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1

Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

2010-12-01

2

Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

Finkelman, R.B.; Stanton, R.W.

1978-01-01

3

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

4

Partition coefficients for rare earth elements in mafic minerals of high silica rhyolites: the importance of accessory mineral inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

REE concentrations of mafic mineral separates from high-silica rhyolites measured by INAA are high and variable compared to electron microprobe analyses of the minerals themselves. The mafic phases commonly contain inclusions or have adhering grains of accessory rare earth element (REE)-rich minerals. Optical and electron microscopic observation revealed discrete grains of chevkinite (rare earth titano-silicate) included within clinopyroxenes from the

P MICHAEL

1988-01-01

5

Evaluating 238U/235U in U-bearing accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-daughter (U-Pb, Pb-Pb, and U-series) geochronology and cosmochronology utilize the absolute value of the present day 238U/235U ratio to calculate and compare dates. For decades, this value has been assumed to be invariant and equal to 137.88, but recent experiments indicate that there is potential for ‘per mil level’ variation in 238U/235U in natural materials, hypothesized to be the result of redox reactions. These studies have largely focused on materials formed in low-temperature environments (e.g. speleothems, corals) and U ore deposits. At present there are no published high-precision high-accuracy 238U/235U data for U-bearing accessory minerals commonly used for U-Pb geochronology. We present accurate and precise 238U/235U determinations for a suite of common U-bearing accessory minerals (zircon, monazite etc.), from a variety of geological environments and ages. Measurements have been made by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, accurately correcting for mass fractionation using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike. Accessory mineral 238U/235U ratios are generally lower than the ‘consensus’ value of 137.88. Systematic discordance has been observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates obtained for closed-system minerals, and has been used to reassess the relative decay constants of 238U and 235U (Mattinson, 2000, 2010; Schoene et al., 2006). However, these attempts assumed values (i.e., 137.88 or 137.80) for all present-day 238U/235U ratios. Our new determination of coupled 238U/206Pb, 235U/207Pb and 238U/235U measurements on the same closed system zircons, all traceable to SI units, permit further refinement of ?238U/?235U estimates. Mattinson J.M. 2000. Revising the "gold standard" - the Uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. EOS, AGU Fall meeting Supplement Abstract V61A-02. Mattinson J.M. 2010. Analysis of the relative decay constants of 235U and 238U by multi-step CA-TIMS measurements of closed-system natural zircon samples. Chemical Geology. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.05.007 Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D. and Bowring S.A. 2006. Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 215458.

Hiess, J.; Condon, D. J.; Noble, S. R.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.; Mattinson, J. M.

2010-12-01

6

Titaniferous accessory minerals in very low-grade metamorphic rocks, Keweenaw Peninsula Michigan, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanite, TiO 2, and pseudorutile are associated with primary igneous Fe-oxide grains in basalt and rhyolite clasts from the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, USA which were metamorphosed to the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. Pseudorutile occurs with titanite + TiO 2 in broad lamellae within titaniferous magnetites. It also occurs as intergrowths with titanite and Fe-oxide in embayments within primary oxide grains and in composite Fe-oxide-titanite grains that appear to represent nearly complete replacement of original Ti-bearing Fe-oxides. Thin {111} lamellae in titaniferous magnetite grains contain titanite, titanite + TiO 2 and titanite + TiO 2 + Fe-oxide. TiO 2 also occurs by itself in networks of closely spaced small elongated lenses in Fe-Ti oxides. Concentrations of CaAlSiO 4F + CaAlSiO 4(OH) in titanite range from 0 to 30%. The large variation in titanite compositions suggests that equilibrium was not achieved except on a very local scale: a conclusion also supported by local variations in the assemblages of Ti-bearing secondary minerals. Textures and mineral assemblages indicate that ulvospinel lamellae were altered to titanite and/or TiO 2 polymorphs while ilmenite was altered to pseudorutile and titanite ± TiO 2. The relative proportions of TiO 2 and titanite appear to reflect local variations in the composition of the metamorphic fluid phase that may be linked to the degree of interaction with a hydrothermal fluid. Titanite-rich regions may indicate a greater degree of fluid flushing than TiO 2-rich regions. Textures and mineral assemblages cannot distinguish between models in which pseudorutile and a TiO 2 polymorph formed during weathering or diagenesis followed by conversion of TiO 2 to titanite during metamorphism and models in which pseudorutile formed, together with titanite and TiO 2, during metamorphism. In either case, pseudorutile was able to persist through prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphism suggesting that it can be a significant Ti-rich accessory mineral in very low-grade metamorphic rocks.

Hansen, Edward; Reimink, Jesse; Harlov, Daniel

2010-04-01

7

Accessory Mineral Records of Early Earth Crust-Mantle Systematics: an Example From West Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions for the formation and the nature of Earth's early crust are enigmatic due to poor preservation. Before c.4 Ga the only archives are detrital minerals eroded from earlier crust, such as the Jack Hills zircons in western Australia, or extinct isotope systematics. Zircons are particularly powerful since they retain precise records of their ages of crystallisation, and the Lu-Hf radiogenic isotope and O stable isotope systematics of the reservoir from which they crystallised. In principle, this allows insight into the nature of the crust, the mantle reservoir from which the melt was extracted and any reworked material incorporated into that melt. We have used in situ methods to measure U-Pb, O and Lu-Hf within single zircon crystals from tonalitic gneisses from West Greenland in the vicinity of the Isua Supracrustal Belt. They have little disturbed ages of c.3.8 Ga, mantle-like O isotope signatures and Lu-Hf isotope signatures that lie on the CHUR evolution line at 3.8 Ga. These samples have previously been subjected to Pb isotope feldspar and 142Nd whole rock analysis and have helped constrain models in which early differentiation of a proto-crust must have occurred. The CHUR-like Lu-Hf signature, along with mantle-like O signature from these zircons suggests juvenile melt production at 3.8 Ga from undifferentiated mantle, yet the other isotope systems preclude this possibility. Alternatively, this is further strong evidence for a heterogeneous mantle in the early Earth. Whilst zircons afford insight into the nature of the early crust and mantle, it is through the Sm-Nd system that the mantle has traditionally been viewed. Titanite often contains several thousand ppm Nd, making it amenable to precise analysis, and is a common accessory phase. It has a reasonably high closure temperature for Pb and O, and it can retain cores with older ages and distinct REE chemistry. It is often the main accessory phase alongside zircon, and it is the main carrier of Nd within the whole rock such that Nd isotope analysis of titanite may be able to see-through later alteration that may have partially reset the whole rock system. We present new in-situ U-Pb, O and Sm-Nd and high-precision U-Pb ID-TIMS and Sm-Nd MC- ICPMS data from individual or fragmented titanite grains. We discuss how these data complement the zircon data and may help to resolve long-standing debates in ancient gneiss terranes, with utility to the nature and formation of crust on the early Earth.

Storey, C. D.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

2008-12-01

8

Geochemistry of accessory minerals associated with radioactive mineralisation in the central Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prominent shear zones in the low Ca granitic plutons of El-Missikat and El-Erediya, central Eastern Desert of Egypt trend northwest-southeast, north-south and northeast-southwest. The shear zones are filled with jasper containing uraniferous mineralisation with accessory uranophane, pitchblende and uraninite, accompanied by pyrite, galena, magnetite-titanomagnetite, ilmenite, hematite, rutile, titanite, fluorite, zircon, monazite, apatite and tourmaline. It is possible to discriminate between

A. M. El-Kammar; N. El-Hazik; M. Mahdi; N. Aly

1997-01-01

9

Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the Madison Limestone, but pyrite will persist and iron oxyhydroxides will not recrystallize.

Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

2013-12-01

10

Accessory minerals and subduction zone metasomatism: a geochemical comparison of two me??langes (Washington and California, U.S.A.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of a subducted slab or subducted sediment to contribute many incompatible trace elements to arc source regions may depend on the stabilities of accessory minerals within these rocks, which can only be studied indirectly. In contrast, the role of accessory minerals in lower-T and -P metasomatic processes within paleo-subduction zones can be studied directly in subduction-zone metamorphic terranes. The Gee Point-Iron Mountain locality of the Shuksan Metamorphic Suite, North Cascades, Washington State, is a high-T me??lange of metamafic blocks in a matrix of meta-ultramafic rocks. This me??lange is similar in geologic setting and petrology to the upper part of an unnamed amphibolite unit of the Catalina Schist, Santa Catalina Island, southern California. Both are interpreted as shear zones between mantle and slab rocks that formed during the early stages of subduction. Some garnet amphibolite blocks from the Gee Point-Iron Mountain locality display trace-element enrichments similar to those in counterparts from the Catalina Schist. Some Catalina blocks are highly enriched in Th, rare-earth elements (REE), the high-field-strength elements Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf (HFSE), U and Sr compared to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), and to other garnet amphibolite blocks in the same unit. Textural and geochemical data indicate that accessory minerals of metamorphic origin control the enrichment of Th, REE and HFSE in blocks from both areas. The Mg-rich rinds around blocks and the meta-ultramafic matrix from both me??langes are highly enriched in a large number of trace elements compared to harzburgites, dunites and serpentinites. Evidence for recrystallization or formation of accessory minerals in the former rocks suggests that these minerals control some of the trace-element enrichments. Data from the Gee Point and Catalina me??langes suggest that the accessory minerals titanite, rutile, apatite, zircon and REE-rich epidote play a significant role in the enrichment of trace elements in both mafic and ultramafic rocks during subduction-related fluid-rock interaction. Mobilization of incompatible elements, and deposition of such elements in the accessory minerals of mafic and ultramafic rocks may be fairly common in fluid-rich metamorphic environments in subduction zones. ?? 1993.

Sorensen, S.S.; Grossman, J.N.

1993-01-01

11

Uranium-rich accessory minerals in the peraluminous and perphosphorous Belvís de Monroy pluton (Iberian Variscan belt)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strongly peraluminous, perphosphorous (<0.85 wt% P2O5) and low-Ca granites from the Belvís de Monroy pluton contain the most U-rich monazite-(Ce) and xenotime known in igneous rocks. Along with these accessory minerals, P-rich zircon occurs, reaching uncommon compositions particularly in the more fractionated units of this zoned pluton. Monazite displays a wide compositional variation of UO2 (<23.13 wt%) and ThO2 (<19.58 wt%), positively correlated with Ca, Si, P, Y and REE. Xenotime shows a high UO2 content (2.37-13.34 wt%) with parallel increases of LREE, Ca and Si. Zircon contains comparatively much lower UO2 (<1.53 wt%) but high P2O5 (<14.91 wt%), Al2O3 (<6.96 wt%), FeO (<2.93 wt%) and CaO (<2.24 wt%) contents. The main mechanism of incorporating large U and Th amounts in studied monazite and U in xenotime is the cheralite-type [(Th,U)4+ + Ca2+ = 2(Y,REE)3+] substitution. Zircon requires several coupled mechanisms to charge balance the P substitution, resulting in non-stoichiometric compositions with low analytical totals. Compositional variations in the studied accessory phases indicate that the substitution mechanisms during crystal growth depend on the availability of non-formula elements. The strong P-rich character of the studied granites increases monazite crystallization, triggering a progressive impoverishment in Th and LREE in the residual melts, and consequently increasing extraordinarily the U content in monazite and xenotime. This is in marked contrast to other peraluminous (I-type or P-poor S-type) granite series. The P-rich and low-Ca peraluminous melt inhibits uraninite crystallization, so contributing to the U availability for monazite and xenotime.

Pérez-Soba, Cecilia; Villaseca, Carlos; Orejana, David; Jeffries, Teresa

2014-05-01

12

Accessory Mineral Records of Early Earth Crust-Mantle Systematics: an Example From West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for the formation and the nature of Earth's early crust are enigmatic due to poor preservation. Before c.4 Ga the only archives are detrital minerals eroded from earlier crust, such as the Jack Hills zircons in western Australia, or extinct isotope systematics. Zircons are particularly powerful since they retain precise records of their ages of crystallisation, and the Lu-Hf

C. D. Storey; C. J. Hawkesworth

2008-01-01

13

Effective LA-ICP-MS dating of common-Pb bearing accessory minerals with new data reduction schemes in Iolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to non-destructive geochemical analyses, LA-ICP-MS consumes ca. 0.1 ?m of material per ablation pulse. It is therefore to be expected that the combined analyses of ca. 200 pulses will encounter geochemical and isotopic complexities in all but the most perfect minerals. Experienced LA-ICP-MS analysts spot down-hole complexities and choose signal integration areas accordingly. In U-Pb geochronology, the task of signal integration choice is complex as the analyst wants to avoid areas of common Pb and Pb-loss and separate true (concordant) age complexity. Petrus and Kamber (2012) developed VizualAge as a tool for reducing and visualising, in real time, U-Pb geochronology data obtained by LA-ICP-MS as an add-on for the freely available U-Pb geochronology data reduction scheme of Paton et al. (2010) in Iolite. The most important feature of VizualAge is its ability to display a live concordia diagram, allowing users to inspect the data of a signal on a concordia diagram as the integration area it is being adjusted, thus providing immediate visual feedback regarding discordance, uncertainty, and common lead for different regions of the signal. It can also be used to construct histograms and probability distributions, standard and Tera-Wasserburg style concordia diagrams, as well as 3D U-Th-Pb and total U-Pb concordia diagrams. More recently, Chew et al. (2014) presented a new data reduction scheme (VizualAge_UcomPbine) with much improved common Pb correction functionality. Common Pb is a problem for many U-bearing accessory minerals and an under-appreciated difficulty is the potential presence of (possibly unevenly distributed) common Pb in calibration standards, introducing systematic inaccuracy into entire datasets. One key feature of the new method is that it can correct for variable amounts of common Pb in any U-Pb accessory mineral standard as long as the standard is concordant in the U/Pb (and Th/Pb) systems after common Pb correction. Common Pb correction can be undertaken using either the 204Pb, 207Pb or 208Pb(no Th) methods. After common Pb correction to the user-selected age standard integrations, the scheme fits session-wide model U-Pb fractionation curves to the time-resolved U-Pb standard data. This down hole fractionation model is next applied to the unknowns and sample-standard bracketing (using a user specified interpolation method) is used to calculate final isotopic ratios and ages. 204Pb- and 208Pb(no Th)-corrected concordia diagrams and 204Pb-, 207Pb- and 208Pb(no Th)-corrected age channels can be calculated for user-specified initial Pb ratio(s). All other conventional common Pb correction methods (e.g. intercept or isochron methods on co-genetic analyses) can be performed offline. Apatite, titanite, rutile and very young zircon data will be presented, obtained using a Thermo Scientific iCAP-Qc (Q-ICP-MS) coupled to a Photon Machines Analyte Excite 193 nm ArF Excimer laser with a novel signal smoothing device Chew, D.M., Petrus, J.A., and Kamber, B.S. (2014); Chemical Geology, 363, 185-199. Paton C., Woodhead J.D., Hellstrom J.C., Hergt J.M., Greig A. and Maas R. (2010); Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 11, 1-36. Petrus, J.A. and Kamber, B.S. (2012): Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 36, 247-270.

Kamber, Balz S.; Chew, David M.; Petrus, Joseph A.

2014-05-01

14

238U/235U determinations of some commonly used reference materials and U-bearing accessory minerals (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined 238U/235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials in addition to several U-bearing accessory phases (zircon and monazite) by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. The 238U/235U values for the natural uranium reference materials differ, by up to 0.1%, from the widely used ‘consensus’ value (137.88) with all having 238U/235U values less than 137.88. Similarly, initial 238U/235U data from zircon and monazite yield 238U/235U values that are lower than the ‘consensus’ value. The data obtained from U-bearing minerals is used to assess how the uncertainty in the 238U/235U ratio contributes to the systematic discordance observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates (Mattinson, 2000; Schoene et al., 2006) which has traditionally been wholly attributed to error in the U decay constants. The 238U/235U determinations made on the synthetic reference materials yield results that are considerably more precise and accurate than the certified values (0.02% vs. 0.1% for CRM U500). The calibration of isotopic tracers used for U-daughter geochronology that are partially based upon these reference materials, and the resultant age determinations, will benefit from increased accuracy and precision. Mattinson, J.M., 2000. Revising the “gold standard”—the uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. Eos Trans. AGU, Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract V61A-02. Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D., Bowring S.A., 2006, Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445

Condon, D.; Noble, S.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.

2009-12-01

15

Dating widespread tephras and their proximal equivalents by SIMS analysis of accessory mineral rims and by argon geochronology (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dating the deposition of regionally distributed ash beds whose vent-proximal equivalents are unknown, eroded, or buried by the products of younger eruptions may be challenging because the potassium-rich minerals necessary for high-precision argon geochronology are absent, too small, or altered. Where correlative proximal deposits can be identified, juvenile pyroclasts can be sampled to date their coarse-grained crystals. Zircon is the premier mineral for dating via the U-Pb system, and is commonly present in distal ash beds produced by eruption of silicic magma. However, zircon often yields ages older than eruption due to protracted crystallization in subvolcanic magma chambers, recycling of antecrysts, and/or inheritance. High-spatial resolution sampling of unpolished crystal faces on indium-mounted zircon and other accessory minerals via SIMS (ion microprobe) analysis provides U-Pb or 238U-230Th ages for the final few micrometers of rim crystallization, and represents an alternative technique for avoiding, or at least minimizing, the aforementioned problems. To explore the utility of this technique for dating distal tephras erupted from Quaternary volcanoes in the western United States, we performed U-Pb and U-Th dating of unpolished rims on zircon and allanite in tandem with sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating for rhyolitic ash beds and proximal pyroclastic deposits or lava associated with a variety of Pleistocene eruptions. Tephra beds generated by late Pleistocene eruptions from Mono Craters, east-central California, are distributed over a significant area of the Great Basin, but their ages have been difficult to resolve due to contamination by sanidine xenocrysts and accidental lithic clasts. Rims on zircon and allanite from a regionally distributed tephra and its correlative rhyolite dome in the Mono Craters both yield U-Th isochron ages of ca. 21 ka, which are indistinguishable from the 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine from the dome. A distinct tephra that erupted from Mono Craters during a pronounced geomagnetic excursion yields a zircon-allanite rim isochron age of ca. 42 ka [1], which matches the independent 40Ar/39Ar [2] and astronomical [3] age for the Laschamp Excursion. U-Pb dating of rims on zircon from proximal and distal Lava Creek Tuff, which erupted during the formation of Yellowstone caldera and blanketed much of the western United States, yields crystallization ages that match the 40Ar/39Ar age for associated sanidine. Postcaldera rhyolites that erupted within Yellowstone caldera between ca. 260 ka and ca. 70 ka exhibit similar concordance between U-Pb or U-Th ages for rims and their respective 40Ar/39Ar ages for sanidine, although variable amounts of crystal recycling are observed. Our results for various rhyolites indicate that high-spatial resolution dating of unpolished rims from zircon × allanite can effectively resolve eruption ages for distal tephras that elude dating by other techniques because of crystal recycling. [1] Vazquez and Lidzbarski, 2012, EPSL 357-358: 54, [2] Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80, [3] Channell et al., 2012, G-cubed 13: 1

Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Matthews, N. E.; Till, C.; Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Marcaida, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Coble, M. A.

2013-12-01

16

Anton R. Chakhmouradian Roger H. Mitchell The mineralogy of Ba-and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites  

E-print Network

Anton R. Chakhmouradian á Roger H. Mitchell The mineralogy of Ba- and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites pegmatites Received: 20 July 2000 / Accepted: 31 October 2001 / Published online: 9 January 2002 � Springer-Verlag 2002 Abstract At Gordon Butte (Crazy Mountains, Mon- tana), agpaitic nepheline±syenite pegmatites

Chakhmouradian, Anton

17

Gahnite, chrysoberyl and beryl co-occurrence as accessory minerals in a highly evolved peraluminous pluton: The Belvís de Monroy leucogranite (Cáceres, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gahnite (ZnAl2O4), chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4) and beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) have been found as accessory minerals in the external, highly fractionated, leucogranitic unit within the Hercynian reversely zoned Belvís de Monroy pluton (westernmost part of the Montes de Toledo batholith, Cáceres, Spain). The highly felsic (SiO2 > 72 wt.%) and peraluminous (ACNK > 1.2) character of this leucogranite, together with the high content of some incompatible elements (F, Li, B, and P), seems to be a primary consequence of fractional crystallization in a magmatic closed-system. The high Be contents and Zn/FeTotal ratio (> 0.01) are relevant factors which have favoured the precipitation of these minerals. Moreover, the Si, Al, P, B, and F activities might be high, favouring the magmatic crystallization of such exotic mineral phases together with Be-rich cordierite, F-rich micas, sillimanite and Al-rich phosphates. In fact, the interplay between the silica and alumina activities likely controls the stabilization and the preferential crystallization of gahnite + chrysoberyl or beryl + chrysoberyl assemblages in mm-sized microdomains. The P-T crystallization conditions are constrained by the muscovite and sillimanite stability fields and the minimum granite Al2O3-saturated solidus, and have been estimated at temperatures between 670 and 700 °C, and pressures between 1 and 2 kbar.

Merino, E.; Villaseca, C.; Orejana, D.; Jeffries, T.

2013-10-01

18

Redistribution of rare earth elements, thorium, and uranium over accessory minerals in the course of amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism: The role of apatite and monazite in orthogneisses from southwestern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amphibolite to granulite facies transition has been studied in a high-K calc-alkaline, hornblende-biotite, K-feldspar megacrystic augen gneiss series from the Rogaland-Vest-Agder (Rog-VA) sector of the Sveconorwegian province (southwest Norway). Hornblende begins to break down mainly to clinopyroxene at the Cpx-in isograd and biotite mainly to orthopyroxene at the Opx-in isograd (abbreviations for minerals following Kretz, 1983). The magmatic accessory

Bernard Bingen; Daniel Demaiffe; Jan Hertogen

1996-01-01

19

Fatigue properties for the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites: implications for stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Previous studies have compiled yield-strength profiles of continental lithosphere based on the results of laboratory measurements and numerical calculations; however, yield-strength values remain poorly constrained, especially at depths below the brittle-plastic transition zone. Recent studies by the authors have refined the microboudin technique for estimating palaeostress magnitude in the deep crust (> 10 km depth). This technique has the potential to provide important information on stress levels in the deep continental crust, an environment to which available in situ stress measurements and palaeopiezometric methods cannot be applied. In applying the microboudinage technique, obtaining an estimate of the palaeostress magnitude requires knowledge of the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals (e.g., tourmaline, amphibole, and epidote) that are subjected to brittle fracturing during plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix minerals. The absolute magnitude of fracture strength is known to show a marked reduction in the case of fatigue fracture. Fatigue fracture falls into two categories: static fatigue and cyclic fatigue. In the field of experimental rock deformation, stress corrosion by water molecules (static fatigue) is commonly invoked as the mechanism of fatigue fracture; however, evidence of both static and cyclic fatigue has been reported from studies of natural geological samples. The present study focused on the fatigue properties of columnar accessory minerals at high temperatures, with the aim of improving the accuracy of estimates of natural palaeostress magnitude at depth in the crust. 2. Constant stress-rate test A constant stress-rate test was performed to determine the influence of static fatigue on the strength of columnar accessory minerals. The test was conducted under three-point bending with a span distance of 10 mm. Temperature conditions and the crosshead speed were set in the ranges of ambient to 600°C, and 0.0005 to 0.2 mm/min, respectively. Pressure and relative humidity were set to room conditions. Tourmaline was chosen for testing (as representative of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites) because this is the only mineral for which crystals are available of sufficient size and quality. A total of 120 prism-shaped tourmaline test pieces (dimensions, 2×2×12 mm) were prepared from a single tourmaline block collected from Minas Gerais, Brazil. The flexural strength of tourmaline shows a clear decrease with decreasing crosshead speed at ambient temperature (with n ? 15 as the static fatigue parameter); however, this trend weakens with increasing temperature (n > 50); that is, the influence of static fatigue on the strength of tourmaline decreases with increasing temperature. A comparable result has been reported for glass materials because of difficulties in the absorption of moisture on sample surfaces under high-temperature conditions. The fabric pattern of fracture planes developed in tourmaline specimens in the present study, which show rectilinear scratches, arrests, or Wallner lines on smooth surfaces, is similar to that observed for glass materials. 3. Fractography of naturally deformed minerals A ‘striation-like' pattern resulting from cyclic fatigue fracture was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of a natural fracture plane developed within marble-hosted amphibole. The sample was collected from the eastern flank of the Red River shear zone (Luc Yen district), northern Vietnam. The brittle fracturing of amphibole (open fractures were filled by calcite, which deforms plastically) is considered to have occurred at 6 km depth at 25 Ma, based on geological criteria. 4. Order of stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone Assuming that the fracture behaviour of columnar accessory minerals during the development of microboudinage is independent of the mineral species, the above results raise the possibility that the fracturing of columnar accessory mineral

Kimura, N.; Iwashita, N.; Masuda, T.

2009-04-01

20

Rare-element granitic pegmatite of Miocene age emplaced in UHP rocks from Visole, Pohorje Mountains (Eastern Alps, Slovenia): accessory minerals, monazite and uraninite chemical dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granitic pegmatite dike intruded the Cretaceous UHP rocks at Visole, near Slovenska Bistrica, in the Pohorje Mountains (Slovenia). The rock consists mainly of K-feldspar, albite and quartz, subordinate muscovite and biotite, while the accessory minerals include spessartine-almandine, zircon, ferrocolumbite, fluorapatite, monazite- (Ce), uraninite, and magnetite. Compositions of garnet (Sps48-49Alm45-46Grs + And3-4 Prp1.5-2), metamict zircon with 3.5 to 7.8 wt. % HfO2 [atom. 100Hf/(Hf + Zr) = 3.3-7.7] and ferrocolumbite [atom. Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.27-0.43, Ta/(Ta + Nb) = 0.03-0.46] indicate a relatively low to medium degree of magmatic fractionation, characteristic of the muscovite - rare-element class or beryl-columbite subtype of the rare-element class pegmatites. Monazite-(Ce) reveals elevated Th and U contents (?11 wt. % ThO2, ?5 wt. % UO2). The monazite-garnet geothermometer shows a possible precipitation temperature of ~495 ± 30 °C at P~4 to 5 kbar. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite yielded a Miocene age (17.2 ± 1.8 Ma), whereas uraninite gave a younger (~14 Ma) age. These ages are comtemporaneous with the main crystallization and emplacement of the Pohorje pluton and adjacent volcanic rocks (20 to 15 Ma), providing the first documented evidence of Neogene granitic pegmatites in the Eastern Alps. Consequently, the Visole pegmatite belongs to the youngest rare-element granitic pegmatite populations in Europe, together with the Paleogene pegmatite occurrences along the Periadriatic (Insubric) Fault System in the Alps and in the Rhodope Massif, as well as the Late Miocene to Pliocene pegmatites in the Tuscany magmatic province (mainly on the Island of Elba).

Uher, Pavel; Janák, Marian; Kone?ný, Patrik; Vrabec, Mirijam

2014-04-01

21

Zr-rich layers electrodeposited onto stainless steel cladding during the electrorefining of EBR-II fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent nuclear fuels. The initial demonstration of this process is being conducted on U-Zr alloy fuel elements irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). We report the first metallographic characterization of cladding hull remains for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent metallic fuel. During the electrorefining process, Zr-rich layers, with some U, deposit on all exposed surfaces of irradiated cladding segments (hulls) that originally contained the fuel alloy that was being treated. In some cases, not only was residual Zr (and U) found inside the cladding hulls, but a Zr-rind was also observed near the interior cladding hull surface. The Zr-rind was originally formed during the fuel casting process on the fuel slug. The observation of Zr deposits on all exposed cladding surfaces is explained with thermodynamic principles, when two conditions are met. These conditions are partial oxidation of Zr and the presence of residual uranium in the hulls when the electrorefining experiment is terminated. Comparisons are made between the structure of the initial irradiated fuel before electrorefining and the morphology of the material remaining in the cladding hulls after electrorefining.

Keiser, Dennis D., Jr.; Mariani, Robert D.

22

Effects of phase constitution on magnetic susceptibility and mechanical properties of Zr-rich Zr-Mo alloys.  

PubMed

The effects of the microstructures and phases of Zr-rich Mo alloys on their magnetic susceptibilities and mechanical properties were investigated in order to develop a Zr alloy with low magnetic susceptibility for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic susceptibility was measured with a magnetic susceptibility balance, while mechanical properties were evaluated by a tensile test. The microstructure was evaluated with an X-ray diffractometer, an optical microscope, and a transmission electron microscope. Evaluation of the microstructures revealed that the ?' phase was the dominant form at less than 2% Mo content in the as-cast alloy. The ? phase was formed in as-cast Zr-3Mo but disappeared with aging at 973 K. Magnetic susceptibility was reflected in the phase constitution: the susceptibility showed a local minimum at Zr-(0.5-1)Mo with mostly ?' phase and a minimum at Zr-3Mo with mostly ? and ? phases. The magnetic susceptibility of as-cast Zr-3Mo increased at 973 K due to disappearance of the ? phase. However, the susceptibility was still as low as that of as-cast Zr-1Mo. The ultimate tensile strength of ?'-based Zr-Mo alloys was tailored from 674 to 970 MPa, and the corresponding elongation varied from 11.1% to 2.9%. Because Zr-Mo alloys containing ? phase were found, through tensile tests, to be brittle this phase should be avoided, irrespective of the low magnetic susceptibility, in order to maintain mechanical reliability. Elongation of the Zr-3Mo alloy was dramatically improved when the phase constitution was changed to ? and ? phases by aging at 973 K for 86.4 ks. The magnetic susceptibilities of the ?'-based Zr-Mo alloys are one-third those of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb, and thus these Zr alloys are useful for medical devices under MRI. PMID:21784180

Suyalatu; Kondo, Ryota; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Hanawa, Takao

2011-12-01

23

The painful accessory navicular.  

PubMed

The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heart-shaped. 99mTc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. PMID:6239377

Lawson, J P; Ogden, J A; Sella, E; Barwick, K W

1984-01-01

24

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C.R.

1989-01-01

25

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2013-01-01

26

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2014-01-01

27

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2010-01-01

28

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2012-01-01

29

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2011-01-01

30

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

31

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

32

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2014-04-01

33

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2011-04-01

34

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2010-04-01

35

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2012-04-01

36

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

37

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

38

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

39

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

40

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

41

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

42

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

43

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

44

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

45

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

46

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

47

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

48

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

49

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

50

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

51

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

52

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

53

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

54

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

55

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

56

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

57

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

58

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

59

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

60

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

61

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

62

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

63

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

64

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2010-04-01

65

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

66

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2014-04-01

67

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2011-04-01

68

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2012-04-01

69

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

70

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

71

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

72

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

73

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

74

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2014-04-01

75

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2012-01-01

76

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2011-01-01

77

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2010-01-01

78

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2013-01-01

79

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2014-01-01

80

Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES  

E-print Network

D - 1 Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES: To investigate electric fields with the electrostatic paper, you need to do the following: · Lay the electrostatic paper flat. . · Distribute the pieces. · You may wish to place a wooden block on top of the brass rods to increase contact pressure

Minnesota, University of

81

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

82

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2012-04-01

83

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2011-04-01

84

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2010-04-01

85

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2014-04-01

86

Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such studies. We present here our results on detection of algal accessory pigments using AVIRIS data.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

1996-01-01

87

Flow Chart for Mineral Separation from Granitic Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a flow chart for the separation and purification of major, minor, and accessory minerals from granitic rocks. With careful use of heavy liquids, and a Franz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator, it is possible to obtain mineral concentrates with a purity of 95 percent or better. (Author/RH)

Mursky, Gregory

1987-01-01

88

Evidence for distinct stages of magma history recorded by the compositions of accessory apatite and zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory minerals contain a robust and accessible record of magma evolution. However, they may reflect relatively late-stage conditions in the history of the host magmas. In the normally zoned Criffell granitic pluton (Scotland), whole-rock (WR) compositions reflect open system assimilation and fractional crystallisation at depths of >11 km, whereas amphibole barometry and the absence of inherited zircon suggest that the observed mineral assemblages crystallised following emplacement of magmas with little or no crystal cargo at depths of 4-6 km. The crystallisation history is documented by large trace-element variations amongst apatite crystals from within individual samples: decreasing LREE and Th concentrations in apatite crystals from metaluminous samples reflect broadly synchronous crystallisation of allanite, whereas lower LREE and Th, and more negative Nd anomalies in apatites from peraluminous samples reflect the effects of monazite crystallisation. WR evolution is likely to have occurred within a deep crustal hot zone where H2O-rich (~6 wt%), low-viscosity magmas segregated and ascended adiabatically in a super-liquidus state, leading to resorption of most entrained crystals. Stalling, emplacement and crystallisation resulted from intersection with the H2O-saturated liquidus at ~4 km. H2O contents are as important as temperature in the development of super-liquidus magmas during ascent, blurring distinctions between apparently `hot' and `cold' granites. The trace-element contents of most accessory minerals are controlled by competitive crystallisation of other accessory minerals in small melt batches, consistent with the incremental assembly of large granitic plutons.

Miles, A. J.; Graham, C. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Gillespie, M. R.; Hinton, R. W.

2013-07-01

89

HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors  

PubMed Central

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-01-01

90

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

91

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2013-04-01

93

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2014-04-01

94

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

95

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

96

76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY...handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of...handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594...

2011-01-05

97

Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

2006-01-01

98

[Post-operative functional evaluation of accessory nerve reconstruction].  

PubMed

A nerve reconstruction was performed in 20 patients whose spinal accessory nerve was resected during total neck dissection. Re-anastomosis or a cable graft was performed between both cut ends of the accessory nerve in 14 patients (accessory nerve reconstruction group), and between the peripheral cut end of the accessory nerve and the central cut end of the cervical nerve (C2 or C3) in 6 patients (cervical/accessory nerve reconstruction group). There was no difference in the postoperative shoulder functions between the reconstruction groups, and both groups were significantly better than the group without reconstruction (n = 13), although they tended to be poorer than the nerve preservation group (n = 41). PMID:24601096

Asakura, Koji; Honma, Tomo; Keira, Takashi; Nagaya, Tomonori; Himi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

99

Control system for engine-operated automotive accessories  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an accessory of an automobile, comprising: an engine, an engine output detector for detecting the output of the engine; a gear transmission coupled to the engine and responsive to detection of an idling condition of the automobile for selecting a neutral gear position; an accessory drivable by the engine; a clutch disposed between the accessory and the engine for connecting and disconnecting the output of the engine to the accessory; a speed sensor for detecting the speed of travel of the automobile from the gear transmission; and control means for comparing an actual running condition of the automobile with a prescribed running condition in which the output of the engine and the speed of the automobile are lower than respective prescribed levels; and for inhibiting operation of the accessory by disconnecting the clutch when the automobile is under the prescribed running conditions.

Nishikawa, M.; Aoki, T.; Sato, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

1987-08-25

100

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

101

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

102

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

103

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

104

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

105

Skull fracture vs. accessory sutures: how can we tell the difference?  

E-print Network

K (2003) Unusual accessory cranial sutures in pediatric headcranial CT is deemed clinically necessary in trauma patients, questionable fractures can be confidently differen- tiated from unusual accessory sutures

Sanchez, Thomas; Stewart, Deborah; Walvick, Matthew; Swischuk, Leonard

2010-01-01

106

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical...

2012-04-01

107

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A biliary catheter and accessories is a tubular flexible device used for temporary or prolonged drainage of the biliary tract, for splinting of the bile duct during healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic...

2010-04-01

108

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

109

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – ... the form. You should wear whatever bra you find most comfortable. Keep in mind that the best ...

110

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2012-04-01

111

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2013-04-01

112

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

113

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

114

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2010-04-01

115

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2010-04-01

116

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

117

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2012-04-01

119

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

120

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2012-04-01

122

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

123

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2011-04-01

124

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2011-04-01

125

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2014-04-01

126

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

127

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2010-04-01

128

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

129

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2012-04-01

130

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2014-04-01

131

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

132

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2011-04-01

133

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2011-04-01

134

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2010-04-01

135

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2014-04-01

136

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2012-04-01

137

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

138

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories...Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is...perform diagnostic and surgical procedures on the female genital... (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope...

2010-04-01

139

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories...the various positions required during obstetric and gynecologic procedures. This generic type of device may include...

2010-04-01

140

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2010-04-01

141

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2011-04-01

142

Mineral Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to learn minerals! This module has two modes: an overview that takes you through some of the fundamentals of minerals and an interactive model that allows you to build your own virtual minerals.

2010-01-01

143

Rare accessory uraninite in a Sierran granite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One grain of uraninite was found in a single thin-section of Sierran granite. Electron and ion microprobe analysis were used to determine the composition. Since the U-Pb age calculated for the uraninite does not differ greatly from the K-Ar age of the unit in which it occurs, it is suggested that the mineral is primary and not reworked from a preexisting rock. No uraninite has been detected in heavy mineral concentrates from other rocks of the local area.

Snetsinger, K. G.; Polkowski, G.

1977-01-01

144

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

145

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

146

Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

147

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Dexter Perkins

148

The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.  

PubMed

Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P. aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P. aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P. aeruginosa population and underline that the P. aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tümmler, Burkhard; Häussler, Susanne

2014-07-01

149

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

150

Mineral Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn about the properties that will help you identify minerals. If you closed your eyes and tasted different foods, you could probably determine what the foods are by noting properties such as saltiness or sweetness. You can also determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Some properties that help us determine the identy of a mineral are: COLOR, ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-11-14

151

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

152

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2012-04-01

153

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2011-04-01

154

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2011-04-01

155

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2012-04-01

156

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2013-04-01

157

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2013-04-01

158

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2010-04-01

159

77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-06-25

160

77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-02-03

161

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2013-04-01

162

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2011-04-01

163

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2010-04-01

164

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2012-04-01

165

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems.  

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. 121.8...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. (a) An...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2014-04-01

166

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2012-04-01

167

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2013-04-01

168

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest...exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark Registration...

2012-03-15

169

77 FR 22802 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S. Trademark...

2012-04-17

170

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2010-04-01

171

Isolated rupture of an accessory liver from blunt abdominal trauma in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accessory liver is uncommonly encountered in surgical practice. It can rarely cause acute abdominal pain. An isolated\\u000a injury to an accessory liver from blunt trauma in a 10-year-old boy caused major intraperitoneal haemorrhage. Laparotomy and\\u000a excision of the lacerated accessory liver lobe was necessary; the patient recovered uneventfully. The literature on accessory\\u000a liver is reviewed.

E. S. Garba; E. A. Ameh

2002-01-01

172

Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

2012-05-01

173

Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.  

PubMed

The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). PMID:24995382

Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

2014-09-01

174

Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.  

PubMed

This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

1992-01-01

175

RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner  

E-print Network

and detectable frequency ranges (for an overview see [1-4]). This structural and functional di- versity far exceeds that observed in amniotes and renders teleost fishes an interesting group to study adaptationsRESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from

Ladich, Friedrich

176

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

2013-01-01

177

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

178

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

179

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

180

Salvage of poorly developed arteriovenous fistulae with percutaneous ligation of accessory veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arteriovenous (AV) fistulae fail to achieve an adequate blood flow or size for successful cannulation because of accessory veins. We describe a simple technique to ligate accessory veins that does not require a surgical incision. In this retrospective study, 17 end-stage renal disease patients underwent ligation of accessory veins of poorly developed AV fistulae. There were 14 men and

Rashid Faiyaz; Kenneth Abreo; Fahim Zaman; Aslam Pervez; Gazi Zibari; Jack Work

2002-01-01

181

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2012-04-01

182

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2013-04-01

183

The ubiquitous nature of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks: Implications for weathering, solute evolution, and petrogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calcite is frequently cited as a source of excess Ca, Sr and alkalinity in solutes discharging from silicate terrains yet, no previous effort has been made to assess systematically the overall abundance, composition and petrogenesis of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks. This study addresses this issue by analyzing a worldwide distribution of more than 100 granitoid rocks. Calcite is found to be universally present in a concentration range between 0.028 to 18.8 g kg-1 (mean = 2.52 g kg-1). Calcite occurrences include small to large isolated anhedral grains, fracture and cavity infillings, and sericitized cores of plagioclase. No correlation exists between the amount of calcite present and major rock oxide compositions, including CaO. Ion microprobe analyses of in situ calcite grains indicate relatively low Sr (120 to 660 ppm), negligible Rb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios equal to or higher than those of coexisting plagioclase. Solutes, including Ca and alkalinity produced by batch leaching of the granitoid rocks (5% CO2 in DI water for 75 d at 25??C), are dominated by the dissolution of calcite relative to silicate minerals. The correlation of these parameters with higher calcite concentrations decreases as leachates approach thermodynamic saturation. In longer term column experiments (1.5 yr), reactive calcite becomes exhausted, solute Ca and Sr become controlled by feldspar dissolution and 87Sr/ 86Sr by biotite oxidation. Some accessory calcite in granitoid rocks is related to intrusion into carbonate wall rock or produced by later hydrothermal alteration. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of calcite also suggests formation during late stage (subsolidus) magmatic processes. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observations and 87Sr/86Sr analyses. A review of thermodynamic data indicates that at moderate pressures and reasonable CO2 fugacities, calcite is a stable phase at temperatures of 400 to 700??C. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.

2005-01-01

184

Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble ?-glutamyl transpeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

: BACKGROUND: In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory

Michael J Walker; Caroline M Rylett; Jeff N Keen; Neil Audsley; Mohammed Sajid; Alan D Shirras; R Elwyn Isaac

2006-01-01

185

Flourescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, hosted by Microscopy-UK, provides illustrations of flourescent minerals, each with accompanying text that shows how the color identifies the mineral. The site offers a brief explanation of flourescence and uses examples of calcite, willemite, and flourite to demonstrate this phenomenon. Numerous images, diagrams, and links are provided.

2009-01-28

186

Mineral Densities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given cubic cell edge dimensions and asked to calculate mineral densities and vice versa. The final question of this homework assignment provides students with a mineral density and unit cell edge length in order to determine the number of formula units per cell.

187

Mineral Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

Science, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

188

Industrial Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

Brady, Lawrence L.

1983-01-01

189

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

190

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8(th) cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

191

Accessory attachment structure for a v-shaped engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an accessory attachment structure for a V-shaped engine having a pair of cylinder banks with a V-shaped space defined therebetween, a crank pulley disposed on one end of the engine in the direction of a crankshaft and transmission case on an opposite end of the engine, comprising: an intake manifold with a throttle body assembled thereon, the intake manifold being disposed in the v-shaped space and positioned with the throttle body disposed over the transmission case, providing a space between the pair of cylinder banks close to the crank pulley; and at least one accessory disposed in the last mentioned space and actuatable by the crank pulley.

Kadoshima, Y.; Nimi, A.

1988-12-27

192

Accessory mitral papillary muscle causing severe aortic insufficiency.  

PubMed

Accessory mitral papillary muscle originating from the interventricular septum is a rare congenital anomaly. A 20-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of exertional dyspnea. On cardiac examination, a grade 3/4 diastolic murmur was heard over the right upper parasternal area, and the apical pulsations were easily palpable over the precordium. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation, dilatation of the left ventricle, and an accessory papillary muscle with its chordae, extending from the interventricular septum to the anterior mitral leaflet in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). There was no mitral regurgitation. Color Doppler imaging showed turbulence set up by the abnormal mitral attachment and an associated mild pressure gradient of 20 mmHg across the LVOT. At surgery for aortic valve replacement, degenerative changes in the aortic leaflets were noted. The accessory papillary muscle was spared to maintain mitral valve functions and an aortic bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve was implanted. During eight months of follow-up, he was well without any signs of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and mitral regurgitation, with a functioning prosthetic valve. PMID:21248456

Ucak, Alper; Onan, Burak; Alp, Ibrahim; Y?lmaz, Ahmet Turan

2010-12-01

193

The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested. PMID:10227671

KUDOH, HIROYUKI; SAKAI, TATSUO; HORIGUCHI, MASAHARU

1999-01-01

194

INDEX TO VOLUME 195 accessory minerals, lithologic units, A3:13  

E-print Network

properties, B11:5 alternating field, vs. magnetic intensity, A4:121 aluminum basalt paragenesis, B8, B8:17 vs. titanium, B8:17 aluminum oxide metamorphic clasts, B4:8 serpentinite, A3:20 serpentinized:7 sediments, A4:36 vs. depth, A3:117; A4:135 See also iron + aluminum aluminum, in clinopyroxene vs. silicon

195

Exotic accessory minerals in layered chromities of the Campo Formoso complex (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Campo Formoso stratiform intrusive complex, in Bahia State, Brazil, considered to be of Paleoproterozoic age, consists of a tabular body of ultramafic rocks about 40 km long and 100-1100 m wide. Thick horizons of chromitite are exploited and the deposits are the richest in Brazil. The complex was intruded by the Campo Formoso calc-alkaline batholith, emplaced by the result

Federica Zaccarini; Giorgio Garuti; Robert Martin

2006-01-01

196

Accessory minerals of the Cínovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola, Czech Republic: indicators of petrogenetic evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A fully cored drillhole was drilled to 1596?m by the Czech Geological Survey in 1961–1963 in the central part of the Cínovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola. Two types of granite were intersected: zinnwaldite granite (ZG), observed down to a depth of 730?m, and protolithionite granite (PG), occurring to the end of the hole. The core was used to study the

Z. Johan; V. Johan

2005-01-01

197

Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

2014-03-14

198

Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication  

PubMed Central

We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery. PMID:24741219

Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

199

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain physiologic conditions. Examples include irrigation and drainage catheters, pediatric catheters, peritoneal catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter accessory is...

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certain physiologic conditions. Examples include irrigation and drainage catheters, pediatric catheters, peritoneal catheters (including dialysis), and other general surgical catheters. An introduction/drainage catheter accessory is...

2011-04-01

201

Autonomously functioning nodule arising from accessory mediastinal thyroid tissue  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging using radionuclide Tc99m pertechnetate is routinely used in the evaluation of the problems related to the thyroid gland. Scintiscan has been useful in the visualization of thyroid tissue in ectopic sites due to congenital developmental anomalies. Similarly, the scan helps in establishing the diagnosis of autonomously functioning nodule when the nodule being evaluated appears “hot” with suppression of rest of the gland activity. Here, we present a very rare case of autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma in an ectopic focus of accessory thyroid tissue in the mediastinum. PMID:23326068

Kumaresan, Karuppiah; Rao, N Sudhakar; Mohan, A Ram; Rao, M Sudhakar

2011-01-01

202

Industrial Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

Bradbury, James C.

1978-01-01

203

Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Accessory wandering spleen is a rare but dangerous condition. Abnormalities of the ligamentous apparatus of an accessory spleen may evolve into torsion of its vascular axis, which can lead to a splenic infarct making surgery necessary. Patients are often asymptomatic and the diagnosis can be accidental. An early diagnosis and a correct treatment are fundamental. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report a young woman underwent laparoscopic surgery after an incidental finding at a Pelvic Ultrasound of an accessory wandering spleen. DISCUSSION In literature are reported cases of asymptomatic patients with an accessory wandering spleen treated with a conservative approach. However, a torsion or infarct of the accessory wandering spleen leads to emergency surgery. The presence of an independent vascular axis of the accessory spleen reduces the risk of postoperative complications (e.g. thrombocytosis) and the administration of low molecular weight heparin should prevent the risk of portal thrombosis. CONCLUSION We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion. PMID:25460427

Perin, Alessandro; Cola, Roberto; Favretti, Franco

2014-01-01

204

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false End-items, components, accessories, attachments... Enumeration of Articles § 121.8 End-items, components, accessories, attachments...firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item is an assembled article...

2011-04-01

205

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2013-04-01

206

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2012-04-01

207

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2011-04-01

208

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2014-04-01

209

Electrical recordings from the accessory olfactory bulb in VNO-AOB ex vivo preparations.  

PubMed

Electrical recordings from individual accessory olfactory bulb neurons allow exploration of the functional properties of this important pheromonal processing circuit. Several approaches to performing such recordings have been used. Here, we describe ex vivo methods that we have found useful for recording from accessory olfactory bulb neurons using simple extracellular glass electrodes. PMID:24014366

Meeks, Julian P; Holy, Timothy E

2013-01-01

210

21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories... (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and...

2010-04-01

211

Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain  

PubMed Central

An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion. PMID:20607028

Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; Kaushik, Chhavi; Shah, Hemendra R

2010-01-01

212

Efferents and Centrifugal Afferents of the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Snake Thamnophis sirtalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts:

Enrique Lanuza; Mimi Halpern

1998-01-01

213

U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

1972-01-01

214

CHLORBARTONITE, K6Fe24S26(Cl,S), A NEW MINERAL SPECIES FROM A HYDROTHERMAL VEIN IN THE KHIBINA MASSIF, KOLA PENINSULA, RUSSIA: DESCRIPTION AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorbartonite, ideally K 6Fe24S26(Cl,S), is a new potassium iron sulfide chloride found as an accessory mineral in a microcline - pectolite - sodalite - aegirine vein within feldspathic urtite at Mount Koashva, Khibina massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral occurs as roundish grains up to 2 cm across included in sodalite and natrolite crystals; it is associated with djerfish erite

VICTOR N. YAKOVENCHUK; YAKOV A. PAKHOMOVSKY; YURY P. MEN' SHIKOV; GREGORY Y. U. IVANYUK; SERGEY V. KRIVOVICHEV; PETER C. BURNS

2003-01-01

215

Radioelements and their occurrence with secondary minerals in heated and unheated tuff at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of devitrified welded tuff near and away from the site of a heater test in Rainier Mesa were examined with regard to whole-rock radioelement abundances, microscopic distribution of U, and oxygen isotope ratios. Wholerock U averages between 4 and 5 ppM, and U is concentrated at higher levels secondary opaque minerals as well as in accessory grains. U in

S. Flexser; H. A. Wollenberg

1992-01-01

216

Mineral bioprocessing  

SciTech Connect

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

Torma, A.E.

1993-05-01

217

Mineral Commodities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise introduces mineral commodities (elements). Students consider the elements aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, uranium, lead, gold, mercury and tin and match them with their definintions in a table. Then they use minable grade (minable weight percent) and normal crustal abundance (crustal weight percent) to calculate the concentration factor for several commodities to determine their economic minability. Students then graph their calculations and explain their trend.

Dexter Perkins

218

[An epidermoid cyst derived from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old female patient had high levels of CA19-9 marker; an abdominal ultrasound revealed a cyst. Further investigations with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound CT identified a multilocular cystic lesion on the pancreatic tail. An abnormal wall was noted, and different signal strengths were measured in each cyst. Thus, a mucinous cystic tumor was diagnosed, and distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy was performed. During the surgery, we identified a multilocular pancreatic cyst with internal bleeding at its distal end. The lesion was ultimately diagnosed as an epidermoid cyst of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. This diagnosis was based on the histological observation that the vascular construction of the cystic wall was equivalent to that of the spleen, and that its internal tissue was covered by squamous epithelium. PMID:24598102

Shinohara, Fumi; Furukawa, Yoshinari; Itsuki, Hiroshi; Sakano, Ayaka; Hananoki, Mutsumi; Kurushima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Nori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujihara, Megumu

2014-03-01

219

Accessory pathway for sound transfer in a neotropical frog.  

PubMed

A portion of the lateral body wall overlying the lung cavity of the arboreal frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, vibrates in response to free-field sound. Peak displacement amplitude of the body wall in response to a natural call note presented at 73 decibels sound pressure level is 1.70 X 10(-9) m, roughly 8 decibels less than that of the ipsilateral eardrum, as measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. We show that the vibration magnitude varies predictably across the body profile and is posture and frequency dependent. Two routes to the inner ear are described for sounds impinging on the body wall; either of these accessory pathways could modify direct input from the peripheral auditory system and enhance sound localization in these small vertebrates. PMID:3422747

Narins, P M; Ehret, G; Tautz, J

1988-03-01

220

Geomorphic mapping of floodplain accessory channels with implications for floodplain morphodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain morphology plays a key role in routing of floodwaters, sediment transport during floods, and the mechanics of the main channel. High-resolution topographic data (e.g., LiDAR) reveal a wealth of previously unappreciated geomorphic floodplain features. Using 1.5-m LiDAR data from Indiana, we found that the floodplains of Indiana rivers often contain a large number of secondary accessory channels. Accessory channels are subordinate to the main channel and are only active during flood stage, which is confirmed by Landsat images of inundated floodplains. Individual accessory channels are linear to sinuous, having widths ranging from 15 to 35% of the main channel, and lengths ranging from 500 to 3500 meters. On the White River, for example, the accessory channels account for ~25% of the floodplain area and these accessory channels are numerous and wide enough that during a ~10-year flood they conveyed all the flood discharge, leaving the inter-channel areas dry. To assess the pervasiveness of floodplain accessory channels, we inventoried all the floodplains of Indiana rivers having channel widths greater than 20 m. We constrained the mapping to the modern floodplains of each river, avoiding terraced floodplains related to the last glacial maximum. In total, we mapped 1100 km2 of floodplain; 55% of that area showed evidence for floodplain accessory channels. Moreover, there is a high concentration of floodplains exhibiting floodplain accessory channels in south-central Indiana occurring along the transition from glacial till into bedrock. Our preliminary hypothesis for the formation of floodplain accessory channels is that the channels form by connecting preexisting topographic lows, such as abandoned meander loops. Geomorphic mapping of a 7-km stretch of the floodplain along the White River reveals that the concave portions of accessory channels are associated with scroll-bar topography and abandoned meander loops from the main channel. In fact, 73% of the accessory channels annexed abandoned meander loops. Based on this, we conclude that accessory channels are associated with meandering rivers because frequent meander-loop cutoffs of the main channel create preexisting conduits that are then linked together during floods. These long coherent down-valley accessory channels have important implications for the morphodynamics of floodplains and flood-wave propagation.

David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Letsinger, S. L.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

221

Dermoscopy of accessory nipples in authors’ own study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The accessory nipple (AN) is characterised by its network-like structures, which may suggest the diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. The knowledge about additional dermoscopic features of AN may greatly minimise the risk of unnecessary surgical excisions. Aim To analyse and present different clinical and dermoscopic forms, in which the AN may appear. Material and methods Ninety AN with dermoscopic features were evaluated in the study, detected in 14 patients between the years 2008 and 2014. Results The most common dermoscopic features of the AN were central, scar-like areas (15/19) and peripheral network-like structures (12/19). A number of cleft-like appearances (8/19) and central network-like structures (7/19) had also been observed. Moreover, among the dermoscopic features, white cobblestone-like structures (7/19), a central round dimpling with a plug (6/19) and fisheye-like structures resembling comedo-like openings (9/19) have all also been noted. There is a statistical significance in the occurrence of white cobblestone-like structures with central network-like structures (Fisher's exact test p = 0.0449). The presence of peripheral network-like structures with the occurrence of central scar-like areas was statistically highly significant (p = 0.0091). The central round dimpling was never observed alongside any central network-like structures in any of the lesions (p = 0.0436). Conclusions Accessory nipples are most commonly characterised by the occurrence of a peripheral network-like structure accompanied by the presence of a scar-like area. PMID:25097482

Szymszal, Jan; Silny, Wojciech

2014-01-01

222

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

223

49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and maintenance of equipment and accessories...motor vehicle, or cause or permit it to...be such as not to cause cracking...defect likely to cause failure. No vehicle shall...cords, or other mechanical or electrical...

2010-10-01

224

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are: (1) FDA's: (i) “Use of International Standard ISO 10993 ‘Biological Evaluation of...Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2 (1995-03), Amendment...

2010-04-01

225

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

226

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2014-04-01

228

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

229

21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used without a power source on a patient's skull. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

230

WagTag: A Dog Collar Accessory for Monitoring Canine Activity Levels  

E-print Network

. Computer Applications: Life and Medical Sciences- Health. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all such as Fitbit and Jawbone, and apparel makers such as Nike. All of these accessories are likely to track human

Weiss, Gary

231

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

232

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2011-04-01

233

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2013-04-01

234

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

235

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2014-04-01

236

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

237

21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4200 Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

238

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

239

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

240

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

241

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

242

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a)...

2012-04-01

245

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2011-04-01

246

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2014-04-01

247

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2012-04-01

248

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2013-04-01

249

21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC...device with various accessories or attachments, such as a cutting tip that vibrates at high frequencies, and is intended for...

2010-04-01

250

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2012-04-01

251

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2011-04-01

254

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency (lack of obstruction) of the fallopian tubes by pressurizing the uterus and fallopian tubes and filling them with carbon dioxide gas. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

256

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the patency (lack of obstruction) of the fallopian tubes by pressurizing the uterus and fallopian tubes and filling them with carbon dioxide gas. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2012-04-01

257

Prolactin receptor expression in human testis and accessory tissues: localization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies in animals have established prolactin (PRL) as a progonadal hormone that promotes the function of the testis and reproductive accessory glands. The present study investigated the localization of PRL receptor (PRL-R) expression in the human testis and accessory tissues. Expression of PRL-R was identified in human testis and vas deferens by RT-PCR, and further localized by immunohistochemistry to

W. M. Hair; O. Gubbay; H. N. Jabbour; G. A. Lincoln

2002-01-01

258

Equilibrium composition of products of melting of main minerals involved in the composition of basalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the method of thermodynamic simulation, the equilibrium composition of products of heating of plagioclases, pyroxenes,\\u000a peridots, and magnetite is determined in a temperature range of 1000–1400°C in inert, oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres.\\u000a The possibility of controlling the products of melting and crystallization of the above minerals is shown, and the behavior\\u000a of a series of accessory metals (Ti, Mn,

I. Z. Babievskaya; S. V. Fomichev; V. A. Krenev

2009-01-01

259

Vitamins and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), ... humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs ...

260

Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine a number of key mineral properties and how they are displayed by different minerals. Mineral properties examined include crystal habit, cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, tenacity, specific gravity, luster, color, and streak.

Dexter Perkins

261

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

262

Cholinergic Modulation of Neuronal Excitability in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb  

PubMed Central

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first relay of chemosensory information in the Vomeronasal system, receives extensive cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb has been hypothesized to play an important role in olfactory processing; however, little is known about the cellular actions of acetylcholine (ACh) within the AOB. Here using in vitro slice preparation, we show that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation increases neuronal excitability of granule and mitral/tufted cells (GCs and MCs) in the AOB. Activation of mAChRs increased excitability of GCs by three distinct mechanisms: induction of a long-lasting depolarization, activation of a slow afterdepolarization (sADP), and an increase in excitatory glutamatergic input due to MC depolarization. The depolarization and sADP were elicited by the selective agonist 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (100 ?M) and blocked by low concentrations of pirenzepine (300 nM), indicating that they result from activation of M1-like mAChRs. In contrast, cholinergic stimulation increased the excitability of MCs via recruitment of nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) and M1-like mAChRs. Submaximal activation of these receptors, however, decreased the excitability of MCs. Surprisingly, we found that unlike GCs in the main olfactory bulb, GCs in the AOB are excited by mAChR activation in young postnatal neurons, suggesting marked differences in cholinergic regulation of development between these two regions of the olfactory bulb. PMID:20861438

Smith, Richard S.

2010-01-01

263

Cholinergic modulation of neuronal excitability in the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first relay of chemosensory information in the Vomeronasal system, receives extensive cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb has been hypothesized to play an important role in olfactory processing; however, little is known about the cellular actions of acetylcholine (ACh) within the AOB. Here using in vitro slice preparation, we show that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation increases neuronal excitability of granule and mitral/tufted cells (GCs and MCs) in the AOB. Activation of mAChRs increased excitability of GCs by three distinct mechanisms: induction of a long-lasting depolarization, activation of a slow afterdepolarization (sADP), and an increase in excitatory glutamatergic input due to MC depolarization. The depolarization and sADP were elicited by the selective agonist 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (100 ?M) and blocked by low concentrations of pirenzepine (300 nM), indicating that they result from activation of M1-like mAChRs. In contrast, cholinergic stimulation increased the excitability of MCs via recruitment of nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) and M1-like mAChRs. Submaximal activation of these receptors, however, decreased the excitability of MCs. Surprisingly, we found that unlike GCs in the main olfactory bulb, GCs in the AOB are excited by mAChR activation in young postnatal neurons, suggesting marked differences in cholinergic regulation of development between these two regions of the olfactory bulb. PMID:20861438

Smith, Richard S; Araneda, Ricardo C

2010-12-01

264

Efferents and centrifugal afferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis.  

PubMed

This study reinvestigates the efferent projections of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs and describes for the first time the centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the snake Thamnophis sirtalis, using the intraaxonal transport of the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase. The olfactory projection consists of three tracts: the lateral olfactory tract, which projects bilaterally to the lateral cortex and the rostral amygdala, crossing the midline through the stria medullaris-habenular commissure system; the intermediate olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the olfactory tubercle and contributes to the contralateral projection; and the medial olfactory tract, which projects ipsilaterally to the dorsomedial retrobulbar formation. The vomeronasal projection is formed by a single tract, the accessory olfactory tract, that projects ipsilaterally to the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus. The centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulb are composed of two components: one that arises in areas that receive the olfactory or vomeronasal input (neurons in the olfactory tubercle, retrobulbar formation and lateral cortex project to the main olfactory bulb; and neurons in the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract, the medial amygdala and the nucleus sphericus project to the accessory olfactory bulb), and another that arises in areas not directly implicated in processing the chemosensory information (the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca and the dorsal cortex). These data allow the recognition of the general pattern of organization of the reptilian olfactory and vomeronasal systems. PMID:9435967

Lanuza, E; Halpern, M

1998-01-01

265

Earth's Mineral Evolution  

E-print Network

Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

Downs, Robert T.

266

Calculating a Mineral's Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the Density=Mass/Volume formula to calculate the density of an unknown mineral. By using water displacement and a triple beam balance students will collect measurements of volume and mass for an unknown mineral. With this data, they will calculate the mineral's density then identify the mineral based on calculated density.

Andrea Distelhurst

2011-10-05

267

Post-splenectomy intrapancreatic accessory spleen mimicking endocrine tumor of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an uncommon congenital abnormality of the spleen with no indication for surgical intervention. Among the few cases reported, IPAS coexisted with a normal spleen. We here report the first case of IPAS arising a couple years after splenectomy with the appearance of an endocrine tumor of the pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old female presented with a one-week history of left upper quadrant discomfort. She had splenectomy for the treatment of hypersplenism caused by cirrhotic portal hypertension two years before this admission. Her physical examination was unremarkable and laboratory data was within the normal range. Both the ultrasonography and magnetic resonance image revealed a small oval-shaped mass in the tail of her pancreas with the diameter 2 cm or less. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for the suspection of malignant neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. An intrapancreatic accessory spleen was confirmed by the pathologic examination. DISCUSSION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is one kind of congenital ectopic spleen without indication for operative intervention. We present the case to support that intrapancreatic accessory spleen may enlarge through a compensatory mechanism, and raise the awareness of this intrapacreatic entity to avoid unnecessary surgical operation. CONCLUSION IPAS should be highly considered as a differential diagnosis while the lesion is no more than 2.5 cm in diameter and/or other accessory spleens show around the splenic hilum. PMID:25437661

Zhu, Hong-xu; Lou, Wen-hui; Kuang, Tian-tao; Wang, Dan-song

2014-01-01

268

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in accessory lobe neurons of the chick.  

PubMed

Birds have ten pairs of protrusions, "accessory lobes", on the lateral sides of the lumbosacral spinal cord. It has been proposed that accessory lobes act as a sensory organ of equilibrium and neurons in accessory lobes transmit sensory information to the motor center. We have reported that cells in chick accessory lobes express functional voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and generate action potentials. In this study, we examined properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). The amplitude of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents carried by Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) increased gradually during 10 min rather than showing the usual run-down. The current-voltage relationship of Ba(2+) currents was consistent with that of the high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel. The proportion of Ba(2+) currents inhibited by ?-conotoxin GVIA was larger than 80%, indicating that the major subtype is N type. Amplitudes of tail currents of Ca(2+) currents evoked by repetitive pulses at 50 Hz are stable for 1 s. If the major subtype of VGCCs at synaptic terminals is also N type, this property may contribute to the establishment of stable synaptic connections between accessory lobe neurons, which are reported to fire at frequencies higher than 15 Hz, and postsynaptic neurons in the spinal cord. PMID:24842482

Suzuki, Yuki; Kitamura, Naoki; Yamanaka, Yuko; Shibuya, Izumi

2014-08-01

269

Arthroscopic Bankart Repair: Accessory Posterior Portal With Slotted Cannula for Lowest Capsulolabral Access  

PubMed Central

We present a novel technique for safe establishment of the accessory posterior portal using a slotted cannula. Arthroscopic Bankart repair is a common procedure. A variety of arthroscopic techniques have been described in the literature, commonly using the posterior portal for visualization and the anterior portal with a working cannula. The accessory posterior portal enables elegant access to the lower part of the capsulolabral junction, a firmer grasp and mobilization of the tissue, quick and easy tool exchange using a slotted cannula, and clearer suture placement because of the flat, direct working angle. The skin incision is made small without the need for an arthroscopic cannula, and the portal location is in a relatively safe zone. The use of the accessory posterior portal along with a slotted cannula shortens the duration of the operative procedure and improves safety and performance. PMID:25126512

Tsvieli, Oren; Atoun, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Levy, Ofer; Rath, Ehud

2014-01-01

270

Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), sarcomas originating from tissues of mesenchymal origin, are rare in patients without a history of neurofibromatosis. Case Report We report a case of an MPNST of the spinal accessory nerve, unassociated with neurofibromatosis, which metastasized to the brain. The tumor, originating in the intrasternomastoid segment of the spinal accessory nerve, was removed. Two years later, the patient presented with focal neurological deficits. Radiographic findings revealed a well-defined 2.2×2.2×2.2 cm, homogeneously enhancing mass in the left parieto-occipital region of the brain surrounded by significant vasogenic edema and mass effect, culminating in a 1-cm midline shift to the right. The mass was surgically removed. The patient had nearly complete recovery of vision, speech, and memory. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of an MPNST arising from an extracranial segment of the spinal accessory nerve and metastasizing to the brain. PMID:22523517

Sheikh, Omair A.; Reaves, Ann; Kralick, Francis A.; Brooks, Ari; Musial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

271

Mamillo-accessory notch and foramen: Distribution patterns and correlation with superior lumbar facet structure.  

PubMed

The mamillary (MP) and the accessory (AP) processes are two important anatomical landmarks in the lumbar vertebral morphology. These two processes form the mamillo-accessory notch (MAN) between them. In the living, the MP and the AP are connected together by the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL). The medial branches of lumbar dorsal rami pass underneath the MAL. The MAL often undergoes varied degrees of ossification with diverse notching at the junction of these two processes, often with formation of a discrete foramen (MAF). Reports on the distribution of these notches (MAN) and foramina (MAF) are very few and most of them do not discuss such ossification in context of morphology of adjoining structures in the vertebrae. Lumbar vertebral and sacral specimens were screened for three different categories of narrowing at the mamillo-accessory junction: firstly >1/2 notch, secondly ¾ notch, and thirdly MAF and their distribution patterns were mapped along the lumbar spine. Transverse dimensions of superior facet articulating surfaces [length (a)] and widths of MPs [length (b)] were recorded. Relative widths of the MPs were calculated as index M (a/b). Results suggest associations between the degrees of assimilation of the MPs into the facet joints, the index M values, and the different types of mamillo-accessory junctional anatomy. This study may help to understand if MAN and MAF related dorsal rami entrapment neuropathies arise merely due to osteoarthritic ossification of the MAL or could also be accounted for by facet dimensions or degree of MP-facet fusions that abut close to the mamillo-accessory junctions. PMID:24889272

Mahato, N K

2014-12-01

272

Morphology of the accessory reproductive glands of some male Indian chiropterans.  

PubMed

The accessory glands of seven species of male chiropterans are described. The unpaired prostate and paired Cowper's glands occur in all the species. The seminal vesicles are present only in Cynopterus and Taphozous. The ampullary glands occur in all the species except Cynopterus sphinx. The presence of solid rounded bodies is a characteristic feature of the seminal vesicles of Cynopterus sphinx. The urethral gland is present in all the species except Taphozous and Rhinopoma; utriculus prostaticus was not seen in any of the species investigated. The study reveals that the male accessory glands show great diversity and remarkable differences are seen even between closely related species. PMID:900515

Mokkapati, S; Dominic, C J

1977-01-01

273

Peroneus quartus, an accessory muscle in human: case report and its clinical importance.  

PubMed

The peroneus quartus is an accessory peroneal muscle seen in man. The term 'peroneus quartus' is often used to refer one or several of the accessory peroneal muscles. In this case, we report an unusual type of peroneus quartus which was originating from the muscular portion of the peroneus brevis and inserting onto the peroneus longus tendon. The clinical implications are emphasized with the morphological significance and literature review. The orthopedic surgeons and radiologists should be aware of the possible presence of this muscle not only because of its associated pathology, but also for its potential use in plastic surgeries. PMID:23007814

Murlimanju, B V; D'Souza, P S; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; David, S J

2012-07-01

274

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

2013-01-01

275

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands and the spermatophore of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

InTenebrio molitor, male adults transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophore or sperm sac. The spermatophore is formed from secretions of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) and the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of the male beetle. Trehalase is found in the adult BAGs. During the pupal stage, the activity in the BAGs was very low. After adult ecdysis, the

Toshinobu Yaginuma; George M. Happ

1988-01-01

276

Mineral Spectroscopy Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

Rossman, George

277

Ohio Mineral Resources Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides information about Mineral Resources in Ohio and management. Mine safety, oil and gas, coal mining, industrial minerals, and abandoned mined lands are related subheadings for the site. Good for finding history, factual reports, programs, regulations and policies.

2008-10-06

278

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What minerals are in your toothpaste? A pencil? A telephone? This interactive resource adapted from the U.S. Geological Survey illustrates the variety of minerals used in everyday items found in kitchens, bathrooms, offices, and yards.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

279

Minerals in Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of articles describes the uses of mineral products in sports and sporting equipment. The site also explores minerals use in safety applications in the workplace. A series of reading material sheets are included in PDF format.

2011-07-06

280

Elemental distribution in apatite, titanite and zircon during hydrothermal alteration: Durability of immobilization mineral phases for actinides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ isotopic analyses of U, Pb and rare earth elements (REE) in apatite and titanite were conducted for tuff samples collected from Bidoudouma, the Republic of Gabon, in order to assess the stability of accessory minerals during hydrothermal alteration and to deduce the alteration conditions. The U–Pb results reveal that titanite of detritus origin (2.8–2.7Ga) released Pb by igneous

Kenji Horie; Hiroshi Hidaka; François Gauthier-Lafaye

2008-01-01

281

The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate  

SciTech Connect

Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

Walsh, Joan A. [University of Paisley, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ja_walsh@tiscali.co.uk

2007-11-15

282

Sedimentary and Related Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

283

BIOPRODUCTS OF AUTOMOTIVE ACCESSORIES: RETHINKING DESIGN MATERIALS THROUGH CORNSTARCH, SUGARCANE AND HEMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current bioproducts or bio-based products do not only require less energy to produce than petroleum-based products, they are made with renewable sources that engineered from excessive waste and natural local materials. This paper identifies alternative design solutions by suggesting a use of natural materials such as cornstarch, sugarcanes and hemp in designing automotive accessories. Leading automotive industries have focused on

Apisak Sindhuphak

284

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY  

E-print Network

DETERMINING SEX IN POSTHATCHLING LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES USING MULTIPLE GONADAL AND ACCESSORY DUCT of the Environment and Earth Sciences, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA ABSTRACT: The sex of young and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, yet internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We tested

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

285

Ecdysteroids in vitro promote differentiation in the accessory glands of male mealworm beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Physiological peak doses of 20-hydroxyecdysone were added to organ cultures of young pupal accessory glands of maleTenebrio molitor. During subsequent culture in vitro or in vivo, the glands accumulated adult-specific antigens. Control organ cultures showed no such antigen accumulation. In this system, ecdysteroid controls not only cell cycles but also differentiation.

K. A. Grimnes; G. M. Happ

1987-01-01

286

76 FR 9717 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Saddle-Mount Braking Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 49 CFR Part 393 [Docket No...RIN-2126-AB30 Parts and Accessories Necessary...rulemaking from the Automobile Carriers Conference...submitting comments and related materials. All comments...were conducted in part to support increases...for the National Automobile Transporters...

2011-02-22

287

Activation of an anatomically distinct subpopulation of accessory olfactory bulb neurons by chemosensory stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemosensory cues known as pheromones play a key role in rodent reproductive physiology and social interactions. Pheromone molecules are detected by receptor cells located in the vomeronasal organ and conveyed exclusively to the accessory olfactory bulb, and then to limbic and hypothalamic sites for integration with other factors modulating reproductive physiology. We report here that chemosensory cues from the female

C. A Dudley; R. L Moss

1999-01-01

288

An ephemeral pheromone of female house mice: Perception via the main and accessory olfactory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the chemosensory modalities by which males detect an ephemeral sex pheromone in the freshly voided urine of female mice. Experiment 1 examined the interaction of deafferenting the accessory olfactory system (vomeronasal organ removal) and subsequent sexual experience upon ultrasonic vocalizations by male mice to freshly voided female urine. In general, sexually experienced males vocalized substantially more than

Maurice L. Sipos; Charles J. Wysocki; John G. Nyby; Linda Wysocki; Todd A. Nemura

1995-01-01

289

Type II Endoleaks Involving an Accessory Renal Artery and the Inferior Mesenteric Artery  

SciTech Connect

Two patients are described with type II endoleaks involving an accessory renal artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. One patient was successfully embolized via the translumbar route. The other continues to be observed; the endoleak is expected to close spontaneously because both the inflow and outflow are significantly compromised.

Martin, E. C., E-mail: emartin@chpnet.org [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Todd, George J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

2011-02-15

290

Functional properties of neurons in the cat gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the functional properties of neurons in the gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory portion of the inferior olive (DAO) and compared these with properties of other efferents from the dorsal column nuclei (DCN). Projection neurons were identified in anesthetized cats by microstimulation within DAO. They were further tested to insure that they could not be

H. H. Molinari; J. O. Dostrovsky

1987-01-01

291

One-Stop Outpatient Management of Accessory Auricle in Children with Titanium Clip  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Literature on ideal management of accessory auricles is limited. Traditionally, accessory auricles are managed by paediatricians with suture ligation at the base of the accessory auricle to induce ischaemic necrosis (Mehmi et al, 2007). This method can be associated with complications and poor cosmesis thus leading to the vogue of surgical excision ( Frieden et al, 1995; Sebben, 1989). We present our experience in managing these lesions in children with the application of a titanium clip in a one-stop outpatient setting. Methods. Data was collected retrospectively through review of patient records and telephone questionnaire identifying outcomes from the parents' perspective. Results. Of 42 patients, 24 (57.1%) responded. Eleven (26.2%) underwent surgical excision, 6 (14.3%) had no intervention, and 1 (2.4%) was not contactable. All parents were happy with the outcome and would recommend this management to other parents. Twenty-three (96%) had no complications apart from a tiny residual nubbin, which was considered cosmetically acceptable. One child had a residual nubbin that grew in size requiring surgical excision at later stage. Conclusion. Management of accessory auricles by the application of a titanium clip in one-stop outpatient setting is safe, simple, quick, and well tolerated with no need for admission, anaesthesia, or followup due to the low complication rate. PMID:24800069

Laing, Tereze; Milroy, Catherine

2014-01-01

292

Quantitative histology of the mucous membrane of the accessory nasal sinus and mastoid cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucous membranes of the accessory nasal sinuses and of the mastoid labyrinth were measured in undecalcified, plastic-embedded specimens from nonpathologic postmortem cases. Epithelial thicknesses, lamina propria thicknesses and the ratio of nuclear to total cell area of the epithelia are presented for these organs to provide a quantitative basis for dosimetric calculations of alpha-emitting radionuclides. These data will be

M. J. Harris; R. A. Schlenker

1981-01-01

293

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for extracting an underground mineral such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface

R. A. Frosch; C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

294

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the

C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

295

Minerals leasing for landowners  

SciTech Connect

This report delineates the provisions of the legal codes of the 13 Southeastern states relating to minerals leasing. The introduction explains land ownership and land leasing in terms of mineral rights, and describes the basic elements which a lease conveyance must contain to be valid. A checklist gives the terms which must be included in all mineral leases.

Not Available

1983-01-01

296

Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence. PMID:23658451

Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.

2013-01-01

297

Preliminary summary review of thorium-bearing mineral occurrences in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thorium-bearing minerals are known at 47 localities in Alaska. At these localities the thorium occurs as a major constituent or in minor amounts as an impurity in one or more of the following 12 minerals: allanite, columbite, ellsworthite, eschynite, gummite, monazite, orangite, parisite, thorianite, thorite, xenotime, and zircon. In addition other minerals, such as biotite and sphene, are radioactive and may contain thorium. Several unidentified columbate minerals with uranium or thorium and uranium as major constituents have been recognized at some localities. The distribution, by type of deposit, of the 57 thorium occurrences is as follows: lode - 3, lode and placer - 1, granitic rock - 3, granitic rock and related placer - 14, and placer - 26. Of the four lode occurrences only the radioactive veins at Salmon Bay in southeastern Alaska and the contact metamorphic deposit in the Nixon Fork area of central Alaska warrant further consideration, although insufficient data are available to determine whether these two deposits have commercial possibilities. The remaining occurrences of thorium-bearing minerals in Alaska are limited to placer deposits and disseminations of accessory minerals in granitic rocks. In most of these occurrences the thorium-bearing minerals occur in only trace amounts and consequently warrent little further consideration. More data are needed to determine the possibilities of byproduct recovery of thorium-bearing minerals from several of the gold and tin placers.

Bates, Robert G.; Wedow, Helmuth, Jr.

1952-01-01

298

Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Dexter Perkins

299

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides younger students with an introduction to rocks and minerals. Topics include the definition of a mineral, the physical properties of minerals and how they are measured, and a discussion of quartz, the most basic silicate mineral and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust. The discussion on rocks includes the rock cycle, the three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), and how they are formed. There is also a vocabulary list and downloadable, printable worksheets for each major topic.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-08

300

Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

1985-08-01

301

Minerals in Our Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. This interactive feature lets users discover which minerals are found in items they probably encounter every day. Rolling the cursor over items in an illustrated room accesses pop-ups that describe what mineral products may be found in them. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2008-01-01

302

Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.

303

Reagan issues mineral policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

304

USGS: Mineral Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Mineral Resources Program funds science to provide and communicate current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources." This website divides the mineral resource information, project descriptions, and products for the United States into four main regional categories: Eastern, Central, Western, and Alaska. Researchers can discover new grant opportunities and can obtain access to the National Geochemical Survey's database. Students and educators can find statistics and information on how the United State's supply-and-demand for minerals and materials affects the economy, security, and environment.

305

Minerals by Chemical Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.

306

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

307

Canadian Minerals Yearbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."

2001-01-01

308

Identification of three anatomical patterns of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck by neurophysiological mapping  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of preservation of the accessory nerve there is still considerable proportion of patients with partial nerve damage during modified radical neck dissection (MRND). Methods The nerve was identified during the surgery and its branches for the trapezius muscle mapped with nerve monitor. Results The accessory nerve was mapped during 74 hemineck dissections and three patterns were identified. In type 1 nerve exits at the posterior end of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCm) and then it enters the level V (66%). In type 2 the nerve for trapezius muscle branches off before entering the SCm (22%). In type 3 the nerve exits at the posterior part of the SCm and it joins to the cervical plexus (12%). The nerve than exits this junction more medially as a single trapezius branch. Conclusions The description of three anatomical patterns in level II and V could help preserving the trapezius branch during MRND. PMID:25435852

Lanisnik, Bostjan; Zargi, Miha; Rodi, Zoran

2014-01-01

309

Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2014-02-01

310

Functional organization of glomerular maps in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mammalian accessory olfactory system extracts information about species, sex and individual identity from social odors, but its functional organization remains unclear. We imaged presynaptic Ca(2+) signals in vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) during peripheral stimulation using light sheet microscopy. Urine- and steroid-responsive glomeruli densely innervated the anterior AOB. Glomerular activity maps for sexually mature female mouse urine overlapped maps for juvenile and/or gonadectomized urine of both sexes, whereas maps for sexually mature male urine were highly distinct. Further spatial analysis revealed a complicated organization involving selective juxtaposition and dispersal of functionally grouped glomerular classes. Glomeruli that were similarly tuned to urines were often closely associated, whereas more disparately tuned glomeruli were selectively dispersed. Maps to a panel of sulfated steroid odorants identified tightly juxtaposed groups that were disparately tuned and dispersed groups that were similarly tuned. These results reveal a modular, nonchemotopic spatial organization in the AOB. PMID:24880215

Hammen, Gary F; Turaga, Diwakar; Holy, Timothy E; Meeks, Julian P

2014-07-01

311

Photosynthetic accessory pigments - Evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upwelled water-leaving spectral radiances and the submarine light-field source are theorized to have the physical scattering and absorption effects of photosynthetic accessory pigments. A laser is employed to induce phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence, and the presence of the photosynthetic accessory pigment is measured in oceanic waters with a spectral fluorescence method. Experimental data from active-passive correlation spectroscopy demonstrate that water-leaving spectral radiances of about 600 nm are highly correlated with phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence. Because the data on the phycoerythrin and chlorophyll fluorescences are entered randomly in the correlation the results are considered unambiguous. An estimate of the photopigment is derived that agrees with measurements of its laser-induced fluorescence.

Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

1990-01-01

312

Recurrent accessory pathway conduction in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: How to ablate?  

PubMed Central

Synopsis We report a case of a malignant right free wall AP that showed very rapid conduction during atrial fibrillation. The accessory pathway was attached to from the right atrial appendage to the right ventricle. Catheter ablation from an endocardial approach was met with limited success. Epicardial mapping of the atrial insertion site was achieved via a subxiphoid pericardial puncture. Long-term success was noted after ablation was performed in the epicardial space at the site of the tightest VA interval.

Wang, Daniel Y.; Weiner, Shepard D.; Garan, Hasan; Whang, William

2015-01-01

313

Accessory phases in Karelian Province sanukitoids (Finland): Towards understanding temporal changes in subduction style?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean-Proterozoic transition is marked by the appearance of sanukitoids, which have been found on every continent, whose occurrence is believed to be a consequence of the initiation of the so called "Modern Plate Tectonics". Whole rock geochemistry and experimental petrology have suggested that they result from the interaction between a mantle wedge and a metasomatism agent (either oceanic crust melt or sediments). Sanukitoids from the Karelian Province (Finland) have been dated at ~ 2.7 Ga (U-Pb on zircon; Heilimo et al., 2011), and whole rock geochemical data, oxygen and hafnium isotopes in zircons have been interpreted as the result of the interaction between a depleted mantle wedge and a recycled crustal component during a slab-breakoff event at the end stage of the subduction (Heilimo et al., 2010, Heilimo et al., 2012). Geochemistry of accessory phases can give additional information about the petrogenesis and the sources of their host rocks (e.g. Hoskin et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2002). In this contribution, we present new geochemical data on the accessory phases (titanite, apatite, zircon) of the Karelian Province sanukitoids. We demonstrate that trace elements analysis and a detailed petrographic work on these phases give us a direct access to their petrogenesis. These data are compared to new data obtained on "modern" sanukitoids (High Ba-Sr suite, Scotland) and on a BADR suite (Guernsey, Channel Islands) in order to highlight potential geochemical signatures of each. This study will be followed by a systematic analysis of accessory phases in TTG, in order to have a whole record of accessory phases chemistry in plutonic rocks through the crustal evolution.

Bruand, Emilie; Fowler, Mike; Storey, Craig; Heilimo, Esa

2013-04-01

314

The UreEF Fusion Protein Provides a Soluble and Functional Form of the UreF Urease Accessory Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four accessory proteins (UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG) are typically required to form the nickel-containing active site in the urease apoprotein (UreABC). Among the accessory proteins, UreD and UreF have been elusive targets for biochemical and structural characterization because they are not overproduced as soluble proteins. Using the best-studied urease system, in which the Klebsiella aerogenes genes are expressed in

Jong Kyong Kim; Scott B. Mulrooney; Robert P. Hausinger

2006-01-01

315

Short adrenergic neurons and catecholamine-containing cells in vas deferens and accessory male genital glands of different mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The adrenergic innervation and catecholamine-containing cells in the internal accessory male genital organs of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit, cat, dog and macaque has been studied with a fluorescence microscopic method for the cellular localization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine.2.The vas deferens and most of the accessory genital glands have a very dense supply of adrenergic terminals, which is resistant to hypogastric

Christer Owman; Nils O. Sjöstrand

1965-01-01

316

Accessory Pancreatic Duct-Portal Vein Fistula: A Rare Complication of Chronic Pancreatitis during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography  

PubMed Central

Pancreatitis, hemorrhage and perforation are the most frequent complications associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We report a rare case of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula, which occurred during ERCP in a patient with chronic pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula created during ERCP by the use of a guide wire. PMID:25473386

Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Lin, Jung-Chun; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

317

Perineal Lipoma With Accessory Labioscrotal Fold and Penis-like Phallus in a Female Infant With Unilateral Renal Agenesis?  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a female 46,XX infant with a perineal lipoma within an accessory labioscrotal fold containing a penis-like phallus, associated with contralateral renal agenesis and complete absence of Müllerian/paramesonephric structures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of perineal lipoma and accessory labioscrotal fold associated with urogenital abnormalities in a female. The case also has an exceptional penis-like phallus in the absence of Y chromosome material or evidence of virilization. PMID:24857274

Mifsud, William; Sambandan, Nikola; Humphries, Paul; Sebire, Neil J.; Mushtaq, Imran

2014-01-01

318

Pan-genome sequence analysis using Panseq: an online tool for the rapid analysis of core and accessory genomic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pan-genome of a bacterial species consists of a core and an accessory gene pool. The accessory genome is thought to be an important source of genetic variability in bacterial populations and is gained through lateral gene transfer, allowing subpopulations of bacteria to better adapt to specific niches. Low-cost and high-throughput sequencing platforms have created an exponential increase in

Chad Laing; Cody Buchanan; Eduardo N. Taboada; Yongxiang Zhang; Andrew Kropinski; Andre Villegas; James E. Thomas; Victor P. J. Gannon

2010-01-01

319

Facial nerve parasympathetic preganglionic afferents to the accessory otic ganglia by way of the chorda tympani nerve in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of accessory otic ganglia and connections between the ganglia and the chorda tympani nerve were investigated\\u000a in the cat in order to determine the parasympathetic preganglionic facial nerve afferents to the otic ganglia using whole\\u000a mount acetylthiocholinesterase (WATChE) histochemistry. The otic ganglia consist of a sigle main prominent ganglion and many\\u000a small accessory ganglia lying on a plexus

Satoshi Kuchiiwa; T. Kuchiiwa; Satoru Nonaka; Shiro Nakagawa

1998-01-01

320

Repeated, Selection-Driven Genome Reduction of Accessory Genes in Experimental Populations  

PubMed Central

Genome reduction has been observed in many bacterial lineages that have adapted to specialized environments. The extreme genome degradation seen for obligate pathogens and symbionts appears to be dominated by genetic drift. In contrast, for free-living organisms with reduced genomes, the dominant force is proposed to be direct selection for smaller, streamlined genomes. Most variation in gene content for these free-living species is of “accessory” genes, which are commonly gained as large chromosomal islands that are adaptive for specialized traits such as pathogenicity. It is generally unclear, however, whether the process of accessory gene loss is largely driven by drift or selection. Here we demonstrate that selection for gene loss, and not a shortened genome, per se, drove massive, rapid reduction of accessory genes. In just 1,500 generations of experimental evolution, 80% of populations of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 experienced nearly parallel deletions removing up to 10% of the genome from a megaplasmid present in this strain. The absence of these deletion events in a mutation accumulation experiment suggested that selection, rather than drift, has dominated the process. Reconstructing these deletions confirmed that they were beneficial in their selective regimes, but led to decreased performance in alternative environments. These results indicate that selection can be crucial in eliminating unnecessary genes during the early stages of adaptation to a specialized environment. PMID:22589730

Lee, Ming-Chun; Marx, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

321

Improving the odorant sensitivity of olfactory receptor-expressing yeast with accessory proteins.  

PubMed

Olfaction depends on the selectivity and sensitivity of olfactory receptors. Previous attempts at constructing a mammalian olfactory receptor-based artificial odorant sensing system in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffered from low sensitivity and activity. This result may be at least in part due to poor functional expression of olfactory receptors and/or limited solubility of some odorants in the medium. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of accessory proteins, receptor transporting protein 1 short and odorant binding proteins, in improving odor-mediated activation of olfactory receptors expressed in yeast. We found that receptor transporting protein 1 short enhanced the membrane expression and ligand-induced responses of some olfactory receptors. Coexpression of odorant binding proteins of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori enhanced the sensitivity of a mouse olfactory receptor. Our results suggest that different classes of accessory proteins can confer sensitive and robust responses of olfactory receptors expressed in yeast. Inclusion of accessory proteins may be essential in the future development of practical olfactory receptor-based odorant sensors. PMID:25449303

Fukutani, Yosuke; Hori, Ayaka; Tsukada, Satoshi; Sato, Ryoichi; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Yohda, Masafumi

2015-02-15

322

Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli. PMID:23966710

Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

2013-08-21

323

Three-dimensional imaging identified the accessory bile duct in a patient with cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The development of diagnostic imaging technology, such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), has made it possible to obtain detailed images of the bile duct. Recent reports have indicated that a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed imaging system would be useful for understanding the liver anatomy before surgery. We have investigated a novel method that fuses MDCT and MRCP images. This novel system easily made it possible to detect the anatomical relationship between the vessels and bile duct in the portal hepatis. In this report, we describe a very rare case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma associated with an accessory bile duct from the caudate lobe connecting with the intrapancreatic bile duct. We were unable to preoperatively detect this accessory bile duct using MDCT and MRCP. However, prior to the second operation, we were able to clearly visualise the injured accessory bile duct using our novel 3D imaging modality. In this report, we suggest that this imaging technique can be considered a novel and useful modality for understanding the anatomy of the portal hepatis, including the hilar bile duct. PMID:25170235

Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oshiro, Yukio; Hashimoto, Shinji; Kohno, Keisuke; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

2014-08-28

324

Rocks & Mineral Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a solitaire game designed to help students identify rocks and minerals. The card game would be used by the students after class discussions about rock/mineral categories and classifications. Several sets of the card game, managed by the teacher, would be available for the students. The cards could be used both during and after class.

Catania, Andrea J.; Education, San D.

325

Vitamin and mineral requirements  

E-print Network

Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

Laughlin, Robert B.

326

Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

2007-01-01

327

VITAMINS AND MINERALS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. . DATES: You can begin this activity on May 21. You should complete it by May 25. OBJECTIVE: A healthy body needs vitamins and minerals. You\\'ve probably heard these words before, but do you really know what they mean? This activity will help you better understand the ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-05

328

Digging into Minnesota Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

329

The Miner's Canary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

Guinier, Lani

2005-01-01

330

Mineral Image Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery provides pictures of thousands of mineral specimens, arranged alphabetically. For each specimen, a thumbnail and a larger image are provided. Other information includes a brief description of the specimen being shown, scale bar (when available), locality data, and a link to additional information on the mineral.

331

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of rocks and minerals includes representatives of all three major groups: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Users can access introductory information about the three major rock types and the minerals that form them. A simple rock classification chart is included, with embedded links to a glossary and more detailed material for advanced learners.

332

Minerals, Crystals and Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

333

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides introductory information about rocks and minerals. Topics include some of the common rock-forming minerals, what rocks are made of, and where they come from (the three basic rock types). There are descriptions and photos of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, a glossary, and a simple identification chart that has links to websites with additional information.

2010-11-08

334

Atoms and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 23 questions on the topic of atoms and minerals, which covers mineral types and characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

335

Role of Accessory Phase Crystallization Within the High-Silica Magma Batches of the Rainier Mesa Tuff, Southwest Nevada Volcanic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compositionally zoned ignimbrites from the Timber Mountain/Oasis Valley magmatic system, Southwest Nevada Volcanic Field (SWNVF), represent open system processes as opposed to in situ differentiation within a single magma chamber. The large chemical variation of the pumice fragments in the ash-flow sheets are due to emplacement of different magma batches into the magma chamber prior to eruption1,2. The 11.6 Ma Rainier Mesa tuff is a large (1200 km3) ignimbrite containing low-silica pumice fragments, and two distinct high-silica rhyolitic pumice fragments, distinguished by the Th/Nb ratios1. Based on trace element modeling, Mills et al. (1997) concluded that these were three separate magma batches. Recent ? 18O data from minerals separated from pumice fragments are consistent with this interpretation for the independent origin of the high- and low-silica magmas, and that these represent distinct magma types that erupted coevally1,3. However, chemical data from melt inclusions and glass matrix from the two high-silica magma types do not support the model that these are unrelated. Melt inclusion and glass matrix compositions were obtained from the high-Th/Nb, high-silica and low-Th/Nb, high-silica pumice fragments. The two groups of pumice fragments have identical glass matrix major and trace element compositions, and both high-silica groups have identical melt inclusion compositions. In both high-silica groups, Th and Th/Nb increase with increasing La within the melt inclusions. The two high-silica magma types have identical major phase minerals of similar compositions, indicating that the trace element signature of the whole pumice is controlled by accessory phase fractionation. Analyses of monazite, apatite, and zircon from both high-silica pumice groups show similar compositions, with La and Th concentrated in the monazite. Our interpretation is that the high-Th/Nb, high-silica magma represents accessory phase (monazite) accumulation, resulting in a compositional zone within a differentiating HSR magma body. References cited: 1. Mills et al., J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 78, 185-208, 1997. 2. Vogel and Aines, JGR 101, no. B3, 5591-5610, 1996. 3. Bindeman and Valley, GSA Bulletin 115, 581-595, 2003.

Tefend, K. S.; Vogel, T. A.; Patino, L. C.

2004-05-01

336

Underground mineral extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

1980-01-01

337

USGS: Energy & Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Energy and Minerals Mission Area of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) "conducts research and assessments on the location, quantity, and quality of material and energy resources, including the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use." Visitors to the site can click on thematic sections such as Energy Resources and Mineral Resources. Each of these areas contains information about each program, along with fact sheets, databases, and detailed geospatial maps. The Program News area contains links to documents such as "Understanding the Global Distribution of Nonfuel Mineral Resources" and a host of summary documents on mineral commodities. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Mineral Resources Products area. Here, visitors can look into hundreds of statistical reports, bulletins, and data sets intended for scientists, journalists, and members of the general public.

2013-06-20

338

Kiwifruit and mineral nutrition.  

PubMed

Dietary minerals are essential nutrients that drive key cellular and physiological functions. Each mineral is absorbed in the gut via unique, complex pathways that can involve a cascade of receptors and binding proteins. Foods can both provide dietary minerals and contain components that impact the bioavailability of minerals in the digestive system. Kiwifruit exceeds most other fruits in its content of key micronutrients including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, and folate. It also contains exceedingly high levels of ascorbic acid, which increases the bioavailability of nonheme iron and can impact on calcium absorption. Recent research in cells, animals, and humans has demonstrated that kiwifruit, particularly the gold variety, can increase the uptake and retention of the essential dietary minerals iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. PMID:23394991

Wolber, Frances M; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Marlena C

2013-01-01

339

Mineral facilities of Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

2010-01-01

340

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2010-10-01

341

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2012-10-01

342

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2011-10-01

343

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2014-10-01

344

43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

2013-10-01

345

Mineralogy and temporal relations of coexisting authigenic minerals in altered silicic tuffs and their utility as potential low-temperature dateable minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coexisting fine-grained (0.1-20 ?m) authigenic silicate minerals separated from altered tuffs in Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits were characterized petrographically and using X-ray powder diffraction. The authigenic minerals are dominated by clinoptilolite, erionite, phillipsite, K-feldspar, silica, calcite, smectite, and randomly interstratified illite/smectite. Minor accessories of opal-CT, cristobalite, and barite are present with the major alteration minerals. Authigenic minerals from altered tuffs were dated using the {K}/{Ar} method to evaluate the utility of these minerals for determining the time of alteration in low-temperature diagenetic environments. The eruption ages of some of these zeolite-rich tuffs were determined using the {40Ar }/{39Ar } method on single sanidine and plagioclase minerals. The {K}/{Ar} isotopic ages of the fine-grained K-feldspar show minimal variation compared with results from the clinoptilolite separates. The isotopic ages from the authigenic K-feldspar (15-13.8 Ma) and some of the zeolites (16.-6.7 Ma) are similar to the eruption ages of the tuffs and indicate early alteration. Despite their open-framework structure, zeolites apparently can retain part or all of their radiogenic argon under favorable conditions (e.g., saturated environment). How much of the radiogenic argon is retained is estimated from the isotopic ages of other coexisting secondary minerals that are commonly dated by the {K}/{Ar} method. Although zeolite isotopic ages should be interpreted with caution, they may be useful to constrain temporal relations of low-temperature diagenetic processes when used in conjunction with other dateable minerals.

WoldeGabriel, Giday; Broxton, David E.; Byers, Frank M.

1996-05-01

346

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

347

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

348

Ken's Fluorescent Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides photos of fluorescent minerals photographed under long wave (LW) or short wave (SW) ultraviolet light. Links to additional resources, and a list of books and information sources are also included.

Kenneth Colosky

349

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

350

Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals  

E-print Network

on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleav- age calcite surface, this mineral was chosenDefining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals Adria properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and

Long, Bernard

351

36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral permits. 293.14 Section 293.14 Parks...AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws...

2010-07-01

352

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

353

Functional characterisation of a TLR accessory protein, UNC93B1, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localisation and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the accessory protein, UNC93B1, from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs aided by the conserved gene synteny of genes flanking UNC93B1 in fish, birds and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that salmon UNC93B1 grouped with other vertebrate UNC93B1 molecules, and had highest amino acid identity and similarity to zebrafish UNC93B1. The salmon UNC93B1 gene organisation was also similar in structure to mammalian UNC93B1. Our gene expression studies revealed that salmon UNC93B1 was more highly expressed in spleen, liver and gill tissues but was expressed at a lower level in head kidney tissue in post-smolts relative to parr. Moreover, salmon UNC93B1 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in vivo in spleen tissue from polyI:C treated salmon and in vitro in polyI:C or IFN? stimulated Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cells. Initial studies into the functional role of salmon UNC93B1 in fish TLR signalling found that both wild type salmon UNC93B1 and a molecule with a site-directed mutation (H424R) co-immunoprecipitated with salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d. Overall, these data illustrate the potential importance of UNC93B1 as an accessory protein in fish TLR signalling. PMID:25576824

Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Scott, C J W; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

2015-05-01

354

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity. PMID:19063743

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

355

Coronary anomaly with a left ventricular accessory chamber: Is it left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum?  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old male hypertensive was suspected to have post myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm. His transthoracic echocardiogram performed elsewhere reported an inferior wall left ventricular aneurysm. He was referred for coronary angiography. His coronary angiogram and repeat transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated an accessory chamber arising from mid-inferior wall synchronously contracting with the left ventricle suggesting a diverticulum. In addition, he had anomalous coronary arteries with coronary artery disease. His electrocardiogram did not reveal any features suggestive of a post infarct aneurysm. This case illustrates the importance of a comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic examination with a broad differential thought process. PMID:23960694

Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Riyami, Abdullah Amour

2012-01-01

356

Catheter Ablation of a Left Free-Wall Accessory Pathway via the Radial Artery Approach  

PubMed Central

Catheter ablation of the left free-wall accessory pathways (APs) is normally performed by the retrograde transaortic approach via a femoral artery or the transseptal approach. Here we report a case of an overt left free-wall AP, which was successfully ablated with a retrograde transaortic approach via the radial artery without any vascular complications. The patient has remained free of any symptoms or pre-excitation observed on the ECG during a 10-month post-ablation follow-up. PMID:18159601

Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Han-Cheol; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin; Hong, Taek Jong; Shin, Yung Woo

2007-01-01

357

The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

1999-01-01

358

Measuring the Hardness of Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

Bushby, Jessica

2005-01-01

359

Structures of benzylsuccinate synthase elucidate roles of accessory subunits in glycyl radical enzyme activation and activity  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic degradation of the environmental pollutant toluene is initiated by the glycyl radical enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), which catalyzes the radical addition of toluene to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate. We have determined crystal structures of the catalytic ?-subunit of BSS with its accessory subunits ? and ?, which both bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and are essential for BSS activity in vivo. We find that BSS? has the common glycyl radical enzyme fold, a 10-stranded ?/?-barrel that surrounds the glycyl radical cofactor and active site. Both accessory subunits ? and ? display folds related to high potential iron–sulfur proteins but differ substantially from each other in how they interact with the ?-subunit. BSS? binds distally to the active site, burying a hydrophobic region of BSS?, whereas BSS? binds to a hydrophilic surface of BSS? that is proximal to the active site. To further investigate the function of BSS?, we determined the structure of a BSS?? complex. Remarkably, we find that the barrel partially opens, allowing the C-terminal region of BSS? that houses the glycyl radical to shift within the barrel toward an exit pathway. The structural changes that we observe in the BSS?? complex center around the crucial glycyl radical domain, thus suggesting a role for BSS? in modulating the conformational dynamics required for enzyme activity. Accompanying proteolysis experiments support these structural observations. PMID:24982148

Funk, Michael A.; Judd, Evan T.; Marsh, E. Neil G.; Elliott, Sean J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

2014-01-01

360

Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (<1 mm(3)) circuit possesses the capacity to distinguish unique behavioral states, such as sex, strain, and stress from chemosensory cues in the secretions and excretions of conspecifics. While the compact organization of this system presents unique opportunities for recording from large portions of the circuit simultaneously, investigation of sensory processing in the AOB remains challenging, largely due to its experimentally disadvantageous location in the brain. Here, we demonstrate a multi-stage dissection that removes the intact AOB inside a single hemisphere of the anterior mouse skull, leaving connections to both the peripheral vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and local neuronal circuitry intact. The procedure exposes the AOB surface to direct visual inspection, facilitating electrophysiological and optical recordings from AOB circuit elements in the absence of anesthetics. Upon inserting a thin cannula into the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which houses the VSNs, one can directly expose the periphery to social odors and pheromones while recording downstream activity in the AOB. This procedure enables controlled inquiries into AOS information processing, which can shed light on mechanisms linking pheromone exposure to changes in behavior. PMID:25145699

Doyle, Wayne I; Hammen, Gary F; Meeks, Julian P

2014-01-01

361

Activity regulates functional connectivity from the vomeronasal organ to the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mammalian accessory olfactory system is specialized for the detection of chemicals that identify kin and conspecifics. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) residing in the vomeronasal organ project axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), where they form synapses with principal neurons known as mitral cells. The organization of this projection is quite precise and is believed to be essential for appropriate function of this system. However, how this precise connectivity is established is unknown. We show here that in mice the vomeronasal duct is open at birth, allowing external chemical stimuli access to sensory neurons, and that these sensory neurons are capable of releasing neurotransmitter to downstream neurons as early as the first postnatal day (P). Using major histocompatibility complex class I peptides to activate a selective subset of VSNs during the first few postnatal days of development, we show that increased activity results in exuberant VSN axonal projections and a delay in axonal coalescence into well defined glomeruli in the AOB. Finally, we show that mitral cell dendritic refinement occurs just after the coalescence of presynaptic axons. Such a mechanism may allow the formation of precise connectivity with specific glomeruli that receive input from sensory neurons expressing the same receptor type. PMID:22674266

Hovis, Kenneth R; Ramnath, Rohit; Dahlen, Jeffrey E; Romanova, Anna L; LaRocca, Greg; Bier, Mark E; Urban, Nathaniel N

2012-06-01

362

Dental products devices; reclassification of endosseous dental implant accessories. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying the manually powered drill bits, screwdrivers, countertorque devices, placement and removal tools, laboratory pieces used for fabrication of dental prosthetics, trial abutments, and other manually powered endosseous dental implant accessories from class III to class I. These devices are intended to aid in the placement or removal of endosseous dental implants and abutments, prepare the site for placement of endosseous dental implants or abutments, aid in the fitting of endosseous dental implants or abutments, aid in the fabrication of dental prosthetics, and be used as an accessory with endosseous dental implants when tissue contact will last less than an hour. FDA is also exempting these devices from premarket notification. This reclassification is on the Secretary of Health and Human Services' own initiative based on new information. This action is being taken under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the 1976 amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (the SMDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). PMID:11503656

2000-10-10

363

Burkholderia pseudomallei sequencing identifies genomic clades with distinct recombination, accessory, and epigenetic profiles.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. To investigate population diversity, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer in closely related Bp isolates, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 106 clinical, animal, and environmental strains from a restricted Asian locale. Whole-genome phylogenies resolved multiple genomic clades of Bp, largely congruent with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We discovered widespread recombination in the Bp core genome, involving hundreds of regions associated with multiple haplotypes. Highly recombinant regions exhibited functional enrichments that may contribute to virulence. We observed clade-specific patterns of recombination and accessory gene exchange, and provide evidence that this is likely due to ongoing recombination between clade members. Reciprocally, interclade exchanges were rarely observed, suggesting mechanisms restricting gene flow between clades. Interrogation of accessory elements revealed that each clade harbored a distinct complement of restriction-modification (RM) systems, predicted to cause clade-specific patterns of DNA methylation. Using methylome sequencing, we confirmed that representative strains from separate clades indeed exhibit distinct methylation profiles. Finally, using an E. coli system, we demonstrate that Bp RM systems can inhibit uptake of non-self DNA. Our data suggest that RM systems borne on mobile elements, besides preventing foreign DNA invasion, may also contribute to limiting exchanges of genetic material between individuals of the same species. Genomic clades may thus represent functional units of genetic isolation in Bp, modulating intraspecies genetic diversity. PMID:25236617

Nandi, Tannistha; Holden, Mathew T G; Didelot, Xavier; Mehershahi, Kurosh; Boddey, Justin A; Beacham, Ifor; Peak, Ian; Harting, John; Baybayan, Primo; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; How, Lee Chee; Sim, Bernice; Essex-Lopresti, Angela; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Nelson, Michelle; Smither, Sophie; Ong, Catherine; Aw, Lay Tin; Hoon, Chua Hui; Michell, Stephen; Studholme, David J; Titball, Richard; Chen, Swaine L; Parkhill, Julian; Tan, Patrick

2015-01-01

364

HIV-1 Vpu Accessory Protein Induces Caspase-mediated Cleavage of IRF3 Transcription Factor.  

PubMed

Vpu is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 that interferes with multiple host-cell functions. Herein we report that expression of Vpu by transfection into 293T cells causes partial proteolytic cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor in the innate anti-viral response. Vpu-induced IRF3 cleavage is mediated by caspases and occurs mainly at Asp-121. Cleavage produces a C-terminal fragment of ?37 kDa that comprises the IRF dimerization and transactivation domains but lacks the DNA-binding domain. A similar cleavage is observed upon infection of the Jurkat T-cell line with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1. Two other HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr, also contribute to the induction of IRF3 cleavage in both the transfection and the infection systems. The C-terminal IRF3 fragment interferes with the transcriptional activity of full-length IRF3. Cleavage of IRF3 under all of these conditions correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. We conclude that Vpu contributes to the attenuation of the anti-viral response by partial inactivation of IRF3 while host cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:25352594

Park, Sang Yoon; Waheed, Abdul A; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Freed, Eric O; Bonifacino, Juan S

2014-12-19

365

Functional organization of glomerular maps in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Summary The mammalian accessory olfactory system (AOS) extracts information about species, sex, and individual identity from social odors, but its functional organization remains unclear. We imaged presynaptic Ca2+ signals in vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) during peripheral stimulation using light sheet microscopy. Urine- and steroid-responsive glomeruli densely innervated the anterior AOB. Glomerular activity maps for sexually mature female mouse urine overlapped maps for juvenile and/or gonadectomized urine of both sexes, whereas maps for sexually mature male urine were highly distinct. Further spatial analysis revealed a complicated organization involving selective juxtaposition and dispersal of functionally-grouped glomerular classes. Glomeruli that were similarly tuned to urines were often closely associated, whereas more disparately tuned glomeruli were selectively dispersed. Maps to a panel of sulfated steroid odorants identified tightly-juxtaposed groups that were disparately tuned and dispersed groups that were similarly tuned. These results reveal a modular, non-chemotopic spatial organization in the AOB. PMID:24880215

Hammen, Gary F.; Turaga, Diwakar; Holy, Timothy E.; Meeks, Julian P.

2014-01-01

366

Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags  

PubMed Central

The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

2006-01-01

367

Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: An unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10?cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

2014-11-27

368

Notch signaling regulates murine atrioventricular conduction and the formation of accessory pathways  

PubMed Central

Ventricular preexcitation, which characterizes Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, is caused by the presence of accessory pathways that can rapidly conduct electrical impulses from atria to ventricles, without the intrinsic delay characteristic of the atrioventricular (AV) node. Preexcitation is associated with an increased risk of tachyarrhythmia, palpitations, syncope, and sudden death. Although the pathology and electrophysiology of preexcitation syndromes are well characterized, the developmental mechanisms are poorly understood, and few animal models that faithfully recapitulate the human disorder have been described. Here we show that activation of Notch signaling in the developing myocardium of mice can produce fully penetrant accessory pathways and ventricular preexcitation. Conversely, inhibition of Notch signaling in the developing myocardium resulted in a hypoplastic AV node, with specific loss of slow-conducting cells expressing connexin-30.2 (Cx30.2) and a resulting loss of physiologic AV conduction delay. Taken together, our results suggest that Notch regulates the functional maturation of AV canal embryonic myocardium during the development of the specialized conduction system. Our results also show that ventricular preexcitation can arise from inappropriate patterning of the AV canal–derived myocardium. PMID:21266778

Rentschler, Stacey; Harris, Brett S.; Kuznekoff, Laura; Jain, Rajan; Manderfield, Lauren; Lu, Min Min; Morley, Gregory E.; Patel, Vickas V.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

2011-01-01

369

Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats  

PubMed Central

Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the 3rd experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO4 treatment or VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret. ZnSO4 treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor. PMID:19800371

Masini, Cher V.; Garcia, Robert J.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge

2009-01-01

370

Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

2012-07-01

371

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:15018183

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

372

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:16440220

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

373

Hepatic arterial loop with accessory right hepatic artery aneurysm with celiac atresia: endovascular therapy with a stent and detachable coils.  

PubMed

The present report describes an unusual case of an aneurysm of a right hepatic artery (RHA) branching from the superior mesenteric artery; the accessory RHA was looped to the left hepatic artery arising from the celiac axis (CA) and was associated with congenital atresia of the CA. The accessory RHA aneurysm was treated with the placement of a bare stent and detachable coils through the mesh of the stent. Complete and prompt exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved with blood flow preservation in the parent artery at midterm follow-up. PMID:18656020

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio; Castellan, Lucio; De Paolis, Marco; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido R

2008-08-01

374

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

375

Minerals Management Board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The five-member Minerals Management Board, headed by Undersecretary of the Interior Donald Paul Hodel, supervises and oversees the operations of the Minerals Management Service, according to the January 19 order by Secretary of the Interior Watt. The board is charged with developing the ‘appropriate policy and guidelines to implement the approved recommendations and findings of the Commission on Fiscal Accountability of the Nation's Energy Resources and monitor program activities directed toward the improvement of the royalty management program.’ Also on the board are Daniel Miller, Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Energy and Minerals; Kenneth L. Smith, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs; Garrey E. Carruthers, Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources; and J. Robinson West, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Budget, and Administration.

376

Effect of Accessory Proteins P19 and P20 on Cytolytic Activity of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in  

E-print Network

for the accessory protein P19 of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was expressed in Escherichia coli and itsEffect of Accessory Proteins P19 and P20 on Cytolytic Activity of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Escherichia coli Robert Manasherob,1 Arieh Zaritsky,1,2 Eitan Ben-Dov,1

Zaritsky, Arieh

377

Microbially mediated mineral carbonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

2010-12-01

378

Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

2014-01-01

379

Rocks and Minerals Of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kentucky rocks highlighted on this website are chiefly sedimentary, such as limestone and dolostone, since sedimentary rocks cover approximately 99 percent of the state. You will find an extensive list of minerals and mineral groups, such as oxides or halides, and mineral property descriptions that cover hardness, cleavage, color, crystal system, streak, and more. These properties are also discussed in relation to their use in identifying unknown minerals. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are covered in relation to gold and silver deposits, and the legend of the Jonathon Swift Silver mines. Information on Kentucky's state rock and mineral, museums, rock clubs, and mineral deposits are included.

380

The Physical Characteristics of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

1998-01-01

381

Binding-induced Stabilization and Assembly of the Phage P22 Tail Accessory Factor gp4  

SciTech Connect

To infect and replicate, bacteriophage P22 injects its 43 kbp genome across the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The attachment of phage P22 to the host cell as well as the injection of the viral DNA into the host is mediated by the virion's tail complex. This 2.8 MDa molecular machine is formed by five proteins, which include the portal protein gp1, the adhesion tailspike protein gp9, and three tail accessory factors: gp4, gp10, gp26. We have isolated the tail accessory factor gp4 and characterized its structure and binding interactions with portal protein. Interestingly, gp4 exists in solution as a monomer, which displays an exceedingly low structural stability (T{sub m} 34 {sup o}C). Unfolded gp4 is prone to aggregation within a narrow range of temperatures both in vitro and in Salmonella extracts. In the virion the thermal unfolding of gp4 is prevented by the interaction with the dodecameric portal protein, which stabilizes the structure of gp4 and suppresses unfolded gp4 from irreversibly aggregating in the Salmonella milieu. The structural stabilization of gp4 is accompanied by the concomitant oligomerization of the protein to form a ring of 12 subunits bound to the lower end of the portal ring. The interaction of gp4 with portal protein is complex and likely involves the distinct binding of two non-equivalent sets of six gp4 proteins. Binding of the first set of six gp4 equivalents to dodecameric portal protein yields a gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 6} assembly intermediate, which is stably populated at 30 {sup o}C and can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis. The final product of the assembly reaction is a bi-dodecameric gp(1){sub 12}:gp(4){sub 12} complex, which appears hollow by electron microscopy, suggesting that gp4 does not physically plug the DNA entry/exit channel, but acts as a structural adaptor for the other tail accessory factors: gp10 and gp26.

Olia,A.; Al-Bassam, J.; Winn-Stapley, D.; Joss, L.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

2006-01-01

382

Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial reanimation procedure after an FN injury. PMID:25454640

Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

2014-12-15

383

Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

2008-08-01

384

Introduction to Mineral Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is short problem set to be used in class. It helps focus discussion, while providing a starting point for discussing mineral reactions and phase diagrams. Students are exposed to ternary composition diagrams and to phase diagrams. They are also introduced to the phase rule, although in quite a superficial way.

Perkins, Dexter

385

Engineering and Mineral Resources  

E-print Network

News ????????????????? ® College of Engineering and Mineral Resources Winter 2008 table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 wvCROSSROADS DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering Civil engineering exchange program and environmental engineering with a focus in transportation will have the opportunity to study abroad as part

Mohaghegh, Shahab

386

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... least likely to take them. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention For people with certain health problems, specific MVMs might be helpful. For example, a study showed that a particular high-dose formula of several vitamins and minerals slowed vision loss in some people with age- ...

387

Fossils and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Black Hills Institute features information about different types of fossils, minerals, meteorites, and geology in general. Each topic has a brief description, with links to a more detailed explanation. Various samples and books are abailable for purchase on the site.

Research, Inc. B.

388

Energy and Mineral Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 16 questions on the topic of energy and mineral resources, which covers energy sources, resource types, and uses of resources. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Timothy Heaton

389

Advances and limitations on interpreting the erosional record from isotopic analysis of single detrital mineral grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of provenance of clastic sediments is useful for reconstructing the characteristics and rates of exhumation of source areas, and sometimes placing minimum age constraints on depositional age. Due largely to increased availability and ease of access to LA-ICP-MS instrumentation, the analysis of provenance using single detrital accessory minerals has grown very rapidly over recent years. With this however is a culture of casual users who may not fully appreciate subtleties of measurement and isotope interpretation. The isotopic provenance literature is dominated by zircon-centric studies that use U-Pb dating and Hf isotope measurements of single zircons, but unfortunately an increasing number of these studies appear to lack sufficient understanding of U-Pb and Hf systematics; misleading interpretations are increasingly common. The inherent information contained in detrital accessory minerals is potentially immense, scientifically, but comprehensive interpretations attempting to reconstruct the geological make-up and evolution of sources require dating of multiple types of accessory minerals (i.e. zircon, titanite, monazite, garnet inclusions, micas, allanite, rutile, apatite) by various methods (U-Pb, fission track, Ar-Ar…) at times accompanied by isotope geochemical data (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) of phases where Sr, Hf, or REE comprise a major element (?0.5%). Many approaches have been demonstrated but the mix of methodologies needs to be tailored to the problem, in view of the variable effort and expense needed to acquire good datasets. To date there are few comprehensive multi-mineral, multi-isotope system applications, and too many studies that follow a prescriptive cookbook that lacks innovation and fails to address a problem. The field needs to focus effort on the approaches that can solve a problem well rather than doing either just the easy methods or too many methods only moderately well. Zircon studies require strategies that reduce or eliminate discordance, collect sufficient data on each grain to make a robust age interpretation, improve accuracy of data by more attention to standards and uncertainties, can analyze thin overgrowths that reveal the magmatic or metamorphic age, and minimize sample consumption, not an easy task for the vast majority of laboratories doing provenance applications. Detrital monazite, monazite-in garnet, titanite and rutile can reveal much of the higher temperature metamorphic time-temperature path, and coupled U-Pb and fission track studies of single zircon and apatite grains can be useful for determining lower temperature exhumation rates. Isotope geochemistry (Hf-Nd-Sr-O) is more time consuming but can be pivotal to distinguish subtle differences in sources and to test specific hypotheses. Examples of improved methods and applications will be presented to illustrate the presentation.

Parrish, Randall

2010-05-01

390

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species of the Drosophila repleta Group  

E-print Network

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species significant evidence of adaptive evolution for 10 of the tested genes. Among these, the ones with a conserved met by evidence that many Acp genes have patterns of nucleotide variation compatible with evolution

DeSalle, Rob

391

The First Isotopic Dating of the Dhofar 025 Lunar Meteorite by U-Pb Method Using Accessory Zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time Dhofar 025 meteorite is dated by U-Pb method using the accessory zircon. Acquired ages of zircon grain and breccia are 4, 5 and 2 Ga respectively. Our results suggest that Dhofar 025 is a unique rock ejected from the lunar farside.

Leontieva, E. M.; Matukov, D. I.; Nazarov, M. A.; Sergeev, S. A.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

2005-03-01

392

Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata.  

PubMed

The main and accessory olfactory bulbs were examined by histological methods and lectin histochemistry in the Japanese striped snake. As the results, the histological properties are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In lectin histochemistry, 21 lectins used in this study showed similar binding patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In detail, 15 lectins stained these olfactory bulbs with similar manner, and 6 lectins did not stain them at all. Two lectins, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), stained the nerve and glomerular layers and did not stain any other layers in both olfactory bulbs. Four lectins, Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) stained the nerve and glomerular layers more intensely than other layers in both olfactory bulbs. In addition, VVA showed the dot-like stainings in the glomeruli of both olfactory bulbs. These findings suggest that the degree of development and the properties of glycoconjugates are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Japanese striped snake. PMID:23257605

Kondoh, Daisuke; Wada, Akimi; Endo, Daisuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

393

Neurotransmitter release in the accessory olfactory bulb during and after the formation of an olfactory memory in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female mice form an olfactory memory to the pheromones of the mating male during a critical period after mating. Previous experiments have shown that the neural changes underlying this memory are located in the accessory olfactory bulb, are dependent on noradrenergic neurotransmission, and most likely involve changes at the mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses. Using the technique of in vivo microdialysis

P. A. Brennan; K. M. Kendrick; E. B. Keverne

1995-01-01

394

Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components.  

PubMed

The active components of Aloe vera gel that can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells (LC) were purified by activity-guided sequential fractionation followed by in vitro functional assay. The functional assay was based on the fact that exposure of freshly isolated murine epidermal cells (EC) to UVB radiation resulted in impairment of accessory cell function of LC, as measured by their ability to support anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-primed T-cell mitogenesis. This UVB-suppressed LC accessory cell function was prevented by addition of partially purified Aloe gel components to cultures of UVB-irradiated EC. The Aloe gel components appeared to prevent events occurring within the first 24 h after UVB irradiation that lead to the impairment of accessory cell function. The Aloe gel components did not cause proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-primed T-cells, nor did induce proliferation of normal EC. The activity-guided final purification of Aloe gel components resulted in the isolation of two components. Both of the components were small molecular weight (MW) substances with an apparent MW of less than 1,000 Da but different from each other in net charge characteristics at pH 7.4. These results suggest that Aloe vera gel contains at least two small molecular weight immunomodulators that may prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin. PMID:9403333

Lee, C K; Han, S S; Mo, Y K; Kim, R S; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

1997-10-01

395

Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

2003-01-01

396

Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus. Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair. An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients. PMID:19223941

Martus, Jeffrey E.; Femino, John E.; Caird, Michelle S.; Kuhns, Lawrence R.; Craig, Clifford L.; Farley, Frances A.

2008-01-01

397

15 CFR 742.11 - Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and parts and accessories, n.e.s. (a) License Requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the observance of human rights throughout the world, a license is required to export any commodity controlled by ECCN 0A983 to all...

2010-01-01

398

Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White e outras Vias Acessórias Atrioventriculares em 1465 Pacientes Submetidos à Ablação por Radiofreqüência Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and other Atrioventricular Accessory Pathways in 1,465 Patients Undergoing Radio-Frequency Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies analyzed clinical and electrophysiological data for patients with accessory pathways, most of them not Brazilian and based on a relatively small number of patients. Objective: To describe the number and location of the accessory pathways in Brazilian patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 1,465 consecutive patients with accessory pathways who u n

Iara Atié; Washington Maciel; Eduardo Andréa; Nilson Araújo; Hecio Carvalho; Luís Belo; Leonardo Siqueira; Cláudio Munhoz; Rodrigo Cosenza; Fabiana Mitidieri; Lara Fonseca; Cristiane Bortoluzzo; Tarik Arcoverde; Bruno Andréa; Jacob Atié

399

Alphabetical Listing of Mineral Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directory provides an alphabetical listing of more than 4,000 mineral species. Clicking on each mineral name provides access to information including chemical formula and composition, locality and name origin, physical properties, optical properties, images, and many others.

400

Research on the Application of New Accessory Ingredient in Cashmere Hank Yarn Dyeing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist many problems in the process of cashmere yarn dyeing such as great difficulty in dyeing, large damage to yarn, low strength, and lack of brightness in color. Currently the technologies of hank yarn dyeing in foreign countries are very advanced, but most of them aim for hank yarn dyeing of cotton and silk with few reports on the research about hank dyeing of cashmere. In this paper, we will use reactive dyes to dye cashmere yarn, do comparative experiment on pre-treatment lotion Kierlon OL and Da ai wen, and add a smooth anti-creasing agent Primasol JET and cashmere protective agent WSM in the dyeing process and analyze their impact on the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing to determine a reasonable dose of accessory ingredient. This dyeing program can be applied to guide the actual production, achieving the effects of improving the performance of cashmere hank yarn dyeing and enhancing the quality of dyed yarn

Wang, Li-ping; Wang, Cun-tao

401

Accessory Branch of Median Nerve Supplying the Brachialis Muscle: A Case Report and Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

A very rare case of an accessory branch of the median nerve taking its origin in the region of the right arm was observed to supply the infero-medial portion of the brachialis muscle in a male cadaver. Simultaneously, the ipsilateral musculocutaneous nerve was innervating the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. Such an aberrant muscular branch of the median nerve for the brachialis muscle is very rarely reported in the literature. Lesion of the median nerve proximal to the branch’s origin site could induce weak flexion of the elbow, whereas injury of the musculocutaneous nerve could lead to misinterpretation of symptoms. We discuss the patterns of brachialis muscle innervation as well as the clinical applications of such a variant. PMID:25653932

Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Nitsa, Zoi; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

2014-01-01

402

Convergence of FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

In the mouse, most members of the FPR receptor family are expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons. The neural circuitry corresponding to this class of chemical sensors is unknown. Taking advantage of the presence of FPR-rs3 on both vomeronasal dendrites and axonal fibers, we visualized the distribution of sensory cells expressing this member of the FPR family, and their corresponding axonal projections in the olfactory bulb. We found a rostrocaudal gradient of receptor choice frequency in the vomeronasal sensory neuroepithelium, and observed a convergence of FPR-rs3 axons into multiple, linked and deeply located glomeruli. These were homogenously innervated, and spatially restricted to the basal portion of the rostral accessory olfactory bulb. This organization, reminiscent of the one that characterizes axonal projections of V1R-expressing neurons, supports a role played by these receptors in the perception of semiochemicals. PMID:23664818

Dietschi, Quentin; Assens, Alexis; Challet, Ludivine; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

2013-09-01

403

What role does the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator system play during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia?  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacteremia, which frequently results in serious secondary infections such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. The ability of S. aureus to cause such a wide range of infections has been ascribed to its huge armoury of different virulence factors, many of which are under the control of the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator (Agr) system. However, a significant fraction of S. aureus bacteremia cases are caused by agr-defective isolates, calling into question the role of Agr in invasive staphylococcal infections. This review draws on recent work to define the role of Agr during bacteremia and explain why the loss of this major virulence regulator is sometimes a price worth paying for S. aureus. PMID:25300477

Painter, Kimberley L; Krishna, Aishwarya; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Edwards, Andrew M

2014-12-01

404

Modulation of HIV-1-host interaction: role of the Vpu accessory protein  

PubMed Central

Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type 1 membrane-associated accessory protein that is unique to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and a subset of related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The Vpu protein encoded by HIV-1 is associated with two primary functions during the viral life cycle. First, it contributes to HIV-1-induced CD4 receptor downregulation by mediating the proteasomal degradation of newly synthesized CD4 molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Second, it enhances the release of progeny virions from infected cells by antagonizing Tetherin, an interferon (IFN)-regulated host restriction factor that directly cross-links virions on host cell-surface. This review will mostly focus on recent advances on the role of Vpu in CD4 downregulation and Tetherin antagonism and will discuss how these two functions may have impacted primate immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission and the emergence of pandemic strain of HIV-1. PMID:21176220

2010-01-01

405

Discovery of a Novel Accessory Structure of the Pitviper Infrared Receptor Organ (Serpentes: Viperidae)  

PubMed Central

The facial pits of rattlesnakes, copperheads, lanceheads, bushmasters and other American and Asian pitvipers (Crotalinae) are highly innervated and densely vascularized infrared (IR) receptor organs. For over a century, studies have focused on a small sample of model species from North America and Asia. Based on an expanded survey of Central and South American crotalines, we report a conspicuous accessory structure composed of well-defined papillae that project from the anterior orbital adnexa. The papillae are continuous with the inner chamber of the IR receptor organ and our histological and ultrastructural data suggest that they possess a well-developed nervous network and extensive vascularization; however, they lack the characteristic IR-sensitive terminal nerve masses found in the IR-receptive pit membrane. The function of the IR receptor organ papillae is unknown. PMID:24595025

Bolívar-G, Wilmar; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Grant, Taran; Jared, Carlos

2014-01-01

406

A software tool to evaluate crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer programs for an appropriate visualization of crystal types and morphological developments of accessory zircon are not available hitherto. Usually, typological computations are conducted by using simple calculation tools or spread-sheet programs. In practice, however, high numbers of data sets including information of numerous zircon populations have to be processed and stored. The paper describes the software ZIRCTYP, which is a macro-driven program within the Microsoft Access database management system. It allows the computation of zircon morphologies occurring in specific rock samples and their presentation in typology diagrams. In addition, morphological developments within a given zircon population are presented (1) statistically and (2) graphically as crystal sequences showing initial, intermediate, and final growth stages.

Sturm, Robert

2014-08-01

407

Accessory sex glands as a tool to measure the efficacy of immunocastration in male pigs.  

PubMed

The use of an anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine for immunocastration of male pigs has been recently approved in the European Union. This technique is potentially useful for avoiding both castration-associated pain for the animal and boar taint in pork. However, some animals may escape immunocastration and be slaughtered as entire males, potentially exhibiting boar taint. Therefore, it is important to check the efficacy of immunocastration on the slaughter line. To achieve that, the currently proposed method, based on testis weight, is not fully reliable because there is some overlap in the distributions of testis weight between immunocastrates and entire males. On the basis of literature data on the effect of immunocastration on the development of accessory sex glands, this paper provides evidence that the weight of seminal vesicles might be a much better criterion for checking the efficacy of immunocastration, because their size decreases more rapidly, and to a greater extent, than that of the testis. PMID:22444264

Bonneau, M

2010-06-01

408

Raman Spectroscopy for Mineral Identification and Quantification for in situ Planetary Surface Analysis: A Point Count Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantification of mineral proportions in rocks and soils by Raman spectroscopy on a planetary surface is best done by taking many narrow-beam spectra from different locations on the rock or soil, with each spectrum yielding peaks from only one or two minerals. The proportion of each mineral in the rock or soil can then be determined from the fraction of the spectra that contain its peaks, in analogy with the standard petrographic technique of point counting. The method can also be used for nondestructive laboratory characterization of rock samples. Although Raman peaks for different minerals seldom overlap each other, it is impractical to obtain proportions of constituent minerals by Raman spectroscopy through analysis of peak intensities in a spectrum obtained by broad-beam sensing of a representative area of the target material. That is because the Raman signal strength produced by a mineral in a rock or soil is not related in a simple way through the Raman scattering cross section of that mineral to its proportion in the rock, and the signal-to-noise ratio of a Raman spectrum is poor when a sample is stimulated by a low-power laser beam of broad diameter. Results obtained by the Raman point-count method are demonstrated for a lunar thin section (14161,7062) and a rock fragment (15273,7039). Major minerals (plagioclase and pyroxene), minor minerals (cristobalite and K-feldspar), and accessory minerals (whitlockite, apatite, and baddeleyite) were easily identified. Identification of the rock types, KREEP basalt or melt rock, from the 100-location spectra was straightforward.

Haskin, Larry A.; Wang, Alian; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Viskupic, Karen M.

1997-01-01

409

Novel Redox-Sensing Modules: Accessory Protein- and Nucleic Acid-Mediated Signaling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Organisms have evolved both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways to prevent oxidative damage to essential macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids. Pathways modulated by different protein-based sensory and regulatory modules ensure a rapid and appropriate response. Recent Advances: In contrast to classical two-component systems that possess internal sensory and regulatory modules, an accessory protein-dependent redox-signaling system has been recently characterized in bacteria. This system senses extracellular iron-mediated oxidative stress signals via an extracellularly located protein (HbpS). In vivo and in vitro studies allowed the elucidation of molecular mechanisms governing this system. Moreover, recent studies show that nucleic acids may also participate in redox-signaling during antioxidative stress response. Critical Issues: Research for novel redox-signaling systems is often focused on known types of sensory and regulatory modules. It is also often considered that the oxidative attack of macromolecules, leading to modification and degradation processes, is the final step during oxidative stress. However, recent studies have demonstrated that oxidatively modified macromolecules can be intermediary states in the process of redox-signaling. Future Directions: Analyses of adjacent regions of genes encoding for known sensory and regulatory modules can identify potential accessory modules that may increase the complexity of sensing systems. Despite the fact that the involvement of DNA-mediated signaling in the modulation of one bacterial regulator protein has been analyzed in detail, further studies are necessary to identify additional regulators. Given the role of DNA in oxidative-stress response, it is tempting to hypothesize that RNA modules may also mediate redox-signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 668–677. PMID:22114914

Siedenburg, Gabriele; Groves, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

410

Wongabel rhabdovirus accessory protein U3 targets the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex.  

PubMed

Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L), the 13.2 kb (-) ssRNA WONV genome contains five uncharacterised accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3) and a fifth overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-aa C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography and nuclear co-localisation was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are up-regulated during infection in mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knock-down results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine CSF1 gene. The data suggests that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. PMID:25392228

Joubert, D Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J; Paradkar, Prasad N; Moseley, Greg W; Walker, Peter J

2014-11-12

411

The quantitative effect of an accessory ostium on ventilation of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

The airflow and gas exchange behaviors of the human maxillary sinus were quantified to better understand the effect of an accessory ostium (AO). An anatomically correct numerical domain was constructed using CT data from a male patient with mild nasal obstruction. For the purpose of comparison, a numerical model without an AO was also generated by artificially removing the AO from the original model using CAD software. A steady-flow field through the nasal cavity was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v13.0 with a target flow rate of 250 ml/s. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to investigate the concentration field of nitric oxide (NO) initially filled in the maxillary sinus. The simulation results showed that a transit flow through the maxillary sinus developed in the presence of an AO. As the flow entered the sinus through either a natural or accessory ostium from the middle meatus, the velocity was significantly reduced to a local maximum of approximately 0.034 m/s inside the sinus. This by-pass flow rate through the sinus of 2.186×10(-1) to 3.591×10(-1) ml/s was a small fraction of the total flow rate inhaled from the nostril, but it effectively changed the local flow topology and led to a larger reduction in NO concentration in the maxillary sinus. This more rapid reduction in NO concentration was due to enhanced ventilation activity afforded by convective transport of the transit stream through the flow path connecting the natural ostium and the AO. The inspiration and expiration phases were qualitatively similar in flow pattern except for the flow direction in the maxillary sinus, suggesting that the AO plays a similar physiological role during both inspiration and expiration in terms of ventilation. PMID:22326723

Na, Yang; Kim, Kyunghun; Kim, Sung Kyun; Chung, Seung-Kyu

2012-04-15

412

Private Mineral Project - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this semester-long private mineral project, students become experts on one mineral. They write a paper about their mineral and use key information about it to publish a web page. Information should include provenance, physical properties, composition, recent related literature, photos of samples, optical properties, x-ray pattern, crystallography, economic value, atomic structure, other closely related minerals, associated myths, and a complete list of references based on GSA format.

Dexter Perkins

413

Breakage-fusion-bridge Cycles and Large Insertions Contribute to the Rapid Evolution of Accessory Chromosomes in a Fungal Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in this and other fungal pathogens. PMID:23785303

Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

414

Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts  

PubMed Central

Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (? = 0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Conclusion: Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally. PMID:24932200

Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

2014-01-01

415

Mars' Magnetic Lithosphere: Candidate Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars' large southern-hemisphere magnetic anomalies require some combination of (1) a large Martian magnetic field at the time the lithosphere acquired thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), (2) large magnetic mineral concentrations compared to Earth's lithosphere, (3) a mineral or minerals whose grain size and resulting domain structure generate intense TRM, and (4) a high Curie temperature and deep Curie-point isotherm. Induced magnetization

D. J. Dunlop

2003-01-01

416

Mineral Properties -- Learning through Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are each given a mineral and asked to locate all other students in the room with the same mineral (knowing there are a total of 5 different minerals). Once groups form, they need to decide what characteristics are similar for all their samples and ultimately report out to the whole class on their observations.

Wiese, Katryn

417

Rare Earth Elemental Signatures in Fungal Fruiting Bodies as Probes into Mineral Breakdown Reactions in Post-glacial Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of rare earth element (REE) abundances in low temperature geochemistry and biogeochemistry has improved our understanding of the cycling of various micro- and macronutrients from the bedrock into terrestrial ecosystems. In many continental rocks, REEs are concentrated in accessory phases such as apatite and monazite. These phosphate mineral phases break down readily and may be especially important nutrient sources, particularly for P and Ca, in recently glaciated terrains. Several studies (e.g., 1-3) have suggested that the presence of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, due to the organic acids they secrete, may play an especially important role in this weathering process. A field-based experiment implementing mesh bags doped with specific mineral compositions confirmed that ECM fungal tissues do record the REE signatures of the minerals they break down (4). In an effort to understand the relative role different ECM fungi may play in mineral breakdown reactions, we have measured REE abundances in tissues of several ECM fruiting bodies. Our preliminary data include Russula, Suillus Americana, Leccinum and Lactarius ECM fungi from three postglacial landscapes. At a given site, the relative abundance of REEs varies between the different ECM fungi. Interestingly, we found distinctions in tissue La/Ce values at two of the sites. Leccinum, a deep rooter, shows much lower La/Ce than the companion Russula and Lactarius samples from the same site. Similarly Suillus tissues demonstrated lower La/Ce when compared to Russula growing nearby. Lower La/Ce is consistent with enhanced dissolution of the mineral apatite, a common accessory phase. While the influence of symbiotic host (beech vs. oak vs. pine) may play some role in the distinctive REE signatures recorded by the fruiting bodies, we attribute the observed differences to organic acid production and tendency to colonize in different horizons of the soil profile. (1) Wallander, Plant and Soil, 2000; (2) Blum et al., Nature, 2002; (3) Hoffland et al., Front Ecol Environ., 2003; (4) Hagerburg et al., Plant and Soil, 2003.

Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.

2008-12-01

418

Mineral industries of the Middle East. Mineral prospective. [16 countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the mineral industries of the 16 countries in the Middle East. Countries in the region differ widely, from those heavily endowed with hydrocarbon resources but with limited nonfuel resources, such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Qatar, to those heavily mineralized countries with limited petroleum reserves, such as Turkey, and to those with little mineral activity of any kind, such as Lebanon. Base maps and tables show the location and salient features of each country's mineral and petroleum industries. The text highlights the important aspects of mineral supply and trade, mineral policy, industry structure, labor, energy, and the outlook for future developments in the industry. Infrastructure of importance to the mineral industry of each country, including railways, roads, and pipelines, is included on each map.

Not Available

1986-04-01

419

43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

2011-10-01

420

43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

2011-10-01

421

Gillespie Museum of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gillespie Museum, located on the campus of Stetson University, houses an extensive rock and mineral collection, and provides visitors and students a place in which curiosity, interest and creativity can be explored. Programs are provided for families, special interest groups, and school groups. The Museum programs focus on using the educational collections to help students learn basic science skills such as observation, classification, communication, investigation and interpretation. The Museum also provides off-site outreach programs by participating in community events such as EarthFest and Earth Day celebrations, local festivals, and scouting programs. Traveling exhibits are developed for loan to other Museums, Chambers of Commerce and Rock and Mineral Clubs. In an effort to present an Earth science museum in a natural setting, a Florida Native Landscape garden has been added to the grounds. The landscape provides an opportunity for individuals to learn alternative ways in which to establish a garden without the use of excess water and pesticides.

2010-11-16

422

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-09-15

423

Calcite: The multiuse mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

If people were told that a newly discovered mineral polarizes light, provides a raw material for sculptors, diminishes the danger of hip breakage, makes long-lasting foundations for buildings, reduces pollution at power plants, serves as a soil conditioner and water purifier, and saves life on earth from suffocation, they might be inclined to say either {open_quotes}Ain`t science wonderful!{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Come

Paschall

1994-01-01

424

Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

Cotomacio, J. G. [Centro Universitario Nove de Julho, R: Diamantina, 602-Vila Maria, CEP: 02117-0101, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, P. S. C. [Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria-CEP 05508 000 Sao Paulo-Brazil (Brazil); Mazzilli, B. P

2008-08-07

425

Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

426

The Clay Minerals Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Clay Minerals Society (CMS) is an international community of scientists who promote research in and disseminate information on clay science and technology." The website provides downloads of materials dealing with various aspects of mineralogy, geochemistry, and petrology. Researchers can find out about annual meetings, awards and grants, and publications. Students and educators can find information on teaching materials, clay science workshops, and games. The website offers physical and chemical data for Source and Special Clays.

427

Green Clay Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 ?m thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence in the silicate (clay mineral in our case) structure, the specific bonding of these ions, and other factors. In fact, the reasons for coloration are not known completely, but it is certain that a combination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions is necessary to give a nice green color to clays. In the green clay minerals discussed here, the colors vary greatly as seen under the optical microscope (not always the same as the one seen in hand specimen). Yellow to blue-green hues can be found. However, for the moment, no clear relation between iron content, iron valence ratio, or other factors such as minor transition element concentrations can be found to explain the greenness of green clay minerals. The fact that a clay is green just indicates a combination of the two oxidation states of iron. The color, however, indicates the key to the formation in nature of green clay minerals.Green clay minerals are in general the product of "mixed valence" conditions of formation, most often in a situation where some iron is reduced from Fe3+ and enters into a silicate mineral structure. In general, iron would rather be an oxide when it is in the trivalent state. The moment iron is reduced to a divalent state under surface or near-surface conditions, it looks for a silicate, sulfide, or carbonate to hide in. The reverse is also true, of course. When a silicate is oxidized, Fe2+ becoming Fe3+, the iron begins to group together in oxide clumps and eventually exits the silicate structure. This is seen in thin section in altered rocks (weathering or hydrothermal action). The production of trivalent, oxidized iron usually results in a brownish or orange mineral.If the geology of the formation of green silicate minerals is relatively well defined, especially at near surface or surface conditions, the question remains how much of the iron is in a reduced oxidation state and how? In the case of reduction of iron in surface environments: if most of the iron goes to Fe2+, one mineral is formed; if only part of it is reduced, another is formed. This is the fundamental geochemical aspect of

Velde, B.

2003-12-01

428

Salton sea minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-held notion that precious metals, minerals, and other useful substances can be extracted from natural waters is starting to become realized at several locations of geothermal brines. In a recent study by A. Maimoni of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory it was determined that there is a high potential for minerals recovery from the hot brines of a 1000-MWe geothermal power station at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California. The study estimated that the revenue from the minerals could substantially exceed that from the power station (Geothermics, 11, 239-258, 1982).According to the study, ‘A 1000-MWe power plant could recover 14-31% of the U.S. demand for manganese.’ In the example of lithium production, such a geothermal plant could produce 5-10 times the annual world output of lithium. Large quantities of lead and zinc could be extracted, as well as significant amounts of gold, platinum, and silver. The chemical composition of the brines is incredibly complex, however, for reasons not currently understood.

Bell, Peter M.

429

Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

Brown, R. W.

1980-01-01

430

The clinical application of bone mineral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon absorptiometry provides an accurate measurement of bone mineral content. In acromegaly, the bone mineral content is normal, whereas the bone mineral content is reduced by acidosis. Decreased bone mineral content occurs in alcoholics due to osteomalacia and also in anticonvulsant therapy for the same reason. In hyperparathyroidism, there is decreased bone mineral content. Corticosteroids reduce bone mineral content especially

Harry J. Griffiths; Robert E. Zimmerman

1978-01-01

431

Rocks and Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page offers a simple illustrated guide to the three rock types- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic; and the most common rock-forming mineral groups: quartz, plagioclase feldspars, potassium feldspars, micas, amphiboles, olivine, and calcite. The rock types include extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, clastic, biologic, and chemical sedimentary rocks, and both foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. A section is included on naming igneous rocks. The igneous rocks tuff and basalt are also discussed, as is sediment. Users are directed to related resources and may print out a simplified rock classification chart.

432

Ultra violet radiation-induced defects in accessory cell function in the human proliferative response to tetanus.  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet B radiation (290-320 nm) has been shown to interfere with accessory cell function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the generation of a proliferative response to tetanus. By altering the timing of irradiation of adherent cells and using short pulses of antigen, we have identified a minimum of two u.v. sensitive accessory cell functions. The first involves antigen presentation and is not readily reversible with time in culture after irradiation. The second is demonstrated by the ability of low doses of u.v. radiation given after the tetanus toxoid pulse to inhibit an event(s) occurring independent of antigen processing. Both occur within a range of doses which would penetrate to the vasculature of the skin of humans exposed to the sun or to phototherapy. PMID:6609029

Pretell, J O; Wimberly, J; Parrish, J A

1984-01-01

433

Accessory splenectomy with gastroesophageal devascularization for recurrent hypersplenism and refractory bleeding varices in a patient with liver cirrhosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report a case of recurrent thrombocytopenia associated with symptomatic enlargement of an accessory spleen, 2 years after splenectomy, in a 36-year-old man with posthepatitic liver cirrhosis. The patient suffered three episodes of variceal bleeding, but the esophageal varices were not eradicated by two sessions of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy and endoscopic band ligation. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a giant accessory spleen (6 x 6 x 5 cm), gallbladder stones, and complete postsplenectomy splenomesoportal thrombosis. Subsequent 99mTc scintigraphy confirmed the presence of a functioning residual splenic nodule. Thus, we performed gastroesophageal devascularization (Hassab-Paquet procedure) with accessory splenectomy and cholecystectomy, after which the platelet count normalized and no further variceal bleeding occurred during 17 months of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English medical literature of accessory splenectomy for recurrent thrombocytopenia in a patient with liver cirrhosis. PMID:15580390

Mishin, Igor; Ghidirim, Gheorghe

2004-01-01

434

Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

2014-01-01

435

Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans  

PubMed Central

Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and ontogenetic investigations interpreted in the light of well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:23638061

Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

2013-01-01

436

Optokinetic nystagmus in the pigeon ( Columba livia ) II. Role of the pretectal nucleus of the accessory optic system (AOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds, the accessory optic system (AOS) includes two nuclei: the nucleus ectomamillaris (nEM) and the pretectal nucleus superficialis synencephali (nSS). The role of the nSS in the production of a horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was studied in the pigeon, by comparing the OKN before and after a unilateral lesion of this nucleus. The lesions were performed either by electrolysis

H. Gioanni; J. Rey; J. Villalobos; D. Richard; A. Dalbera

1983-01-01

437

Steroids of Invertebrates: Production of Oestrogens by an Accessory Reproductive Tissue of the Slug Arion ater rufus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PREVIOUS communication1 described the endogenous production of 11-keto-testosterone, testosterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone during the in vitro incubation of the eggs of Arion ater. The present study concerns the in vitro production of C18 steroids from endogenous precursors by an accessory reproductive organ of this animal, the bursa copulatrix or spermatheca gland. The function of the spermatheca is believed to be

H. Gottfried; R. I. Dorfman; P. E. Wall

1967-01-01

438

Mars' Magnetic Lithosphere: Candidate Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars' southern-hemisphere magnetic anomalies require a large Martian magnetic field at the time the lithosphere acquired thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), large magnetic mineral concentrations compared to Earth's lithosphere, a mineral or minerals whose grain size and resulting domain structure generate intense TRM, and\\/or a high Curie temperature and deep Curie-point isotherm. Based on Martian meteorites and spectroscopy of the Martian surface,

D. J. Dunlop; J. Arkani-Hamed

2004-01-01

439

Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

1982-01-01

440

Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

Schirber, Michael

2006-01-01

441

MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Respire Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Some bacteria respire minerals; that is, they harvest energy from minerals through using them as electron acceptors. Many details of this respiration process have remained obscure. In her Perspective, Newman highlights the study by Lower et al., who have used a customized atomic force microscope to observe bacteria during mineral respiration.

Dianne K. Newman (California Institute of Technology;Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences)

2001-05-18

442

Heintzmann continuous longwall miner  

SciTech Connect

Geologic Considerations for the Continuous Longwall Miner The mining of the thin seams allows: (1) an optimum return of the capital invested, (2) delay mining of seams at greater depth, or opening other mines, (3) a maximization of resources, (4) a prolongation of mine-lifespan. Meanwhile, deposits having seam thicknesses of about 3 feet have been proven to yield economical gains. This situation requires mining machines that possess the ability to effectively mine thin seams containing tough but plowable coal. To reach this goal, the plow systems were equipped to achieve more horsepower. The use of plows has declined due to: (1) higher weight, (2) higher purchase costs, (3) and higher repair costs. In the cutting conveying method, two objectives have to be addressed: (1) The load on the cutting machines has to be reduced by a more effective cutting-principle and a working method adjusted to the coal. (2) Cutting and conveying have to be simultaneous. Only with the CLM Miner, can mining rates be advanced in thin seams.

Guse, K. [Heintzmann, Cedar Bluff, VA (United States); Polsh, J.

1996-12-31

443

Accessory vein obliteration criteria for immature fistulae: a modest proposal for an old paradigm.  

PubMed

Venous stenosis and/or presence of accessory vein (av) are the two most common causes of early fistula failure. While treatment of stenosis is better defined, there are no clear criteria for obliteration of the av. Often, interventionalists rely on visual assessment of flow through the av and its diameter (significant if > 1/3 of the main fistula diameter) for intervention. The purpose of this study was to establish objective criteria for the management of av. Various computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to analyze blood flow in the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). av of different diameters and angles was then added at various locations in the AVF and comparison of simulation results was undertaken. The computational model revealed that when the av was 33% of the diameter of the AVF, flow in av was only 7%. When diameter of the av was increased to 50% and 66% of the diameter of the AVF, flow through the av was 10% and 31% of the flow in main AVF, respectively. Location or angle of take-off of av did not alter flow. This report provides objective information regarding criteria for av obliteration. It needs to be further validated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:24796386

Haq, Naveed Ul; Albaqumi, Mamdouh

2014-01-01

444

Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015  

PubMed Central

Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as ‘accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. ‘Regulated cell death' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death. PMID:25236395

Galluzzi, L; Bravo-San Pedro, J M; Vitale, I; Aaronson, S A; Abrams, J M; Adam, D; Alnemri, E S; Altucci, L; Andrews, D; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Baehrecke, E H; Bazan, N G; Bertrand, M J; Bianchi, K; Blagosklonny, M V; Blomgren, K; Borner, C; Bredesen, D E; Brenner, C; Campanella, M; Candi, E; Cecconi, F; Chan, F K; Chandel, N S; Cheng, E H; Chipuk, J E; Cidlowski, J A; Ciechanover, A; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; De Laurenzi, V; De Maria, R; Debatin, K-M; Di Daniele, N; Dixit, V M; Dynlacht, B D; El-Deiry, W S; Fimia, G M; Flavell, R A; Fulda, S; Garrido, C; Gougeon, M-L; Green, D R; Gronemeyer, H; Hajnoczky, G; Hardwick, J M; Hengartner, M O; Ichijo, H; Joseph, B; Jost, P J; Kaufmann, T; Kepp, O; Klionsky, D J; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lemasters, J J; Levine, B; Linkermann, A; Lipton, S A; Lockshin, R A; López-Otín, C; Lugli, E; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Marine, J-C; Martin, S J; Martinou, J-C; Medema, J P; Meier, P; Melino, S; Mizushima, N; Moll, U; Muñoz-Pinedo, C; Nuñez, G; Oberst, A; Panaretakis, T; Penninger, J M; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Pinton, P; Prehn, J H; Puthalakath, H; Rabinovich, G A; Ravichandran, K S; Rizzuto, R; Rodrigues, C M; Rubinsztein, D C; Rudel, T; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Stockwell, B R; Szabadkai, G; Tait, S W; Tang, H L; Tavernarakis, N; Tsujimoto, Y; Vanden Berghe, T; Vandenabeele, P; Villunger, A; Wagner, E F; Walczak, H; White, E; Wood, W G; Yuan, J; Zakeri, Z; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

2015-01-01

445

Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015.  

PubMed

Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as 'accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. 'Regulated cell death' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death. PMID:25236395

Galluzzi, L; Bravo-San Pedro, J M; Vitale, I; Aaronson, S A; Abrams, J M; Adam, D; Alnemri, E S; Altucci, L; Andrews, D; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Baehrecke, E H; Bazan, N G; Bertrand, M J; Bianchi, K; Blagosklonny, M V; Blomgren, K; Borner, C; Bredesen, D E; Brenner, C; Campanella, M; Candi, E; Cecconi, F; Chan, F K; Chandel, N S; Cheng, E H; Chipuk, J E; Cidlowski, J A; Ciechanover, A; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; De Laurenzi, V; De Maria, R; Debatin, K-M; Di Daniele, N; Dixit, V M; Dynlacht, B D; El-Deiry, W S; Fimia, G M; Flavell, R A; Fulda, S; Garrido, C; Gougeon, M-L; Green, D R; Gronemeyer, H; Hajnoczky, G; Hardwick, J M; Hengartner, M O; Ichijo, H; Joseph, B; Jost, P J; Kaufmann, T; Kepp, O; Klionsky, D J; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lemasters, J J; Levine, B; Linkermann, A; Lipton, S A; Lockshin, R A; López-Otín, C; Lugli, E; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Marine, J-C; Martin, S J; Martinou, J-C; Medema, J P; Meier, P; Melino, S; Mizushima, N; Moll, U; Muñoz-Pinedo, C; Nuñez, G; Oberst, A; Panaretakis, T; Penninger, J M; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Pinton, P; Prehn, J H; Puthalakath, H; Rabinovich, G A; Ravichandran, K S; Rizzuto, R; Rodrigues, C M; Rubinsztein, D C; Rudel, T; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Stockwell, B R; Szabadkai, G; Tait, S W; Tang, H L; Tavernarakis, N; Tsujimoto, Y; Vanden Berghe, T; Vandenabeele, P; Villunger, A; Wagner, E F; Walczak, H; White, E; Wood, W G; Yuan, J; Zakeri, Z; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

2015-01-01

446

Aspergillus terreus Accessory Conidia Are Unique in Surface Architecture, Cell Wall Composition and Germination Kinetics  

PubMed Central

Infection with Aspergillus terreus is more likely to result in invasive, disseminated disease when compared to other Aspergillus species; importantly this species appears to be less susceptible to the antifungal drug amphotericin B. Unique to this species is the ability to produce specialized structures denoted as accessory conidia (AC) directly on hyphae both in vitro and in vivo. With the hypothesis that production of AC by A. terreus may enhance virulence of this organism, we analyzed the phenotype, structure and metabolic potential of these conidia. Comparison of A. terreus phialidic conidia (conidia that arise from conidiophores, PC) and AC architecture by electron microscopy revealed distinct morphological differences between the two conidial forms; AC have a smoother, thicker outer cell surface with no apparent pigment-like layer. Further, AC germinated rapidly, had enhanced adherence to microspheres, and were metabolically more active compared to PC. Additionally, AC contained less cell membrane ergosterol, which correlated with decreased susceptibility to AMB as determined using a flow cytometry based analysis. Furthermore, AC exhibited surface patches of ?1-3 glucan, suggestive of attachment scarring. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest a possible role for AC in A. terreus pathogenesis. PMID:19888344

Deak, Eszter; Wilson, Selwyn D.; White, Elizabeth; Carr, Janice H.; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi

2009-01-01

447

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

448

Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.  

PubMed

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T

2014-01-01

449

Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands  

PubMed Central

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

2014-01-01

450

Subcellular Localization of the Bovine Leukemia Virus R3 and G4 Accessory Proteins  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a complex retrovirus that belongs to the Deltaretrovirus genus, which also includes Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Both viruses contain an X region coding for at least four proteins: Tax and Rex, which are involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, respectively, and the accessory proteins R3 and G4 (for BLV) and p12I, p13II, and p30II (for HTLV-1). The present study was aimed at characterizing the subcellular localization of BLV R3 and G4. The results of immunofluorescence experiments on transfected HeLa Tat cells demonstrated that R3 is located in the nucleus and in cellular membranes, as previously reported for HTLV-1 p12I. In contrast, G4, like p13II, is localized both in the nucleus and in mitochondria. In addition, we have shown that G4 harbors a mitochondrial targeting signal consisting of a hydrophobic region and an amphipathic ?-helix. Thus, despite a lack of significant primary sequence homology, R3 and p12I and G4 and p13II exhibit similar targeting properties, suggesting possible overlap in their functional properties. PMID:12097596

Lefèbvre, Laurent; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Vanderplasschen, Alain; D'Agostino, Donna; Burny, Arsène; Willems, Luc; Kettmann, Richard

2002-01-01

451

Dual origins of the mammalian accessory olfactory bulb revealed by an evolutionarily conserved migratory stream.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is a critical olfactory structure that has been implicated in mediating social behavior. It receives input from the vomeronasal organ and projects to targets in the amygdaloid complex. Its anterior and posterior components (aAOB and pAOB) display molecular, connectional and functional segregation in processing reproductive and defensive and aggressive behaviors, respectively. We observed a dichotomy in the development of the projection neurons of the aAOB and pAOB in mice. We found that they had distinct sites of origin and that different regulatory molecules were required for their specification and migration. aAOB neurons arose locally in the rostral telencephalon, similar to main olfactory bulb neurons. In contrast, pAOB neurons arose caudally, from the neuroepithelium of the diencephalic-telencephalic boundary, from which they migrated rostrally to reach their destination. This unusual origin and migration is conserved in Xenopus, providing an insight into the origin of a key component of this system in evolution. PMID:23292680

Huilgol, Dhananjay; Udin, Susan; Shimogori, Tomomi; Saha, Bhaskar; Roy, Achira; Aizawa, Shinichi; Hevner, Robert F; Meyer, Gundela; Ohshima, Toshio; Pleasure, Samuel J; Zhao, Yangu; Tole, Shubha

2013-02-01

452

Similar rate of information transfer on stimulus intensity in accessory and main olfactory bulb output neurons.  

PubMed

Recently, evidence has accumulated that the vomeronasal system cooperates with the main olfactory system to process volatile cues that regulate the animal's behavior. This is contradictory to the traditional view that the vomeronasal system is quite different from the main olfactory system in the time scale of information processing. Particularly, the firing rate of mitral/tufted cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (MTAOB) is known to be significantly lower than that of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb (MCMOB). To address this question of whether the low-frequency firing in MTAOB carries less information than the high-frequency firing in MCMOB in the early stages of stimulation, we compared MTAOB and MCMOB for their firing mechanisms and information transfer characteristics. A model computation demonstrated that the inherent channel kinetics of MTAOB was responsible for their firing at a lower frequency than MCMOB. Nevertheless, our analysis suggested that MTAOB were comparable to MCMOB in both the amount and speed of information transfer about depolarizing current intensity immediately after current injection onset (<200ms). Our results support a hypothesis of simultaneous processing of common cues in both systems. PMID:24909616

Noguchi, Tomohiro; Sasajima, Hitoshi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

2014-07-25

453

A detailed morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb of cats.  

PubMed

The organization of the vomeronasal system (VNS) of fetal, newborn, and adult cats was investigated by microdissection and microscopic examination of sections stained conventionally or with lectins (UEA-1, LEA) or antibodies against proteins G?(i2) (associated with vomeronasal receptor type1) and G?(o) (associated with receptor vomeronasal receptor type2). The feline VNS is morphologically similar to that of other mammals. Staining with lectins and anti-G?(i2) was uniform throughout the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, and throughout the nervous and glomerular layers of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB); anti-G?(o) stained no VNS tissue. This organization places the cat together with several other domestic or farm animals (dog, horse, sheep, goat, pig) in a group of mammals with just a single path of communication between the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ and AOB, in contrast to the two-path model found in rodents and other mammals (in which apical and basal sensory epithelium layers project to rostral and caudal AOB areas, respectively). However, the cat differs from the sheep and pig in that the development of its VNS is still incomplete at birth. PMID:21484946

Salazar, Ignacio; Sánchez-Quinteiro, Pablo

2011-12-01

454

Mlh2 Is an Accessory Factor for DNA Mismatch Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 forms foci promoted by Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 in response to mispaired bases. Here we analyzed the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex, whose role in MMR has been unclear. Mlh1-Mlh2 formed foci that often colocalized with and had a longer lifetime than Mlh1-Pms1 foci. Mlh1-Mlh2 foci were similar to Mlh1-Pms1 foci: they required mispair recognition by Msh2-Msh6, increased in response to increased mispairs or downstream defects in MMR, and formed after induction of DNA damage by phleomycin but not double-stranded breaks by I-SceI. Mlh1-Mlh2 could be recruited to mispair-containing DNA in vitro by either Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3. Deletion of MLH2 caused a synergistic increase in mutation rate in combination with deletion of MSH6 or reduced expression of Pms1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the S. cerevisiae Mlh2 protein and the mammalian PMS1 protein are homologs. These results support a hypothesis that Mlh1-Mlh2 is a non-essential accessory factor that acts to enhance the activity of Mlh1-Pms1. PMID:24811092

Srivatsan, Anjana; Bowen, Nikki; Gries, Kerstin; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

2014-01-01

455

Structural And Biological Analysis of the Metal Sites of Escherichia Coli Hydrogenase Accessory Protein  

SciTech Connect

The [NiFe]-hydrogenase protein produced by many types of bacteria contains a dinuclear metal center that is required for enzymatic activity. Assembly of this metal cluster involves the coordinated activity of a number of helper proteins including the accessory protein, HypB, which is necessary for Ni(II) incorporation into the hydrogenase proteins. The HypB protein from Escherichia coli has two metal-binding sites, a high-affinity Ni(II) site that includes ligands from the N-terminal domain and a low-affinity metal site located within the C-terminal GTPase domain. In order to determine the physiological relevance of the two separate sites, hydrogenase production was assessed in strains of E. coli expressing wild-type HypB, the isolated GTPase domain, or site-directed mutants of metal-binding residues. These experiments demonstrate that both metal sites of HypB are critical for the maturation of the hydrogenase enzymes in E. coli. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of purified proteins was used to examine the detailed coordination spheres of each nickel-loaded site. In addition, because the low-affinity metal site has a stronger preference for Zn(II) than Ni(II), the ligands and geometry for this metal were also resolved. The results from these experiments are discussed in the context of a mechanism for Ni(II) insertion into the hydrogenase protein.

Dias, A.V.; Mulvihill, C.M.; Leach, M.R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.; Zamble, D.B.

2009-05-12

456

Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPAR? in adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPAR? induced MRAP expression. •PPAR? bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPAR? to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the ?1209/?1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPAR? is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of)] [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-27

457

Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Possibilities of Computed Tomography in Differentiation From Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computed tomography (CT) in differentiating between intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET). Methods Eight IPASs and 12 PanNETs in the pancreatic tail were retrospectively evaluated by 2 radiologists. Readers assigned a diagnosis to each examination and evaluated for the presence or absence of 9 CT findings that may aid in the diagnosis. Results Reader 1 had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1; reader 2 had a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.86. Three of the 9 CT findings were found to be statistically significant in IPASs: the lesion present along the pancreatic dorsal surface, the lesion demonstrating the same enhancement as the spleen on venous phase, and heterogeneous enhancement during arterial phase. Conclusions CT can be used to differentiate between IPAS and PanNET with good specificity and sensitivity. The IPAS mirrors the spleen’s enhancement and is usually located along the dorsal surface of the pancreas. PMID:24979264

Coquia, Stephanie F.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Zaheer, Atif; Bleich, Karen B.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2015-01-01

458

ARC3 is a stromal Z-ring accessory protein essential for plastid division.  

PubMed

In plants, chloroplast division is an integral part of development, and these vital organelles arise by binary fission from pre-existing cytosolic plastids. Chloroplasts arose by endosymbiosis and although they have retained elements of the bacterial cell division machinery to execute plastid division, they have evolved to require two functionally distinct forms of the FtsZ protein and have lost elements of the Min machinery required for Z-ring placement. Here, we analyse the plastid division component accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 3 (ARC3) and show that ARC3 forms part of the stromal plastid division machinery. ARC3 interacts specifically with AtFtsZ1, acting as a Z-ring accessory protein and defining a unique function for this family of FtsZ proteins. ARC3 is involved in division site placement, suggesting that it might functionally replace MinC, representing an important advance in our understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division and the evolution of the chloroplast division machinery. PMID:17304239

Maple, Jodi; Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jurgen; Møller, Simon G

2007-03-01

459

ARC3 is a stromal Z-ring accessory protein essential for plastid division  

PubMed Central

In plants, chloroplast division is an integral part of development, and these vital organelles arise by binary fission from pre-existing cytosolic plastids. Chloroplasts arose by endosymbiosis and although they have retained elements of the bacterial cell division machinery to execute plastid division, they have evolved to require two functionally distinct forms of the FtsZ protein and have lost elements of the Min machinery required for Z-ring placement. Here, we analyse the plastid division component accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 3 (ARC3) and show that ARC3 forms part of the stromal plastid division machinery. ARC3 interacts specifically with AtFtsZ1, acting as a Z-ring accessory protein and defining a unique function for this family of FtsZ proteins. ARC3 is involved in division site placement, suggesting that it might functionally replace MinC, representing an important advance in our understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division and the evolution of the chloroplast division machinery. PMID:17304239

Maple, Jodi; Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jurgen; Møller, Simon G

2007-01-01

460

Yeast Irc6p is a novel type of conserved clathrin coat accessory factor related to small G proteins  

PubMed Central

Clathrin coat accessory proteins play key roles in transport mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles. Yeast Irc6p and the related mammalian p34 are putative clathrin accessory proteins that interact with clathrin adaptor complexes. We present evidence that Irc6p functions in clathrin-mediated traffic between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, linking clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 and the Rab GTPase Ypt31p. The crystal structure of the Irc6p N-terminal domain revealed a G-protein fold most related to small G proteins of the Rab and Arf families. However, Irc6p lacks G-protein signature motifs and high-affinity GTP binding. Also, mutant Irc6p lacking candidate GTP-binding residues retained function. Mammalian p34 rescued growth defects in irc6? cells, indicating functional conservation, and modeling predicted a similar N-terminal fold in p34. Irc6p and p34 also contain functionally conserved C-terminal regions. Irc6p/p34-related proteins with the same two-part architecture are encoded in genomes of species as diverse as plants and humans. Together these results define Irc6p/p34 as a novel type of conserved clathrin accessory protein and founding members of a new G protein–like family. PMID:22993212

Gorynia, Sabine; Lorenz, Todd C.; Costaguta, Giancarlo; Daboussi, Lydia; Cascio, Duilio; Payne, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

461

Effect of sonicated material from Fusobacterium nucleatum on the functional capacity of accessory cells derived from dental pulp.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum-derived components were studied for their effect on the ability of accessory pulpal cells to induce T-lymphocyte proliferation. In initial experiments, spleen cells were used to establish concentration ranges at which testing of the effect of the bacterial components would be suitable. At low concentrations, bacterial substances induced a stimulatory effect on the proliferation rate of spleen cells, but not when purified T-lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of concanavalin A and pulpal accessory cells. At increasing concentrations, a dose-dependent reduction was observed. Pretreatment with the bacterial products for 4 h gave a stimulatory effect in the absence of concanavalin A for both spleen cells and T-lymphocytes. Removal of low-molecular weight components (<3.5 kDa) did not influence the inhibitory effect, whereas preheating the bacterial substances to 100 degrees C eliminated the observed inhibition. Findings show that heat-sensitive, high-molecular-weight components of F. nucleatum can evoke a concentration-dependent stimulatory or suppressive effect on the proliferation rate of T-lymphocytes in the presence of accessory cells derived from the dental pulp. PMID:8602332

Yoshida, H; Jontell, M; Sundqvist, G; Bergenholtz, G

1995-08-01

462

Successful Ablation of Antero-septal Accessory Pathway in the Non-Coronary Cusp in a Child  

PubMed Central

A 15-year-old boy with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent an electrophysiology study for symptoms of palpitations and persistence of pre-excitation during peak exercise. He was detected to have right antero-septal accessory pathway with relatively long effective refractory period and no inducible tachycardia. He had only transient normalization with cryoablation. Eight months later, he presented again with two episodes of seizures with preceding palpitations. Neurology evaluation was unremarkable with a normal electroencephalogram. In view of his symptoms in association with evidence of pre-excitation, he underwent a second electrophysiology study with ablation. Cryoablation in the anterior septum again achieved only transient normalization. Mapping in the non-coronary cusp identified an earliest accessory pathway potential. RF ablation was performed in the non-coronary cusp with immediate normalization of his electrocardiogram. At 6 month follow-up, he continues to have no pre-excitation on his EKG. Ablation of the anteroseptal accessory pathway in the non-coronary cusp can be safely performed in patients' refractory to conventional ablation sites and techniques. PMID:22665961

Kobayashi, Daisuke; Arya, Swati O; Singh, Harinder R

2012-01-01

463

The main and accessory olfactory systems of female mice are activated differentially by dominant versus subordinate male urinary odors.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that female preferences for male pheromones depend on the female's reproductive condition and the dominance status of the male. However, it is unknown which olfactory system detects the odors that result in a preference for a dominant male. Therefore, in the present study, we asked whether dominant versus subordinate male urinary odors differentially activate the main and accessory olfactory systems in female (C57Bl/6j) mice by monitoring the induction of the immediate early gene, c-fos. A more robust induction of Fos was observed in female mice which had direct nasal contact with dominant male urinary odors in four specific segments of the accessory olfactory system, i.e., the posteroventral part of the medial amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the preoptic nucleus and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus, compared to females that were exposed to subordinate male urine. This greater activation of the accessory olfactory pathway by dominant male urine suggests that there are differences in the nonvolatile components of dominant versus subordinate male urine that are detected by the vomeronasal organ. By contrast, subordinate male urinary odors induced a greater activation in the piriform cortex which is part of the main olfactory system, suggesting that female mice discriminate between dominant and subordinate male urine using their main olfactory system as well. PMID:21683943

Veyrac, Alexandra; Wang, Guan; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2011-07-21

464

The efferent connections of the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb in the snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis radix.  

PubMed

The efferent connections of the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb of two species of garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix were studied with experimental anterograde degeneration techniques. Axons of cells located in the olfactory bulb terminate ipsilaterally in all parts of the anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle and lateral pallium. In addition, some axons enter the ipsilateral stria medullaris thalami, cross the midline in the habenular commissure, enter the contralateral stria medullaris thalami and terminate in the contralateral lateral pallium. The axons of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb course through the telencephalon completely separated from the fibers of olfactory bulb origin and terminate predominantly in the nucleus sphericus. These results confirm previous reports of the separation between the central projections of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems in a variety of vertebrates. The totality of the separation between these two systems coupled with the extensive development of the vomeronasal-accessory bulb system in these snakes suggests that they may be ideal subjects for further research on the functional significance of the vomeronasal system. PMID:994189

Halpern, M

1976-10-01

465

Promotion of waterpipe tobacco use, its variants and accessories in young adult newspapers: a content analysis of message portrayal.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study methods include monitoring of six newspapers targeting young adults from four major cities in the Southeastern United States over a 6-month period. A total of 87 advertisements were found; 73.5% (64) were distinct and content analyzed. The study results showed that of the advertisements analyzed, 25% advertised waterpipe tobacco smoking, 54.7% featured waterpipe tobacco smoking and other tobacco use, 14.1% featured non-tobacco waterpipe variants (i.e. vaporizers), and 6.3% featured waterpipe apparatus accessories (e.g. charcoal, hoses). The sociability (34%) and sensuality (29.7%) of waterpipe smoking were promoted themes. Alternative to cigarette use messages (3.1%), and harm-reduction messages (17.1%) emphasized that smoking waterpipe tobacco using the featured accessory or waterpipe variant was a healthier experience than cigarette smoking. The study concluded that the messages that promoted waterpipe tobacco smoking to young adults are parallel to those used to promote cigarette use. Tobacco control professionals should continue to monitor young adult newspapers as a source of waterpipe-related advertising. PMID:24957675

Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M

2015-02-01

466

Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic rocks are especially good candidates for compositional characterization based on spectral analysis. Aphanitic rocks, whose expected trends were not fully met due to the technicalities mentioned earlier, benefit from our previous imaging analysis work where visual attributes (texture and color) are obtained from color photos. Earlier experiments using 266 igneous rock samples (andesite, basalt, rhyolite, granite, granodiorite, and diorite) correctly classified rocks as felsic, intermediate, or mafic with 79%, 63%, and 58% accuracy, respectively [1]. [1] S. T. Ishikawa, V. C. Gulick. AGU 2008 Fall Mtg.

Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

2010-12-01

467

Morphology and Histology of the Ductus Receptaculi and Accessory Glands in the Reproductive Tract of the Female Cricket, Teleogryllus commodus  

PubMed Central

The morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in females of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described. Both are reproductive organs situated in the 7th and 8th abdominal segment that join the posterior part of the genital chamber. The ductus receptaculi is a long (up to 25 mm) homogeneous tube, and the accessory glands (total length: 4 to 12 mm) are a complex system of tubes and end lobes with various numbers of ramifications. Based on their external shapes the accessory glands may be subdivided into three distinct regions, a distal region mainly producing the gland's secretion, a middle conducting region, and a basal region serving for the storage and release of the secretory substances into the genital chamber of the female. In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. The ductus receptaculi is subdivided into three histologically different regions. The region located adjacent to the receptaculum and the region neighbouring the terminal papilla consist of a single, epithelial cell layer that is not secretory. The epithelium of the middle region contains two cell layers, glandular cells and cuticula-forming cells, which are responsible for the production of the cuticular intima. The secretion of the gland cells is released into an extracellular cavity, through which it reaches the lumen via a complex network of canals running through the intima. The histology of the accessory glands is rather homogeneous among the different regions, as one layer of epithelial cells produces both the secretion and the cuticular intima. Histological variations in the distal, middle, and basal gland sections mainly concern the height of the epithelium, the thickness of the basal lamina and the cuticular intima as well as the variable presence of the outer muscle coat. In contrast to the ductus receptaculi, secretory substances produced by the accessory gland cells accumulate in the lumen by a diffusive permeation of the intima. PMID:20298118

Sturm, Robert

2008-01-01

468

Protein- mediated enamel mineralization  

PubMed Central

Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

Moradian-Oldak, Janet

2012-01-01

469

Minerals yearbook, 1988: Thorium  

SciTech Connect

Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestically were derived from imported materials, existing company stocks, and thorium nitrate released from the National Defense Stockpile. Major nonenergy uses were in refractory applications, ceramics, and mantles for incandescent lanterns. The only energy use of thorium in the United States was in the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGC) nuclear reactor at Fort St. Vrain, CO. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, and world review--(Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique).

Hedrick, J.B.

1988-01-01

470

Computer modelling of minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review briefly the methodology and achievements of computer simulation techniques in modelling structural and defect properties of inorganic solids. Special attention is paid to the role of interatomic potentials in such studies. We discuss the extension of the techniques to the modelling of minerals, and describe recent results on the study of structural properties of silicates. In a paper of this length, it is not possible to give a comprehensive survey of this field. We shall concentrate on the recent work of our own group. The reader should consult Tossell (1977), Gibbs (1982), and Busing (1970) for examples of other computational studies of inorganic solids. The techniques we discuss are all based on the principle of energy minimization. Simpler, "bridge-buildingrdquo procedures, based on known bond-lengths, of which distance least squares (DLS) techniques are the best known are discussed, for example, in Dempsey and Strens (1974).

Catlow, C. R. A.; Parker, S. C.

471

Mineralization by nanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without injected substrate solutions. Nanobacteria may provide a model for primordial life-forms, such as replicating clay crystallites in a sandstone, where minerals and metal atoms associated to membranes, may play catalytic and structural roles reducing the number of enzymes and structural proteins needed for life. Such simple metabolic pathways may support the 10,000-fold slower growth rate of nanobacteria, as compared to the usual bacteria. They may also explain the endurability of this life-form in extreme environmental conditions. Altogether such properties do suggest that nanobacteria may have evolved from environmental sources, such a shot springs, to take advantage of the steady-state calcium and phosphate supply of the mammalian blood. Based upon our findings of nanobacteria, a novel theory for the early development of life, based on apatite-mediated chemistry on membranes selecting itself for its own catalytical machinery, is presented.

Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

1998-07-01

472

Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of trace minerals are required by beef cattle. Feeds consumed by cattle may supply most trace minerals in adequate amounts. However, some minerals may be severely or at least marginally deficient in beef cattle diets. Even marginal mineral deficiencies can reduce growth, reproduction and\\/or health of cattle showing few if any clinical signs of deficiency. Other trace minerals

Jerry W. Spears

1995-01-01

473

43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT:...

2011-10-01

474

43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS...

2011-10-01

475

Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

476

Ways to defuse miners' anger  

SciTech Connect

The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger.

Not Available

1984-06-01

477

From Mountain Men to Miners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

1999-01-01

478

Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain.

A Mart??n Sánchez; M. P Rubio Montero; V Gómez Escobar; M Jurado Vargas

1999-01-01

479

A Mineral Processing Field Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

Carmody, Maurice

2014-01-01

480

Mineral Resources and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

481

Mineral Cleavage: a practical experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this geology activity, students investigate the physical property of mineral cleavage by physically trying to break down a block of halite and describing the results. This lab addresses many misunderstandings non-majors have about the physical properties of minerals and includes a brief write up of their conclusions.

Browning, Sharon

482

Evaporates, petroleum and mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

This book covers oxide minerals under the following topics: oxygen fugacity and its petrologic importance; crystal chemistry of oxides and oxyhydroxides; petrogenetic indicators; oxygen barometry of spinel peridotites; iron-titanium oxides in igneous rocks; oxide minerals in metamorphic rocks; and magnetic petrology.

Melvin, J.L.

1991-01-01

483

Variability of Minerals in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary guidance to the public stresses foods or food groups as specific sources of minerals such as calcium in dairy products, iron in meats and legumes, and potassium in oranges and bananas. Dietary guidance also identifies foods that are low in some minerals (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, cooper, and iron) for patients with specific disease conditions. However, the levels

Jean A. T. Pennington

484

Compensation of Navajo Uranium Miners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site addresses policy issues of the compensation of Navajo uranium miners. The site provides an annotated index of current issues, legislation, papers and presentations, books, and links that lead to more information on uranium miners. Imbedded links throughout the text lead to related information.

World Information Service on Energy Uranium Project

485

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

486

Pulmonary complications in lead miners  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

1989-07-01

487

Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.  

PubMed

The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits. PMID:16600327

Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

2006-10-01

488

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

489

Complete Genome Viral Phylogenies Suggests the Concerted Evolution of Regulatory Cores and Accessory Satellites  

PubMed Central

We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions. PMID:18941535

de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C.

2008-01-01

490

High-Level Chromate Resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 Requires Previously Uncharacterized Accessory Genes  

SciTech Connect

The annotated genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 revealed a chromate resistance determinant (CRD): a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their regulatory roles. Collectively, our findings indicate that chromate resistance in strain FB24 is primarily achieved by plasmid-mediated chromate efflux with the contribution of previously unrecognized accessory genes.

Henne, Kristene L.; Nakatsu, Cindy N.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Konopka, Allan

2009-09-24

491

Robust encoding of stimulus identity and concentration in the accessory olfactory system.  

PubMed

Sensory systems represent stimulus identity and intensity, but in the neural periphery these two variables are typically intertwined. Moreover, stable detection may be complicated by environmental uncertainty; stimulus properties can differ over time and circumstance in ways that are not necessarily biologically relevant. We explored these issues in the context of the mouse accessory olfactory system, which specializes in detection of chemical social cues and infers myriad aspects of the identity and physiological state of conspecifics from complex mixtures, such as urine. Using mixtures of sulfated steroids, key constituents of urine, we found that spiking responses of individual vomeronasal sensory neurons encode both individual compounds and mixtures in a manner consistent with a simple model of receptor-ligand interactions. Although typical neurons did not accurately encode concentration over a large dynamic range, from population activity it was possible to reliably estimate the log-concentration of pure compounds over several orders of magnitude. For binary mixtures, simple models failed to accurately segment the individual components, largely because of the prevalence of neurons responsive to both components. By accounting for such overlaps during model tuning, we show that, from neuronal firing, one can accurately estimate log-concentration of both components, even when tested across widely varying concentrations. With this foundation, the difference of logarithms, log A - log B = log A/B, provides a natural mechanism to accurately estimate concentration ratios. Thus, we show that a biophysically plausible circuit model can reconstruct concentration ratios from observed neuronal firing, representing a powerful mechanism to separate stimulus identity from absolute concentration. PMID:23946396

Arnson, Hannah A; Holy, Timothy E

2013-08-14

492

Regulation of adult neurogenesis by behavior and age in the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system (VNS) participates in the detection and processing of pheromonal information related to social and sexual behaviors. Within the VNS, two different populations of sensory neurons, with a distinct pattern of distribution, line the epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and give rise to segregated sensory projections to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Apical sensory neurons in the VNO project to the anterior AOB (aAOB), while basal neurons project to the posterior AOB (pAOB). In the AOB, the largest population of neurons are inhibitory, the granule and periglomerular cells (GCs and PGs) and remarkably, these neurons are continuously born and functionally integrated in the adult brain, underscoring their role on olfactory function. Here we show that behaviors mediated by the VNS differentially regulate adult neurogenesis across the anterior-posterior axis of the AOB. We used immunohistochemical labeling of newly born cells under different behavioral conditions in mice. Using a resident-intruder aggression paradigm, we found that subordinate mice exhibited increased neurogenesis in the aAOB. In addition, in sexually naive adult females exposed to soiled bedding odorized by adult males, the number of newly born cells was significantly increased in the pAOB; however, neurogenesis was not affected in females exposed to female odors. In addition, we found that at two months of age adult neurogenesis was sexually dimorphic, with male mice exhibiting higher levels of newly born cells than females. Interestingly, adult neurogenesis was greatly reduced with age and this decrease correlated with a decrease in progenitor cells proliferation but not with an increase in cell death in the AOB. These results indicate that the physiological regulation of adult neurogenesis in the AOB by behaviors is both sex and age dependent and suggests an important role of newly born neurons in sex dependent behaviors mediated by the VNS. PMID:21600286

Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Pugh, Victoria; Araneda, Ricardo C

2011-08-01

493

?3GnT2 null mice exhibit defective accessory olfactory bulb innervation.  

PubMed

Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) extend axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synaptic connections that relay pheromone signals to the brain. The projections of apical and basal VSNs segregate in the AOB into anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB) compartments. Although some aspects of this organization exhibit fundamental similarities with the main olfactory system, the mechanisms that regulate mammalian vomeronasal targeting are not as well understood. In the olfactory epithelium (OE), the glycosyltransferase ?3GnT2 maintains expression of axon guidance cues required for proper glomerular positioning and neuronal survival. We show here that ?3GnT2 also regulates guidance and adhesion molecule expression in the vomeronasal system in ways that are partially distinct from the OE. In wildtype mice, ephrinA5(+) axons project to stereotypic subdomains in both the aAOB and pAOB compartments. This pattern is dramatically altered in ?3GnT2(-/-) mice, where ephrinA5 is upregulated exclusively on aAOB axons. Despite this, apical and basal VSN projections remain strictly segregated in the null AOB, although some V2r1b axons that normally project to the pAOB inappropriately innervate the anterior compartment. These fibers appear to arise from ectopic expression of V2r1b receptors in a subset of apical VSNs. The homotypic adhesion molecules Kirrel2 and OCAM that facilitate axon segregation and glomerular compartmentalization in the main olfactory bulb are ablated in the ?3GnT2(-/-) aAOB. This loss is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the total number of V2r1b glomeruli and a failure to form morphologically distinct glomeruli in the anterior compartment. These results identify a novel function for ?3GnT2 glycosylation in maintaining expression of layer-specific vomeronasal receptors, as well as adhesion molecules required for proper AOB glomerular formation. PMID:23006775

Henion, Timothy R; Madany, Pasil A; Faden, Ashley A; Schwarting, Gerald A

2013-01-01

494

Macaque accessory optic system: I. Definition of the medial terminal nucleus  

SciTech Connect

The organization of the accessory optic system (AOS) has been studied in the macaque monkey following intravitreal injections of tritiated amino acids in one eye. Retinal projections to the dorsal (DTN) and the lateral (LTN) terminal nuclei are identical to those previously described in other primate species. We observed an additional group of retinorecipient cells of the AOS, located between the cerebral peduncle and the substantia nigra, which we define as the interstitial nucleus of the superior fasiculus, medial fibers. In this report, we focus our attention on the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). Although a ventral division of this nucleus (MTNv) was not observed in the macaque, the retina projects to a group of cells in the midbrain reticular formation (MRF), which we argue to be homologous to the dorsal division of the MTN (MTNd). To provide evidence in support of this homology, the retinal projection to the MTNv and MTNd was also examined in 21 additional species from 11 orders of mammals including carnivores, marsupials, lagomorphs, rodents, bats, insectivores, tree shrews, hyraxes, pholidotes, edentates, and five additional species of primates. Whereas the retina projects to both ventral and dorsal divisions in all species studied, in haplorhine primates only the projection to the MTNd is conserved. The relative topological position of the MTNd in the MRF, dorsomedial to the substantia nigra and ventrolateral to the red nucleus, remains constant throughout the mammals. The trajectory of fiber paths innervating the MTNd is also similar in all species. In addition, the MTNd has comparable afferent and efferent connections with retina, pretectum, and vestibular nuclei in all species thus far studied. These results support the unequivocal conclusion that the MTNd is an unvarying feature of the mammalian AOS.

Cooper, H.M.; Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M. (Vision et Motricite, Bron (France))

1990-12-08

495

Frequency of Existence, Numbers, and Location of the Accessory Infraorbital Foramen.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the frequency of existence, numbers, and location of the accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF).In a PubMed search, 166 articles resulted using the term infraorbital foramen (IOF). The abstracts were read, and 15 full-text articles were reviewed. Among them, 13 articles were analyzed.The frequency of the skull containing the AIOF varied (0.8%-27.3%). The overall frequency of the skull having AIOF was 16.9% ± 8.6% (17.0% ± 9.4% in dry skulls and 15.8% ± 3.6% in cadavers). Most (92.2%) of the AIOF were located on the superomedial side of the IOF, whereas 5 (7.8%) were located inferomedially. The AIOFs were found in similar frequency according to the laterality (right, 42.7%; left, 45%; bilateral, 12%; P = 0.794 [binominal test]). The frequency of the AIOF varied according to latitude. Skulls collected greater than 60 degrees had a higher frequency of an AIOF (28.7%) than between 30 and 60 degrees (19.0%) or less than 30 degrees (18.2%) (P = 0.000 [Pearson Chi-squared test], P = 0.000 [trend test]). There was a positive correlation between latitude and frequency of AIOF (y = 0.062x + 18.02, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.140, P = 0.000).During anesthetization of the infraorbital area or in surgical maneuvering in the maxillofacial region, surgeons should remember the frequency of the AIOF (16.9% ± 8.6%) and its location (92.2% at the superomedial side of the IOF). PMID:25490578

Hwang, Kun; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Seong Yeon; Hwang, Se Won

2014-12-01

496

Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?  

PubMed

Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P < 0·05). External intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P < 0·05). Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity did not show significant differences between breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. PMID:25040551

Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

2014-11-01

497

Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology  

E-print Network

the soil taxonomy (Petersen, 19Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology Remote Sensing of Soils,Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and GeomorphologyMinerals, and Geomorphology · 26% of the Earth's surface is exposed

498

High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

2012-01-01

499

Timing and conditions of high-pressure metamorphism in the western Grenville Province: Constraints from accessory mineral composition and phase equilibrium modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous geochronological analyses of high pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the western Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada have yielded precise U-Pb zircon ages; however, uncertainty has remained as to whether these ages represent the timing of HP metamorphism or the granulite/amphibolite facies overprint accompanying exhumation to a hot middle orogenic crust. Detailed study of these HP rocks, involving garnet, rutile, and zircon trace element analysis, phase equilibrium modeling, and zircon U-Pb geochronology, has yielded much improved constraints on the timing and conditions of HP metamorphism. Zircon from five of the six HP samples yield anchored discordia upper intercept and 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages between 1097 and 1085 Ma, and typically have trace element compositions consistent with growth in a garnet-rich, plagioclase-poor eclogite-type assemblage (i.e. no negative Eu anomaly and flat HREE trends). Titanium-in-zircon and Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicates that the range of zircon crystallization temperatures for most samples (643-767 °C) is close to that of rutile inclusions in garnet (668-753 °C) and matrix rutile (690-772 °C). Phase relations in a pseudosection calculated for the sample that best preserves the HP assemblage indicate that: (1) the stability field for the inclusions observed in garnet and kyanite is between 11.5 < P < 14 kbar and 600 < T < 700 °C, and (2) zircon and rutile crystallization temperatures intersect the inferred HP assemblage field (Grt + Cpx + Ky + Rt + Hbl + Qtz) and garnet and kyanite modal isopleths at P > ~ 15 kbar, indicating that the ca. 1090 Ma zircon ages date metamorphism at eclogite facies conditions. Thus, the deep burial of mafic lower crust that resulted in HP metamorphism in the western CGB occurred just prior to the main "Ottawan" phase of continental collision in the western Grenville Province (ca. 1080-1040 Ma).

Marsh, Jeffrey H.; Culshaw, Nicholas G.

2014-07-01

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Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.

2009-01-01