Sample records for zooplankton population model

  1. Zooplankton population model coupled to a biogeochemical model of the North Western Mediterranean Sea ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Eisenhauer; F. Carlotti; M. Baklouti; F. Diaz

    2009-01-01

    A stage structured population (SSP) model based on Fennel's [Fennel, W., 2001. Modelling copepods with links to circulation models. Journal of Plankton Research, 23, 1217–1232] equations is applied to Centropages typicus (Kröyer), a dominant copepod species of the North Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) and a prey of small pelagic fish. The model considers five groups of stages and development rates

  2. Fitness and Optimal Body Size in Zooplankton Population Michael Lynch

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    Fitness and Optimal Body Size in Zooplankton Population Michael Lynch Ecology, Vol. 58, No. 4. (Jul BODY SIZE IN ZOOPLANKTON MICHAELLYNCH^ Department of Ecology and Behavioral Biology and Limnological of life-histories and for mechanisms of competition in zooplankton populations. Utilizing available data

  3. Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton models with a S. R.-J. Jang1

    E-print Network

    Baglama, James

    Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton models with a toxin S. R.-J. Jang1 , J. Baglama2 , J. Rick3 1 substance that inhibits either the growth rate of phytoplankton, zooplankton or both populations to investigate the effects of toxin upon the nutrient- phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction. Our models proposed

  4. Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States)); Yan, N.D. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset (Canada)); Keller, W. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sudbury (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Interactions between predation and resources shape zooplankton population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the relative importance of predation and resources in population dynamics has a long tradition in ecology, while interactions between them have been studied less intensively. In order to disentangle the effects of predation by juvenile fish, algal resource availability and their interactive effects on zooplankton population dynamics, we conducted an enclosure experiment where zooplankton were exposed to a gradient of predation of roach (Rutilus rutilus) at different algal concentrations. We show that zooplankton populations collapse under high predation pressure irrespective of resource availability, confirming that juvenile fish are able to severely reduce zooplankton prey when occurring in high densities. At lower predation pressure, however, the effect of predation depended on algal resource availability since high algal resource supply buffered against predation. Hence, we suggest that interactions between mass-hatching of fish, and the strong fluctuations in algal resources in spring have the potential to regulate zooplankton population dynamics. In a broader perspective, increasing spring temperatures due to global warming will most likely affect the timing of these processes and have consequences for the spring and summer zooplankton dynamics. PMID:21304980

  6. Zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Brock

    \\u000a Zooplankton are usually defined as small free-swimming animals that can be caught in nets. Zooplankton range in size from\\u000a about 0.1 mm to 1-3 mm in length. The main components of the Zooplankton are protozoa, rotifers, and crustaceans. Although\\u000a rotifers may be more abundant numerically, the crustaceans generally constitute most of the biomass. They include the cladocerans,\\u000a cyclopoids, and calanoid

  7. Some problems in the study of population dynamics of zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo De Bernardi

    1979-01-01

    Some recent results on ecology and population dynamics in fresh water filter feeding zooplankton are presented.The difficulty in interpreting field experimental results led us to analyze some of the relevant biotic and abiotic population interactions under laboratory conditions.The aim of these experiments was to arrive at a phenomenology that might help in interpreting field results and in furnishing a reliable

  8. Estimation of Size-Specific Mortality Rates in Zooplankton Populations by Periodic Michael Lynch

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    Estimation of Size-Specific Mortality Rates in Zooplankton Populations by Periodic Sampling Michael in zooplankton populations by periodic sampling1 Michael Lynch Department of Ecology, Ethology and Evolution zoo- plankton community theory is based. Existing theory of zooplankton com- populations has never

  9. Zooplankton population dynamics in experimentally toxified pond ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.; Boston, H.L.; Horn, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate ecosystem response to and recovery from toxic contamination, we added phenolic compounds to a series of experimental ponds. Toxicants were added repeatedly in a temporally staggered sequence to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors and previous exposure history on the responses to toxicant stress. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in ecosystem structure, e.g. shifts in the relative importance of ''top-down'' and ''bottom-up'' controls on energy flow, would influence the system-level responses to the toxicant. Information from these experiments is being incorporated into models that predict ecological risk and system-level behavior under toxicant stress. Here we focus on the responses of zooplankton populations to toxicants, and factors which may affect the apparent severity of toxic effects. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Roles of predation, food, and temperature in structuring the epilimnetic zooplankton populations in Lake Ontario, 1981-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We sampled phytoplankton, zooplankton, and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and measured water temperature in Lake Ontario during 1981-1986. Through the use of general linear regression models we then sought evidence of control of the eplimnetic zooplankton community (mid-July to mid-October) by producers, consumers, and temperature. Our measures of the zooplankton community were total biomass, cladoceran biomass, and the ratio of large to small Daphnia spp. (D. galeata mendotae and D. retrocurva). Zooplankton population variables assessed were abundance, egg ratio, and productivity. Through factor analysis, factors were created from the standardized, transformed independent variables for use in the regression analyses. Regression models showed significant inverse relationships (P < 0.05) between alewives and Bosmina longirostris (abundance, production, and egg ratio), Ceriodaphnia lacustris (egg ratio), and Daphnia retrocurva (egg ratio). Bosmina longirostris and D. retrocurva egg ratios were inversely related to algae biomass (<20 I?m), thus the smaller algae might be controlled in part by the zooplankton community. Production of C. lacustris was directly related to temperature, as was the production and abundance of Tropocyclops prasinus. The annual size-frequency distributions of B. longirostris and D. retrocurva were inversely related to yearling alewife abundance and directly related to adult alewife abundance, which suggested that yearlings use a particulate-feeding mode on these zooplankton species more frequently than adults. We found no significant negative correlations among the zooplankton species, which suggested that interzooplankton predation and competition were not as important in structuring the community as were planktivory and temperature.

  11. Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. II. Scattering models

    E-print Network

    Stanton, Tim

    Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. II. Scattering models Timothy K. Stanton 1996 Mathematical scattering models are derived and compared with data from zooplankton from several gross anatomical groups--fluidlike, elastic shelled, and gas bearing. The models are based upon

  12. Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1970-01-01

    The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

  13. Incorporating complex foraging of zooplankton in models: the role of microscale processes in macroscale patterns

    E-print Network

    Incorporating complex foraging of zooplankton in models: the role of microscale processes series 2011 #12;Part 1. Zooplankton functional response: ( ) ( )ZZPfPPr dt dP ,-= P - phytoplankton biomass, Z - zooplankton biomass, r(P) ­ phytoplankton growth rate. f - zooplankton functional response

  14. BENEFICIAL USE IMPAIRMENT #13: DEGRADATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and Annex 2, the Detroit River possesses several impaired beneficial uses. Beneficial Use #13 addresses phyto- and zooplankton populatioins and whether or not they are degraded or impaired....

  15. Effects of population densities on zooplankton respiration rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. RALPH ZEISS

    1963-01-01

    Measurements of respiratory rates of two species of zooplankton were made under varying degrees of confinement simulating conditions imposed on the organisms by varying popu- lation densities and in experimental techniques for respiration measurement. It was found that when Daphnia is confined to a small space its respiratory rate is much increased, but that Cnlnnus does not seem to have

  16. LARGE NONLETHAL EFFECTS OF AN INVASIVE INVERTEBRATE PREDATOR ON ZOOPLANKTON POPULATION GROWTH RATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Pangle; Scott D. Peacor; Ora E. Johannsson

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the contribution of lethal and nonlethal effects to a predator's net effect on a prey's population growth rate in a natural setting. We focused on the effects of an invasive invertebrate predator, Bythotrephes longimanus ,o n zooplankton prey populations in Lakes Michigan and Erie. Field data taken at multiple dates and locations in both

  17. Towards methodological approaches to implement the zooplankton component in ``end to end" food-web models

    E-print Network

    Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    Towards methodological approaches to implement the zooplankton component in ``end to end" food history: Available online xxxx a b s t r a c t The modelling of marine zooplankton has made great progress to functional groups. A new challenge is to dynamically represent zooplankton within marine food webs coupling

  18. Effects of NaCl salinity on the population dynamics of freshwater zooplankton (rotifers and cladocerans)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. S. Sarma; S. Nandini; Jesús Morales-Ventura; Israel Delgado-Martínez; Leticia González-Valverde

    2006-01-01

    Salinization of freshwater bodies due to anthropogenic activity is currently a very serious problem in Mexico. One of the consequences may be changes in the rotifer and cladoceran populations, both of which are generally abundant in freshwater bodies. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the effect of different salt (sodium chloride) concentrations (0–4.5 g l?1) on the population dynamics of ten freshwater zooplankton

  19. Estimation of mortality for stage-structured zooplankton populations: What is to be done?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, Mark D.

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of zooplankton mortality rates in field populations is a challenging task that some contend is inherently intractable. This paper examines several of the objections that are commonly raised to efforts to estimate mortality. We find that there are circumstances in the field where it is possible to sequentially sample the same population and to resolve biologically caused mortality, albeit with error. Precision can be improved with sampling directed by knowledge of the physical structure of the water column, combined with adequate sample replication. Intercalibration of sampling methods can make it possible to sample across the life history in a quantitative manner. Rates of development can be constrained by laboratory-based estimates of stage durations from temperature- and food-dependent functions, mesocosm studies of molting rates, or approximation of development rates from growth rates, combined with the vertical distributions of organisms in relation to food and temperature gradients. Careful design of field studies guided by the assumptions of specific estimation models can lead to satisfactory mortality estimates, but model uncertainty also needs to be quantified. We highlight additional issues requiring attention to further advance the field, including the need for linked cooperative studies of the rates and causes of mortality of co-occurring holozooplankton and ichthyoplankton.

  20. Gelatinous zooplankton in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary: Spatio-temporal distribution patterns and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenbrugge, Lies; Van Regenmortel, Tina; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-03-01

    Many ocean ecosystems are thought to be heading towards a dominance of gelatinous organisms. However, gelatinous zooplankton has been largely understudied and the absence of quantitative long-term data for the studied area impedes drawing conclusions on potential increasing densities. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of gelatinous zooplankton in terms of diversity and density in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary, based on monthly and seasonal samples between March 2011 and February 2012. Three Scyphozoa, three Ctenophora and 27 Hydrozoa taxa were identified, including three non-indigenous species: Mnemiopsis leidyi, Nemopsis bachei and Lovenella assimilis. In general, one gelatinous zooplankton assemblage was found across locations and seasons. Average gelatinous zooplankton densities reached up to 18 ind·m-3 near the coast, gradually declining towards the open sea. In the brackish Schelde estuary, average densities remained below 3 ind·m-3. Highest gelatinous zooplankton densities were recorded in summer and autumn. Overall, hydromedusae were the most important group both in terms of diversity and density. The ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus and the hydromedusa Clytia sp. were present in every season and at every location. Gelatinous zooplankton densities never outnumbered the non-gelatinous zooplankton densities recorded from the WP3 samples. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns seemed to be mainly driven by temperature (season) and salinity (location). Other environmental parameters including (larger) non-gelatinous zooplankton densities (as an important food source) were not retained in the most parsimonious DistLM model.In terms of population dynamics, Beroe sp. seemed to follow the three reproductive cycles of its prey P. pileus and the presence of M. leidyi, which were abundant in a broad size spectrum in summer and autumn. In general, gelatinous zooplankton diversity was higher, but densities were in the same order of magnitude compared to adjacent areas in the North Sea. This study provides a baseline against which a potential increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the Schelde estuary can be measured.

  1. Population dynamics of pond zooplankton, I. Diaptomus pallidus Herrick

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, K.B.; Saxena, B.; Angino, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    The simultaneous and lag relationships between 27 environmental variables and seven population components of a perennial calanoid copepod were examined by simple and partial correlations and stepwise regression. The analyses consistently explained more than 70% of the variation of a population component. The multiple correlation coefficient (R) usually was highest in no lag or in 3-week or 4-week lag except for clutch size in which R was highest in 1-week lag. Population control, egg-bearing, and clutch size were affected primarily by environmental components categorized as weather; food apparently was relatively minor in affecting population control or reproduction. ?? 1973 Dr. W. Junk B.V. Publishers.

  2. Towards a correct description of zooplankton feeding in models: Taking into account food-mediated unsynchronized vertical migration

    E-print Network

    predators in the surface layer (Bollens and Frost, 1989; Ohman, 1990; Lampert, 1992). Foraging behaviour of foraging behaviour of zooplankton makes it difficult to describe adequately zooplankton grazing in models will be mostly concerned with modelling of feeding of herbivorous zooplankton. Foraging behaviour of herbivorous

  3. Effects of cyanobacterial toxicity and morphology on the population growth of freshwater zooplankton: Meta-analyses of laboratory experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Wilson; Orlando Sarnelle; Angeline R. Tillmanns

    2006-01-01

    We synthesized data from 66 published laboratory studies, representing 597 experimental comparisons, examining the effects of cyanobacterial toxicity and morphology on the population growth rate and survivorship of 17 genera (34 species) of freshwater, herbivorous zooplankton. Two meta-analyses were conducted with these data. The primary analysis compared herbivore population growth rates for grazers fed treatment diets containing cyanobacteria versus control

  4. Effects of toxic substances on zooplankton populations: a Great Lakes perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; McNaught, D.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter discusses how toxic substances can affect zooplankton, both at the species and community level, modifying factors affecting toxicity, the effects of various environmental pertubations, including toxic substances, on Great Lakes zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton in the transport, persistence, and biomagnification of toxic substances.

  5. Impact of climate change on zooplankton communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempniewicz, Lech; B?achowiak-Samo?yk, Katarzyna; W?s?awski, Jan M.

    2007-11-01

    Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of zooplankton communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large zooplankton species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large zooplankton favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small zooplankton redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate warming favoring the increase of ichthyiofagous cliff-nesting seabirds, we can expect that large areas of ornithogenic tundra around the colonies of plankton-eating seabirds situated far from the sea may disappear, while areas of tundra in the vicinity of cliffs inhabited by fish-eating seabirds, with low total production and supporting few large herbivores, will likely increase, but only imperceptibly. This may lead to habitat fragmentation with negative consequences for populations of tundra-dependent birds and mammals, and the possibility of a substantial decrease in biodiversity of tundra plant and animal communities.

  6. Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. II. Scattering models.

    PubMed

    Stanton, T K; Chu, D; Wiebe, P H

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical scattering models are derived and compared with data from zooplankton from several gross anatomical groups--fluidlike, elastic shelled, and gas bearing. The models are based upon the acoustically inferred boundary conditions determined from laboratory backscattering data presented in part I of this series [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 225-235 (1998)]. The models use a combination of ray theory, modal-series solution, and distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA). The formulations, which are inherently approximate, are designed to include only the dominant scattering mechanisms as determined from the experiments. The models for the fluidlike animals (euphausiids in this case) ranged from the simplest case involving two rays, which could qualitatively describe the structure of target strength versus frequency for single pings, to the most complex case involving a rough inhomogeneous asymmetrically tapered bent cylinder using the DWBA-based formulation which could predict echo levels over all angles of incidence (including the difficult region of end-on incidence). The model for the elastic shelled body (gastropods in this case) involved development of an analytical model which takes into account irregularities and discontinuities of the shell. The model for gas-bearing animals (siphonophores) is a hybrid model which is composed of the summation of the exact solution to the gas sphere and the approximate DWBA-based formulation for arbitrarily shaped fluidlike bodies. There is also a simplified ray-based model for the siphonophore. The models are applied to data involving single pings, ping-to-ping variability, and echoes averaged over many pings. There is reasonable qualitative agreement between the predictions and single ping data, and reasonable quantitative agreement between the predictions and variability and averages of echo data. PMID:9440326

  7. Influences of a Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing bloom on zooplankton populations in Jacarepaguá Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloysio S. Ferrão-Filho; Patricia Domingos; Sandra M. F. O. Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Jacarepaguá Lagoon is a shallow, hypereutrophic, coastal lagoon located in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil), with recurrent blooms of cyanobacteria. This study was carried out with the aim to detect the effects of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on zooplankton populations (especially cladocerans) in the lagoon. At two sampling stations we measured temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency, and collected

  8. Population structure changes in zooplankton following PAH exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, J.H.; Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have generally concentrated on single compounds. However, PAHs are usually found as mixtures in the aquatic environment and may pose significant risk to the ecosystem. A study was conducted to determine the effect of creosote (a mixture of PAHs) on pelagic invertebrates, including cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, and rotifers. Artificial aquatic mesocosms consisting of a simple community structure, including fish, algae, macrophytes and invertebrates, were utilized. Four doses of creosote and a control were used. Dosing was accomplished by adding contaminated sediment to the mesocosm, ranging from 100 cm{sup 2} to 3 m{sup 2} in area. As well, 1 to 8 creosote coated log pilings were added to several mesocosms, simulating aquatic exposure to preserved log pilings. The zooplankton at the various dose levels were enumerated. The changes in population structure will be described.

  9. Response of predatory zooplankton populations to the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.; Frost, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton, the authors monitored population levels of four limnetic taxa for 6 years in a lake with two basins, one of which was experimentally acidified (2 years at each of three levels: pH 5.6, 5.2 and 4.7). Concentrations of phantom midge (Chaoborus spp.), the most abundant large predator, remained similar in the treatment and reference basins until the fourth year (pH 5.2) when they increased in the treatment basin. In contrast, Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii disappeared from limnetic samples, and water mites declined to near zero upon acidification. Treatment basin populations of E. lacustris declined sharply during the second year of acidification. The nature of the decline suggested sensitivity of an early life stage during the first year at pH 5.6. Leptodora kindtii showed no population response at pH 5.6, but declined to essentially zero at pH 5.2. Treatment basin populations of water mites fluctuated until declining in the fifth and sixth years (pH 4.7). These changes indicate a variety of direct and indirect responses to lake acidification.

  10. EFFECTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES ON ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS: A GREAT LAKES PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, we discuss (1) how toxic substances can affect zooplankton, both at the species and community level, (2) modifying factors affecting toxicity, (3) the effects of various environmental pertubations, including toxic substances, on Great Lakes zooplankton, and (4) t...

  11. Effects of inorganic turbidity and reservoir floods on the feeding and population dynamics of Cladoceran zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Clearance rates of {sup 32}P-labeled yeast cell tracer particles and gravimetric seston analysis were used to estimate in situ seston ingestion rates of Daphnia parvula and Bosmina along the seston gradient in Tuttle Creek Reservoir, near Manhattan, Kansas. An ingestion rate depression occurred for both species at the highest seston concentration. The smallest animals, Bosmina, had a lower incipient limiting concentration and exhibited a stronger ingestion rate depression. The fecundity and abundance of Daphnia parvula, grown in enclosures along the seston gradient prior to the ingestion rate measurements, were highest at the river inflow region. Reservoir Bosmina, however, were least abundant and had the lowest fecundity at the river inflow region. The abundance of Bosmina, calanoid copepods, and cyclopoid copepods were lower following large storm inflows in the late spring of 1983 and 1984, while the abundance of Diaphanosoma and Moina were similar. Both open reservoir and in situ enclosure populations of Daphnia pulex were reduced following the storm inflow, while only enclosure populations of Daphnia parvula were lower. Diaphanosoma and calanoid copepods dominated the zooplankton during sampling from spring through fall 1984, particularly in midsummer when temperatures were greater than 25{degree}C. Daphnids dominated numerically during the fall baseflow period.

  12. Grazing experiments and model simulations of the role of zooplankton in Phaeocystis food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verity, P. G.

    2000-08-01

    A combined empirical and modelling study was conducted to further examine the potential importance of grazing by zooplankton in pelagic food webs in which Phaeocystis is a significant or dominant component. Laboratory experiments were designed to measure ingestion of Phaeocystis and other potential prey items which co-occur with Phaeocystis. Grazers included copepods and ciliates, and prey included Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells, diatoms, ciliates, bacteria, and detritus. These data were expressed in the model currency of nitrogen units, and fit to hyperbolic tangent equations which included minimum prey thresholds. These equations and literature data were used to constrain a food web model whose purpose was to investigate trophic interactions rather than to mimic actual events. Nevertheless, the model output was similar to the general pattern and magnitude of development of Phaeocystis-diatom communities in some environments where they occur, e.g. north Norwegian waters. The model included three forms of nitrogen, three phytoplankton groups, bacteria, two zooplankton groups, and detritus, with detailed flows between compartments. An important component of the model was inclusion of variable prey preferences for zooplankton. The experiments and model simulations suggest several salient conclusions. Phaeocystis globosa colonies were eaten by a medium-sized copepod species, but ingestion appeared to be strongly dependent upon a proper size match between grazer and prey. If not, colonies were eaten little if at all. Phaeocystis solitary cells were ingested rapidly by ciliate microzooplankton, in agreement with prior literature observations. In contrast, detritus was eaten comparatively slowly by both ciliates and copepods. Both types of zooplankton exhibited apparent minimum prey thresholds below which grazing did not occur or was inconsequential. Model simulations implied that transitions between life cycle stages of Phaeocystis may potentially be important to phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions, and that relative rates of ingestion of Phaeocystis by various zooplankton may have significant impacts upon material fluxes through and out of Phaeocystis-diatom ecosystems. Indirect effects of trophic interactions appear to be equally significant as direct effects.

  13. Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 412436 A numerical simulation of the role of zooplankton in C, N and

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    2006-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 412­436 A numerical simulation of the role of zooplankton in C, N, IOLR, P.O. Box 447, Migdal 14950, Israel d Limnology and Ecology of Wetlands and Freshwater, MIGAL online 10 November 2005 Abstract We quantify the role of zooplankton in nutrient cycles in Lake Kinneret

  14. Grazing experiments and model simulations of the role of zooplankton in Phaeocystis food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Verity

    2000-01-01

    A combined empirical and modelling study was conducted to further examine the potential importance of grazing by zooplankton in pelagic food webs in which Phaeocystis is a significant or dominant component. Laboratory experiments were designed to measure ingestion of Phaeocystis and other potential prey items which co-occur with Phaeocystis. Grazers included copepods and ciliates, and prey included Phaeocystis colonies and

  15. Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

  16. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; ?mijewska, I. M.; Mudrak, S.; Jakacki, J.; Lemieszek, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the Southern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gda?sk Gulf (Southern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gda?sk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the Southern Baltic Sea interact with the environment.

  17. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Zmijewska, Maria; Mudrak, Stella; Lemieszek, Anna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gda?sk Gulf (southern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gda?sk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the southern Baltic Sea interact with the environment. This work was carried out in support of grant (the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research).

  18. Estimation of zooplankton populations in Lake Maarsseveen I: Problems, procedures and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen E. Butter

    1981-01-01

    During three successive years the zooplankton community of a small fresh water lake was sampled and counted weekly. A critical survey is given about the statistical methods employed in plankton research; much depends on sampling and subsampling strategies. It is shown that log-transformation is often unnecessary and that low densities can be estimated accurately with the aid of Poisson tables.

  19. Pesticide residues in freshwater and marine zooplankton: a review.

    PubMed

    Day, K E

    1990-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature on pesticide residues in freshwater and marine zooplankton indicates that despite the great number of pesticides in current use, only residues of the persistent organochlorine insecticides, many of which have been restricted or removed from general use in North America, have been determined. Much of this information is outdated. In addition, with the exception of the Great Lakes on which limited information is available, reports on residues in freshwater zooplankton are rare. Information on residues of the newer, less persistent but heavily used pesticides is lacking. As an alternative to field sampling and chemical analysis of endemic populations of zooplankton, scientists have modeled the bioaccumulation of pesticides in zooplankton using either laboratory microcosms or mathematical equations. However, the extent and importance of trophic transfer to higher food levels through this intermediary group of organisms is still controversial. In addition, the relationship between accumulation of pesticides and toxicity to zooplankton remains unresolved. PMID:15092209

  20. Is there enough zooplankton to feed forage fish populations off Peru? An acoustic (positive) answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballón, Michael; Bertrand, Arnaud; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Ayón, Patricia; Grados, Daniel; Gerlotto, François

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. Although the system produces enough macrozooplankton to sustain its high production of forage fish, the paucity of information on macrozooplankton hampers research into the system. In this study, we estimated the biomass of the epipelagic crustacean macrozooplankton from the NHCS during both austral summer and spring 2005. To do this, we developed a bi-frequency acoustic method and extracted high-resolution information on the biomass and the patterns of distribution of crustacean macrozooplankton, fish and other marine compartments. We found that, although macrozooplankton comprises a number of distinct organisms, the euphausiids were the zooplankton group that better fitted the patterns from independent net sampling zooplankton data. Also, the similarities between the nocturnal patterns of size and biomass macrozooplankton distribution from this study and the known patterns of euphausiids, in particular Euphausia mucronata, suggest that euphausiids were the main constituent of the estimated nocturnal acoustic macrozooplankton biomass even if other organisms such as large copepods may have contributed considerably to the macrozooplankton biomass. The total macrozooplankton biomass was estimated to about 105 g m -2, i.e., two to five times more than previous estimates. This direct biomass estimation of macrozooplankton is in agreement with the new findings in trophic ecology indicating that forage fish consume mainly macrozooplankton. This high biomass also supports the current hypotheses explaining the NHCS high fish production. Using the method, we are able to revisit present-day and historical acoustic databases and extract high-resolution data on macrozooplankton, a key ecological compartment of the ecosystem. Since zooplankton is the link between the physically driven primary producers and the biologically driven tertiary consumers, this information is essential to achieve a mechanistic understanding of the system, from physics to top predators.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR DENSITY-DEPENDENT EFFECTS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ALGAL PRODUCTION IN DETERMINING POPULATION GROWTH RATES OF RIVERINE ZOOPLANKTON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. GUELDA; R. W. KOCH; J. D. JACKa; P. A. BUKAVECKASa

    Food limitation effects on life history traits of lake zooplankton have been well documented but few studies have examined linkages between population growth rates and food resources in riverine environments. In rivers, allochthonous inputs of par- ticulate organic matter may mitigate food limitation effects allowing density-independent mechanisms associated with washout (discharge) and feeding interference (turbidity) to assume greater importance. We

  2. Emergence of Holling type III zooplankton functional response: Bringing together field evidence and mathematical modelling

    E-print Network

    Emergence of Holling type III zooplankton functional response: Bringing together field evidence 2010 Received in revised form 12 April 2010 Accepted 15 April 2010 Keywords: Zooplankton functional of grazing control of algal blooms by zooplankton in nutrient-rich ecosystems. Extensive experiments

  3. Population modelling of Acartia spp. in a water column ecosystem model for the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; ?mijewska, I. M.; Mudrak, S.; Jakacki, J.; Lemieszek, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp. in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The studies were carried out using a structured zooplankton population model adapted to Acartia spp. The population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, five copepodites stages and adults was coupled with a marine ecosystem model. Four state variables for the carbon cycle represent the functional units of phytoplankton, pelagic detritus, benthic detritus, and bulk zooplankton, which represent all zooplankton other than the structured population. The annual cycle simulated for 2000 under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions was studied with the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model applied to a water column in the Gdansk Gulf (South-Eastern Baltic Sea). The vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between bulk and structured zooplankton biomass. The simulated population dynamics of Acartia spp. and zooplankton as one biomass state variable were compared with observations in the Gdansk Gulf. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The numerical studies are a following step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea interact with the environment.

  4. Estimating release rates of phosphorus from zooplankton: model and experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The flux of phosphorus in a zooplankton-phytoplankton system is described by a simple compartment model, with differential equations for grazing, growth and reproduction of animals, and release and recycling of P. The mean release rates from zooplankton for a given period are derived for cases restricted to animals feeding on algae at densities above the incipient limiting food concentration. The model is used to analyze short term incubation experiments with Daphnia pulex feeding on Scenedesmus sp. and Daphnia longispina feeding on Rhodomonas lacustris in dim light. When food organisms were saturated with P. total release rates were in the range 1.1-1.5 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h/sup -1/ in accordance with a maximal excretion rate of 0.8 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h)/sup 1/ predicted by the model of Peters. Phosphorus-starved phytoplankton, containing less P, gave much lower release rates, about 0.05 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h/sup -1/, only 10% of the excretion rate predicted by the model of Peters.

  5. Living on the edge: populations of two zooplankton species living closer to agricultural fields are more resistant to a common insecticide.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-12-01

    Ecological communities across the globe are exposed to diverse natural and anthropogenic stressors and disturbances that can lead to community-wide impacts. Contaminants are a group of anthropogenic disturbances that are ubiquitous in the environment and can trigger trophic cascades, increased susceptibility to pathogens, reduced biodiversity, and altered ecosystems. In these ecosystems, substantial attention has been given to evolved resistance in targeted pest species, but little attention has been given to the evolution of resistance in nontarget species in nature. For the present study, the authors used laboratory toxicity tests to determine if 2 common, co-occurring species of freshwater zooplankton (Simocephalus vetulus and Daphnia pulex) showed population-level variation in sensitivity to a common insecticide (chlorpyrifos). For both species, it was found that populations living near agricultural fields--a proxy for pesticide use--were more resistant to chlorpyrifos than populations collected from ponds far from agriculture. This finding is consistent with the evolution of resistance to pesticides. To the authors' knowledge, only 1 previous study (using Daphnia magna) has demonstrated this relationship. Collectively, these results suggest that evolved resistance may be common in zooplankton populations located near agriculture. Moreover, because zooplankton play a key role in aquatic food webs, it is expected that population variation in resistance would dramatically alter aquatic food webs, particularly with exposure to low concentrations of insecticides. PMID:25220688

  6. Implementation of the zooplankton functional response in plankton models: State of the art, recent challenges and future directions

    E-print Network

    Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    Review Implementation of the zooplankton functional response in plankton models: State of the art April 2012 a b s t r a c t The conventional way of describing grazing in plankton models is based and grazer distributions (plankton patchiness) across time and space scales raise questions as to the exis

  7. Predicting crustacean zooplankton species richness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANLEY DODSON

    1992-01-01

    Data from 66 North American lakes were collected to construct a model for predicting the number of crustacean zooplankton species expected in a lake. The chosen lakes have a range from 4 m* to 80 x lo9 m2 surface area, range from ultra-oligotrophic to hypereutrophic, and have zooplankton species lists based on several years of observation. The number of crustacean

  8. Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: a chemical speciation based modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Fott, Jan; Garmo, Oyvind A; Hruska, Jakub; Keller, Bill; Löfgren, Stefan; Maberly, Stephen C; Majer, Vladimir; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Persson, Gunnar; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; Thackeray, Stephen J; Valois, Amanda; Vrba, Jaroslav; Walseng, Bjørn; Yan, Norman

    2014-03-01

    The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H(+) < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni. In general, observed species richness is lower than predicted, but in some instances agreement is close, and is rarely higher than predictions. The model predicts recovery in agreement with observations for three regions, namely Sudbury (Canada), Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) and a subset of lakes across Norway, but fails to predict observed recovery from acidification in Adirondack lakes (USA). PMID:24370669

  9. CHANGES IN THE NEARSHORE AND OFFSHORE ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHEASTERN LAKE MICHIGAN

    E-print Network

    CHANGES IN THE NEARSHORE AND OFFSHORE ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHEASTERN LAKE MICHIGAN Scientist Thomas H. Johengen #12;ABSTRACT Zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan were a monthly basis from 1998through 2000. Zooplankton density and biomass were significantly different among

  10. Experimental evidence for density-dependent effects and the importance of algal production in determining population growth rates of riverine zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Guelda; R. W. Koch; J. D. Jack; P. A. Bukaveckas

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food limitation effects on life history traits of lake zooplankton,have been well documented,but few studies have examined linkages between population growth rates and food resources in riverine environments. In rivers, allochthonous inputs of par- ticulate organic matter may,mitigate food limitation effects allowing density-independent mechanisms,associated with washout (discharge) and feeding interference (turbidity) to assume,greater importance. We experimentally manipulated,densities of commonly,occurring

  11. A New Trait-Based Auto-Emergent Model for Zooplankton and Confrontation with Size-Structured Observations from the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Pieter; Sourisseau, Marc; Huret, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Zooplankton plays a significant role in marine ecosystems bridging the gap between primary producers and top consumers and interacting with the particle flux through complex dynamics. Scarcity of data and complexity of observing zooplankton make it difficult to integrate it in biogeochemical models where it is most often formulated in a simpler manner, i.e. classic box models with usually two compartments (micro and meso/macro zooplankton). Recent advances in automatic sizing, counting and identification allow better estimates of the dynamics and distribution of zooplankton, notably through the measurement of its size structure, and for zooplankton size matter. Most zooplankton physiological rates as well as predator:prey interactions can be significantly relied to individuals size through allometric relations. Such size-dependency was used in recent models. Yet, these models were neither confronted to observations nor integrated in 3D biogeochemical models. Here we propose a newly developed model of zooplankton dynamics based on size-dependent allometric relations but which allows various diet types regardless of the size. A size and a degree of herbivory is randomly drawn for each zooplankton species generated within the model (up to 400 here, limited by actual computational costs). By generating random degree of herbivory zooplankton species of same size could have various diet (from herbivore to carnivore). Other parameters leading to various reproductive strategies or vertical migration could also be drawn randomly (not tested here). The zooplankton model is coupled to the 3D biogeochemical model MARS3D on a test case representing a simplified view of the Bay of Biscay (i.e., continental shelf, estuary, tides). The model shows auto-emergent properties with the selection of size/diet most adapted to local conditions (here offshore vs. coastal, estuary…). Then, patterns of the modeled size-structure of the zooplankton are confronted to the ones observed during Spring-time cruises in the Bay of Biscay. The usefulness of the proposed zooplankton model for large scale biogeochemical models is further discussed.

  12. Measurements of the effect of heat shocks on survival and growth of natural zooplankton populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Donze

    1979-01-01

    Summary  In our research on the biological effects of thermal pollution on fresh-water plankton, natural plankton populations are enclosed in floating tanks of 2 m3 capacity, depth 2 m. The tanks are filled with water that has or has not passed an industrial cooling circuit. In experiments lasting 14 days, plankton counts are made. From the population dynamics of individual species

  13. Synoptic-scale upwelling indices and predictions of phyto- and zooplankton populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Reyes, Marisol; Largier, John L.; Sydeman, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling is responsible for the biologically rich and productive ecosystems of coastal eastern boundary currents. In most studies of physical - biological interactions in these systems, upwelling statistics are computed on monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales, whereas upwelling naturally occurs at high frequencies (days to weeks). This simplification of the upwelling process may misrepresent relationships between upwelling and biological populations. Based on 31 years (1982-2012) of hourly-measured winds and sea surface temperature at buoys off the central-northern California coast, we characterized upwelling and relaxation events at synoptic time scales, and used event-scale statistics to relate to local lower trophic level populations. We defined three metrics to quantify synoptic-scale upwelling: (i) Intensity, a measure of cumulative wind stress forcing during each upwelling event, (ii) SSTevent, a measure of the oceanic response to wind forcing, and (iii) Nutrient Upwelling Index (NUI), a measure of the nitrate availability at the surface during upwelling events. We compared cumulative values of Intensity and NUI, and average values of SSTevent during the peak of the upwelling season (April-June in central-northern California) to proxies of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentrations) and krill abundance to assess the abilities of high frequency upwelling indices to predict biology. Wind forcing alone (Intensity) did not explain population variability, but SSTevent and NUI showed excellent relationships to chlorophyll concentrations (44% and 54% of variance explained, respectively) and krill abundance (68% of variance explained). All relationships appeared to be dome-shaped, supporting the hypothesis that moderate upwelling and ocean temperature are optimal for these populations. SSTevent and NUI performed better than the traditional Bakun upwelling index in predicting populations. We conclude that investigating upwelling characteristics on event scales can improve understanding of lower trophic level dynamics in eastern boundary current systems.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton in a great plains reservoir Randall J. Bernot1,2,

    E-print Network

    Bernot, Randall

    on small scales without natural constraints on movement and choices. However, other factors and zooplankton populations (Sommer, 1989). In zooplankton seasonal succes- sion, communities of a few large

  15. An analysis of a zooplankton sampling-gear change in the CalCOFI long-term monitoring program, with implications for copepod population abundance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been systematically sampling zooplankton off the west coast of North America since 1949. In 1978, the 1-m diameter ring net used by the program was replaced with a bongo net, which consists of two 0.71-m diameter nets on a single frame. This study compares paired zooplankton samples taken with a ring net and a 0.71-m or 0.6-m bongo net to determine the relative performances of the two net types for catching calanoid copepods. Thirty-one species and stages were enumerated, along with the category ‘total female calanoids’. Twenty-one categories of calanoid copepods were abundant enough to test for effects of changes in net type. No significant differences between the nets were found after correcting for multiple testing. Statistical power was then estimated for a range of potential net effects equivalent to ratios of copepod densities between the nets of 1.1-3.0. The probability of detecting differences greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 was high (?80%) for total female calanoids, Metridia pacifica, Pleuromamma abdominalis edentata, P. borealis, Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus. For these categories of copepods, any population changes greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 that might be found from the CalCOFI data set can be assumed to be the result of factors other than the change in net type.

  16. The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on zooplankton production in Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the zooplankton that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the zooplankton community if these fish consume a large portion of the zooplankton production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of zooplankton production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g?1·d?1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of zooplankton production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available zooplankton production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the zooplankton community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of zooplankton in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS IMAGING ZOOPLANKTON

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    FEATURE SIMULTANEOUS IMAGING ZOOPLANKTON OF PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTIONS AND By Jules S. Jaffe these results in situ. Zooplankton be- havioral response to their food environ- ment is therefore a critical important questions concerning physical-biological couplings in the plankton at small scales and zooplankton

  18. High evolutionary potential of marine zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Goetze, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Open ocean zooplankton often have been viewed as slowly evolving species that have limited capacity to respond adaptively to changing ocean conditions. Hence, attention has focused on the ecological responses of zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. We present theoretical arguments that suggest plankton species may respond rapidly to selection on mildly beneficial mutations due to exceptionally large population size, and consider the circumstantial evidence that supports our inference that selection may be particularly important for these species. We also review all primary population genetic studies of open ocean zooplankton and show that genetic isolation can be achieved at the scale of gyre systems in open ocean habitats (100s to 1000s of km). Furthermore, population genetic structure often varies across planktonic taxa, and appears to be linked to the particular ecological requirements of the organism. In combination, these characteristics should facilitate adaptive evolution to distinct oceanographic habitats in the plankton. We conclude that marine zooplankton may be capable of rapid evolutionary as well as ecological responses to changing ocean conditions, and discuss the implications of this view. We further suggest two priority areas for future research to test our hypothesis of high evolutionary potential in open ocean zooplankton, which will require (1) assessing how pervasive selection is in driving population divergence and (2) rigorously quantifying the spatial and temporal scales of population differentiation in the open ocean. Recent attention has focused on the ecological responses of open ocean zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that marine zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. PMID:24567838

  19. Modeling the direct and indirect effects of copper on phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions.

    PubMed

    Prosnier, Loïc; Loreau, Michel; Hulot, Florence D

    2015-05-01

    Predicting the effects of pollution at the community level is difficult because of the complex impacts of ecosystem dynamics and properties. To predict the effects of copper on a plant-herbivore interaction in a freshwater ecosystem, we built a model that focuses on the interaction between an alga, Scenedesmus sp., and a herbivore, Daphnia sp. The model assumes logistic growth for Scenedesmus and a type II functional response for Daphnia. Internal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus and Daphnia are calculated using a biodynamic model. We include two types of direct effects of copper on Scenedesmus and Daphnia that results from hormesis: a deficiency effect at low concentration and a toxic effect at high concentration. We perform a numerical analysis to predict the combined effects of copper and nutrient enrichment on the Scenedesmus-Daphnia interaction. Results show three types of outcomes depending on copper concentration. First, low (4 ?g L(-1)) and high (50 ?g L(-1)) copper concentrations cause deficiency and toxicity, respectively, leading to the extinction of all populations; for less extreme concentrations (between 4 and 5 ?g L(-1) and between 16.5 and 50 ?g L(-1)), only the consumer population becomes extinct. The two populations survive with intermediate concentrations. Second, when population dynamics present oscillations, copper has a stabilizing effect and reduces or suppresses oscillations. Third, copper, on account of its stabilizing effect, opposes the destabilizing effect of nutrient enrichment. Our model shows that (1) Daphnia is affected by copper at lower concentrations when community interactions are taken into account than when analyzed alone, and (2) counterintuitive effects may arise from the interaction between copper pollution and nutrient enrichment. Our model also suggests that single-value parameters such as NOEC and LOEC, which do not take community interactions into account to characterize pollutants effects, are unable to determine pollutant effects in complex ecosystems. More generally, our model underscores the importance of ecosystem-scale studies to predict the effects of pollutants. PMID:25781394

  20. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  1. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  2. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence content were measured in dominant species to investigate effect of Chl a concentration and phytoplankton composition on ingestion rate. Egg production experiments were carried out under different food conditions. Rare deep water zooplankton species were also investigated to increase our knowledge in the Arctic biodiversity. Copepods Calanus finmarchicus is known as a marker of the Atlantic water mass, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, vice versa, are the coldwater Arctic species. In our study we investigated three Calanus species distribution and analyzed their ecological status. Changes in zooplankton composition results in the alteration of energy transfer within the pelagic food web ("cold" and "warm" scenarios) with potential consequences for growth and survival of seabirds Little Auk (Alle alle) and Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). We discuss the advection effect on the zooplankton community, compare the population development phases with phytoplankton bloom phases (match-mismatch), estimate grazing impact on phytoplankton community and consider different life strategies for the three different Calanus species.

  3. PHYTOPLANKTON-ZOOPLANKTON RELATIONSHIPS IN NARRAGANSETT BAY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Martin

    Zooplankton samples collected every other week in upper and lower Narraganset Bay, Rhode Island, were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The seasonal occurrence and abundance of the various species identified and enumerated in the present study are pre- sented in tabular form. Analysis of the relative abundance of the principal grazers in the zooplankton population (Acartia tonsa, A. clausi, and Oithona

  4. North Pacific basin-scale differences in lower and higher trophic level marine ecosystem responses to climate impacts using a nutrient-phytoplankton–zooplankton model coupled to a fish bioenergetics model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard A. Megrey; Kenneth A. Rose; Shin-ichi Ito; Douglas E. Hay; Francisco E. Werner; Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Maki Noguchi Aita

    2007-01-01

    We present a modeling approach where we use one common model formulation of a 11 state variable lower trophic level model that includes two groups of phytoplankton, three groups of zooplankton, and representations of nitrogen and silicate embedded in a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) and forced with a common climate forcing. Results are applied to a fish bioenergetics

  5. Habitat structure determines resource use by zooplankton in temperate lakes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Tessa B; Schindler, Daniel E; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Larson, Eric R; Scheuerell, Mark D; Semmens, Brice X; Ward, Eric J

    2011-04-01

    While the importance of terrestrial linkages to aquatic ecosystems is well appreciated, the degree of terrestrial support of aquatic consumers remains debated. Estimates of terrestrial contributions to lake zooplankton have omitted a key food source, phytoplankton produced below the mixed layer. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from 25 Pacific Northwest lakes to assess the relative importance of particulate organic matter (POM) from the mixed layer, below the mixed layer and terrestrial detritus to zooplankton. Zooplankton and deep POM were depleted in ¹³C relative to mixed layer POM in lakes that can support deep primary production. A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model estimated that terrestrial detritus contributed <5% to zooplankton production, and confirms the role of lake optical and thermal properties; deep POM accounted for up to 80% of zooplankton production in the clearest lakes. These results suggest terrestrial support of lake zooplankton production is trivial. PMID:21314881

  6. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial-temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis; Christensen, Asbjørn; Madsen, Kristine S.; van Deurs, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sandeel (Ammodytidae) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was derived from quarterly scientific trawl surveys and Danish commercial catches. Spatio-temporal indices of mortality were created based on the estimated biomasses and ingestion rates from the literature. The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly dominant in the eastern and southern areas in early summer. Herring and sandeel had the highest consumption in the central and north-western areas and were more important in late summer. The fish index changed the perceived annual, seasonal and spatial patterns in modelled mesozooplankton biomass, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is (i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and (ii) relative fish spawning distribution information and (iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve management of marine resources.

  7. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 ?m polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 ?m microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health. PMID:23692270

  8. Impacts of reduced pH from ocean CO{sub 2} disposal: Sensitivity of zooplankton mortality to model parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E.E.; Caulfield, J.A.; Herzog, H.J.; Auerbach, D.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a methodology to quantify mortality suffered by marine zooplankton passing through a CO{sub 2}-enriched sea water plume. Here the authors explore model sensitivity to some of the more important biological, physical and engineering design parameters, with particular reference to CO{sub 2} injection as a buoyant droplet plume. Uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, e.g. caused by the use of data for surface organisms, will affect predicted values of total mortality by less than a factor of two for a single point discharge from 10 standard (500 MWe) coal-fired values of total mortality by less than a factor of two for a single point discharge from 10 standard 500 MWe coal-fired electric power plants and a factor of five for a single point discharge from one standard plant. The most important design variable is the number of physically separated discharge points (diffuser ports or groups of ports) used to disperse the CO{sub 2}. Predicted mortality drops to zero as the number of discharge points per standard plants exceeds two. Finally the most important physical parameters are ambient current speed and turbulent diffusivity. As with the dose-response data, most physical oceanographic measurements have been conducted near the ocean surface. Model sensitivity suggests that a factor of 2.5 reduction in current speed or a factor of 3 reduction in ambient diffusivity, relative to the base case, would require that the number of discharge points per standard plant increase from 2 to 12 in order to avoid mortality. Thus, impacts can be strongly site-specific, and additional oceanographic measurements are needed at depths appropriate for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Nonetheless, it should be easy to design an environmentally conservative multi-point discharge system that can disperse CO{sub 2} as a droplet plume without significant mortality, even under adverse environmental conditions.

  9. A standard protocol for stable isotope analysis of zooplankton in aquatic food web research using mass balance correction models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Smyntek; Mark A. Teece; Kimberly L. Schulz; Stephen J. Thackeray

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a crucial tool for aquatic food web ecologists, but a lack of methodological standardization hinders comparisons between studies. One methodological inconsistency in stable isotope food web research is the decision whether to extract lipids before stable isotope analysis. The depletion in zooplankton stable carbon isotope values (d13C) due to fatty acid content and the accuracy

  10. Phytoplankton-zooplankton dynamics in periodic environments taking into account eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhuo

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we derive and analyze a mathematical model for the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton in a periodic environment, in which the growth rate and the intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton are changing with respect to time and nutrient concentration. A threshold value: "Predator's average growth rate" is introduced and it is proved that the phytoplankton-zooplankton ecosystem is permanent (both populations survive cronically) and possesses a periodic solution if and only if the value is positive. We use TP (Total Phosphorus) concentration to mark the degree of eutrophication. Based on experimental data, we fit the growth rate function and the environmental carrying capacity function with temperature and nutrient concentration as independent variables. Using measured data of temperature on water bodies we fit a periodic temperature function of time, and this leads the growth rate and intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton to be periodic functions of time. Thus we establish a periodic system with TP concentration as parameter. The simulation results reveal a high diversity of population levels of the ecosystem that are mainly sensitive to TP concentration and the death-rate of zooplankton. It illustrates that the eruption of algal bloom is mainly resulted from the increasing of nutrient concentration while zooplankton only plays a role to alleviate the scale of algal bloom, which might be used to explain the mechanism of algal bloom occurrence in many natural waters. What is more, our results provide a better understanding of the traditional manipulation method. PMID:23791607

  11. Disease in freshwater zooplankton: what have we learned and where are we going?

    E-print Network

    Cáceres, Carla E.

    HORIZONS Disease in freshwater zooplankton: what have we learned and where are we going? CARLA E disturbance intensify (Daszak et al., 2000; Brearley et al., 2012). Freshwater zooplankton (especially Daphnia, zooplankton (especially Daphnia) have emerged as a model system for examining the ecological and evolutionary

  12. Quantitative comparison of food niches in some freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Bogdan; J. J. Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The abilities of some zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans, copepods) to ingest different sizes and kinds of food cells were quantified by determining the relative efficiencies with which they ingested nine tracer-cell types, ranging from a coccoid bacterium (0.45 µm3) to the alga Cryptomonas erosa (800–920 µm3). These efficiencies were obtained by dividing the clearance rate of each zooplankton group (species population,

  13. Zooplankton feeding ecology and the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable variety in both the selective behavior of suspension feeders and the quality of food available to them. The author reviews this variability and incorporate it in a simple model of particle selection that quantifies the consequences of selective feeding under various feeding conditions. To evaluate the concept that selective feeding enhances fitness, the author tests the hypothesis than an herbivorous zooplankton selects food items that best support its reproduction. Investigations of zooplankton herbivory in experimentally acidified Little Rock Lake indicate that acidification from pH 6.2 to pH 5.2 has not directly impaired feeding rates, while effects on selective feeding behavior are evident. Assessment of the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton indicate that Chaoborus spp. and water mite populations remain as yet unaffected, while Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii have both declined in the acidified basin. Methodological tests show that preservation of labelled zooplankton by rapid freezing on dry ice minimizes loss of {sup 14}C and {sup 32}P. {sup 14}C retention approximates 100%, while {sup 32}P retention is more variable.

  14. Population and Climate Change:Population and Climate Change: Coupling Population Models withCoupling Population Models with

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    Coupling Population Models with Earth System ModelsEarth System Models Eugenia Kalnay, Safa Motesharrei, Jorge Rivas Change: Fully Coupling Population and Earth System Models" My research at the U. of Maryland #12

  15. Estimating In Situ Zooplankton Non-Predation Mortality in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake from Sediment Trap Data: Caveats and Reality Check

    PubMed Central

    Dubovskaya, Olga P.; Tang, Kam W.; Gladyshev, Michail I.; Kirillin, Georgiy; Buseva, Zhanna; Kasprzak, Peter; Tolomeev, Aleksandr P.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Mortality is a main driver in zooplankton population biology but it is poorly constrained in models that describe zooplankton population dynamics, food web interactions and nutrient dynamics. Mortality due to non-predation factors is often ignored even though anecdotal evidence of non-predation mass mortality of zooplankton has been reported repeatedly. One way to estimate non-predation mortality rate is to measure the removal rate of carcasses, for which sinking is the primary removal mechanism especially in quiescent shallow water bodies. Objectives and Results We used sediment traps to quantify in situ carcass sinking velocity and non-predation mortality rate on eight consecutive days in 2013 for the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin; the outcomes were compared against estimates derived from in vitro carcass sinking velocity measurements and an empirical model correcting in vitro sinking velocity for turbulence resuspension and microbial decomposition of carcasses. Our results show that the latter two approaches produced unrealistically high mortality rates of 0.58-1.04 d-1, whereas the sediment trap approach, when used properly, yielded a mortality rate estimate of 0.015 d-1, which is more consistent with concurrent population abundance data and comparable to physiological death rate from the literature. Ecological implications Zooplankton carcasses may be exposed to water column microbes for days before entering the benthos; therefore, non-predation mortality affects not only zooplankton population dynamics but also microbial and benthic food webs. This would be particularly important for carbon and nitrogen cycles in systems where recurring mid-summer decline of zooplankton population due to non-predation mortality is observed. PMID:26146995

  16. Modeling Population Growth and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth model and the logistic model typically introduced in the mathematics curriculum presume that a population grows exclusively. In reality, species can also die out and more sophisticated models that take the possibility of extinction into account are needed. In this article, two extensions of the logistic model are considered,…

  17. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  18. Mechanisms, effects, and scales of dispersal in freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Havel; Jonathan B. Shurin

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of organisms can be regulated by local environmental factors and regional processes such as dispersal. Here, we review recent work on the role of dispersal for generating population and community structure in freshwater zooplankton. We examine evidence for different mechanisms of dispersal among lakes, for the effects of dispersal limitations on populations and communities, and for the effects

  19. Overview of week ahead Single Population Models

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Overview of week ahead Single Population Models Coupled population models Summary Mathematical Math Biol - Basics 1/ 54 #12;Overview of week ahead Single Population Models Coupled population models Summary Lecture 1: Mathematical biology for one and two dimensional models Stuart Townley Math Biol

  20. Comparison between zooplankton data collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey in the English

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Comparison between zooplankton data collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey; accepted 28 March 2001 Abstract Zooplankton sampling has been carried out by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey since the 1930s enabling the study of long-term changes in plankton populations

  1. Zooplankton Diel Vertical Distributions in Lake Crescent, a Deep Oligotrophic Lake in Washington (USA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Rainey; William V. Sobczak; Steven C. Fradkin

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated diel vertical migration (DVM) of major zooplankton populations in Lake Crescent, Washington, a deep oligotrophic lake where this phenomenon has not previously been studied. Duplicate daytime and nighttime samples were collected on June 27 and August 1, 2003 at ten depth intervals spanning 0–140 m. The major zooplankton taxa were the crustaceans Diaptomus tyrrelli, Daphnia rosea, Holopedium gibberum

  2. ZOOPLANKTON VOLUMES OFF THE PACIFIC COAST, 1956

    E-print Network

    ZOOPLANKTON VOLUMES OFF THE PACIFIC COAST, 1956 Marine Biological Laboratory JAN(i -1958 WOODS HOLE Washingtcxi, D. C» October 1957 #12;Abstract Basic data on volumes of zooplankton off the Pacific coast zooplankton abun- dance by month are included. #12;Zooplankton Volumes off the Pacific Coast, I956 The six

  3. Zooplankton community responses to synthetic oil exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, L.A.; Franco, P.J.; Giddings, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The responses of microcosm and pond zooplankton communities to oil treatment were quite similar. Their close agreement lends support for using shallow-water pond microcosms as surrogates for field experiments in hazard evaluation. Changes in cladoceran densities were the most sensitive indicators of stress in the zooplankton communities. Copepods were slightly less sensitive, and rotifers were least sensitive to oil treatment. Indirect effects on populations were observed at intermediate treatment levels. The lowest treatment levels at which persistent and significant ecological changes occurred were the same in both systems. These levels were similar to the lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) for the Daphnia magna chronic bioassay, or approximately 30% of the D. magna 48-h LC/sub 50/. Community structure responses were generally consistent between systems; however, sensitivity for detecting oil treatment effects varied greatly among the measures of community structure. Species richness and diversity measures were not as sensitive as individual species responses. Cluster and multivariate post-clustering analyses of community similarity values reflected indirect effects and had sufficient sensitivity to allow early impact detection. An expanded principal components technique, which used both zooplankton and water quality data, was also relatively sensitive and would be applicable for routine monitoring.

  4. Do zooplankton contribute to an ultraviolet clear-water phase in lakes? Craig E. Williamson,1 Hendrika J. De Lange2 and Dina M. Leech3

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    of zooplankton on UV transparency in a given lake will depend upon multiple factors including zooplankton density. 1986; Sommer et al. 1986). According to the plankton ecology group (PEG) model of seasonal succes- sion

  5. Nonlinear stochastic modeling of aphid population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Matis; Thomas R. Kiffe; Timothy I. Matis; Douglass E. Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a stochastic population size model for the black-margined pecan aphid. Prajneshu [Prajneshu, A nonlinear statistical model for aphid population growth. J. Indian Soc. Agric. Statist. 51 (1998), p. 73] proposes a novel nonlinear deterministic model for aphid abundance. The per capita death rate in his model is proportional to the cumulative population size, and the solution is

  6. Pesticide eÄects on freshwater zooplankton: an ecological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hanazato

    2001-01-01

    The eÄects of pesticides on zooplankton are reviewed and their ecological significance is discussed. Toxicity is shown to vary depending on animal species, genotype, life stage, and size at birth. Natural stresses such as food shortage, oxygen depletion and odors of potential predators can also aÄect toxicity. Populations in the growth phase are vulnerable to pesticides but have the potential

  7. Pesticide effects on freshwater zooplankton: an ecological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Hanazato

    2001-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on zooplankton are reviewed and their ecological significance is discussed. Toxicity is shown to vary depending on animal species, genotype, life stage, and size at birth. Natural stresses such as food shortage, oxygen depletion and odors of potential predators can also affect toxicity. Populations in the growth phase are vulnerable to pesticides but have the potential

  8. Zooplankton Community Metabolic Requirements and the Effect on Particle

    E-print Network

    Buesseler, Ken

    Zooplankton Community Metabolic Requirements and the Effect on Particle Flux and Remineralization into smaller, non-sinking particles 2. Microbial decomposition 3. Zooplankton consumption #12;Zooplankton in the twilight zo -microbial decomposition -zooplankton grazing Sinking particles Copepod feeding on aggregate

  9. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  10. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  11. A study of zooplankton in the Corpus Christi ship channel area near Ingleside, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Ansari, Fahmida

    1979-01-01

    A STUDY OF ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS IN THE CORPUS CHR STI SHIP CHANNEL AREA NEAR INGLESIDE, TEXAS A Tnesis FAHMIDA ANSARI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences A STUDY OF ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS IN THE CORPUS CHRISTI SHIP CHANNEL AREA NEAR INGLESIDE, TEXAS A Thesis FAHMIDA ANSARI Approved as to style and content by: Co...

  12. Body size and food size in freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, K G; Gilbert, J J

    1984-10-01

    We used double-label liquid scintillation techniques to measure the efficiencies with which eight different-sized zooplankton species ingested four cell types relative to a standard cell type (Chlamydomonas). Efficiency ratios (ERs: clearance rate on cell type X / clearance rate on Chlamydomonas) on the three ultraplankton (<5 mum in diameter) cells (a coccoid bacterium and the algae Synechococcus and Nannochloris) varied greatly among zooplankton species but were not correlated with zooplankton body length. Variation in ERs on a much larger (17 x 14 mum) algal cell (Cryptomonas) was only partly explained by zooplankton body length. The eight zooplankton species were classified into three functional groups: (i) species having moderate to high ERs on all ultraplankton (0.4 < ER < 1.6) and ERs on Cryptomonas proportional to their body lengths (Conochilus, Diaphanosoma, and probably Keratella cochlearis and Ceriodaphnia); (ii) species having extremely low ERs on bacteria (mean ER < 0.05), higher but still low ERs on ultraphytoplankton (ER generally < 0.4), and ERs on Cryptomonas proportional to their body lengths (Bosmina, Diaptomus copepodites and adults); (iii) species having extremely low ERs on all ultraplankton (mean ER < 0.05) and ERs on Cryptomonas much higher than expected given their body lengths (Keratella crassa, Polyarthra, and Diaptomus nauplii). These functional groups follow neither taxonomic nor body-length groupings. We conclude that zooplankton body length may influence the maximal particle size a species can ingest but has little influence on the ingestion of smaller particles. Two frequently used models relating zooplankton body size and food size are unrealistic. PMID:16593521

  13. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  14. An emerging paradigm in marine science is the elastic ability of gelatinous zooplankton to dominate in stressed

    E-print Network

    Thuesen, Erik V.

    2475 An emerging paradigm in marine science is the elastic ability of gelatinous zooplankton to dominate in stressed marine environments, and several studies have raised the possibility that gelatinous). Gelatinous zooplankton populations also appear to be increasing due to increased eutrophication resulting

  15. ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE CENTRAL PACIFIC

    E-print Network

    ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE IN THE CENTRAL PACIFIC· BY JOSEPH E. KING AND' JOAN DEMOND FISHERY BULLETIN, John L. Farley, Director #12;ABSTRACT Zooplankton abundance in the central Pacific was investigated, 4 percent Siphonophora, and 4 percent Foraminifera. All analysis of variance of zooplankton volumes

  16. ZOOPLANKTON VOLUMES OFF THE PACIFIC COAST, 1957

    E-print Network

    326 ZOOPLANKTON VOLUMES OFF THE PACIFIC COAST, 1957 t Marine Biological Laboratory^ ;.:.ODS HOLE of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner ZOOPLANKTON. C. November 1959 #12;Abstract Basic data on volumes or zooplankton off the Pacific coast in 1957

  17. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    E-print Network

    and freshwater envir- onments (Kiørboe, 2008a). Knowledge of the structure and functioning of zooplanktonHORIZONS Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities ELENA LITCHMAN1,2,*, MARK D. OHMAN3@msu.edu Received August 31, 2012; accepted February 19, 2013 Corresponding editor: Roger Harris Zooplankton

  18. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and hypolimnion, leaving limited refuge for zooplankton prey. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

  20. Adventures With The Fish Pond: Population Modeling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS TeacherSource - Math

    2010-01-01

    This activity builds on the population decay M&M activity and will introduce students to recursive equations and uses calculators as an efficient tool for exploring population models. Students will describe what happens to the fish population from one year to another. Each pair of students will have an activity sheet to go along with the activity, and a calculator is needed.

  1. Omnivorous zooplankton and planktivorous fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN L. CONFER; PAMELA I. BLADES

    1975-01-01

    The distance at which Lepomis gibbosus reacts to zooplankton is shown to be a linear fuilction of prey size. If fishes sweep out a cylindrical path as they forage the frequency of prey encountered is then proportional to the square of this reaction distance. With the inclusion of the probability of capture success after a fish pursues a prey, a

  2. Modelling population change from time series data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Information on change in population size over time is among the most basic inputs for population management. Unfortunately, population changes are generally difficult to identify, and once identified difficult to explain. Sources of variald (patterns) in population data include: changes in environment that affect carrying capaciyy and produce trend, autocorrelative processes, irregular environmentally induced perturbations, and stochasticity arising from population processes. In addition. populations are almost never censused and many surveys (e.g., the North American Breeding Bird Survey) produce multiple, incomplete time series of population indices, providing further sampling complications. We suggest that each source of pattern should be used to address specific hypotheses regarding population change, but that failure to correctly model each source can lead to false conclusions about the dynamics of populations. We consider hypothesis tests based on each source of pattern, and the effects of autocorrelated observations and sampling error. We identify important constraints on analyses of time series that limit their use in identifying underlying relationships.

  3. Modeling wildlife populations with HexSim

    EPA Science Inventory

    HexSim is a framework for constructing spatially-explicit, individual-based computer models designed for simulating terrestrial wildlife population dynamics and interactions. HexSim is useful for a broad set of modeling applications including population viability analysis for on...

  4. Delay eect in models of population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dang Vu Giang; Yongwimon Lenbury; Thomas I. Seidman

    First, we systematize earlier results on the global stability of the model ? x + µx = f(x(· )) of population growth. Second, we investigate the eect of delay on the asymptotic behavior when the nonlinearity f is a unimodal function. Our results can be applied to several population models (7, 9-13) because the function f does not need to

  5. Modelling population growth vialaguerre-type exponentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Andreis; P. E. Ricci

    2005-01-01

    We use the Laguerre-type exponentials, i.e., eigenfunctions of the Laguerre-type derivatives, in order to construct new models for population growth. Relevant modifications of the classical exponential, logistic, and Volterra-Lotka models are investigated.

  6. Habitat Heterogeneity Determines Climate Impact on Zooplankton Community Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Saskia A.; Diekmann, Rabea; Flinkman, Juha; Kornilovs, Georgs; Möllmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and predicting species distribution in space and time and consequently community structure and dynamics is an important issue in ecology, and particularly in climate change research. A crucial factor determining the composition and dynamics of animal populations is habitat heterogeneity, i.e., the number of structural elements in a given locality. In the marine pelagic environment habitat heterogeneity is represented by the distribution of physical oceanographic parameters such as temperature, salinity and oxygen that are closely linked to atmospheric conditions. Little attention has been given, however, to the role of habitat heterogeneity in modulating the response of animal communities to external climate forcing. Here we investigate the long-term dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis, and Pseudocalanus acuspes, three dominant zooplankton species inhabiting different pelagic habitats in the Central Baltic Sea (CBS). We use the three copepods as indicator species for changes in the CBS zooplankton community and apply non-linear statistical modeling techniques to compare spatial population trends and to identify their drivers. We demonstrate that effects of climate variability and change depend strongly on species-specific habitat utilization, being more direct and pronounced at the upper water layer. We propose that the differential functional response to climate-related drivers in relation to strong habitat segregation is due to alterations of the species’ environmental niches. We stress the importance of understanding how anticipated climate change will affect ecological niches and habitats in order to project spatio-temporal changes in species abundance and distribution. PMID:24614110

  7. A simulation model of an insect population

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    An insect life table simulation developed by Hein Bijlmakers. The above URL gets you to the introduction of the simulation model where various aspects of an insect population dynamics are explained. The link to the simulation brings you to the model itself with a myriad of variables including population development; egg; larval; pupal and adult mortality by parasitoids and predators amongst others. This is a great tool to investigate various aspects of insect population dynamics allowing one to investigate the impact of a number of variables on a population and may help students understand the function of insect life tables. Up to 40 generations can be iterated.

  8. Zooplankton and the total phosphorus chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    Zooplankton and the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian analysis: Zooplankton grazing is important in resolving residual variation around the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll a relationship. In empirical studies, zooplankton body size is often a better predictor of residual variation

  9. Seasonal and Areal Distribution of Zooplankton in Coastal Waters

    E-print Network

    Zooplankton volumes 6 Zooplankton groups and species 6 Zooplankton and hydrography 8 Variations of temperature to hydrography. Local hydrography appears to influence the abundance and distribution of coastal zoo- plankters

  10. Stability in a Nonlinear Population Maturation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephane Mischler; Lenya Ryzhik

    We consider models for population structured by maturation\\/maturation speed proposed by Rotenberg. It is a variant of transport equations for age-structured populations which presents particu- larly interesting mathematical diculties. It allows to introduce more stochasticity in the birth process and in the aging phenomena. We present a new method for studying the time asymptotics which is also illustrated on the

  11. The Ramsey model with logistic population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Gabriel Brida; Elvio Accinelli

    2007-01-01

    In standard economic growth theory it is assumed that labor force follows exponential growth, a not realistic assumption. As described in Maynard Smith (1974), the growth of natural populations is more accurately depicted by a logistic growth law. In this paper we analyze how the Ramsey growth model is affected by logistic growth of population, comparing it with the classic

  12. Histological approaches for high-quality imaging of zooplanktonic organisms.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rossana C N; Rosa, Priscila G; Noyma, Natália P; Pereira, Wânia F; Tavares, Luiz E R; Parreira, Gleydes G; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Roland, Fábio

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the internal organization of zooplankton communities provides important information on the plankton biology with special interest for the study of ecological processes. Zooplanktoners can play a structural function as indicators for ecosystem health or stress, but their study using histological techniques is still limited. Here we report that the internal structure of zooplanktonic organisms can be facilely observed by a histological approach that combines optimal fixation and processing with a plastic resin (glycol methacrylate) embedding, resulting in increased tissue resolution. Using copepods, organisms that can dominate zooplankton assemblages, as models, collected from a tropical ecosystem (Paraibuna river, Brazil), we showed fine histological details of their muscular, nervous and digestive systems, structure of appendages and cell features. Critical advantages of this approach are that it permits optimal preservation and adequate handling of the organisms (embedded in agar after fixation) for further histological processing and investigation. This is important because it prevents both mechanically induced artifacts and loss of these diminutive organisms during the different steps of processing. Moreover, embedding in plastic resin showed a superior imaging of copepod internal structures compared to paraffin embedding. The use of glycol methacrylate is advantageous over paraffin/paraplast embedding by avoiding heat damage, tissue retraction and allowing faster embedding procedure and better tissue resolution. The value of histological approaches in enabling high-quality imaging of the internal structure of copepods is particularly important because these organisms can be used as indicators of environmental changes. PMID:17574853

  13. Ecosystem model-based approach for modelling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations: application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belharet, M.; Estournel, C.; Charmasson, S.

    2015-06-01

    Huge amounts of radionuclides, especially 137Cs, were released into the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) accident that occurred on 11 March 2011, resulting in contamination of the marine biota. In this study we developed a radioecological model to estimate 137Cs concentrations in phytoplankton and zooplankton populations representing the lower levels of the pelagic trophic chain. We coupled this model to a lower trophic level ecosystem model and an ocean circulation model to take into account the site-specific environmental conditions in the area. The different radioecological parameters of the model were estimated by calibration, and a sensitivity analysis to parameter uncertainties was carried out, showing a high sensitivity of the model results, especially to the 137Cs concentration in seawater, to the rates of uptake from water and to the radionuclide assimilation efficiency for zooplankton. The results of the 137Cs concentrations in planktonic populations simulated in this study were then validated through comparison with the some data available in the region after the accident. The model results have shown that the maximum concentrations in plankton after the accident were about two to four orders of magnitude higher than those observed before the accident depending on the distance from FNPP. Finally, the maximum 137Cs absorbed dose rate for phyto- and zooplankton populations was estimated to be about 10-2 ?Gy h-1, and was, therefore, lower than the 10 ?Gy h-1 benchmark value defined in the ERICA assessment approach from which a measurable effect on the marine biota can be observed.

  14. Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1993-08-01

    Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

  15. Feeding and production of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Atienza, Dacha; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2007-08-01

    Zooplankton are key components of the structure and functioning of marine planktonic food webs. They are the main link of planktonic primary production towards top pelagic consumer levels (fish), and play a relevant role on the nutrient recycling in the water column and on the export of particulate matter out of the photic zone. In this paper, we review the present knowledge on the feeding and production of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean), with special emphasis on copepods. Feeding of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea appears typically food limited, with average daily rations on a yearly basis in the order of 48% body C d -1. Heterotrophic prey constitute a relevant fraction of their diet, as an alternative to the scarce phytoplankton in the area. From a structural point of view, the trophic impact and control of their prey populations are low on standing stocks but, at certain times, zooplankton can exert a meaningful effect on their prey production. Regarding zooplankton production, the available estimates of growth rates in the area are based on the egg production rate of copepods. Egg production rates appear to be limited, especially in summer. Tentative estimates of copepod production in the area are in the order of 20-40 mg C m -2 d -1. In conclusion, this review confirms that the oligotrophic character of the NW Mediterranean constrains the feeding activity and production of zooplankton.

  16. Population-expression models of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  17. Calvert Cliffs zooplankton entrainment study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    Entrainment studies to evaluate plant effects on zooplankton were conducted at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant. Specific effects tested were (a) the spatial and temporal variation of zooplankton density; (b) pump sampling efficiency; (c) delayed mortality; (d) vital staining as an indicator of mortality.

  18. Zooplankton data report: Winter MIZEX, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwartling, E.M.; Beck, B.

    1988-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) was an interdisciplinary, international Arctic research program designed to study the atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea. This report focuses on zooplankton data collected during the winter MIZEX program of 1987. The primary objectives of our group during MIZEX 87 were to study the distribution of zooplankton species in relation to the ice-edge, the Polar Front, and the mesoscale eddy field, and to study zooplanktonic physiology just prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The data in this report are quantitative analyses of zooplankton samples collected while aboard the research vessel HAKON MOSBY during MIZEX 87. This is the third in a series of data reports on zooplankton collected in the Fram Strait region during the MIZEX project. A complete catalog of the reports generated from the MIZEX program is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, USA. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  19. Formalisms for Specifying Markovian Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzinger, Thomas A.; Jobstmann, Barbara; Wolf, Verena

    We compare several languages for specifying Markovian population models such as queuing networks and chemical reaction networks. These languages —matrix descriptions, stochastic Petri nets, stoichiometric equations, stochastic process algebras, and guarded command models— all describe continuous-time Markov chains, but they differ according to important properties, such as compositionality, expressiveness and succinctness, executability, ease of use, and the support they provide for checking the well-formedness of a model and for analyzing a model.

  20. Emergency relocation: Population response model to disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cuellar; D. Kubicek; N. Hengartner; A. Hansson

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a a general framework for applying individual decision models to aggregated populations. Our approach is useful for modeling and predicting evacuation decisions from disasters, ranging from earthquakes, flooding and wild fires, to industrial emergencies like chemical spills or nuclear accidents, to reactions to terrorism attacks. The novelty of our approach is to apply well-documented household evacuation behavioral

  1. Introduction to special section on Analysis of Zooplankton Distributions Using

    E-print Network

    Introduction to special section on Analysis of Zooplankton Distributions Using the Optical Plankton of zooplankton over broad expanses of space and for examining patterns in the size structure of zooplankton of Zooplankton Distributions Using the Optical Plankton Counter, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C05S01, doi:10

  2. Length-Dry Weight Relationships of Some Freshwater Zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolph A. Rosen

    1981-01-01

    Biomass of zooplankton can be estimated from the relation between length and weight by measuring the appropriate dimension of length on individual zooplankton. Length-dry weight relationships for 15 species of freshwater crustacean zooplankton collected from the Connecticut River were determined. Length-weight equations can be used to rapidly determine the biomass of zooplankton species when it is impractical to directly measure

  3. Expanding clinical applications of population pharmacodynamic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Charles; Schnider, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Population pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics is the study of the variability in drug concentration or pharmacological effect between individuals when standard dosage regimens are administered. We provide an overview of pharmacokinetic models, pharmacodynamic models, population models and residual error models. We outline how population modelling approaches seek to explain interpatient variability with covariate analysis, and, in some approaches, to characterize the unexplained interindividual variability. The interpretation of the results of population modelling approaches is facilitated by shifting the emphasis from the perspective of the modeller to the perspective of the clinician. Both the explained and unexplained interpatient variability should be presented in terms of their impact on the dose–response relationship. Clinically relevant questions relating to the explained and unexplained variability in the population can be posed to the model, and confidence intervals can be obtained for the fraction of the population that is estimated to fall within a specific therapeutic range given a certain dosing regimen. Such forecasting can be used to develop optimal initial dosing guidelines. The development of population models (with random effects) permits the application of Bayes’s formula to obtain improved estimates of an individual’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in the light of observed responses. An important challenge to clinical pharmacology is to identify the drugs that might benefit from such adaptive-control-with-feedback dosing strategies. Drugs used for life threatening diseases with a proven pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, a small therapeutic range, large interindividual variability, small interoccasion variability and severe adverse effects are likely to be good candidates. Rapidly evolving changes in health care economics and consumer expectations make it unlikely that traditional drug development approaches will succeed in the future. A shift away from the narrow focus on rejecting the null hypothesis towards a broader focus on seeking to understand the factors that influence the dose–response relationship—together with the development of the next generation of software based on population models—should permit a more efficient and rational drug development programme. PMID:9803979

  4. Partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls between Arctic seawater and size-fractionated zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Reigstad, Marit; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2006-07-01

    Concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in zooplankton have been hypothesized to be governed by either near-equilibrium partitioning with surrounding water, growth dilution, or biomagnification. Concentrations of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in size-fractionated zooplankton, in phytoplankton (> 0.7 microm), and in the dissolved water phase (< 0.7 microm) in the surface water of the northern Barents Sea marginal ice zone east and north of Spitsbergen (Norway) and in the central Arctic Ocean at 89 degrees N. The linear partition model was used to indirectly assess if PCBs were equilibrated between water and the extractable organic matter (EOM) of zooplankton. As an independent test, the relation between the EOM-normalized partition coefficient (log K(EOM)) and trophic level (TL) of the zooplankton (based on delta 15N) was investigated. All log K-log K(OW) regressions were significant (n=18, p < 0.05, r2 = 0.65-0.95), being consistent with near-equilibrium partitioning and indirectly suggesting the absence of biomagnification. No correlation was found between log K(EOM) and TL, further supporting the apparent absence of biomagnification in zooplankton. One implication of these results is a reduced uncertainty in modeling of food web uptake, in which kinetic parameterizations of biodilution or biomagnification in zooplankton may be replaced by a simpler parameterization based on equilibrium partitioning. PMID:16833130

  5. Spatial uncertainty analysis of population models

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL; Schumaker, Nathan [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for conducting spatial uncertainty analysis of spatial population models, and illustrates the ecological consequences of spatial uncertainty for landscapes with different properties. Spatial population models typically simulate birth, death, and migration on an input map that describes habitat. Typically, only a single reference map is available, but we can imagine that a collection of other, slightly different, maps could be drawn to represent a particular species' habitat. As a first approximation, our approach assumes that spatial uncertainty (i.e., the variation among values assigned to a location by such a collection of maps) is constrained by characteristics of the reference map, regardless of how the map was produced. Our approach produces lower levels of uncertainty than alternative methods used in landscape ecology because we condition our alternative landscapes on local properties of the reference map. Simulated spatial uncertainty was higher near the borders of patches. Consequently, average uncertainty was highest for reference maps with equal proportions of suitable and unsuitable habitat, and no spatial autocorrelation. We used two population viability models to evaluate the ecological consequences of spatial uncertainty for landscapes with different properties. Spatial uncertainty produced larger variation among predictions of a spatially explicit model than those of a spatially implicit model. Spatially explicit model predictions of final female population size varied most among landscapes with enough clustered habitat to allow persistence. In contrast, predictions of population growth rate varied most among landscapes with only enough clustered habitat to support a small population, i.e., near a spatially mediated extinction threshold. We conclude that spatial uncertainty has the greatest effect on persistence when the amount and arrangement of suitable habitat are such that habitat capacity is near the minimum required for persistence.

  6. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  7. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a fisher probability of occurrence model. The fisher occurrence model was selected

  8. Potential acidification impacts on zooplankton in CCS leakage scenarios.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Claudia; Kurihara, Haruko

    2013-08-30

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies involve localized acidification of significant volumes of seawater, inhabited mainly by planktonic species. Knowledge on potential impacts of these techniques on the survival and physiology of zooplankton, and subsequent consequences for ecosystem health in targeted areas, is scarce. The recent literature has a focus on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, leading to enhanced absorption of CO2 by the oceans and a lowered seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. These studies explore the effects of changes in seawater chemistry, as predicted by climate models for the end of this century, on marine biota. Early studies have used unrealistically severe CO2/pH values in this context, but are relevant for CCS leakage scenarios. Little studied meso- and bathypelagic species of the deep sea may be especially vulnerable, as well as vertically migrating zooplankton, which require significant residence times at great depths as part of their life cycle. PMID:23632089

  9. Melatonin Signaling Controls Circadian Swimming Behavior in Marine Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the “hormone of darkness,” is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

  10. Melatonin signaling controls circadian swimming behavior in marine zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2014-09-25

    Melatonin, the "hormone of darkness," is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

  11. The dynamics of density dependent population models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Guckenheimer; G. Oster; A. Ipaktchi

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of density-dependent population models can be extraordinarily complex as numerous authors have displayed in numerical simulations. Here we commence a theoretical analysis of the mathematical mechanisms underlying this complexity from the viewpoint of modern dynamical systems theory. After discussing the chaotic behavior of one-dimensional difference equations we proceed to illustrate the general theory on a density-dependent Leslie model

  12. MODELING AGGREGATION AND GROWTH PROCESSES IN AN ALGAL POPULATION MODEL

    E-print Network

    MODELING AGGREGATION AND GROWTH PROCESSES IN AN ALGAL POPULATION MODEL: ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATIONS AZMY S. ACKLEH and BEN G. FITZPATRICK Department of Mathematics and Center for Research in Scientific simulation of an algal aggregation model. The numerical algorithm is then used to examine the basic model

  13. FUNCTIONAL BIOASSAYS UTILIZING ZOOPLANKTON: A COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional zooplankton bioassays based on ingestion, reproduction and respiration are described, with methods for a new ingestion bioassay included. ll bioassays are compared using three indices, including the variability of controls, the range of experimental responses, and a li...

  14. "Trophic overyielding": phytoplankton diversity promotes zooplankton productivity.

    PubMed

    Striebel, Maren; Singer, Gabriel; Stibor, Herwig; Andersen, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Diversity-productivity relationships at the primary producer level have been extensively studied, especially for terrestrial systems. Here, we explore whether the diversity of aquatic primary producers (phytoplankton) has effects on higher trophic levels (zooplankton). We investigated the effect of phytoplankton diversity on an artificial zooplankton community in a laboratory experiment where phytoplankton biomass and elemental composition (carbon-to-phosphorus ratio) were kept constant. Phytoplankton diversity increased the means of both zooplankton growth rate and abundance while suppressing their variability, and sustained higher zooplankton diversity. Likely explanations include resource complementarity effects among phytoplankton species as food entities, as well as niche complementarity effects among Daphnia species as competitors. By affecting the productivity as well as the variability of the next trophic level, biodiversity of primary producers may have far-reaching consequences in aquatic food webs. PMID:23431601

  15. Speciation patterns and processes in the zooplankton of the ancient lakes of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, James J; Bock, Dan G; Haffner, G Douglas; Cristescu, Melania E

    2013-01-01

    Although studies of ancient lake fauna have provided important insights about speciation patterns and processes of organisms in heterogeneous benthic environments, evolutionary forces responsible for speciation in the relatively homogenous planktonic environment remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate possible mechanisms of speciation in zooplankton using the freshwater diaptomids of the ancient lakes of Sulawesi, Indonesia, as a model system. We integrate phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes with morphological and genome size data. Overall, our results support the conclusion that colonization order and local adaptation are dominant at the large, island scale, whereas at local and intralacustrine scales, speciation processes are regulated by gene flow among genetically differentiated and locally adapted populations. In the Malili lakes, the diaptomid populations are homogenous at nuclear loci, but show two highly divergent mitochondrial clades that are geographically restricted to single lakes despite the interconnectivity of the lake systems. Our study, based on coalescent simulations and population genetic analyses, indicates that unidirectional hybridization allows gene flow across the nuclear genome, but prevents the introgression of mitochondria into downstream populations. We suggest that hybridization and introgression between young lineages is a significant evolutionary force in freshwater plankton. PMID:24101996

  16. UV Radiation and Arctic Freshwater Zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. Hessen

    \\u000a Arctic freshwaters possess simple zooplankton communities.The high Arctic lakes and ponds are commonly inhabited by only a\\u000a few species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Dominant inhabitants of high Arctic zooplankton communities are first and\\u000a foremost members of the circumpolar cladoceran species Daphnia pulex complex (Colbourne et al. 1998; Weider et al. 1999). Members of this complex are recorded in all

  17. Modeling oyster populations. V. Declining phytoplankton stocks and the population dynamics of American oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric N. Powell; John M. Klinck; Eileen E. Hofmann; Elizabeth A. Wilson-Ormond; Matthew S. Ellis

    1995-01-01

    Phytoplankton standing stocks have shown a steady decline in Galveston Bay, Texas over the last 20 years. Phytoplankton provides the primary food resource for oyster populations in Galveston Bay. We used a time-dependent population dynamics model of oyster populations to examine the impact of a decline in phytoplankton stocks on oyster populations. Simulations were run with two different types of

  18. Dispersal Limitation, Invasion Resistance, and the Structure of Pond Zooplankton Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Shurin

    2000-01-01

    For a species to colonize a site it must both arrive there by dispersal from another site and maintain positive population growth in the local environment. I experi- mentally tested the role of dispersal limitation in structuring the zooplankton communities of fishless ponds in southwestern Michigan. An average of 12.9 new species of rotifers and crustaceans from the region were

  19. Climate warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California current

    SciTech Connect

    Roemmich, D.; McGowan, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-03-03

    Since 1951, the biomass of macrozooplankton in waters off southern California has decreased by 80 percent. During the same period, the surface layer warmed-by more than 1.5{degrees}C in some places-and the temperature differences across the thermocline increased. Increased stratification resulted in less lifting of the thermocline by wind-driven upwelling. A shallower source of upwelled waters provided less inorganic nutrient for new biological production and hence supported a smaller zooplankton population. Continued warming could lead to further decline of zooplankton. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Zooplankton of the waters adjacent to the C. P. Crane generating station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.C.; Womack, C.J.; Olney, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    Zooplankton population in the Gunpowder River and its tributaries were sampled monthly from July, 1979-March, 1980 in a continuation of similar studies begun in March, 1979. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the present once-through cooling system of the Crane Power Plant. The principal effect of the C.P. Crane generating station on zooplankton of the area is a displacement of an original freshwater community through the pumping of cooling water from Seneca Creek to Saltpeter Creek.

  1. Analysis of six groups of zooplankton in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.E.; Hopkins T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Zooplankton populations have been sampled from various depths in the region of the proposed Ocean thermal energy conversion site in the Gulf of Mexico. Data are presented on the numbers and species present at each depth sampled. (DMC)

  2. Pesticide effects on freshwater zooplankton: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanazato, T

    2001-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on zooplankton are reviewed and their ecological significance is discussed. Toxicity is shown to vary depending on animal species, genotype, life stage, and size at birth. Natural stresses such as food shortage, oxygen depletion and odors of potential predators can also affect toxicity. Populations in the growth phase are vulnerable to pesticides but have the potential to recover rapidly from the damage. Pesticides may affect the population dynamics by controlling individual survival and reproduction, and by altering the sex ratio. Furthermore, toxic chemicals may control predation risk by changing swimming behavior and body morphology, and this in turn influences the population dynamics. Many zooplankton display morphological and behavioral responses to predators when exposed to their odor-producing chemicals. However, pesticides induce a maladaptive response to predator odor, and this poses an ecological risk. The following patterns are recognized as effects of pesticides at the community and ecosystem levels: (1) induction of dominance by small species; (2) an increase of species richness and diversity; and (3) elongation of the food chain and reduction of energy transfer efficiency from primary producers to top predators. PMID:11202648

  3. The nk model and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Welch, John J; Waxman, David

    2005-06-01

    The nk model of fitness interactions is examined. This model has been used by previous authors to investigate the effects of fitness epistasis on substitution dynamics in molecular evolution, and to make broader claims about the importance of epistasis. To examine these claims, an infinite-allele approximation is introduced. In this limit, it is shown that the nk model is, at an appropriate level of description, formally identical to the non-epistatic House-of-Cards model--a well-studied model in theoretical population genetics. It is further shown that in many parameter regimes, the analytical results obtained from this infinite-allele approximation are very close to results from the full nk model (with a finite number of alleles per locus). The findings presented shed light on a number of previous results. PMID:15784268

  4. USING POPULATION MODELS TO EVALUATE RISK IN POPULATION OF BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife populations are exposed to varying habitat structure and quality, as well as an array of human-induced environmental stressors. Predicting the consequences to a real population of one perturbation (e.g. a pesticide application) without considering other human activities ...

  5. Individual-based models of copepod populations in coastal upwelling regions: implications of physiologically and environmentally influenced diel vertical migration on demographic success and nearshore retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, Harold P.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    We link a two-dimension coastal upwelling circulation hydrodynamic-ecosystem (NPZ) model with an individual-based model (IBM) for an intermediate sized (ca. 2.5 mm) copepod capable of diel vertical migration (DVM) at larger sizes. The NPZ model is that of Franks, Wroblewski and Flierl (1986), with the zooplankton state variable parameterized for macrozooplankton. IBM simulations are done with different scenarios for behavioral responses; the interaction of the organisms with the circulation is evaluated by examining growth/development, reproduction, survival and distribution. Since ocean productivity in coastal upwelling systems is greatest nearshore, zooplankton production is favored by nearshore retention. Model results, using an idealized, intermittently wind-forced, upwelling circulation, indicate that non-migrating copepods are flushed from the nearshore system in offshore zonal surface flow; highest population abundances occur offshore, in a region of relatively low food resources. Conversely, migrating copepods interact with the stratified zonal flow within the upwelling system and are retained nearshore when the amplitude of the DVM is sufficient to place the individuals in near-bottom onshore flow during the day. Environmental features, like deep-extending food resources, and physiological controls, like satiation or body size, that permit copepods to remain deeper, or spend more time away from the surface, favor nearshore retention. Diel vertical migration is one mechanism, which may permit animals to exploit favorable habitats located nearshore in upwelling systems.

  6. Modeling Population Dynamics Andre M. de Roos

    E-print Network

    Roos, André M. de

    -sexes population growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.6 Parameters and state variables.1 Describing a population and its environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.1 The population or p-state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.5.1 Exponential population growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2

  7. Population Model with a Dynamic Food Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; da Silva Nascimento, Jonas

    2009-09-01

    We propose a simple population model including the food supply as a dynamic variable. In the model, survival of an organism depends on a certain minimum rate of food consumption; a higher rate of consumption is required for reproduction. We investigate the stationary behavior under steady food input, and the transient behavior of growth and decay when food is present initially but is not replenished. Under a periodic food supply, the system exhibits period-doubling bifurcations and chaos in certain ranges of the reproduction rate. Bifurcations and chaos are favored by a slow reproduction rate and a long period of food-supply oscillation.

  8. The link between environmental variation and evolutionary shifts in dormancy in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    Sex and dormancy are intertwined in organisms that engage in asexual and sexual reproduction. The transition between asexual and sexual reproduction typically results in a dormant stage that provides a mechanism for persisting under harsh environmental conditions. For example, many zooplankton engage in sexual reproduction when environmental conditions deteriorate and produce resting eggs that remain viable for decades. It has long been assumed that observed variation in the timing and magnitude of investment into a dormant stage among populations or species reflects local environmental conditions. Yet, the importance of dormancy for the persistence of a given population can differ dramatically among habitats (i.e., permanent vs. seasonal ponds). As a result, environmental conditions may exert selection on the propensity for zooplankton to engage in sexual reproduction and enter dormancy in natural populations. Here, I highlight a growing body of research illustrating an important link between environmental conditions and divergent reproductive strategies in zooplankton. I specifically: (1) review the environmental cues that initiate a transition between asexual and sexual reproduction in zooplankton and (2) describe recent work demonstrating an evolutionary consequence of ecological selective pressures, such as predation and habitat predictability, on variation in the extent to which organisms engage in sex and enter dormancy. Such results have implications for the genetics and ecology of these organisms. PMID:23630969

  9. Modeling and Control of the Peregrine Falcon Population

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    Modeling and Control of the Peregrine Falcon Population Ellen Peterson Wittenberg University 2005 in parts of the country. However, the question is how many can be extracted from the population before the future population will go into decline. My research utilizes a population projection matrix model

  10. Element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    I review the implementation of the effects from varying chemical element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling, focusing on ?- and Fe-peak elements. A brief overview of the development of such models over the past 30 years is provided, starting with early work on the identification of relevant absorption features in the spectra of early-type galaxies in the 1980s leading to the most recent developments of the past years. Recent highlights include the adoption of new flux calibrated libraries, the inclusion of a wide range of chemical elements, the calculation of error estimates on the model, and the consideration of element variation effects on full spectra. The calibration of such models with globular clusters and some key results on the element ratios measured in early-type galaxies are presented.

  11. Extrinsic and intrinsic controls of zooplankton diversity in lakes

    E-print Network

    Hessen, Dag O.; Faafeng, Bjø rn A.; Smith, Val H.; Bakkestuen, Vegar; Walseng, Bjø rn

    2006-02-01

    Pelagic crustacean zooplankton were collected from 336 Norwegian lakes covering a wide range of latitude, altitude, lake area, mean depth, production (as chlorophyll a), and fish community structure. Mean zooplankton species richness during the ice...

  12. LIMNETIC ZOOPLANKTON OF LAKES IN KATMAI NATIONAL MONUMENT, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The limnetic zooplankton in lakes of the Naknek River system in southwestern Alaska was sampled extensively during 1962-63. The numerically dominant forms of limnetic zooplankton were Diaptomus, Cyclops, Daphnia, Bosmina, coregoni, Kellicotia, and Conochilus. Some littoral and be...

  13. Short communication Continuous plankton recorder underestimates zooplankton abundance

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Short communication Continuous plankton recorder underestimates zooplankton abundance Joachim W online 25 September 2012 Keywords: Mesozooplankton North Sea Continuous plankton recorder A comparison between monthly mean Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) data and zooplankton data caught during winter

  14. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, J.W.; Cloern, J.E.; Hutchinson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18-30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l. is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection. Large numbers (>106 m-3) of net microzooplankton (>64 ??m), in cluding the rotifer Synchaeta sp. and three species of tintinnid ciliates, occur in the South Bay and in the seaward northern reach where salinity exceeds about 5-10??? Maximum densities of these microzooplankton are associated with high concentrations of chlorophyll. Meroplankton (of gastropods, bivalves, barnacles, and polychaetes) constitute a large fraction of zooplankton biomass in the South Bay during winter-spring and in the northern reach during summer-fall. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978-1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  15. Mathematics and physics Biology Modelling a population Immunology Modelling T cell immunology

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Mathematics and physics Biology Modelling a population Immunology Modelling T cell immunology;Mathematics and physics Biology Modelling a population Immunology Mathematics is a special science! #12;Mathematics and physics Biology Modelling a population Immunology Classical mechanics (Newton) Figure

  16. On smoothing trends in population index modeling.

    PubMed

    Mazzetta, Chiara; Brooks, Steve; Freeman, Stephen N

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we consider the U.K. Common Birds Census counts and their use in monitoring bird abundance. We use a state-space modeling approach within a Bayesian framework to describe population level trends over time and contribute to the alert system used by the British Trust for Ornithology. We account for potential overdispersion and excess zero counts by modeling the observation process with a zero-inflated negative binomial, while the system process is described by second-order polynomial growth models. In order to provide a biological motivation for the amount of smoothing applied to the observed series the system variance is related to the demographic characteristics of the species, so as to help the specification of its prior distribution. In particular, the available information on productivity and survival is used to formulate prior expectations on annual percentage changes in the population level and then used to constrain the variance of the system process. We discuss an example of how to interpret alternative choices for the degree of smoothing and how these relate to the classification of species, over time, into conservation lists. PMID:17501945

  17. THE FERTILIZATION OF GREAT CENTRAL LAKE II. ZOOPLANKTON STANDING STOCK

    E-print Network

    THE FERTILIZATION OF GREAT CENTRAL LAKE II. ZOOPLANKTON STANDING STOCK R. J. LEBRASSEUR AND O. D. KENNEDY' ABSTRACT The regional, vertical, and seasonal abundance of the dominant zooplankton species were, and Diap- tomus oregonensis were the most numerically abundant zooplankton species. The introduction

  18. eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    eschweizerbartxxx Long-term zooplankton size in L. Kinneret 1 DOI: 10-term zooplankton body size and species changes in a subtropical lake: implications for lake management K. David figures and 3 tables Abstract: Analysis of long-term (1970­2002) zooplankton body sizes in Lake Kinneret

  19. Impact of turbulence on riverine zooplankton: a mesocosm experiment

    E-print Network

    Thorp, James H.

    Impact of turbulence on riverine zooplankton: a mesocosm experiment TAMARA D. SLUSS*, GARY A. COBBS. With increases in river discharge over time and space, zooplankton generally encounter increased turbulence diversity and densities. Of these factors, the role of turbulence on the distribution of zooplankton

  20. COHERENCE IN ZOOPLANKTON OF A LARGE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC ECOSYSTEM1

    E-print Network

    COHERENCE IN ZOOPLANKTON OF A LARGE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC ECOSYSTEM1 K SHERMAN,> J. R GREEN,' J. R. GOULET,' AND L. EJSYMONP ABSTRACT Mesoscale measurements of zooplankton of the continental shelf offthe the apparent decline in zooplankton over the 30 years reported for the North Atlantic and North Sea

  1. A new multiple angle scattering apparatus for fish and zooplankton

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    A new multiple angle scattering apparatus for fish and zooplankton studies Paul L. D. Roberts ability to discriminate between zooplankton, also also size fish bladders. The key idea has been constructed an tested with locally collected zooplankton. The multiple angle scatter shows

  2. Multiple angle acoustic classification of zooplankton Paul L. D. Robertsa

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Multiple angle acoustic classification of zooplankton Paul L. D. Robertsa and Jules S. Jaffe Marine of multiple angle acoustic scatter to discriminate between two taxa of fluid-like zooplankton, copepods of fluid-like zooplankton using simple observation geometries. © 2007 Acoustical Society of America. DOI

  3. Zooplankton avoidance of a profiled open-path fluorometer

    E-print Network

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    Zooplankton avoidance of a profiled open-path fluorometer KELLY J. BENOIT-BIRD1*, MARK A. MOLINE2 Harris Significant avoidance of acoustically detected zooplankton was observed in response to a profiling instrument package. Avoidance decreased acoustic scatter- ing from zooplankton averaged over the entire

  4. Spatial trends and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in marine zooplankton from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Paul F; O'Hara, Todd M; Teixeira, Camilla; Backus, Sean; Fisk, Aaron T; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-03-01

    Planktonic copepods (Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus; n = 37) and water (n = 19) were collected to examine the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic. The rank order of total OC (sigma OC) group concentrations in Calanus samples was toxaphene > or = sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) > sigma hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH) > sigma DDT > sigma chlordane-related compounds (CHLOR) > sigma chlorobenzenes (ClBz). The dominant analyte was alpha-HCH in all water and zooplankton samples. The most abundant toxaphene congener in water and zooplankton samples was the hexachlorobornane B6-923. Organochlorine contaminant group concentrations in Alaskan zooplankton and water samples were lower than those in samples collected from sites in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Comparison of PCB and toxaphene congener profiles in zooplankton and water samples suggests that biotransformation by cytochrome P-4502B isozymes is low in Calanus, and limited phase I metabolism may occur. The log relationship of bioaccumulation factor (log BAF) versus octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) relationship was near 1:1 for OCs within the log Kow range of 3 to 6. A curvilinear model provided a better relationship between these two variables when OC compounds with log Kow > 6 were included. These results suggest that hydrophobic OCs (log Kow 3-6) in Calanus species are at equilibrium with the water concentrations and that physical partitioning, rather than biotransformation, is the major factor governing OC profiles in marine zooplankton. PMID:11883415

  5. Temperature sensitivity of vertical distributions of zooplankton and planktivorous fish in a stratified lake.

    PubMed

    Helland, Ingeborg Palm; Freyhof, Jörg; Kasprzak, Peter; Mehner, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated that temporal mismatches between interacting populations may be caused by consequences of global warming, for example rising spring temperatures. However, little is known about the impact of spatial temperature gradients, their vulnerability to global warming, and their importance for interacting populations. Here, we studied the vertical distribution of two planktivorous fish species (Coregonus spp.) and their zooplankton prey in the deep, oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany). The night-time vertical centre of gravity both of the fish populations and of two of their prey groups, daphnids and copepods, were significantly correlated to the seasonally varying water temperature between March and December 2005. During the warmer months, fish and zooplankton occurred closer to the surface of the lake and experienced higher temperatures. The Coregonus populations differed significantly in their centre of gravity; hence, also, the temperature experienced by the populations was different. Likewise, daphnids and copepods occurred in different water depths and hence experienced different temperatures at least during the summer months. We conclude that any changes in the vertical temperature gradient of the lake as a result of potential future global warming may impact the two fish populations differently, and may shape interaction strength and timing between fish and their zooplankton prey. PMID:17024386

  6. Intercomparison of six Mediterranean zooplankton time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berline, Léo; Siokou-Frangou, Ioanna; Marasovi?, Ivona; Vidjak, Olja; Fernández de Puelles, M.a. Luz; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Fonda-Umani, Serena; Conversi, Alessandra; Garcia-Comas, Carmen; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Stemmann, Lars; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    We analyzed and compared Mediterranean mesozooplankton time series spanning 1957-2006 from six coastal stations in the Balearic, Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, North and Middle Adriatic and Aegean Sea. Our analysis focused on fluctuations of major zooplankton taxonomic groups and their relation with environmental and climatic variability. Average seasonal cycles and interannual trends were derived. Stations spanned a large range of trophic status from oligotrophic to moderately eutrophic. Intra-station analyses showed (1) coherent multi-taxa trends off Villefranche sur mer that diverge from the previous results found at species level, (2) in Baleares, covariation of zooplankton and water masses as a consequence of the boundary hydrographic regime in the middle Western Mediterranean, (3) decrease in trophic status and abundance of some taxonomic groups off Naples, and (4) off Athens, an increase of zooplankton abundance and decrease in chlorophyll possibly caused by reduction of anthropogenic nutrient input, increase of microbial components, and more efficient grazing control on phytoplankton. (5) At basin scale, the analysis of temperature revealed significant positive correlations between Villefranche, Trieste and Naples for annual and/or winter average, and synchronous abrupt cooling and warming events centered in 1987 at the same three sites. After correction for multiple comparisons, we found no significant correlations between climate indices and local temperature or zooplankton abundance, nor between stations for zooplankton abundance, therefore we suggest that for these coastal stations local drivers (climatic, anthropogenic) are dominant and that the link between local and larger scale of climate should be investigated further if we are to understand zooplankton fluctuations.

  7. SIMULATING TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND ZOOPLANKTON ON THE INNER OREGON SHELF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to use a numerical model to examine the linkages between physical processes and temporal variability in the plankton dynamics in a coastal upwelling system. We used a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model coupled to a two-dimensional circulation...

  8. Population viability analysis for Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori): A stochastic population model for local populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Burkhart; Elisabeth Slooten

    2003-01-01

    Mortality of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in gill?net fisheries is a threat to local populations throughout its range. This population viability analysis extends previous work by exploring a wider range of fishing levels and population growth rates, by incorporating year?to?year and environmental variability and by reporting results for smaller population units. Ten of the 16 populations are likely to continue

  9. Exploring Physical and Biological Mechanisms for Zooplankton Retention in the Estuarine Transition Zone of a Riverine Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, R. D.; Monismith, S. G.

    2002-12-01

    In this study, we use a coupled three-dimensional physical-biological model to investigate zooplankton retention in the estuarine transition zone (ETZ) of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE). Varying from well-mixed to partially stratified, the hydrodynamic environment of the SLE is defined by a large tidal range, strong salinity gradients, a large freshwater river flow, and complex bathymetry. The physical-biological model used for this study consisted of two parts: a circulation model and a zooplankton transport model. The circulation model is a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic model (TRIM3D) driven by the wind, tides, and freshwater outflow. The zooplankton transport model is a three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking model which simulates zooplankton movement using velocity fields derived from the three-dimensional circulation model. The circulation model is calibrated using field data such as salinity, pressure, and current time series from different locations in the ETZ. The transport and distribution of three zooplankton taxa, non-native zebra mussel veligers, resident mysids, and larval smelt, were simulated for this study. By simulating these three taxa, we were able to investigate the effect of a range of swimming speeds on zooplankton retention in the ETZ. We present the results of simulations exploring the efficiency of tidal vertical migration, a commonly described biological retention mechanism that is characterized by zooplankton migration up to the surface on flood and down to the bottom on ebb. Tidal vertical migration, also known as selective tidal stream transport, was investigated for several swimming speeds and endogenous rhythms.

  10. Sensitivity Equations for a Size-Structured Population Model

    E-print Network

    -structured population models. The growth and mortality rates of the shrimp population are affected by severalSensitivity Equations for a Size-Structured Population Model H. T. Banks, Stacey L. Ernstberger and Shuhua Hu Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695

  11. ZOOPLANKTON NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NURSERY POND FERTILIZATION EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the utilization of natural productivity (i.e. zooplankton) by catfish fry. Although fry and fingerlings survive on prepared diets, many nutrients acquired by fry in ponds are most likely derived from natural food consumption. Experiments were conducted to answer ...

  12. Cyanobacteria bloom: selective filter for zooplankton?

    PubMed

    Mello, N A S T; Maia-Barbosa, P M

    2015-01-01

    The Ibirité reservoir is an urban and eutrophic environment, with regular occurrences of cyanobacteria blooms. The reservoir is warm monomict and remains stratified most of the year, circulating in the dry season (winter). During the hydrological cycle of October/07 to October/08 there were four scenarios with different environmental conditions, which influenced the structure of the zooplankton community, as confirmed in a previous study. Changes in the zooplankton community structure between the scenarios were studied, aiming at analyzing the stability and persistence of this community. The Spearman's coefficient of correlation was used to measure the stability; the persistence was evaluated through a cluster analysis and changes in community composition were estimated by the "temporal" ? diversity index. Considering the distribution patterns of abundance, the community was stable only in the transition between scenarios 1 and 2 (n = 30, r = 0.71, p = 0.00001), when there were no cyanobacteria blooms. The persistence of zooplankton between the scenarios was low, showing a distinct species composition for each scenario. The highest variations in species composition, observed by the values of temporal ? diversity index, were the transitions between scenarios 3-0 (1.45) and 0-1 (1.05), and the lowest variations occurred in the transition between scenarios 1-2 (0.57). The results suggest that the cyanobacteria blooms at Ibirité reservoir are be acting as "selective filters", and are, thus, disturbances with sufficient ability to change the structure of the zooplankton community. PMID:25945634

  13. A Review: Potentiality of Zooplankton as Bioindicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zannatul Ferdous; A. K. M. Muktadir

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This review tended to summarize some recent research on zooplankton as bioindicator in India and some other countries o f the world. Approach: These researches were mainly on fresh water bodies. Results: Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis were done by Shannon diversity index (H'), Evenness index (J), S pecies Richness index (S) and Saprobic index. In most

  14. Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARS-ANDERS HANSSON; SUSANNE GUSTAFSSON; KARIN RENGEFORS; LINA BOMARK

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Toxic algal blooms widely affect our use of water resources both with respect to drinking water and recreation. However, it is not only humans, but also organisms living in freshwater and marine ecosystems that may be affected by algal toxins. 2. In order to assess if cyanobacterial toxins affect the composition of natural zooplankton communities, we quantified the

  15. SENSITIVITY OF ZOOPLANKTON INDICATORS IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes an approach for assessing and selecting ecological indicators for regional monitoring of northeastern US lakes. We analyze the components of variance for indicators of zooplankton richness and abundance in the context of the spatial and temporal sampling des...

  16. Linking Dynamical and Population Genetic Models of Persistent Viral Infection

    E-print Network

    Kelly, John K.; Williamson, Scott; Orive, Maria E.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Holt, Robert D.

    2003-07-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework to link dynamical and population genetic models of persistent viral infection. This linkage is useful because, while the dynamical and population genetic theories have developed ...

  17. Correlations between zooplankton assemblages and environmental factors in the downtown rivers of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Na; Li, Erchao; Feng, Dexiang; Xiao, Baicai; Wei, Chaoqun; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Liqiao

    2014-11-01

    Most urban rivers play an important role in urban flood control and drainage in China, but pollution is fast becoming an issue of greater importance in water management. In this study, 63 zooplankton species were recorded in four downtown rivers in Shanghai between November 2007 and October 2008. Of these, 44 species belonged to the Rotifera, 13 to Cladocera, and six to Copepoda. The three most frequently occurring zooplankton ( Brachionus calyciflorus, Microcyclops leuckarti, and Asplanchna priodonta) accounted for 80.00%, 76.84%, and 53.68%, respectively. Rotifera were found to be dominant, comprising 86.26% of total zooplankton, while cladoceran and copepod abundance amounted to 5.08% and 8.67%, respectively. Water temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen were of the greatest significance in the occurrence of zooplankton. Two species ( Schmackeria forbesi and Lepadella ovalis) were notably more sensitive to environmental factors such as salinity and electrical conductivity than other species. The population size and community were inversely correlated with the increasing nutrient levels of the four rivers, suggesting that the water quality of the four rivers had been gradually recovering from a severe eutrophic state and that water conditions of the rivers had been gradually improved.

  18. Modeling Populations and Habitats for Kirtland's Warbler

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy L. Lewis, Ph.D.

    Conserving endangered species often requires a balancing of the biological needs of endangered populations against the human desires for economic and recreational opportunities. At least some biological aspects of every species are poorly understood, some do have large data sets that can be difficult to interpret. All are confounded by human interactions. Computational science allows visualization, analysis, and interpretation of large data sets in ways that can inform these complex biological and environmental problems. This module will allow students to explore one of the fundamental paradigms of conservation biology, island biogeography, and apply that theoretical ecological concept to a real-world problem by creating models for habitat management. Specifically this module reviews island biogeography as it applies to forest fragmentation in northern Michigan and uses the related concepts to explore applications to preservation of the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). Students will learn fundamental ecological concepts, visualize and analyze large spatial data sets of an endangered species using a free but sophisticated geographic information system (GIS), and develop an environmental impact statement formatted output to explain recommendations based on their analysis of the data and developed models.

  19. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Massive stars can be considered as cosmic engines. With their high luminosities, strong stellar winds and violent deaths they drive the evolution of galaxies through-out the history of the universe. Despite the importance of massive stars, their evolution is still poorly understood. Two major issues have plagued evolutionary models of massive stars until today: mixing and mass loss On the main sequence, the effects of mass loss remain limited in the considered mass and metallicity range, this thesis concentrates on the role of mixing in massive stars. This thesis approaches this problem just on the cross road between observations and simulations. The main question: Do evolutionary models of single stars, accounting for the effects of rotation, reproduce the observed properties of real stars. In particular we are interested if the evolutionary models can reproduce the surface abundance changes during the main-sequence phase. To constrain our models we build a population synthesis model for the sample of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive stars, for which star-formation history and rotational velocity distribution are well constrained. We consider the four main regions of the Hunter diagram. Nitrogen un-enriched slow rotators and nitrogen enriched fast rotators that are predicted by theory. Nitrogen enriched slow rotators and nitrogen unenriched fast rotators that are not predicted by our model. We conclude that currently these comparisons are not sufficient to verify the theory of rotational mixing. Physical processes in addition to rotational mixing appear necessary to explain the stars in the later two regions. The chapters of this Thesis have been published in the following Journals: Ch. 2: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones'', I. Brott, S. E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer, A. de Koter, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, C. Trundle, J.S. Vink submitted to Astronomy & Astrop hysics Ch. 3: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars: Rotation and Nitrogen Enrichment as the Key to Understanding Massive Star Evolution'', I.Hunter, I.Brott, D.J. Lennon, N. Langer, C. Trundle, A. de Koter, C.J. Evans and R.S.I. Ryans The Astrophysical Journal, 2008, 676, L29-L32 Ch. 4: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars: Constraints on Stellar Evolution from the Chemical Compositions of Rapidly Rotating Galactic and Magellanic Cloud B-type Stars '', I. Hunter, I. Brott, N. Langer, D.J. Lennon, P.L. Dufton, I.D. Howarth R.S.I. Ryan, C. Trundle, C. Evans, A. de Koter and S.J. Smartt Published in Astronomy & Astropysics, 2009, 496, 841- 853 Ch. 5: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars II: Simulating a Population of LMC early B-type Stars as a Test of Rotational Mixing '', I. Brott, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, A. de Koter, N. Langer, P. L. Dufton, M. Cantiello, C. Trundle, D. J. Lennon, S.E. de Mink, S.-C. Yoon, P. Anders submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics Ch 6: ``The Nature of B Supergiants: Clues From a Steep Drop in Rotation Rates at 22 000 K - The possibility of Bi-stability braking'', Jorick S. Vink, I. Brott, G. Graefener, N. Langer, A. de Koter, D.J. Lennon Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2010, 512, L7

  20. Evaluating habitat as a surrogate for population viability using a spatially explicit population model.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H

    2004-06-01

    Because data for conservation planning are always limited, surrogates are often substituted for intractable measurements such as species richness or population viability. We examined the ability of habitat quality to act as a surrogate for population performance for both Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). We compared simple measures of habitat quality to estimates of population growth rates obtained from a spatially explicit model of population dynamics. We found that habitat quality was a relatively poor predictor of simulated population growth rates for several reasons. First, a relatively small proportion of the potential habitat for each species served as population sources in our simulations--15% for Red-shouldered Hawks and 2% for Goshawks. Second, when habitat quality correctly predicted demographic sources on the landscape, it consistently underestimated the contribution of these areas to the population. In areas where habitat quality correctly anticipated the presence of demographic sinks, we found no useful quantitative relationship between the two measures. Our simulation model captured the influence of habitat quality on the hawk populations, but it also incorporated interactions between dispersing individuals and landscape patterns. Thus, the discrepancies we observed likely reflected the influence of forest fragmentation and the spatial arrangement of forest patches on the populations. We conclude that simple measures of habitat quality will often be poor surrogates for population persistence, but that spatially explicit population models can help inform the development of better indices. PMID:15141448

  1. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  2. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth O. Coyle; Alexei I. Pinchuk; Lisa B. Eisner; Jeffrey M. Napp

    2008-01-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources

  3. [Causes of the technogenic changes in a freshwater zooplankton community].

    PubMed

    Kalinkina, N M; Kulikova, T P; Morozov, A K; Vlasova, L I

    2003-01-01

    The situation in water bodies of northwestern Karelia in 1992-2001 was analyzed. As a result of waste discharge from the mining and ore-processing works, weakly mineralized hydrocarbonate-calcium waters changed into highly mineralized waters with the prevalence of potassium ions and sulfates. The total abundance and biomass of zooplanktonic communities decreased. Using the methods of principal components and partial correlations, differences in the responses of zooplankters to mineral pollution were revealed. Typical inhabitants of northern water bodies decreased in numbers, and the species Eudiaptomus gracilis Sars and Heterocope appendiculata Sars (Calanoida) disappeared. On the other hand, eurybiontic species prevailing in water bodies with higher mineralization manifested a positive reaction to the increase in the contents of dissolved mineral compounds. Toxicological experiments made it possible to estimate the survival threshold for E. gracilis and H. appendiculata: the populations of these crustaceans in the polluted water body perished when potassium concentration in water exceeded 50 mg/l. PMID:14994480

  4. AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODEL OF COTTUS POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We explored population dynamics of a southern Appalachian population of Cottus bairdi using a spatially-explicit, individual-based model. The model follows daily growth, mortality, and spawning of individuals as a function of flow and temperature. We modeled movement of juveniles...

  5. Stability in a Nonlinear Population Maturation Model Stephane Mischler

    E-print Network

    Mischler, Stéphane

    Stability in a Nonlinear Population Maturation Model St´ephane Mischler Laboratoire de Math 60637, USA November 26, 2004 Abstract. We consider models for population structured by maturation/maturation which is also illustrated on the simpler McKendrick-Von Foerster model. The nonlinear variants

  6. Standing stock and estimated production rates of phytoplankton and zooplankton in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Durbin; E. G. Durbin

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal changes in phytoplankton biomass and production, total zooplankton biomass, and biomass and potential production\\u000a rates of the two dominant copepods, Acartia hudsonica (formerly called Acartia clausi) and Acartia tonsa are described for several stations in Narragansett Bay, R.I. Plankton in the bay behaved as a single population with simultaneous\\u000a changes occurring at the upper bay (Station 5) and the

  7. Spatial Interaction Among Nontoxic Phytoplankton, Toxic Phytoplankton, and Zooplankton: Emergence in Space and Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shovonlal Roy

    2008-01-01

    In homogeneous environments, by overturning the possibility of competitive exclusion among phytoplankton species, and by regulating\\u000a the dynamics of overall plankton population, toxin-producing phytoplankton (TPP) potentially help in maintaining plankton\\u000a diversity—a result shown recently. Here, I explore the competitive effects of TPP on phytoplankton and zooplankton species\\u000a undergoing spatial movements in the subsurface water. The spatial interactions among the species

  8. Are blue-green algae a suitable food for zooplankton? An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. de Bernardi; G. Giussani

    1990-01-01

    One of the reasons suggested to explain the dominance of blue-greens in eutrophic lakes is that they are not used as food\\u000a by zooplankton; and even when ingested, they are poorly utilized.\\u000a \\u000a An increase in herbivores might be the expected result of biomanipulation of the aquatic food chain. This attempt at controlling\\u000a the algae population is, however, destined to fail

  9. A simple mathematical model of rodent population cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dekker

    1975-01-01

    A simple mathematical rate equation model is presented, which describes the observed cycles in rodent populations. The population is assumed to consist of two different genotypes. One type is called “emigrants”, having a high reproductive rate and reacting on the stress due to dense populations by dispersal. The other type may be referred to as “tolerants”, being insensitive to overpopulation

  10. Dynamic models of infectious diseases as regulators of population sizes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Mena-Lorcat; Herbert W. Hethcote

    1992-01-01

    Five SIRS epidemiological models for populations of varying size are considered. The incidences of infection are given by mass action terms involving the number of infectives and either the number of susceptibles or the fraction of the population which is susceptible. When the population dynamics are immigration and deaths, thresholds are found which determine whether the disease dies out or

  11. Some superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques

    E-print Network

    Takemura, Akimichi

    - nomial distribution, statistical disclosure control 1 Introduction The number of the population uniquesSome superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques Akimichi Takemura in the population is of great importance in evaluating the disclosure risk of a microdata set. We approach

  12. A Nonlinear Age and Maturity Structured Model of Population Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Dyson; Rosanna Villella-Bressan; Glenn Webb

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear model of age and maturity structured population dynamics is analyzed. The population is structured by age and maturity of the individuals and the nonlinearity in the equations corresponds to density dependent limitation of population growth. The existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions are studied.

  13. Landscape Modeling of Lygus hesperus Populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus is a key pest in several of the 200 crops grown in the geographically distinct San Joaquin Valley. Spring weather patterns drive population build-up on host-plants. Habitat maps were created from survey sites in cropping regions of Kern County, CA. Population simulations were used to predict a...

  14. World population growth—a general model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Boughey

    1974-01-01

    National populations currently fall into two categories, those in or closely approaching a stationary “K” phase, those still in an “r” phase of exponential growth. Throughout human history the “K” phase, in which populations match their available resource bases, has generally predominated. The exploitive “r” phase has intermittently occurred, and has then normally featured some revolutionary improvement in extractive capacity,

  15. Measurements of acoustic scattering from zooplankton and oceanic microstructure using a broadband echosounder

    E-print Network

    Measurements of acoustic scattering from zooplankton and oceanic microstructure using a broadband. Measurements of acoustic scattering from zooplankton and oceanic microstructure using a broadband echosounder scattering from oceanic microstructure and zooplankton across a broad range of frequencies can reduce

  16. Power-plant-related estuarine zooplankton studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, L.E.; Olson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    In-plant studies examining the effects of entrainment on zooplankton and field studies examining zooplankton abundance, composition, and distribution in the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant have been conducted from 1974 to the present. The evolution of these studies, with particular emphasis on design and statistical treatment, is discussed. Entrainment study designs evolved from discrete sampling episodes at 4-h intervals over 24 h to a time-series sampling design in which sampling took place every 30 min over 24 and 48-h periods. The near-field study design and samping methods have included replicated net tows, using 0.5-m nets, and replicated and nonreplicated pumped sampling, using a high-speed centrifugal pump. 16 refs.

  17. Zooplankton Feeding on Differentially Labelled Algae and Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Gophen; Ben Zion Cavari; Thomas Berman

    1974-01-01

    HERBIVOROUS zooplankton can graze on planktonic algae, bacteria and detrital particles1. Selective feeding of planktonic crustaceans on algae has been described and attributed to passive size selection by filtration or raptorial feeding1. The ingestion and utilisation of algae, bacteria and detritus by zooplankton has also been noted2-6 but as yet there have been few reports concerning the behaviour of zooplankton

  18. Zooplankton distribution and dynamics in a temperate shallow estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sónia Cotrim Marques; M. A. Pardal; M. J. Pereira; F. Gonçalves; J. C. Marques; U. M. Azeiteiro

    2007-01-01

    The spatial, temporal and tidal dynamics of the zooplanktonic community of the Mondego estuary was studied from January 2003\\u000a to 2004. The monthly sampling procedure included the measurement of hydrological parameters (salinity, temperature, Secchi\\u000a transparency, chlorophyll a and nutrients) and the collection of zooplankton with a Bongo net of 335 ?m mesh size. Zooplankton composition, distribution,\\u000a density, biomass and diversity

  19. Method for Harvesting Large Quantities of Zooplankton from Hatchery Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry G. Graves; J. C. Morrow

    1988-01-01

    A method for harvesting live zooplankton with a modified propellor-lift pump was tested in nine 0.1-acre unfertilized hatchery ponds. As judged by live-weight estimates of zooplankton harvested, collecting zooplankton at night with a light suspended over the pump intake was more effective than collecting them at night without the light or during the day. This method should be convenient and

  20. The zooplankton of the forth estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. L. Taylor

    1993-01-01

    Regular samples at nine stations ranging from fresh water to fully marine conditions in the Forth Estuary and Firth, on the\\u000a East coast of Scotland, allow a description of the community structure, composition and distribution of the zooplankton over\\u000a an eighteen month period. A transition gradient in the occurrence of species along the length of the estuary was clearly identified

  1. Simplified evacuation model for estimating mitigation of early population exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    The application of a simple evacuation model to the prediction of expected population exposures following acute releases of activity to the atmosphere is described. The evacuation model of Houston is coupled with a normalized Gaussian dispersion calculation to estimate the time integral of population exposure. The methodology described can be applied to specific sites to determine the expected reduction of population exposures due to evacuation.

  2. Uncertainties in the Modeling of Old Stellar Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephane Charlot; Guy Worthey; Alessandro Bressan

    1996-01-01

    We compare three recent models of the spectral evolution of stellar populations to assess the origin of serious discrepancies in the colors predicted for ≳ 1 Gyr old populations of the same input age and metallicity. To isolate the source of these discrepancies, we investigate separately the two main characteristics of each model: the underlying stellar evolution prescription and the

  3. A Mesoscale Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with

    E-print Network

    O'Leary, Michael

    ' & $ % A Mesoscale Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with Dynamic Fitness Mike O'Leary Towson University Judith R. Miller Georgetown University 1 #12;A mesoscale diffusion model in population genetics that dominance and epistasis are absent. April 28, 2005 Mike O'Leary and Judith Miller Slide 2 #12;A mesoscale

  4. Stability in a Nonlinear Population Maturation Model St ephane Mischler

    E-print Network

    Ryzhik, Lenya

    Stability in a Nonlinear Population Maturation Model St#19;ephane Mischler Laboratoire de Math#19 University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637, USA May 14, 2002 Abstract. We consider models for population structured by maturation/maturation speed pro- posed by Rotenberg. It is a variant of transport equations

  5. Allee effects, extinctions, and chaotic transients in simple population models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian J. Schreiber

    2003-01-01

    Discrete time single species models with overcompensating density dependence and an Allee effect due to predator satiation and mating limitation are investigated. The models exhibit four behaviors: persistence for all initial population densities, bistability in which a population persists for intermediate initial densities and otherwise goes extinct, extinction for all initial densities, and essential extinction in which “almost every” initial

  6. Interpolation solution in generalized stochastic exponential population growth model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khodabin; K. Maleknejad; M. Rostami; M. Nouri

    In this paper, first we consider model of exponential population growth, then we assume that the growth rate at time t is not completely definite and it depends on some random environment effects. For this case the stochastic exponential population growth model is introduced. Also we assume that the growth rate at time t depends on many different random environment

  7. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and (iv) capacity to accommodate environmental variation in space as well as through time. Biomass dynamics provide a common currency linking behavioural, population and food web ecology. 4. Metaphysiological biomass loss accounting provides a conceptual framework more conducive for projecting and interpreting the population consequences of climatic shifts and human transformations of habitats than standard modelling approaches. PMID:21644974

  8. Population models for passerine birds: structure, parameterization, and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noon, B.R.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Population models have great potential as management tools, as they use infonnation about the life history of a species to summarize estimates of fecundity and survival into a description of population change. Models provide a framework for projecting future populations, determining the effects of management decisions on future population dynamics, evaluating extinction probabilities, and addressing a variety of questions of ecological and evolutionary interest. Even when insufficient information exists to allow complete identification of the model, the modelling procedure is useful because it forces the investigator to consider the life history of the species when determining what parameters should be estimated from field studies and provides a context for evaluating the relative importance of demographic parameters. Models have been little used in the study of the population dynamics of passerine birds because of: (1) widespread misunderstandings of the model structures and parameterizations, (2) a lack of knowledge of life histories of many species, (3) difficulties in obtaining statistically reliable estimates of demographic parameters for most passerine species, and (4) confusion about functional relationships among demographic parameters. As a result, studies of passerine demography are often designed inappropriately and fail to provide essential data. We review appropriate models for passerine bird populations and illustrate their possible uses in evaluating the effects of management or other environmental influences on population dynamics. We identify environmental influences on population dynamics. We identify parameters that must be estimated from field data, briefly review existing statistical methods for obtaining valid estimates, and evaluate the present status of knowledge of these parameters.

  9. Comparison of different spectral population models

    E-print Network

    Mina Koleva; Philippe Prugniel; Pierre Ocvirk; Damien Le Borgne; Igor Chilingarian; Caroline Soubiran

    2007-03-06

    We have compared simple stellar populations (SSPs) generated with different population synthesis tools: BC03, Vazdekis and Pegase.HR and different stellar libraries: ELODIE3.1, SteLib and MILES. We find that BC03/SteLib SSPs are biased toward solar metallicity, however Pegase.HR/ELODIE3.1 and Vazdekis/MILES are extremely consistent. The extensive coverage of the space of atmospheric parameters in the large stellar libraries allows precise synthesis for a large range of ages (0.1 .. 10 Gyr) and metallicities (-2 .. +0.4 dex) limited by the quality of the determination of stellar parameters (like temperature scale of the giants).

  10. Effects of piscivore-mediated habitat use on growth, diet and zooplankton consumption of roach: an individual-based modelling approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANZ H OLKER; S. H AERTEL; S ILKE S TEINER; T HOMAS M EHNER

    SUMMARY 1. We used an individual based modelling approach for roach to (i) simulate observed diel habitat shifts between the pelagic and littoral zone of a mesotrophic lake; (ii) analyse the relevance of these habitat shifts for the diet, activity costs and growth of roach; and (iii) quantify the effects of a hypothetical piscivore-mediated (presence of pikeperch) confinement of roach

  11. Calibration of the NEMURO nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton food web model to a coastal ecosystem: Evaluation of an automated calibration approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Rose; Bernard A. Megrey; Francisco E. Werner; Dan M. Ware

    2007-01-01

    A one spatial-box version of the NEMURO oceanic lower trophic food web model was applied to a coastal upwelling environment typified by West Coast Vancouver Island. We used both ad hoc calibration and the automatic calibration program PEST. NEMURO was first calibrated to 1 year of monthly field data using the usual ad hoc approach of trial and error changes

  12. Augmenting superpopulation capture-recapture models with population assignment data.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi; Pollock, Kenneth; Nichols, James; Waser, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Ecologists applying capture-recapture models to animal populations sometimes have access to additional information about individuals' populations of origin (e.g., information about genetics, stable isotopes, etc.). Tests that assign an individual's genotype to its most likely source population are increasingly used. Here we show how to augment a superpopulation capture-recapture model with such information. We consider a single superpopulation model without age structure, and split each entry probability into separate components due to births in situ and immigration. We show that it is possible to estimate these two probabilities separately. We first consider the case of perfect information about population of origin, where we can distinguish individuals born in situ from immigrants with certainty. Then we consider the more realistic case of imperfect information, where we use genetic or other information to assign probabilities to each individual's origin as in situ or outside the population. We use a resampling approach to impute the true population of origin from imperfect assignment information. The integration of data on population of origin with capture-recapture data allows us to determine the contributions of immigration and in situ reproduction to the growth of the population, an issue of importance to ecologists. We illustrate our new models with capture-recapture and genetic assignment data from a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats?Dipodomys spectabilis?in Arizona. PMID:21155745

  13. Modelling targets for anticancer drug control optimisation in physiologically structured cell population models

    E-print Network

    cell populations Solutions of linear models, such as McKendrick's, exhibit exponential growth. In Eq population models Frédérique Billy , Jean Clairambault , Olivier Fercoq , Tommaso Lorenzi , Alexander Lorz cell populations and occurrence of resistance to drugs in cancer cell populations. Depending

  14. A population growth model forced by random, episodic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    As a first step to quantify and better understand the nature of thresholds in ecosystems, a prototype population dynamics model has been developed and analyzed for the case where a population is subjected to random, episodic disturbances. This model assumes that disturbances occur at random times (following a Poisson event process) and have random magnitudes that determine the fraction of the population that survives the disturbance. Disturbances may be events such as fire, drought, disease or infestation. Between disturbances, the model assumes that population growth is deterministic and can be modeled by an exponential or logistic equation. The model is characterized by time, t, and four other parameters: the initial population size, N0, the per capita growth rate, r, the expected number of disturbance events per unit time, ? , and ? = E(X), where X is the random fraction (between 0 and 1) of the population that survives a given disturbance. What is nice about this simple, stochastic model is that it is mathematically tractable and clearly exhibits threshold behavior that can be computed explicitly in terms of the model parameters. In particular, the long-term behavior of the model is characterized by an easily-computed indicator that is a function of the model parameters. Whenever the model parameters are such that this indicator is less than zero, the expected value of the random population size declines over time and is unsustainable. But whenever it is greater than zero, the expected population size grows, despite the random disturbances. The case where the indicator is zero therefore represents a type of critical threshold for this problem that determines whether or not the population is likely to survive the disturbances. A number of analytic results will be presented along with numerical results from a large number of simulations.

  15. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. PMID:24998972

  16. Genealogy and subpopulation differentiation under various models of population structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilde M. Wilkinson-Herbots

    1998-01-01

    .  ?The structured coalescent is used to calculate some quantities relating to the genealogy of a pair of homologous genes and\\u000a to the degree of subpopulation differentiation, under a range of models of subdivided populations and assuming the infinite\\u000a alleles model of neutral mutation. The classical island and stepping-stone models of population structure are considered,\\u000a as well as two less symmetric

  17. A stochastic computer model for simulating population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Sonleitner

    1977-01-01

    Summary  A model is described for investigating the interactions of age-specific birth and death rates, age distribution and density-governing\\u000a factors determining the growth form of single-species populations. It employs Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the births\\u000a and deaths of individuals while density-governing factors are represented by simple algebraic equations relating survival\\u000a and fecundity to population density. In all respects the model’s

  18. Competition models with niche for squirrel population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rossi, Alessandra; Ferrua, Ilaria; Perracchione, Emma; Ruatta, Giulia; Venturino, Ezio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we investigate squirrel competition models. More precisely, at first we consider a competition model between red native and grey exotic squirrels, then a model with competition among red native, red indigenous and grey exotic squirrels. We assume that a part of red squirrels can hide in a niche. By adding this hypothesis, we analize if, independently from initial conditions, the grey exotic squirrel population could be prevented from invading the ecosystem and displacing the native populations.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability. PMID:24551103

  20. Thermal stress studies on selected zooplankton species and an isopod

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, D.L.; Cheper, N.J.

    1980-06-01

    Laboratory determination of temperature stress levels and assessment of their ecological consequences was carried out for selected zooplankton species to develop data for ecological impact associated with industrial use of natural water for cooling. An included literature search revealed substantial fish and benthos data, but little on stress temperature effects on zooplankton. Information was gathered on two cladocerans, four copepods and an isopod.

  1. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  2. Estimating the grazing impact of marine micro-zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Landry; R. P. Hassett

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a dilution technique for estimating the micro-zooplankton grazing impact on natural communities of marine phytoplankton. Experiments performed in coastal waters off Washington, USA (October, 1980), yield estimates of micro-zooplankton impact equivalent to 6 to 24% of phytoplankton standing biomass and 17 to 52% of production per day. Indirect evidence suggests that most of this impact is due

  3. Empirical analysis of zooplankton filtering and feeding rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT HENRY PETERS; JOHN A. DOWNING

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis of published zooplankton filtering and feeding rates yielded separate regression equations for cladocerans, marine Calanoid copepods, and all zooplankton. Ingestion rate was found to increase significantly with animal size, food concentration, and temperature. Filtering rate also increased with animal size and temperature, but declined as food concentration increased. The analysis suggests a difference in particle size preference

  4. Zooplankton behavioral responses to solar UV radiation vary within and

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    Zooplankton behavioral responses to solar UV radiation vary within and among lakes DINA M. LEECH-B and short wavelength UV-A radiation. Columns were suspended vertically in the surface waters of a high; published online April 25, 2005 Zooplankton taxa exhibit varying tolerances to ultraviolet radiation (UVR

  5. Food sources and lipid retention of zooplankton in subarctic ponds

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    Food sources and lipid retention of zooplankton in subarctic ponds HEATHER L. MARIASH*, MATTEO, University of Jyva¨skyla¨, Jyva¨skyla¨, Finland Freshwater Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen source for the zooplankton. To test this, we used a combination of fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

  6. Zooplankton of Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masuzo Uéno

    1967-01-01

    The zooplankton, especially the Cladocera and the Copepoda, of Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian side is reported on the basis of a collection made in April 1961. The zooplankton at that time was sparse, consisting only of seven species. Boeckella titicacaeHarding is the dominant copepod and B. occidentalisMarsh is also abundant, as in the previous records obtained by the Percy

  7. PATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE VERTICAL SHEAR LAYERS

    E-print Network

    into the sea, the water will become fresh. And wherever the river goes, every living creature that swarmsPATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE VERTICAL SHEAR LAYERS A Thesis Presented #12;PATCHINESS: ZOOPLANKTON BEHAVIOR IN FINESCALE VERTICAL SHEAR LAYERS Approved by: Dr. Donald R

  8. Net-zooplankton biomass of the Adriatic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Benovi?; S. Fonda-Umani; A. Malej; M. Specchi

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of 1 107 plankton samples collected during 1971–1981 in the different parts of the Adriatic Sea, the horizontal distribution of net zooplankton biomass, expressed as dry weight and ash-free dry weight, is discussed. The northern Adriatic combined with the Gulf of Trieste usually had the highest standing crop of zooplankton. Biomass in other regions was lower and

  9. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  10. COMPARISONS OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY SIZE STRUCTURE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra distribution potentially reflect the condition of trophic interactions and ecosystem health because they are affected by both resource availability and planktivore pressure. We assessed zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra using an optical...

  11. Seasonal and Areal Distribution of Zooplankton in Coastal Waters

    E-print Network

    Group and species composition 3 Group and species composition by season and area 5 Hydrography and zooplankton 7 Surface temperature and salinity g Areal distribution of zooplankton and hydrography 8. Areal and annual variations in the abundance of zooplankters are discussed in relation to hydrography

  12. Zooplankton Responses to Aluminum Sulfate Treatment of Newman Lake, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick J. Schumaker; William H. Funk; Barry C. Moore

    1993-01-01

    Pelagic zooplankton were sampled prior to and following the whole-lake aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment of Newman Lake, Washington, to determine zooplankter responses. Signs of perturbation such as pronounced declines in zooplankton numbers, biomass, and species diversity were exhibited within two weeks after the treatment. These observations may be attributed to a combination of physical action of the settling alum floc,

  13. Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    of harmful algal blooms in riverine ecosystems. It is important to un- derstand the persistence of algaeGlobal Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel

  14. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report, June 1988--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1989-02-07

    It is our objective to determine the major processes governing the abundance, composition and disruption of zooplankton as part of the interdisciplinary southeastern US continental shelf program of the Department of Energy. We will study the effects of physical processes such as along- and cross shelf advection and frontogenesis, on the development and fate of zooplankton populations during winter. Our proposed research consists of shipboard sampling, laboratory experiments and in situ determination of zooplankton abundance over time. The last objective represents a novel approach because the observations are (a) non-destructive with great spatial resolution, and (b) occur on current meter arrays at similar scales as measurements of current velocity and direction. Results to date show prolonged residence times of upwelled water masses on the middle and inner shelf during summer which results in the development of massive copepod and tunicate populations. During spring, the extent of displacement of nearshore zooplankton was a function of wind stress. Our results can be used to predict the impact of energy-related technology on the ecosystem of the southeastern continental shelf. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Differential UVB?sensitivities of five New Zealand freshwater zooplankton species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Ludwig Wübben; Ekkehard Vareschi; Ian Hawes; Greg Bodeker

    2001-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity of five species of freshwater zooplankton (three Cladocera, two Copepoda) were investigated. The animals were exposed to varying levels of UV?radiation in a sunshine?simulator and the UV doses for 10 and 50% mortality (LD10, LD50) were estimated using a dose?response model. To place these doses in context they were compared with modelled clear?sky surface UV irradiances

  16. Population stratification using a statistical model on hypergraphs Alexei Vazquez

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Alexei

    Population stratification using a statistical model on hypergraphs Alexei Vazquez The Simons Center December 2007; published 10 June 2008 Population stratification is a problem encountered in several areas introduce the concept of stratification representa- tiveness as a mean to identify the simplest

  17. Modeling seasonal interactions in the population dynamics of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Marra, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds requires understanding the relevant biological events that occur during breeding, migratory, and overwintering periods. The few available population models for passerine birds focus on breeding-season events, disregard or oversimplify events during nonbreeding periods, and ignore interactions that occur between periods of the annual cycle. Identifying and explicitly incorporating seasonal interactions into population models for migratory birds could provide important insights about when population limitation actually occurs in the annual cycle. We present a population model for the annual cycle of a migratory bird, based on the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) but more generally applicable, that examines the importance of seasonal interactions by incorporating: (1) density dependence during the breeding and winter seasons, (2) a carry-over effect of winter habitat on breeding-season productivity, and (3) the effects of behavioral dominance on seasonal and habitat specific demographic rates. First, we show that habitat availability on both the wintering and breeding grounds can strongly affect equilibrium population size and sex ratio. Second, sex ratio dynamics, as mediated by behavioral dominance, can affect all other aspects of population dynamics. Third, carry-over effects can be strong, especially when winter events are limiting. These results suggest that understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds may require more consideration of the seasonal interactions induced by carry-over effects and density dependence in multiple seasons. This model provides a framework in which to explore more fully these seasonal dynamics and a context for estimation of life history parameters.

  18. Non-linearity and heterogeneity in modeling of population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Karev, Georgy P

    2014-12-01

    The study of population growth reveals that the behaviors that follow the power law appear in numerous biological, demographical, ecological, physical and other contexts. Parabolic models appear to be realistic approximations of real-life replicator systems, while hyperbolic models were successfully applied to problems of global demography and appear relevant in quasispecies and hypercycle modeling. Nevertheless, it is not always clear why non-exponential growth is observed empirically and what possible origins of the non-exponential models are. In this paper the power equation is considered within the frameworks of inhomogeneous population models; it is proven that any power equation describes the total population size of a frequency-dependent model with Gamma-distributed Malthusian parameter. Additionally, any super-exponential equation describes the dynamics of inhomogeneous Malthusian density-dependent population model. All statistical characteristics of the underlying inhomogeneous models are computed explicitly. The results of this analysis show that population heterogeneity can be a reasonable explanation for power law accurately describing total population growth. PMID:25262656

  19. Functional bioassays utilizing zooplankton: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McNaught, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Functional zooplankton bioassays based on ingestion, reproduction and respiration are described, with methods for a new ingestion bioassay included. All bioassays are compared using three indices, including the variability of controls, the range of experimental responses, and a listing of contaminants causing inhibition/stimulation of response. The ingestion bioassay showed the greatest range of response, and was sensitive to pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. It was also commonly characterized by a hormesis response. The reproduction bioassay showed the lowest variability, illustrated a reduced range of response, and was sensitive to nutrients and heavy metals. In one study, the respiration bioassay was sensitive only to PCBs.

  20. Effects of drought and pluvial periods on fish and zooplankton communities in prairie lakes: systematic and asystematic responses.

    PubMed

    Starks, Elizabeth; Cooper, Ryan; Leavitt, Peter R; Wissel, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The anticipated impacts of climate change on aquatic biota are difficult to evaluate because of potentially contrasting effects of temperature and hydrology on lake ecosystems, particularly those closed-basin lakes within semiarid regions. To address this shortfall, we quantified decade-scale changes in chemical and biological properties of 20 endorheic lakes in central North America in response to a pronounced transition from a drought to a pluvial period during the early 21st century. Lakes exhibited marked temporal changes in chemical characteristics and formed two discrete clusters corresponding to periods of substantially different effective moisture (as Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) explained 90% of variability in fish assemblage composition and showed that fish communities were predicted best by environmental conditions during the arid interval (PDSI <-2). DFA also predicted that lakes could support more fish species during pluvial periods, but their occurrences may be limited by periodic stress due to recurrent droughts and physical barriers to colonization. Zooplankton taxonomic assemblages in fishless lakes were resilient to short-term changes in meteorological conditions, and did not vary between drought and deluge periods. Conversely, zooplankton taxa in fish-populated lakes decreased substantially in biomass during the wet interval, likely due to increased zooplanktivory by fish. The powerful effects of such climatic variability on hydrology and the strong subsequent links to water chemistry and biota indicate that future changes in global climate could result in significant restructuring of aquatic communities. Together these findings suggest that semiarid lakes undergoing temporary climate shifts provide a useful model system for anticipating the effects of global climate change on lake food webs. PMID:23960001

  1. Modeling X-Linked Ancestral Origins in Multiparental Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chaozhi

    2015-01-01

    The models for the mosaic structure of an individual’s genome from multiparental populations have been developed primarily for autosomes, whereas X chromosomes receive very little attention. In this paper, we extend our previous approach to model ancestral origin processes along two X chromosomes in a mapping population, which is necessary for developing hidden Markov models in the reconstruction of ancestry blocks for X-linked quantitative trait locus mapping. The model accounts for the joint recombination pattern, the asymmetry between maternally and paternally derived X chromosomes, and the finiteness of population size. The model can be applied to various mapping populations such as the advanced intercross lines (AIL), the Collaborative Cross (CC), the heterogeneous stock (HS), the Diversity Outcross (DO), and the Drosophila synthetic population resource (DSPR). We further derive the map expansion, density (per Morgan) of recombination breakpoints, in advanced intercross populations with L inbred founders under the limit of an infinitely large population size. The analytic results show that for X chromosomes the genetic map expands linearly at a rate (per generation) of two-thirds times 1 – 10/(9L) for the AIL, and at a rate of two-thirds times 1 – 1/L for the DO and the HS, whereas for autosomes the map expands at a rate of 1 – 1/L for the AIL, the DO, and the HS. PMID:25740936

  2. Modeling x-linked ancestral origins in multiparental populations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaozhi

    2015-01-01

    The models for the mosaic structure of an individual's genome from multiparental populations have been developed primarily for autosomes, whereas X chromosomes receive very little attention. In this paper, we extend our previous approach to model ancestral origin processes along two X chromosomes in a mapping population, which is necessary for developing hidden Markov models in the reconstruction of ancestry blocks for X-linked quantitative trait locus mapping. The model accounts for the joint recombination pattern, the asymmetry between maternally and paternally derived X chromosomes, and the finiteness of population size. The model can be applied to various mapping populations such as the advanced intercross lines (AIL), the Collaborative Cross (CC), the heterogeneous stock (HS), the Diversity Outcross (DO), and the Drosophila synthetic population resource (DSPR). We further derive the map expansion, density (per Morgan) of recombination breakpoints, in advanced intercross populations with L inbred founders under the limit of an infinitely large population size. The analytic results show that for X chromosomes the genetic map expands linearly at a rate (per generation) of two-thirds times 1 - 10/(9L) for the AIL, and at a rate of two-thirds times 1 - 1/L for the DO and the HS, whereas for autosomes the map expands at a rate of 1 - 1/L for the AIL, the DO, and the HS. PMID:25740936

  3. Modeling the East Coast Akalat Population: Model Comparison and Parameter Estimation

    E-print Network

    Akalat, a Kenyan bird whose population is in decline. The effects of observation error and sparsity model both possess the potential to provide insight into the underpinning reasons of population declineModeling the East Coast Akalat Population: Model Comparison and Parameter Estimation H.T. Banks

  4. Time series sampling and data assimilation in a simple marine ecosystem model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Lawson; Eileen E. Hofmann; Yvette H. Spitz

    1996-01-01

    Simulated distributions of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton were obtained from a simple marine ecosystem model that included nutrient inputs from episodic events. These distributions were then used in numerical identical twin experiments to test the ability of an adjoint data assimilation method to recover rate parameters, such as population growth and death rates, component initial conditions, and the amplitude of

  5. Ruthy Yahel Gitai Yahel Amatzia Genin Near-bottom depletion of zooplankton over coral reefs

    E-print Network

    Yahel, Gitai

    REPORT Ruthy Yahel Æ Gitai Yahel Æ Amatzia Genin Near- bottom depletion of zooplankton over coral of zooplankton on scales of centimeters to meters and hours to seasons are of great importance to corals a substantial depletion of zooplankton near the bottom. Vertical gradients in zooplankton abundance were steeper

  6. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J.; Sgro, Allyson E.; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales—from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations.

  7. Dynamics of the parasitic (Varroa jacobsoni) population: Modelling criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. FRIES

    SUMMARY - The basic structure of the Varroa mite and honey bee relationship is described to allow the construction of a mathematical model of the mite population dynamics. Necessary criteria for building the model is commented. In the mite reproduction part of the model, the demand of relevant bee brood data and the understanding of variations in mite fertility, especially

  8. A frictional population model of seismicity rate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gomberg; P. Reasenberg; M. Cocco; M. E. Belardinelli

    2005-01-01

    We study models of seismicity rate changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the model proposed by Dieterich (1994). These models assume a distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying rate-state frictional relations that fail at constant rate under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a

  9. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of population growth, specifically logistic growth models and two-species competition models. We discuss student-evolved strategies and offer "Mathematica" code for a gradient search approach. We use historical (1930s) data from microbial studies of the Russian biologist,…

  10. Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2013-01-01

    Reintroduction can be necessary for recovering populations of threatened species. However, the success of reintroduction efforts has been poorer than many biologists and managers would hope. To increase the benefits gained from reintroduction, management decision making should be couched within formal decision-analytic frameworks. Decision analysis is a structured process for informing decision making that recognizes that all decisions have a set of components—objectives, alternative management actions, predictive models, and optimization methods—that can be decomposed, analyzed, and recomposed to facilitate optimal, transparent decisions. Because the outcome of interest in reintroduction efforts is typically population viability or related metrics, models used in decision analysis efforts for reintroductions will need to include population models. In this special section of the Journal of Wildlife Management, we highlight examples of the construction and use of models for informing management decisions in reintroduced populations. In this introductory contribution, we review concepts in decision analysis, population modeling for analysis of decisions in reintroduction settings, and future directions. Increased use of formal decision analysis, including adaptive management, has great potential to inform reintroduction efforts. Adopting these practices will require close collaboration among managers, decision analysts, population modelers, and field biologists.

  11. Phytoplankton limitation by phosphorus and zooplankton grazing in an acidic Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.; Evans, G.L.; Pratt, N.C.

    1984-08-01

    Lakes which are believed to have been acidified by atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic substances are known for their unusually high water clarity and low nutrient concentrations. Some evidence indicates that alterations in predator/prey relationships, an indirect effect of acidification, bring about the increase in water clarity. Enclosures were used to study the effects of phosphorus addition and zooplankton removal on the phytoplankton of an acidic lake in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Fertilized enclosures had significantly lower alkalinities and contained significantly more dissolved oxygen after the incubation period than did unfertilized enclosures. The P concentration remained at or near the limit of detection in the unfertilized enclosures. The phytoplankton population bloomed after the addition of 80 micro g/liter of phosphate as KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. The response was measured by cell counts of the dominant phytoplankton. Chlamydomonas, and by changes in chlorophyll a concentration. About half the number of algal cells were present after the two week incubation when zooplankton were not removed, indicating that zooplankton herbivory can influence, but not totally control, the algal production. 46 references.

  12. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m?³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m?³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). PMID:24461782

  13. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  14. Modelling the Dynamics of an Aedes albopictus Population

    E-print Network

    Basuki, Thomas Anung; Barbuti, Roberto; Maggiolo-Schettini, Andrea; Milazzo, Paolo; Rossi, Elisabetta; 10.4204/EPTCS.33.2

    2010-01-01

    We present a methodology for modelling population dynamics with formal means of computer science. This allows unambiguous description of systems and application of analysis tools such as simulators and model checkers. In particular, the dynamics of a population of Aedes albopictus (a species of mosquito) and its modelling with the Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (Stochastic CLS) are considered. The use of Stochastic CLS to model population dynamics requires an extension which allows environmental events (such as changes in the temperature and rainfalls) to be taken into account. A simulator for the constructed model is developed via translation into the specification language Maude, and used to compare the dynamics obtained from the model with real data.

  15. Analysing User Behaviour Through Dynamic Population Models

    E-print Network

    Chalmers, Matthew

    modelled the behaviour of over a hundred users of an iOS game. We illustrate how this modelling approach of time users keep returning to play the game. We describe our ongoing work, including feeding results in-app event representing how the user explores the application. Such #12;data sets can be the basis

  16. Modeling Bacterial Population Growth from Stochastic Single-Cell Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Ignacio; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    A few bacterial cells may be sufficient to produce a food-borne illness outbreak, provided that they are capable of adapting and proliferating on a food matrix. This is why any quantitative health risk assessment policy must incorporate methods to accurately predict the growth of bacterial populations from a small number of pathogens. In this aim, mathematical models have become a powerful tool. Unfortunately, at low cell concentrations, standard deterministic models fail to predict the fate of the population, essentially because the heterogeneity between individuals becomes relevant. In this work, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model is proposed to describe variability within single-cell growth and division and to simulate population growth from a given initial number of individuals. We provide evidence of the model ability to explain the observed distributions of times to division, including the lag time produced by the adaptation to the environment, by comparing model predictions with experiments from the literature for Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Salmonella enterica. The model is shown to accurately predict experimental growth population dynamics for both small and large microbial populations. The use of stochastic models for the estimation of parameters to successfully fit experimental data is a particularly challenging problem. For instance, if Monte Carlo methods are employed to model the required distributions of times to division, the parameter estimation problem can become numerically intractable. We overcame this limitation by converting the stochastic description to a partial differential equation (backward Kolmogorov) instead, which relates to the distribution of division times. Contrary to previous stochastic formulations based on random parameters, the present model is capable of explaining the variability observed in populations that result from the growth of a small number of initial cells as well as the lack of it compared to populations initiated by a larger number of individuals, where the random effects become negligible. PMID:24928885

  17. Modeling bacterial population growth from stochastic single-cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Antonio A; Molina, Ignacio; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    A few bacterial cells may be sufficient to produce a food-borne illness outbreak, provided that they are capable of adapting and proliferating on a food matrix. This is why any quantitative health risk assessment policy must incorporate methods to accurately predict the growth of bacterial populations from a small number of pathogens. In this aim, mathematical models have become a powerful tool. Unfortunately, at low cell concentrations, standard deterministic models fail to predict the fate of the population, essentially because the heterogeneity between individuals becomes relevant. In this work, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model is proposed to describe variability within single-cell growth and division and to simulate population growth from a given initial number of individuals. We provide evidence of the model ability to explain the observed distributions of times to division, including the lag time produced by the adaptation to the environment, by comparing model predictions with experiments from the literature for Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Salmonella enterica. The model is shown to accurately predict experimental growth population dynamics for both small and large microbial populations. The use of stochastic models for the estimation of parameters to successfully fit experimental data is a particularly challenging problem. For instance, if Monte Carlo methods are employed to model the required distributions of times to division, the parameter estimation problem can become numerically intractable. We overcame this limitation by converting the stochastic description to a partial differential equation (backward Kolmogorov) instead, which relates to the distribution of division times. Contrary to previous stochastic formulations based on random parameters, the present model is capable of explaining the variability observed in populations that result from the growth of a small number of initial cells as well as the lack of it compared to populations initiated by a larger number of individuals, where the random effects become negligible. PMID:24928885

  18. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  19. Vertical foodweb structure of freshwater zooplankton assemblages estimated by stable nitrogen isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Westcott; P. del Giorgio; G. Klein; J. Kalff

    1996-01-01

    Although theoretical foodweb models predict the presence of only three to four trophic categories, estimation of “potential”\\u000a vertical foodweb structure from species lists and inferred feeding interactions suggest that as many as 7 trophic categories\\u000a can occur in the pelagic foodwebs of North American glaciated lakes. A compilation of data on the nitrogen isotopic composition\\u000a of zooplankton from 46 Canadian

  20. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  1. Predicting Random Effects with an Expanded Finite Population Mixed Model.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Edward J; Singer, Julio M

    2008-10-01

    Prediction of random effects is an important problem with expanding applications. In the simplest context, the problem corresponds to prediction of the latent value (the mean) of a realized cluster selected via two-stage sampling. Recently, Stanek and Singer (JASA, 2004) developed best linear unbiased predictors (BLUP) under a finite population mixed model that outperform BLUPs from mixed models and superpopulation models. Their setup, however, does not allow for unequally sized clusters. To overcome this drawback, we consider an expanded finite population mixed model based on a larger set of random variables that span a higher dimensional space than those typically applied to such problems. We show that BLUPs for linear combinations of the realized cluster means derived under such a model have considerably smaller mean squared error (MSE) than those obtained from mixed models, superpopulation models, and finite population mixed models. We motivate our general approach by an example developed for two-stage cluster sampling and show that it faithfully captures the stochastic aspects of sampling in the problem. We also consider simulation studies to illustrate the increased accuracy of the BLUP obtained under the expanded finite population mixed model. PMID:19802323

  2. [Firing-rate model of a population of adaptive neurons].

    PubMed

    Buchin, A Iu; Chizhov, A V

    2010-01-01

    A firing rate (FR) model for a population of adaptive integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons has been proposed. Unlike known FR models, it describes more precisely the unsteady firing regimes and takes into account the effect of slow potassium currents of spike-time adaptation. Approximations of the adaptive channel conductances are rewritten from voltage-dependent to spike-dependent and then to rate-dependent ones. The proposed FR model is compared to the very detailed population model, namely, the conductance-based refractory density model. The comparison of this model with the full RD model shows the coincidence of the first peak of activity after the start of stimulation as well as the stationary state. As an example of the simulation of coupled adaptive neuronal populations, a ring model has been constructed, which reproduces a visual illusion named tilt after-effect. The FR model is recommended for the mathematical analysis of neuronal population activity as well as for computationally expensive large-scale simulations. PMID:20968079

  3. An aerial sightability model for estimating ferruginous hawk population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, L.W.; Anderson, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Most raptor aerial survey projects have focused on numeric description of visibility bias without identifying the contributing factors or developing predictive models to account for imperfect detection rates. Our goal was to develop a sightability model for nesting ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) that could account for nests missed during aerial surveys and provide more accurate population estimates. Eighteen observers, all unfamiliar with nest locations in a known population, searched for nests within 300 m of flight transects via a Maule fixed-wing aircraft. Flight variables tested for their influence on nest-detection rates included aircraft speed, height, direction of travel, time of day, light condition, distance to nest, and observer experience level. Nest variables included status (active vs. inactive), condition (i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, bad), substrate type, topography, and tree density. A multiple logistic regression model identified nest substrate type, distance to nest, and observer experience level as significant predictors of detection rates (P < 0.05). The overall model was significant (??26 = 124.4, P < 0.001, n = 255 nest observations), and the correct classification rate was 78.4%. During 2 validation surveys, observers saw 23.7% (14/59) and 36.5% (23/63) of the actual population. Sightability model predictions, with 90% confidence intervals, captured the true population in both tests. Our results indicate standardized aerial surveys, when used in conjunction with the predictive sightability model, can provide unbiased population estimates for nesting ferruginous hawks.

  4. Modelling Interacting Epidemics in Overlapping Populations

    E-print Network

    Knottenbelt, William J.

    reduces to a set of coupled SIR-type ODEs. Its numerical solution reveals some interesting multimodal of a biological nature has lessened while our obsession with epidemics of a social and technological nature has of this Markov model reduces to a set of coupled SIR-type ODEs, the solution of which describes the evolution

  5. Zooplankton community structure in a highly turbid environment (Charente estuary, France): Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modéran, Julien; Bouvais, Pierre; David, Valérie; Le Noc, Sandrine; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Niquil, Nathalie; Miramand, Pierre; Fichet, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Zooplankton assemblages were studied from January 2007 to January 2008 along the salinity gradient of the Charente estuary (France). A Lagrangian survey was performed monthly at five sampling stations defined by salinity (freshwater, 0.5, 5, 15 and 25) in order to collect zooplankton and measure the main environmental parameters (concentrations of suspended particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, chlorophyll a and phaeopigments). A combination of multivariate cluster analysis, species indicator index and canonical correspondence analysis was used to relate the spatio-temporal patterns of the zooplankton assemblages with environmental drivers. The estuary was divided into three different zones by means of environmental parameters while four zooplankton assemblages were identified along the salinity gradient. The Charente estuary appeared as one of the most turbid systems in Europe, with suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration reaching 3.5 g l -1 in the Maximum Turbidity Zone (MTZ). Algal heterotrophy and microphytobenthos resuspension from the wide mudflats could be responsible for the relatively high chlorophyll a concentrations measured within this MTZ. Salinity and SPM affected significantly the spatial distribution of zooplankton species while temperature and river flow seemed to control their temporal variations. From a zooplanktonic viewpoint, the highly turbid Charente estuary seemed to match an "ecotone-ecocline" model: the succession of species assemblages along the salinity gradient matched the concept of ecocline while the MTZ, which is a stressful narrow area, could be considered as an ecotone. Although such ecoclinal characteristics seemed to be a general feature of estuarine biocenoses, the ecotone could be more system-specific and biological compartment-specific.

  6. Unexpected dominance of high frequencies in chaotic nonlinear population models.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J E

    1995-12-01

    Because water has a higher heat capacity than air, large bodies of water fluctuate in temperature more slowly than does the atmosphere. Marine temperature time series are 'redder' than atmospheric temperature time series by analogy to light: in red light, low-frequency variability has greater amplitude than high-frequency variability, whereas in white light all frequencies have the same amplitude. Differences in the relative importance of high-and low-frequency variability in different habitats affect the population dynamics of individual species and the structure of ecological communities. Population dynamics of individual species are thought to be dominated by low-frequency fluctuations, that is, to display reddened fluctuations. Here I report, however, that in eight nonlinear, iterative, deterministic, autonomous, discrete-time population models, some of which have been used to model real biological populations, the power spectral densities of chaotic trajectories are neither white nor reddened but are notably blue, with increasing power at higher frequencies. PMID:8524393

  7. Transient, highly populated, building blocks folding model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Jung Tsai; Ruth Nussinov

    2001-01-01

    Protein folding is a hierarchical event, in which transiently formed local structural elements assemble to yield the native\\u000a conformation. In principle, multiple paths glide down the energy landscape, but, in practice, only a few of the paths are\\u000a highly traveled. Here, the literature is reviewed in this light, and, particularly, a hierarchical, building block protein-folding\\u000a model is presented, putting it

  8. Global Bifurcation of Positive Equilibria in Nonlinear Population Models

    E-print Network

    Walker, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Existence of nontrivial nonnegative equilibrium solutions for age structured population models with nonlinear diffusion is investigated. Introducing a parameter measuring the intensity of the fertility, global bifurcation is shown of a branch of positive equilibrium solutions emanating from the trivial equilibrium. Moreover, for the parameter-independent model we establish existence of positive equilibria by means of a fixed point theorem for conical shells.

  9. Application of a spatial dynamic model to urban populations.

    PubMed

    Pumain, D

    1988-01-01

    The author applies P. Allen's intra-urban model "to the post-war evolution of the spatial distribution of employment and resident active population in a few French urban agglomerations. [She makes] a short presentation of the structure and of the main properties of this complex model. The results of the calibrations and the residuals of the simulations are then analysed." PMID:12341862

  10. A Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with Mutation and Dynamic

    E-print Network

    O'Leary, Michael

    A Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with Mutation and Dynamic Fitness Mike O'Leary Department of Mathematics Towson University May 24, 2008 Mike O'Leary (Towson University) A Diffusion Model in Genetics May determine the long-time behavior of the total genetic variance? Portions of this work are joint with Judith

  11. Flexible Models for Analyzing Longitudinal Data in Population Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A. Dubin

    The study of longitudinal data is vital in terms of accurately observing changes in responses of interest for individuals, communities, and larger populations over time. Linear mixed effects models (for continuous responses observed over time) and generalized linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations (for more general responses such as binary or count data observed over time) are the

  12. Nonlinear Stochastic Markov Processes and Modeling Uncertainty in Populations

    E-print Network

    Nonlinear Stochastic Markov Processes and Modeling Uncertainty in Populations H.T. Banks and Shuhua to fast efficient calculations in inverse problems as well as in forward simulations. Here we derive modeling construction in many areas of science is the nonlinear Markov process as characterized by discrete

  13. Modelling microbial population dynamics in nitritation processes Elisabetta Giusti a

    E-print Network

    sludge modelling Parameter estimation Population dynamics Nitritation a b s t r a c t In the wastewater. A modified Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) with two-step nitrification-denitrifi- cation. Environmental January 2011 Accepted 1 February 2011 Available online 3 March 2011 Keywords: Microbial kinetics Activated

  14. FISHERY-ORIENTED MODEL OF MARYLAND OYSTER POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used time series data to calibrate a model of oyster population dynamics for Maryland's Chesapeake Bay. Model parameters were fishing mortality, natural mortality, recruitment, and carrying capacity. We calibrated for the Maryland bay as a whole and separately for 3 salinity z...

  15. A computer model for the evacuation of large building populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Thompson; Eric W. Marchant

    1995-01-01

    The computer model ‘SIMULEX’ is designed to simulate the escape movement of thousands of individual people through large, geometrically complex building spaces. The model is intended for use both as a research and design tool to analyse the evacuation of large populations through a wide range of building environments.The computer program assigns a variety of attributes to each individual in

  16. Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, Harrie W.M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    1. A major challenge in the conservation of threatened and endangered species is to predict population decline and design appropriate recovery measures. However, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations are notoriously difficult to predict due to potentially nonlinear responses and interactions with natural ecological processes like density dependence. 2. Here, we incorporated both density dependence and anthropogenic stressors in a stage-based matrix population model and parameterized it for a density-dependent population of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus exposed to two anthropogenic toxicants [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)]. Log-logistic exposure–response relationships were used to translate toxicant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs to effects on fecundity. Density dependence was modelled as the probability of a nonbreeding bird acquiring a breeding territory as a function of the current number of breeders. 3. The equilibrium size of the population, as represented by the number of breeders, responded nonlinearly to increasing toxicant concentrations, showing a gradual decrease followed by a relatively steep decline. Initially, toxicant-induced reductions in population size were mitigated by an alleviation of the density limitation, that is, an increasing probability of territory acquisition. Once population density was no longer limiting, the toxicant impacts were no longer buffered by an increasing proportion of nonbreeders shifting to the breeding stage, resulting in a strong decrease in the equilibrium number of breeders. 4. Median critical exposure concentrations, that is, median toxicant concentrations in eggs corresponding with an equilibrium population size of zero, were 33 and 46 ?g g?1 fresh weight for DDE and PBDEs, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to toxicant impacts until a critical threshold is crossed. In our study population, toxicant-induced changes were observed in the equilibrium number of nonbreeding rather than breeding birds, suggesting that monitoring efforts including both life stages are needed to timely detect population declines. Further, by combining quantitative exposure–response relationships with a wildlife demographic model, we provided a method to quantify critical toxicant thresholds for wildlife population persistence.

  17. Statistical validation of structured population models for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Adoteye, Kaska; Banks, H T; Cross, Karissa; Eytcheson, Stephanie; Flores, Kevin B; LeBlanc, Gerald A; Nguyen, Timothy; Ross, Chelsea; Smith, Emmaline; Stemkovski, Michael; Stokely, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use statistical validation techniques to verify density-dependent mechanisms hypothesized for populations of Daphnia magna. We develop structured population models that exemplify specific mechanisms and use multi-scale experimental data in order to test their importance. We show that fecundity and survival rates are affected by both time-varying density-independent factors, such as age, and density-dependent factors, such as competition. We perform uncertainty analysis and show that our parameters are estimated with a high degree of confidence. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in fecundity and survival rates affect population size and age-structure. PMID:26092608

  18. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  19. STELLAR POPULATION MODELS AND INDIVIDUAL ELEMENT ABUNDANCES. I. SENSITIVITY OF STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyun-chul

    STELLAR POPULATION MODELS AND INDIVIDUAL ELEMENT ABUNDANCES. I. SENSITIVITY OF STELLAR EVOLUTION spectra but little has been done to address similar issues in the stellar evolution models that underlie most stellar population models. Stellar evolution models will primarily be influenced by changes

  20. Rostock zooplankton studies off West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postel, L.; Arndt, E. A.; Brenning, U.

    1995-03-01

    Since the beginning of the seventies, upwelling research has become increasingly popular in the path of the Canary and Benguela Current, because of economic consideration, particularly in the relation to fisheries and marine geology. Many expeditions were carried out between 1970 and 1977, including 8 cruises of the German R. V. “A. v. Humboldt” operating from Rostock. Measurements covered scales ranging in time from minutes to several years and in space from hundreds of metres to several thousands of kilometres. Zooplankton studies focussed on quantitative, metabolic, taxonomic, and parasitological aspects. Plankton was collected with a WP-2-UNESCO standard net to a maximum depth of 200 m. The epipelagic mesozooplankton consists mainly of copepods, especially calanoids with developmental times of about 20 to 23 days. After an upwelling event, zooplankton is able to double its biomass. This typical biomass increase is independent of coastal distance and depth. The upwelling response lasts about 3 weeks in nearsurface waters, and 6 to 8 weeks in depths below 75m. A relationship was observed between the duration of seasonal upwelling (that means the numbers of single upwelling events) and the cumulative increase of biomass. This net growth rate of zooplankton biomass is most pronounced at the shelf break, the area with the highest fish biomass, and in the upper 25 m. Differences between the expected and the real rate values in conjunction with the known amount of nutritive demands of fishes allow the estimation of the fish biomass in a given area. The near coastal Ekman upwelling, which is an event in the time scale of about two weeks, also shows seasonality in some areas. Off Northwest Africa the largest expansion was recorded in the first half of the year, extending from 10° N to 24° N, more than 400 km offshore and at least down to 200 m. It contracts in the second half of the year to an area between 20°N and 22°N, 100 to 200 km off the coast and in an average depth of 25 m. These zooplankton biomass patterns are superimposed by mesoscale phenomena, originated by other than Ekman upwelling events. Those are, for example, long coastal parallel waves, producing cells of intensified upwelling and downwelling, and eddies, caused by instabilities in a frontal zone parallel to the coast. Different water masses can be distinguished by indicator species, species combinations or the significant absence of species. This was demonstrated for chaetognaths. The calanoid Calanus helgolandicus (Claus, 1863), a typical species of the North Atlantic, indicates North Atlantic Central Water, whereas Calanoides carinatus (Krøyer, 1849) is an indicator of South Atlantic Central Water. Finally, comparisons of near coastal current regimes, transport velocities, and developmental rates of calanoids allow one to conclude that a suitable mechanism is present to maintain plankton in the coastal environment.

  1. Bacterial diversity associated with freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Tang, Kam W

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial community compositions (BCC) associated with the cladoceran Bosmina coregoni and the cyclopoid copepod Thermocyclops oithonoides in oligotrophic Lake Stechlin versus eutrophic Lake Dagow (northeastern Germany) were compared using molecular techniques. We also transplanted the zooplankton from their native lake to the other lake, and studied changes in their associated BCC as a result of the modified ambient environment. Bacterial community composition associated with B. coregoni was quite conservative between the oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes, and most of the bacteria belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. In contrast, BCC associated with T. oithonoides was highly variable and dependent on the environment, and Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most represented among the bacteria. Thermocyclops oithonoides from the oligotrophic lake was more able to retain its bacteria after being transplanted to the eutrophic lake than vice versa. This suggests that bacteria in oligotrophic water were more firmly attached to the copepod and better in resisting environmental fluctuations than those in eutrophic water. PMID:23765720

  2. Zooplankton time series from the Strait of Georgia: Results from year-round sampling at deep water locations, 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackas, David; Galbraith, Moira; Faust, Deborah; Masson, Diane; Young, Kelly; Shaw, William; Romaine, Stephen; Trudel, Marc; Dower, John; Campbell, Rob; Sastri, Akash; Bornhold Pechter, Elizabeth A.; Pakhomov, Evgeny; El-Sabaawi, Rana

    2013-08-01

    We have compiled and archived a large fraction of the zooplankton data collected from the Strait of Georgia during the past 50 years. Although the full dataset is very heterogeneous and gappy, sampling since 1990 has been consistent and frequent enough to examine interannual variability of the full zooplankton community. In this paper we focus on deep tows at mid-Strait deep-water locations, where vertical-migratory zooplankton can be captured at all times of day and all seasons. Average zooplankton dryweight biomass is high (?9 g m-2) and varies seasonally between a winter minimum (?4 g m-2) and a broad late-spring to autumn maximum (10-11 g m-2). Much of the biomass in all seasons consists of large crustaceans (copepods, euphausiids and amphipods with oceanic and subarctic zoogeographic affinities) that undergo strong diurnal or seasonal vertical migrations. Their interannual variability is very strong: about an order of magnitude within most zooplankton categories, and nearly two orders of magnitude for euphausiids, large copepods, and chaetognaths. Most (73%) of the interannual variability is accounted for by three principal components. The dominant mode (36%) is a low-frequency decadal fluctuation shared by most zooplankton taxa: declining from 1990 to 1995, increasing to a maximum ?1999-2002, declining to a second minimum in 2005-2007, and then recovering to near-average levels by 2010. This zooplankton signal correlates positively with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) climate index, negatively with temperature anomalies throughout the water column, and positively (but less consistently) with survival anomalies of Strait of Georgia salmon and herring. Proximal causal mechanisms are less certain, but probably include estuarine advective exchange with outer coast populations, and timing match-mismatch within the Strait.

  3. Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom.

    PubMed

    Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of "inedible" algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19-20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543

  4. A model of human population motion

    E-print Network

    Skufca, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a basic model for human mobility that accounts for the different dynamics arising from individuals embarking on short trips (and returning to their home locations) and individuals relocating to a new home. The differences between the two modes of motion comes to light on contrasting two recent studies, one tracking the geographical location of dollar bills \\cite{brockmann}, the other that of mobile cell phones \\cite{gonzalez}. Trips introduce two characteristic time scales; the time between trips, $\\theta$, and the duration of each trip, $\\tau$, and relocations introduces a third time scale, $T$, for the time between relocations. In practice, $T\\sim{\\rm years}$, $\\theta\\sim{\\rm months}$, and $\\tau\\sim{\\rm days}$, so the three time scales are widely separated. Traditionally, studies incorporating human motion assume only a single mode, using a generic rate to account for all types of motion.

  5. GUIDELINES FOR ZOOPLANKTON SAMPLING IN QUANTITATIVE BASELINE AND MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods applicable to zooplankton sampling and analysis in quantitative baseline and monitoring surveys are evaluated and summarized. Specific recommendations by managers must take into account characteristics of the water mass under investigation, the abundance of contained zoop...

  6. Ecology of Zooplankton of the Cape Thompson Area Alaska

    E-print Network

    Tash, Jerry C.; Armitage, Kenneth

    1967-01-01

    In a survey of the physicochemical characteristics, primary productivity and occurrence of zooplankton in fresh and brackish waters of Cape Thompson, Alaska, between June 28, 1960 and August 7, 1961, 14 species of Cladocera and 38 species...

  7. Impacts of fish predation on an Ohio River zooplankton community

    E-print Network

    Thorp, James H.

    2002-01-01

    Compared to lentic systems, much less is known about the factors that structure zooplankton communities in large river environments. In this study, we used an in situ mesocosm system, the potamocorrals, to assess the impact ...

  8. Population dynamics of pond zooplankton II Daphnia ambigua Scourfield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angino, E.E.; Armitage, K.B.; Saxena, B.

    1973-01-01

    Calcium was the most important of 27 environmental components affecting density for a 50 week period. Simultaneous stepwise regression accounted for more variability in total number/1 and in the number of ovigerous females/1 than did any of the lag analyses; 1-week lag accounted for the greatest amount of variability in clutch size. Total number and clutch size were little affected by measures of food. ?? 1973 Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers.

  9. A model for evaluation of satellite population management alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, R. E., Jr.; Jones, R. K.

    1983-12-01

    A Q-GERT model was developed to simulate the satellite environment, including the untracked man-made population, and to calculate a probability of collision for any satellite of interest. Provision for launches, explosions, collisions (including ASAT), retrieval, reposition, and decay was made. The model is structured to easily vary the rates at which these activities occur and to observe changes in the satellite population through which a satellite of interest must travel. Variance of the rates, and the resultant change in probability of collision allows evaluation of satellite population management alternatives such as reducing launch rates or increasing retrieval of spent, but still capable of exploding, satellites. The model is proposed for use by both the USAF SPACE COMMAND and NASA.

  10. Bridging the gap between ecology and genetics: The case of freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Mort, M A

    1991-02-01

    The large body of existing ecological data on freshwater systems has generated an exciting array of genetical and evolutionary hypotheses. In particular, freshwater zooplankton, due to their short generation times and ease of manipulation, are being actively studied. Results of these studies show strong links between the genetic structure of populations and habitat size, diapause stages, interspecific hybridization, intensity of selection, and subsequent ecological divergence of coexisting genotypes. Yet much of the data remains surprising and paradoxical, providing fuel for further experimental and molecular studies. PMID:21232421

  11. Zooplankton data report: the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment MIZEX, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 84) concentrated on atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea, specifically the effect of the retreating ice margin on the productivity in the area and the use of zooplanktonic species as indicators of Arctic and North Atlantic water masses. The data in this report are the quantitative analyses of zooplankton collected while aboard the research vessel Polarstern.

  12. Habitat structure and juvenile fish ontogeny shape zooplankton spring dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Nicolle; Lars-Anders Hansson; Christer Brönmark

    2010-01-01

    Macrophytes in shallow lakes have the potential to alter fish–zooplankton interactions considerably. How far predation effects\\u000a by newly hatched fish (0+ fish) on zooplankton are influenced by different types of aquatic vegetation, and how effects change\\u000a during the first weeks of fish ontogeny remains, however, less clear. In order to address these issues, we examined the predation\\u000a effects of 0+

  13. Zooplankton Chitobiase Activity as an Endpoint of Pharmaceutical Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Richards; S. E. Kelly; M. L. Hanson

    2008-01-01

    Numerous human and veterinary pharmaceuticals are constantly entering surface waters, despite little understanding of their\\u000a potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. To address this concern, an attempt to create a simple, reproducible, inexpensive,\\u000a and sublethal toxicity bioassay for freshwater zooplankton was initiated. The approach was centered on characterizing the\\u000a response of a zooplankton enzyme, chitobiase, to the presence of a toxicant.

  14. Lipids of gelatinous antarctic zooplankton: Cnidaria and Ctenophora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew M. Nelson; Charles F. Phleger; Ben D. Mooney; Peter D. Nichols

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic gelatinous zooplankton, including Cnidaria (Calycopsis borchgrevinki, Diphyes antarctica, Stygiomedusa gigantea, Atolla wyvillei, Dimophyes arctica) and Ctenophora (Beroe cucumis, B. forskalii, Pleurobrachia pileus, Bolinopsis infundibulum) were collected near Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, during January and February 1997 and 1998. Total lipid was\\u000a low in all zooplankton (0.1–5 mg g?1 wet mass) and included primarily polar lipids (59–96% of total

  15. Studies on abundance of zooplanktons in lakes of Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Savitha, N; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M

    2012-11-01

    This is the first comprehensive ecological study on the abundance of zooplankton in Kalale, Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes of Mysore. The abundance of zooplankton as well as their relation with physico-chemical parameters was analyzed, every month in these lakes from June 2008-May 2010. The mean abundance of Rotifer (281 Org (l-1)), Cladocerans (27 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (343 Org l(-1)) were more and significantly different in Dalvoy lake; whereas, in Kalale lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (19 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (3 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (79 Org l(-1)) and in Alanahalli lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (84 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (9 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (149 Org l(-1)) were significantly less. However, the abundance of Copepods and Ostracods was similar in all the three lakes studied. The water bodies of Kalale lake were less polluted when compared toAlanahalli and Dalvoy lakes. The increases in conductivity, Chl a, turbidity, phosphate, carbon-di-oxide and total anions in Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes may be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities in the catchment areas. Interrelationships between zooplankton variables and physico-chemical parameters were calculated using Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) which revealed (25) significant (P < 0.05) relationships (More (11) in Dalvoy lake and moderate (7) in Alanahalli and Kalale lakes). The stepwise multiple regression analysis (r2) showed out of 21 physico-chemical parameters studied, as many as 12 were positively controlling the abundance of zooplankton, where as the phosphate and chloride were negatively controlling the total abundance of zooplankton and the abundance of ostracods respectively. The results obtained have been discussed in the light of the present literature available in the field of aquatic microbial ecology. PMID:23741805

  16. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  17. Analysis of six groups of zooplankton in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.E.; Hopkins, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Continued analysis has been made of the 33 zooplankton collections made at the proposed OTEC site in the Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay. Six groups of zooplankton - siphonophores (Calycophora), pteropods (Thecosomata), chaetognaths, thaliaceans, euphausiids and amphipods were quantitatively investigated. Numbers and biomass were determined for all taxa and diurnal, seasonal and depth trends were discussed. Considering the present study and the previous investigation of the copepod population, this proposed OTEC site is probably one of the faunistically better known locales in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean.

  18. Branching process models for mutant genes in nonstationary populations.

    PubMed

    Lange, K; Fan, R Z

    1997-04-01

    A deleterious gene achieves a population balance between the opposing forces of selection and mutation. In this paper we explore the nature of this stochastic balance when the surrounding normal population is not at equilibrium. Assuming that new mutations occur according to a Poisson process and thereafter evolve by the rules of a continuous time branching process, we derive explicit formulas and recurrence relations determining the probability distribution of the current number of mutant individuals. In fact, we compute expectations for a variety of interesting random variables for genetic models involving autosomal dominant and X-linked diseases. We can also handle haplotype information on linked markers. This feature will be especially helpful in understanding the linkage disequilibrium strategy of positional cloning in population isolates. In the presence of exponential growth of the normal population, our formulas reduce to the evaluation of certain Laplace transforms. PMID:9169237

  19. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Bostrom, Brian L; Hastings, Mervin D; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6) t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6)) equivalent to 4.2×10(8) megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0-7.4×10(8)). Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6) t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8) MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  20. Avoiding Extinction in a Managed Single Species Population Model by means of Anticipative Control

    E-print Network

    Burke, Mark

    Avoiding Extinction in a Managed Single Species Population Model by means of Anticipative Control which end in a population collapse and consequent extinction. In a managed environment, it might population models, Allee effect, extinction, anticipative control 1 ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS Traditionally

  1. Population based models of cortical drug response: insights from anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T. J.

    2008-01-01

    A great explanatory gap lies between the molecular pharmacology of psychoactive agents and the neurophysiological changes they induce, as recorded by neuroimaging modalities. Causally relating the cellular actions of psychoactive compounds to their influence on population activity is experimentally challenging. Recent developments in the dynamical modelling of neural tissue have attempted to span this explanatory gap between microscopic targets and their macroscopic neurophysiological effects via a range of biologically plausible dynamical models of cortical tissue. Such theoretical models allow exploration of neural dynamics, in particular their modification by drug action. The ability to theoretically bridge scales is due to a biologically plausible averaging of cortical tissue properties. In the resulting macroscopic neural field, individual neurons need not be explicitly represented (as in neural networks). The following paper aims to provide a non-technical introduction to the mean field population modelling of drug action and its recent successes in modelling anaesthesia. PMID:19003456

  2. Response of zooplankton to improving water quality in the Scheldt estuary (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialet, B.; Gouzou, J.; Azémar, F.; Maris, T.; Sossou, C.; Toumi, N.; Van Damme, S.; Meire, P.; Tackx, M.

    2011-05-01

    Data obtained from 14 years of monthly samplings (1996-2009) were used to investigate the response of the crustacean zooplankton community to improving water quality in the Scheldt estuary. A strong reduction of poor water quality indicators, such as NH 4+ and BOD 5, as well as an increase in oxygen and in chlorophyll a concentrations were observed during the study period. During the study period, important changes were observed in the zooplankton community composition and spatial distribution. From 2007 onwards, most of the calanoid population, previously mainly found in the brackish water reach of the estuary, moved to the freshwater, where they reached higher abundances than previously observed. Simultaneously, cyclopoids populations strongly decreased in freshwater while cladocerans did not change their abundance, except during years with high chlorophyll a concentrations. Redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that the variability within the calanoid population can be explained by the improvement in water quality. Variability within the cyclopoids and cladoceran community is mainly explained by chlorinity and chlorophyll a concentrations. Their presence in the most polluted upstream area until 2007 suggests they are more tolerant to poor water quality than calanoids. Several hypotheses to explain the disappearance of cyclopoids after the move of calanoids to the freshwater are presented and discussed.

  3. Time-delayed coupled logistic capacity model in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cáceres, Manuel O.

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a delay-coupled system based on the logistic equation that models the interaction of a population with its varying environment. The integro-diferential equations of the model are presented in terms of a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity equation. The model eliminates the need for a prior knowledge of the maximum saturation environmental carrying capacity value. Therefore the dynamics toward the final attractor in a distributed time-delayed coupled logistic-capacity model is studied. Exact results are presented, and analytical conclusions have been done in terms of the two parameters of the model.

  4. Models and model selection uncertainty in estimating growth rates of endangered freshwater mussel populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Jiao; Richard Neves; Jess Jones

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate inference of population status for endangered species is extremely important. Using a single model for estimating population growth rates is typically inadequate for assessing endangered species because inferences based on only one ''best'' model ignore model uncertainty. In this study, the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dro- mas) in the Clinch and Powell rivers of eastern Tennessee, USA, was used

  5. The recovery of acid-damaged zooplankton communities in Canadian Lakes: the relative importance of abiotic, biotic and

    E-print Network

    Arnott, Shelley

    The recovery of acid-damaged zooplankton communities in Canadian Lakes: the relative importance taxa. Past studies with crustacean zooplankton indicate that a mixture of local abiotic variables processes for structuring recovering communities. We collected zooplankton community data, abiotic

  6. A decade of predatory control of zooplankton species composition of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Bertram, Paul; Lewis, Theodore; Brown, Edward H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    From 1983 to 1992, 71 species representing 38 genera from the Calanoida, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Mysidacea, Rotifera, Mollusca and Harpacticoida comprised the offshore zooplankton community of Lake Michigan. Our data demonstrate that the composition and abundance of the calanoid community after 1983 is not unlike that of 1960s and that species diversity of the calanoid community is more diverse than the cladoceran community in the 1990s as compared to the early 1980s. Even though the relative biomass of the cladocerans has remained similar over the 1983-1993 period, the species diversity and evenness of the Cladocera community in the early 1990s is unlike anything that has been previously reported for Lake Michigan. Cladocera dominance is centered in one species, Daphnia galeata mendotae, and only three species of Cladocera were observed in the pelagic region of the lake in 1991 and 1992. Nutrient levels, phytoplankton biomass, and the abundance of planktivorous alewife and bloater chub and Bythotrephes are examined as possible causes of these changes in zooplankton species composition. The increase in Rotifera biomass, but not Crustacea, was correlated with an increase in relative biomass of unicellular algae. Food web models suggest Bythotrephes will cause Lake Michigan's plankton to return to a community similar to that of the 1970s; that is Diaptomus dominated. Such a change has occurred. However, correlational analysis suggest that alewife and bloater chubs (especially juveniles) are affecting size and biomass of larger species of zooplankton as well as Bythotrephes.

  7. Stirring effects in models of oceanic plankton populations.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Zoltan

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview and extend previous results on the effects of large scale oceanic transport processes on plankton population dynamics, considering different types of ecosystem models. We find that increasing stirring rate in an environment where the carrying capacity is non-uniformly distributed leads to an overall decrease of the effective carrying capacity of the system. This may lead to sharp regime shifts induced by stirring in systems with multiple steady states. In prey-predator type systems, stirring leads to resonant response of the population dynamics to fluctuations enhancing the spatial variability-patchiness-in a certain range of stirring rates. Oscillatory population models produce strongly heterogeneous patchy distribution of plankton blooms when the stirring is weak, while strong stirring may either synchronise the oscillatory dynamics, when the inhomogeneity is relatively weak, or suppress oscillations completely (oscillator death) by reducing the effective carrying capacity below the bifurcation point. PMID:23020493

  8. Population Ecology: A Simple Model of a Grasshopper Population In a text on Population Ecology, Begon (1996, p. 6) describes the life cycle of the field grasshopper

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    Population Ecology: A Simple Model of a Grasshopper Population In a text on Population Ecology, Begon (1996, p. 6) describes the life cycle of the field grasshopper (Chorthippus brunneus). The grasshopper is an annual species in which each generation lasts for just one year and there is no overlap

  9. [Non-predatory mortality of the crustacean zooplankton and its possible causes (a literature review)].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, O P

    2009-01-01

    General mortality (death rate, d) in natural populations of the crustacean zooplankton is calculated as difference between birth rate (b) and population growth rate (r). The mortality includes both predatory (consumptive) and non-predatory (non-consumptive), or "natural", deaths of individuals due to senescence, diseases and parasites, starvation, limiting physical and chemical factors of anthropogenic or natural origin. Modem methods of evaluation of non-predatory mortality of the plankton crustaceans, including direct method based on live/dead sorting by special staining of samples and measurements of sedimentation rate of dead individuals using a sedimentation trap are briefly characterized. Possible causes of non-predatory mortality of crustacean are examined based on different (mainly fresh) temperate water bodies. The possible causes are classified as: physical conditions including temperature, wind effects, ultraviolet radiation, water turbidity, current velocity; chemical conditions including concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH value, water toxicity of both anthropogenic (due to pollutant inflow) and natural (due to cyanobacterial bloom and ingestion of some toxic diatoms by copepods) origin; parasites and epibionts; bottom-up factors or food limitation including quantity and quality of food, the former as content of carbon (energy) and the latter as content of essential compounds in food. It is concluded that, for the populations of crustacean herbivorous zooplankton, the biotic factors appeared to be more important and more probable causes of non-predatory mortality than the abiotic ones, under conditions of non-acid water bodies of the temperate zone when the current speed is less than critical one (0.25 m/c) and in absence of the anthropogenic toxicants. These factors are primarily a food poor quality due to low content of phosphorus, nitrogen, polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega3 family and others, as well as microparasites causing infections and, to a lesser extent (just in blooming water bodies), natural toxicity of cyanobacteria. Non-optimal for the zooplankton physical and chemical factors, as causes of non-predatory mortality of plankton crustaceans, appeared to be less important because of their acting episodically in time locally in space, so the zooplankton is able to avoid their effects and to regenerate fast. PMID:19425353

  10. Survival, extinction and ergodicity in a spatially continuous population model

    E-print Network

    Berestycki, Nathanaël

    Survival, extinction and ergodicity in a spatially continuous population model N. Berestycki, A of varying intensity allows for the possibility of large-scale extinction and recoloni- sation, ergodicity, survival, extinction, diffusion approximation 1 #12;of the number of offspring of each individual

  11. Models for Interacting Populations of Memes: Competition and Niche Behavior

    E-print Network

    Models for Interacting Populations of Memes: Competition and Niche Behavior Michael L. Best Media on Latent Semantic Indexing, to study the dynamics of memes on the Net. Our analysis discovers replicating memes within posts to the USENET News (or NetNews) system. We cluster the posts to NetNews into clouds

  12. Modeling of Replacement Alternatives for Power Transformer Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjan van Schijndel; Peter A. A. F. Wouters; Joseph M. Wetzer

    2012-01-01

    The age of the majority of power transformers installed in the western electricity network reaches 30 to 60 years and replacement on short term seems eminent. A technically sound policy concerning the replacement of these assets requires a model that estimates the life expectancies of individual components and from that calculates parameters related to the behavior of a population of

  13. Stochastic predator-prey models: Population oscillations, spatial correlations,

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    NSF-DMR 0308548, IAESTE #12;Outline · Introductory remarks · Lotka-Volterra predator-prey interaction interaction · predators: A 0 death, rate · prey: B B+B birth, rate · predation: A+B A+A, rate (AStochastic predator-prey models: Population oscillations, spatial correlations, and the effect

  14. Parsimonious snow model explains reindeer population dynamics and ranging behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Aanes, R.; Hansen, B. B.; Loe, L.; Severinsen, T.; Stien, A.

    2008-12-01

    Winter snow is a key factor affecting polar ecosystems. One example is the strong negative correlation of winter precipitation with fluctuations in population in some high-arctic animal populations. Ice layers within and at the base of the snowpack have particularly deleterious effects on such populations. Svalbard reindeer have small home ranges and are vulnerable to local "locked pasture" events due to ground-ice formation. When pastures are locked, reindeer are faced with the decision of staying, living off a diminishing fat store, or trying to escape beyond the unknown spatial borders of the ice. Both strategies may inhibit reproduction and increase mortality, leading to population declines. Here we assess the impact of winter snow and ice on the population dynamics of an isolated herd of Svalbard reindeer near Ny-Ålesund, monitored annually since 1978, with a retrospective analysis of the winter snowpack. Because there are no long-term observational records of snow or snow properties, such as ice layers, we must recourse to snowpack modeling. A parsimonious model of snow and ground-ice thickness is driven with daily temperature and precipitation data collected at a nearby weather station. The model uses the degree-day concept and has three adjustable parameters which are tuned to correlate model snow and ground-ice thicknesses to the limited observations available: April snow accumulation measurements on two local glaciers, and a limited number of ground-ice observations made in recent years. Parameter values used are comparable to those reported elsewhere. We find that modeled mean winter ground-ice thickness explains a significant percentage of the observed variance in reindeer population growth rate. Adding other explanatory parameters, such as modeled mean winter snowpack thickness or previous years' population size does not significanly improve the relation. Furthermore, positioning data from a small subset of reindeer show that model icing events are highly correlated to an immediate increase in range displacement between 5-day observations, suggesting that Svalbard reindeer use space opportunistically in winter, a behavioral trait that may buffer some of the negative effects of the expected climate change in the Arctic.

  15. Fitting Population Models Incorporating Process Noise and Observation Error

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry de Valpine; Alan Hastings

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. We evaluate,a method,for fitting models,to time series of population,abun- dances,that incorporates both process noise and observation,error in a likelihood framework. The method follows the probability logic of the Kalman filter, but whereas the Kalman filter applies to linear, Gaussian systems, we implement the full probability calculations numerically so that any nonlinear, non-Gaussian model can be used. We refer to

  16. CISNET: A Population-Based Policy Model for Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In the first CISNET project we developed a population-based Monte Carlo simulation model that evaluates national trends in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). The HSPH-CISNET Model incorporates age-, sex-, and race-specific trends in CRC risk factors, screening, and treatment, as well as the effects of risk factors and screening on the underlying natural history of colorectal disease and the effectiveness of treatment for patients with diagnosed CRC.

  17. Using stage-based system dynamics modeling for demographic management of captive populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J. Faust; Steven D. Thompson; Joanne M. Earnhardt; Ellen Brown; Sadie Ryan; Michelle Sherman; Meghan Yurenka

    2003-01-01

    Management of captive populations relies on a complex synthesis of genetic and demographic analyses to guide populations toward sustainability. Demographic analyses of captive populations currently utilize age-based matrix projections to predict a population's trajectory. An alternate approach is to use a stage-based, system dynamics model for captive systems. Such models can more easily incorporate complex captive systems in which population

  18. Modelling Spread of Oncolytic Viruses in Heterogeneous Cell Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Michael; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2014-03-01

    One of the most promising areas in current cancer research and treatment is the use of viruses to attack cancer cells. A number of oncolytic viruses have been identified to date that possess the ability to destroy or neutralize cancer cells while inflicting minimal damage upon healthy cells. Formulation of predictive models that correctly describe the evolution of infected tumor systems is critical to the successful application of oncolytic virus therapy. A number of different models have been proposed for analysis of the oncolytic virus-infected tumor system, with approaches ranging from traditional coupled differential equations such as the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey models, to contemporary modeling frameworks based on neural networks and cellular automata. Existing models are focused on tumor cells and the effects of virus infection, and offer the potential for improvement by including effects upon normal cells. We have recently extended the traditional framework to a 2-cell model addressing the full cellular system including tumor cells, normal cells, and the impacts of viral infection upon both populations. Analysis of the new framework reveals complex interaction between the populations and potential inability to simultaneously eliminate the virus and tumor populations.

  19. A Hierarchical Model for Estimating Change in American Woodcock Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Sauer; William A. Link; William L. Kendall; James R. Kelley; Daniel K. Niven

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Singing-Ground,Survey (SGS) is a primary,source of information,on population,change,for American,woodcock (Scolopax minor). We analyzed the SGS using a hierarchical log-linear model,and compared,the estimates of change,and annual,indices of abundance,to a route regression analysis of SGS data. We also grouped,SGS routes into Bird Conservation,Regions (BCRs) and estimated population change and annual indices using BCRs within states and provinces as strata. Based

  20. Two stressors and a community: effects of hydrological disturbance and a toxicant on freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Stampfli, Nathalie C; Knillmann, Saskia; Liess, Matthias; Noskov, Yury A; Schäfer, Ralf B; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2013-02-01

    Climate change models predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme fluctuations in water level in aquatic habitats. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the combined effects of hydrological fluctuations and toxicants on aquatic biological communities. We investigated the individual and combined effects of the insecticide esfenvalerate and recurring fluctuations in water level on zooplankton communities in a system of 55 outdoor pond microcosms. The communities were exposed to esfenvalerate contamination as a single pulse (at 0.03, 0.3, or 3?g/L) and gradual removal of water and its subsequent replacement over three cycles and monitored until 84 days after contamination. The results showed that the sensitivities of the community and its constituent populations to the toxicant were increased by the hydrological stress. Specifically, for both the community structure and abundance of Daphnia spp. the lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) were 0.03 and 0.3?g/L for the series with fluctuating and constant water levels, respectively. Despite these differences in sensitivity, the interactive effects of the two stressors were found to be additive for both the community structure and the abundance of the most affected species. Presumably, it was not possible to detect synergism due to the strong individual effects of the water level fluctuations. Recovery times in the series exposed to the highest pesticide concentration were 64 and 55 days under fluctuating and constant water level regimes, respectively. Competition and water quality are suggested to be the major factors that underlie the observed effects of fluctuations in the water level. For the ecological risk assessment of toxicants, the present results suggest that (i) community sensitivity may vary substantially, depending on the environmental context, and (ii) this variability can be assessed experimentally to derive safety factors (coefficients used to avoid unexpected effects and define safe concentrations of toxicants) based on empirical findings. This contrasts with the current approach where such factors are usually defined arbitrarily. PMID:23063066

  1. A stochastic population model of mid-continental mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, R.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Samuel, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a simulation model that integrates infonnation on factors affecting the population dynamics of mallards in the mid-continental region of the United States. In the model we vary age, body mass, and reproductive and molt status of simulated females. Females use several types of nesting and foraging habitat in 15 geographic areas. Deterministic and stochastic events cause mortality or attribute changes on a daily basis, depending on current attributes, habitat, area, calendar date, wetland conditions, temperature, and various mortality agents. Because the model encompasses the entire year, it can be used to examine cross-seasonal effects. A simulated increase in nest success from 0.14 to 0.17 changed the annual rate of population growth from -6% to -1 %. A simulated 75% reduction in lead poisoning changed the rate from -6% to -3%.

  2. Sample size computations for PK/PD population models.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwoo; Schwartz, Janice B; Verotta, Davide

    2005-12-01

    We describe an accurate, yet simple and fast sample size computation method for hypothesis testing in population PK/PD studies. We use a first order approximation to the nonlinear mixed effects model and chi-square distributed Wald statistic to compute the minimum sample size to achieve given degree of power in rejecting a null hypothesis in population PK/PD studies. The method is an extension of Rochon's sample size computation method for repeated measurement experiments. We compute sample sizes for PK and PK/PD models with different conditions, and use Monte Carlo simulation to show that the computed sample size retrieves the required power. We also show the effect of different sampling strategies, such as minimal, i.e., as many observations per individual as parameters in the model, and intensive on sample size. The proposed sample size computation method can produce estimates of minimum sample size to achieve the desired power in hypothesis testing in a greatly reduced time than currently available simulation-based methods. The method is rapid and efficient for sample size computation in population PK/PD study using nonlinear mixed effect models. The method is general and can accommodate any type of hierarchical models. Simulation results suggest that intensive sampling allows the reduction of the number of patients enrolled in a clinical study. PMID:16284914

  3. Food limitation, predation and allelopathy in a population of Daphnia carinata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn W. Burns; Allison Dodds

    1999-01-01

    Major factors influencing the population dynamics of zooplankton are food availability and predation. Also, especially in shallow lakes, zooplankton may be affected by benthic macrophytes, some species of which produce allelopathic substances, and by suspended sediments which may constitute an additional food resource, or inhibit feeding. We estimated the influence of resource availability, predation by larval fish, and potential allelopathic

  4. Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia

    E-print Network

    Dzeroski, Saso

    2003-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453­469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia A tool of the core area, and its potential habitat based on natural habitat suitability. Data collected through of the population and maps of its optimal and maximal potential habitat (based on natural suitability). Overall

  5. Zooplankton Successions in Neighboring Lakes with Contrasting Impacts of Amphibian and Fish Predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schabetsberger, Robert; Grill, Susanne; Hauser, Gabriele; Wukits, Petra

    2006-06-01

    Two pairs of neighboring subalpine lakes located in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria were investigated. Each pair comprised a deeper lake containing European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus ), and a corresponding shallower lake harboring Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris ) as top predators. Plankton successions within fish and amphibian lakes differed markedly from each other. Throughout the year rotifers numerically dominated within the minnow lakes, while pigmented copepods (Genera Heterocope, Acanthodiaptomus , Arctodiaptomus , Mixodiaptomus ) and Daphnia were prominent in the amphibian lakes, at least early during the ice-free period. We argue that size-selective predation by minnows was the ultimate reason for this predominance of smaller zooplankton. While one of the minnow lakes was characterized by a succession of spatially and temporally segregated rotifer species, the other minnow lake permitted the development of populations of small-sized Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia during summer, probably due to the existence of a strong oxycline allowing zooplankton crustaceans to avoid predation from shore-based shoals of minnows. Once trout were introduced into this lake, minnows were visibly reduced in abundance. Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia disappeared and Daphnia together with a predacious copepod (Heterocope ) emerged either from egg banks or arrived from nearby source populations. We argue that the crustacean communities within the fishless lakes were adapted to the comparatively weak predation rates of Alpine newts.

  6. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  7. Imazethapyr and imazapic, bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam: zooplankton and dissipation in subtropical rice paddy water.

    PubMed

    Reimche, Geovane B; Machado, Sérgio L O; Oliveira, Maria Angélica; Zanella, Renato; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Erico M M; Gonçalves, Fábio F; Donato, Filipe F; Nunes, Matheus A G

    2015-05-01

    Herbicides are very effective at eliminating weed and are largely used in rice paddy around the world, playing a fundamental role in maximizing yield. Therefore, considering the flooded environment of rice paddies, it is necessary to understand the side effects on non-target species. Field experiment studies were carried out during two rice growing seasons in order to address how the commonly-used herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic, bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam, used at recommended dosage, affect water quality and the non-target zooplankton community using outdoor rice field microcosm set-up. The shortest (4.9 days) and longest (12.2 days) herbicide half-life mean, estimated of the dissipation rate (k) is shown for imazethapyr and bispyribac-sodium, respectively. Some water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, hardness, BOD5, boron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and chlorides) achieved slightly higher values at the herbicide treatment. Zooplankton community usually quickly recovered from the tested herbicide impact. Generally, herbicides led to an increase of cladocera, copepods and nauplius population, while rotifer population decreased, with recovery at the end of the experiment (88 days after herbicide treatment). PMID:25659307

  8. Effect of cadmium level and exposure time on the competition between zooplankton species Moina macrocopa (Cladocera) and Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Gama-Flores, Jose Luis; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2006-01-01

    Competition among zooplankton is a natural phenomenon and often cladocerans are competitively superior to rotifers. However, anthropogenic factors including the release of industrial effluents, may influence this interaction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cadmium (0.05 and 0.1 mg L(-1) as CdCl(2)) on competition between the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Since the release of industrial effluents is generally pulsed, we also exposed the test zooplankton species at different exposure periods (3, 6, 12 and 24 h) to the heavy metal. Regardless of exposure time and the presence of competing species, an increase in concentration of Cd resulted in decreased population growth of M. macrocopa and B. calyciflorus. Regardless of presence of the competing species and Cd concentration, an increase in exposure period resulted in decreased population growth rates of both the zooplankton species. In mixed cultures, in general, M. macrocopa outcompeted B. calyciflorus and completely eliminated it under conditions of high toxicant concentrations and longer exposure time. PMID:16760085

  9. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  10. A habitat-based population model for the Great Lakes population of the piping plover ( Charadrius melodus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren C Wemmer; Uygar Özesmi; Francesca J Cuthbert

    2001-01-01

    We created a stochastic habitat-based population model to compare the relative effectiveness of potential conservation strategies to increase the endangered Great Lakes population of piping plovers. Initial model parameters were based on an extensive 14-year dataset obtained by annual studies of breeding pairs in Michigan and 6 years of observations of color-marked individuals. Cumulative persistence probability curves and population trends

  11. Health promotion communications system: a model for a dispersed population.

    PubMed

    Foran, M; Campanelli, L C

    1995-11-01

    1. Corporations with geographically dispersed populations need to provide flexible health promotion programs tailored to meet specific employee interests and needs. 2. Bell Atlantic developed a dispersed model approach based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. The key to this model is to identify at which stage the individual is operating and provide appropriate information and behavior change programs. 3. Components of the program include: health risk appraisal; exercise/activity tracking system; on line nurse health information service; network of fitness facilities; employee assistance programs; health library available by fax; health film library; network of health promotion volunteers; and targeted health and marketing messaged via corporate media. PMID:7575792

  12. Zooplankton communities of a new pumped storage reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D.U. (Water Quality Control Bureau, Santa Fe, NM); Meyer, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    Zooplankton colonization was followed for 16 months in Lake Oconee, Georgia, a new pumped storage reservoir. Data were interpreted to identify differences among stations and seasons, as a function of the reservoir's early stage of development and of pumped storage operations. Colonization was rapid, and the zooplankton community was characterized by a high species diversity; approximately 40 rotifer species and 14 cladoceran genera were recorded. Zooplankton density varied along an environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions. Rotifer abundance varied from 10/sup 4/-10/sup 6/ individuals/m/sup 3/, with maxima in the summers. Copepod and cladoceran densities ranged from 10/sup 3/ to nearly 10/sup 5/ individuals/m/sup 3/; maxima for stations other than the dam were observed in the summer and early fall, but high values at the dam station occurred throughout winter 1980. When pumped storage operations began in December 1979, zooplankton densities increased at the dam station. Pumpback decreased the intensity of the environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions, and led to a more similar zooplankton community structure throughout the reservoir.

  13. Nitrogen isotopic ratios in fecal pellets produced by marine zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Altabet, M.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Small, L.F. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

    1990-01-01

    At each site and in every season studied, zooplankton in the upper ocean produced fecal pellets that were 1.3% lower in {delta}{sup 15}N than their body tissue but 2.2% higher than their apparent food source. {sup 14}N-containing molecules are evidently preferentially assimilated in zooplankton intestinal tracts, though other isotopic effects must account for the enrichment in {sup 15}N of these organisms relative to their food. These results also show zooplankton to be important modifiers of nitrogen isotopic ratios for marine particulate matter. {delta}{sup 15}N values for sinking particles and fecal pellets are similar, supporting the perspective that macrozooplankton are important factors in producing and processing particles that sink into the ocean's interior and sediments. In contrast, the relationship in {delta}{sup 15}N between fecal pellets and suspended particles in the euphotic zone is more variable. It appears that zooplankton select food particles of varying {delta}{sup 15}N from the suspended particle pool. These results suggest that both zooplankton feeding behavior and their digestive chemistry are important in determining the composition of sinking particulate matter in the ocean with respect to the suspended particle source in the euphotic zone.

  14. Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    A general Bayesian model, Diploffect, is described for estimating the effects of founder haplotypes at quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in multiparental genetic populations; such populations include the Collaborative Cross (CC), Heterogeneous Socks (HS), and many others for which local genetic variation is well described by an underlying, usually probabilistically inferred, haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects that takes into account the following: uncertainty in haplotype composition for each individual; uncertainty arising from small sample sizes and infrequently observed haplotype combinations; possible effects of dominance (for noninbred subjects); genetic background; and that provides a means to incorporate data that may be incomplete or has a hierarchical structure. Using the results of a probabilistic haplotype reconstruction as prior information, we obtain posterior distributions at the QTL for both haplotype effects and haplotype composition. Two alternative computational approaches are supplied: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler and a procedure based on importance sampling of integrated nested Laplace approximations. Using simulations of QTL in the incipient CC (pre-CC) and Northport HS populations, we compare the accuracy of Diploffect, approximations to it, and more commonly used approaches based on Haley–Knott regression, describing trade-offs between these methods. We also estimate effects for three QTL previously identified in those populations, obtaining posterior intervals that describe how the phenotype might be affected by diplotype substitutions at the modeled locus. PMID:25236455

  15. Modelling Food and Population Dynamics in Honey Bee Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, David S.; Barron, Andrew B.; Myerscough, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are increasingly in demand as pollinators for various key agricultural food crops, but globally honey bee populations are in decline, and honey bee colony failure rates have increased. This scenario highlights a need to understand the conditions in which colonies flourish and in which colonies fail. To aid this investigation we present a compartment model of bee population dynamics to explore how food availability and bee death rates interact to determine colony growth and development. Our model uses simple differential equations to represent the transitions of eggs laid by the queen to brood, then hive bees and finally forager bees, and the process of social inhibition that regulates the rate at which hive bees begin to forage. We assume that food availability can influence both the number of brood successfully reared to adulthood and the rate at which bees transition from hive duties to foraging. The model predicts complex interactions between food availability and forager death rates in shaping colony fate. Low death rates and high food availability results in stable bee populations at equilibrium (with population size strongly determined by forager death rate) but consistently increasing food reserves. At higher death rates food stores in a colony settle at a finite equilibrium reflecting the balance of food collection and food use. When forager death rates exceed a critical threshold the colony fails but residual food remains. Our model presents a simple mathematical framework for exploring the interactions of food and forager mortality on colony fate, and provides the mathematical basis for more involved simulation models of hive performance. PMID:23667418

  16. Population effects of increased climate variation

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M

    2005-01-01

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fact that population growth is a multiplicative process and that long-run population growth rate is the geometric mean of growth rates over time, which is always less than the arithmetic mean. However, when population growth rates for unstructured populations are related nonlinearly to environmental drivers, increasing environmental variation can increase a population's long-run growth rate. This suggests that patterns of environmental variation associated with different aspects of climate change may affect population dynamics in different ways. Specifically, increasing variation in rainfall might result in diminished long-run growth rates for many animal species while increasing variation in temperature might result in increased long-run growth rates. While the effect of rainfall is theoretically well understood and supported by data, the hypothesized effect of temperature is not. Here, I analyse two datasets to study the effect of fluctuating temperatures on growth rates of zooplankton. Results are consistent with the prediction that fluctuating temperatures should increase long-run growth rates and the frequency of extreme demographic events. PMID:16096095

  17. The importance of zooplankton-protozoan trophic couplings in Lake Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUNTER J. CARRICK; GARY L. FAHNENSTIEL; EUGENE F. STOERMER; ROBERT G. WETZEL

    1991-01-01

    Abstract The importance,of the zooplankton-protozoan,trophic coupling was determined,experimentally by measured,changes in protozoan,growth rates with increasing zooplankton,biomass. In five of six experiments conducted in Lake Michigan, a significant inverse relationship between protozoan growth and zooplankton biomass was observed (avg r2 = 70%), Zooplankton clearance rates on protozoan assemblages (range, 1.0-6.2 ml (pg dry wt)-I d ‘1 were comparable to those previously

  18. Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

    2012-05-01

    Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

  19. The retreat of the less fit allele in a population-controlled model for population genetics.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Hans F

    2014-04-01

    It is shown that the solutions of a single-locus diploid model with population control for the spatial and temporal interaction of the three genotypes approach a constant-density equilibrium in which only the more fit allele is present, provided the density dependent birth rate and fitnesses have certain properties. The speed at which this phenomenon spreads is at least as great as that of the linearization of the corresponding Fisher equation. A larger upper bound for this speed is also obtained. PMID:23549910

  20. ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON HYDRODYNAMIC DISTURBANCES

    E-print Network

    ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON HYDRODYNAMIC DISTURBANCES A Thesis Institute of Technology December 2009 #12;ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON identification of numerous zooplankton species, the ability to sort copepods on a rocking boat, and her

  1. Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 14451461 Zooplankton vertical migration and the active transport of

    E-print Network

    Hansell, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 1445­1461 Zooplankton vertical migration and the active transport that the active transport of inorganic carbon and nutrients by diel vertical migration of zooplankton (DOM) by migrating zooplankton enhances this export by creating a migratory DOM pump. We measured

  2. Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 109121 Acoustic observations of finescale zooplankton distributions

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 109­121 Acoustic observations of finescale zooplankton distributions of small and finescale phytoplankton and zooplankton vertical distributions in continental shelf waters that discrete, finescale vertical distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be common in productive

  3. Zooplankton Distribution and Transport in the California Current off Oregon4 , Zhou M.1*

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    1 1 2 3 Zooplankton Distribution and Transport in the California Current off Oregon4 5 6 Wu D.1;2 ABSTRACT: The transport and retention of zooplankton biomass in the shelf and25 slope regions off Oregon resolution28 measurements of temperature, salinity, depth, fluorescence and zooplankton29 abundance

  4. Biomasses of Euphausiids and Smaller Zooplankton in the California Current-Geographic and

    E-print Network

    Biomasses of Euphausiids and Smaller Zooplankton in the California Current. Conversi ABSTRACT: We examined data on size-fraction- ated zooplankton biomasses from the California Current in summer to 1) verify that euphausiid and smaller zooplankton biomasses varied in similar ways

  5. ESTIMATED ZOOPLANKTON PRODUCTION AND THEIR AMMONIA EXCRETION IN THE KUROSHIO AND ADJACENT SEAS

    E-print Network

    ESTIMATED ZOOPLANKTON PRODUCTION AND THEIR AMMONIA EXCRETION IN THE KUROSHIO AND ADJACENT SEAS TSUTOMU IKEDAl AND SIGERU MOTODA2 ABSTRACf Production and ammonia excretion of zooplankton in the Kuroshio of zooplankton, and from experimental data ofrespiration and ammonia excretion rates as functions ofbody size

  6. Comparison of acoustic and net sampling systems to determine patterns in zooplankton distribution

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    Comparison of acoustic and net sampling systems to determine patterns in zooplankton distribution distributions of zooplankton that were resolved acoustically were not apparent within the integrated depth strata of the individual MOCNESS net samples. The taxonomic and size composition of the zooplankton

  7. ANNUAL FLUCTUATIONS IN BIOMASS OF TAXONOMIC GROUPS OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT, 1955-59

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL FLUCTUATIONS IN BIOMASS OF TAXONOMIC GROUPS OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT, 1955-59 J. M. COLEBROOK' ABSTRACT Year-to-year fluctuations in the abundance of the zooplankton of zooplankton as well as an index of "trophodynamic complexity." The categories were chosen to represent

  8. COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE NEW YORK BIGHT, SEPTEMBER 1974-SEPTEMBER 1975

    E-print Network

    COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE NEW YORK BIGHT, SEPTEMBER 1974-SEPTEMBER 1975 DAVID C. JUDKINS,l CREIGHTON D. WIRICK,l AND WAYNE E. ESAIAS' ABSTRACT Zooplankton taxa were during autumn 1974 and summer 1975, an offshore (>50 m water depth) zooplankton abundance maximum

  9. Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system Hongsheng) was estimated from a 15 year time series of zooplankton samples (1996­2010) collected biweekly at a coastal dynamics. Citation: Bi, H., W. T. Peterson, and P. T. Strub (2011), Transport and coastal zooplankton

  10. Relative importance of environmental, geographic, and spatial variables on zooplankton metacommunities

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Diane

    Relative importance of environmental, geographic, and spatial variables on zooplankton, and spatial variables on zooplankton metacommunities. Ecosphere 5(9):104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES14 learning analyses to characterize metacommunity structure of zooplankton from lakes in the northeast United

  11. The role of dispersal levels, Allee effects and community resistance as zooplankton communities

    E-print Network

    Arnott, Shelley

    's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3J9, Canada Summary 1. Worldwide, freshwater zooplankton communities have beenThe role of dispersal levels, Allee effects and community resistance as zooplankton communities, habitat alteration and climate change. Understanding the factors that affect zooplankton community

  12. Development and Use of a Zooplankton Index of Wetland Quality in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in biological monitoring as an ecosystem assessment tool has stimulated the development of a number of biotic indices designed to aid in the evaluation of ecosystem integrity; however, zooplankton have rarely been included in biomonitoring schemes. We developed a wetland zooplankton index (WZI) based on water quality and zooplankton associations with aquatic vegetation (emergent, submergent, and floating-leaf) that

  13. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Martin; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter. PMID:25764501

  14. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Martin; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter. PMID:25764501

  15. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

  16. Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Biological Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. A. M., Arafa; S. Z., Rida; H., Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to solve generalized biological population models. The fractional derivatives are described by Caputo's sense. The method introduces a significant improvement in this field over existing techniques. Results obtained using the scheme presented here agree well with the analytical solutions and the numerical results presented in Ref. [6]. However, the fundamental solutions of these equations still exhibit useful scaling properties that make them attractive for applications.

  17. Modeling of LEO orbital debris populations for ORDEM2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-L. Xu; M. Horstman; P. H. Krisko; J.-C. Liou; M. Matney; E. G. Stansbery; C. L. Stokely; D. Whitlock

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2000, is in the process of being updated to a new version: ORDEM2008. The data-driven ORDEM covers a spectrum of object size from 10?m to greater than 1m, and ranging from LEO (low Earth orbit) to GEO (geosynchronous orbit) altitude regimes. ORDEM2008 centimeter-sized populations are statistically derived from Haystack and HAX (the Haystack Auxiliary)

  18. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  19. Stellar population models based on new generation stellar library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, M.; Vazdekis, A.

    The spectral predictions of stellar population models are not as accurate in the ultra-violet (UV) as in the optical wavelength domain. One of the reasons is the lack of high-quality stellar libraries. The New Generation Stellar Library (NGSL), recently released, represents a significant step towards the improvement of this situation. To prepare NGSL for population synthesis, we determined the atmospheric parameters of its stars, we assessed the precision of the wavelength calibration and characterised its intrinsic resolution. We also measured the Galactic extinction for each of the NGSL stars. For our analyses we used Ulyss, a full spectrum fitting package, fitting the NGSL spectra against the MILES interpolator. As a second step we build preliminary single stellar population models using Vazdekis (2003) synthesis code. We find that the wavelength calibration is precise up to 0.1 px, after correcting a systematic effect in the optical range. The spectral resolution varies from 3 Å in the UV to 10 Å in the near-infrared (NIR), corresponding to a roughly constant reciprocal resolution R=?/?? ?1000 and an instrumental velocity dispersion ?_{ins} ? 130 kms. We derived the atmospheric parameters homogeneously. The precision for the FGK stars is 42 K, 0.24 and 0.09 dex for teff, logg and feh, respectively. The corresponding mean errors are 150 K, 0.50 and 0.48 dex for the M stars, and for the OBA stars they are 4.5 percent, 0.44 and 0.18 dex. The comparison with the literature shows that our results are not biased. Our first version of models compares well with models based on optical libraries, having the advantages to be free from artifacts due to the atmosphere. In future we will fine-tune our models by comparing to different models and observations of globular clusters.

  20. Comparisons of zooplankton community size structure in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurista, Peder M.; Kelly, John R.; Miller, Samuel E.

    2006-05-01

    Zooplankton mean size and size spectra distribution potentially reflect the condition of trophic interactions and ecosystem health because they are affected by both resource availability and planktivore pressure. We assessed zooplankton mean size and size spectra using an optical plankton counter (OPC) on 35 site visits among lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario (2002-2003). The surveys were conducted in both nearshore regions (5-20 m depth) and on associated transects to offshore regions either greater than 8 km from shore or greater than 100 m depth. The survey sites were distributed across a gradient of land use disturbance in watersheds adjacent to the nearshore regions. The mean size, biomass density, statistical size distribution, and normalized biomass size spectra of zooplankton were determined from OPC measurements for all locations. Significant differences among lakes were observed in mean size, biomass, and the parameters of size spectra distributions for both nearshore and offshore regions. Significant differences within lakes were observed in some parameters that also allowed for significant discrimination between nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in lakes Michigan (mean size, biomass, one spectral parameter), Ontario (mean size, three spectral parameters), and Superior (one spectral parameter). Similarly, some parameters allowed for discrimination between offshore epilimnion and hypolimnion waters in lakes Michigan (mean size, biomass, and four spectral parameters), Huron (biomass), and Ontario (two spectral parameters). The use of OPC technology and parameters that characterize spectral shape may have potential as an efficient and economic way for developing a size-based zooplankton metric to discriminate among zooplankton communities in the Great Lakes.

  1. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agust?, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  2. High Mortality of Red Sea Zooplankton under Ambient Solar Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M. O.; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agust?, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h?1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h?1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  3. Richards-like two species population dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fabiano; Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2014-12-01

    The two-species population dynamics model is the simplest paradigm of inter- and intra-species interaction. Here, we present a generalized Lotka-Volterra model with intraspecific competition, which retrieves as particular cases, some well-known models. The generalization parameter is related to the species habitat dimensionality and their interaction range. Contrary to standard models, the species coupling parameters are general, not restricted to non-negative values. Therefore, they may represent different ecological regimes, which are derived from the asymptotic solution stability analysis and are represented in a phase diagram. In this diagram, we have identified a forbidden region in the mutualism regime, and a survival/extinction transition with dependence on initial conditions for the competition regime. Also, we shed light on two types of predation and competition: weak, if there are species coexistence, or strong, if at least one species is extinguished. PMID:25112794

  4. Modelling Lipid Competition Dynamics in Heterogeneous Protocell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Shirt-Ediss, Ben; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Mavelli, Fabio; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in the field of synthetic protocell biology has shown that prebiotic vesicles are able to ‘steal’ lipids from each other. This phenomenon is driven purely by asymmetries in the physical state or composition of the vesicle membranes, and, when lipid resource is limited, translates directly into competition amongst the vesicles. Such a scenario is interesting from an origins of life perspective because a rudimentary form of cell-level selection emerges. To sharpen intuition about possible mechanisms underlying this behaviour, experimental work must be complemented with theoretical modelling. The aim of this paper is to provide a coarse-grain mathematical model of protocell lipid competition. Our model is capable of reproducing, often quantitatively, results from core experimental papers that reported distinct types vesicle competition. Additionally, we make some predictions untested in the lab, and develop a general numerical method for quickly solving the equilibrium point of a model vesicle population. PMID:25024020

  5. Medaka: a promising model animal for comparative population genomics

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Oota, Hiroki; Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koji; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Oda, Shoji; Kawamura, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Within-species genome diversity has been best studied in humans. The international HapMap project has revealed a tremendous amount of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among humans, many of which show signals of positive selection during human evolution. In most of the cases, however, functional differences between the alleles remain experimentally unverified due to the inherent difficulty of human genetic studies. It would therefore be highly useful to have a vertebrate model with the following characteristics: (1) high within-species genetic diversity, (2) a variety of gene-manipulation protocols already developed, and (3) a completely sequenced genome. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and its congeneric species, tiny fresh-water teleosts distributed broadly in East and Southeast Asia, meet these criteria. Findings Using Oryzias species from 27 local populations, we conducted a simple screening of nonsynonymous SNPs for 11 genes with apparent orthology between medaka and humans. We found medaka SNPs for which the same sites in human orthologs are known to be highly differentiated among the HapMap populations. Importantly, some of these SNPs show signals of positive selection. Conclusion These results indicate that medaka is a promising model system for comparative population genomics exploring the functional and adaptive significance of allelic differentiations. PMID:19426554

  6. An avoidance behavior model for migrating whale populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, John R.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2003-04-01

    A new model is presented for the avoidance behavior of migrating marine mammals in the presence of a noise stimulus. This model assumes that each whale will adjust its movement pattern near a sound source to maintain its exposure below its own individually specific maximum received sound-pressure level, called its avoidance threshold. The probability distribution function (PDF) of this avoidance threshold across individuals characterizes the migrating population. The avoidance threshold PDF may be estimated by comparing the distribution of migrating whales during playback and control conditions at their closest point of approach to the sound source. The proposed model was applied to the January 1998 experiment which placed a single acoustic source from the U.S. Navy SURTASS-LFA system in the migration corridor of grey whales off the California coast. This analysis found that the median avoidance threshold for this migrating grey whale population was 135 dB, with 90% confidence that the median threshold was within +/-3 dB of this value. This value is less than the 141 dB value for 50% avoidance obtained when the 1984 ``Probability of Avoidance'' model of Malme et al.'s was applied to the same data. [Work supported by ONR.

  7. Neural population models for perception of motion in depth.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuyan; Shi, Bertram E

    2014-08-01

    Changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD) are two possible mechanisms for stereomotion perception. We propose two neurally plausible models for the representation of motion-in-depth (MID) via the CD and IOVD mechanisms. These models create distributed representations of MID velocity as the responses from a population of neurons selective to different MID velocity. Estimates of perceived MID velocity can be computed from the population response. They can be applied directly to binocular image sequences commonly used to characterize MID perception in psychophysical experiments. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that the CD and IOVD mechanisms cannot be distinguished easily by random dot stereograms that disrupt correlations between the two eyes or through time. We also demonstrate that the assumed spatial connectivity between the units in these models can be learned through exposure to natural binocular stimuli. Our experiments with these developmental models of MID selectivity suggest that neurons selective to MID are more likely to develop via the CD mechanism than the IOVD mechanism. PMID:24814174

  8. Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Franz, Eelco; Nierop Groot, Masja; Tromp, Seth-Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count of the indigenous microbial population, the maximum pathogen growth rate and the maximum population density of the indigenous microbial population. The model is parameterized by experimental data describing growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds at inoculum size, native microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. The obtained model fits well to the experimental data, with standard errors less than ten percent of the fitted average values. The results show that the MPD of Salmonella is not only dictated by performance characteristics of Salmonella but depends on the characteristics of the indigenous microbial population like total number of cells and its growth rate. The model can improve the predictions of microbiological growth in quantitative microbial risk assessments. Using this model, the effects of preventive measures to reduce pathogenic load and a concurrent effect on the background population can be better evaluated. If competing microorganisms are more sensitive to a particular decontamination method, a pathogenic microorganism may grow faster and reach a higher level. More knowledge regarding the effect of the indigenous microbial population (size, diversity, composition) of food products on pathogen dynamics is needed in order to make adequate predictions of pathogen dynamics on various food products. PMID:23456855

  9. USING MODELS TO EXTRAPOLATE POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS FROM LABORATORY TOXICITY TESTS IN SUPPORT OF POPULATION RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using models to extrapolate population-level effects from laboratory toxicity tests in support of population risk assessments. Munns, W.R., Jr.*, Anne Kuhn, Matt G. Mitro, and Timothy R. Gleason, U.S. EPA ORD NHEERL, Narragansett, RI, USA. Driven in large part by management goa...

  10. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verschuren, D.; Marnell, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Surviving pure-strain populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in headwater lakes of Glacier National Park could play an important role in the managed recovery of regional cutthroat trout fisheries. However, uncertainty exists about whether native trout could have naturally invaded several park lakes where they now occur. This study used paleolimnological techniques to address the question of whether the population of native trout in Avalanche Lake is indigenous or became established through an undocumented introduction. The validity of using fossil diapause eggs (ephippia) of the fish-sensitive cladocerans Daphnia spp. as indicators for the historical presence of zooplanktivorous fish was tested with a survey of live zooplankton and corresponding surface-sediment fossil assemblages in eight Glacier Park lakes with or without trout. Analysis of a sediment core from Avalanche Lake dated by lead radioisotopes, historical wildfires, and a flood allowed reconstruction of zooplankton dynamics from about 1700 A.D. to the present. Fossil Daphnia ephippia were rare or absent in Avalanche Lake sediments deposited before 1910, suggesting intense zooplanktivory due to sustained presence of an indigenous population of native cutthroat trout. Fossil evidence for larger Daphnia populations in the 1930s and early 1940s revealed a temporary disturbance of the lake's normal food web interactions during which zooplanktivory was significantly reduced. This disturbance may have resulted from a collapse of the native trout population caused indirectly by failed attempts between 1915 and 1943 to stock Avalanche Lake with Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri.

  11. The role of zooplankton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus of our study is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other important reservoirs. Knowledge of the rates and routes of transfer of these nuclides and metals through these reservoirs should lead to a cogent model for these elements in SM/SP Basins. Our zooplankton C and N data, should lead ultimately to a model of C and N cycling in the upper water column. Our sediment core data will lead to the construction of mass balances and budgets in the SM/SP Basins. 4 refs.

  12. The model of fungal population dynamics affected by nystatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voychuk, Sergei I.; Gromozova, Elena N.; Sadovskiy, Mikhail G.

    Fungal diseases are acute problems of the up-to-day medicine. Significant increase of resistance of microorganisms to the medically used antibiotics and a lack of new effective drugs follows in a growth of dosage of existing chemicals to solve the problem. Quite often such approach results in side effects on humans. Detailed study of fungi-antibiotic dynamics can identify new mechanisms and bring new ideas to overcome the microbial resistance with a lower dosage of antibiotics. In this study, the dynamics of the microbial population under antibiotic treatment was investigated. The effects of nystatin on the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were used as a model system. Nystatin effects were investigated both in liquid and solid media by viability tests. Dependence of nystatin action on osmotic gradient was evaluated in NaCl solutions. Influences of glucose and yeast extract were additionally analyzed. A "stepwise" pattern of the cell death caused by nystatin was the most intriguing. This pattern manifested in periodical changes of the stages of cell death against stages of resistance to the antibiotic. The mathematical model was proposed to describe cell-antibiotic interactions and nystatin viability effects in the liquid medium. The model implies that antibiotic ability to cause a cells death is significantly affected by the intracellular compounds, which came out of cells after their osmotic barriers were damaged

  13. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Method Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell’s C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. Results During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). Conclusions In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance. PMID:26186332

  14. Population pharmacokinetics modeling of levetiracetam in Chinese children with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-hui; Wang, Li; Lu, Wei; Shang, De-wei; Wei, Min-ji; Wu, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model of levetiracetam in Chinese children with epilepsy. Methods: A total of 418 samples from 361 epileptic children in Peking University First Hospital were analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups: the PPK model group (n=311) and the PPK validation group (n=50). Levetiracetam concentrations were determined by HPLC. The PPK model of levetiracetam was established using NONMEM, according to a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. To validate the model, the mean prediction error (MPE), mean squared prediction error (MSPE), root mean-squared prediction error (RMSPE), weight residues (WRES), and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: A regression equation of the basic model of levetiracetam was obtained, with clearance (CL/F)=0.988 L/h, volume of distribution (V/F)=12.3 L, and Ka=1.95 h?1. The final model was as follows: Ka=1.56 h?1, V/F=12.1 (L), CL/F=1.04×(WEIG/25)0.583 (L/h). For the basic model, the MPE, MSPE, RMSPE, WRES, and the 95%CI were 9.834 (?0.587–197.720), 50.919 (0.012–1286.429), 1.680 (0.021–34.184), and 0.0621 (?1.100–1.980). For the final model, the MPE, MSPE, RMSPE, WRES, and the 95% CI were 0.199 (?0.369–0.563), 0.002082 (0.00001–0.01054), 0.0293 (0.001?0.110), and 0.153 (?0.030–1.950). Conclusion: A one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described the levetiracetam concentrations. Body weight was identified as a significant covariate for levetiracetam clearance in this study. This model will be valuable to facilitate individualized dosage regimens. PMID:22669118

  15. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

  16. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Many sample sets from these studies were highly variable because of inadequate sample replication, thus precluding the use of statistical tests on some of the data. Where possible, an analysis of variance and a Student, Newman, Keuls multiple range test were computed and tested at the 0.05 level. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. The greater quantities entrained at night were related to a greater abundance in the source water body at night rather than to intake design. These results indicate that time-of-day differences might be used to mitigate effects on zooplankton at some intakes if the intake could be operated to require less cooling water when concentrations were greatest. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  17. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K.G. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens); Robbins, E.I.

    1981-05-22

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling.

  18. Variability of zooplankton biomass and dominant species abundance

    E-print Network

    , serv- ing as the connecting link between primary producers and secondary consumers. The availability.S. Northeastern continental shelf marine ecosystem from 1977 through 1987 with bimonthly surveys, measuring of Georges Bank zooplankton and how it relates to ichthyoplankton life histories. Addi- tional studies (Davis

  19. The role of taste in food selection by freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. DeMott

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with flavored and untreated polystyrene spheres revealed major differences in taste discrimination among diverse taxa of freshwater zooplankton. Copepods showed the strongest responses to flavor treatments. Both nauplii and copepodites of calanoid (Diaptomus) and cyclopoid (Cyclops) copepods selected flavored spheres over untreated ones. Moreover, a small cyclopoid, Tropocyclops, actively fed on an alga (Chlamydomonas) but did not ingest

  20. The freshwater zooplankton of Central America and the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Collado; C. H. Fernando; Dawn Sephton

    1984-01-01

    So far mainly sporadic studies have been made on the freshwater zooplankton of this region. We studied material from Costa Rica, Cuba, Bahamas, El Salvador, Haiti and Trinidad and listed unpublished species data from Jamaica. In all 183 species of Rotifera; 104 of Cladocera; 64 Calanoida and Cyclopoida and a few Ostracoda are known from the region which includes Central

  1. Salinity tolerance of diapausing eggs of freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH A. B AILEY; C. D UGGAN; OLIN D. A. V AN O VERDIJK; T HOMAS H. J OHENGEN

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Many freshwater zooplankton produce diapausing eggs capable of withstanding periods of adverse environmental conditions, such as anoxia, drought and extreme temperature. These eggs may also allow oligostenohaline species to survive increased salinity during periods of tidal flux or evaporation, and here we test the ability of diapause eggs to withstand such conditions. 2. Salinity tolerance may also enable

  2. Correlates of zooplankton beta diversity in tropical lake systems.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paloma M; Bini, Luis M; Declerck, Steven A J; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Bonecker, Claudia C; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A; Esteves, Francisco A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities. PMID:25330034

  3. Lake St. Clair zooplankton: Evidence for post-dreissena changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, K.A.; Davis, B.M.; Hunter, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the zooplankton of Lake St. Clair at 12 sites over ten dates from May to October 2000. Mean zooplankton density by site and date was 168.6 individuals/L, with Dreissena spp. veligers the most abundant taxon at 122.7 individuals/L. Rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans were far lower in mean abundance than in the early 1970s (rotifers, 20.9/L; copepods, 18.1/L; and cladocerans, 6.8/L). Species richness of zooplankton taxa in 2000 was 147, which was virtually unchanged from that of the first reported survey in 1894. Overall, the decline in abundance was greatest for rotifers (-90%) and about equal for cladocerans (-69%) and copepods (-66%). The decrease in abundance of Daphnia spp. was especially dramatic in Canadian waters. The decline in the southeastern region was significant for all three major groups of zooplankton, whereas in the northwestern region the decline was significant only for rotifers. From June to August 2000, Lake St. Clair open waters were numerically dominated by Dreissena spp. veligers, with a reduced abundance of rotifers and crustaceans compared to pre-Dreissena spp. surveys. Mean nutrient concentrations were not different from the 1970s, but Secchi depth (greater) and chlorophyll a concentration (lower) were. Disproportionate reduction in rotifer abundance is consistent with hypotheses implicating direct consumption by settled Dreissena spp. Reduction of crustaceans is likely due to more complex interactions including removal of nauplii as well as resource competition for phytoplankton.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals by freshwater zooplankton - a toxicological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Baliarsingh; S. Srichandan; T. Padmavati; Subrat Naik; K. C. Sahu

    2010-01-01

    So far many toxicologic studies are made earlier; we studied the acute toxicity estimation related to some specific identified freshwater zooplanktons of Paradip (Harbour City) area of Jagatsingpur District, Orissa, India which is situated on the bank of Mahanadi River. The study area is prone to heavy metal pollution because mineral based industries in relation to zinc, lead and cadmium

  5. Body Size and Food Size in Freshwater Zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Bogdan; John J. Gilbert

    1984-01-01

    We used double-label liquid scintillation techniques to measure the efficiencies with which eight different-sized zooplankton species ingested four cell types relative to a standard cell type (Chlamydomonas). Efficiency ratios (ERs: clearance rate on cell type X div clearance rate on Chlamydomonas) on the three ultraplankton (<5 mu m in diameter) cells (a coccoid bacterium and the algae Synechococcus and Nannochloris)

  6. Reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations of polar zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILHELM HAGEN

    1999-01-01

    Key factors governing polar ocean ecosystems are low temperatures and a pronounced seasonal variability of ice cover, light regime and primary production. Depending on their ecological niche and trophic position, zooplankton species at high latitudes have developed a variety of reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations to cope with these extreme environmental conditions. Life-cycle strategies of the herbivorous copepods and euphausiids,

  7. Zooplankton Competition and Plankton Community Structure Michael Lynch

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around Corvallis, Oregon 97330 References ALLEN, K. R. 1967. Some quick methods for etsimating the effect on catch the signifi- cance of zooplankton competition have led to the conclusion that competition for food is trivial

  8. Effects of aquatic insect predators on zooplankton in fishless ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Herwig; Daniel E. Schindler

    1996-01-01

    We removed the surface-orienting aquatic insects from a fishless pond to determine their predation effects on zooplankton behavior and size structure. A second fishless pond served as the unmanipulated reference system in this two year study. In the reference pond and the treatment pond prior to manipulation, daphnids exhibited pronounced diel vertical migrations. Following the removal of surface-orienting aquatic insects

  9. Factors that regulate the zooplankton community structure of a turbid,

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    Factors that regulate the zooplankton community structure of a turbid, hypereutrophic Great Lakes la Rédaction] Introduction Wetlands are highly productive and complex systems with links to both Lakes basin, many of these habitats are being degraded by nutrient and sediment load from the watershed

  10. The Phytoplankton Zooplankton Link in the Lake Ontario Food Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory G. Lampman; Joseph C. Makarewicz

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring in Lake Ontario in 1970 and 1982 demonstrated that the zooplankton community was dominated by microzooplankton, which suggested a longer, perhaps inefficient food chain. In this study, annual monitoring of the offshore region of Lake Ontario between 1986 and 1992 was used to determine if microzooplankton were still dominant despite recent changes in nutrient loading and species introductions. Microzooplankton

  11. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY SPECIAL REVIEW Diel horizontal migration of zooplankton

    E-print Network

    Burks, Romi

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY SPECIAL REVIEW Diel horizontal migration of zooplankton: costs and benefits's freshwater resources are declining rapidly (Naiman et al., 1995; Brown et al., 2000). Changes in land use degrade natural freshwaters and reduce biodiversity by elim- inating valuable habitats and adding excess

  12. Correlates of Zooplankton Beta Diversity in Tropical Lake Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Paloma M.; Bini, Luis M.; Declerck, Steven A. J.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Vieira, Ludgero C. G.; Bonecker, Claudia C.; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A.; Esteves, Francisco A.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities. PMID:25330034

  13. Toxic marine phytoplankton, zooplankton grazers, and pelagic food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JefSerson T. Turner; Patricia A. Tester

    1997-01-01

    Interactions between toxic phytoplankton and their zooplankton grazers are complex. Some zooplanktcrs ingest some toxic phytoplankters with no apparent harm, whereas others are deleteriously affected. Phycotoxins vary in their modes of action, levels of toxicity and solubility, and affect grazers in different ways. Beyond effects on direct grazers, toxins may accumulate in and be transfcrrcd through marine food webs, affecting

  14. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  15. EFFECT OF SEASON AND LOCATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZOOPLANKTON

    E-print Network

    of abundance for studies ofthe inter- actions between trophic levels in the oceanic food web. Zooplankton AND DRY WEIGHT IN THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC! Biomass or "standing stock" is a routinely mea- sured index; Tran- ter 1960; Ahlstrom and Thrailkill 1963), wet weight (Nakai and Honjo 1962), dry weight (Lovegrove

  16. ORIGINAL PAPER Global patterns of epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    to a proliferation of jellyfish through a process known as fishing down the food web. However, there has been systems are dominated by invertebrates, such as jellyfish (Hay 2006; Daskalov et al. 2007). Whilst in greater jellyfish abundances (for a review, see Purcell et al. 2007). Concern of gelatinous zooplankton

  17. EA Models and Population Fixed-Points Versus Mutation Rates for Functions of Unitation

    E-print Network

    Wright, Alden H.

    EA Models and Population Fixed-Points Versus Mutation Rates for Functions of Unitation J Neal theory of evolutionary algorithms, infinite population models, unitation functions, fixed points, genetic algorithms. 1. INTRODUCTION The Vose infinite population model [1] of simple genetic algorithms is a dynamic

  18. Trophic accumulation of PSP toxins in zooplankton during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine, April June 1998. I. Toxin levels in A. fundyense and zooplankton size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucette, Gregory J.; Turner, Jefferson T.; Powell, Christine L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2005-09-01

    The transfer of marine algal toxins involving a range of phytoplanktivorous vectors is well documented as a means of exposing organisms at higher trophic levels (including humans) to these naturally occurring yet harmful compounds. While previous studies have examined the potential for, and dynamics of, algal toxin accumulation by individual zooplankton species, few have attempted to distinguish the contribution of various grazer size classes to toxin trophic transfer in natural communities and characterize some of the factors that can influence this process. The current investigation was aimed at describing the size-fractioned (64-100, 100-200, 200-500, >500 ?m) accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by zooplankton in Casco Bay and the adjacent coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine during a series of cruises from April to June 1998. Several variables, including the abundance of PSP toxin-producing Alexandrium fundyense, in-water toxin concentrations associated with this dinoflagellate, and algal toxin cell quotas, were measured and their relationship to zooplankton toxin accumulation assessed. A principal finding of this work was the ability of any grazer size class examined (including grazers present in the 20-64 ?m A. fundyense-containing fraction) to serve as an initial vector for introducing PSP toxins into the Casco Bay food web at various times during the sampling period, thereby providing multiple potential routes of toxin trophic transfer. In addition, trends observed in the coincident mapping of A. fundyense cells and their associated toxin were generally in agreement, yet did not remain closely coupled at all times. Therefore, although A. fundyense abundance can be a reasonable indicator of PSP toxin presence in the phytoplankton, this relationship can vary considerably and lead to situations where elevated toxin levels occur at low cell concentrations and vice versa. The uncoupling of A. fundyense cell and in-water toxin concentrations in the 20-64 ?m, A. fundyense-containing size fraction implied fluctuations in the algal toxin cell quota, which ranged from ca. 10 to 2000 fmol STX equiv. cell -1. Some of this variability may reflect the changing presence in this size fraction of grazers (e.g., tintinnids) capable of toxin accumulation, causing an upward bias in A. fundyense toxin cell quota estimates. Overall, the extent of PSP toxin transfer into zooplankton will be determined by a complex interaction among several factors, including A. fundyense and grazer abundance, algal toxin cell quota, and zooplankton community composition. An ability to predict zooplankton toxin accumulation will require further investigation of the relationships between these and other factors, aimed specifically at modeling the process of toxin trophic transfer to grazers and ultimately to their predators.

  19. Theoretical Population Biology 71 (2007) 502523 The probability distribution under a population divergence model of the

    E-print Network

    Jakobsson, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    lineages are studied in detail. For 99.99% of the loci in the derived population to each have one founding taken from the modern population (Soodyall et al., 1997). Several studies have attempted to estimate et al., 2005). The sizes of founding populations have also been studied in humans themselves

  20. An updated MILES stellar library and stellar population models

    E-print Network

    Falcón-Barroso, J; Vazdekis, A; Ricciardelli, E; Cardiel, N; Cenarro, A J; Gorgas, J; Peletier, R F

    2011-01-01

    (Aims) We present a number of improvements to the MILES library and stellar population models. We correct some small errors in the radial velocities of the stars, measure the spectral resolution of the library and models more accurately, and give a better absolute flux calibration of the models. (Methods) We use cross-correlation techniques to correct the radial velocities of the offset stars and the penalised pixel-fitting method, together with different sets of stellar templates, to re-assess the spectral resolution of the MILES stellar library and models. We have also re-calibrated the zero-point flux level of the models using a new calibration scheme. (Results) The end result is an even more homogeneously calibrated stellar library than the originally released one, with a measured spectral resolution of ~2.5\\AA, almost constant with wavelength, for both the MILES stellar library and models. Furthermore, the new absolute flux calibration for the spectra excellently agrees with predictions based on independ...

  1. Development and validation of an individual based Daphnia magna population model: The influence of crowding on population dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Günter Preuss; Monika Hammers-Wirtz; Udo Hommen; Mascha Nadine Rubach; Hans Toni Ratte

    2009-01-01

    An individual-based model was developed to predict the population dynamics of Daphnia magna at laboratory conditions from individual life-history traits observed in experiments with different feeding conditions. Within the model, each daphnid passes its individual life cycle including feeding on algae, aging, growing, developing and – when maturity is reached – reproducing. The modelled life cycle is driven by the

  2. Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

  3. Nonlinear Model-based Control of a Semi-industrial Batch Crystallizer Using a Population Balance Modeling

    E-print Network

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Nonlinear Model-based Control of a Semi-industrial Batch Crystallizer Using a Population Balance-based control approach for optimal operation of industrial batch crystallizers. A full population balance model on the discretization coarseness of the population balance model. The control performance can be greatly deteriorated

  4. Effects of stochastic population fluctuations in two models of biological macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu; Rikvold, Per Arne

    Two mathematical models of macroevolution are studied. These models have population dynamics at the species level, and mutations and extinction of species are also included. The population dynamics are updated by difference equations with stochastic noise terms that characterize population fluctuations. The effects of the stochastic population fluctuations on diversity and total population sizes on evolutionary time scales are studied. In one model, species can make either predator-prey, mutualistic, or competitive interactions, while the other model allows only predator-prey interactions. When the noise in the population dynamics is strong enough, both models show intermittent behavior and their power spectral densities show approximate 1/f fluctuations. In the noiseless limit, the two models have different power spectral densities. For the predator-prey model, 1/f2 fluctuations appears, indicating random-walk like behavior, while the other model still shows 1/f noise. These results indicate that stochastic population fluctuations may significantly affect long-time evolutionary dynamics.

  5. Stochastic models in population biology and their deterministic analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKane, A. J.; Newman, T. J.

    2004-10-01

    We introduce a class of stochastic population models based on “patch dynamics.” The size of the patch may be varied, and this allows one to quantify the departures of these stochastic models from various mean-field theories, which are generally valid as the patch size becomes very large. These models may be used to formulate a broad range of biological processes in both spatial and nonspatial contexts. Here, we concentrate on two-species competition. We present both a mathematical analysis of the patch model, in which we derive the precise form of the competition mean-field equations (and their first-order corrections in the nonspatial case), and simulation results. These mean-field equations differ, in some important ways, from those which are normally written down on phenomenological grounds. Our general conclusion is that mean-field theory is more robust for spatial models than for a single isolated patch. This is due to the dilution of stochastic effects in a spatial setting resulting from repeated rescue events mediated by interpatch diffusion. However, discrete effects due to modest patch sizes lead to striking deviations from mean-field theory even in a spatial setting.

  6. Bias-elimination in fish population models with stochastic variation in survival of the young

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The addition of random variation in survival to a single prereproductive age class in a Leslie matrix population model can alter population growth in the modeled system. Methods are presented to characterize the stochastic variation in survival and to determine a correction factor that, when included in the model, will eliminate the propensity for the model population to systematically deviate from the initial conditions. This ability is important for applications of fish population models that seek to evaluate probability distributions of population trends that are associated with stochastic variations in survival, and to forecast the effects of changes in fishing mortality rates in fluctuating environments. 21 references, 2 tables.

  7. Stochastic stable population growth in integral projection models: theory and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Ellner; Mark Rees

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic matrix projection models are widely used to model age- or stage-structured populations with vital rates that fluctuate\\u000a randomly over time. Practical applications of these models rest on qualitative properties such as the existence of a long\\u000a term population growth rate, asymptotic log-normality of total population size, and weak ergodicity of population structure.\\u000a We show here that these properties are

  8. Spring bloom dynamics and zooplankton biomass response on the US Northeast Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Leaf, Robert T.; Kane, Joe; Tommasi, Desiree; Asch, Rebecca G.; Rebuck, Nathan; Ji, Rubao; Large, Scott I.; Stock, Charles; Saba, Vincent S.

    2015-07-01

    The spring phytoplankton bloom on the US Northeast Continental Shelf is a feature of the ecosystem production cycle that varies annually in timing, spatial extent, and magnitude. To quantify this variability, we analyzed remotely-sensed ocean color data at two spatial scales, one based on ecologically defined sub-units of the ecosystem (production units) and the other on a regular grid (0.5°). Five units were defined: Gulf of Maine East and West, Georges Bank, and Middle Atlantic Bight North and South. The units averaged 47×103 km2 in size. The initiation and termination of the spring bloom were determined using change-point analysis with constraints on what was identified as a bloom based on climatological bloom patterns. A discrete spring bloom was detected in most years over much of the western Gulf of Maine production unit. However, bloom frequency declined in the eastern Gulf of Maine and transitioned to frequencies as low as 50% along the southern flank of the Georges Bank production unit. Detectable spring blooms were episodic in the Middle Atlantic Bight production units. In the western Gulf of Maine, bloom duration was inversely related to bloom start day; thus, early blooms tended to be longer lasting and larger magnitude blooms. We view this as a phenological mismatch between bloom timing and the "top-down" grazing pressure that terminates a bloom. Estimates of secondary production were available from plankton surveys that provided spring indices of zooplankton biovolume. Winter chlorophyll biomass had little effect on spring zooplankton biovolume, whereas spring chlorophyll biomass had mixed effects on biovolume. There was evidence of a "bottom up" response seen on Georges Bank where spring zooplankton biovolume was positively correlated with the concentration of chlorophyll. However, in the western Gulf of Maine, biovolume was uncorrelated with chlorophyll concentration, but was positively correlated with bloom start and negatively correlated with magnitude. This observation is consistent with both a "top-down" mechanism of control of the bloom and a "bottom-up" effect of bloom timing on zooplankton grazing. Our inability to form a consistent model of these relationships across adjacent systems underscores the need for further research.

  9. Modeling effects of chemicals on a population: application to a wading bird nesting colony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Hallam; Tamara L. Trawick; Wilfried F. Wolff

    1996-01-01

    An approach for the study of effects of chemical contamination of an avian population is described. The protocol consists of four components: (1) an individual model that is coupled with (2) a chemical exposure model; and (3) a population model together with (4) an effects model. The model-based protocol is generic, delineates types of information required for ecological assessment and

  10. Modelling the cyclic behaviour in a DTB crystallizer—a two-population balance model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, A. R.; Kramer, H. J. M.; Grievink, J.; Jansens, P. J.

    2005-02-01

    A novel approach is introduced here to improve the description of the dynamic behaviour of industrial crystallizers using a two-population balance model to discriminate between primary and secondary nuclei. A heterogeneous primary nucleation model is implemented in a rigorous crystallizer model framework to explain the sustained oscillatory behaviour observed in industrial draft-tube baffle (DTB) crystallizers. The distinction between primary and secondary nuclei in the modelling framework is realized by using two different growth rates within the dispersed phase. The total crystal population is split up into two distinct and interacting populations, one representing the primary (no strain) population of crystals and the other the secondary (strained) population. Such a two-population balance model exhibits the sustained cyclic response for a 1100L DTB crystallizer, for an ammonium-sulphate water system. Including the degree of heterogeneity (?) and the two parameters; surface integration rate constant (kr) and condition for deformation (?s) from the growth model, the primary nucleation model framework has three unknown parameters which are fitted using measured transients from experiments performed on the pilot-plant crystallizers. The effect of the heterogeneity factor (?) on the dynamics of the process, suggests that the parameter ? is very sensitive and hence, plays a very critical role in predicting the start-up and dynamics of the process. Validation of the model with the experimental data shows that the inclusion of a primary nucleation event definitely increases the descriptive capability of the model, thus justifying it's inclusion as a critical factor. The simulation results give a very good description of the start-up phase of the crystallizer operation, the dynamics of the process as well as the final steady-state values.

  11. Evaluating Habitat as a Surrogate for Population Viability Using a Spatially Explicit Population Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua J. Lawler; Nathan H. Schumaker

    2004-01-01

    Because data for conservation planning are always limited, surrogates are often substituted for intractable measurements such\\u000a as species richness or population viability. We examined the ability of habitat quality to act as a surrogate for population\\u000a performance for both Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). We compared simple measures of habitat quality to estimates of population growth

  12. Quantitative estimation of the cost of parasitic castration in a Helisoma anceps population using a matrix population model.

    PubMed

    Negovetich, N J; Esch, G W

    2008-10-01

    Larval trematodes frequently castrate their snail intermediate hosts. When castrated, the snails do not contribute offspring to the population, yet they persist and compete with the uninfected individuals for the available food resources. Parasitic castration should reduce the population growth rate lambda, but the magnitude of this decrease is unknown. The present study attempted to quantify the cost of parasitic castration at the level of the population by mathematically modeling the population of the planorbid snail Helisoma anceps in Charlie's Pond, North Carolina. Analysis of the model identified the life-history trait that most affects lambda, and the degree to which parasitic castration can lower lambda. A period matrix product model was constructed with estimates of fecundity, survival, growth rates, and infection probabilities calculated in a previous study. Elasticity analysis was performed by increasing the values of the life-history traits by 10% and recording the percentage change in lambda. Parasitic castration resulted in a 40% decrease in lambda of H. anceps. Analysis of the model suggests that decreasing the size at maturity was more effective at reducing the cost of castration than increasing survival or growth rates of the snails. The current matrix model was the first to mathematically describe a snail population, and the predictions of the model are in agreement with published research. PMID:18973413

  13. Determining parameters for populations by using structural models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Overton, W.S.; Wight, H.M.

    1970-01-01

    A method for calculating parameters necessary to maintain stable populations is described and the management implications of the method are discussed. This method depends upon knowledge of the population mortality rate schedule, the age at which the species reaches maturity, and recruitment rates or age ratios in the population. Four approaches are presented which yield information about the status of the population: (1) necessary production for a stable population, (2) allowable mortality for a stable population, (3) annual rate of change in population size, and (4) age ratios in the population which yield a stable condition. General formulas for these relationships, and formulas for several special cases, are presented. Tables are also presented showing production required to maintain a stable population with the simpler (more common) mortality and fecundity schedules.

  14. Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Reesink, Ger; Singer, Ruth; Dunn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The region of the ancient Sahul continent (present day Australia and New Guinea, and surrounding islands) is home to extreme linguistic diversity. Even apart from the huge Austronesian language family, which spread into the area after the breakup of the Sahul continent in the Holocene, there are hundreds of languages from many apparently unrelated families. On each of the subcontinents, the generally accepted classification recognizes one large, widespread family and a number of unrelatable smaller families. If these language families are related to each other, it is at a depth which is inaccessible to standard linguistic methods. We have inferred the history of structural characteristics of these languages under an admixture model, using a Bayesian algorithm originally developed to discover populations on the basis of recombining genetic markers. This analysis identifies 10 ancestral language populations, some of which can be identified with clearly defined phylogenetic groups. The results also show traces of early dispersals, including hints at ancient connections between Australian languages and some Papuan groups (long hypothesized, never before demonstrated). Systematic language contact effects between members of big phylogenetic groups are also detected, which can in some cases be identified with a diffusional or substrate signal. Most interestingly, however, there remains striking evidence of a phylogenetic signal, with many languages showing negligible amounts of admixture. PMID:19918360

  15. Branching Processes Population model: each individual has k children (offspring) with

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    : · · · · · · · · Applications: population models (family names), nuclear reactions, club membership, virus on internet, etc. LetBranching Processes Population model: each individual has k children (offspring) with probability Xn = population size at generation n, then {Xn} is a Markov chain: branching process. Let, for i = 1

  16. Generative Models and Stochastic Algorithms for Population Average Estimation and Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Generative Models and Stochastic Algorithms for Population Average Estimation and Image Analysis St and Stochastic Algorithms for Population Average Estimation and ImageSpring 2009 1 / 42 #12;C. A. Context Models and Stochastic Algorithms for Population Average Estimation and ImageSpring 2009 3 / 42 #12;BME

  17. Evaluating management strategies and recovery of an invasive grass ( Agropyron cristatum) using matrix population models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin J. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    The success of invasive species control depends on management type, duration and recovery following management. Population models were here used to compare response and recovery of clipped and herbicide-treated Agropyron cristatum populations invading native North American grasslands. Matrix models were produced for experimental populations of A. cristatum using probabilities of tussocks changing size class (based on tiller number), as well

  18. Modeling the Population Dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), along an Elevational Gradient in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Ahumada; Dennis Lapointe; Michael D. Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We present a population model to understand the effects of temperature and rainfall on the population dynamics of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, along an elevational gradient in Hawaii. We use a novel approach to model the effects of temperature on population growth by dynamically incorporating developmental rate into the transition matrix, by using physiological ages of immatures

  19. Theoretical Population Biology 52, 60 70 (1997) Modelling the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in

    E-print Network

    Courchamp, Franck

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical Population Biology 52, 60 70 (1997) Modelling the Feline Leukemia Virus (Fe and impact of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in populations of domestic cats. The model was tested with data from a long-term study of several feline populations. The study of stability shows that Fe

  20. Determinism, noise, and spurious estimations in a generalised model of population growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold P. de Vladar; Ido Pen

    2007-01-01

    We study a generalised model of population growth in which the state variable is population growth rate instead of population size. Stochastic parametric perturbations, modelling phenotypic variability, lead to a Langevin system with two sources of multiplicative noise. The stationary probability distributions have two characteristic power-law scales. Numerical simulations show that noise suppresses the explosion of the growth rate which

  1. Consistent two-population lattice Boltzmann model for thermal flows.

    PubMed

    Karlin, I V; Sichau, D; Chikatamarla, S S

    2013-12-01

    Theory of two-population lattice Boltzmann equations for thermal flow simulations is revisited. The present approach makes use of a consistent division of the conservation laws between the two lattices, where mass and the momentum are conserved quantities on the first lattice, and the energy is conserved quantity of the second lattice. The theory of such a division is developed, and the advantage of energy conservation in the model construction is demonstrated in detail. The present fully local lattice Boltzmann theory is specified on the standard lattices for the simulation of thermal flows. Extension to the subgrid entropic lattice Boltzmann formulation is also given. The theory is validated with a set of standard two-dimensional simulations including planar Couette flow and natural convection in two dimensions. PMID:24483587

  2. EVALUATING HABITAT AS A SURROGATE FOR POPULATION VIABILITY USING A SPATIALLY EXPLICIT POPULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because data for conservation planning are always limited, surrogates are often substituted for intractable measurements such as species richness or population viability. We examined the ability of habitat quality to act as a surrogate for population performance for both Red-sho...

  3. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  4. Modelling the evolution of the space debris population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A.; Anselmo, L.; Cordelli, A.; Farinella, P.; Pardini, C.

    1998-12-01

    The current space activities are already disturbed and jeopardized by the growing number of orbiting debris. Those planned for the near future, such as the launch of large satellite constellations and the construction of the international space station, are even more sensitive to the evolution of the space environment. Therefore, a clear picture of the present situation in Earth orbit and its future evolution is needed. In this paper we describe in some details the work we have carried out on this problem in the last several years. Starting from the current population and simulating a reasonable scenario for the space activities in the next decades, we have obtained plausible quantitative models of the possible future space environment. We summarize some results concerning the effectiveness of possible mitigation measures and assess the robustness of these results, by checking how sensitively they depend upon the initial conditions and the choice of some model parameters. We also analyze the effect of the launch of a number of satellite constellations, showing the importance of the adoption of some debris prevention measures in their launch policies. Finally, we study the possible problems arising from the recent discovery of a new family of debris composed by drops of NaK coolant, that leaked outside the nuclear reactors of the Soviet RORSAT-class satellites. Our preliminary results indicate that these drops are going to cause an increasing number of small-scale, possible satellite-damaging impacts but, due to their small size, no additional catastrophic collisions; therefore their influence on the long-term evolution of the overall debris population is limited.

  5. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  6. Modeling population exposures to outdoor sources of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, Halûk; Palma, Ted; Touma, Jawad S; Thurman, James

    2008-01-01

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration monitoring or modeling data. In this paper, we examine the limitations of using outdoor concentration predictions instead of modeled personal exposures for over 30 gaseous and particulate hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. The analysis uses the results from an air quality dispersion model (the ASPEN or Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model) and an inhalation exposure model (the HAPEM or Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model, Version 5), applied by the US. Environmental protection Agency during the 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) in the US. Our results show that the total predicted chronic exposure concentrations of outdoor HAPs from all sources are lower than the modeled ambient concentrations by about 20% on average for most gaseous HAPs and by about 60% on average for most particulate HAPs (mainly, due to the exclusion of indoor sources from our modeling analysis and lower infiltration of particles indoors). On the other hand, the HAPEM/ASPEN concentration ratio averages for onroad mobile source exposures were found to be greater than 1 (around 1.20) for most mobile-source related HAPs (e.g. 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde) reflecting the importance of near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to HAPs. The distribution of the ratios of personal to ambient concentrations was found to be skewed for a number of the VOCs and reactive HAPs associated with major source emissions, indicating the importance of personal mobility factors. We conclude that the increase in personal exposures from the corresponding predicted ambient levels tends to occur near locations where there are either major emission sources of HAPs or when individuals are exposed to either on- or nonroad sources of HAPs during their daily activities. These findings underscore the importance of applying exposure-modeling methods, which incorporate information on time-activity, commuting, and exposure factors data, for the purposes of assigning exposures in air pollution health studies. PMID:17878926

  7. MODELING THE IMPLICATIONS OF STRESSOR INTERACTIONS FOR WILDLIFE POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife risk assessments have traditionally explored the consequences, for a single individual, of exposure to a single stressor. But attention has recently included the study of population-level responses to exposure. Wildlife populations are often subjected to multiple stres...

  8. Modelling targets for anticancer drug control optimization in physiologically structured cell population models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billy, Frédérique; Clairambault, Jean; Fercoq, Olivier; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Perthame, Benoît

    2012-09-01

    The main two pitfalls of therapeutics in clinical oncology, that limit increasing drug doses, are unwanted toxic side effects on healthy cell populations and occurrence of resistance to drugs in cancer cell populations. Depending on the constraint considered in the control problem at stake, toxicity or drug resistance, we present two different ways to model the evolution of proliferating cell populations, healthy and cancer, under the control of anti-cancer drugs. In the first case, we use a McKendrick age-structured model of the cell cycle, whereas in the second case, we use a model of evolutionary dynamics, physiologically structured according to a continuous phenotype standing for drug resistance. In both cases, we mention how drug targets may be chosen so as to accurately represent the effects of cytotoxic and of cytostatic drugs, separately, and how one may consider the problem of optimisation of combined therapies.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)

    PubMed Central

    Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005–2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

  10. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities. PMID:24775063

  11. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition was related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. This paper describes the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  12. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition were related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. Researchers describe the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography as, for example, Oncaeidae and Corycaeidae were significantly more abundant in intrusions than in the upper mixed layer. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  13. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition was related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. Researchers describe the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography as, for example, Oncaeidae and Corycaeidae were significantly more abundant in intrusions than in the upper mixed layer. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  14. Small-scale zooplankton aggregations at the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishizawa, Satoshi

    1986-11-01

    A Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder was used to study the small-scale zooplankton distribution across the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring in June 1979. Zooplankton were strongly aggregated in the frontal region; patches of zooplankton and phytoplankton were spatially separated. A major part of the zooplankton assemblage consisted of neritic forms such as cladocerans and indicator species of the cold Oyashio water. This implies that lateral entrainment of coastal waters, which is directly influenced by the Oyashio, was an important factor in the formation of the aggregations at the Kuroshio warm-core ring front. Variation in the distribution of abundance peaks of individual zooplankton species was also observed. Futhermore, zooplankton showed more intensive non-randomness (aggregation) than phytoplankton and non-motile euphausiid's eggs. Thus, biological processes, such as motility and prey-predator interaction, also appeared to be regulating the patchiness.

  15. Chemical Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi Against Grazing by Three Species of Zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Dang, Lin-Xi; Li, Yue; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the toxicity of Karenia mikimotoi toward three model grazers, the cladoceran Moina mongolica, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, and the crustacean Artemia salina, and explored its chemical response upon zooplankton grazing. An induction experiment, where K. mikimotoi was exposed to grazers or waterborne cues from the mixed cultures revealed that K. mikimotoi might be toxic or nutritionally inadequate toward the three grazers. In general, direct exposure to the three grazers induced the production of hemolytic toxins and the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Both EPA and the hemolytic toxins from K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rate of the three grazers. In addition, the survival rates of M. mongolica, P. annandalei, and A. salina in the presence of induced K. mikimotoi that had previously been exposed to a certain grazer were lower than their counterparts caused by fresh K. mikimotoi, suggesting that exposure to some grazers might increase the toxicity of K. mikimotoi. The chemical response and associated increased resistance to further grazing suggested that K. mikimotoi could produce deterrents to protect against grazing by zooplankton and that the substances responsible might be hemolytic toxins and EPA. PMID:25523905

  16. Biomass of zooplankton estimated by acoustical sensors in the Arabian sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, D.V.

    1996-11-22

    The long term goal of our overall research program is the development of data-based models to predict ecological relationships of zooplankton, phytoplankton and the physical environment in the sea. The overall objective of the work carried out within the scope of this particular contract was to acoustically measure the dynamics of zooplankton and micronekton in the northern Arabian Sea during several seasons. The scientific focus was to examine the impact, if any, of the two annual monsoons that are thought to drive the ecosystem response in the area. This particular project involved the design and construction of two sensors which were then deployed in the Arabian Sea by several of our co-PIVs in the ONR ARI on Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics during the time period in which the JGOFS program also focused their efforts on the northern Arabian Sea. This contract involved only the development, calibration and maintenance of the instrumentation. The data processing, other than that which has been necessary for the purposes of quality assurance, was not induded in our original proposal.

  17. Avoidance of towed nets by zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABRAHAM FLEMINGER; ROBERT I. CLUTTER

    1965-01-01

    Expcrimcnts wcrc condnctcd to dctcrminc the effect of behavior on the accuracy oE sampling populations composed of several spccics of marine copepods and mysids held in a large, cncloscd scawnter pool. Plankton nets having mouth arcas of 1,600, 800, and 400 cm\\

  18. On the mechanistic underpinning of discrete-time population models with Allee effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna T. M. Eskola; Kalle Parvinen

    2007-01-01

    The Allee effect means reduction in individual fitness at low population densities. There are many discrete-time population models with an Allee effect in the literature, but most of them are phenomenological. Recently, Geritz and Kisdi [2004. On the mechanistic underpinning of discrete-time population models with complex dynamics. J. Theor. Biol. 228, 261–269] presented a mechanistic underpinning of various discrete-time population

  19. Modelling HIV in the injecting drug user population and the male homosexual population in a developed country context.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; House, T; Hope, V D; Ncube, F; Wiessing, L; Kretzschmar, M

    2012-03-01

    In many high income countries men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs) are the two groups with the highest HIV prevalence. Yet these two groups are not mutually exclusive, and those MSM who are also IDUs (MSM-IDUs) may be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. This may be particularly relevant to the IDU population in countries, like the UK, with a much lower HIV prevalence amongst IDUs than MSM, as the MSM-IDUs could provide a route of HIV infection into the IDU population. In this research two alternative modelling approaches that describe the transmission dynamics of HIV within the IDU, MSM, and heterosexual populations are proposed. These models are constructed with two aims. The first is to investigate the possible impact of interventions that target HIV transmission in the MSM and IDU populations, and the second aim is to investigate the impact of the model structure on the model results. An examination of the assortativity of mixing between risk groups is also undertaken. The models are parameterised for England and Wales. While the MSM-IDU population is small, targeting MSM-IDUs was the most efficient intervention strategy in terms of cases averted per 100 individuals targeted with the intervention. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations in the assumed assortativity of mixing between the population groups in both models have a large impact on model results. This means that to generate quantitatively robust estimates for the impact of different intervention strategies it will be necessary to obtain estimates for assortativity values through empirical work. PMID:22325014

  20. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Ellis, Martha M.; Morris, William F.; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlen, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer I.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ganesan, Rengaian; Thorpe, Andrea S.; Menges, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models.

  1. Shifts in Zooplankton Community Structure: Implications for Food Web Processes in the Upper San Francisco Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Winder; Alan D. Jassby

    2011-01-01

    Zooplankton are an important trophic link and a key food source for many larval fish species in estuarine ecosystems. The\\u000a present study documents temporal and spatial zooplankton dynamics in Suisun Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta—the landward\\u000a portion of the San Francisco Estuary (California, USA)—over a 37-year period (1972–2008). The zooplankton community experienced\\u000a major changes in species composition, largely associated

  2. Horizontal migration of zooplankton in a littoral zone of the lowland Sulejow Reservoir (Central Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianna Wojtal; Piotr Frankiewicz; Katarzyna Izydorczyk; Maciej Zalewski

    2003-01-01

    Horizontal migrations of zooplankton between macrophyte patches and open areas were investigated in the sparsely vegetated littoral zone of the Sulejow Reservoir in June-July 2000 and 2001, using one-litre plastic traps. Large-bodied zooplankton: daphnids and copepods generally swam towards the open water at dusk and towards submerged macrophytes at dawn. Small-bodied zooplankton (Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.) did not show any

  3. The Zooplankton community of Croker Passage, Antarctic Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Hopkins

    1985-01-01

    Zooplankton species composition, abundance and vertical distribution were investigated in the upper 1000 m of Croker Passage, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral fall (March–April, 1983). 106 species were identified, many being mesopelagic and reported previously from the Southern Ocean. The most numerous species (>1000\\/100 m3) were the copepodsMetridia gerlachei, Microcalanus pygmaeus, Oncaea antarctica andOncaea curvata. Oncaea curvata alone constituted half

  4. Heavy metals in zooplankton from the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Pempkowiak, J; Walkusz-Miotk, J; Be?dowski, J; Walkusz, W

    2006-03-01

    Samples of zooplankton and suspended matter were collected using a Bongo net (0.33/0.50 mm mesh net), and Nucleopore filters, respectively, from the Southern Baltic off Poland. Major classes of zooplankton, and selected heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr) were determined in the collected samples. Concentrations of heavy metals in zooplankton were corrected for metals contributed by particulate matter adhering to zooplankton organisms. Heavy metals levels measured in nearshore samples (Bay of Gda?sk, Pomeranian Bay) were higher than those in the samples from the open sea. The only exception was cadmium exhibiting larger concentrations in the offshore as compared to the nearshore samples (0.8 vs. 1.3 microg/g d.w.). This was attributed to decreased concentrations, of both dissolved and particulate cadmium, caused by algal bloom. Larger concentrations of heavy metals in the Bay of Gda?sk in comparison with the Pomeranian Bay (e.g. Cd-1.3 vs. 0.8 microg/g, Cu-20.5 vs. 8.3 microg/g, Pb-12.9 vs. 1.2 microg/g, Cr-12.4 vs. 1.4 microg/g) were attributed to the direct discharge of the Vistula river to the Bay of Gda?sk, while the Pomeranian Bay receives the Odra river runoff indirectly, via the Szczecin Lagoon. The nonlinear estimation of the data set was used to evaluate concentrations of heavy metals in Copepoda and Cladocera. Copepoda proved to be enriched with heavy metals in comparison with Cladocera. PMID:16139327

  5. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  6. Causes of Technogenic Changes in a Freshwater Zooplanktonic Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Kalinkina; T. P. Kulikova; A. K. Morozov; L. I. Vlasova

    2003-01-01

    The situation in water bodies of northwestern Karelia in 1992–2001 was analyzed. As a result of waste discharge from the mining and ore-processing works, weakly mineralized hydrocarbonate-calcium waters changed into highly mineralized waters with the prevalence of potassium ions and sulfates. The total abundance and biomass of zooplanktonic communities decreased. Using the methods of principal components and partial correlations, differences

  7. Can tropical freshwater zooplankton graze efficiently on cyanobacteria?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samba Kâ; Juana Mireya Mendoza-Vera; Marc Bouvy; Gisèle Champalbert; Rose N’Gom-Kâ; Marc Pagano

    Zooplankton may at times graze cyanobacteria. However, their top-down effects are considered to be low, particularly in tropical\\u000a regions dominated by small-size grazers that may be unable to consume efficiently filamentous or colonial species. Recently,\\u000a cyanobacteria blooms were reported in the Senegal River hydrosystem. We conducted feeding experiments to assess the ability\\u000a of copepods (Pseudodiaptomus hessei and Mesocyclops ogunnus), cladocerans

  8. Flow disturbances generated by feeding and swimming zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Javier; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Wadhwa, Navish

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between planktonic organisms, such as detection of prey, predators, and mates, are often mediated by fluid signals. Consequently, many plankton predators perceive their prey from the fluid disturbances that it generates when it feeds and swims. Zooplankton should therefore seek to minimize the fluid disturbance that they produce. By means of particle image velocimetry, we describe the fluid disturbances produced by feeding and swimming in zooplankton with diverse propulsion mechanisms and ranging from 10-µm flagellates to greater than millimeter-sized copepods. We show that zooplankton, in which feeding and swimming are separate processes, produce flow disturbances during swimming with a much faster spatial attenuation (velocity u varies with distance r as u ? r?3 to r?4) than that produced by zooplankton for which feeding and propulsion are the same process (u ? r?1 to r?2). As a result, the spatial extension of the fluid disturbance produced by swimmers is an order of magnitude smaller than that produced by feeders at similar Reynolds numbers. The “quiet” propulsion of swimmers is achieved either through swimming erratically by short-lasting power strokes, generating viscous vortex rings, or by “breast-stroke swimming.” Both produce rapidly attenuating flows. The more “noisy” swimming of those that are constrained by a need to simultaneously feed is due to constantly beating flagella or appendages that are positioned either anteriorly or posteriorly on the (cell) body. These patterns transcend differences in size and taxonomy and have thus evolved multiple times, suggesting a strong selective pressure to minimize predation risk. PMID:25071196

  9. Zooplankton grazing in a Potomac River cyanobacteria bloom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Sellner; D. C. Brownlee; M. H. Bundy; S. G. Brownlee; K. R. Braun

    1993-01-01

    During summer, bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including Anacystis, Aphanizomenon, and Microcystis aeruginosa, dominate tidal-fresh waters of the upper Potomac River estuary with densities exceeding 108 cells l?1. In an attempt to determine the importance of these high cyanobacteria densities to planktonic herbivory in the system, short-term\\u000a grazing experiments were conducted in July and August 1987. Using size-fractionated river phytoplankton assemblages, zooplankton\\u000a grazing

  10. Distribution of zooplankton in the Avon?Heathcote Estuary, Christchurch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Roper; M. J. Simons; M. B. Jones

    1983-01-01

    Zooplankton of the Avon?Heathcote Estuary (43°33'S, 172°44'E), Christchurch, was studied at approximately 2?weekly intervals for 6 months over the autumn?winter period. Samples were collected at high tide during the day at 5 stations distributed from the northern head to the estuary mouth. During the sampling period, water temperature varied between 8.0 and 20.5°C, salinity between S = 2.0 and S

  11. Zooplankton effects on phytoplankton in lakes of contrasting trophic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES J. ELSER; CHARLES R. GOLDMAN

    1991-01-01

    Studies were carried out in three lakes of strongly contrasting trophic state to evaluate how the effects of zooplankton on phytoplankton vary as a function of lake productivity. Chlorophyll and total P concentrations differed by 2-3 orders of magnitude among ultra-oligotrophic Lake Tahoe, meso-oligotrophic Castle Lake, and strongly eutrophic Clear Lake. Three experimental designs involving short-term (4 d) manipulations of

  12. Zooplankton Avoidance Behavior Following Spray Drift Exposure to Fenpyroximate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Schäfers; Helmut Klöppel; Yoshinori Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    A 28-d zooplankton community level study with Fenpyroximate was performed in indoor microcosms of 1 m volume including water and sediment from natural sources. The microcosms were treated by simulating spray-drift of the formulated product. The nominal concentrations (0.1, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 3.2, and 10 ? g\\/L) were confirmed by chemical analysis of the application solutions. At a water depth

  13. Quantitative seasonal aspects of zooplankton in the Delaware River estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Cronin; Joanne C. Daiber; E. M. Hulbert

    1962-01-01

    The Delaware, a major Coastal Plain estuary about 90 miles long, was quantitatively sampled for net zooplankton at quarterly\\u000a intervals over a two-year period (#2 bolting cloth on Clarke-Bumpus samplers for 1-hour tows). The principal species were\\u000a counted from 20-foot depth intervals and for 13 channel stations distributed from the Atlantic Ocean to fresh water. Accompanying\\u000a hydrographic data were taken

  14. Zooplankton chitobiase activity as an endpoint of pharmaceutical effect.

    PubMed

    Richards, S M; Kelly, S E; Hanson, M L

    2008-05-01

    Numerous human and veterinary pharmaceuticals are constantly entering surface waters, despite little understanding of their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. To address this concern, an attempt to create a simple, reproducible, inexpensive, and sublethal toxicity bioassay for freshwater zooplankton was initiated. The approach was centered on characterizing the response of a zooplankton enzyme, chitobiase, to the presence of a toxicant. The aim of the present research was to develop a reproducible laboratory-based assay for Daphnia magna chitobiase activity and to screen four commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals using that assay. The four pharmaceuticals tested for potential effects on D. magna chitobiase activity were atorvastatin, lovastatin, fluoxetine, and sertraline. We were able to detect exposure-associated differences in chitobiase activity at concentrations of 0.1 mug/L fluoxetine after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Differences were also detected for the other compounds. The response of chitobiase was found to be promising as an assay to measure sublethal effects in D. magna and perhaps other zooplankton species. PMID:17972005

  15. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

  16. Networks and Models with Heterogeneous Population Structure in Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, R. R.

    Heterogeneous population structure can have a profound effect on infectious disease dynamics, and is particularly important when investigating “tactical” disease control questions. At times, the nature of the network involved in the transmission of the pathogen (bacteria, virus, macro-parasite, etc.) appears to be clear; however, the nature of the network involved is dependent on the scale (e.g. within-host, between-host, or between-population), the nature of the contact, which ranges from the highly specific (e.g. sexual acts or needle sharing at the person-to-person level) to almost completely non-specific (e.g. aerosol transmission, often over long distances as can occur with the highly infectious livestock pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus—FMDv—at the farm-to-farm level, e.g. Schley et al. in J. R. Soc. Interface 6:455-462, 2008), and the timescale of interest (e.g. at the scale of the individual, the typical infectious period of the host). Theoretical approaches to examining the implications of particular network structures on disease transmission have provided critical insight; however, a greater challenge is the integration of network approaches with data on real population structures. In this chapter, some concepts in disease modelling will be introduced, the relevance of selected network phenomena discussed, and then results from real data and their relationship to network analyses summarised. These include examinations of the patterns of air traffic and its relation to the spread of SARS in 2003 (Colizza et al. in BMC Med., 2007; Hufnagel et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:15124-15129, 2004), the use of the extensively documented Great Britain livestock movements network (Green et al. in J. Theor. Biol. 239:289-297, 2008; Robinson et al. in J. R. Soc. Interface 4:669-674, 2007; Vernon and Keeling in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci. 276:469-476, 2009) and the growing interest in combining contact structure data with phylogenetics to identify real contact patterns as they directly relate to diseases of interest (Cottam et al. in PLoS Pathogens 4:1000050, 2007; Hughes et al. in PLoS Pathogens 5:1000590, 2009).

  17. Selenium in San Francisco Bay zooplankton: Potential effects of hydrodynamics and food web interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purkerson, D.G.; Doblin, M.A.; Bollens, S.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Cutter, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential toxicity of elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems has stimulated efforts to measure Se concentrations in benthos, nekton, and waterfowl in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay). In September 1998, we initiated a 14 mo field study to determine the concentration of Se in SF Bay zooplankton, which play a major role in the Bay food web, but which have not previously been studied with respect to Se. Monthly vertical plankton tows were collected at several stations throughout SF Bay, and zooplankton were separated into two operationally defined size classes for Se analyses: 73-2,000 ??m, and ???2,000 ??m. Selenium values ranged 1.02-6.07 ??g Se g-1 dry weight. No spatial differences in zooplankton Se concentrations were found. However, there were inter- and intra-annual differences. Zooplankton Se concentrations were enriched in the North Bay in Fall 1999 when compared to other seasons and locations within and outside SF Bay. The abundance and biovolume of the zooplankton community varied spatially between stations, but not seasonally within each station. Smaller herbivorous-omnivorous zooplankton had higher Se concentrations than larger omnivorous-carnivorous zooplankton. Selenium concentrations in zooplankton were negatively correlated with the proportion of total copepod biovolume comprising the large carnivorous copepod Tortanus dextrilobatus, but positively correlated with the proportion of copepod biovolume comprising smaller copepods of the family Oithonidae, suggesting an important role of trophic level and size in regulating zooplankton Se concentrations.

  18. A Characterization of the Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Benthic Invertebrate Communities of Lake Elsinore

    E-print Network

    Tobin, Michelle Elaine

    2011-01-01

    on crustacean zooplankton communities, Freshwater Biologyzooplankton community to whole-lake fish manipulation, Freshwaterzooplankton community structure and their relation to possible controlling variables in Lake Okeechobee, Freshwater

  19. An agent-based computational model for tuberculosis spreading on age-structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graciani Rodrigues, C. C.; Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present an agent-based computational model to study the spreading of the tuberculosis (TB) disease on age-structured populations. The model proposed is a merge of two previous models: an agent-based computational model for the spreading of tuberculosis and a bit-string model for biological aging. The combination of TB with the population aging, reproduces the coexistence of health states, as seen in real populations. In addition, the universal exponential behavior of mortalities curves is still preserved. Finally, the population distribution as function of age shows the prevalence of TB mostly in elders, for high efficacy treatments.

  20. Well-posedness of a density model for a population of theta neurons.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Grégory; Henry, Jacques; Tarniceriu, Carmen Oana

    2014-04-17

    Population density models used to describe the evolution of neural populations in a phase space are closely related to the single neuron model that describes the individual trajectories of the neurons of the population and which gives in particular the phase-space where the computations are made. Based on a transformation of the quadratic integrate and fire single neuron model, the so called theta-neuron model is obtained and we shall introduce in this paper a corresponding population density model for it. Existence and uniqueness of a solution will be proved and some numerical simulations are presented. PMID:24742324

  1. Modeling the dynamics of natural rotifer populations: phase-parametric analysis

    E-print Network

    Faina S. Berezovskaya; Georgy P. Karev; Terry W. Snell

    2005-05-24

    A model of the dynamics of natural rotifer populations is described as a discrete nonlinear map depending on three parameters, which reflect characteristics of the population and environment. Model dynamics and their change by variation of these parameters were investigated by methods of bifurcation theory. A phase-parametric portrait of the model was constructed and domains of population persistence (stable equilibrium, periodic and a-periodic oscillations of population size) as well as population extinction were identified and investigated. The criteria for population persistence and approaches to determining critical parameter values are described. The results identify parameter values that lead to population extinction under various environmental conditions. They further illustrate that the likelihood of extinction can be substantially increased by small changes in environmental quality, which shifts populations into new dynamical regimes.

  2. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  3. Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Charles H.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Pelkie, Chris; Benfield, Mark C.; Popp, Jacqueline M.

    Acoustic data were collected and visualized to characterize the 3-dimensional patchiness of zooplankton at a thermally stratified site on Georges Bank. The work was carried out as part of a field study conducted to examine the effects of springtime water-column stratification on the distributions of zooplankton and larval fish on the Bank. The acoustic data were acquired as the ship steamed a survey grid relative to the track of a surface drifter with a subsurface drogue. Although quite irregular in geographical coordinate space, the ship's track relative to the moving water closely matched the intended grid pattern once the drifter's movement in the tidal flow was taken into account. After changing coordinate systems to compensate for tidal advection, the acoustic data set was transformed from its curtain-like distribution in 3-dimensional space to a volumetric distribution. Two-dimensional point kriging was performed on the irregularly spaced data from each 2-m-thick depth stratum to produce a series of 2-dimensional, regularly spaced data grids. These data grids were then stacked to construct the 3-dimensional data grid required for volumetric visualization. A similar procedure was followed with the error variance values produced at each grid point through kriging to construct a 3-dimensional, volumetric distribution of the error variance. To examine zooplankton patchiness within the surveyed volume of water, isosurfaces corresponding to specific levels of acoustic backscatter were highlighted in the visualization. The 3-dimensional distribution of error variance was used to control the opacity of the isosurfaces to provide an objective, visual approach for displaying the statistical confidence one can have in the patches detected. In this survey, the ship steamed directly over a large, southwest- to northeast-oriented patch of zooplankton on at least three different passes. It also steamed over several smaller patches. The vertically compressed nature of the patches and their high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the horizontal plane are characteristic of the zooplankton distributions found in the deeper, seasonally stratified portions of Georges Bank.

  4. Stellar Population Models and Individual Element Abundances. I. Sensitivity of Stellar Evolution Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Dotter; Brian Chaboyer; Jason W. Ferguson; Hyun-chul Lee; Guy Worthey; Darko Jevremovic; E. Baron

    2007-01-01

    Integrated light from distant galaxies is often compared to stellar population models via the equivalent widths of spectral features-spectral indices-whose strengths rely on the abundances of one or more elements. Such comparisons hinge not only on the overall metal abundance, but also on relative abundances. Studies have examined the influence of individual elements on synthetic spectra but little has been

  5. Chain pooling to minimize prediction error in subset regression. [Monte Carlo studies using population models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holms, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    Monte Carlo studies using population models intended to represent response surface applications are reported. Simulated experiments were generated by adding pseudo random normally distributed errors to population values to generate observations. Model equations were fitted to the observations and the decision procedure was used to delete terms. Comparison of values predicted by the reduced models with the true population values enabled the identification of deletion strategies that are approximately optimal for minimizing prediction errors.

  6. THE NEOCLASSICAL MODEL OF SOLOW AND SWAN WITH LOGISTIC POPULATION GROWTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASSIMILIANO FERRARA; LUCA GUERRINI

    This paper is an attempt at studying the neoclassical Solow-Swan model within a framework where the change over time of the labor-force is given by the logistic population model. In the canonical Solow-Swan model, the growth rate of population is constant, yielding an exponential behavior of population size over time, which is clearly unrealistic and unsustainable in the very long-run.

  7. A two-population bio-electrochemical model of a microbial fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Pinto; B. Srinivasan; M.-F. Manuel; B. Tartakovsky

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a two-population model describing the competition of anodophilic and methanogenic microbial populations for a common substrate in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Fast numerical solution of the model is provided by using ordinary differential equations to describe biomass growth and retention in the anodic compartment. The model parameters are estimated and validated using experimental results obtained in

  8. From population control to AIDS: Conceptualising and critiquing the global crisis model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen E. Foley; Anne Hendrixson

    2011-01-01

    This essay takes as its point of departure comparative analyses of the population control movement and the global AIDS response. We argue that the responses to both rapid population growth and AIDS reflect a particular model for approaching development issues: the global crisis model. This model provides a framework in which development issues become classified as (1) global in scope,

  9. POPULATION GENETICS MODELS WITH SKEWED FERTILITIES: A FORWARD AND BACKWARD ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    POPULATION GENETICS MODELS WITH SKEWED FERTILITIES: A FORWARD AND BACKWARD ANALYSIS THIERRY HUILLET, MARTIN M¨OHLE Abstract. Discrete population genetics models with unequal (skewed) fertil- ities for power law fertilities and for geomet- ric fertilities. This class of models can exhibit a rich variety

  10. An Individual-Based Model of Zebrafish Population Dynamics Accounting for Energy Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Beaudouin, Rémy; Goussen, Benoit; Piccini, Benjamin; Augustine, Starrlight; Devillers, James; Brion, François; Péry, Alexandre R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing population dynamics models for zebrafish is crucial in order to extrapolate from toxicity data measured at the organism level to biological levels relevant to support and enhance ecological risk assessment. To achieve this, a dynamic energy budget for individual zebrafish (DEB model) was coupled to an individual based model of zebrafish population dynamics (IBM model). Next, we fitted the DEB model to new experimental data on zebrafish growth and reproduction thus improving existing models. We further analysed the DEB-model and DEB-IBM using a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the predictions of the DEB-IBM were compared to existing observations on natural zebrafish populations and the predicted population dynamics are realistic. While our zebrafish DEB-IBM model can still be improved by acquiring new experimental data on the most uncertain processes (e.g. survival or feeding), it can already serve to predict the impact of compounds at the population level. PMID:25938409

  11. Using a population growth model to simulate response of Plodia interpunctella Hübner to temperature and diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to temperature and diet are major factors in the potential population growth of Plodia interpunctella Hübner, a damaging pest of many stored products. A population growth model was used to simulate population development on an optimal wheat-based diet and a sub-optimal diet of raisins at 20...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling in Epidemics and Economics1

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    the spread of an infectious disease over a population. The latter case study addresses the interplay betweenComparative Analysis of Agent-Based and Population-Based Modelling in Epidemics and Economics1 comparative evaluation of population-based simulation in comparison to agent-based simulation for different

  13. A coalescent model for the effect of advantageous mutations on the genealogy of a population

    E-print Network

    Durrett, Richard

    A coalescent model for the effect of advantageous mutations on the genealogy of a population in this paper is to describe the coalescent processes that arise when we consider the genealogy of a population individuals at random from this population at time zero. To describe the genealogy of the sample, we

  14. The Solow model in discrete time and decreasing population growth rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Gabriel Brida

    2008-01-01

    This paper reformulates the neoclassical Solow-Swan model of economic growth in discrete time by introducing a generic population growth law that verifies the following properties: 1) population is strictly increasing and bounded 2) the rate of growth of population is decreasing to zero as time tends to infinity. We show that in the long run the capital per worker of

  15. Ecological impact and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the zooplankton community in indoor microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Boudreau, Timothy M; Mabury, Scott A; Cheong, Woo-Jay; Solomon, Keith R

    2002-07-01

    There is presently a substantial amount of information being gathered concerning the environmental risk associated with the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compound. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is requiring that more research be completed before making definitive decisions concerning the regulatory issues covered in the significant new use rule (18/10-2000) under the Toxic Substance Control Act. However, there are no risk assessment requirements under seminatural conditions in microcosms. The PFOS can enter, and has been found in, the aquatic environment through different pathways, including spills associated with use of fire-fighting foams containing PFOS, leaching from washing Scotchgard-treated clothes with the wastewater, leaching from various coatings, discharges as residual waste from fluorochemical production, or volatilization and transportation atmospherically. The biota is the sink of PFOS rather than the sediment or soil. The aim of this article is to determine a 35-d community no-observable-effect concentration (NOECcommunity) for freshwater zooplankton and the fate of PFOS during the course of study. The PFOS persisted in the water phase with only slight reductions over the study; only the decrease from 33.9 mg/L at day 1 to 29.8 mg/L at day 35 was significant. A 90 to 100% reduction (p < 0.01) of the total zooplankton population was found after one week of exposure to 30 mg PFOS/L and a similar reduction after two weeks at 10 mg PFOS/L. The Daphnia magna 21-d NOECsurvival of 12 mg/L has previously been found in a standard laboratory bioassay by 3M. The rank order of susceptibility for the test community was Copepoda > Cladocera > Rotifera, assuming all adverse direct effects. PMID:12109751

  16. Simple graph models of information spread in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Burton; Ryder, Bergerud

    2015-01-01

    We consider several classes of simple graphs as potential models for information diffusion in a structured population. These include biases cycles, dual circular flows, partial bipartite graphs and what we call ‘single-link’ graphs. In addition to fixation probabilities, we study structure parameters for these graphs, including eigenvalues of the Laplacian, conductances, communicability and expected hitting times. In several cases, values of these parameters are related, most strongly so for partial bipartite graphs. A measure of directional bias in cycles and circular flows arises from the non-zero eigenvalues of the antisymmetric part of the Laplacian and another measure is found for cycles as the value of the transition probability for which hitting times going in either direction of the cycle are equal. A generalization of circular flow graphs is used to illustrate the possibility of tuning edge weights to match pre-specified values for graph parameters; in particular, we show that generalizations of circular flows can be tuned to have fixation probabilities equal to the Moran probability for a complete graph by tuning vertex temperature profiles. Finally, single-link graphs are introduced as an example of a graph involving a bottleneck in the connection between two components and these are compared to the partial bipartite graphs.

  17. A stochastic population model to evaluate Moapa dace (Moapa coriacea) population growth under alternative management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Jones, Edward; Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2015-01-01

    Increasing or decreasing the total carrying capacity of all stream segments resulted in changes in equilibrium population size that were directly proportional to the change in capacity. However, changes in carrying capacity to some stream segments but not others could result in disproportionate changes in equilibrium population sizes by altering density-dependent movement and survival in the stream network. These simulations show how our IBM can provide a useful management tool for understanding the effect of restoration actions or reintroductions on carrying capacity, and, in tur

  18. An empirical model for estimating annual consumption by freshwater fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Population consumption is an important process linking predator populations to their prey resources. Simple tools are needed to enable fisheries managers to estimate population consumption. We assembled 74 individual estimates of annual consumption by freshwater fish populations and their mean annual population size, 41 of which also included estimates of mean annual biomass. The data set included 14 freshwater fish species from 10 different bodies of water. From this data set we developed two simple linear regression models predicting annual population consumption. Log-transformed population size explained 94% of the variation in log-transformed annual population consumption. Log-transformed biomass explained 98% of the variation in log-transformed annual population consumption. We quantified the accuracy of our regressions and three alternative consumption models as the mean percent difference from observed (bioenergetics-derived) estimates in a test data set. Predictions from our population-size regression matched observed consumption estimates poorly (mean percent difference = 222%). Predictions from our biomass regression matched observed consumption reasonably well (mean percent difference = 24%). The biomass regression was superior to an alternative model, similar in complexity, and comparable to two alternative models that were more complex and difficult to apply. Our biomass regression model, log10(consumption) = 0.5442 + 0.9962??log10(biomass), will be a useful tool for fishery managers, enabling them to make reasonably accurate annual population consumption predictions from mean annual biomass estimates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. Statistical Mechanics of Population --- The Lattice Lotka-Volterra Model ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, H.; Ogita, N.; Sasaki, A.; Sato, K.

    1992-12-01

    To derive the consequence of heritable traits of individual organisms upon the feature of their populations, the lattice Lotka-Volterra model is studied which is defined as a Markov process of the state of the lattice space. A lattice site is either vacant or occupied by an individual of a certain type or species. Transition rates of the process are given in terms of parameters representing the traits of an individual such as intrinsic birth and death and migration rate of each type. Density is a variable defined as a probability that a site is occupied by a certain type. Under a given state of a site the conditional probability of its nearest neighbor site being occupied by a certain type is termed environs density of the site. Mutual exclusion of individuals is already taken into account by the basic assumption of the lattice model. Other interaction between individuals can be taken into account by assuming that the actual birth and death and migration rates are dependent on the environs densities. Extending the notion of ordinary Malthusian parameters, we define Malthusians as dynamical variables specifying the time development of the densities. Conditions for the positive stationary densities and for the evolutional stability (ES) against the invasion of mutant types is given in terms of Malthusians. Using the pair approximation (PA), a simplest decoupling approximation to take account of spatial correlation, we obtain analytical results for stationary densities, and critical parameters for ES in the case of two types. Assuming that the death rate is dependent on the environs density, we derive conditions for the evolution of altruism. Comparing with computer simulation, we discuss the validity of PA and its improvement.

  20. Formulating variable carrying capacity by exploring a resource dynamics-based feedback mechanism underlying the population growth models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-i Wu; Amit Chakraborty; Bai-Lian Li; Charles M. Kenerley

    2009-01-01

    Most of the population growth models comprise the concept of carrying capacity presume that a stable population would have a saturation level characteristic. This indicates that the population growth models have a common implicit feature of resource-limited growth, which contributes at a later stage of population growth by forming a numerical upper bound on the population size. However, a general

  1. Metabolic rate models and the substitutability of predator populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Chalcraft; WILLIAM J. RESETARITS JR

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Much of the debate surrounding the consequences of biodiversity loss centres around the issue of whether different species are functionally similar in their effects on ecological processes. In this study, we examined whether populations consisting of smaller, more abundant individuals are functionally similar to populations of the same species with larger, fewer individuals. 2. We manipulated the biomass

  2. Modeling vital rates improves estimation of population projection matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Gross; William F. Morris; Michael S. Wolosin; Daniel F. Doak

    2006-01-01

    Population projection matrices are commonly used by ecologists and managers to analyze the dynamics of stage-structured populations. Building projection matrices from data requires estimating transition rates among stages, a task that often entails estimating many parameters with few data. Consequently, large sampling variability in the estimated transition rates increases the uncertainty in the estimated matrix and quantities derived from it,

  3. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  4. Ecological implications of parasites in natural Daphnia populations.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, Ellen; Declerck, Steven; De Meester, Luc; Ebert, Dieter

    2005-07-01

    In natural host populations, parasitism is considered to be omnipresent and to play an important role in shaping host life history and population dynamics. Here, we study parasitism in natural populations of the zooplankton host Daphnia magna investigating their individual and population level effects during a 2-year field study. Our results revealed a rich and highly prevalent community of parasites, with eight endoparasite species (four microsporidia, one amoeba, two bacteria and one nematode) and six epibionts (belonging to five different taxa: Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyceae, Ciliata, Fungi and Rotifera). Several of the endoparasites were associated with a severe overall fecundity reduction of the hosts, while such effects were not seen for epibionts. In particular, infections by Pasteuria ramosa, White Fat Cell Disease and Flabelliforma magnivora were strongly associated with a reduction in overall D. magna fecundity. Across the sampling period, average population fecundity of D. magna was negatively associated with overall infection intensity and total endoparasite richness. Population density of D. magna was negatively correlated to overall endoparasite prevalence and positively correlated with epibiont richness. Finally, the reduction in host fecundity caused by different parasite species was negatively correlated to both parasite prevalence and the length of the time period during which the parasite persisted in the host population. Consistent with epidemiological models, these results indicate that parasite mediated host damages influence the population dynamics of both hosts and parasites. PMID:15891825

  5. Secondary production of freshwater zooplankton communities exposed to a fungicide and to a petroleum distillate in outdoor pond mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Ana; Roucaute, Marc; Gorzerino, Caroline; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassères, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Ecological risk assessment of chemicals in mesocosms requires measurement of a large number of parameters at the community level. Studies on invertebrate communities usually focus on taxonomic approaches, which only provide insights into taxonomic structure changes induced by chemicals. In the present study, abundance, biomass (B), theoretical production (P), and instantaneous P/B ratio were used as endpoints to assess the effects of the commercial form of the dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram (35 µg/L and 170 µg/L nominal concentrations) and of the hydrocarbon water accommodated fraction (HWAF) of a petroleum distillate (0.01 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and 20 mg/L loadings) on the zooplankton community in freshwater pond mesocosms. Endpoints were measured during a 4-wk treatment period (1 pulse/wk) followed by a 5-mo posttreatment period to evaluate zooplankton population recovery. The chlorophyll a concentration in water was significantly increased after treatment with HWAF, whereas it was not affected by thiram treatment. Zooplankton abundance-based analysis showed effects on a limited number of taxa, whereas other endpoints (mainly the P/B ratio) revealed that more taxa were impacted, with recovery depending on the chemical and concentration. Exposure to HWAF mainly had a negative impact on cladocerans, which resulted in top-down effects (between cladocerans and phytoplankton). Thiram negatively affected rotifers and copepods, suggesting more direct toxic effects. The results show that the use of secondary production as an endpoint provides a more comprehensive assessment of potential direct and indirect effects of chemicals on a community, and they also support evidence of alteration in functional processes. PMID:24375909

  6. Diffusion models for population dynamics incorporating individual behavior at boundaries: applications to refuge design.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, R S; Cosner, C

    1999-04-01

    We construct models for dispersal of a population which incorporate the response of individuals to interfaces between habitat types. The models are based on random walks where there may be a bias in the direction an individual moves when it encounters an interface. This sort of dispersal process is called skew Brownian motion. Our models take the form of diffusion equations with matching conditions across the interface between regions for population densities and fluxes. We combine the dispersal models with linear population growth models which assume that the population growth rate differs between regions of different habitat types. We use those models to study issues of refuge design. We specifically consider how the effectiveness of buffer zones depends on their size, quality, and the population's response to the interface between the buffer zone and the refuge. PMID:10329518

  7. Assessment of Zooplankton Size Fractionation for Monitoring Fry and Fingerling Culture Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methodology was formulated for use in the rapid assessment of zooplankton in channel catfish ponds. Understanding zooplankton prey size is useful for effective pond management. Size fractionation using differential sieve sizes was an effective means of separating size classes in live material, whe...

  8. Distribution, abundance, and substrate preferences of demersal reef zooplankton at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Alldredge; J. M. King

    1977-01-01

    Demersal zooplankton, those plankton which hide within reef sediments during the day but emerge to swim freely over the reef at night, were sampled quantitatively using emergence traps planced over the substrate at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Densities of zooplankton emerging at night from 6 substrate types (fine, medium, and coarse sand, rubble, living coral and reef rock)

  9. Metabolic rates of epipelagic marine zooplankton as a function of body mass and temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    The metabolic rates (oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion, phosphate excretion) of epipelagic marine zooplankton have been expressed as a function of body mass (dry, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus weights) and habitat temperature, using the multiple-regression method. Zooplankton data used for this analysis are from phylogenetically mixed groups (56 to 143 species, representing 7 to 8 phyla, body mass range: 6 orders

  10. Trophic transfer of heavy metals from freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna to zebrafish Danio reiro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Jun Liu; I-Hsun Ni; Wen-Xiong Wang

    2002-01-01

    The trophic transfer of metals along the food chain has been recognized as an important issue in the study of water quality in recent years. Feeding experiments were conducted to examine the assimilation of three metals (Cd, Cr and Zn) by the zebrafish Danio reiro feeding on the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. The zooplankton were exposed to radiotracers from both

  11. Effect of temperature on contents of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids in freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michail I. Gladyshev; Vitaliy P. Semenchenko; Olga P. Dubovskaya; Elena B. Fefilova; Olesia N. Makhutova; Zhanna F. Buseva; Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Vladimir I. Razlutskij; Ekaterina V. Lepskaya; Mariya A. Baturina; Galina S. Kalachova; Olga N. Kononova

    2011-01-01

    In 11 lakes from cold and warm regions we studied the content of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in seston (<130?m) and crustacean zooplankton using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. An increase of temperature correlated with a decrease of HUFA content in zooplankton. A multivariate canonical correlation analyses revealed, that the decrease of HUFA content was related with a decrease of per

  12. PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, Michael C. and Emile M. Lores. 2004. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Seasonal Dynamics in a Subtropical Estuary: Importance of Cyanobacteria. J. Plankton Res. 26(3):371-382. (ERL,GB 1190). A seasonal study of phytoplankton and zooplankton was conducted from 1999-20...

  13. Empirical analysis of the effect of phosphorus limitation on algal food quality for freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Brett; Dörthe C. Müller-Navarra; Sang-Kyu Park

    2000-01-01

    Herbivorous zooplankton production is often constrained by algal food quality, and variation in algal food quality has been attributed to its phosphorus (P) content. To test the hypothesis that mineral P limitation is an important constraint on freshwater herbivorous zooplankton production, we conducted a quantitative analysis of published data on lake seston carbon to phosphorus (C : P) ratios and

  14. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN FRESHWATER ZOOPLANKTON: VARIATION WITH BODY SIZE, DEPTH, AND SCALE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadette Pinel-Alloul; John A. Downing; Martin Perusse; Gabriella Codin-Blumer

    1988-01-01

    The effects ofbody size, depth, and sampling scale on spatial heterogeneity were examined in the zooplankton community of a small lake. Analyses were performed by regression analysis of 27 sets (3 scales x 3 depths x 3 dates) ofreplicate (« = 4) samples of the natural zooplankton (cladocerans, copepods, rotifers) community ofLake Cromwell, Quebec, Canada. Spatial heterogeneity was measured as

  15. Zooplankton Grazing and Phytoplankton Abundance: an Assessment Before and After Invasion of Dreissena Polymorpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wu; David A. Culver

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha into Lake Erie raises the question of whether it competes with the existing zooplankton community for phytoplankton. In this study, we approached this question by examining the role of zooplankton grazing in influencing Lake Erie abiotic conditions and biotic interactions during 2 years of varying zebra mussel abundances. In situ grazing experiments

  16. Factors Influencing the Seasonal Phenology and Composition of Zooplankton Communities in Mountain Temporary Pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Tavernini; Graziella Mura; Giampaolo Rossetti

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 nine temporary pools of the northern Apennines (Italy) were visited on 13 occasions during the ice-free season (May to October). The aims of this research were to define the relationships between hydroperiod and other environmental variables and the zooplankton. In total, 49 zooplankton taxa were identified: 36 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 6 copepods and 2 anostracans. Our results indicate

  17. Impact of Bythotrephes invasion on zooplankton communities in acid-damaged and recovered

    E-print Network

    Strecker, Angela L.

    Impact of Bythotrephes invasion on zooplankton communities in acid-damaged and recovered lakes into freshwater ecosystems have had a multitude of effects on aquatic commu- nities. Few studies, however, have and zooplankton community structure. We conducted a 30-day enclosure experiment in Killarney Pro- vincial Park

  18. ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM SALMON,

    E-print Network

    ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM Alaska, fed little in freshwater but fed heavily in the estuary, mainly on pelagic zooplankters. Fry did.8°C to 16 h at 8.5°C. The abundance of zooplankton ranged from 9 to 154 organisms per liter

  19. Zooplankton distribution in a temperate estuary (Mondego estuary southern arm: Western Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Vieira; Ulisses Azeiteiro; Pedro Ré; Ramiro Pastorinho; João Carlos Marques; Fernando Morgado

    2003-01-01

    The composition and spatio-temporal distribution of zooplankton abundance and diversity were studied monthly from July 1999 to June 2000 in the southern arm of the Mondego estuarine system (Western Portugal). Two sampling stations with different salinity conditions were selected. Zooplankton samples were obtained using 63 and 125 ?m mesh nets. In both taxocenosis densities were higher in autumn and late

  20. VARIABILITY IN ZOOPLANKTON BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION IN THE NORTHERN SARGASSO SEA: THE CONTRIBUTION OF

    E-print Network

    and move south, enclos- ing a core of cold and relatively fresh slope water within a remnant of the GulfVARIABILITY IN ZOOPLANKTON BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION IN THE NORTHERN SARGASSO SEA: THE CONTRIBUTION. They are more productive than the surrounding Sargasso Sea and have a zooplankton biomass intermediate between