant land use change, serve as a cradle for economic prosperity. However, the intensity of change is responsible for unintended deterioration of our land and water environments. By understanding present day dynamics in the context of long-term co-evolution of the Critical Zone comprising of the landscape, soil and biota, IML-CZO aims to support the assessment of short- and long-term resilience of the crucial ecological, hydrological and climatic services provided by the Critical Zone. An observational network of three sites in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota that capture the geological diversity of the low relief, glaciated, and tile-drained landscape will drive novel scientific and technological advances. IML-CZO will provide leadership in developing the next generation of scientists and practitioners, and informing management strategies aimed at reducing the vulnerability of the system to present and emerging trends in human activities. IML-CZO, one of the nine observatories funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), consists of two core sites: the 3,690- sq. km. Upper Sangamon River Basin in Illinois and 270-sq. km. Clear Creek Watershed in Iowa, along with the 44,000- sq. km. Minnesota River Basin as third participating site. These sites together are characterized by low-relief landscapes with poorly drained soils and represent a broad range of physiographic variations found throughout the glaciated Midwest, and thereby provide an opportunity to advance understanding of the CZO in this important region. Through novel measurements, analysis and modeling, IML-CZO aims to address the following questions: • How do different time scales of geologic evolution and anthropogenic influence interact to determine the trajectory of CZ structure and function? • How is the co-evolution of biota, consisting of both vegetation and microbes, and soil affected due to intensive management? • How have dynamic patterns of connectivity, which link across transition zones and heterogeneity, changed by anthropogenic impacts? • How do these changes affect residence times and aggregate fluxes of water, carbon, nutrients, and sediment? IML-CZO will use historical data, existing observational networks, new instruments, remote sensing, sampling and laboratory analyses, and novel sensing technologies using open hardware and unmanned vehicles to study a number of variables related to climate and weather, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, soils, water chemistry, biogeochemistry, ecology, and land management. Additional details are available at imlczo.org.

Kumar, Praveen; Papanicolaou, Thanos

2014-05-01

273

Tropospheric chemistry - A global perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processes that affect the concentration of tropospheric OH are considered, taking into account linkages between the chemistry of OH and the chemistry of H, HO2, and H2O2. A review is presented of observational data of special relevance to OH, notably the distributions of CO, CH4, O3, H2O, HNO3, NO, and NO2. Most of the results presented in connection with the description of the model were obtained by solving time-dependent continuity equations. Rates for photolytic processes were allowed to vary diurnally with insolation. It is found that a well-calibrated and reliable model for OH places important constraints on global budgets for a variety of gases including CH4, H2, and CH3Cl in addition to CO. Accurate measurements of species such as CH3CCl3 can provide valuable checks on global models that must integrate over a variety of atmospheric conditions. However, emission rates for the relevant gases must be adequately quantified.

Logan, J. A.; Prather, M. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.

1981-01-01

274

Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition  

SciTech Connect

In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

Custelcean, Radu [ORNL

2012-01-01

275

Power connect safety and connection interlock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power connect safety and connection interlock system is shown for use with inverters and other DC loads (16) which include capacitor filter banks (14) at their DC inputs. A safety circuit (20) operates a spring (26) biased, solenoid (22) driven mechanical connection interference (24) which prevents mating and therefore electrical connection between the power contactor halves (11, 13) of the main power contacts (12) until the capacitor bank is safely precharged through auxiliary contacts (18). When the DC load (16) is shut down, the capacitor bank (14) is automatically discharged through a discharging power resistor (66) by a MOSFET transistor (60) through a discharging power resistor (66) only when both the main power contacts and auxiliary contacts are disconnected.

Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

276

BT OPENZONE The University is in partnership with BT, and deployment of BT OpenZone is available across the university  

E-print Network

BT OPENZONE The University is in partnership with BT, and deployment of BT OpenZone is available To access BT OpenZone: From the wireless icon on taskbar, Select and Connect to BT OpenZone from available Wireless Network Connection list. Open your web browser; the following page will display Screenshot of BT

Mottram, Nigel

277

Combinatorial chemistry synthesis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

As pharmaceutical companies race to find new and novel drugs faster, the tools of combinatorial chemistry are increasingly playing a larger role. Chemists can now prepare hundreds or thousands of analogs simultaneously to reveal structure-activity relationships (SAR) all at once and potentially shorten the discovery process for new drugs by years. A wide variety of solid-phase organic chemistry techniques have

Michael L. Vazquez

1997-01-01

278

Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

John, Phillip

1982-01-01

279

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012 Tentative Course Syllabus Millington 211; TR, 11-12:20 Instructor: S.K. Knudson; Office: Nope; Hours: by appt. email: skknud@wm.edu Text: Hill, McCreary, Kolb; Chemistry Shapes (4) 3 R, 2/16 The Mole and Reaction Stoichiometry (5) 3 T, 3/20 Gases and Gas Laws; Solids

Pike, Robert D.

280

Chlorine Chemistry Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Chlorine Chemistry Division. The page contains several links that give an introduction to chlorine, its uses, and issues surrounding the chemical compound. There is also a link to the Chlorine Science Center which provides classroom activities and a chlorine compound of the month.

281

Selectivity in Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.

282

Selectivity in Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.

2001-01-01

283

Chemistry for Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation provides a basic introduction to the chemistry involved with fuel cell technology. The material covers chemical bonds, some basic atomic properties, the Noble Gas Theory and how the chemistry of fuel cells works.This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

284

Basic Chemistry Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment reviews basic of chemistry for students who should have had 2 introductory semesters of basic chemistry prior to enrolling in the Fundamental of Water Quality course for which the assignment is used. Assignment reviews basic equation balancing and questions about valence and concentration conversion that students will confront regularly in any geochemistry course.

Thomas Meixner

285

Chemistry of americium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

Schulz

1976-01-01

286

Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

2011-01-01

287

Movies in Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

2010-01-01

288

Reactive Chemistry Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From science writer David Bradley, this blog has brought the "latest news from the world of chemistry to web surfers everywhere" since 1999. The site crosses a research orientation with a popular look and feel. Features examine current chemistry developments in areas such as chromatography and nanotechnology, as well as news pertaining to work being done by researchers.

289

Chemistry from Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

1986-01-01

290

Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing

R. von Glasow; P. J. Crutzen

2003-01-01

291

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Endowment Fund To provide support for undergraduate biomedical research in the Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and biochemistry undergraduate majors. Deadline is based on University Awards Day deadline. Virginia Rogers 803

Almor, Amit

292

TU KAISERSLAUTERN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................22 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: JUN.-Prof. Dr. M. Esselen...............................................................................24 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: Prof. Dr. E. Richling......................................................................................26 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: Prof. Dr. Dr. D. Schrenk

Madlener, Klaus

293

Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.

Van Aken, Koen

1996-01-01

294

Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface  

DOEpatents

A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

D`Silva, A.

1996-08-06

295

Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface  

DOEpatents

A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

D'Silva, Arthur (Ames, IA)

1996-08-06

296

EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

297

Emerald mineralisation in Colombia: fluid chemistry and the role of brine mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald mineralisation in Colombia is located in two distinct zones along the borders of the Eastern Cordillera, some 80?km\\u000a apart. Mineralisation in the western zone has been dated at ca. 35?Ma whereas in the eastern zone it is 30?Ma older. Crush\\u000a leach analysis of the electrolyte chemistry of fluid inclusions contained in emerald, quartz, calcite, dolomite and fluorite\\u000a from both

D. A. Banks; G. Giuliani; B. W. D. Yardley; A. Cheilletz

2000-01-01

298

Scaling surf zone turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence in the surf zone, the shallow region adjacent to the shoreline, has a key role in beach erosion, fertilization, dispersal, and larval settlement of marine invertebrates, and microbial contamination dilution in beach waters. Breaking-wave generated (the dominant source) surf zone turbulence is understood poorly. A new surf zone turbulent dissipation rate ? scaling is derived, that collapses new field surf zone ? observations with relatively high skill compared to other scalings. The vertically-uniform length-scale is 1/6 the water depth, and 15% of the wave-energy flux gradient is dissipated below the mean surface. Field and laboratory surf zone turbulence observations are shown to be consistent using the scaling. The non-dimensional surf zone diffusivity and suspended sediment profile can be applied to sediment transport and a range of biological processes including microbial pathogen contamination of beach waters.

Feddersen, Falk

2012-09-01

299

Introduction to Ocean Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will create a diagram of the ocean zones and determine what organisms live in each zone. Learners will draw the appropriate scale to demark meters (and conversion to feet) from 0-6000m and draw the zones that correspond to the geological structures of the ocean basin. Finally, learners will use their critical thinking skills to determine where in the ocean each organism lives and place the organism in the habitat that is within the limitations for survival.

2012-10-06

300

The University of Michigan Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum 2. Instructional Strategies and Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate chemistry curriculum that capitalizes on the strengths of mechanistic organic chemistry. Enables students to grasp the conceptual unity that allows professional chemists to understand unfamiliar results according to few well-defined principles. Describes some instructional strategies that evolved from efforts to connect

Coppola, Brian P.; And Others

1997-01-01

301

An Investigation of College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Structure-Property Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The connection between the molecular-level structure of a substance and its macroscopic properties is a fundamental concept in chemistry. Students in college-level general and organic chemistry courses were interviewed to investigate how they used structure-property relationships to predict properties such as melting and boiling points. Although…

Cooper, Melanie M.; Corley, Leah M.; Underwood, Sonia M.

2013-01-01

302

Moderator Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

1990-11-01

303

Moderator Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

1990-11-01

304

Home Connections: Demystifying Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The subject of chemistry makes most people think of an elaborate laboratory, but investigating chemistry concepts does not require expensive equipment or chemicals. You can perform some of the same tests scientists do using materials in your home. One topic chemists study is mixtures and the substances that make them up. In this activity you will use a process called chromatography to find out what makes up a mixture you use often: black ink.

Kathleen Damonte

2003-10-01

305

Wizardry and Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how common pop culture references (Harry Potter books) can relate to chemistry. While making and demonstrating their own low-intensity sparklers (muggle-versions of magic wands), students learn and come to appreciate the chemistry involved (reaction rates, Gibb's free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy). The fun part is that all wands are personalized and depend on how well students conduct the lab. Students end the activity with a class duel—a face-off between wands of two different chemical compositions. This lab serves as a fun, engaging review for stoichiometry, thermodynamics, redox and kinetics, as well as advanced placement course review.

2014-09-18

306

The Chemistry of Cocaine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at cocaine, including its addictive properties and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the drug in its different forms. The lesson can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. The material was designed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry course but could also be used in medicinal chemistry coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

307

Frontiers in analytical chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

Amato, I.

1988-12-15

308

Analytical Chemistry Springboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Analytical Chemistry Springboard Web site is provided by Umea University Department of Chemistry. The metadata site provides a large number of annotated links that relate to analytical chemistry. Categories include Atomic Spectroscopy, Chemometrics, Electron Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, X-Ray Spectroscopy, and many more. Another section on the site provides links to informational resources such as newsgroups, nonprofit organizations, and scientific literature sources. Each site has a brief description, a direct link, and informational icons that tell if the site is new, updated, or contains graphics -- all of which culminate in a simple but very helpful resource for those working in a related field.

1995-01-01

309

Linux4Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the WWW Virtual Library, the Linux4Chemistry page is a metasite listing a variety of chemistry-related software available on the Web for Linux interface. The site is maintained by Nikodem Kuznik, an undergraduate at the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice, Poland. The list indicates whether the software is free, shareware, or commercial and gives brief descriptions of applications. A few of the programs listed are AllChem, AMMP molecular modeling program, CDA charge composition analysis, and Kmol molecular weight calculator. Besides the seemingly exhaustive list of Linux software for chemistry, this site also gives links to other software resources.

Kuznik, Nikodem.

310

Microscale Gas Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Professor Bruce M. Mattson, PhD, of Creighton University's Department of Chemistry, the Microscale Gas Chemistry Website "provides instructions for the generation of gases on a microscale level along with instructions for chemical demonstrations and student laboratory experiments with the gases." The no-frills site, designed for high school and university chemistry teachers, contains clear and careful instructions for experiments with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, ethene, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and more. An introduction offers two low-tech methods for gas generation. Data pages for relevant gases are linked to each experiment.

311

Computational quantum chemistry website  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

none,

1997-08-22

312

Chemistry in Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

F R O N T M A T T E R Chemistry in Bioinformatics Peter Murray?Rust,1 John B. O. Mitchell,1 and Henry S. Rzepa2 1 Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge. CB2... 1EW, UK. 2 Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, SW7 2AY, UK. Abstract Chemical information is now seen as critical for most areas of life sciences. But unlike Bioinformatics, where data is Openly available and freely re...

Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John B O; Rzepa, Henry S

2005-05-19

313

Green Chemistry Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."

314

Materials Chemistry at SFU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science group at Simon Fraser University (SFU) developed this website to address the group's primary research interests in material synthesis, molecular, electronics, and photonics. Visitors will find explanations covering sixteen research topics including chemical sensors, lithography, non-linear optics, and supramolecular chemistry. Under each topic heading, users will find links discussing the faculties' current goals, recent publications, and patents. The site also features links to the Pacific Centre for Advanced Materials and Microstructures; a collaborative effort between the Materials Science group at SFU and the physics and chemistry departments at the University of British Columbia. Anyone searching for the latest investigations in materials chemistry will find this website very informative.

315

I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry  

E-print Network

Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may

316

National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry"  

E-print Network

National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry" Super Science Saturday Saturday-on chemistry and science demonstrations! All students & families are welcome! Fun & educational for all ages! Sponsored by: American Chemical Society LSU Department of Chemistry LSU Athletic Department Free admission

Stephens, Jacqueline

317

B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (CHEMISTRY TRACK)  

E-print Network

.) At least 4 credits chosen from: CHE 411: Inorganic Chemistry (3) CHE 422: Inorganic Laboratory TechniquesB.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (CHEMISTRY TRACK) Requirements include 36 credits in chemistry core courses, 32 of which are taken in specific courses. Each student's course of study includes

Doyle, Robert

318

Faculty Position in Inorganic Chemistry Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Faculty Position in Inorganic Chemistry Department of Chemistry Purdue University The Department at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry. Successful candidates may have interests in any research area of inorganic chemistry, broadly defined. Purdue has a tradition of excellence in inorganic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

319

B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY TRACK)  

E-print Network

Chemistry (3) CHE 412: Metals in Medicine (3) CHE 422: Inorganic Laboratory Techniques (1) CHE 427B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY TRACK) Requirements include 21 credits from chemistry core courses, 6 credits from the list, (2) below, of approved biology/biochemistry core

Doyle, Robert

320

A Chemistry Minute: Recognizing Chemistry in Our Daily Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory chemistry classes often wonder about the relevance of chemistry to their daily lives. We have sought to increase their awareness by requiring each student in first- and second-semester general chemistry to make a two-minute presentation on a chemistry-related topic. This exercise gives students an opportunity to think…

Luning Prak, Dianne J.; Copper, Christine L.

2008-01-01

321

Application of the principles of green chemistry in analytical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the dimension of green chemistry into the assessment of ana- lytical methods should be a natural development trend in chemistry and should coincide with its general policy. Some of the principles of green chemistry—such as prevention of waste generation; safer solvents and auxiliaries; design for energy efficiency; safer chemistry to minimize the potential of chemical accidents; development

Mihkel Koel; Mihkel Kaljurand

2006-01-01

322

Integrating Webinar and Blogging Technologies into Chemistry Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report successfully integrating webinar and blogging into an undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry seminar course. Commercial collaboration software linked speaker-operated slides with two-way voice and video effectively connecting the audience and presenter from different states. Student responses to the technology and seminar content were…

Hamstra, Dan; Kemsley, Jyllian N.; Murray, Desmond H.; Randall, David W.

2011-01-01

323

Emergences of supramolecular chemistry: from supramolecular chemistry to supramolecular science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the field of supramolecular chemistry as a consequence of the progress of chemistry from its premises to recent\\u000a achievements. Supramolecular chemistry has been claimed to be an emergent field of research taking its roots in chemistry.\\u000a According to the definitions of emergences related to hierarchy or more recently to scope, supramolecular chemistry is shown\\u000a to have bottom-up or

Jacques VicensQuentin Vicens; Quentin Vicens

324

Float Zone Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

Naumann, R. J.

1980-01-01

325

Intertidal zone of svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer 1985–1991, the intertidal zone of the Svalbard archipelago was sampled in 242 localities. Thirty seven laxa of macrofauna and 22 of macrophytes were considered as littoral zone inhabitants. Four major littoral assemblages are described: Fucus-Balanus, Gammarus, Onisimus and Oligochaeta communities. More than 80% of the investigated coast is occupied by the Oligochaeta assemblage with mean biomass values less

J. M. Weslawski; J. Wiktor; M. Zajaczkowski; S. Swerpel

1993-01-01

326

Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

2010-01-01

327

Reading Education Action Zones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the conceptualization of social justice embedded in the education-action-zones policy recently implemented in England. Although zone populations suffer three types of social injustice, the initiative recognizes economic disadvantage, but inadequately acknowledges cultural and associational injustices. Cultural remedies cannot be imposed…

Power, Sally; Gewirtz, Sharon

2001-01-01

328

Changes in Hardiness Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation illustrates how the hardiness zones for plants have changed between 1990 and 2006 based on an extensive updating of U.S. Hardiness Zones using data from 5,000 National Climatic Data Center cooperative stations across the continental United States.

Arbor Day Foundation

329

Learn Chemistry: Chemistry Resources for Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Royal Society of Chemistry has created this most useful website to help teachers and students of chemistry learn about the field via interactive experiments, diagrams, animations, and so on. The site includes over 3,300 resources. Visitors can get started by using the Resource Type tab. Here they can browse through ten different headings, including Worksheet, Quiz, Tutorial, and Podcast. The Experiments area is quite wonderful, as it includes over 340 different experiments that can be conducted in the classroom. A few highlights in this area include "Challenging Medicines: Making Medicines," "The Salt Cellar Mystery," and "Which solution is which?" Overall, it's a tremendous site and one that visitors will want to share with friends.

330

Supplemental instruction in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

Lundeberg, Mary A.

331

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

David N. Blauch

332

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

333

Chemistry Societies Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users gain access to the heart of CSN's site through the site gateway which leads them to CSN's information arcade, education arcade, societies, chembytes, and conferences and events. The information arcade provides links to experts and specialists, and chemistry societies. The education arcade contains a wealth of information for educators in the chemistry arena. Societies lists chemical and chemistry-related societies, divided alphabetically by country. Chembytes provides access to a variety of news, including recent findings and discoveries, business updates, and news from around the globe. Chembytes also features a continuing series which looks in-depth at a topic recently in the news. Currently featured is NASA's attempt to return to the moon. Conferences and Events is searchable and browseable and contains a submission form so visitors can list an event. CSN's site also includes Useful Links, a listing of sites categorized and reviewed by Chemsoc and Science Park, which links to four companies offering chemistry related resources on the web.

334

Computer Individualizes Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new teaching aid, designed to monitor each freshman chemistry student's progress, to identify specific weaknesses and strengths in his grasp of course material, and to prescribe individual study assignments, is described. (DT)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

335

General Chemistry for Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

Kybett, B. D.

1982-01-01

336

Discovery in chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The question, ''Where do axioms and postulates originate.'' is addressed. The article assumes that they are acquired by inductive logic and are new ideas or discoveries. How discoveries happen in chemistry is the topic of the talk.

Holley, C.E. Jr.

1982-12-01

337

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS ANY CHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE  

E-print Network

departments Industries: Chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food, feed, cosmetics, agricultural Environment Agriculture Food Science Cosmetics Forensics ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Government agencies: U, biotechnology, food, feed, cosmetics, agricultural, environmental, petroleum, consumer products, legal, medical

New Hampshire, University of

338

Sequencing General Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The material in the authors' general chemistry curriculum has been rearranged into a sequence thought to be more logical to students than the traditional sequence. This fresh approach does not radically change course content but rather produces a systemat

B.J. Yoblinski

2003-03-01

339

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

340

Chemistry for Nonscientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

1974-01-01

341

Magnetism in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

1975-01-01

342

Physical Chemistry Animation Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations, intended for a physical chemistry course, covers thermodynamics, the physical transformation of substances (such as dissolution), phase diagrams and the behaviour of matter in various states.

343

Green Chemistry Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the American Chemical Society (ACS), this website offers a set of lesson plans, multimedia demonstrations, and lab exercises for educators interested in introducing their students to green chemistry. First-time visitors can scroll down to the "Activities and Experiments" area where they will find activities that include "Bleaching With Green Oxidation Chemistry" and â??Cleaning Up With Atom Economy," Moving on, visitors can also take advantage of the "Online Resources" area. Here they will find links to materials developed at the University of Oregon and the Green Chemistry Network. Finally, the site is rounded out by the "More Educational Resources" area, which includes links to National Chemistry Week and the ChemMatters magazine.

344

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

345

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00­12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

Rohs, Remo

346

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project was started by Professor Brian Tissue of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1993. One of the goals stated for the site is to use the Internet to provide supplemental educational resources to chemistry students. That's accomplished by providing a large collection of hypermedia indices, which are online tutorials on various chemistry topics such as analytical chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and many others. Additional activities for students include self-paced tutorials that give students practice with equilibrium problems and a section on analytical spectroscopy. Although the student sections are a bit unorganized, the site does gives a lot of good information that kids can use to help understand these often confusing topics.

1996-01-01

347

Chemistry Wrap Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class activities and independent projects for high school students using household plastic wraps can help students understand more about the chemistry of everyday objects. The activities described in this article reinforce one of the fundamental principle

Jeffrey M. Pristera

2000-04-01

348

CHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007  

E-print Network

Ch. 10 Gases and the Ideal Gas Law Ch. 15 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions Ch. 13 ChemicalCHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007 General Chemistry II Dr. Craig P. Jasperse Office: Hagen 407J e:30-11:30 Required Text and Materials: 1) Text: "CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science, 2nd Edition" by Moore

Jasperse, Craig P.

349

7, 47814855, 2007 Chemistry, transport  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 4781­4855, 2007 Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases during GABRIEL A­4855, 2007 Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases during GABRIEL A. Stickler et al. Title a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemistry, transport and dry

Boyer, Edmond

350

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first hundred years of Nobel Prizes for Chemistry give a beautiful picture of the development of modern chemistry. The prizes cover the whole spectrum of the basic chemical sciences, from theoretical chemistry to biochemistry, and also a number of contributions to applied chemistry.

2001-01-01

351

Marquette University Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Analysis Inorganic Chemistry Lecture Inorganic Synthesis Lab #12;Our Curriculum Physical Chemistry LectureMarquette University Department of Chemistry #12;Do You Want A Career that will.... Directly your ideas with others? A Marquette Chemistry degree will prepare you for advanced study or for a job

Reid, Scott A.

352

Green Chemistry, a Pharmaceutical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Green Chemistry1,2 movement has gained momentum, definitions of Green Chemistry have been dominated predomi- nantly by academic viewpoints. Green Chemistry concepts, however, apply to an incredible diversity of scientific endeavor, which has invariably led to differences between and amongst both academia and industry regarding what constitutes Green Chemistry. Speaking primarily of the pharmaceutical industry and considering the advances

John L. Tucker

2006-01-01

353

Light field selfreproduction at the Fresnel diffraction zone behind zone plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative theoretical and experimental examination of Talbot effect behind linear, circular gratings with constant period and zone plates is carried out. The features, connected both with the shape and with a period of dashes are detected. It is shown that the quality of the self-image of gratings is determined by boundaries of the range of spatial frequencies, represented in the image. The experimental results of the phase objects visualization with the help of the Talbot interferometer with zone plates are given.

Palchikova, Irena G.

2001-12-01

354

Chip connectivity verification program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

1999-01-01

355

Nicotine Smoke Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies by Jeffrey Seeman detailing some of the complexities involved in the volatilization of two alkaloids, nicotine and cocaine. Students could be asked to identify how chemistry is involved in the various steps described in the paper, and most beginning students will be surprised to learn just how complex a process the volatilization of a molecule such as nicotine is.

356

Impact of surface chemistry  

PubMed Central

The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

2011-01-01

357

Impact of surface chemistry.  

PubMed

The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

Somorjai, Gabor A; Li, Yimin

2011-01-18

358

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

359

Chemistry in space research.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemistry in space is discussed together with aspects of chemistry in planetary atmospheres, the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds, and carbonaceous meteorites as possible sites of extraterrestrial life. Other subjects investigated include terrestrial and extraterrestrial stable organic molecules, thermally stable macromolecules, chemical aspects of ablation, low-temperature relaxations in amorphous polymers, and solid propellants. Liquid propellant rockets are also considered along with questions of spacecraft sterilization. Individual items are announced in this issue.

Landel, R. F. (editor); Rembaum, A.

1972-01-01

360

NASA: Aura Atmospheric Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aura is the EOS chemistry mission which aims to answer three important questions: is the ozone layer recovering, is air quality getting worse, and is the Earth's climate changing? Aura will continue the long term series of atmospheric chemistry measurements made by earlier missions. The Aura spacecraft operates in a 705 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, with an ascending equator crossing at 1:45 PM. On the site, visitors will find an overview of the mission, documentation, tools, links, and FAQs.

361

Tech Job Connection Connecting employers and potential  

E-print Network

-Columbia technology sector What it's all about If you are a technology-based company looking for employees, or someone level of growth and profitability. How does the Tech Job Connection work? Employers and individuals qualifications (see reverse side) are met. Anyone can view the jobs and resumes and contact the companies

362

Fresnel zone structure in planetary occultations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structures of the Fresnel zones of an occulting body with a substantial atmosphere are analyzed. The first Fresnel zone is defined as the set of all contiguous points connected to the transmitter and receiver via paths with a combined length within one half wavelength of the stationary value, and calculated by the application of the Huygens-Fresnel principle to a wave front frozen in time as it traverses the region of interest, taking into account wave front curvature of waves undergoing refraction. Calculations of the Fresnel zones of a planet determined by the meeting of wave fronts represented as tori reveal that the zone along the propagation path traversing the nearest portion of the limb to the transmitter has a shape similar to an ellipse, while that of the far zone resembles the letter X. The phase delay along the farside path is found to be a stationary point rather than a minimum, since delay is distributed in the form of a hyperbolic paraboloid near the ray and in the form of a torus intersection for greater separations. Examples are presented for S band propagation deep in the atmospheres of Venus and Jupiter.

Croft, T. A.

1981-01-01

363

Evolution of shear zones in granular materials  

E-print Network

The evolution of wide shear zones (or shear bands) was investigated experimentally and numerically for quasistatic dry granular flows in split bottom shear cells. We compare the behavior of materials consisting of beads, irregular grains (e.g. sand) and elongated particles. Shearing an initially random sample, the zone width was found to significantly decrease in the first stage of the process. The characteristic shear strain associated with this decrease is about unity and it is systematically increasing with shape anisotropy, i.e. when the grain shape changes from spherical to irregular (e.g. sand) and becomes elongated (pegs). The strongly decreasing tendency of the zone width is followed by a slight increase which is more pronounced for rod like particles than for grains with smaller shape anisotropy (beads or irregular particles). The evolution of the zone width is connected to shear induced density change and for nonspherical particles it also involves grain reorientation effects. The final zone width is significantly smaller for irregular grains than for spherical beads.

Balazs Szabo; Janos Torok; Ellak Somfai; Sandra Wegner; Ralf Stannarius; Axel Bose; Georg Rose; Frank Angenstein; Tamas Borzsonyi

2014-08-07

364

Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel.

G. Patterson; P. Striffler

2007-02-17

365

Links between worlds: Unraveling migratory connectivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Migration is the regular seasonal movement of animals from one place to another, often from a breeding site to a nonbreeding site and back. Because the act of migration makes it difficult to follow individuals and populations year round, our understanding of the ecology and evolution of migrating organisms, particularly birds, has been severely impeded. Exciting new advances in satellite telemetry, genetic analyses and stable isotope chemistry are now making it possible to determine the population and geographical origin of individual birds. Here, we review these new approaches and consider the relevance of understanding migratory connectivity to ecological, evolutionary and conservation issues.

Webster, M.; Marra, P.P.; Haig, Susan M.; Bensch, S.; Holmes, R.T.

2002-01-01

366

Teaching Chemistry Topics Through the Rich Context of Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and responding to the fundamental changes to earth's atmosphere and oceans since the industrial revolution is one of the defining challenges facing our modern world. Despite the fact that much of the underlying science builds so heavily on fundamental chemistry and physics, chemistry educators have taken little ownership for helping students visualize and understand the science and connect it to conceptual understanding in chemistry courses. We introduce (a) strategies used in an NSF-funded CCLI project to teach a set of core chemistry concepts through the rich contexts of climate science and (b) a new IYC-2011 legacy project carried out in partnership with IUPAC, UNESCO, RSC and ACS to create a set of interactive web resources for global dissemination, www.explainingclimatechange.com.

Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; Towns, M.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

2012-12-01

367

UCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for  

E-print Network

engineering, physical chemistry, physical inorganic chemistry, biophysical chemistry, or physical organicUCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for Chemistry majors who are interested in attending

Levine, Alex J.

368

Connection: A Resource Directory  

E-print Network

1 Community Connection: A Resource Directory For Social Service Providers Updated November 2012 #12;2 Note to Reader Community Connection: A Resource Directory for Social Service Providers has been for students and service providers to have ready access to an online community resource directory. We initially

Oyet, Alwell

369

Making the Internet Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information on commercial connections to the Internet via gateways as opposed to direct connection or through a modem. Hardware and software requirements are described; and commercial online services offering an Internet gateway are discussed, including America Online, CompuServe, Delphi, GEnie, and Prodigy. (LRW)

Descy, Don E.

1995-01-01

370

Caldecott Connections to Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume brings award-winning literature to all areas of the science curriculum. The lesson plan format includes the four stages of engagement, elaboration, exploration, and connection. Each story is followed by activities that make connections between literature, science, and the arts. Chapters include: (1) "Frog Went A-Courtin'," which…

Glandon, Shan

371

Real World Graph Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

2009-01-01

372

Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

2010-01-01

373

Artificial limb connection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

Owens, L. J.

1974-01-01

374

Strength and initial stiffness of a blind-bolt connection based on the T-stub model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the behaviour of the blind-bolt Hollobolt when used in moment-resisting connections. This is done through an investigation into its effects on the initial stiffness, strength and ductility of a T-stub connection. The T-stub connection is used to represent the tension zone of a moment-resisting connection. A theoretical model for the initial stiffness of such a connection has

Z. Y. Wang; W. Tizani; Q. Y. Wang

2010-01-01

375

Simulation of fluid flow mechanisms in high permeability zones (Super-K) in a giant naturally fractured carbonate reservoir  

E-print Network

the Super-K Zone was investigated. It is known that these zones are connected to naturally occurring fractures. Fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs is a very difficult mechanism to understand. To accomplish this mission, the Super-K Zone...

Abu-Hassoun, Amer H.

2009-05-15

376

Broca's area - thalamic connectivity.  

PubMed

Broca's area is crucially involved in language processing. The sub-regions of Broca's area (pars triangularis, pars opercularis) presumably are connected via corticocortical pathways. However, growing evidence suggests that the thalamus may also be involved in language and share some of the linguistic functions supported by Broca's area. Functional connectivity is thought to be achieved via corticothalamic/thalamocortical white matter pathways. Our study investigates structural connectivity between Broca's area and the thalamus, specifically ventral anterior nucleus and pulvinar. We demonstrate that Broca's area shares direct connections with these thalamic nuclei and suggest a local Broca's area-thalamus network potentially involved in linguistic processing. Thalamic connectivity with Broca's area may serve to selectively recruit cortical regions storing multimodal features of lexical items and to bind them together during lexical-semantic processing. In addition, Broca's area-thalamic circuitry may enable cortico-thalamo-cortical information transfer and modulation between BA 44 and 45 during language comprehension and production. PMID:25555132

Bohsali, Anastasia A; Triplett, William; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Gullett, Joseph M; McGregor, Keith; FitzGerald, David B; Mareci, Thomas; White, Keith; Crosson, Bruce

2015-02-01

377

Vadose Zone Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vadose Zone Journal is a new publication published by the Soil Science Society of America. The journal is described as "an outlet for interdisciplinary research and assessment of the vadose zone, the mostly unsaturated zone between the soil surface and the permanent groundwater table." A free online trial is currently available to review full text articles until December 31st of 2002. Although the trial includes only the first two issues, the opportunity to search and browse through the publications without charge should be taken advantage of.

378

Use of Doceri Software for iPad in Online Delivery of Chemistry Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doceri software for iPad is useful for both synchronous online and asynchronous online delivery of chemistry course content. Using the Doceri wireless connection between the iPad and a personal computer that is running Adobe Connect, online synchronous instruction can be accomplished in which drawings can be completed by hand on the iPad. For…

Silverberg, Lee J.; Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

379

Connect-ED: Higher Education Information Exchange  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

St. John's University offers this distribution-only information service for and about institutions of higher education. Connect-ED was established to disseminate information about the programs, schools, faculties and courses of study of post-secondary institutions, schools of higher learning, or tertiary educational institutes, in order to assist subscribers in decisions regarding recruitment and selection. The list will be of particular interest to education administrators; faculty; information, public relations or recruitment officers; students; and potential employers. The material posted on this list might include: notices of new, established, or unique programs; special events, publications, and media coverage; conferences, meetings, faculty or institutional awards; changes in educational standards, admission criteria, or curricula; fees; scholarship availability; accreditation reports; calls for papers; application deadlines; degree requirements; credit balancing; and course delivery (traditional, on-line, Internet, teleconference or other methods).

380

Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science  

E-print Network

Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science React. Science #12;Contents 2 Welcome to the Department of Chemistry 2 Course Advice 3 What is Chemistry? 4 Career Profiles in Chemistry 5 An Undergraduate Degree in Chemistry 6 Chemistry Streams 13 Chemistry Honours Programme 14 Research

Hickman, Mark

381

Updated September 2012 Chemistry Degree Requirements  

E-print Network

Winter Spring Computational Chemistry CH 410 Physical Organic Chemistry I CH 410 Inorganic Chemistry CH 431 Bioinorganic Chemistry CH 432 Solid State Inorganic Chemistry CH 433 Quantum & Spectroscopy See CH-13 Inorganic Chemistry Lab CH 437 Adv. Organic Chemistry CH 451 Quantum & Spectroscopy CH 441 Physical

Cina, Jeff

382

Theme-Based Bidisciplinary Chemistry Laboratory Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thematic approach to each of the two introductory chemistry laboratory sequences, general and organic chemistry, not only provides an element of cohesion but also stresses the role that chemistry plays as the "central science" and emphasizes the intimate link between chemistry and other science disciplines. Thus, in general chemistry the rubric "Environmental Chemistry" affords connections to the geosciences, whereas experiments on the topic of "Plant Assays" bridge organic chemistry and biology. By establishing links with other science departments, the theme-based laboratory experiments will satisfy the following multidisciplinary criteria: (i) to demonstrate the general applicability of core methodologies to the sciences, (ii) to help students relate concepts to a broader multidisciplinary context, (iii) to foster an attitude of both independence and cooperation that can transcend the teaching laboratory to the research arena, and (iv) to promote greater cooperation and interaction between the science departments. Fundamentally, this approach has the potential to impact the chemistry curriculum significantly by including student decision-making in the experimental process. Furthermore, the incorporation of GC-MS, a powerful tool for separation and identification as well as a state-of-the-art analytical technique, in the modules will enhance the introductory general and organic chemistry laboratory sequences by making them more instrument-intensive and by providing a reliable and reproducible means of obtaining quantitative analyses. Each multifaceted module has been designed to meet the following criteria: (i) a synthetic protocol including full spectral characterization of products, (ii) quantitative and statistical analyses of data, and (iii) construction of a database of results. The database will provide several concrete functions. It will foster the idea that science is a continuous incremental process building on the results of earlier experimentalists, it will reinforce an understanding of the scientific method by allowing students to propose testable hypotheses based on previous work, and it will generate a large body of quantitative data that can be used to illustrate the fundamentals of data analysis, including statistical measures of uncertainty. We have already developed several "Environmental Chemistry" modules for general chemistry, including monitoring for orthophosphate and nitrate concentrations in water using colorimetric analyses and assaying for gasoline contamination in water and soil samples using GC-MS. Another module dealing with herbicide residues in soil is still being explored. However, we purposefully choose here to emphasize the two modules that are under development for implementation in the organic chemistry laboratory sequence. The first "Plant Assay" project focuses on fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and involves three discrete phases: (i) synthesis and characterization of FAME standards, (ii) isolation of the fatty acids (as FAMEs) from a variety of different plant leaves that will be collected by BIO 110 students on field trips, and (iii) qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plant leaf extract for whole-leaf lipid composition. Acid-catalyzed Fischer esterification of carboxylic acids in methanol is a standard methodology for the preparation of methyl esters. A textbook procedure (1) for the synthesis of ethyl laurate has been employed, with good success, to prepare eight FAMEs in yields of ca. 70%. Conversion of leaf phospholipids to FAMEs proceeds readily via a transesterification reaction. Treatment of the whole leaf in a methanolic HCl solution for an hour at 80 °C (2) is sufficient after extraction in hexane to provide a suitable sample for GC-MS analysis. Preliminary results obtained with an HP GCD system indicate that GC-MS will afford highly reliable quantitative data on FAME lipid composition. Possible extensions of the project include using boron trifluoride in methanol to effect transesterification (3) and examini

Leber, Phyllis A.; Szczerbicki, Sandra K.

1996-12-01

383

Fluid flow in fault zones from an active rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry and hydraulic properties of fault zones are investigated for Mesozoic greywacke basement and Miocene sandstone from ˜37 km of tunnels in the southern Taupo Rift, New Zealand. Localised groundwater inflows occur almost exclusively (?˜90%) within, and immediately adjacent to, fault zones. Fault zones in the contrasting lithologies comprise fault rock, small-scale faults, and fractures with thicknesses of 0.01-˜110 m approximating power law distributions and bulk permeabilities of 10-9-10-12 m2. Variability in fault zone structure results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of flow rates and locations. Within basement ˜80% of the flow rate occurs from fault zones ?10 m wide, with ˜30% of the total localised flow rate originating from a single fault zone (i.e. consistent with the golden fracture concept). No simple relationships are found between flow rates and either fault strike or hydraulic head, with ?50% of fault zones in any given orientation flowing. A general positive relationship does however exist between fault zone thickness and maximum flow rate. Higher flow rates from larger fault zones may arise because these structures have greater dimensions and are more likely (than smaller faults) to be connected to other faults in the system and the ground surface.

Seebeck, H.; Nicol, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Childs, C.; Beetham, R. D.; Pettinga, J.

2014-05-01

384

Residue chemistry guidelines.  

PubMed

Residue chemistry guidelines are designed to determine what the potential residues in food are and how much may be present as a result of pesticide application, so that a tolerance level may be established. Some requirements are established to assist in the enforcement of tolerances by the USDA, FDA, and the states. I realize I have given you a quick overview of the residue chemistry requirements. There are many documents which are available if you should require more information, such as the Subdivision O Residue Chemistry Guidelines, Standard Evaluation Procedures (which are used by reviewers when evaluating the studies), the Data Reporting Guidelines (which provide guidance on preparing final reports), and the Technical Guidance from Phase III of Reregistration. We have also released various papers on studies when additional guidance is required. Most of these documents are available from NTIS. I hope you will consider this information when auditing residue chemistry studies. As I see the efforts that you, the QA professionals, have made to educate yourselves on residue chemistry studies through programs such as this meeting, I have a little more confidence in answering the question "Do you trust them?" with a "Yes." Thank you. PMID:8156199

Olinger, C L; Schmitt, R D; Zager, E

1993-01-01

385

Technetium Chemistry in HLW  

SciTech Connect

Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

2005-06-06

386

AP Chemistry: Course Revisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Fall 2013, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing the existing AP Chemistry course with a new chemistry curriculum designed to foster greater conceptual understanding and more time engaged in scientific practices. This website offers an array of resources to support teachers and school administrators in adopting the new AP Chemistry. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on six key ideas in chemistry. Especially noteworthy is the greater emphasis on visualization of the particle nature of matter. Each learning objective explicitly combines content and one or more "thinking skills", intended to promote greater time engaged in scientific inquiry with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Chemistry, Planning and Pacing Guides, teachers' forum, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Physics course has also undergone major revision, replacing AP Physics B with two year-long courses, slated for adoption in Fall 2014. See "Related Materials" for a link to the College Board's website on AP Physics revisions.

387

The Habitable Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustration is an approximate representation of the planets in our solar system and their relation to what scientists call The Habitable Zone. The planet distances from the sun are measured in Astronomical Units (AU) and are not to scale.

2008-03-26

388

Marginal Zone Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood, or other organs, and form ... marginal zone lymphoma occurs most often in the spleen and blood. It has been associated with Hepatitis ...

389

Microgravity silicon zoning investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

1985-01-01

390

ChemConnections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of our program was: To develop new curricula, materials and methods to enhance the appreciation and learning of science, especially chemistry, for every undergraduate student such that all college graduates will command the knowledge and skills necessary to permit continued learning, to lead productive lives, and to make informed decisions.

391

Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

392

Chemistry Laboratory Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

393

Macs in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using computers to do science is a great way to get young people hooked on the enterprise, and mobile apps and other devices make this easier than ever. The Macs in Chemistry site features dozens of applications that will help users learn about chemistry (and more) through interactive activities, quizzes, and so on. In the At a Glance area, visitors can learn about the tutorials archived here, data analysis tools, and mobile science apps. This last section is a real gem, as it contains dozens of applications including everything from 29 interactive maps of the brain to chemistry formula exercises to a working seismograph. The rest of the applications are divided into alphabetical sections. Visitors should click on the Software Reviews area for timely and detailed reviews of each application's strengths and weaknesses. The site is rounded out by a contact form and a set of useful links.

394

Air Composition and Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

Brimblecombe, Peter

1996-01-01

395

Science360: Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered about the chemistry of a cheeseburger? Well you are in luck because that is one of the subjects covered on the topical and delightful "Chemistry" section of the popular Science360 website. As it states on the site, "everything you hear, see, taste, smell and touch involves chemistry and chemicals", and here visitors can watch videos and learn about the molecular structure of water, the science behind glass blowing, and how a curious mud-like mixture is being used to soak up oil spills and insulate homes. Currently, there are about fifteen videos on the site, and visitors can sign up via a host of social media (Twitter, Facebook, and so on), to stay abreast of new additions to the site. Teachers will find that this material can be integrated into the classroom quite easily, and everyone else will just enjoy wandering through these offerings.

396

Atmospheric chemistry research  

SciTech Connect

Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.

Saylor, R.D. (Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (USA))

1990-01-01

397

Reaction chemistry of cerium  

SciTech Connect

It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

NONE

1997-01-01

398

Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

2000-02-01

399

SS-wave sensitivity to upper mantle structure: Implications for the mapping of transition zone discontinuity topographies  

E-print Network

April 2003; published 12 June 2003. [1] Studies of the depths of the upper mantle discontinuities have to upper mantle structure: Implications for the mapping of transition zone discontinuity topographies of the upper mantle discontinuities provide constraints on the temperature and chemistry in the transition zone

Chevrot, Sébastien

400

Chem 390 Physical Chemistry II Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry II  

E-print Network

Chem 390 Physical Chemistry II Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry II Chem 390 Review outline for Prelim are not permitted. 1. Properties of gases Chapter 16 · Basic vocabulary of thermodynamics: thermodynamic state

401

Chemistry of Transactinides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

Kratz, J. V.

402

Chemistry in the Kitchen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this kitchen chemistry activity, learners explore the chemistry of crystals by making sugar crystals, consider a common chemical reaction type responsible for the rising of muffins and cake in the oven, and study the cleaning power of soap. For some of the experiments, a molecular-level view is fostered using structural diagrams of the chemicals, along with a fun "cartoon" version of the reaction with molecules represented by colored shapes (both drawn and cut out). The activity is written to be part of a kit that can be checked out of the library, but can be done without the kit.

Maisie Shaw

2010-01-01

403

EnvironmentalChemistry.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by Kenneth Barbalace with help from Roberta and Julia Barbalace, the EnvironmentalChemistry.com website supplies innumerable environmental, chemistry, and hazardous materials information and resources. Under the Environmental Issues header, students can learn about the chemical and physical properties of asbestos, the Chernobyl disaster, and the proper way to handle household chemicals. One of the newest additions to the website is the Emergency Response Guidebook, which is used during a Dangerous goods / Hazardous Materials incident. The numerous, in-depth chemical resources include a directory of common chemicals used in industry and household products, an article explaining the structure of atoms, and a periodic table with data on elements' properties.

404

Chemistry WebBook  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

405

Understanding Chemistry: Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, which is part of a larger project "ChemGuide" provides a nice introduction to mass spectrometry that is suitable for use by introductory analytical chemistry students. Content includes an introduction to the instrumentation, explanation of fragmentation and how it can be used to identify compound structure, the origin of the M+ and (M+1)+ peaks. Each section is succinct, well written and provides a simple example. As such the site should be useful to faculty introducing mass spectrometry in the analytical classroom and to chemistry students.

Clark, Jim

406

Chemistry in cometary comae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

1998-01-01

407

Chemistry Open Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This free chemistry textbook from Boundless Learning is based off openly available educational resources such as "government resources, open educational repositories, and other openly licensed websites." The textbook contains 25 chapters such as Introduction to Chemistry, Atoms, Molecules, and Ions, and Mass Relationships and Chemical Equations. The textbook can be browsed on this page or downloaded as a pdf. Students can register for a free Boundless account to access a search engine and other study tools to efficiently find specific topics and master the content.

408

Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate students often experience fear and trepidation when studying introductory organic chemistry: the majority of these students use a memorization approach to the material, sacrificing understanding. This paper describes one way the problem can be resolved. The cognitive working level we emphasize in our teaching practice involves making the necessary connections between the general chemistry principles that students have learned (or at least have been exposed to in their senior high school years and have revisited again in their university freshman year) and the many reactions and mechanisms they will encounter in organic chemistry. Educating students early in the course about the various levels of the cognitive process and the necessary working level of cognition for success in organic chemistry teaches connections between the general chemistry principles and reaction mechanisms. This empowers students to approach the subject from a perspective of understanding rather than memorization, and replaces fear and trepidation with confidence. In addition, this can help narrow the gap between what instructors expect from their students and what their students think is sufficient to master the course content.

Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A.

2003-07-01

409

Stroke Connection Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... edition and FREE apps for Apple and Android smartphones and tablets and for Kindle Fire — you can ... Stroke Connection website to read the current issue . Social and Emotional Support: Keys to Recovery Stroke recovery ...

410

Nurturing Deep Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the missing ingredient in school reform is soul, that is, deep connections among students, teachers, and administrators. Discusses five principles of leadership with soul: Personalize, pacing, permission, protection, and paradox. (PKP)

Kessler, Rachael

2002-01-01

411

Physical Infrastructure: Connections  

E-print Network

Physical Infrastructure: Connections METALS Using a complementary approach of experimental conditions. Due to years of limited investment and maintenance, the U.S. transportation infrastructure infrastructure, and guide cost-effective strategies for maintenance, repair, and replacement. · Validated

412

The CORALS Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean, Reefs, Aquariums, Literacy, and Stewardship (CORALS) research program helps students connect global environmental issues to local concerns and personal choices. During the 18-week program, students strengthen their understanding of coral reef d

Brian Plankis

2010-02-01

413

Connectibles : tangible social networking  

E-print Network

This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

Kalanithi, Jeevan James

2007-01-01

414

The effect of high school chemistry instruction on students' academic self-concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.

Morgan, Peter Wallace

415

33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.330 Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters within an area described as follows:...

2011-07-01

416

33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.330 Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters within an area described as follows:...

2012-07-01

417

33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.330 Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters within an area described as follows:...

2010-07-01

418

33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.330 Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of...danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters within an area described as follows:...

2014-07-01

419

Celebrating Chemistry and Art: National Chemistry Week 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the year 2001 the theme of National Chemistry Week, the American Chemical Society’s annual outreach program, is “Celebrating Chemistry and Art.” Various examples of chemists who also made contributions to music, literature, and poetry are presented. The relationship of chemistry to such visual arts as painting, sculpture, photography, and art conservation is discussed. Useful resource articles are also cited.

George B. Kauffman

2001-01-01

420

Utilizing high performance computing for chemistry: parallel computational chemistry.  

PubMed

Parallel hardware has become readily available to the computational chemistry research community. This perspective will review the current state of parallel computational chemistry software utilizing high-performance parallel computing platforms. Hardware and software trends and their effect on quantum chemistry methodologies, algorithms, and software development will also be discussed. PMID:20532308

de Jong, Wibe A; Bylaska, Eric; Govind, Niranjan; Janssen, Curtis L; Kowalski, Karol; Müller, Thomas; Nielsen, Ida M B; van Dam, Hubertus J J; Veryazov, Valera; Lindh, Roland

2010-07-14

421

Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

422

Flexible connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A flexible connection apparatus is disclosed for accommodating relative movement between a compliant offshore structure and the sea floor. The compliant offshore structure supports a fluid-carrying system which conveys fluids between the sea floor and the structure. The fluid-carrying system includes a riser and a helical flowline. The lower end of the riser is connected to the sea floor. The first end of the helical flowline is connected to the upper end of the riser and the second end of the helical flowline is connected to the structure. As the compliant offshore structure is displaced from its vertical equilibrium position due to loading forces induced by wind, waves, and ocean currents, the helical flowline elastically flexes through torsional deflection to accommodate such movement. In a preferred embodiment of the apparatus, a wellhead is connected between the riser and the helical flowline such that the centerline of the helical flowline is substantially vertical. In yet another embodiment of the apparatus, a bending flowline is connected between a wellhead and the structure with its centerline being substantially horizontal to accommodate movement of the structure through bending deflection rather than by torsional deflection.

Barth, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Hitchcock, W.A.; Miller, J.E.

1984-06-26

423

NASA CONNECT: Atmospheric Detectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' is the second of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' students will learn how scientists use satellites, lasers, optical detectors, and wavelengths of light to measure the presence of certain gaseous elements, compounds, and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

1999-01-01

424

Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI  

E-print Network

in medical writing, clinical protocols or regulatory filings · Experience managing federal research grants Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI Position summary: We are looking for a highly motivated Research Scientist with experience in chemistry and materials science. Research Scientist

Evans, Paul G.

425

Medicinal Chemistry and Enzyme Kinetics  

E-print Network

Medicinal Chemistry and Enzyme Kinetics Elizabeth Amin and C. R. Wagner, Medicinal Chemistry Jiali Stankovich, Jiali Gao, and Donald G. Truhlar, University of Minnesota February 2007 Enzyme Kinetics Kinetic isotope effects Variational transition state theory Multidimensional tunneling Ensemble averaging

Truhlar, Donald G

426

The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

1979-01-01

427

Polymer Chemistry in High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

Stucki, Roger

1984-01-01

428

General Chemistry, 9th Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, General Chemistry, 9th Edition, by Darrell D. Ebbing, Steven D. Gammon published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007.

429

The World of Chemistry: Essentials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, The World of Chemistry: Essentials, by Melvin Joesten, Mary E. Castellion, John L. Hogg published by Brooks/Cole, 2007.

430

Special Report: Chemistry of Comets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)

A'Hearn, Michael F.

1984-01-01

431

The Lighter Side of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the rationale for using photochemistry to merge descriptive chemistry and molecular orbital theory in first-year chemistry courses. Includes procedures and safety information for various activities, demonstrations, and experiments involving photochemical reactions. (DH)

Lamb, William G.

1984-01-01

432

The chemistry of lake sediments in time and space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five short cores (1.0–1.5 m) representing different depositional zones of an isolated bay of Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota (USA), were independently dated by 210Pb and pollen analysis and were analyzed stratigraphically for elemental chemistry (following sediment fractionation) and sedimentary pigments (including myxoxanthophyll and oscillaxanthin). Because of good dating control, short-interval time-stratigraphic units could be traced across the basin, and lake-wide accumulation

Daniel R. Engstrom; Edward B. Swain

1986-01-01

433

Classics in Hydrocarbon Chemistry: Syntheses, Concepts, Perspectives (by Henning Hopf)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What makes the book such a delight is that the reader can sense the joy and excitement that motivated the original researchers. This is summed up in a paragraph from Hopf (with a gratuitous comment about gender, which, if true, perhaps will not be true when a second edition appears):

There is one final reason why the study of hydrocarbons attracts many chemiststheir wish to play is often fulfilled extremely well on this exciting playing ground of organic chemistry. Whether (the mostly male) practitioners speak of tinker toy chemistry, molecular Lego or Meccano sets, the connection to an earlier part of their lives is obvious enough.

Magid, Ronald M.

2002-01-01

434

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Gretchen Cessna

2001-03-01

435

Surface Chemistry at Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan provides links to in-depth discussions and informational images of the research projects of its four surface chemistry research groups. Visitors to the site can find slide show presentations of the group's work, lists of its publications, and information on the individual researchers' education and work.

436

Chemistry in the Troposphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

1982-01-01

437

Interstellar Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex organic molecules that are stable against radiation may pervade interstellar space, with their degradation products a source of those molecules observed. The connexion between biological and interstellar organic chemistry is, however, analogical rather than substantive, and the prospect for interstellar biology is dim. This article is based on Professor Sagan's contribution to a symposium at the National Radio Astronomy

Carl Sagan

1972-01-01

438

Chemistry in a Nutshell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)

Rupnow, John; And Others

1995-01-01

439

RADIATION CHEMISTRY OF GASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions are presented concerning the advantages and limitations of ; gas phase studies in radiation chemistry, observed effects of phase in radiation, ; hot reactions, reactions of thermal I atoms, HCl catalyzed chain isomerizations, ; molecular Hâ detachment, fragmentation of charged species, role of excited ; states, and dissociative electron attachment. (J.R.D.);

1962-01-01

440

Microscale Gas Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

2011-01-01

441

Chemistry Teachers' Functional Paradigms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study which examined the interpretive process used by high school chemistry teachers in translating curriculum materials into classroom practice. Results indicate that differences exist among teachers but that commonalities are greater. Explains the functional paradigm concept and its value for the interpretation of curriculum…

Lantz, Oliver; Kass, Heidi

1987-01-01

442

Online organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

Janowicz, Philip A.

443

Phosphorus chemistry on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is a key element in biology and acts in many critical biochemical functions. The chemistry of phosphorus in the outer Solar System has not yet been quantified, hence the astrobiological relevance of phosphorus to possible life on places like Titan is unconstrained. We evaluate phosphorus chemistry on Titan using a combination of modeling and laboratory techniques. We show that phosphorus chemistry on Titan consists of exogenous phosphates and reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, and accretionary phosphine. Accretionary phosphorus is shown to be delivered primarily by rocks and ices in the saturnian sub-nebula, and heating during accretion concentrates phosphine in the crust of Titan. The exogenous compounds are capable of performing biologically-relevant chemistry, however they are active only in environments with substantial liquid water, either pure, or as a mixture with NH 3 or nitrile compounds. In contrast, we show that phosphine is soluble in methane and ethane on Titan's surface, hence phosphine likely participates in the hydrocarbon cycle on Titan. The lack of mobility of phosphate compounds on Titan's surface suggests that if life is present on Titan, it must have a fundamentally different biochemistry than does terrestrial life.

Pasek, Matthew A.; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2011-04-01

444

Greener and Sustainable Chemistry  

EPA Science Inventory

The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...

445

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

Anderson, Mark

2013-01-01

446

Chemistry & Biology Perspective  

E-print Network

the original components of the first informational polymer(s) of life. We also evaluate three distinct models additional chemical constraints on the origin of life and one that has the potential to produce selfChemistry & Biology Perspective The Origin of RNA and ``My Grandfather's Axe'' Nicholas V. Hud,1

Williams, Loren

447

Green Chemistry COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

Green Chemistry COMMUNICATION Cite this: Green Chem., 2013, 15, 2060 Received 8th April 2013 platforms.16 We demonstrate that the frustules of unicellular algae known as diatoms can be used 5042, Australia. E-mail: colin.raston@flinders.edu.au; Tel: +08 8021 7958 2060 | Green Chem., 2013, 15

448

Green chemistry metrics  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

449

Get Cooking with Chemistry!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

450

Chemistry Cook-Off  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

McCormick, Cynthia

2012-01-01

451

MOM Teaches Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wonderful way to engage science students is to make them think a demonstration is not turning out the way the instructor intended. Basically, throw a little humor into teaching, and they will be hooked. Described in this article is a demonstration that uses Milk of Magnesia (MOM) as a visual and humorous method to review equilibrium chemistry

Smierciak, Rich

2004-01-01

452

Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

Jenkins, David; And Others

453

Better imaging through chemistry.  

PubMed

The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded jointly to William E. Moerner, Stefan W. Hell, and Eric Betzig "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy." I discuss the contributions made by this year's awardees and how advances in understanding the behavior of fluorophores and research in light microscopy converged to allow the improved visualization of biological structures. PMID:25480287

Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-12-01

454

Chemistry and Popperism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

Akeroyd, F. Michael

1984-01-01

455

Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

456

Learning Chemistry Through Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes a pretest-posttest design to determine if participants (N=26) exhibit significant gains in organic, inorganic, and biological chemistry concepts as the result of a six-week summer program. Significant gains in these areas and in an understanding of the methods and procedures used in scientific explanation are found. (CP)

Cody, John T.; Treagust, David F.

1977-01-01

457

The Lens of Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

Thalos, Mariam

2013-01-01

458

Chemistry Is Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

Yaniv, D; And Others

1982-01-01

459

The Chemistry of Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

460

Chemistry and Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

2014-05-01

461

News: Green Chemistry & Technology  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu...

462

Chemistry by the Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the structure and content of a one-semester course dealing with chemistry, science, and technology designed for nonscience majors. The course uses a hybrid of two active learning methodologies--problem-based team learning and the cas

Frank J. Dinan

2002-09-01

463

Chemistry Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

464

Chemistry between the stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unit is presented for the secondary school teacher of physics, chemistry, astronomy, or earth sciences. Included are a list of reference materials, teaching aids, and projects. Discussion questions and a glossary are also provided. Concepts developed are: the nature of interstellar space, spectroscopy, molecular signals from space and interstellar molecules and other areas of astronomy.

Gammon, R. H.

1976-01-01

465

Bioconjugation in pharmaceutical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer conjugation is of increasing interest in pharmaceutical chemistry for delivering drugs of simple structure or complex compounds such peptides, enzymes and oligonucleotides. For long time drugs, mainly with antitumoral activity, have been coupled to natural or synthetic polymers with the purpose of increasing their blood permanence time, taking advantage of the increased mass that reduces kidney ultrafiltration. However only

F. M. Veronese; M. Morpurgo

1999-01-01

466

The Chemistry of Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do people realize that chemistry plays a key role in helping solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today? Chemists want to find the building blocks of the chemical universe--the molecules that form materials, living cells and whole organisms. Many chemists are medical explorers looking for new ways to maintain and improve…

Davis, Alison

2009-01-01

467

The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

Borrows, Peter

1984-01-01

468

Getting Reactions to Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"COMETS on Careers" describes science-related careers, introduces activities illustrating a science concept being studied, and encourages use of professional persons as activity leaders. Several COMETS chemistry activities are described. These activities, which can be performed in school or at home, focus on colloids, acid/base indicators, and…

Smith, Walter S.

1983-01-01

469

Green Analytical Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the origins and the fundamentals of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC), based on the literature published about clean, environmentally-friendly or GAC methods. We pay special attention to the strategies and the tools available to make sample-pretreatment and analytical methods greener. We consider that the main principles are to replace toxic reagents, to miniaturize and to automate methods, making it

S. Armenta; S. Garrigues; M. de la Guardia

2008-01-01

470

Sustainable technology: Green chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern life depends on the petrochemical industry - most drugs, paints and plastics derive from oil. But current processes for making chemical products are not sustainable in terms of resources and environmental impact. Green chemistry aims to tackle this problem, and real progress is being made.

Martyn Poliakoff; Pete Licence

2007-01-01

471

The Royal Society of Chemistry and the delivery of chemistry data repositories for the community.  

PubMed

Since 2009 the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) has been delivering access to chemistry data and cheminformatics tools via the ChemSpider database and has garnered a significant community following in terms of usage and contribution to the platform. ChemSpider has focused only on those chemical entities that can be represented as molecular connection tables or, to be more specific, the ability to generate an InChI from the input structure. As a structure centric hub ChemSpider is built around the molecular structure with other data and links being associated with this structure. As a result the platform has been limited in terms of the types of data that can be managed, and the flexibility of its searches, and it is constrained by the data model. New technologies and approaches, specifically taking into account a shift from relational to NoSQL databases, and the growing importance of the semantic web, has motivated RSC to rearchitect and create a more generic data repository utilizing these new technologies. This article will provide an overview of our activities in delivering data sharing platforms for the chemistry community including the development of the new data repository expanding into more extensive domains of chemistry data. PMID:25086851

Williams, Antony; Tkachenko, Valery

2014-10-01

472

MAC 560 --Tropospheric Chemistry I Spring, 2009  

E-print Network

chemistry · to learn the atmospheric chemistry behind well-known phenomena such as smog, acid rain.3. Sulfur chemistry and acid rain 5.4. Nitrogen chemistry 5.5. Organic acids 5.6. Ecological and structural

Miami, University of

473

College of Science Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

2164 2 Analytical Chemistry for Majors lab (1) _____ CHEM 2424 Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry (3) _____ CHEM 4404 Physical Inorganic Chemistry (3) _____ CHEM 4414 Inorganic Synthesis & Techniques lab (2College of Science Department of Chemistry Bachelor of Science Checksheet (for students graduating

Crawford, T. Daniel

474

D-CHABMaster's programs Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

and Bioengineering Biotechnology Pharmaceutical Sciences Medicinal Product Development Medicinal ChemistryD-CHABMaster's programs Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences Chemistry Chemical and natural sciences. Education in chemistry and pharmacy was offered from the beginning. In its current

Sandoghdar, Vahid

475

The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones Saleh Nabi*, M.R. Flynn  

E-print Network

of slightly different density is investi- gated. The two zones are connected through a common rectangular with an adjacent volume of ambient fluid is a common problem in fluid mechanics with numerous examples in natural the exchange of hot and cold air between the inside and outside of a building and between different zones

Flynn, Morris R.

476

Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.  

SciTech Connect

Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)

2009-07-01

477

Fault Interaction and Propagation in the South Iceland Seismic Zone in the Current Major Earthquake Sequence, On-Going since 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate spreading of approximately 1.9 cm\\/yr and the eastward shift of the rift zones across Iceland builds up stress in the two transform zones connecting the displaced rift zones. Every century through historical time the 80-km-long E-W trending southern shear zone, or South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), has experienced episodes of major earthquakes; each sequence often lasting a few years.

K. S. Vogfjord; S. Hjaltadottir; H. Geirsson; R. Slunga

2008-01-01

478

Characterization of temporal variation in hyporheic zone using temperature data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater and surface water have been frequently treated as independent components of the hydrological cycle. In many cases, however, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected, and a continuous exchange of water and solute occurs across the hyporheic zone leading to the change in water quantity and quality. Also, climate change induces the change of groundwater and surface water flux. The hyporheic zone depths are one of the extraordinarily sensitive indicators for the climate change. Therefore, delineating the hyporheic zone is of vital importance for an integrated management of groundwater and surface water resources and a mitigation of the impacts by the climate change. In this study, we compared the hyporheic zone depths of wet and dry seasons using heat transfer analysis for streambed temperature in an intensive agricultural area. The hyporheic zone depth of the dry season was deeper than that of the wet season. The calculated depths ranged from 0.09 to 0.15 m in the wet season and from 0.42 to 0.76 m in the dry season. Temporal variation in the hyporheic zone depths with the seasons was caused by the decreased groundwater and stream water levels through the decreased precipitation and water consumption in the agricultural area. As the hyporheic zone deepens, the vulnerability of groundwater contamination would increase in the dry season. Keywords: Hyporheic zone depth, Heat transfer analysis, Streambed temperature, Vulnerability

Kim, Heejung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Yun, Sang-Woong; Jeon, Woo-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Yong

2014-05-01

479

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental

Sheridan, Jennifer

480

Chemistry of the natural atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental principles of atmospheric chemistry are examined in a textbook for graduate science students. Topics addressed include the bulk composition, structure, and dynamics of the atmosphere; photochemical processes and elementary reactions; the chemistry of the stratosphere; tropospheric chemistry and the methane oxidation cycle; and ozone in the troposphere. Consideration is given to volatile hydrocarbons and halocarbons, the atmospheric aerosol,

Peter Warneck

1988-01-01

481

Chemistry 200, 300 Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, developed for the chemistry 200, 300 program in Manitoba, is designed to articulate with previous science courses, provide concepts, processes, and skills which will enable students to continue in chemistry-related areas, and relate chemistry to practical applications in everyday life. It includes a program overview (with program goals…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

482

CHEMISTRY EDUCATION: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE  

E-print Network

) WHAT RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT USING ANALOGIES TO TEACH CHEMISTRY Received 23 December 2003 ABSTRACT; phenomenography; qualitative research; target domain INTRODUCTION Chemistry and biochemistry classes are fullCHEMISTRY EDUCATION: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE 2004, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 15-32 INVITED SPECIAL SECTION

Bodner, George M.

483

Department of Chemistry at NYU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site, New York University Department of Chemistry presents its various research interests including Chemical Biology, Biomolecular and Biophysical Chemistry, and Biomedical Chemistry. In each section, visitors can learn about NYU faculty, their publications, and visit their homepages often with links to course and laboratory educational materials in biochemistry.

484

Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic

Gabriele Centi; Siglinda Perathoner

2003-01-01

485

Brooklyn College Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Brooklyn College Department of Chemistry General Chemistry I Syllabus GENERAL CHEMISTRY I ­ SPRING on exams. FINAL EXAM: MAY 20, 2010 (Th), 8:00 AM ­ 10:00 AM, rooms TBA 1 #12;Brooklyn College Department. Cheating, plagiarism, internet plagiarism and obtaining unfair advantages are violations of policies

Kobrak, Mark N.

486

1 Doctor of Philosophy in the Field of Chemistry DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE  

E-print Network

(materials) Chemistry--battery chemistry, coordination chemistry, f-element chemistry, green chemistry--biomaterials and lipids, computational docking and ligand design, green chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, molecules

Vertes, Akos

487

49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central zone. 71.6 Section 71.6 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.6 Central zone. The third zone, the central standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

488

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

489

49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire...

2010-10-01

490

49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire...

2012-10-01

491

49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire...

2011-10-01

492

49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire...

2014-10-01

493

49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire...

2013-10-01

494

Updated May 2012 Chemistry Degree Requirements  

E-print Network

Computational Chemistry CH 410 Physical Organic Chemistry I CH 410 Inorganic Chemistry CH 431 Bioinorganic Chemistry CH 432 Solid State Inorganic Chemistry CH 433 Quantum & Spectroscopy See CH 410 Computational Geochemistry GEOL 472 Isotope Geochemistry GEOL 473 Courses not offered AY 12-13 Inorganic Chemistry Lab CH 437

Cina, Jeff

495

College of Science Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry or CHEM 4514 Green Chemistry or CHEM 4534 Organic Chemistry of PolymersCollege of Science Department of Chemistry CHEMISTRY MINOR CHECKSHEET For students graduating in calendar year 2015 I. Required Courses (19 hours) CHEM 1035 1 -10362 General Chemistry (3) ____ (3

Crawford, T. Daniel

496

Matthew F. Tuchler Associate Professor of Chemistry  

E-print Network

- Aqueous Inorganic and Quantitative Chemistry Chemistry 165 ­ Dynamic Systems Modeling and Global ClimateMatthew F. Tuchler Associate Professor of Chemistry EMPLOYER: Department of Chemistry, Washington: tuchlerm@wlu.edu EDUCATION: B.A. in Chemistry, Haverford College, 1986 M.A. in Chemistry, University

Marsh, David

497

College of Science Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry or CHEM 4514 Green Chemistry or CHEM 4534 Organic Chemistry of PolymersCollege of Science Department of Chemistry CHEMISTRY MINOR CHECKSHEET For students graduating in calendar year 2014 I. Required Courses (19 hours) CHEM 1035 1 -10362 General Chemistry (3) ____ (3

Crawford, T. Daniel

498

College of Science Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry or CHEM 4514 Green Chemistry or CHEM 4534 Organic Chemistry of PolymersCollege of Science Department of Chemistry CHEMISTRY MINOR CHECKSHEET For students graduating in calendar year 2012 I. Required Courses (19 hours) CHEM 1035 1 -10362 General Chemistry (3) ____ (3

Crawford, T. Daniel

499

College of Science Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry or CHEM 4514 Green Chemistry or CHEM 4534 Organic Chemistry of PolymersCollege of Science Department of Chemistry CHEMISTRY MINOR CHECKSHEET For students graduating in calendar year 2013 I. Required Courses (19 hours) CHEM 1035 1 -10362 General Chemistry (3) ____ (3

Crawford, T. Daniel

500

Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

Sjöström, Jesper

2013-01-01