Sample records for zusammenhang zwischen dem

  1. Zusammenhang zwischen Art der strafbaren Handlung und Suizid in Haftanstalten der USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Felthous; Henning Saß

    2010-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Hat die Art der zur Anklage bzw. Verurteilung führenden strafbaren Handlung einen Einfluss darauf, ob ein Insasse einer Haftanstalt\\u000a unter lokaler („jail“) oder bundes-\\/einzelstaatlicher („prison“) Kontrolle sich das Leben nimmt? In den Vereinigten Staaten\\u000a liefern einige bundesweite Erhebungen relevante Informationen zur Beantwortung dieser Frage. Studien aus den Jahren 1979,\\u000a 1985 und 1986 zu Suiziden in lokalen Haftanstalten zeigten, dass es

  2. Klimawandel auf dem Mars: Planetenforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Ernst

    2003-11-01

    Es gibt mittlerweile eine bemerkenswerte Übereinstimmung zwischen geomorphologischen Beobachtungen und Vorhersagen über die Stabilität von Bodeneis sowie Klimamodellen des Mars. Letztere weisen darauf hin, dass es auf dem Mars in den letzten Millionen Jahren klimatische Umschwünge gegeben haben könnte. Dabei lagerten sich in höheren und mittleren Breiten mehrere Meter mächtige Schichten aus Eis und Staub ab, die sich später zwischen etwa 30° und 60° nördlicher und südlicher Breite teilweise wieder auflösten. Sollte diese Theorie zutreffen, könnten auch heute noch eishaltige Materialien unter einer isolierenden Schicht aus Staub bis in die Äquatorregionen zu finden sein.

  3. Scheinbare Gegenstze: Zwischen zwei westlichen

    E-print Network

    PlanckForschung 87 KULTUR & GESELLSCHAFT_China A ls der chinesische Premier Wen Jiabao Mitte Juni die- ses Jahres mit dabei den Um- gang mit Menschenrechten und Um- weltsünden in dem asiatischen Land anzusprechen. Das sei Export in die alten Zentren des Kapitalismus. Das unter- scheide das Land etwa von den USA. Das Wachstum

  4. DEM Analysis Daniel Miller

    E-print Network

    Programs for DEM Analysis by Daniel Miller 2002, 2003 Theory and Technology in Natural Sciences ......................................................................................................................7 Creation of a Depression-Less DEM

  5. INAUGURAL-DISSERTATION zur Erlangung der Doktorwurde

    E-print Network

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    und die Konzentrationen der stabilen Isotope (2 H und 18 O), Tritium, Radiokohlenstoff und Edelgase Zusammenhang zwischen den Edelgastemperaturen und den stabilen Isotopen l¨asst sich ableiten, dass die Signatur geringer Temperatureffekt von 0.21 ±0.05/ . Die Differenz zwischen dem mittle- ren Wert f¨ur die 18 O-Signatur

  6. Über Oxy-Ephedrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Schaumann

    1931-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Es wird an Hand der Oxy-Ephedrine der Zusammenhang zwischen Konstitution und Wirkung in der Reihe Ephedrin — Suprarenin besprochen.2.Auf Grund der Versuchsergebnisse wird der Unterschied zwischen „sympathomimetischen und sympathikotropen” Stoffen betont.3.Die Mono-oxy-Ephedrine bilden einen Übergang von dem nur sympathomimetisch (muskulotrop) wirkenden Ephedrin zu dem rein sympathikotropen (neurotropen) Suprarenin.4.Die Stellungen der OH-Gruppen sind untereinander nicht gleichwertig; die Suprareninähnlichkeit nimmt in

  7. The Oracle of DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayley, Kenneth

    2013-06-01

    The predictions of the famous Greek oracle of Delphi were just ambiguous enough to seem to convey information, yet the user was only seeing their own thoughts. Are there ways in which X-ray spectral analysis is like that oracle? It is shown using heuristic, generic response functions to mimic actual spectral inversion that the widely known ill conditioning, which makes formal inversion impossible in the presence of random noise, also makes a wide variety of different source distributions (DEMs) produce quite similar X-ray continua and resonance-line fluxes. Indeed, the sole robustly inferable attribute for a thermal, optically thin resonance-line spectrum with normal abundances in CIE is its average temperature. The shape of the DEM distribution, on the other hand, is not well constrained, and may actually depend more on the analysis method, no matter how sophisticated, than on the source plasma. The case is made that X-ray spectra can tell us average temperature, and metallicity, and absorbing column, but the main thing it cannot tell us is the main thing it is most often used to infer: the differential emission measure distribution.

  8. Total hemocyte counts of honey bee larvae ( Apis mellifera L.) from various elevations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Gilliam; Hachiro Shimanuki

    1970-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Ausgewertet wurde die Gesamtzahl der Hemocyten (GZH) von Proben von Honigbienenlarven, die aus verschiedenen Höhenregionen in Bereichen von 48 bis 2160 m über dem Meeresspiegel stammten. Die Untersuchung des Zusammenhanges der beiden Grössen mittels Regressionsanalyse mit logarithmischer Auftragung von log10 GZH gegen log10 Meereshöhe ergaben eine deutliche Beziehung zwischen der Zahl der Hemocyten pro mm3 und der Meereshöhe, aus

  9. Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Ludwig

    Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

  10. Petrographische und Kalium-Argon-Untersuchungen an basischen tertiären Vulkaniten zwischen Westerwald und Vogelsberg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-G. Turk; H. J. LIPPOLT; K. Schürmann; U. Fuhrmann

    1984-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Zwischen den jung-tertiären Vulkanitkomplexen des Westerwaldes und des Vogelsberges existieren mehr als 40 isolierte Vorkommen tertiärer Vulkanite in Form von Gängen, erodierten Schloten und Quellkuppen. Zwölf dieser Vorkommen wurden petrographisch und chemisch untersucht. Von weiteren Vorkommen wurden Modalanalysen angefertigt. An siebzehn Vulkaniten wurden K-Ar-Gesamtgesteins-Alter bestimmt. Die Datierungsergebnisse liegen zwischen 27 Ma und 15 Ma mit Ausnahme eines Olivin-Nephelinits. Die K-Ar-Alter

  11. Modelling comminution devices using DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Particle size reduction, or milling, is an essential component of mineral processing and is important in other industry sectors. This needs to be done as efficiently as possible, maximizing mill throughput while minimizing operating costs. Such milling processes typically use only 1-5 per cent of the supplied energy for particle breakage, which leaves room for improvement. In discrete element modelling (DEM) of granular flows the trajectories, orientations and spins of all the particles and objects in the system are calculated and their interactions with other particles and with their environment are predicted. It is necessary to simulate particles of many different sizes and densities interacting with complex-shaped objects moving in different ways. Particle flows in three types of mills; a 5 m ball mill, a 10 mm SAG mill and a 15 cm diameter centrifugal mill are predicted. Charge behaviour, torque and power draw are analysed for a range of rotation rates from 50 to 130 per cent of the critical speed for the ball mill. Sensitivity of the results to material properties and size distribution are examined. Radial size segregation is shown to occur and increases strongly with mill speed. Charge motion and power consumption for the SAG mill are predicted. Compari son of simulated flow patterns for the centrifugal mill with high-speed experimental photographs reveals close agreement. The limitations and restrictions of this type of DEM model are discussed in detail.

  12. DEM extraction from stereo SAR satellite imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ostrowski; Philip Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Automatic Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction from stereo SAR satellite images continues to be a challenge. The main difficulty is in obtaining the largest possible number of correct matches, at the same time minimizing the number of false matches and other artifacts and distortions in the derived DEMs. For accepted matches, the highest possible geometric accuracy is desired. This paper

  13. Ehemalige Vorstandsvorsitzende als Aufsichtsratschefs: Evidenz zu ihrer Effektivität im Falle des erzwungenen Führungswechsels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi K. F. Bresser; Reynaldo Valle Thiele

    2008-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Der Wechsel des Vorstandsvorsitzenden an die Spitze des Aufsichtsrats ist eine in den größten deutschen Aktiengesellschaften\\u000a weit verbreitete Praxis. Diese Vorsitzkontinuität wird aktuell in den Medien und quer durch alle politischen Lager scharf\\u000a kritisiert, da sie den Aufsichtsrat in der Ausübung seiner Überwachungs- und Kontrollfunktion potenziell beeinträchtigt. Vor\\u000a dem Hintergrund agency- und stewardshiptheoretischer Überlegungen überprüfen wir den Zusammenhang zwischen der

  14. Urban DEM generation, analysis and enhancements using TanDEM-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cristian; Gernhardt, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    This paper analyzes the potential of the TanDEM-X mission for the generation of urban Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The high resolution of the sensors and the absence of temporal decorrelation are exploited. The interferometric chain and the problems encountered for correct mapping of urban areas are analyzed first. The operational Integrated TanDEM-X Processor (ITP) algorithms are taken as reference. The ITP main product is called the raw DEM. Whereas the ITP coregistration stage is demonstrated to be robust enough, large improvements in the raw DEM such as fewer percentages of phase unwrapping errors, can be obtained by using adaptive fringe filters instead of the conventional ones in the interferogram generation stage. The shape of the raw DEM in the layover area is also shown and determined to be regular for buildings with vertical walls. Generally, in the presence of layover, the raw DEM exhibits a height ramp, resulting in a height underestimation for the affected structure. Examples provided confirm the theoretical background. The focus is centered on high resolution DEMs produced using spotlight acquisitions. In particular, a raw DEM over Berlin (Germany) with a 2.5 m raster is generated and validated. For this purpose, ITP is modified in its interferogram generation stage by adopting the Intensity Driven Adaptive Neighbourhood (IDAN) algorithm. The height Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the raw DEM and a reference is about 8 m for the two classes defining the urban DEM: structures and non-structures. The result can be further improved for the structure class using a DEM generated with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry. A DEM fusion is thus proposed and a drop of about 20% in the RMSE is reported.

  15. Calculating strain in 3D DEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, C.; Butlanska, J.; Cheung, G.

    2010-06-01

    Particulate DEM allows us to simulate and evaluate in detail the evolution of localizations in particulate material, whether bonded/cemented or unbonded. DEM simulations generate a wealth of particle scale data including particle displacements, velocities and contact forces. Traditionally in geomechanics we understand material response based upon a continuum mechanics framework that considers stress and strain. There is little debate as to how to calculate stress from DEM simulation results, however there is no consensus on how to calculate strain. Most of the methods proposed in the literature to calculate strain have considered the overall response of an assembly of grains, rather than the local in homogeneities that are associated with shear band evolution. This paper outlines the challenges associated with quantifying strain based upon DEM simulation results and demonstrates that a local wavelet based homogenization approach as proposed by may have advantages over triangulation based linear interpolation.

  16. Über die Beziehung zwischen Tagesmitteln der Bewölkung und relativer Sonnenscheindauer in drei verschiedenen Klimagebieten der Schweiz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrud Perl

    1948-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, inwieweit Tagesmittel der Bewölkung, wie sie aus den dreimal täglichen Terminbeobachtungen abgeleitet werden, das Komplement zu den entsprechenden Tageswerten der relativen Sonnenscheindauer bilden. Auf Grund 20jähriger Mittelwerte von Zürich, Davos und Lugano wird gezeigt, daß die Unterschiede, die zwischen den Angaben der beiden, die Bewölkungsverhältnisse charakterisierenden, meteorologischen Elementen bestehen, vor allem klimatisch bedingt sind

  17. Topographic Avalanche Risk: DEM Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarkulova, Ainura; Strobl, Josef

    2015-04-01

    GIS-based models are frequently used to assess the risk and trigger probabilities of (snow) avalanche releases, based on parameters and geomorphometric derivatives like elevation, exposure, slope, proximity to ridges and local relief energy. Numerous models, and model-based specific applications and project results have been published based on a variety of approaches and parametrizations as well as calibrations. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) come with many different resolution (scale) and quality (accuracy) properties, some of these resulting from sensor characteristics and DEM generation algorithms, others from different DEM processing workflows and analysis strategies. This paper explores the impact of using different types and characteristics of DEMs for avalanche risk modeling approaches, and aims at establishing a framework for assessing the uncertainty of results. The research question is derived from simply demonstrating the differences in release risk areas and intensities by applying identical models to DEMs with different properties, and then extending this into a broader sensitivity analysis. For the quantification and calibration of uncertainty parameters different metrics are established, based on simple value ranges, probabilities, as well as fuzzy expressions and fractal metrics. As a specific approach the work on DEM resolution-dependent 'slope spectra' is being considered and linked with the specific application of geomorphometry-base risk assessment. For the purpose of this study focusing on DEM characteristics, factors like land cover, meteorological recordings and snowpack structure and transformation are kept constant, i.e. not considered explicitly. Key aims of the research presented here are the development of a multi-resolution and multi-scale framework supporting the consistent combination of large area basic risk assessment with local mitigation-oriented studies, and the transferability of the latter into areas without availability of higher resolution elevation modes. Worked examples are provided from different DEMs for Alpine as well as Central Asian study areas (including an avalanche cadaster of a mountain road in the Kyrgyz Republic), exploring the transfer of uncertainty parameters into regions where only lower resolution DEMs are available.

  18. RECENT RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTATION AND DEM MODELING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RECENT RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTATION AND DEM MODELING OF CENTRIFUGAL FERTILIZER SPREADING E. Tijskens1 , P. Van Liedekerke1 , E Piron2 , J. Van Geyte3 , Sylvain Villette4, H. Ramon1 1. Faculty of Bio-engineering running several industrial research projects on centrifugal fertilizer projects (Tijskens et al. 2005). 1

  19. Cytochrom b-Sequenz-Vergleiche zwischen Wisent (Bison bison bonasus) und Hausrind (Bos primigenius f. taurus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Zimmermann; R. Zehner; A. Herzog

    1998-01-01

    Vom Wisent (bison bison bonasus) wurde die Nukleotid-Sequenz des Cytochrom b-Gens bestimmt. Die erstellte Basenfolge und die daraus ermittelte Aminosäuren-Sequenz wurde mit den entsprechenden Sequenzen des Rindes aus der EMBL-Datenbank verglichen. Dabei wurden die Basen- bzw. die Aminosäurensubstitutionsraten sowie das Verhältnis von Transitionen zu Transversionen berechnet. Die Homologien zwischen den verglichenen Nukleotid- und Aminosäuren-Sequenzen von Wisent und Rind entsprachen den

  20. Recht und EpilepsieUrteile der Rechtsprechung in der BRD zwischen 1952 und 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schulze-Lohne; J. Bauer

    2001-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Wir recherchierten mit Hilfe der Internetdatei “Juris” Gerichtsurteile, die zwischen 1952 und 2000 in der BRD gesprochen worden\\u000a waren und Epilepsie als Thema hatten. 143 Urteile wurden gesprochen (0–10\\/Jahr, im Mittel 2,9\\/Jahr). Sechs verschiedene Gerichtszweige\\u000a waren in die Rechtsprechung involviert (Sozial-, Zivil-, Verwaltungs-, Straf-, Familien- und Arbeitsgerichte). Die meisten\\u000a Urteile (52) wurden von Sozialgerichten, die wenigsten (5) von Familien-

  1. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  2. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  3. ITERATIVE AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE ITERATIVE AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE ITERATIVE AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE ITERATIVE AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE REFINEMENT OF DEM AND ORTHOIMAGES REFINEMENT OF DEM AND ORTHOIMAGES REFINEMENT OF DEM AND ORTHOIMAGES REFINEMENT OF DEM AND ORTHOIMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vijayvargiya; B. GopalaKrishna; P. K. Srivastava

    Orthoimages today are the most sought remote sensing product in the world market. The other important product is Digital Elevation Model (DEM). DEM is also required for the generation of orthoimages. Both orthoimages and DEM are used for a wide range of application from agriculture to natural resources management and from urban planning to defense. So it is very much

  4. Quality assessment of TanDEM-X DEMs using airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry and ICESat elevation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Y. S.; Deo, R.; Nalini, J.; Pillai, A. M.; Muralikrishnan, S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    TanDEM-X mission has been acquiring InSAR data to produce high resolution global DEM with greater vertical accuracy since 2010. In this study, TanDEM-X CoSSC data were processed to produce DEMs at 6 m spatial resolution for two test areas of India. The generated DEMs were compared with DEMs available from airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry, SRTM and ICESat elevation point data. The first test site is in Bihar state of India with almost flat terrain and sparse vegetation cover and the second test site is around Godavari river in Andhra Pradesh (A.P.) state of India with flat to moderate hilly terrain. The quality of the DEMs in these two test sites has been specified in terms of most widely used accuracy measures viz. mean, standard deviation, skew and RMSE. The TanDEM-X DEM over Bihar test area gives 5.0 m RMSE by taking airborne LiDAR data as reference. With ICESat elevation data available at 9000 point locations, RMSE of 5.9 m is obtained. Similarly, TanDEM-X DEM for Godavari area was compared with high resolution aerial photogrammetric DEM and SRTM DEM and found RMSE of 5.3 m and 7.5 m respectively. When compared with ICESat elevation data at several point location and also the same point locations of photogrammetric DEM and SRTM, the RMS errors are 4.1 m, 3.5 m and 4.3 m respectively. DEMs were also compared for open-pit coal mining area where elevation changes from -147 m to 189 m. X- and Y-profiles of all DEMs were also compared to see their trend and differences.

  5. Zwischen den Welten Tocquevilles Amerika veranstaltet vom Lehrstuhl fr Politische Philosophie und Ideengeschichte (Prof. Herb)

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    und Ideengeschichte (Prof. Herb) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Lehrstuhl für Amerikanistik (Prof. Hebel-20 Uhr Universität H 33 18.5. Karlfriedrich Herb, Regensburg Es war einmal in Amerika - Tocqueville über

  6. Dorsale Instrumentierung der Halswirbelsäule mit dem \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Richter

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Operationsziel Dorsale atlantoaxiale Instrumentierung in Kombination mit einer dorsalen Spondylodese, ggf. nach geschlossener oder offener Reposition C1 gegen C2 mit dem Ziel einer atlantoaxialen Spondylodese. Indikationen Atlantoaxiale Instabilitäten rheumatischer, traumatischer, neoplastischer, infektiöser oder kongenitaler Genese. Atlantoaxiale Arthrose. Kontraindikationen Vorbestehende Infektionen im Operationsbereich. Fehlende Narkosefähigkeit. Operationstechnik Lagerung in Bauchlage, scharfe Kopffixation z.B. mit Mayfield-Klammer, ggf. geschlossene Reposition mit Röntgenbildverstärker im

  7. Spaceborne radar interferometry for coastal DEM construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hong, S.-H.; Lee, C.-W.; Won, J.-S.; Kwoun, O.-I.; Lu, Zhiming

    2005-01-01

    Topographic features in coastal regions including tidal flats change more significantly than landmass, and are characterized by extremely low slopes. High precision DEMs are required to monitor dynamic changes in coastal topography. It is difficult to obtain coherent interferometric SAR pairs especially over tidal flats mainly because of variation of tidal conditions. Here we focus on i) coherence of multi-pass ERS SAR interferometric pairs and ii) DEM construction from ERS-ENVISAT pairs. Coherences of multi-pass ERS interferograms were good enough to construct DEM under favorable tidal conditions. Coherence in sand dominant area was generally higher than that in muddy surface. The coarse grained coastal areas are favorable for multi-pass interferometry. Utilization of ERS-ENVISAT interferometric pairs is taken a growing interest. We carried out investigation using a cross-interferometric pair with a normal baseline of about 1.3 km, a 30 minutes temporal separation and the height sensitivity of about 6 meters. Preliminary results of ERS-ENVISAT interferometry were not successful due to baseline and unfavorable scattering conditions. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  8. Evaluation of DEM-assisted SAR coregistration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitti, D. O.; Hanssen, R. F.; Refice, A.; Bovenga, F.; Milillo, G.; Nutricato, R.

    2008-10-01

    Image alignment is without doubt the most crucial step in SAR Interferometry. Interferogram formation requires images to be coregistered with an accuracy of better than 1/8 pixel to avoid significant loss of phase coherence. Conventional interferometric precise coregistration methods for full-resolution SAR data (Single-Look Complex imagery, or SLC) are based on the cross-correlation of the SLC data, either in the original complex form or as squared amplitudes. Offset vectors in slant range and azimuth directions are computed on a large number of windows, according to the estimated correlation peaks. Then, a two-dimensional polynomial of a certain degree is usually chosen as warp function and the polynomial parameters are estimated through LMS fit from the shifts measured on the image windows. In case of rough topography and long baselines, the polynomial approximation for the warp function becomes inaccurate, leading to local misregistrations. Moreover, these effects increase with the spatial resolution and then with the sampling frequency of the sensor, as first results on TerraSAR-X interferometry confirm. An improved, DEM-assisted image coregistration procedure can be adopted for providing higher-order prediction of the offset vectors. Instead of estimating the shifts on a limited number of patches and using a polynomial approximation for the transformation, this approach computes pixel by pixel the correspondence between master and slave by using the orbital data and a reference DEM. This study assesses the performance of this approach with respect to the standard procedure. In particular, both analytical relationships and simulations will evaluate the impact of the finite vertical accuracy of the DEM on the final coregistration precision for different radar postings and relative positions of satellites. The two approaches are compared by processing real data at different carrier frequencies and using the interferometric coherence as quality figure.

  9. DEM time series of an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, Nathalie; Lisein, Jonathan; Swerts, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural landscape soil surface evolves notably due to erosion and deposition phenomenon. Even if most of the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this way, 3D models are built from multiple covering shots. When techniques for large areas would be to expensive for a watershed level study or techniques for small areas would be too time consumer, the unmanned aerial system seems to be a promising solution to quantify the erosion and deposition patterns. The increasing technical improvements in this growth field allow us to obtain a really good quality of data and a very high spatial resolution with a high Z accuracy. In the center of Belgium, we equipped an agricultural watershed of 124 ha. For three years (2011-2013), we have been monitoring weather (including rainfall erosivity using a spectropluviograph), discharge at three different locations, sediment in runoff water, and watershed microtopography through unmanned airborne imagery (Gatewing X100). We also collected all available historical data to try to capture the "long-term" changes in watershed morphology during the last decades: old topography maps, soil historical descriptions, etc. An erosion model (LANDSOIL) is also used to assess the evolution of the relief. Short-term evolution of the surface are now observed through flights done at 200m height. The pictures are taken with a side overlap equal to 80%. To precisely georeference the DEM produced, ground control points are placed on the study site and surveyed using a Leica GPS1200 (accuracy of 1cm for x and y coordinates and 1.5cm for the z coordinate). Flights are done each year in December to have an as bare as possible ground surface. Specific treatments are developed to counteract vegetation effect because it is know as key sources of error in the DEM produced by small unmanned aircraft systems. The poster will present the older and more recent changes of relief in this intensely exploited watershed and notably show how unmanned airborne imagery might be of help in DEM dynamic modelling to support soil conservation research.

  10. Die Jahrhundert-Messung Mithilfe des Venus-Transits wurde die Distanz zwischen Erde und Sonne ermittelt

    E-print Network

    Imamoglu, Atac

    Die Jahrhundert-Messung Mithilfe des Venus-Transits wurde die Distanz zwischen Erde und Sonne genaue Vermessung des Sonnensystems. Mithilfe des erdnächsten Plane- ten, der Venus, sollte das gelin 3.Juni 1769 sollte die Venus als kleine schwarze Scheibe vor der Sonne vorbeizie- hen ­ ein

  11. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has recently released a digital elevation model (DEM), ice thickness data taken by airborne ice penetrating radar, and bedrock thickness data (ice thickness subtracted from DEM) for 5 km of Greenland. The data are in ASCII format, and documentation (data collection, application, terminology, etc.) is available at the site.

  12. Robust methods for assessing the accuracy of linear interpolated DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Liu, Eryong

    2015-02-01

    Methods for assessing the accuracy of a digital elevation model (DEM) with emphasis on robust methods have been studied in this paper. Based on the squared DEM residual population generated by the bi-linear interpolation method, three average-error statistics including (a) mean, (b) median, and (c) M-estimator are thoroughly investigated for measuring the interpolated DEM accuracy. Correspondingly, their confidence intervals are also constructed for each average error statistic to further evaluate the DEM quality. The first method mainly utilizes the student distribution while the second and third are derived from the robust theories. These innovative robust methods possess the capability of counteracting the outlier effects or even the skew distributed residuals in DEM accuracy assessment. Experimental studies using Monte Carlo simulation have commendably investigated the asymptotic convergence behavior of confidence intervals constructed by these three methods with the increase of sample size. It is demonstrated that the robust methods can produce more reliable DEM accuracy assessment results compared with those by the classical t-distribution-based method. Consequently, these proposed robust methods are strongly recommended for assessing DEM accuracy, particularly for those cases where the DEM residual population is evidently non-normal or heavily contaminated with outliers.

  13. DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM) FILES (30 M) FOR VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) files, 30-m resolution, for Virginia from US Geological Survey Web site: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/doc/edchome/ndcdb/7_min_dem/states/VA.html Files listed for VA but centered in TN, WV, and NC are not included. All file archives were downloaded an...

  14. Auf dem Weg DIE GOETHE-UNIVERSITT IST

    E-print Network

    Studierenden gehört die Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität zu den zehn größten Hochschulen in Deutschland wurde die Goethe-Universität von Frankfurter Bürgern gegründet. Am 1. Januar 2008 gewann sie mit derAuf dem Weg zur Spitze #12;#12;DIE GOETHE-UNIVERSITÄT IST AUF DEM WEG AN DIE SPITZE Mit 42000

  15. Oligophrenia phenylpyruvia unter dem Bild der Blitz, Nick und Salaamkrämpfe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Gött

    1957-01-01

    Ausgehend von der Beobachtung eines 9monatigen Kindes mit Phenylpyruvischer Oligophrenie, bei dem aus dem EEG-Befund das spätere Auftreten von Blitz-, Nick- und Salaamkrämpfen vorausgesagt werden konnte, wird auf die relativ häufige Bevorzugung dieses Anfallsbildes als Frühmanifestation der Föllingschen Krankheit hingewiesen.

  16. Hyperglykämie und negative Auswirkungen auf den Schwangerschaftsausgang in der HAPO-Studie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jecht

    2009-01-01

    Die HAPO-Studie untersuchte Zusammenhänge zwischen neonataler Adipositas, mütterlichem Blutzuckerspiegel sowie C-Peptid-Spiegel in der Nabelschnur. Dabei wurde auch die Pedersen-Hypothese hinterfragt, die einen Zusammenhang zwischen mütterlichen Blutzuckerwerten, fetaler Hyperinsulinämie und neonataler Adipositas herstellt.

  17. Ertragsentwicklung Standortangepasster Gräsermischungen in Abhängigkeit von der Beregnung und dem Saatverfahren im 5. bis 8. Nutzungsjahr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gotthard Adolf; Maria Wagner

    1994-01-01

    Im 5. bis 8. Nutzungsjahr (1987 bis 1990) erreichten standortangepaßte Gräsermischungen mit tragendem Saatpartner Alopecurus pratensis bzw. Phalaris arundinacea sowie Bromus inermis unter Beregnung in der Regel gesicherte Mehrerträge an Trockensubstanz. Auch die Ertragsverteilung zwischen den einzelnen Aufwüchsen dieser Bestände konnte durch Zusatzwasser deutlich ausgeglichener gestaltet werden. Zwischen den verschiedenen Saatverfahren waren kaum noch signifikante Ertragsunterschiede festzustellen.

  18. Individuelle Entwicklungsverläufe ehemaliger Hochleistungssportler — ein Beitrag zum Thema Sport und Persönlichkeit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Conzelmann; Hartmut Gabler; Siegfried Nagel

    1998-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Ziel des Beitrags ist die Konzeption eines theoretisch-methodischen Ansatzes zur Analyse von Lebens(ver)läufen ehemaliger\\u000a Hochleistungssportler unter dem spezifischen Blickwinkel des Zusammenhangs zwischen (hochleistungs)sportlicher Aktivität und\\u000a Persönlichkeit. Um den Beitrag des Hochleistungssports für den Lebens(ver)lauf und die Persönlichkeitsentwicklung ehemaliger\\u000a Hochleistungssportler zu betrachten, bietet sich ein (sportwissenschaftlicher und damit) interdisziplinärer Zugang an, der\\u000a (eher soziologisch orientierte) Ansätze der Lebensverlaufs-Forschung und (eher psychologisch

  19. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be addressed. We discuss the effect on the flow model output and present possible solutions for rectification of the problem.

  20. Using a DEM to Determine Geospatial Object Trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Collins; Yanghai Tsin; J. Ryan Miller; Alan J. Lipton

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of moving object trajectories within a geospatial coordinate system, using a network of video sensors. A high-resolution (0.5m grid spacing) digital elevation map (DEM) has been constructed using a helicopter-based laser range-finder. Object locations are estimated by intersecting viewing rays from a calibrated sensor platform with the DEM. Contin- uous object trajectories can then be

  1. Novel application of DEM to modelling comminution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Gary W.; Cleary, Paul W.; Sinnott, Matt D.; Morrison, Rob D.

    2010-06-01

    Comminution processes in which grains are broken down into smaller and smaller sizes represent a critical component in many industries including mineral processing, cement production, food processing and pharmaceuticals. We present a novel DEM implementation capable of realistically modelling such comminution processes. This extends on a previous implementation of DEM particle breakage that utilized spherical particles. Our new extension uses super-quadric particles, where daughter fragments with realistic size and shape distributions are packed inside a bounding parent super-quadric. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach in different particle breakage scenarios and examine the effect of the chosen minimum resolved particle size. This incorporation of the effect of particle shape in the breakage process allows for more realistic DEM simulations to be performed, that can provide additional fundamental insights into comminution processes and into the behaviour of individual pieces of industrial machinery.

  2. Extract relevant features from DEM for groundwater potential mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Yan, H.; Zhai, L.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method has been applied much in groundwater potential mapping researches. But when to data scarce areas, it will encounter lots of problems due to limited data. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the digital representations of the topography, and has many applications in various fields. Former researches had been approved that much information concerned to groundwater potential mapping (such as geological features, terrain features, hydrology features, etc.) can be extracted from DEM data. This made using DEM data for groundwater potential mapping is feasible. In this research, one of the most widely used and also easy to access data in GIS, DEM data was used to extract information for groundwater potential mapping in batter river basin in Alberta, Canada. First five determining factors for potential ground water mapping were put forward based on previous studies (lineaments and lineament density, drainage networks and its density, topographic wetness index (TWI), relief and convergence Index (CI)). Extraction methods of the five determining factors from DEM were put forward and thematic maps were produced accordingly. Cumulative effects matrix was used for weight assignment, a multi-criteria evaluation process was carried out by ArcGIS software to delineate the potential groundwater map. The final groundwater potential map was divided into five categories, viz., non-potential, poor, moderate, good, and excellent zones. Eventually, the success rate curve was drawn and the area under curve (AUC) was figured out for validation. Validation result showed that the success rate of the model was 79% and approved the method's feasibility. The method afforded a new way for researches on groundwater management in areas suffers from data scarcity, and also broaden the application area of DEM data.

  3. Evaluating error associated with lidar-derived DEM interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Bater; Nicholas C. Coops

    2009-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (lidar) technology is capable of precisely measuring a variety of vegetation metrics, the estimates of which are usually based on relative heights above a digital elevation model (DEM). As a result, the development of these elevation models is a critical step when processing lidar observations. A number of different algorithms exist to interpolate lidar ground hits

  4. Modelling fracture and fragmentation using open source FEM\\/DEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Munjiza

    2008-01-01

    Fracture and fragmentation processes are an integral part of many industrial operations such as block caving, blasting, milling, impact, penetration, etc. Numerical capture of fracture is coupled with difficulties. In recent years a novel so called FEM\\/DEM approach has been developed. It combines discrete elements with finite elements and has been demonstrated to produce accurate fracture patterns for rock and

  5. Navigation and control of the TanDEM-X formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Kahle, Ralph; D'Amico, Simone; Ardaens, Jean-Sebastien

    2008-09-01

    Germany is presently preparing the first operational formation flying mission for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry in low-Earth orbit. TanDEM-X comprises two nearly identical satellites (TSX and TDX) that are launched with a two-year time shift in 2007 and 2009, respectively. From 2009 onwards, the two satellites will fly in close proximity and collect SAR interferograms for digital elevation model (DEM) generation. The TanDEM-X mission profile is particularly challenging from a flight dynamics point of view and poses new needs for spacecraft navigation and control. These comprise the formation design, the ground-controlled and autonomous formation maintenance, as well as the highprecision reconstruction of the interferometric baseline. This paper discusses the geometry of the TanDEM-X formation along with a relative motion model that forms the basis of the formation control concept and the autonomous onboard navigation. Furthermore, the orbit control and precise orbit determination of the primary spacecraft TSX is illustrated using actual flight data from the first six months of operations.

  6. TSUNAMI INUNDATION MAPPING FOR OCEAN CITY, MD NGDC DEM

    E-print Network

    Kirby, James T.

    TSUNAMI INUNDATION MAPPING FOR OCEAN CITY, MD NGDC DEM BY BABAK TEHRANIRAD, SAEIDEH BANIHASHEMI BY THE NATIONAL TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION PROGRAM NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE GRANT NA10NWS4670010 CENTER FOR APPLIED COASTAL RESEARCH Ocean Engineering Laboratory University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 #12;Tsunami

  7. AC.L\\DEM IC 'cALENDAR . , REGISTRATION PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    AC.L\\DEM IC 'cALENDAR · · . · , REGISTRATION PROCEDURES FINAL EXAM SCHEDULE . TUITION AND FEES COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES DEPARTMENTAL INDEX COLLEGE LIST · COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATION(obligation. OF EDUCAT.I ON COLLEGE OF ENG INEERJ NG COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESlGN GRADUATE SCHOOL SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM

  8. Spielerisches Erlernen der Programmierung mit dem Java-Hamster-Modell

    E-print Network

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    Spielerisches Erlernen der Programmierung mit dem Java- Hamster-Modell Dietrich Boles Department Oldenburg boles@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract: Das Java-Hamster-Modell ist ein spezielles Programmierkonzepte und den Programmentwurf kennen, indem sie so genannte Hamster-Programme entwickeln, mit denen sie

  9. DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM) FILES (30 M) FOR NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Digital Elevation Model files, 30-m resolution, for North Carolina from US Geological Survey Web site: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/doc/edchome/ndcdb/7_min_dem/states/NC.html Files listed for NC but centered in TN, GA, and VA are not included. All file archives were downloaded an...

  10. Resource Management in Diffserv On DemAnd (RODA) PHR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Westberg; Kogel de M; D. Partain; V. Rexhepi; P. Wallentin; M. Jacobsson; M. de Kogel; S. Oosthoek; G. Karagiannis

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this draft is to present the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) On DemAnd (RODA) Per Hop Reservation (PHR) protocol. The RODA PHR protocol is used on a per-hop basis in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain and extends the Diffserv Per Hop Behavior (PHB) with resource provisioning and control.

  11. Verwirbelt: Teil eines Experiments, in dem Wissenschaftler das Ent-

    E-print Network

    Verwirbelt: Teil eines Experiments, in dem Wissenschaftler das Ent- stehen von Turbulenz in Flugzeugen nicht absolut pünktlich Befehle verarbeitet, dann kann das lebensgefährlich werden ­ etwa, wenn schafft dreidimensionale Avatare 09 Frauen in die Forschung 09 Starke Partner in der Wissenschaft 10 ,,Das

  12. The DEM of Mt. Etna: Geomorphological and structural implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Favalli; Fabrizio Innocenti; Maria Teresa Pareschi; Giorgio Pasquarè; Francesco Mazzarini; Stefano Branca; Luciano Cavarra; Alessandro Tibaldi

    1999-01-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Mt. Etna is presented; it has altimetric and planimetric resolution of l m and 5 m, respectively, and covers an area of about 120 km2. This 3-D view of Mt. Etna allowed both recognition and location of the main morphostructural and volcano-tectonic features of the volcano. A slope map has been generated from the

  13. Automatic DEM generation from low B\\/H stereoscopic acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Delvit; Stéphanie Artigues

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of ground elevation is essential in most remote sensing applications especially for very high resolution images. This ground elevation information can be retrieved from a pair of stereoscopic images, by correlation methods. The improving resolution of Earth observation systems and their increasing stereoscopic capabilities open up new horizons for automatic Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation and allow buildings

  14. TanDEM-X: A Satellite Formation for High-Resolution SAR Interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Krieger; Alberto Moreira; Hauke Fiedler; Irena Hajnsek; Marian Werner; Marwan Younis; Manfred Zink

    2007-01-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for digital elevation measurements) is an innovative spaceborne radar interferometer that is based on two TerraSAR-X radar satellites flying in close formation. The primary objective of the TanDEM-X mission is the generation of a consistent global digital elevation model (DEM) with an unprecedented accuracy, which is equaling or surpassing the HRTI-3 specification. Beyond that, TanDEM-X provides a

  15. DEM (DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL) PRODUCTION AND ACCURACY MODELING OF DEMS FROM 1:35.000 SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Toz; M. Erdogan

    Aerial photographs and satellite imagery have been evaluated manually by the operators for a long time for the extraction of the contour line and DEM data. Computer technology and digital image processing technologies have been developed and this development provides to perform these extraction processes automatically or semi-automatically. The aim of making the processes automatic is to increase the speed

  16. A simple method to improve the SRTM DEM based on Landsat ETM+ Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Cai; Xiaoling Chen; Hui Li; Liqiao Tian; Zhongyi Wu

    2005-01-01

    Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) DEM has become one of digital topographic data sources of the earth because of its high spatial resolution and near-global coverage. However, its widely usage has been limited by some void areas occurred in SRTM DEM, which are mainly related to the water body, spikes or wells. Although they were modified into finished SRTM DEM

  17. Assessment of Dem Quality for Characterizing Surface Roughness Using Close Range Digital Photogrammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Butler; J. H. Chandler

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for assessing the quality of a digitalelevation model (DEM) which has been applied to the output of a normalizedcross correlation based stereomatching algorithm. Using semimetricphotography of natural gravel river bed surfaces acquired in the field,digital photogrammetry was used to extract DEMs automatically for use incharacterizing surface roughness properties.The procedure for assessing DEM quality involves examination

  18. Das Zusammenleben des Menschen mit dem Braunbären (Ursus arctos) in den Westkarpaten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hell; F. Bevilaqua

    1988-01-01

    Im Jahr 1932, als mit dem ganzjährigen Schutz der Bären in den Westkarpaten begonnen wurde, lebten von ihnen auf dem Gebiet der Slowakei nur noch etwa 20. Nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg waren es 50 bis 80, im Jahre 1967 um die 300 und in der Gegenwart schon um die 600 auf einer Fläche von ungefähr 1,13 Mill. ha Wald. Ab

  19. Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltzmann, Ludwig; Hasenöhrl, Friedrich

    2012-08-01

    Vorwort; 1. Über die Bewegung der Elektrzität in krummen Flächen; 2. Über die mechanische Bedeutung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Wärmetheorie; 3. Über die Anzahl der Atome; 4. Über die Integrale linearer Differentialgleighungen; 5. Studien über das Gleichgewicht der lebendingen Kraft; 6. Lösung eines mechanischen Problems; 7. Über die Festigkeit zweier mit Druck übereinander gesteckter zylindrischer Röhren; 8. Über die elektrodynamische Wechselwirkung der Reile eines elektrishen Stromes von veränderlicher Gestalt; 9. Bemerkung zur Abhandlung des Herrn R. Most; 10. Erwiderung an Herrn Most; 11. Über die von bewegten Gasmassen geleistete Arbeit; 12. Noch einiges über Kohlrauschs Versuch; 13. Über die Ableitung der Grundgleichungen der Kapillarität; 14. Über eine neue optische Methode; 15. Boiling points of organic bodies; 16. Über die Druckkräfte, welche auf Ringe wriksam sind; 17. Zur Priorität der Auffindung der Beziehung zwischen dem zweiten Hauptsatze der mechanischen Wärmetheorie; 18. Über das Wärmegleichgewicht zwischen mehratomigen Gasmolekülen; 19. Einige allgemeine Sätze über Wärmegleichgewicht; 20. Analytischer Beweis des zweiten Hauptsatzen der mechanischen Wärmetheorie; 21. Über das Wirkungsgesetz der Molekülarkräfte; 22. Weiteren Studien über das Wärmegleichgewicht unter Gasmolekülen; 23. Resultate einer Experimentaluntersuchung; 24. Experimentelle Bestimmung der Dielektrizitätskonstante von Isolatoren; 25. Experimentaluntersuchung über die elektrostatische Fernwirkung dielektrischer Körper; 26. Experimentelle Bestimmung der Dielektrizitätskonstante einiger Gase; 27. Über einige an meinen Versuchen; 28. Über die Verschiedenheit der Dielektrizitätskonstante des Körper unter dem Einflusse elektrische Kräfte; 29. Experimentaluntersuchung über das Verhalten nicht leitender Körper unter dem Einflusse electrischer Kräfte; 30. Zur Theorie der elastische Nachwirkung; 31. Über den Zusammenhang zwischen der Drehung der Polarisationsebene und der Wellenlänge der verschiedenen Farben.

  20. A comparative appraisal of hydrological behavior of SRTM DEM at catchment level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, K. N.

    2014-11-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data has emerged as a global elevation data in the past one decade because of its free availability, homogeneity and consistent accuracy compared to other global elevation dataset. The present study explores the consistency in hydrological behavior of the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) with reference to easily available regional 20 m contour interpolated DEM (TOPO DEM). Analysis ranging from simple vertical accuracy assessment to hydrological simulation of the studied Maithon catchment, using empirical USLE model and semidistributed, physical SWAT model, were carried out. Moreover, terrain analysis involving hydrological indices was performed for comparative assessment of the SRTM DEM with respect to TOPO DEM. Results reveal that the vertical accuracy of SRTM DEM (±27.58 m) in the region is less than the specified standard (±16 m). Statistical analysis of hydrological indices such as topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length factor (SLF) and geometry number (GN) shows a significant differences in hydrological properties of the two studied DEMs. Estimation of soil erosion potentials of the catchment and conservation priorities of microwatersheds of the catchment using SRTM DEM and TOPO DEM produce considerably different results. Prediction of soil erosion potential using SRTM DEM is far higher than that obtained using TOPO DEM. Similarly, conservation priorities determined using the two DEMs are found to be agreed for only 34% of microwatersheds of the catchment. ArcSWAT simulation reveals that runoff predictions are less sensitive to selection of the two DEMs as compared to sediment yield prediction. The results obtained in the present study are vital to hydrological analysis as it helps understanding the hydrological behavior of the DEM without being influenced by the model structural as well as parameter uncertainty. It also reemphasized that SRTM DEM can be a valuable dataset for hydrological analysis provided any error/uncertainty therein is being properly evaluated and characterized.

  1. Application of TanDEM-X interferometry in volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubanek, Julia; Westerhaus, Malte; Heck, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Traditional repeat-pass SAR interferometry (InSAR) has proven to be useful to monitor deformations at active volcanoes. In this so called monostatic mode, images recorded during different satellite passes from slightly changing antenna positions are used to map topographic changes of the earth surface on centimeter scale. However, problems regarding changing atmospheric conditions between the different satellite passes influence the quality of the results. Moreover, the backscattering conditions between two passes need to be tolerably stable to be used for interferometry. As far as the changes in the volcanic environment are slow, repeat-pass InSAR is a great monitoring tool. However, fast changing backscattering conditions result in low coherency, making a classical interferometric deformation analysis impossible. Especially dome-building volcanoes can change on meter scale per second in active phases, preventing the observation with repeat-pass InSAR. To solve these problems, we are currently testing the ability of the German TanDEM-X mission to monitor large deformations at active volcanos. The bistatic TanDEM-X mission consists of two radar satellites (TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X) flying in a close formation, taking images of the earth surface at the same time. In contrast to the repeat pass mode, this results in two nearly absolutely coherent images, which means that there are no atmospheric disturbances and backscattering errors in the interferometric pair. This allows generating digital elevation models (DEMs) at several times. A simple time series analysis of the models enables for the first time to quantify large topographic changes at active dome-building volcanoes. We chose Volcán de Colima, Mexico as test site. While being a dome building volcano, phases of quiescence are interrupted every few years by dome collapses, pyroclastic flows and deposition of volcanic material. At present, Volcán de Colima seems to be stable. Nevertheless, an explosion at the crater rim signaled the end of magma ascent in June 2011. The bistatic TanDEM-X data gives important information on this explosion as we can observe material changes in the summit area when comparing datasets taken before and after the explosion. Our results indicate that repeated DEMs with great detail and good accuracy are obtainable, enabling a quantitative estimation of finite volume changes in the summit area of the volcano. Additionally, we highlight the importance of employing remote sensing methods to collect data in volcano research.

  2. Improving the TanDEM-X DEM for flood modelling using flood extents from Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David; Trigg, Mark; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Cloke, Hannah; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many floodplains in the developed world have now been imaged with high resolution airborne LiDAR or InSAR, giving accurate DEMs that facilitate accurate flood inundation modelling. This is not always the case for remote rivers in developing countries. However, the accuracy of DEMs produced for modelling studies on such rivers should be enhanced in the near future by the high resolution TanDEM-X World DEM. In a parallel development, increasing use is now being made of flood extents derived from high resolution SAR images for calibrating, validating and assimilating observations into flood inundation models in order to improve these. The paper discusses an additional use of SAR flood extents to improve the accuracy of the TanDEM-X DEM in the floodplain covered by the flood extents, thereby permanently improving the DEM for future flood modelling studies in this area. The method is based on the fact that for larger rivers the water elevation changes only slowly along a reach, so that the boundary of the flood extent (the waterline) can be regarded locally as a quasi-contour. As a result, heights of adjacent pixels along a small section of waterline can be regarded as a sample of heights with a common population mean. The height of the central pixel in the section can be replaced with the average of these heights, leading to a more accurate height estimate. While this will result in a reduction in the height errors along a waterline, the waterline is a linear feature in a two-dimensional space. However, improvements to the DEM heights between adjacent pairs of waterlines can also be made, because DEM heights enclosed by the higher waterline of a pair must be at least no higher than the refined heights along the higher waterline, whereas DEM heights not enclosed by the lower waterline must be no lower than the refined heights along the lower waterline. In addition, DEM heights between the higher and lower waterlines can also be assigned smaller errors because of the reduced errors on the refined waterline heights. The method was tested on a section of the TanDEM-X Intermediate DEM (IDEM) covering an 11km reach of the Warwickshire Avon, England. Flood extents from four COSMO-SKyMed images were available at various stages of a flood in November 2012. Waterlines were detected automatically using the method described in [1]. The 12.5m resolution IDEM was re-sampled to the 2.5m resolution of the CSK images using nearest neighbour interpolation. Improvements to the IDEM were attempted only in regions of low slope and low vegetation, so that the DEM could be regarded as the DTM. The height of a pixel on a waterline was replaced by the average of the waterline pixel heights in an 11 x 11 IDEM pixel window centred on the current CSK pixel (but selecting only one waterline height per IDEM pixel to reduce correlations). Original and refined IDEM heights were compared to corresponding airborne LiDAR heights. Along the waterlines, it was found that the original IDEM heights had a standard deviation of 1.1m and a bias of 0.2m, while the refined heights had a standard deviation of only 0.6m and a similar bias. Between two adjacent waterlines, on average approximately 25% of IDEM heights were above the higher waterline, and 20% below the lower waterline. When compared to LiDAR, the original higher heights had a mean difference from the LiDAR height of 2.4m with standard deviation 3.0m, while after correction the mean difference was 0.5m with standard deviation 1.0m. The corrected heights below the lower waterline were similarly improved. The height errors of a further 40% of IDEM heights between the higher and lower waterlines were also reduced, because of the reduced errors on the refined waterline heights. 1. Mason DC, Davenport IJ, Neal JC, Schumann GJ-P and Bates PD (2012). Near real-time flood detection in urban and rural areas using high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images. IEEE. Trans. Geoscience Rem. Sens., 50(8), 3041-3052.

  3. A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we show how a vector parameterization of rotations can be adopted to describe the rotational motion of particles within the framework of the discrete element method (DEM). It is based on the use of a special rotation vector, called Rodrigues rotation vector, and accounts for finite rotations in a fully exact manner. The use of fictitious entities such as quaternions or complicated structures such as Euler angles is thereby circumvented. As an additional advantage, stick-slip friction models with inter-particle rolling motion are made possible in a consistent and elegant way. A few examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the scheme. We believe that simple vector descriptions of rotations are very useful for DEM models of particle systems.

  4. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: A Global DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Digital topographic data are critical for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military applications. Scientists use Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to map drainage patterns and ecosystems, and to monitor land surface changes over time. The mountain-building effects of tectonics and the climatic effects of erosion can also be modeled with DEW The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling and simulation. Commercial applications include determining locations for cellular phone towers, enhanced ground proximity warning systems for aircraft, and improved maps for backpackers. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Fig. 1), is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical errors.

  5. Video-Feedback-Therapie mit dem flexiblen Nasopharyngoskop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brunner; A. Stellzig; W. Decker; B. Strate; G. Komposch; G. Wirth; R. Verres

    1994-01-01

    Aus psychologischen Interviews mit Spaltpatienten wurde deutlich, warum ein Teil der Patienten von der herkömmlichen logopädischen Therapie nicht oder nur unzureichend profitiert. Für diese Patienten wurde die Methode der Video-Feedback-Therapie mit dem Nasopharyngoskop nachWitzel et al. [11] erprobt und erweitert. Krieterien zur Indikation, die notwendige Diagnostik und ein effizienter Therapieaufbau wurden erarbeitet. Die Methode und Ergebnisse werden anhand einer Einzelfallstudie

  6. Evaluating DEM results with FEM perspectives of load : soil interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tadesse

    2004-01-01

    Keywords<\\/span><\\/strong>: Load - soil interaction, soil structure, soil mechanical properties, FEM (Finite Element Method), Plaxis (Finite Element Code), granular particles, shear stress, DEM (Distinct Element Method), micromechanics of deformation, interparticle friction coefficient<\\/o:p><\\/span><\\/div>DEM product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Paiva, Rodrigo; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    We present the methodology and results from the development of a near-global 'bare-earth' Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. Digital Elevation Models are the most important input for hydraulic modelling, as the DEM quality governs the accuracy of the model outputs. While SRTM is currently the best near-globally [60N to 60S] available DEM, it requires adjustments to reduce the vegetation contamination and make it useful for hydrodynamic modelling over heavily vegetated areas (e.g. tropical wetlands). Unlike previous methods of accounting for vegetation contamination, which concentrated on correcting relatively small areas and usually applied a static adjustment, we account for vegetation contamination globally and apply a spatial varying correction, based on information about canopy height and density. In creating the final 'bare-earth' SRTM DEM dataset, we produced three different 'bare-earth' SRTM products. The first applies global parameters, while the second and third products apply parameters that are regionalised based on either climatic zones or vegetation types, respectively. We also tested two different canopy density proxies of different spatial resolution. Using ground elevations obtained from the ICESat GLA14 satellite altimeter, we calculate the residual errors for the raw SRTM and the three 'bare-earth' SRTM products and compare performances. The three 'bare-earth' products all show large improvements over the raw SRTM in vegetated areas with the overall mean bias reduced by between 75 and 92% from 4.94 m to 0.40 m. The overall standard deviation is reduced by between 29 and 33 % from 7.12 m to 4.80 m. As expected, improvements are higher in areas with denser vegetation. The final 'bare-earth' SRTM dataset is available at 3 arc-second with lower vertical height errors and less noise than the original SRTM product.

  7. A Rigorous Stereo Method for DEM Generation from RADARSAT Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian J. Dowman; Pu-huai Chen

    Abstract Experiments of the two-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) technique shows,that the method,often gives poor result due to poor coherence and to different physical conditions. For this reason, the stereoscopic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) method,presents,an important alternative for terrain mapping. To automate the image,matching,procedures,and,to reduce the requirement,of GCPs is a major,consideration in the generation,of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from

  8. Mapping debris-flow hazard in Honolulu using a DEM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellen, Stephen D.; Mark, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    A method for mapping hazard posed by debris flows has been developed and applied to an area near Honolulu, Hawaii. The method uses studies of past debris flows to characterize sites of initiation, volume at initiation, and volume-change behavior during flow. Digital simulations of debris flows based on these characteristics are then routed through a digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate degree of hazard over the area.

  9. Neuuntersuchung der Dolichothoraci aus dem Unterdevon von Overath bei Köln

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Gross

    1962-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Die Dolichothoraci-Arten aus dem Unterdevon von Overath bei Köln wurden erneut untersucht. Neue Ergebnisse beziehen sich besonders\\u000a auf die Mediodorsal-Platten, die Spinalia, die Mediocaudal-Platten und das Scapulocoracoid. Sie ermöglichten eine Korrektur\\u000a der Rekonstruktion der Rumpfpanzer beider Arten. Zahlreiche Abbildungen sollen eine Vorstellung von der Variationsbreite der\\u000a einzelnen Knochenplatten geben. Für beide Arten mußten wegen der Gestalt der MD-Platten und anderer

  10. Passives Monitoring von Stickstoffeinträgen in Kiefernforsten mit dem Rotstengelmoos ( Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Mohr

    1999-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  In 23 Kiefernforsten Norddeutschlands wurden in den Jahren 1996 bis 1998 Untersuchungen durchgeführt, um Stickstoffkonzentrationen\\u000a im Rotstengelmoos (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) mit N-Gehalten in Kiefernnadeln, Stickstoffeinträgen und-konzentrationen im Bestandsniederschlag zu vergleichen.\\u000a \\u000a Nach den Ergebnissen der im Jahr vor der Pflanzenprobenahme durchgeführten Depostionsmessungen lagen die N-Einträge (NH4?N+NO3?N) zwischen 10 und 32 kg ha?1a?1. Die mittleren N-Konzentrationen im Niederschlagswasser betrugen zwischen 2,8

  11. A coupled DEM-CFD method for impulse wave modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tao; Utili, Stefano; Crosta, GiovanBattista

    2015-04-01

    Rockslides can be characterized by a rapid evolution, up to a possible transition into a rock avalanche, which can be associated with an almost instantaneous collapse and spreading. Different examples are available in the literature, but the Vajont rockslide is quite unique for its morphological and geological characteristics, as well as for the type of evolution and the availability of long term monitoring data. This study advocates the use of a DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of hydrodynamic waves due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche. 3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code were performed to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with still water and the subsequent wave generation (Zhao et al., 2014). The physical response predicted is in broad agreement with the available observations. The numerical results are compared to those published in the literature and especially to Crosta et al. (2014). According to our results, the maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 m and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 m and 190 m respectively). In these simulations, the slope mass is considered permeable, such that the toe region of the slope can move submerged in the reservoir and the impulse water wave can also flow back into the slope mass. However, the upscaling of the grains size in the DEM model leads to an unrealistically high hydraulic conductivity of the model, such that only a small amount of water is splashed onto the northern bank of the Vajont valley. The use of high fluid viscosity and coarse grain model has shown the possibility to model more realistically both the slope and wave motions. However, more detailed slope and fluid properties, and the need for computational efficiency should be considered in future research work. This aspect has also been investigated by Crosta et al. (2014) via 2D and 3D FEM ALE modelling without considering the water seepage in the slope mass has been used. Their results can be a good way to estimate the slope and wave motion for fast sliding conditions. The 3D modelling can also clarify the lateral motion of water and estimate the potential risk of water overtopping the dam crest. The DEM and FEM ALE modelling can be used together to analyse fast moving rockslides (i.e. flowslides, rockslides, rock and debris avalanches) both in dry conditions and for their interaction with water basins. References Zhao, T., Utili, S., Crosta, G.B. Rockslide and impulse wave modelling in the Vajont reservoir by DEM-CFD analyses. Rock Mechanics and rock Engineering, under review. Crosta, G.B., Imposimato, S. & Roddeman, D. 2014. Landslide spreading, impulse waves and modelling of the Vajont rockslide. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, under review.

  12. 3D DEM analyses of the 1963 Vajont rock slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng Boon, Chia; Houlsby, Guy; Utili, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The 1963 Vajont rock slide has been modelled using the distinct element method (DEM). The open-source DEM code, YADE (Kozicki & Donzé, 2008), was used together with the contact detection algorithm proposed by Boon et al. (2012). The critical sliding friction angle at the slide surface was sought using a strength reduction approach. A shear-softening contact model was used to model the shear resistance of the clayey layer at the slide surface. The results suggest that the critical sliding friction angle can be conservative if stability analyses are calculated based on the peak friction angles. The water table was assumed to be horizontal and the pore pressure at the clay layer was assumed to be hydrostatic. The influence of reservoir filling was marginal, increasing the sliding friction angle by only 1.6?. The results of the DEM calculations were found to be sensitive to the orientations of the bedding planes and cross-joints. Finally, the failure mechanism was investigated and arching was found to be present at the bend of the chair-shaped slope. References Boon C.W., Houlsby G.T., Utili S. (2012). A new algorithm for contact detection between convex polygonal and polyhedral particles in the discrete element method. Computers and Geotechnics, vol 44, 73-82, doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.03.012. Kozicki, J., & Donzé, F. V. (2008). A new open-source software developed for numerical simulations using discrete modeling methods. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 197(49-50), 4429-4443.

  13. Accuracy of Cartosat-1 DEM and its derived attribute at multiple scale representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Samadrita; Mukherjee, Sandip; Bhardwaj, A.; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Garg, R. D.; Hazra, S.

    2015-04-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) provides basic information about terrain relief and is used for morphological characterisation, hydrological modelling and infrastructural studies. This paper investigates the accuracy of DEM and its derived attributes in multiple scales. This study was carried out for a part of Shiwalik Himalaya using Cartosat-1 stereo pair data. DEM at various cell sizes were generated and information content was compared using mean elevation, variance and entropy statistics. Various post-spacing DEMs were validated to understand variation in vertical accuracy along different scales. The vertical accuracy (3.14-7.24 m) is affected in larger spacing DEM and elevation is underestimated. Slope of terrain also has similar impacts. The DEM and slope accuracy are also affected by the terrain roughness while assessing coarser grid size.

  14. Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, mn pixels,

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, m×n pixels, containing a particular solar feature, for t = 1, 2, . . . , T. btM sianFieldRandomGaus I M I I bbb T t bbtt bbb bb 2 1 2 )( #12;Solar DEM.bI : the measure error of the ith row and jth column pixel of the certain image in color band b. ijbe #12;Solar DEM

  15. Processing System and Algorithms for the TanDEM-X Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Eineder; Thomas Fritz; Helko Breit; Nico Adam; Nestor Yague-Martinez; Marie Lachaise; Ramon Brcic

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the German radar satellite TerraSAR-X will be supplemented with the TanDEM-X satellite to form the first bi-static single pass interferometer in space. TanDEM-X will fly close to TerraSAR-X in a controlled helix configuration for 3 years to jointly acquire interferometric SAR data in bistatic mode. The primary TanDEM-X mission goal is to generate a global Digital Elevation Model

  16. Generating, Comparing and Exploiting DEMs for Hydrological Applications over the Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ozouville, N.; Benveniste, J.; Deffontaines, B.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.; Wegmuller, U.

    Understanding the hydrological cycle of the Galapagos Islands will contribute to more efficient water management in insular basaltic environments with growing anthropogenic pressure and ecosystems to preserve. Lack of essential existing in-situ data such as topography led to retrieving this information from other sources. We present the generation from satellite data of digital elevation model (DEM) and its exploitation for the Santa Cruz island. An interferometric DEM was generated from ASAR (ENVISAT) data with Atlantis EarthView and a radargrammetric DEM using multiple incidence angle capacity of ASAR was generated by Gamma Remote Sensing. SRTM 90 m resolution data (NASA) and a digitalised topographic contour DEM (M. Souris, IRD) were used to aid the phase unwrapping and for comparison and validation. Combining the radargrammetric DEM (overall accurate, few detail) and the interferometric DEM (unresolved in uncoherent areas but high definition in coherent areas), it is hoped to achieve a resolution better than the 90 m SRTM data and which can be compared to the 30 m resolution SRTM data which has been requested from NASA. Drainage networks were extracted and identified on Santa Cruz and zones of interest for the setting up of hydrological instruments are defined. Radargrammetric versus interferometric method of DEM generation in volcanic insular environment is reviewed in this work. Resolution of the DEM will be a limiting factor to the accuracy of transposition from image to fieldwork. Background hydrological information from the DEM can be used in the hydrological modelling.

  17. Influence of DEM resolution on drainage network extraction: A multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza-Villaverde, A. B.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.

    2015-07-01

    Different hydrological algorithms have been developed to automatically extract drainage networks from digital elevation models (DEMs). D8 is the most widely used algorithm to delineate drainage networks and catchments from a DEM. This algorithm has certain advantages such as simplicity, the provision of a reasonable representation for convergent flow conditions and consistency among flow patterns, calculated contributing areas and the spatial representation of subcatchments. However, it has limitations in selecting suitable flow accumulation threshold values to determine the pixels that belong to drainage networks. Although the effects of DEM resolution on some terrain attributes, stream characterisation and watershed delineation have been studied, analyses of the influence of DEM resolution on flow accumulation threshold values have been limited. Recently, multifractal analyses have been successfully used to find appropriate flow accumulation threshold values. The application of this type of analysis to evaluate the relationship between DEM resolution and flow accumulation threshold value needs to be explored. Therefore, this study tested three DEM resolutions for four drainage basins with different levels of drainage network distribution by comparing the Rényi spectra of the drainage networks that were obtained with the D8 algorithm against those determined by photogrammetric restitution. According to the results, DEM resolution influences the selected flow accumulation threshold value and the simulated network morphology. The suitable flow accumulation threshold value increases as the DEM resolution increases and shows greater variability for basins with lower drainage densities. The links between DEM resolution and terrain attributes were also examined.

  18. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  19. DEM generation methods and applications in revealing of topographic changes caused by coal mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanfang; Fu, Bihong; Yoshiki, Ninomiya

    2008-12-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) is indispensable for many applications in earth sciences, and there are many kinds of DEM generation methods, such as interpolation between contour lines from topographic maps, stereoscopy from aerial photographs or satellite images, and interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Due to long years of coal mining activities, topographic changes have happened to Fushun city, northeastern China. In this study, different DEM generation methods of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) stereoscopy, ERS tandem Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) InSAR were discussed. Multi-temporal and multi-source DEM data, with different spatial resolutions of 15 m, 40 m and 90 m respectively, were combined to study the topographic changes in the past 10 years caused by open coal mining activities in western Fushun city. ERS InSAR DEM and SRTM DEM data are free of weather conditions, but ASTER DEM quality may be affected by cloud coverage in some local areas. Results from multi-source of DEM data, i.e. ERS InSAR, SRTM and ASTER DEM, show that obvious topographic changes associated with coal mining activities have occurred in Fushun area. The depth of the famous West Open Coal Mine is increasing in the past 10 years, and the maximum depth change is 140 m between 1996 and 2006. Meanwhile, the elevation of three waste rocks piling fields increased more than 10 m due to the coal mining activities.

  1. Release of a 10-m-resolution DEM for the Italian territory: Comparison with global-coverage DEMs and anaglyph-mode exploration via the web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Tarquini; Stefano Vinci; Massimiliano Favalli; Fawzi Doumaz; Alessandro Fornaciai; Luca Nannipieri

    The 10-m-resolution TINITALY\\/01 DEM (Tarquini et al., 2007) is compared with the two, coarser-resolution, global-coverage, spaceborne-based SRTM and ASTER DEMs and with a high-resolution, LIDAR-derived DEM. Afterwards, we presented a webGIS which allows to explore a 10-m-resolution anaglyph layer showing the landforms of the whole Italian territory in 3D. The webGIS (http:\\/\\/tinitaly.pi.ingv.it\\/) is open to the public, and can be

  2. Integration of SAR and DEM data: Geometrical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kropatsch, Walter G.

    1991-01-01

    General principles for integrating data from different sources are derived from the experience of registration of SAR images with digital elevation models (DEM) data. The integration consists of establishing geometrical relations between the data sets that allow us to accumulate information from both data sets for any given object point (e.g., elevation, slope, backscatter of ground cover, etc.). Since the geometries of the two data are completely different they cannot be compared on a pixel by pixel basis. The presented approach detects instances of higher level features in both data sets independently and performs the matching at the high level. Besides the efficiency of this general strategy it further allows the integration of additional knowledge sources: world knowledge and sensor characteristics are also useful sources of information. The SAR features layover and shadow can be detected easily in SAR images. An analytical method to find such regions also in a DEM needs in addition the parameters of the flight path of the SAR sensor and the range projection model. The generation of the SAR layover and shadow maps is summarized and new extensions to this method are proposed.

  3. DEM, tide and velocity over sulzberger ice shelf, West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baek, S.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, H.; Yi, Y.; Kwoun, O.-I.; Lu, Zhiming; Braun, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets preserve more than 77% of the global fresh water and could raise global sea level by several meters if completely melted. Ocean tides near and under ice shelves shifts the grounding line position significantly and are one of current limitations to study glacier dynamics and mass balance. The Sulzberger ice shelf is an area of ice mass flux change in West Antarctica and has not yet been well studied. In this study, we use repeat-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry data from the ERS-1 and ERS-2 tandem missions for generation of a high-resolution (60-m) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) including tidal deformation detection and ice stream velocity of the Sulzberger Ice Shelf. Other satellite data such as laser altimeter measurements with fine foot-prints (70-m) from NASA's ICESat are used for validation and analyses. The resulting DEM has an accuracy of-0.57??5.88 m and is demonstrated to be useful for grounding line detection and ice mass balance studies. The deformation observed by InSAR is found to be primarily due to ocean tides and atmospheric pressure. The 2-D ice stream velocities computed agree qualitatively with previous methods on part of the Ice Shelf from passive microwave remote-sensing data (i.e., LANDSAT). ?? 2005 IEEE.

  4. DEM based investigation of loess shoulder-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoan; Xiao, Chenchao; Jia, Dunxin; Yang, Xin

    2007-06-01

    The existence of shoulder line is a typical and important characteristic of loess relief, which also plays a significant role in the study of loess landform and erosion process. The construction of a classification and quantifying indexes system are the essential work in the cognition of loess shoulder line. On one hand, along with the development of stream networks, shoulder lines extend themselves in the drainage area, the type and the indexes vary correspondingly as well; on the other hand, a specific type of a shoulder line and its character are the representation of gully development phases. High precision DEMs proves to be a suitable information source in the extraction of loess shoulder lines. Experiment in this study show that 5 meter resolution DEMs is available in extracting of loess shoulder lines after some specific processing. Mathematic morphological method is employed in the process to creating a consecutive shoulder line. Based on proper derivation method and the quantifying indexes system, a deep study of shoulder could be achieved. Shoulder line spatial distribution result is accordant to that of the loess relief character. The study of shoulder line temporal distribution gives an even deeper and comprehensive understanding to the development of loess relief development.

  5. A review of "Orthodoxie als Konsensbildung. Das theologische Disputationswesen an der Universitat Wittenberg zwischen 1570 und 1710" by Kenneth G. Appold 

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    Ger- many. Kenneth G. Appold. Orthodoxie als Konsensbildung. Das theologische Disputationswesen an der Universit?t Wittenberg zwischen 1570 und 1710. T?bingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004. XII + 359 pp. 84,00 ?. Review by SUSAN R. BOETTCHER, UNIVERSITY.... Not so Kenneth Appold?s Habilitationsschrift: it argues the opposite case with modest bravura, plenty of data, and convincing results. Appold also revises our perspective on how dialectical processes worked in the early modern confessional university...

  6. Release of a 10-m-resolution DEM for the Italian territory: Comparison with global-coverage DEMs and anaglyph-mode exploration via the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, Simone; Vinci, Stefano; Favalli, Massimiliano; Doumaz, Fawzi; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Nannipieri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The 10-m-resolution TINITALY/01 DEM ( Tarquini et al., 2007) is compared with the two, coarser-resolution, global-coverage, spaceborne-based SRTM and ASTER DEMs and with a high-resolution, LIDAR-derived DEM. Afterwards, we presented a webGIS which allows to explore a 10-m-resolution anaglyph layer showing the landforms of the whole Italian territory in 3D. The webGIS ( http://tinitaly.pi.ingv.it/) is open to the public, and can be used to carry out a preliminary analysis of landforms. The TINITALY/01 DEM is available for scientific purposes on the basis of a research agreement (see the above website or write to tinitaly@pi.ingv.it).

  7. Ganymede crater dimensions from Galileo-based DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.; Melosh, H. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Morgan, J. V.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Images returned from the Voyager mission have allowed the analysis of crater morphology on the icy satellites and the construction of both diameter and depth-related scaling laws. Higher resolution Galileo data has since been used to update the diameter-related scaling trends, and also crater depths on the basis of shadow measurements. Our work adds to this wealth of data with new depth and slope information extracted from digital elevation models (DEMs) created from Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) images, with the use of the stereo scene-recognition algorithm developed by Schenk et al. (2004), and from photoclinometry incorporating the combined lunar-Lambert photometric function as defined by McEwen et al. (1991). We profiled ~80 craters, ranging from 4 km to 100 km in diameter. Once each DEM of a crater was obtained, spurious patterns or shape distortions created by radiation noise or data compression artifacts were removed through the use of standard image noise filters, and manually by visual inspection of the DEM and original image(s). Terrain type was noted during profile collection so that any differences in crater trends on bright and dark terrains could be documented. Up to 16 cross-sectional profiles were taken across each crater so that the natural variation of crater dimensions with azimuth could be included in the measurement error. This already incorporates a systematic error on depth measurements of ~ 5%, an improvement from Voyager depth uncertainties of 10-30%. The crater diameter, depth, wall slope, rim height, central uplift height, diameter and slope, and central pit depth, diameter and slope were measured from each profile. Our measurements of feature diameters and of crater depth are consistent with already published results based on measurement from images and shadow lengths. We will present example topographic profiles and scaling trends, specifically highlighting the new depth and slope information for different crater types on Ganymede. For example: the central peak slopes recorded in our work range from ~ 15° to ~ 2°, increasing as crater diameters increases. In central pit craters, pit slope shows no obvious trend with crater diameter, however, pit slopes do increase linearly with crater depth, crater wall slope and rim height from ~ 2° to ~ 14°. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Imperial College and by grant #NNX08BA96G from NASA’s Outer Planets Research Program.

  8. Research Article Effects of lidar post-spacing and DEM resolution to mean slope

    E-print Network

    Hodgson, Michael E.

    -spacing; DEM resolution; Scale; Mean slope; Hydrologic modeling 1. Introduction Airborne laser scanning (iResearch Article Effects of lidar post-spacing and DEM resolution to mean slope estimation T. EDWIN by spatial sampling) in modeling mean slope from lidar data using two representations of scale: lidar posting

  9. Solar DEM Model Proposal : A solar image in color band b, mn pixels,

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Solar DEM Model Proposal : A solar image in color band b, m×n pixels, containing a particular solar 11 )( #12;Solar DEM Model Proposal : the volume (abundance?) of ion ii : the proportion of the total volume at temperature t t T t bitt I i ib MIE 11 )( #12;Solar Dataset · 15 Filters.txt files

  10. Integration of high resolution (10 m) DEM with Geographic Information Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi MORI

    2003-01-01

    A 10-metre meshed high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). High resolution DEM plays a crucial role in future GIS applications such as constructing 3D systems in Japan, but it is not sufficient for precise requirements from various applications. Also, a one-metre high resolution pansharpen image from the IKONOS satellite has been integrated

  11. 28.August 2008 Studienordnung des Fachbereichs Medizin fr den Studiengang Zahnmedizin mit dem

    E-print Network

    Mester, Rudolf

    28.August 2008 Studienordnung des Fachbereichs Medizin für den Studiengang Zahnmedizin mit dem Fachbereichsrats vom 13.12.2007 und 21.02.2008 wird die Studienord- nung für den Studiengang Zahnmedizin mit dem Zahnmedizin, Klinischer Studienabschnitt, wird wie folgt geändert: Klinischer Studienabschnitt ... ... (48

  12. Assessment of Multi-source Remote Sensing DEMs with RTK-GPS and Levelling Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsing-Chung Chang

    High resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in many applications such as civic planning, military mapping and navigation, natural hazard risk assessment, to name only a few. It has been a long history of using photogrammetry and dense ground surveys to draw the contour lines of the terrain and create the elevation model. Nowadays high precision DEMs with

  13. A SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR EFFICIENT DEM SEGMENTATION AND DTM ESTIMATION IN COMPLEX URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    estimation, 3D visualization, city modelling, urban mapping, semi- automation. ABSTRACT Digital Elevation. Designing an automatic DEM segmentation method that is successful under all cicumstances cab hardly it to the estimation of a Digital Terrain Model from the DEM. In particular, ReconLab is used to perform a fast, semi-automatic

  14. USING ROBUST METHODS TO MODEL BUILDINGS WITH A DEM Christophe Vestri, Frederic Devernay, Marion Mesnage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for the automatic modeling of buildings with a single Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A variety of methods have been a building with a single Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The model is constructed in two stages. A first stage. The system that we propose is fully automatic and does not use any a priori information about the shape

  15. Spirit Workshop 2010 -Toulouse Status of the TanDEM-X Mission

    E-print Network

    Berthier, Etienne

    TanDEM-X DEM 6 x 6 m Intelligence Agency (US) absolute height error single point errors (90% confidence interval) point-to-point errors (90% confidence interval) h h2~ h relative height error Definition of 90% point-to-point errors: 1° 1° hHRTIh 33

  16. Evaluating SRTM and ASTER DEM accuracy for the broader area of Sparti, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Zervakou, Alexandra

    2007-10-01

    One of the major projects of the Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (IGME) is called "Urban Geology". In the frame of that project there is need for a high accuracy DEM covering the whole country. The DEM should be used for the orthorectification of high resolution images and other applications such as slope map creation, environmental planning et.c. ASTER and SRTM are two possible sources for DEM covering the whole country. According to the specifications the ASTER vertical accuracy of DEM is about 20m with 95% confidence while the horizontal geolocation accuracy appears to be better than 50 m. More recent studies have shown that the use of GCP's resulted in a plannimetric accuracy of 15 m and in a near pixel size vertical accuracy. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. An SRTM 3-arc-second product (90m resolution) is available for the entire world. In this paper we examine the accuracy of SRTM and ASTER DEMs in comparison to the accuracy of the 1/5.000 topographic maps. The area of study is the broader area of Sparti, Greece. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. A DEM derived from digitized contours of the 1:5.000 topographic maps was created and compared with ASTER and SRTM derived DEMs. Fifty-five points of known elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these three DEMs. Slope and aspect maps were created and compared. The elevation difference between the three DEMs was calculated. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed. The three DEMs were used for the orthorectification of very high resolution data and the final orthophotos were compared.

  17. A simple method to improve the SRTM DEM based on Landsat ETM+ Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaobin; Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Hui; Tian, Liqiao; Wu, Zhongyi

    2005-10-01

    Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) DEM has become one of digital topographic data sources of the earth because of its high spatial resolution and near-global coverage. However, its widely usage has been limited by some void areas occurred in SRTM DEM, which are mainly related to the water body, spikes or wells. Although they were modified into finished SRTM DEM by using a complicated process by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), in which a lot of void areas could be filled with correct data, some void areas still exited especially in the water area. In addition, the accuracy of the finished SRTM DEM might be hindered because of no global accurate DEM as a reference. And the finished SRTM DEM can't be freely downloaded from Internet also limits its usage in some extent. A simple method to create an edited SRTM DEM based-on Landsat ETM+ image was proposed in this paper. The unfinished SRTM data was firstly re-projected to the UTM projection for matching the Landsat ETM+ image in the same area. Secondly, through analyzing the spectral attributes of water, the water body was accurately extracted from Landsat ETM+ image by using the indices of NDWI and NDVI. Thirdly, the water body in the unfinished SRTM DEM was masked, and the water void areas and non-water void areas were finally separated. The water body void areas were filled with the surrounding minimum elevation data and the non-water void areas were filled by using the method of Kriging interpolation. The results showed that the proposed method could improve the unfinished SRTM DEM, which were proved to be better than CIAT edited SRTM DEM according to the comparison of both visual effect and statistical accuracy.

  18. Numerische Verfahren fr die PET Diplomarbeit

    E-print Network

    Louis, Alfred K.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4.6.1 FOREX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.6.2 FORE.6.4 Zusammenhang zwischen FORE, FOREX und FORE-J . . . . . . 125 4.7 Vergleich der Algorithmen dieses Kapitels

  19. Effects of humidity on ripening of plantain bananas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Thompson; B. O. Been; Cynthia Perkins

    1974-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Das Reifen der “Pisang”-Frucht wird durch Verpackung in feuchtem Kokosbastpulver verzögert. Reifungsversuche in Luftströmung mit kontrollierter Feuchtigkeit haben einen Zusammenhang zwischen verzögertem Reifen und hoher Luftfeuchtigkeit nachgewiesen.

  20. APPENDIX II II.1 Goodwin Creek DEM, Land Use, Soil Type, and Watershed Definition at Different Spatial

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    APPENDIX II II.1 Goodwin Creek DEM, Land Use, Soil Type, and Watershed Definition at Different-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II-2 Figure II.1.1 DEM, watershed definition, soil type, and land use at 30-m ------------------II-2 Figure II.1.2 DEM, watershed definition, soil type, and land use at 90-m ------------------II-3 Figure II

  1. Der Fall Günter Grass: Eine Inhaltsanalyse ausgewählter Qualitätsmedien nach dem Waffen-SS-Geständnis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kilian Trotier

    2011-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Als Günter Grass im August 2006 in einem FAZ-Interview enthüllte, Mitglied der Waffen-SS gewesen zu sein, war das öffentliche Aufheben groß. In den folgenden Wochen und\\u000a Monaten entspann sich ein Diskurs, der in seiner Intensität und Emotionalität von herausragender Bedeutung für den deutschen\\u000a (Kultur-)Journalismus ist. Beschrieben werden kann dieser Diskurs als relativ ausgeglichener publizistischer Konflikt zwischen\\u000a Grass’ Anhängern und seinen

  2. Assessment of Uncertainty Propagation from DEM's on Small Scale Typologically-Differentiated Landslide Susceptibility in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Chitu, Zenaida; Jurchescu, Marta; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Micu, Mihai

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of free and open access global digital elevation models has become available in the past 15 years and these DEMs have been widely used for the assessment of landslide susceptibility at medium and small scales. Even though the global vertical and horizontal accuracies of each DEM are known, what it is still unknown is the uncertainty that propagates from the first and second derivatives of DEMs, like slope gradient, into the final landslide susceptibility map For the present study we focused on the assessment of the uncertainty propagation from the following digital elevation models: SRTM 90m spatial resolution, ASTERDEM 30m spatial resolution, EUDEM 30m spatial resolution and the latest release SRTM 30m spatial resolution. From each DEM dataset the slope gradient was generated and used in the landslide susceptibility analysis. A restricted number of spatial predictors are used for landslide susceptibility assessment, represented by lithology, land-cover and slope, were the slope is the only predictor that changes with each DEM. The study makes use of the first national landslide inventory (Micu et al, 2014) obtained from compiling literature data, personal or institutional landslide inventories. The landslide inventory contains more than 27,900 cases classified in three main categories: slides flows and falls The results present landslide susceptibility maps obtained from each DEM and from the combinations of DEM datasets. Maps with uncertainty propagation at country level and differentiated by topographic regions from Romania and by landslide typology (slides, flows and falls) are obtained for each DEM dataset and for the combinations of these. An objective evaluation of each DEM dataset and a final map of landslide susceptibility and the associated uncertainty are provided

  3. Data Acquisition Strategies for Aster Global dem Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, M.; Tachikawa, T.; Fujisada, H.

    2012-07-01

    The ASTER Global DEM (GDEM) version 1, is a global digital elevation model with one arc-second grid, generated using the ASTER stereo image archive 2000 to August 2008, and was released on June 29, 2009. The GDEM-1 had some bad elevation data. The most simple and effective way to reduce bad elevation data in the GDEM-1 is to add new ASTER observation data and re-generate the GDEM. An ASTER Data Acquisition Request was defined, based on the number of good pixels and the number of observations at each observation area, for the GDEM version 2 that was released on October 17, 2011. Using more input data and an improved algorithm, GDEM version 2 reduced the amount of the bad pixel by 4.5% to 7.5% and increased the amount of good tiles by 10.7% to 54.3% over the GDEM-1, except for Antarctica. Another ASTER data set is being collected for GDEM version 3, scheduled for 2013. The ASTER data collection scheme, however, has some constraints. This study sought for techniques to optimize the GDEM data collection balancing the overall ASTER operations and reduction of bad pixels in the GDEM data.

  4. Investigation of the Critical State in Soil Mechanics Using DEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Andres A. [Bilfinger Berger GmbH, Gustav-Nachtigal 3, 65915 Wiesbaden (Germany); ICP, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 27, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Garcia-Rojo, Ramon [EPCOS, Avda. Jose Ortega y Gasset 173, 29006 Malaga (Spain); Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando [MoSCoS, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. 4067 (Australia); Herrmann, Hans J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, 60451-970 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Computational Physics, IfB, HIF E12, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-06-18

    The existence and uniqueness of the so-called critical state in soil mechanics is validated in our DEM simulations of irregular polygonal particles. For different particle shape characteristics, the critical state is independent of the initial stress and density conditions. We retain low stress levels, since we do not take into account the crushing of particles. In biaxial test simulations isotropic particles evolve toward a limiting state in which the system reaches a critical void ratio and deforms with constant volume, deviatoric stress, fabric anisotropy, and mechanical coordination number. The last one has been found to be the first variable to attain a critical value making possible for the rest of micro-and-macro-mechanical variables the convergence to the critical state. In periodic shear cell tests, for large shear deformations samples with anisotropic particles reach at the macro-mechanical level the same critical value for both shear force and void ratio. At the micro-mechanical level the components of the stress tensor, the fabric tensor and the inertia tensor of the particles also reach the same stationary state. By varying the aspect ratio of the particles we stated the strong influence of particle shape anisotropy on the parameters that the granular packing attained at the critical state.

  5. What is the effect of LiDAR-derived DEM resolution on large-scale watershed model results?

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Yang; Daniel B. Ames; Andre Fonseca; Danny Anderson; Rupesh Shrestha; Nancy F. Glenn; Yang Cao

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines the effect of raster cell size on hydrographic feature extraction and hydrological modeling using LiDAR derived DEMs. LiDAR datasets for three experimental watersheds were converted to DEMs at various cell sizes. Watershed boundaries and stream networks were delineated from each DEM and were compared to reference data. Hydrological simulations were conducted and the outputs were compared. Smaller cell size DEMs consistently resulted in less difference between DEM-delineated features and reference data. However, minor differences been found between streamflow simulations resulted for a lumped watershed model run at daily simulations aggregated at an annual average. These findings indicate that while higher resolution DEM grids may result in more accurate representation of terrain characteristics, such variations do not necessarily improve watershed scale simulation modeling. Hence the additional expense of generating high resolution DEM's for the purpose of watershed modeling at daily or longer time steps may not be warranted.

  6. A Multi-Pass Generation of DEM for Urban Zheng Cui, 2

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    @cis.uab.edu Abstract--High quality DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is indispensable for a smart city nowadays. A large. The filtering results, such as terrain surfaces and building boundaries, are critical in many smart city

  7. Chemisches Kolloquium Department Chemie gemeinsam mit dem GDCh-Ortsverband Paderborn

    E-print Network

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    __________________________________ Chemisches Kolloquium Department Chemie gemeinsam mit dem GDCh-Ortsverband Paderborn Sommersemester 2014 Die Hochschullehrer der Chemie laden alle Interessenten herzlich zum-Universität Bochum, Lehrstuhl AC II, AG Chemie fällt aus Anorganischer Materialien: Atomic scale engineering

  8. Automated sinkhole detection using a DEM subsetting technique and fill tools at Mammoth Cave National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Levine, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    An automated workflow for sinkhole detection is developed using Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data from Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). While the park is known to sit within a karst formation, the generally dense canopy cover and the size of the park (~53,000 acres) creates issues for sinkhole inventorying. Lidar provides a useful remote sensing technology for peering beneath the canopy in hard to reach areas of the park. In order to detect sinkholes, a subsetting technique is used to interpolate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) thereby reducing edge effects. For each subset, standard GIS fill tools are used to fill depressions within the DEM. The initial DEM is then subtracted from the filled DEM resulting in detected depressions or sinkholes. Resulting depressions are then described in terms of size and geospatial trend.

  9. Hydrologic validation of a structure-from-motion DEM derived from low-altitude UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The increasing ease of use of current Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and 3D image processing software has spurred the number of applications relying on high-resolution topographic datasets. Of particular significance in this field is "structure from motion" (SfM), a photogrammetric technique used to generate low-cost digital elevation models (DEMs) for erosion budgeting, measuring of glaciers/lava-flows, archaeological applications and others. It was originally designed to generate 3D-models of buildings, based on unordered collections of images and has become increasingly common in geoscience applications during the last few years. Several studies on the accuracy of this technique already exist, in which the SfM data is mostly compared with Lidar-generated terrain data. The results are mainly positive, indicating that the technique is suitable for such applications. This work aims at validating very high resolution SfM DEMs with a different approach: Not the original elevation data is validated, but data on terrain-related hydrological and geomorphometric parameters derived from the DEM. The study site chosen for this analysis is an abandoned agricultural field near the city of Taroudant, in the semi-arid southern part of Morocco. The site is characterized by aggressive rill and gully erosion and is - apart from sparsely scattered shrub cover - mainly featureless. An area of 5.7 ha, equipped with 30 high-precision ground control points (GCPs), was covered with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in two different heights (85 and 170 m). A selection of 160 images was used to generate several high-resolution DEMs (2 and 5 cm resolution) of the area using the fully automated SfM software AGISOFT Photoscan. For comparison purposes, a conventional photogrammetry-based workflow using the Leica Photogrammetry Suite was used to generate a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm (LPS DEM). The evaluation is done by comparison of the SfM DEM with the derived orthoimages and the LPS DEM. Parameters evaluated include the flow accumulation, the extracted thalweg networks, slope and exposition. Thus, the question asked is not "Is the height at this specific point accurate compared to a true reference height?", but rather "Does the surface runoff modelled from this DEM behave in the same way as it does in reality?". This means that the DEM will be validated on a functional basis, examining the accuracy of hydrological connectivity and networks. The results of this work may help in the establishment of the SfM technique in geoscience applications, and give an idea of the hydrologic accuracy and reliability of such DEMs.

  10. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangquan Su

    2004-01-01

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station,

  11. Evaluation of radargrammetric DEM from RADARSAT images in high relief areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry TOUTIN

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses digital elevation model (DEM) generation with RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) fine mode images (F2-F4 and F1-F5) over high relief areas. Shallow look angles and small intersection angles were chosen to reduce layover and radiometric differences in the stereo images and thus increase the performances of the image matching. The radargrammetric DEMs are thus evaluated as functions

  12. Uncertainty of SWAT model at different DEM resolutions in a large mountainous watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Ruimin; Bao, Yimeng; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance understanding of the sensitivity of the SWAT model to the resolutions of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on the analysis of multiple evaluation indicators. The Xiangxi River, a large tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. A range of 17 DEM spatial resolutions, from 30 to 1000 m, was examined, and the annual and monthly model outputs based on each resolution were compared. The following results were obtained: (i) sediment yield was greatly affected by DEM resolution; (ii) the prediction of dissolved oxygen load was significantly affected by DEM resolutions coarser than 500 m; (iii) Total Nitrogen (TN) load was not greatly affected by the DEM resolution; (iv) Nitrate Nitrogen (NO?-N) and Total Phosphorus (TP) loads were slightly affected by the DEM resolution; and (v) flow and Ammonia Nitrogen (NH?-N) load were essentially unaffected by the DEM resolution. The flow and dissolved oxygen load decreased more significantly in the dry season than in the wet and normal seasons. Excluding flow and dissolved oxygen, the uncertainties of the other Hydrology/Non-point Source (H/NPS) pollution indicators were greater in the wet season than in the dry and normal seasons. Considering the temporal distribution uncertainties, the optimal DEM resolutions for flow was 30-200 m, for sediment and TP was 30-100 m, for dissolved oxygen and NO?-N was 30-300 m, for NH?-N was 30 to 70 m and for TN was 30-150 m. PMID:24509347

  13. Estimating Canopy Height of a Temperate Forest from TanDEM-X and LVIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, W.; Dubayah, R.; Kugler, F.

    2014-12-01

    The recently launched TanDEM-X mission is the first single-pass polarimetric interferometer in space allowing global estimation of forest parameters without any temporal decorrelation. This study investigates the potential of single-polarized TanDEM-X data for forest height inversion and structure characterization. For this purpose, a temperate forest - Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire is chosen for experiment. Stripmap-mode HH-polarized TanDEM-X bistatic data (with resolution at 3 m) acquired at different baselines was used. LVIS data was applied to remove the ground phase component of the TanDEM-X interferogram and to validate the derived results. Forest parameters, e.g. canopy height and extinction coefficient were estimated based on Random Volume over Ground (RVoG) model. Scattering phase height (SPH) was also calculated and validated against LVIS rh100. A clear correlation was observed between TanDEM-X SPH and the reference height with an r2 of around 0.6 at 150m resolution. The inverted tree height had an RMSE of less than 3.4 m and an r2 of around 0.7 at the same resolution. It is shown that TanDEM-X data has great potential for improving the understanding and quantification of global forest canopy height and structure.

  14. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM across all the GEOSS Societal Benefit areas was shown. The release of the global tiled research-grade DEM resulted in a significant increase in demand for ASTER elevation models, and increased awareness of related products. No cost access to these data has also promoted new applications of remotely sensed data, increasing their use across the full range of the GEOSS societal benefit areas. In addition, the simplified data access and greatly expanded pool of users resulted in a number of suggestions from researchers in many disciplines for possible enhancements to future versions of the ASTER GDEM. The broad distribution of the product can be directly attributed to the adoption of fundamental GEOSS data sharing principles, which are directed toward expanded access by minimizing time delay and cost, thus facilitating data use for education, research, and a range of other applications. The ASTER GDEM demonstrated the need and user demand for an improved global DEM product as well as the added benefit of not only “full and open” distribution, but “free and open” distribution.

  15. Modelling of Singapore's topographic transformation based on DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Belle, Iris; Hassler, Uta

    2015-02-01

    Singapore's topography has been heavily transformed by industrialization and urbanization processes. To investigate topographic changes and evaluate soil mass flows, historical topographic maps of 1924 and 2012 were employed, and basic topographic features were vectorized. Digital elevation models (DEMs) for the two years were reconstructed based on vector features. Corresponding slope maps, a surface difference map and a scatter plot of elevation changes were generated and used to quantify and categorize the nature of the topographic transformation. The surface difference map is aggregated into five main categories of changes: (1) areas without significant height changes, (2) lowered-down areas where hill ranges were cut down, (3) raised-up areas where valleys and swamps were filled in, (4) reclaimed areas from the sea, and (5) new water-covered areas. Considering spatial proximity and configurations of different types of changes, topographic transformation can be differentiated as either creating inland flat areas or reclaiming new land from the sea. Typical topographic changes are discussed in the context of Singapore's urbanization processes. The two slope maps and elevation histograms show that generally, the topographic surface of Singapore has become flatter and lower since 1924. More than 89% of height changes have happened within a range of 20 m and 95% have been below 40 m. Because of differences in land surveying and map drawing methods, uncertainties and inaccuracies inherent in the 1924 topographic maps are discussed in detail. In this work, a modified version of a traditional scatter plot is used to present height transformation patterns intuitively. This method of deriving categorical maps of topographical changes from a surface difference map can be used in similar studies to qualitatively interpret transformation. Slope maps and histograms were also used jointly to reveal additional patterns of topographic change.

  16. Uber Phosphorylierung im Licht

    PubMed Central

    Warburg, Otto

    1962-01-01

    Während bisher der Zusammenhang zwischen Dehydrierung und Phosphorylierung im Licht nur für die stöchiometrischen Chinonreactionen bewiesen worden war, ist nunmehr auch für die katalytischen Chinonreactionen, die aeroben wie die anaeroben, gezeigt worden, dass die Dehydrierung die Phosphorylierung bewirkt. Eine andere Phosphorylierung, als die Phosphorylierung durch Dehydrierung gibt es in den grünen Grana nicht. Natürlich entsteht nunmehr die Frage, welche Substanz das Substrat von Dehydrierung und Phosphorylierung ist. Da die Grana keine Dunkelatmung haben und deshalb im Dunkeln nicht phosphorylieren können, auch nicht nach Zusatz von Chinon, so muss das gesuchte Substrat im Licht entstehen; und da der Photolyt der Granareactionen eine Kohlensäureverbindung ist, so muss das gesuchte Substrat eine im Licht entstehende Kohlenstoffverbindung sein. Wegen der Gärungen und dem einzigen bisher bekannten chemischen Mechanismus der Phosphorylierung durch Dehydrierung (4) denkt man an Triosephosphat. Aber chemisch ist jeder Aldehyd möglich. PMID:14004907

  17. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

  18. Laser Altimeter Evaluation of an SRTM DEM for Western Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Harding, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and laser altimeter measurements of topography provide complimentary approaches to characterize landforms. Results from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will provide an unprecedented, near-global, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at 30 m resolution using a single pass C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) radar interferometer. In vegetated terrains, the C-band radar energy penetrates part way into vegetation cover. The elevation of the resulting radar phase center, somewhere between the canopy top and underlying ground, depends on the vegetation height, density, structure, and presence or absence of foliage. The high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution achieved by laser altimeters, and their capability to directly measure the vertical distribution of vegetation and underlying ground topography, provides a method to evaluate InSAR representations of topography. In order to provide an independent assessment of SRTM DEM accuracy and error characteristics, a simple but rigorous methodology based on comparisons to airborne and satellite laser altimeter profiles has been developed and tested. Initially, an SRTM DEM produced for a large part of western Washington State by the JPL PI processor has been compared to Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) and airborne Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) data. The accuracy of the laser altimeter data sets has been previously characterized. For SLICER profiles, each about 40 km long, the mean and standard deviation of elevation differences between the SRTM DEM and SLICER-defined canopy top and ground are computed. The SRTM DEM is usually located between the canopy top and ground. A poor correlation is observed between the per-pixel error estimate provided with the SRTM DEM and the observed SLICER to SRTM elevation differences. In addition to these profile comparisons, a very high resolution DEM acquired by Terrapoint, LLC for the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (PSLC) using an airborne laser scanning system will be used to evaluate the Washington State SRTM products.

  19. Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

    2009-12-01

    On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land Processes DAAC This presentation covers the issues associated with the release of this very popular product, including issues raised by many of our users.

  20. Eine kreative, aber nicht ganz einfache Kooperation: Erfahrungen aus dem deutsch-tschechischen Joint-Venture-Unternehmen Skoda-Volkswagen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerlinde Dörr; Tanja Kessel

    1997-01-01

    Das Verhältnis zwischen Deutschen und Tschechen ist schwierig geblieben, auch wenn die Außenminister der beiden Länder am 20. Dezember endlich die Versöhnungserklärung unterschreiben wollen. Das überlange Zögern hat auch die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen schwer belastet. Die beiden Sozialwissenschaftlerinnen Gerlinde Dörr und Tanja Kessel von der Forschungsgruppe Transformation und Globalisierung am Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin beschreiben dies am Beispiel des Joint-Venture Skoda-Volkswagen. Neue Probleme

  1. YADE-OPEN DEM: an open-source software using a discrete element method to simulate granular material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kozicki; F. V. Donzé

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – YADE-OPEN DEM is an open-source software based on the discrete element method, (DEM) which uses object oriented programming techniques. The purpose of this paper is to describe the software architecture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The DEM chosen uses position, orientation, velocity and angular velocity as independent variables of simulated particles which are subject to explicit leapfrog time-integration scheme (Lagrangian method).

  2. Scale-dependent predictability of DEM-based landform attributes for soil spatial variability in a coastal dune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daehyun Kim; Yanbing Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Much soil–landform modeling has shown that the predictability of topographic parameters derived from digital elevation models (DEM) for soil spatial variability is influenced by the selection of DEM's grid size. This study investigates soil–terrain relationships in a coastal dune at multiple DEM resolutions to examine if such scale-dependence is a ubiquitous phenomenon even in low-relief systems with relatively homogeneous substrates.

  3. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. TecDEM: A MATLAB Based Toolbox for understanding Tectonics from Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S. A.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-04-01

    TecDEM is a MATLAB based tool box for understanding the tectonics from digital elevation models (DEMs) of any area. These DEMs can be derived from data of any spatial resolution (Low, medium and High). In the first step we extract drainage network from the DEMs using flow grid approach. Drainage network is a group of streams having elevation and catchment area information as a function of spatial locations. We implement an array of stream structure to study this drainage network. Knickpoints can be identified on each stream of the drainage network by a graphical user interface and are helpful for understanding stream morphology. Stream profile analysis in steady state condition is applied on all streams to calculate geomorphic parameters and regional uplift rates. Hack index is calculated for all the profiles at a certain interval and over the change of knickpoints. Reports menu of this tool box generates detailed statistics report, complete tabulated report, graphical output of each analyzed stream profile and Hack index profile. All the calculated values are part of stream structure and is saved as .mat file for later use with this tool box. The spatial distribution of geomorphic parameters, uplift rates and knickpoints are exported as a shape files for visualization in professional GIS software. We test this tool box on DEMs from different tectonic settings worldwide and received verifiable results with other studies.

  5. Fast extraction of building DEMs in urban areas from ALOS PRISM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xunfeng; Lin, Zhou; Liang, Hongying

    2014-11-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of buildings in urban areas are becoming increasingly important for a large range of applications, whereas extracting building DEMs over a city is still a complicated and expensive task. In this paper, we present and evaluate two approaches for fast and handy extraction of building DEMs from ALOS PRISM stereo pairs. A Digital Surface Model (DSM) is firstly generated based on the stereo data. Approach 1 uses a digital terrain model (DTM) derived from topographic maps, and Approach 2 creates another DTM by removing buildings on the DSM through a filtering approach. Building DEMs are then acquired by subtracting the two sets of DTMs from the DSM, respectively. The results received with the two approaches are promising. A mean absolute error of 7.07 m and 7.37 m respectively is achieved. Approach 1 has better accuracy in areas with high-density buildings, while Approach 2 has better one in areas with low-density buildings. Combination of the two approaches would be a useful tool for extraction of building DEMs over a city.

  6. DEM Extraction from High-Resolution Stereoscopic Worldview 1 & 2 Imagery of Polar Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.; Niebuhr, S.; Smith, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are few reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) in polar regions and most are of low resolution (on the order of 100's of meters to km) or of poor quality. Polar environments are changing rapidly and accurate DEMs are critical for correcting imagery, measuring glacier thickness changes and modeling ice flow and surface melt water drainage. Using in-track stereoscopic images from Worldview-1 and Worldview-2, we derived high-resolution DEMs for outlet glaciers and other areas of interest in Antarctica and the Arctic. We used ERDAS Imagine's LPS eATE (enhanced automated terrain extraction) algorithm to derive a dense point cloud of matches. The resulting point cloud is comparable in density to that obtained by LiDAR flown at 10,000 feet. Preliminary comparisons of our results to ground control points collected by field teams and airborne and satellite laser altimeters show 0.5 - 10 meter vertical error over glaciers and 2 - 10 meter error over ice-free terrain. The error is primarily due to approximations in the sensor model and is consistent across the DEM. Our results indicate that refinements in the sensor model and point matching algorithm will improve accuracy. Given the increasing interest in glacier change detection around the globe, DEMs extracted from frequent satellite stereo pairs can be used to monitor and quantify changes in both movement and volume.

  7. Integration of 2-D hydraulic model and high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM for floodplain flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, D.; Wang, J.; Cheng, X.; Rui, Y.; Ye, S.

    2015-02-01

    The rapid progress of Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) technology has made acquirement and application of high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data increasingly popular, especially with regards to the study of floodplain flow modeling. High-resolution DEM data include many redundant interpolation points, needs a high amount of calculation, and does not match the size of computational mesh. These disadvantages are a common problem for floodplain flow modeling studies. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydraulic modeling, a popular method of analyzing floodplain flow, offers high precision of elevation parameterization for computational mesh while ignoring much micro-topographic information of the DEM data itself. We offer a flood simulation method that integrates 2-D hydraulic model results and high-resolution DEM data, enabling the calculation of flood water levels in DEM grid cells through local inverse distance weighted interpolation. To get rid of the false inundation areas during interpolation, it employs the run-length encoding method to mark the inundated DEM grid cells and determine the real inundation areas through the run-length boundary tracing technique, which solves the complicated problem of the connectivity between DEM grid cells. We constructed a 2-D hydraulic model for the Gongshuangcha polder, a flood storage area of Dongting Lake, using our integrated method to simulate the floodplain flow. The results demonstrate that this method can solve DEM associated problems efficiently and simulate flooding processes with greater accuracy than DEM only simulations.

  8. Informationsinnehllet i signaler frn experiment Kursen vnder sig till dem som har behov av verktyg fr signalbehandling. Med signaler

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Informationsinnehållet i signaler från experiment (WAVELETS) Kursen vänder sig till dem som har transforms. Kunskaper i matrisalgebra, partiella differentialekvationer samt allmänna kunskaper om analog

  9. A Study of the Novel of Otto Ludwig based on “Maria,” “Die Heiterethei u. i Widerspiel” and “Zwischen Himmel u. Erde”

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Emma Mae

    1909-01-01

    for the Degree of Master of Arts Master Thesis Palmer,Emma Mae 1909 Study of the novel of Otto Ludwig . A STUDY OP THE NOVEL OP OTTO LUDWIG based on "Maria" "Die Heiterethei u. KWiderspiel"and"Zwischen Himme£>u. Erde". r- 7 »V /> I t i s the purpose... e , t h e walls,the lamp, the f l o o r cloth,and even the teeth i n Mr. Carker's 7 head,have eyes. I t i s by t h i s means,that of giving everything l i f e , t h a t Diekens makes the atmosphere reek_with the f e e l i n g he wants to impress...

  10. Bernd Borchert, Klaus Reinhardt (Univ. Tbingen) 30.8.2008 Trojaner-sicheres Online Banking mit dem Foto-Handy

    E-print Network

    Borchert, Bernd

    Foto-Handy Online Banking mit dem TAN- oder iTAN - Verfahren ist unsicher: ein Trojaner-Virus, der sichTAN), oder TAN­Generator. Das hier vorgestellte Foto-PIN Verfahren ist ein neues trojaner-sicheres Verfahren, das das Foto-Handy des Bankkunden nutzt. Der Vorteil des neuen Verfahrens gegenüber dem HBCI-3

  11. DEM simulation of industrial particle flows: case studies of dragline excavators, mixing in tumblers and centrifugal mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Cleary

    2000-01-01

    Discrete element methods (DEM) are now sufficiently well developed to plausibly model industrial and mining related particle flows. Three cases studies of such DEM simulations are presented here; dragline excavators, mixing in tumblers and charge motion in centrifugal mills. They show the breadth of application now possible and the types of predictions that can be made for each. More importantly,

  12. Comparison of thin plate spline, polynomial, C I—function and Shepard's interpolation techniques with GPS-derived DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarni, Dafer A.; El hassan, Ismat M.

    The digital elevation model (DEM) is an important part of mapping and is used for several purposes including orthoimage production, image interpretation, contours derivation, and several Geographic Information System (GIS) applications. However, without a sophisticated digital photogrammetric system, which could provide DEMs "automatically", and without well-distributed control points, which are usually used in surveying, creating a DEM is not an easy task. Interpolation is often required to create a DEM from a sparse number of points. In this paper, the interpolation accuracy of several techniques, namely thin plate spline, polynomial, local C I-function and weighted-distance (Shepard's) interpolation are tested for comparison using two Global Positioning System (GPS) derived DEMs. The results of two tests with five cases of control points, which are different in number and distribution, show that the Shepard's technique is most efficient with respect to accuracy as well as surface representation, followed by the spline technique.

  13. FEM-DEM Simulation of Two-way Fluid-Solid Interaction in Fibrous Porous Media

    E-print Network

    Luding, Stefan

    FEM-DEM Simulation of Two-way Fluid-Solid Interaction in Fibrous Porous Media K. Yazdchi, S flow through particulate media is pivotal in many industrial processes, e.g. in fluidized beds, granular storage, industrial filtration and medical aerosols. Flow in these types of media is inherently

  14. Combining tomographic imaging and DEM simulations to investigate the structure of experimental sphere packings

    E-print Network

    Gary W Delaney; T. Di Matteo; Tomaso Aste

    2010-01-22

    We combine advanced image reconstruction techniques from computed X-ray micro tomography (XCT) with state-of-the-art discrete element method simulations (DEM) to study granular materials. This "virtual-laboratory" platform allows us to access quantities, such as frictional forces, which would be otherwise experimentally immeasurable.

  15. Effect of the Different DEM and Geological Parameters on the Accuracy of Landslide Susceptibility Map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kawabata; J. Bandibas; S. Nonogaki

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and accurate method of generating landslide susceptibility maps is very important to mitigate the loss of properties and lives caused by this type of geological hazard. This study focuses on the development of an accurate and efficient method of data integration, processing and generation of a landslide susceptibility map using an ANN, geological parameters and DEM generated from

  16. www.north-south.unibe.ch Forschungspartnerschaften mit dem globalen Sden

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    -Süd Die Schweiz hat ihre Position im Rahmen des NFS Nord-Süd im Forschungsthemen- feld «Globaler Wandel dem Norden besonders effektiv. Die Schweiz nimmt mit ihrem hohen Bildungskapital eine die Schweiz in einer globalisierten Welt Maya Graf, Nationalratspräsidentin Dr. Kathy Riklin

  17. ADAPTIVE MORPHOLOGICAL FILTERING FOR DEM GENERATION KyoHyouk Kim, Jie Shan

    E-print Network

    Shan, Jie

    presents a novel approach to LiDAR filtering of ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning) data. The main effort. Index Terms-- Morphological filtering, LiDAR, DEM, DSM, filtering. 1. INTRODUCTION Over the past two decades, LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data has become a major data source for measuring topography

  18. Perspective - Synthetic DEMs: A vital underpinning for the quantitative future of landform analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, John K.; Sofia, Giulia; Conway, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Physical processes, including anthropogenic feedbacks, sculpt planetary surfaces (e.g., Earth's). A fundamental tenet of Geomorphology is that the shapes created, when combined with other measurements, can be used to understand those processes. Morphological data, including metrics and mapping (manual and automated), are a key resource in this endeavour. However, how good are these data that analyses rely on? Artificial or synthetic DEMs are widely used to examine the distortions of 'noise' (e.g., on topographic parameters), but only rarely to make strong 'absolute' statements about landform detection and quantification; e.g., 84% of the river channels in the real landscape are found, or 47% of all actual drumlins H > 3 m are mapped. In theory synthetic DEMs a priori containing known, idealised components can give such absolute conclusions regarding effectiveness if they can be constructed so as to represent well the actual landscapes. So, do we need good realistic synthetic DEMs, how can we best construct them, and what for? From our perspective, they are vital to verify the statistics that will link physics-driven models of processes to morphological observations, allowing quantitative hypotheses to be formulated and tested. We will outline current approaches, and some speculations about the future, but we are seeking a discussion on how best to construct realistic synthetic DEMs and proceed with uncertainty-aware landscape analysis to examine physical processes.

  19. TRIANGULATION BASED HIERARCHICAL IMAGE MATCHING FOR MARS DEM GENERATION USING MOC NA STEREO IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Shan, Jie

    selected landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rover mission. Assessment of image results suggestsTRIANGULATION BASED HIERARCHICAL IMAGE MATCHING FOR MARS DEM GENERATION USING MOC NA STEREO IMAGES often fail in processing Mars Global Surveyor stereo images because of low contrast and insufficient

  20. Representation of real particles for DEM simulation using X-ray tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linbing Wang; Jin-Young Park; Yanrong Fu

    2007-01-01

    A flexible pavement structure consists of mainly bonded or unbonded granular materials. In the simulation of the behavior of these pavement materials, Discrete Element Method (DEM) treats the two materials similarly with exceptions in contact modeling. A common problem for modeling both materials is the representation of three-dimensional (3D) real particles. This paper presents some recent developments in representing particles

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Uav-Photogrammetry for Creating Digital Elevation Models (dem)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, G.; Ries, J. B.; Udelhoven, T.

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the potential that lies in the photogrammetric processing of aerial images captured by unmanned aerial vehicles. UAV-Systems have gained increasing attraction during the last years. Miniaturization of electronic components often results in a reduction of quality. Especially the accuracy of the GPS/IMU navigation unit and the camera are of the utmost importance for photogrammetric evaluation of aerial images. To determine the accuracy of digital elevation models (DEMs), an experimental setup was chosen similar to the situation of data acquisition during a field campaign. A quarry was chosen to perform the experiment, because of the presence of different geomorphologic units, such as vertical walls, piles of debris, vegetation and even areas. In the experimental test field, 1042 ground control points (GCPs) were placed, used as input data for the photogrammetric processing and as high accuracy reference data for evaluating the DEMs. Further, an airborne LiDAR dataset covering the whole quarry and additional 2000 reference points, measured by total station, were used as ground truth data. The aerial images were taken using a MAVinci Sirius I - UAV equipped with a Canon 300D as imaging system. The influence of the number of GCPs on the accuracy of the indirect sensor orientation and the absolute deviation's dependency on different parameters of the modelled DEMs was subject of the investigation. Nevertheless, the only significant factor concerning the DEMs accuracy that could be isolated was the flying height of the UAV.

  2. A simplified DEM-CFD approach for pebble bed reactor simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ji, W. [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., JEC 5040 MANE, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In pebble bed reactors (PBR's), the pebble flow and the coolant flow are coupled with each other through coolant-pebble interactions. Approaches with different fidelities have been proposed to simulate similar phenomena. Coupled Discrete Element Method-Computational Fluid Dynamics (DEM-CFD) approaches are widely studied and applied in these problems due to its good balance between efficiency and accuracy. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without significant loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3-D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2-D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical geometry. Results show that this simplification can greatly enhance the efficiency for cylindrical core, which enables further inclusion of other physics such as thermal and neutronic effect in the multi-physics simulations for PBR's. (authors)

  3. Extracting DEM from airborne X-band data based on PolInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. X.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR) is a new trend of SAR remote sensing technology which combined polarized multichannel information and Interferometric information. It is of great significance for extracting DEM in some regions with low precision of DEM such as vegetation coverage area and building concentrated area. In this paper we describe our experiments with high-resolution X-band full Polarimetric SAR data acquired by a dual-baseline interferometric airborne SAR system over an area of Danling in southern China. Pauli algorithm is used to generate the double polarimetric interferometry data, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Numerical Radius (NR) and Phase diversity (PD) methods are used to generate the full polarimetric interferometry data. Then we can make use of the polarimetric interferometric information to extract DEM with processing of pre filtering , image registration, image resampling, coherence optimization, multilook processing, flat-earth removal, interferogram filtering, phase unwrapping, parameter calibration, height derivation and geo-coding. The processing system named SARPlore has been exploited based on VC++ led by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping. Finally compared optimization results with the single polarimetric interferometry, it has been observed that optimization ways can reduce the interferometric noise and the phase unwrapping residuals, and improve the precision of DEM. The result of full polarimetric interferometry is better than double polarimetric interferometry. Meanwhile, in different terrain, the result of full polarimetric interferometry will have a different degree of increase.

  4. The effect of DEM resolution on slope estimation and sediment predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate resolution (30 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) are normally used to estimate slope for the parameterization of non-point source process-based water quality models. These models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), utilize the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) ...

  5. DEM modeling of penetration test in static and dynamic TRAN Quoc Anh, CHEVALIER Bastien, BREUL Pierre

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DEM modeling of penetration test in static and dynamic conditions TRAN Quoc Anh, CHEVALIER Bastien penetration testing made it possible to measure a force-displacement response of the soil during each single in penetration test is highly non homogeneous and very different from those of laboratory model tests

  6. Schindler 3 Improving Wide-Area DEMs Through Data Fusion -Chances and Limits

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Konrad

    of its benefits and limitations. 1. INTRODUCTION Digital elevation models (DEMs) are one of the core technologies for acquiring 3D points over large areas. Automatic image matching is the direct successor cope well with shadows and untextured regions. When applied to optical satellite imagery, automatic

  7. Using SPH one-way coupled to DEM to model wet industrial banana screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Fernandez; P. W. Cleary; M. D. Sinnott; R. D. Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Large banana screens with multiple decks are used extensively in the process separation of many valuable export commodities. They are high capacity vibrating screens with a curved profile. Discrete Element Method (DEM) modelling using non-spherical particles has previously provided significant insight into the operation of these dry industrial screens. Here we introduce the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to

  8. Mit dem Namen Charles Darwin verbinden sich immer auch die nach ihm benannten

    E-print Network

    Mit dem Namen Charles Darwin verbinden sich immer auch die nach ihm benannten Darwinfinken auf den führen kann. Die neue illustrierte und kommentierte Ausgabe von Darwins Klassiker, die der Taubenrassen. Der großformati- ge und üppig bebilderte Band soll nicht nur Darwin einem größeren Leserkreis

  9. Fusion of high-resolution DEMs derived from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X InSAR datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Houjun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yong; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-06-01

    Voids caused by shadow, layover, and decorrelation usually occur in digital elevation models (DEMs) of mountainous areas that are derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) datasets. The presence of voids degrades the quality and usability of the DEMs. Thus, void removal is considered as an integral part of the DEM production using InSAR data. The fusion of multiple DEMs has been widely recognized as a promising way for the void removal. Because the vertical accuracy of multiple DEMs can be different, the selection of optimum weights becomes a key problem in the fusion and is studied in this article. As a showcase, two high-resolution InSAR DEMs near Mt. Qilian in northwest China are created and then merged. The two pairs of InSAR data were acquired by TerraSAR-X from an ascending orbit and COSMO-SkyMed from a descending orbit. A maximum likelihood fusion scheme with the weights optimally determined by the height of ambiguity and the variance of phase noise is adopted to syncretize the two DEMs in our study. The fused DEM has a fine spatial resolution of 10 m and depicts the landform of the study area well. The percentage of void cells in the fused DEM is only 0.13 %, while 6.9 and 5.7 % of the cells in the COSMO-SkyMed DEM and the TerraSAR-X DEM are originally voids. Using the ICESat/GLAS elevation data and the Chinese national DEM of scale 1:50,000 as references, we evaluate vertical accuracy levels of the fused DEM as well as the original InSAR DEMs. The results show that substantial improvements could be achieved by DEM fusion after atmospheric phase screen removal. The quality of fused DEM can even meet the high-resolution terrain information (HRTI) standard.

  10. Erste Resultate über die Verteilung von Schwermineralen in verschiedenen Flyschkomplexen der Schweiz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urs Gasser

    1967-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Im Zusammenhang mit Herkunftsuntersuchungen von Flyschgeröllen aus den oligocänen Schuttfächern der subalpinen Molasse der Zentralschweiz wurden einige Flyschkomplexe des Rücklandes auf ihren Schwermineralgehalt getestet. Untersucht wurden, neben der subalpinen Molasse, Proben aus dem nordhelvetischen Altdorfer Sandstein, dem ultrahelvetischen Habkern-, Schlieren- und Gurnigelflysch, ferner aus dem nordpenninischen Niesenflysch, dem Wäggitaler, Vorarlberger und Vaduzer Flysch sowie aus den Flyschen der präalpinen Decken.

  11. Quantifying geological structures of the Nigde province in central Anatolia, Turkey using SRTM DEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkesen, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    A digital terrain model and a 3D fly-through model of the Nigde province in central Anatolia, Turkey were generated and quantitatively analyzed employing the shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM). Besides, stream drainage patterns, lineaments and structural-geological features were extracted and analyzed. In the process of analyzing and interpreting the DEM for landforms, criteria such as color and color tones (attributes of heights), topography (shaded DEM and 3D fly-through model) and stream drainage patterns were employed to acquire geo-information about the land, such as hydrologic, geomorphologic, topographic and tectonic structures. In this study, the SRTM DEM data of the study region were experimentally used for both DEM classification and quantitative analysis of the digital terrain model. The results of the DEM classification are: (1) low plain including the plains of Bor and Altunhisar (20.7%); (2) high plain including the Misli (Konakli) plain (28.8%); (3) plateau plain including the Melendiz (Ciftlik) plateau plain (1.0%); (4) mountain including the Nigde massif (33.3%); and (5) high mountain (16.2%). High mountain areas include a caldera complex of Mt Melendiz, Mt Hasan and Mt Pozanti apart from the Ala mountains called Aladaglar and the Bolkar mountains called Bolkarlar in the study region (7,312 km2). Analysis of both the stream drainage patterns and the lineaments revealed that the Nigde province has a valley zone called Karasu valley zone (KVZ) or Nigde valley zone (NVZ), where settlements and agricultural plains, particularly the Bor plain in addition to settlements of the Bor town and the central city of Nigde have the most flooding risk when a heavy raining occurs. The study revealed that the NVZ diagonally divides the study region roughly into two equal parts, heading from northeast to southwest. According to the map created in this study, the right side of the NVZ has more mountainous area, where the Aladaglar is a wildlife national park consisting of many species of fauna and flora whereas the left side of the NVZ has more agricultural plain, with exception of a caldera complex of Mt Melendiz and volcanic Mt Hasan. The south of the study region includes the Bolkarlar. In addition, the Ecemis fault zone (EFZ) lying along the Ecemis rivulet, running from north to south at the west side of the Aladaglar, forms the most important and sensitive location in the region in terms of the tectonics.

  12. DEM simulations and experiments for projectile impacting two-dimensional particle packings including dissimilar material layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Nishida; Yusuke Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic response of a two-dimensional ordered particle packing composed of nylon-66 spheres 6.35 mm in diameter impacted\\u000a by a spherical projectile was investigated both experimentally and numerically using the discrete element method (DEM). First,\\u000a the influence of the number of layers in the particle packing on wave propagation and post-impact movement were examined.\\u000a As the number of layers increased, the

  13. DEM-Based Analysis of Earthquake-Induced Shallow Landslide Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Hasegawa; Ranjan Kumar Dahal; Toshiaki Nishimura; Atsuko Nonomura; Minoru Yamanaka

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method of Digital Elevation Model (DEM)-based earthquake-induced shallow landslide susceptibility\\u000a analysis. Considering topographic effects in amplification of earthquake ground motion, Uchida et al. (2004) have developed a topographical parameter based empirical description of landslide susceptibility during an earthquake. In\\u000a this research, the method proposed by Uchida et al. (2004) was utilized in raster GIS and shallow landslide

  14. Laser Altimeter Evaluation of an SRTM DEM for Western Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Carabajal; D. J. Harding

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and laser altimeter measurements of topography provide complimentary approaches to characterize landforms. Results from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will provide an unprecedented, near-global, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at 30 m resolution using a single pass C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) radar interferometer. In vegetated terrains, the C-band radar energy penetrates part way into vegetation

  15. High resolution DEM from Tandem-X interferometry: an accurate tool to characterize volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, Francois

    2013-04-01

    Tandem-X mission was launched by the German agency (DLR) in June 2010. It is a new generation high resolution SAR sensor mainly dedicated to topographic applications. For the purpose of our researches focused on the study of the volcano-tectonic activity in the Kivu Rift area, a set of Tandem-X bistatic radar images were used to produce a high resolution InSAR DEM of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP). The VVP is part of the Western branch of the African rift, situated at the boundary between D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. It has two highly active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. A first task concerns the quantitative assessment of the vertical accuracy that can be achieved with these new data. The new DEMs are compared to other space borne datasets (SRTM, ASTER) but also to field measurements given by differential GPS. Multi-temporal radar acquisitions allow us to produce several DEM of the same area. This appeared to be very useful in the context of an active volcanic context where new geomorphological features (faults, fissures, volcanic cones and lava flows) appear continuously through time. For example, since the year 2000, time of the SRTM acquisition, we had one eruption at Nyiragongo (2002) and six eruptions at Nyamulagira (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2011) which all induce large changes in the landscape with the emplacement of new lava fields and scoria cones. From our repetitive Tandem-X DEM production, we have a tool to identify and also quantify in term of size and volume all the topographic changes relative to this past volcanic activity. These parameters are high value information to improve the understanding of the Virunga volcanoes; the accurate estimation of erupted volume and knowledge of structural features associated to past eruptions are key parameters to understand the volcanic system, to ameliorate the hazard assessment, and finally contribute to risk mitigation in a densely populated area.

  16. Analysis of wave propagation in dry granular soils using DEM simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Zamani; Usama El Shamy

    In this paper, a three-dimensional particle-based technique utilizing the discrete element method (DEM) is proposed to study\\u000a wave propagation in a dry granular soil column. Computational simulations were conducted to investigate the soil response\\u000a to sinusoidal motions with different amplitudes and frequencies. Three types of soil deposits with different void ratios were\\u000a employed in these simulations. Different boundary conditions at

  17. A 'Drift' algorithm for integrating vector polyline and DEM based on the spherical DQG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Wenmin; Zhao, Xuesheng

    2014-03-01

    The efficient integration method of vector and DEM data on a global scale is one of the important issues in the community of Digital Earth. Among the existing methods, geometry-based approach maintains the characteristics of vector data necessary for inquiry and analysis. However, the complexity of geometry-based approach, which needs lots of interpolation calculation, limits its applications greatly in the multi-source spatial data integration on a global scale. To overcome this serious deficiency, a novel 'drift' algorithm is developed based on the spherical Degenerate Quadtree Grid (DQG) on which the global DEMs data is represented. The main principle of this algorithm is that the vector node in a DQG cell can be moved to the cell corner-point without changing the visualization effects if the cell is smaller or equal to a pixel of screen. A detailed algorithm and the multi-scale operation steps are also presented. By the 'drift' algorithm, the vector polylines and DEM grids are integrated seamlessly, avoiding lots of interpolation calculating. Based on the approach described above, we have developed a computer program in platform OpenGL 3D API with VC++ language. In this experiment, USGS GTOPO30 DEM data and 1:1,000,000 DCW roads data sets in China area are selected. Tests have shown that time consumption of the 'drift' algorithm is only about 25% of that of the traditional ones, moreover, the mean error of drift operation on vector nodes can be controlled within about half a DQG cell. In the end, the conclusions and future works are also given.

  18. LiDAR DEM for Slope regulations of land development in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-K.; Yang, M.-S.; Wu, M.-C.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Slope gradient is a major parameter for regulating the development of slope-lands in Taiwan. According to official guidelines, only two methods can be adopted, namely the rectangular parcel method and the parcel contouring method. Both of them are manual methods using conventional analogue maps produced by photogrammetric method. As the trend of technology is in favor of adopting digital elevation models for automated production of slope maps and complete coverage of the territory of Taiwan with DEM in 40m, 5m and 1m grids have been mostly completed, it is needed to assess the difference of DEM approaches in comparison to the official approaches which is recognized as the only legal procedure until now. Thus, a 1/1000 contour map in the sloping land of suburban area of New Taipei City is selected for this study. Manual approaches are carried out using the contour lines with 2m intervals. DEM grids of 1m, 5m, and 10m are generated by LiDAR survey. It is shown that the slope maps generated by Eight Neighbors Unweighted method are comparable or even better than the conventional approaches. As the conventional approach is prone to error propagations and uncertainties, the new digital approach should be implemented and enforced in the due process of law.

  19. Shoreline Mapping with Integrated HSI-DEM using Active Contour Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukcharoenpong, Anuchit

    Shoreline mapping has been a critical task for federal/state agencies and coastal communities. It supports important applications such as nautical charting, coastal zone management, and legal boundary determination. Current attempts to incorporate data from hyperspectral imagery to increase the efficiency and efficacy of shoreline mapping have been limited due to the complexity in processing its data as well as its inferior spatial resolution when compared to multispectral imagery or to sensors such as LiDAR. As advancements in remote-sensing technologies increase sensor capabilities, the ability to exploit the spectral formation carried in hyperspectral images becomes more imperative. This work employs a new approach to extracting shorelines from AVIRIS hyperspectral images by combination with a LiDAR-based DEM using a multiphase active contour segmentation technique. Several techniques, such as study of object spectra and knowledge-based segmentation for initial contour generation, have been employed in order to achieve a sub-pixel level of accuracy and maintain low computational expenses. Introducing a DEM into hyperspectral image segmentation proves to be a useful tool to eliminate misclassifications and improve shoreline positional accuracy. Experimental results show that mapping shorelines from hyperspectral imagery and a DEM can be a promising approach as many further applications can be developed to exploit the rich information found in hyperspectral imagery.

  20. Fluid-particle flow modelling and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present a meshless simulation method for multiphase fluid-particle flows coupling Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Rather than fully resolving the interstitial fluid, which is often infeasible, the unresolved fluid model is based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, which are coupled with a DEM model for the solid phase. In contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), this is a purely particle-based method and enjoys the flexibility that comes from the lack of a prescribed mesh. It is suitable for problems such as free surface flow or flow around complex, moving and/or intermeshed geometries. It can be used for both one and two-way coupling and is applicable to both dilute and dense particle flows. A comprehensive validation procedure for fluid-particle simulations is presented and applied to the SPH-DEM method, using simulations of single and multiple particle sedimentation in a 3D fluid column and comparison with analytical model...

  1. LULC Classification and Topographic Correction of Landsat7 ETM+ Imagery in the Yangjia River Watershed: the Influence of DEM Resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongnian Gao; Wanchang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    DEM-based topographic corrections on Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery from rugged terrain, as an effective processing techniques to improve the accuracy of Land Use\\/Land Cover (LULC) classification as well as land surface parameter retrievals with remotely sensed data, has been frequently reported in the literature. However, few studies have investigated the exact effects of DEM with different resolutions on the correction of

  2. Homogeneous and bubbling fluidization regimes in DEM–CFD simulations: Hydrodynamic stability of gas and liquid fluidized beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Di Renzo; Francesco Paolo Di Maio

    2007-01-01

    In recent years coupled DEM–CFD models have been successfully utilized to simulate fluidized particle systems in the bubbling regime. In this paper we report on DEM–CFD simulations of liquid-fluidization of glass beads and gas-fluidization of Geldart's Group A particles carried out to characterize hydrodynamically the stability of the fluidized state, in the absence of cohesive forces. Due to the importance

  3. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

  4. Combined DEM Extration Method from StereoSAR and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J. X.; Duan, M. Y.; Huang, G. M.; Yang, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    A pair of SAR images acquired from different positions can be used to generate digital elevation model (DEM). Two techniques exploiting this characteristic have been introduced: stereo SAR and interferometric SAR. They permit to recover the third dimension (topography) and, at the same time, to identify the absolute position (geolocation) of pixels included in the imaged area, thus allowing the generation of DEMs. In this paper, StereoSAR and InSAR combined adjustment model are constructed, and unify DEM extraction from InSAR and StereoSAR into the same coordinate system, and then improve three dimensional positioning accuracy of the target. We assume that there are four images 1, 2, 3 and 4. One pair of SAR images 1,2 meet the required conditions for InSAR technology, while the other pair of SAR images 3,4 can form stereo image pairs. The phase model is based on InSAR rigorous imaging geometric model. The master image 1 and the slave image 2 will be used in InSAR processing, but the slave image 2 is only used in the course of establishment, and the pixels of the slave image 2 are relevant to the corresponding pixels of the master image 1 through image coregistration coefficient, and it calculates the corresponding phase. It doesn't require the slave image in the construction of the phase model. In Range-Doppler (RD) model, the range equation and Doppler equation are a function of target geolocation, while in the phase equation, the phase is also a function of target geolocation. We exploit combined adjustment model to deviation of target geolocation, thus the problem of target solution is changed to solve three unkonwns through seven equations. The model was tested for DEM extraction under spaceborne InSAR and StereoSAR data and compared with InSAR and StereoSAR methods respectively. The results showed that the model delivered a better performance on experimental imagery and can be used for DEM extraction applications.

  5. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for tsunami hazard assessment on the French coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maspataud, Aurélie; Biscara, Laurie; Hébert, Hélène; Schmitt, Thierry; Créach, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Building precise and up-to-date coastal DEMs is a prerequisite for accurate modeling and forecasting of hydrodynamic processes at local scale. Marine flooding, originating from tsunamis, storm surges or waves, is one of them. Some high resolution DEMs are being generated for multiple coast configurations (gulf, embayment, strait, estuary, harbor approaches, low-lying areas…) along French Atlantic and Channel coasts. This work is undertaken within the framework of the TANDEM project (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling) (2014-2017). DEMs boundaries were defined considering the vicinity of French civil nuclear facilities, site effects considerations and potential tsunamigenic sources. Those were identified from available historical observations. Seamless integrated topographic and bathymetric coastal DEMs will be used by institutions taking part in the study to simulate expected wave height at regional and local scale on the French coasts, for a set of defined scenarii. The main tasks were (1) the development of a new capacity of production of DEM, (2) aiming at the release of high resolution and precision digital field models referred to vertical reference frameworks, that require (3) horizontal and vertical datum conversions (all source elevation data need to be transformed to a common datum), on the basis of (4) the building of (national and/or local) conversion grids of datum relationships based on known measurements. Challenges in coastal DEMs development deal with good practices throughout model development that can help minimizing uncertainties. This is particularly true as scattered elevation data with variable density, from multiple sources (national hydrographic services, state and local government agencies, research organizations and private engineering companies) and from many different types (paper fieldsheets to be digitized, single beam echo sounder, multibeam sonar, airborne laser bathymetric and topographic data, …) were gathered. Consequently, datasets were first assessed internally for both quality and accuracy and then externally with other to ensure consistency and gradual topographic/bathymetric transitioning along limits of the datasets. The heterogeneous ages of the input data also stress the importance of taking into account the temporal variability of bathymetric features, especially in the active areas (sandbanks, estuaries, channels). Locally, gaps between marine (hydrographic surveys) and terrestrial (topographic LIDAR) data have required the introduction of new methods and tools to solve interpolation. Through these activities the goal is to improve the production line and to enhance tools and procedures used for the improvement of processing, validation and qualification algorithms of bathymetric data, data collection work, automation of processing and integration process for conception of improved both bathymetric and topographic DEMs, merging data collected. This work is supported by a French ANR program in the frame of "Investissements d'Avenir", under the grant ANR-11-RSNR-00023-01.

  6. Dem Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease Bruce

    2001-09-01

    In this case, students enter the world of a forensic anthropologist who must determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Students, in turn, simulate some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, exa

  7. Reanalysis of the DEMS Nested Case-Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust: Suitability for Quantitative Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kenny S; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; McClellan, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2012 upgraded its hazard characterization of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) to "carcinogenic to humans." The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort and nested case-control studies of lung cancer mortality in eight U.S. nonmetal mines were influential in IARC's determination. We conducted a reanalysis of the DEMS case-control data to evaluate its suitability for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). Our reanalysis used conditional logistic regression and adjusted for cigarette smoking in a manner similar to the original DEMS analysis. However, we included additional estimates of DEE exposure and adjustment for radon exposure. In addition to applying three DEE exposure estimates developed by DEMS, we applied six alternative estimates. Without adjusting for radon, our results were similar to those in the original DEMS analysis: all but one of the nine DEE exposure estimates showed evidence of an association between DEE exposure and lung cancer mortality, with trend slopes differing only by about a factor of two. When exposure to radon was adjusted, the evidence for a DEE effect was greatly diminished, but was still present in some analyses that utilized the three original DEMS DEE exposure estimates. A DEE effect was not observed when the six alternative DEE exposure estimates were utilized and radon was adjusted. No consistent evidence of a DEE effect was found among miners who worked only underground. This article highlights some issues that should be addressed in any use of the DEMS data in developing a QRA for DEE. PMID:25857246

  8. Computer vision: automating DEM generation of active lava flows and domes from photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Varley, N. R.; Tuffen, H.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) form fundamental data for assessing many volcanic processes. We present a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community to produce DEMs from a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. Two case studies, based on the Volcán de Colima lava dome and the Puyehue Cordón-Caulle obsidian flow, highlight the advantages of the technique in terms of the minimal expertise required, the speed of data acquisition and the automated processing involved. The reconstruction procedure combines structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated software (e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/). SfM-MVS reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional geo-referencing software has been developed. Although this step requires the presence of some control points, the SfM-MVS approach has significantly easier image acquisition and control requirements than traditional photogrammetry, facilitating its use in a broad range of difficult environments. At Colima, the lava dome surface was reconstructed from recent and archive images taken from light aircraft over flights (2007-2011). Scaling and geo-referencing was carried out using features identified in web-sourced ortho-imagery obtained as a basemap layer in ArcMap - no ground-based measurements were required. Average surface measurement densities are typically 10-40 points per m2. Over mean viewing distances of ~500-2500 m (for different surveys), RMS error on the control features is ~1.5 m. The derived DEMs (with 1-m grid resolution) are sufficient to quantify volumetric change, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome following an explosion in June 2011. At Puyehue Cordón-Caulle, images of the active lava flow were taken on foot from a ridge overlooking the flow. To assess the evolution of the flow front, two DEMs were derived from collections of ~400 images taken on different days. To scale and geo-reference the data, one image sequence was accompanied by simultaneous collection of a GPS track using a consumer handheld GPS unit; no control points were used. The second survey was then scaled and georeferenced to the first, using features identifiable in both image sets, giving an RMS error of ~0.22 m. DEM comparison then allows advance rates and mechanisms to be identified, and comparisons drawn with emplacement processes of basaltic flows. In both case studies, the SfM-MVS approach allowed DEM generation when access or lack of dedicated surveying equipment and expertise prevented standard techniques from being deployed.olima dome 2011: 3D point cloud data

  9. Evaluation of Elevation, Slope and Stream Network Quality of SPOT Dems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hage, M.; Simonetto, E.; Faour, G.; Polidori, L.

    2012-07-01

    Digital elevation models are considered the most useful data for dealing with geomorphology. The quality of these models is an important issue for users. This quality concerns position and shape. Vertical accuracy is the most assessed in many studies and shape quality is often neglected. However, both of them have an impact on the quality of the final results for a particular application. For instance, the elevation accuracy is required for orthorectification and the shape quality for geomorphology and hydrology. In this study, we deal with photogrammetric DEMs and show the importance of the quality assessment of both elevation and shape. For this purpose, we produce several SPOT HRV DEMs with the same dataset but with different template size, that is one of the production parameters from optical images. Then, we evaluate both elevation and shape quality. The shape quality is assessed with in situ measurements and analysis of slopes as an elementary shape and stream networks as a complex shape. We use the fractal dimension and sinuosity to evaluate the stream network shape. The results show that the elevation accuracy as well as the slope accuracy are affected by the template size. Indeed, an improvement of 1 m in the elevation accuracy and of 5 degrees in the slope accuracy has been obtained while changing this parameter. The elevation RMSE ranges from 7.6 to 8.6 m, which is smaller than the pixel size (10 m). For slope, the RMSE depends on the sampling distance. With a distance of 10 m, the minimum slope RMSE is 11.4 degrees. The stream networks extracted from these DEMs present a higher fractal dimension than the reference river. Moreover, the fractal dimension of the extracted networks has a negligible change according to the template size. Finally, the sinuosity of the stream networks is slightly affected by the change of the template size.

  10. THE H{alpha} DIAGNOSTIC OF ELECTRON HEATING: THE CASE OF DEM L71

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory Code 7674R, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Laming, J. Martin [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratoryx Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2009-05-10

    Recently, the mechanisms and extent of immediate postshock heating of electrons at collisionless shocks have been under intense investigation. Several recent studies have suggested that the ratio of electron to proton temperature at the shock front scales approximately as the inverse square of the shock velocity. A specific interpretation of this dependence was first introduced by Ghavamian et al., who suggested electron heating by lower-hybrid waves in a cosmic ray (CR) precursor as a possible mechanism behind such a relationship. The best line diagnostics for the electron to proton temperature ratio behind collisionless shocks in partially neutral gas are the combination of broad and narrow H{alpha} lines emitted in the immediate vicinity of the shock front. In this work, we present extensive long-slit spectroscopy of the H{alpha} emission in the blast wave shock of supernova remnant DEM L71. We chose this remnant for two main reasons. First, the shock velocities in DEM L71 span the range of speeds where the electron to proton temperature ratio varies most rapidly with shock speed. Second, previous Fabry-Perot scans of the H{alpha} line complex indicated broad-to-narrow flux ratios lower than existing models predicted, but the spectral coverage of those observations was not broad enough to reliably measure the background emission around the broad component H{alpha} line. Our new high-resolution (R {approx}> 1600) spectra of DEM L71 provide extensive coverage of the background near the H{alpha} line and confirm our earlier Fabry-Perot results of consistently low ({approx}<1) broad-to-narrow flux ratios. Here, we present results of these observations and also outline the first results from spectra of radiative portions of DEM L71. We compare our results to the latest models of H{alpha} profiles from collisionless shocks. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the low broad-to-narrow flux ratio is the ionization and excitation of neutrals by electrons heated in the extended CR precursor.

  11. Automated Geo-Referencing of JERS-1 SAR Mosaics Using SRTM DEM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Alsdorf, D.

    2003-12-01

    Mosaics produced from SAR images serve as base maps for many vast, remote areas such as the Amazon basin and Siberia. However, these mosaics are usually not precisely geo-referenced due to the distortion caused by terrain relief and SAR geometry, therefore their scientific value is limited. Since high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) were not widely available, terrain distortion was commonly not removed during the mosaic generation process. Recently, the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) mission has provided geolocation-accurate DEM data at high resolution (roughly 100 m) for nearly global coverage for the first time, and makes it possible to produce precisely located SAR mosaics. Rather than beginning with each individual SAR scene and rectifying it, this paper introduces an automated method for directly removing terrain distortion from SAR mosaics and precisely geo-referencing them. The proposed procedures include SAR image simulation from SRTM DEM, image matching between SAR mosaics and the simulated SAR image, automated ground control point (GCP) selection and screening, TIN-based (Triangular Irregular Network) registration using the GCPs for localized adjustment, and producing rectified SAR mosaics by transforming from the simulated SAR coordinate system to the SRTM system. The proposed method was tested in the Amazon basin using both the low water and high water GRFM (Global Rain Forest Mapping) mosaics. These mosaics, produced by NASA JPL from hundreds of JERS-1 SAR images, cover an area of 8 by 18 degrees in latitude and longitude with a resolution of ~100 m. The offset between these original mosaics and the DEM-simulated SAR image is up to 22 pixels in mountainous areas. Implemented using IDLr on a 3.06G Hz Windows platform, it cost about 3 hours to rectify both mosaics. 1-pixel geo-referencing accuracy was achieved using about 100,000 automatically selected GCPs in both cases. The rectified mosaics serve as base maps in our Amazon basin GIS database, and work great with other layers in the database.

  12. Multi-frequency study of DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warth, Gabriele; Sasaki, Manami; Kavanagh, Patrick J.; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.; Points, Sean D.; Bozzetto, Luke M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We have studied the H ii region DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to understand its physical characteristics and morphology in different wavelengths. Methods: We performed a spectral analysis of archived XMM-Newton EPIC data and studied the morphology of DEM L299 in X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. We used H?, [S ii], and [O iii] data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS) and radio 21 cm line data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Parkes Telescope as well as radio continuum data (3 cm, 6 cm, 20 cm, 36 cm) from ATCA and from the Molonglo Synthesis Telescope (MOST). Results: Our morphological studies imply that, in addition to the supernova remnant SNR B0543-68.9 reported in previous studies, a superbubble also overlaps the SNR in projection. The position of the SNR is clearly defined through the [S ii]/H? flux ratio image. Moreover, the optical images show a shell-like structure that is located farther to the north and is filled with diffuse X-ray emission, which again indicates the superbubble. Radio 21 cm line data show a shell around both objects. Radio continuum data show diffuse emission at the position of DEM L299, which appears clearly distinguished from the H ii region LHA 120-N 164 that lies south-west of it. We determined the spectral index of SNR B0543-68.9 to be ? = -0.34, which indicates the dominance of thermal emission and therefore a rather mature remnant. We determined the basic properties of the diffuse X-ray emission for the SNR, the superbubble, and a possible blowout region of the bubble, as suggested by the optical and X-ray data. We obtained an age of (8.9+9.2-5.4) kyr for the SNR and a temperature of (0.64+0.73-0.20) keV for the hot gas inside the SNR, as well as a thermal energy content and temperature of the hot gas inside the superbubble of (4.3+8.1-2.6) × 1050 ?0.5 erg and (0.74+0.36-0.30) keV, with ? being the gas-filling factor. Conclusions: We conclude that DEM L299 consists of a superposition of SNR B0543-68.9 and a superbubble, which we identified based on optical data. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA.

  13. Efficient Voronoi volume estimation for DEM simulations of granular materials under confined conditions

    PubMed Central

    Frenning, Göran

    2015-01-01

    When the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate confined compression of granular materials, the need arises to estimate the void space surrounding each particle with Voronoi polyhedra. This entails recurring Voronoi tessellation with small changes in the geometry, resulting in a considerable computational overhead. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method with the following features:•A local determination of the polyhedron volume is used, which considerably simplifies implementation of the method.•A linear approximation of the polyhedron volume is utilised, with intermittent exact volume calculations when needed.•The method allows highly accurate volume estimates to be obtained at a considerably reduced computational cost.

  14. Optical-radar-DEM remote sensing data integration for geological mapping in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurmond, Allison K.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Thurmond, John B.

    2006-02-01

    The advantages of integrating optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)) and radar (Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) - C, X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and RADARSAT-1) remote sensing data, and digital elevation models (DEMs) (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) for geological mapping in arid regions such as the Afar Depression in Ethiopia are demonstrated. The Afar Depression in NE Africa is a natural laboratory for studying processes of sea-floor spreading and the transition from rifting to true sea-floor spreading. It is ideal for geological remote sensing because of its vastness, remoteness and inaccessibility together with almost continuous exposure, and lack of vegetation and soil cover. Optical-radar-DEM remote sensing data integration is used for: (1) Distinguishing spatial and temporal distribution of individual lava flows in the Quaternary Erta 'Ale Volcanic Range in the northern part of the Afar Depression, by integrating band-ratios of ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data with Landsat ETM+ visible and near infrared (VNIR) and SIR-C/X-SAR L-band ( ? = 24 cm) data with horizontally transmitted and horizontally received (HH) polarization. (2) Visualizing and interpreting extensional imbrication fans that constitute part of the Dobe Graben in the central part of the Afar Depression by integrating Landsat ETM+ VNIR data with RADARSAT C-band ( ? = 6 cm) data with HH polarization and SRTM DEMs. These imbrication fans were developed as layer-parallel gravitational slip of the border fault hanging-wall towards the graben center. (3) Mapping morphologically defined structures in rhyolite flows exposed on the flanks of the Tendaho Rift by merging ASTER VNIR and short wave infrared (SWIR) with RADARSAT C-band data with HH polarization. The Tendaho Rift constitutes part of the Tendaho-Gobaad Discontinuity that separates the southern and the central eastern parts of the Afar Depression. Optical-radar-DEM data integration proved to be an effective approach for aiding geological mapping and structural analysis in arid regions such as the Afar Depression.

  15. The research by topographic correction methods of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data based on DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Na; Li, Xudong; Zhao, Huijie

    2014-12-01

    High spectral resolution is the main characteristic of hyperspectral remote sensing. The image of objects includes various information of space, radiation and spectral information, and we can also construct a continuous spectrum curve in the imaging range. The purpose of topographic correction is to eliminate the effects of solar light , which may make the spectral curve not accurate compared with the practical curve, on radiation values of irregular ground object. This paper is to analysis the advantages and disadvantages of various topographic correction methods, and provide accurate experimental data for quantitative remote sensing, which based on the area of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image and DEM, comparing with the measured spectral curve.

  16. Development of high-resolution coastal DEMs: Seamlessly integrating bathymetric and topographic data to support coastal inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, B. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Warnken, R. R.; Carignan, K. S.; Sharman, G. F.

    2006-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is cooperating with the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), Center for Tsunami Research to develop high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of combined bathymetry and topography. The coastal DEMs will be used as input for the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model developed by PMEL to simulate tsunami generation, propagation and inundation. The DEMs will also be useful in studies of coastal inundation caused by hurricane storm surge and rainfall flooding, resulting in valuable information for local planners involved in disaster preparedness. We present our methodology for creating the high-resolution coastal DEMs, typically at 1/3 arc-second (10 meters) cell size, from diverse digital datasets collected by numerous methods, in different terrestrial environments, and at various scales and resolutions; one important step is establishing the relationships between various tidal and geodetic vertical datums, which may vary over a gridding region. We also discuss problems encountered and lessons learned, using the Myrtle Beach, South Carolina DEM as an example.

  17. GEOEYE-1 Satellite Stereo-Pair DEM Extraction Using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform on a Parallel Processing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    A module for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction from Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite stereo-pair imagery was developed. A procedure for parallel processing of cascading image tiles is used for handling the large datasets requirements of VHR satellite imagery. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is used to detect potentially homogeneous features in the members of the stereo-pair. The resulting feature pairs are filtered using the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm by using a variable distance threshold. Finally, homogeneous pairs are converted to point cloud ground coordinates for DEM generation. The module is tested with a 0.5mx0.5m Geoeye-1 stereo-pair acquired over an area of 25sqkm in the island of Crete, Greece. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the optimum module parameterization. The criteria of average point spacing irregularity is introduced to evaluate the quality and assess the effective resolution of the produced DEMs. The resulting 1.5mx1.5m DEM has superior detail over the 2m and 5m DEMs used as reference and yields a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of about 1m compared to ground truth measurements.

  18. DEM modeling of failure mechanisms induced by excavations on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jiang, mingjing; shen, zhifu; Utili, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    2D Discrete Element Method (DEM) analyses were performed for excavations supported by retaining walls in lunar environment. The lunar terrain is made of a layer of sand (regolith) which differs from terrestrial sands for two main features: the presence of adhesive attractive forces due to van der Waals interactions and grains being very irregular in shape leading to high interlocking. A simplified contact model based on linear elasticity and perfect plasticity was employed. The contact model includes a moment - relative rotation law to account for high interlocking among grains and a normal adhesion law to account for the van der Waals interactions. Analyses of the excavations were run under both lunar and terrestrial environments. Under lunar environment, gravity is approximately one sixth than the value on Earth and adhesion forces between grains of lunar regolith due to van der Waals interactions are not negligible. From the DEM simulations it emerged that van der Waals interactions may significantly increase the bending moment and deflection of the retaining wall, and the ground displacements. Hence this study indicates that an unsafe estimate of the wall response to an excavation on the Moon would be obtained from physical experiments performed in a terrestrial environment, i.e., considering the effect of gravity but neglecting the van der Waals interactions.

  19. Automatic Detection and Boundary Extraction of Lunar Craters Based on LOLA DEM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Ling, ZongCheng; Zhang, Jiang; Wu, ZhongChen

    2015-07-01

    Impact-induced circular structures, known as craters, are the most obvious geographic and geomorphic features on the Moon. The studies of lunar carters' patterns and spatial distributions play an important role in understanding geologic processes of the Moon. In this paper, we proposed a method based on digital elevation model (DEM) data from lunar orbiter laser altimeter to detect the lunar craters automatically. Firstly, the DEM data of study areas are converted to a series of spatial fields having different scales, in which all overlapping depressions are detected in order (larger depressions first, then the smaller ones). Then, every depression's true boundary is calculated by Fourier expansion and shape parameters are computed. Finally, we recognize the craters from training sets manually and build a binary decision tree to automatically classify the identified depressions into craters and non-craters. In addition, our crater-detection method can provides a fast and reliable evaluation of ages of lunar geologic units, which is of great significance in lunar stratigraphy studies as well as global geologic mapping.

  20. Assessment of an ASTER-generated DEM for 2D hydrodynamic flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarekegn, Tesfaye Haimanot; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, Tom; Reggiani, P.; Alkema, Dinand

    2010-12-01

    Flood modeling often provides inputs to flood hazard management. In the present work we studied the flooding characteristics in the data scarce region of the Lake Tana basin at the source of the Blue Nile River. The study required to integrate remote sensing, GIS with a two-dimensional (2D) module of the SOBEK flood model. The resolution of the topographic data in many areas, such as the Lake Tana region, is commonly too poor to support detailed 2D hydrodynamic modeling. To overcome such limitations, we used a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) which was generated from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image. A GIS procedure is developed to reconstruct the river terrain and channel bathymetry. The results revealed that a representation of the river terrain largely affects the simulated flood characteristics. Simulations indicate that effects of Lake Tana water levels propagate up to 13 km along the Ribb River. We conclude that a 15 m resolution ASTER DEM can serve as an input to detailed 2D hydrodynamic modeling in data scarce regions. However, for this purpose it is necessary to accurately reconstruct the river terrain geometry and flood plain topography based on ground observations by means of a river terrain model.

  1. Kinematic structure of the supergiant shell LMC 9 - I. The nebular complex DEM L208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, M. A.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Le Coarer, E.; Goldes, G. V.

    2014-08-01

    This work describes an extensive and eminently observational study, carried out with an H? filter, of the kinematics of the ionized gas in the large emission region (220 pc) DEM L208 which is located in the south-east part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The intention was to establish the region's general kinematic and morphological characteristics, and to analyse its possible association with a larger structure, aiming above all to contribute to the elaboration of a detailed global kinematics image of the LMC. The nebula's edges are well defined, with fairly regular Gaussian profiles, and can be represented by a systemic radial velocity of approximately 250 km s-1 for the brightest area of DEM L208. The radial velocity fields obtained present a main component with a well-defined profile, as well as other weaker components of larger speed, which may be indicative of expansion motion or of another layer of gas. In some regions we find evidence that the disturbance of the medium is due to stellar winds from the interior of the nebula; in others the profiles observed are found to be consistent with very intense stellar winds from Wolf-Rayet stars.

  2. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Galvin, Janine [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  3. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  4. High precision geometric correction based on DEM data and GCP outlier detection for MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shan; Sun, Weidong

    2005-11-01

    Terrain Height Error is one of the most important factors which influences the accuracy of direct system correction and has an obvious effect along the scanning direction. In this paper, taking Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data received from Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites as an example, and focusing on the high precision geolocation techniques of the moderate resolution optical satellite data, a high precision algorithm based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and Ground Control Point (GCP) outlier detection is proposed to correct this kind of influences of Terrain Height Error. For more efficient and intelligent processing in practical applications, a group of GCPs should be used in the further geometric correction. But the correction result using GCPs is not so stabile, because it is often influenced by the data conditions. In this paper, a new idea based on local distortion similarity is proposed for the GCP outlier detection too. In this method, the distortion is described by a 2-D Gaussian distribution in the local area, and a decision rule is made to find out the abnormal GCPs according to the variance of the Gaussian distribution. Some experiment results using MODIS data show that the proposed algorithm based on DEM data and GCP outlier detection is feasible and valid. The final average location error of the new algorithm is about 0.13 pixels which is sufficient for many application requirements.

  5. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

  6. Beziehungen zwischen Menschenbild und Psychotherapíe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christa Kohler; Karl Seidel

    1974-01-01

    The part played by psychotherapy in the treatment of different clinical conditions such as functional disturbances, neuroses, psychosomatic disease and a variety of somatic diseases varies in importance. It can be the treatment, an important part of a course of treatment, or only supportive to other clinical measures. In spite of differences in psycho-therapeutic approach, all forms of psychotherapy have

  7. Volcanic Landform Classification of Iwate Volcano from DEM-Derived Thematic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, A. O.; Yoshida, T.

    2004-12-01

    Over the last three decades, digital elevation models (DEMs) have been developed as surface data instead of contour lines to allow numerical analysis or modeling of terrain by computer. DEMs have allowed the development of algorithms to rapidly derive slope, relief, convexity, concavity and aspect of any points of surface, and also have allowed the definition of a number of new morphometric measures i.e. openness (Yokoyama et al., 2002). Openness is an angular measure of the relation between surface relief and horizontal distance. Openness has two viewer perspectives. Positive values, expressing openness above the surface, are high for convex forms, whereas negative values describe this attribute below the surface and are high for concave forms. The emphasis of terrain convexity and concavity in openness maps facilitates the interpretation of landforms on the Earth_fs surface. Prima et al. (2003) proposed automated landform classification using openness and slope with genetic factors. This method had been proved to produce good classification for constructional (alluvial plains, alluvial fans and volcanoes) and erosional (hills and mountains) landforms. The capability of this method to classify landforms from DEMs with genetic factors is important because it allows landform evolution to be numerically analyzed. In this study, we adopted this method to classify volcanic landforms of Iwate Volcano from Honshu, Japan, where volcanic landforms were categorized referring to geological map of Iwate Volcano (Doi, 2000). This process took three steps. First, the characteristic of each category was evaluated against the mean and standard deviation of slope, and both positive and negative openness, in two dimensional feature spaces. Second, the characteristic of each category were observed and the combinations of mean and standard deviation of slope and openness showing high separabilities were selected. We found that the standard deviation of slope, positive and negative openness yielded high separabilities of each category and indicated consistency between the trend of categories_f distribution and their geological successions. Third, Mahalanobis distance was used as classification rule to automatically classify the volcanic landforms of Iwate Volcano with those categories. The result shows fine interpretation of volcanic landforms of Iwate Volcano according to their geological successions. The northeastern sector of Iwate Volcano that has relatively young strata was clearly identified against other sectors of the volcano. Although some misclassification occurred in places where the ages of landform formation are relatively close, we considered that the present result is provisionally acceptable because the classified landforms in major accurately replicated many components of volcanic landforms of Iwate Volcano.

  8. Semi-automated extraction of landslides in Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisank, Clemens; Hölbling, Daniel; Friedl, Barbara; Chen, Yi-Chin; Chang, Kang-Tsung

    2014-05-01

    The vast availability and improved quality of optical satellite data and digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as the need for complete and up-to-date landslide inventories at various spatial scales have fostered the development of semi-automated landslide recognition systems. Among the tested approaches for designing such systems, object-based image analysis (OBIA) stepped out to be a highly promising methodology. OBIA offers a flexible, spatially enabled framework for effective landslide mapping. Most object-based landslide mapping systems, however, have been tailored to specific, mainly small-scale study areas or even to single landslides only. Even though reported mapping accuracies tend to be higher than for pixel-based approaches, accuracy values are still relatively low and depend on the particular study. There is still room to improve the applicability and objectivity of object-based landslide mapping systems. The presented study aims at developing a knowledge-based landslide mapping system implemented in an OBIA environment, i.e. Trimble eCognition. In comparison to previous knowledge-based approaches, the classification of segmentation-derived multi-scale image objects relies on digital landslide signatures. These signatures hold the common operational knowledge on digital landslide mapping, as reported by 25 Taiwanese landslide experts during personal semi-structured interviews. Specifically, the signatures include information on commonly used data layers, spectral and spatial features, and feature thresholds. The signatures guide the selection and implementation of mapping rules that were finally encoded in Cognition Network Language (CNL). Multi-scale image segmentation is optimized by using the improved Estimation of Scale Parameter (ESP) tool. The approach described above is developed and tested for mapping landslides in a sub-region of the Baichi catchment in Northern Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and a high-resolution DEM. An object-based accuracy assessment is conducted by quantitatively comparing extracted landslide objects with landslide polygons that were visually interpreted by local experts. The applicability and transferability of the mapping system are evaluated by comparing initial accuracies with those achieved for the following two tests: first, usage of a SPOT image from the same year, but for a different area within the Baichi catchment; second, usage of SPOT images from multiple years for the same region. The integration of the common knowledge via digital landslide signatures is new in object-based landslide studies. In combination with strategies to optimize image segmentation this may lead to a more objective, transferable and stable knowledge-based system for the mapping of landslides from optical satellite data and DEMs.

  9. Turbidity Current Transport using DEM and FEM: a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J. L.; Guevara, N. O., Jr.; Silva, C. E.; Alves, F. T.; Gazoni, L. C.; Coutinho, A.; Camata, J.; Elias, R. N.; Paraizo, P.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we describe a contribution to the study of turbidity transport in scales smaller than TFM (two-fluid models), The intent of the work, part of a large scale simulation project, is to assess local, small scale parameters and their upscaling. The hybrid model is based on a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach under a class of the so called Unresolved Discrete Particle Method (UDPM). In this approach, a Lagrangian description is used for the particle system employing the Discrete Element Method (DEM) while a fixed Eulerian mesh is used for the fluid phase modeled by finite element method (FEM), Fluid motion is governed by Navier-Stokes equations which are solved by an appropriate FEM implementation. Closure equation are used to compute drag and lift forces over the particles in the DEM framework. Volume averaged momentum sink terms are included in the fluid equations. The resulting coupled DEM-FEM model is integrated in time with a subcycling scheme. The aforementioned scheme was applied in the simulation of a sedimentation basin as depicted in figures 1 and 2 to investigate flow and deposition features of the suspension in a finer scale. For this purpose a submodel of the basin was generated. Mapping variables back and forth the Eulerian (finite element) model and the Lagrangian (discrete element) model were performed during the subcycled integration of the hybrid model. References: [1] Hoomans, B.P.B., Kuipers, J.A.M., Swaaij, van W.P.M," Granular dynamics Simulation of segregation phenomena in bubbling gas-fluidised beds", Powder Technology, V 109, Issues 1-3, 3 April 2000, pp 41-48; [2] Cho, S.H., Choi,H.G, Yoo, J.Y.,"Direct numerical simulation of fluid flow laden with many particles", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, V 31, Issue 4, April 2005, pp 435-451;; Sedimentation basin: sectioning the turbidity plume in the Eulerian FE model for setting up the discrete particle model. ; Sedimentation Basin: section of the turbidity plume displaying the generated discrete particle model underneath.

  10. A coupled DEM-DFN approach to rock mass strength characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harthong, Barthelemy; Scholtes, Luc; Donze, Frederic

    2013-04-01

    An enhanced version of the discrete element method (DEM) has been specifically developed for the analysis of fractured rock masses [Scholtes L, Donze F, 2012]. In addition to the discrete representation of the intact medium which enables the description of the localized stress-induced damage caused by heterogeneities inherent to rocks, structural defects can be explicitly taken into account in the modeling to represent pre-existing fractures or discontinuities of size typically larger than the discrete element size. From laboratory scale simulations to slope stability case studies, the capability of this approach to simulate the progressive failure mechanisms occurring in jointed rock are presented is assessed on the basis of referenced experiments and in situ observations. For instance, the challenging wing crack extension, typical of brittle material fracturing, can be successfully reproduced under both compressive and shear loading path, as a result of the progressive coalescence of micro-cracks induced by stress concentration at the tips of pre-existing fractures. In this study, the dedicated DEM is coupled to a discrete fracture network (DFN) model to assess the influence of DFN properties on the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses where progressive failure can occur. The DFN model assumes the distribution of fractures barycentres to be fractal and the distribution of fracture sizes to follow a power-law distribution [Davy P, Le Goc P, Darcel C, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Munier R, 2010]. The proposed DEM/DFN model is used to characterize the influence of clustering and size distribution of pre-existing fractures on the strength of fractured rock masses. The results show that the mechanical behaviour of fractured rock masses is mainly dependent on the fracture intensity. However, for a given fracture intensity, the strength can exhibit a 50 per cent variability depending on the size distribution of the pre-existing fractures. This difference can be attributed to the different mechanisms that involve sliding and crushing of blocks in the case of large interconnected fractures or progressive failure of the rock matrix through coalescence of cracks in the case of small unconnected fractures. Clustering of fractures was found to influence the spatial variability of the mechanical properties and therefore to have a scale effect on strength. The results outline the relevance of three parameters, the power-law exponent of the fracture size distribution, the clustering fractal dimension which fixes the fracture-to-fracture correlation number and the fracture intensity, to characterize the mechanical behaviour of rock masses. References: - Davy P, Le Goc P, Darcel C, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Munier R, 2010. A likely universal model of fracture scaling and its consequences for crustal hydromechanics. Journal of Geophysical Research; 115(B10), doi:10.1029/2009JB007043. - Harthong B, Scholtes L, Donze FV, 2012. Strength characterization of rock masses, using a coupled DEM-DFN model. Geophysical Journal International; 191:467-480. - Scholtes L, Donze F, 2012. Modelling progressive failure in fractured rock masses using a 3D discrete element method. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci; 52:18-30.

  11. Revealing topographic lineaments through IHS enhancement of DEM data. [Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) processing of slope (dip), aspect (dip direction), and elevation to reveal subtle topographic lineaments which may not be obvious in the unprocessed data are used to enhance digital elevation model (DEM) data from northwestern Nevada. This IHS method of lineament identification was applied to a mosiac of 12 square degrees using a Cray Y-MP8/864. Square arrays from 3 x 3 to 31 x 31 points were tested as well as several different slope enhancements. When relatively few points are used to fit the plane, lineaments of various lengths are observed and a mechanism for lineament classification is described. An area encompassing the gold deposits of the Carlin trend and including the Rain in the southeast to Midas in the northwest is investigated in greater detail. The orientation and density of lineaments may be determined on the gently sloping pediment surface as well as in the more steeply sloping ranges.

  12. Issues with using high-resolution DEMs for fluvial geomorphology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Andres

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognized that undertaking detailed fluvial morphology studies can be a difficult and expensive task due to the high amount of resources, such as time and highly trained personnel, that such studies requires in order to obtain accurate results. Yet, for a wide range of projects that in one way or another require the understanding fluvial systems, engineers are frequently challenged with the daunting task of managing expenses within tight budgets and expecting high quality results. It is with this perspective that it is often desired to simplify processes while maintaining a high reliability of results. In an attempt to tackle this issue the current PhD research presents an alternative methodology to undertake river geomorphology studies, by applying an automated procedure to model stream power from DEMs generated from high resolution LiDAR data. The main aim of the research is to estimate the stream power distribution along selected UK catchments and link the estimated stream power values to floodplain development processes. The raw LiDAR data, in the form of ASCII text files, used for the study correspond to 1m, 2m and 10m resolutions. During the process of creating the DEM of one of the selected rivers, the River Teme, the presence of a number of "blank spots" within the mosaic was noted. These areas corresponded to NoData zones generated presumably from the deflection of the laser beam on a water surface. Given that the GIS software didn't consider the missing data areas as part of the DEM, even though most of the "blank spots" were located on the river channel, it was necessary to develop a procedure in order to eliminate the NoData zones and correct the DEM, prior to undertaking the hydrological analysis of the catchment, without compromising the quality of the rest of the data. In search of an improved quality of results it has been commonly assumed that the higher resolution of the data the better and more accurate results are to be obtained. In the past much attention was focused on how to obtain and process the high resolution data. Nowadays with the availability of very high resolution spatial data and very powerful hardware it is becoming apparent that the quality and accuracy of results depends greatly of the software performance, as it has been found of the current research. While performing the hydrological analysis on GIS of the aforementioned selected UK rivers it was found that very high (1m or 2m) resolution LiDAR data does not provide of the most accurate representation of the rivers' flow paths. When compared with 10m resolution data it becomes apparent that the "lower" resolution data produces better results than the 1m or 2m data, more adjusted to the river actual path. It is possible to argue that the reason for this resides in limitations of the software itself. It is also necessary to point out that, while the for the current research purposes the 10m resolution data provides of better results, for other applications, such as topographic analyses of the area, very high resolution data (1m or 2m) is probably more adequate.

  13. Fluid coupling in DEM simulation using Darcy's law: Formulation, and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, M.; Kwok, C. Y.; Tham, L. G.; Chen, F.

    2013-06-01

    The fluid coupled-DEM has recently become a popular topic in the field of granular material simulation. In most simulations, the averaged Navier-Stokes equations are implemented to consider the fluid flow through particles. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on Darcy's law was discussed to avoid expensive computational effort of solving of the Navier-Stokes equations. The results of this approach were compared quantitatively with the well-known analytical solution of 1D seepage through a soil column as a fully coupled problem in geotechnical engineering. The comparison between the developed pore pressure and induced displacement with analytical values revealed that this algorithm is capable of simulating fluid-particle interaction accurately within the laminar regime.

  14. Analysis of initial drainage network evolution from aerial photography and a DEM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Gerke, Horst H.; Maurer, Thomas; Nenov, Rossen; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of erosion rill or gully networks is a formative process in initial landscape development. Digital representations of drainage networks are often derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on morphometric parameters, or mapped in field surveys or from aerial photographs. This study attempted to reconstruct and analyze the first five years of erosion rill network evolution in the 6 ha artificial catchment 'Hühnerwasser', which serves as a real world-laboratory to study patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development. The drainage network was characterized in a twofold approach, based on the analysis of remotely-sensed data. We used high-resolution drone-based aerial photographs to map the actively eroding rill network for four states of development, and a time series of ten Digital Elevation Models to characterize the morphology of the surface. Rill network maps and morphometric parameters were combined to allow for region-specific analyses of morphometry for different parts of the rill network. After a rapid growth of the erosion rill network during the first two years of development, a reduction of the area of actively eroding rills was observed. Region-specific analysis of morphometry indicates an increase in flow accumulation in the central parts of the rill network, which suggests that locally evolving feedback cycles between flow accumulation and erosion affected rill network development, in addition to the effects of precipitation characteristics and the growth of vegetation cover. The combination of drainage network characterization from aerial photography and DEMs could improve analyses of initial drainage network development in experimental studies, as it allows for critical comparisons of flow accumulation patterns and the actual patterns of erosion rills or gullies.

  15. Studying Glacial Melt Processes Using Sub-Centimeter dem Extraction and Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Ablanedo, E.; Chandler, J. H.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D. L.

    2012-07-01

    Glaciers are sensitive to climatic variation and a particular developing area of investigation is in the field of "cryoconite", referring to dustlike residues which form on the glacier surface. Cryoconite absorbs the Sun's shortwave energy, accelerates ice melt and because of the localised distribution of dust creates localised melting which is highly spatially variable. There is therefore a need to quantify the detailed topographic surface of ice and measure its variability through time. This paper describes the use of close range photogrammetry to reconstruct the glacier surface at the sub-centimetre or micro scale, an approach which may allow the relationship between cryoconite and ice surface properties to be explored over either space or time. The field campaign was conducted at Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard (78.88° North 12.08° East), during the summer of 2010 and executed using simple equipment and procedures. A simple and ageing Nikon 5400 5 MP camera was used to acquire all imagery, proving sufficiently robust for the challenging field environment. The camera was handheld approximately 1.6 m above the ice surface, providing an oblique perspective. Images were acquired at three different camera/object distances, each generating coverage occupying three different areas. All imagery was processed using the commercial photogrammetric package PhotoModeler Scanner, generating threedimensional point clouds consisting of many thousands of XYZ coordinates, each colour-coded. It had been feared that lack of texture in the ice surface combined with differing specular reflections in each image would compromise the DEM generation process. Results were better than expected, although DEM quality proved to be variable depending on ice cleanliness and more significantly, the degree of obliquity of the image pairs. Despite these differences, digital close-range photogrammetry has proven to be a useful technique to reconstruct the glacier's surface to sub-centimeter precision. Moreover, the method is providing glacial scientists with new data to examine the relationship between cryoconite, ice surface roughness and melt processes.

  16. DEM Simulated Results And Seismic Interpretation of the Red River Fault Displacements in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, H. T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Song Hong basin is the largest Tertiary sedimentary basin in Viet Nam. Its onset is approximately 32 Ma ago since the left-lateral displacement of the Red River Fault commenced. Many researches on structures, formation and tectonic evolution of the Song Hong basin have been carried out for a long time but there are still remained some problems that needed to put into continuous discussion such as: magnitude of the displacements, magnitude of movement along the faults, the time of tectonic inversion and right lateral displacement. Especially the mechanism of the Song Hong basin formation is still in controversy with many different hypotheses due to the activation of the Red River fault. In this paper PFC2D based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM) was used to simulate the development of the Red River fault system that controlled the development of the Song Hong basin from the onshore to the elongated portion offshore area. The numerical results show the different parts of the stress field such as compress field, non-stress field, pull-apart field of the dynamic mechanism along the Red River fault in the onshore area. This propagation to the offshore area is partitioned into two main branch faults that are corresponding to the Song Chay and Song Lo fault systems and said to restrain the east and west flanks of the Song Hong basin. The simulation of the Red River motion also showed well the left lateral displacement since its onset. Though it is the first time the DEM method was applied to study the deformation and geodynamic evolution of the Song Hong basin, the results showed reliably applied into the structural configuration evaluation of the Song Hong basin.

  17. Zur Verbreitung und Bestandssituation des Rebhuhns ( Perdix perdix L.) in Luxemburg, Lothringen, Rheinland-Pfalz und dem Saarland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Guthörl; P. Miiller

    1991-01-01

    Durch eine Befragung der Jägerschaft wurde eine flächendeckende Erfassung der Rebhuhnpopulationen im Großherzogtum Luxemburg und in Lothringen (Department Moselle, Frankreich) sowie in Rheinland-Pfalz und dem Saarland (BRD) durchgeführt. Es wurde festgestellt, daß das Rebhuhn im Untersuchungsraum nahezu flächendeckend verbreitet ist. Der Bestandstrend geht leicht nach oben. Die Populationsdichten sind jedoch, in Abhängigkeit von den naturräumlichen Gegebenheiten, sehr unterschiedlich. Ein positiver

  18. Micromechanical modelling of monotonic drained and undrained shear behaviour of granular media using three-dimensional DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, Thallak. G.; Dinesh, S. V.; Shimizu, N.

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation results of isotropic compression and triaxial static shear tests under drained and undrained stress paths on polydisperse assembly of loose and dense spheres are presented. An examination of the micromechanical behaviour of loose and dense assemblies under drained and undrained conditions, considering the particulate nature of granular materials, has been carried out to explain micromechanically the granular material behaviour at the grain scale level. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a discrete element model (DEM) which considers a 1000 sphere particle polydisperse assembly with periodic space representing an infinite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we present how DEM simulations can contribute to developments in constitutive modelling of granular materials through micromechanical approach using information on microstructure evolution. A series of numerical tests are performed using DEM on 3-D assemblages of spheres to study the evolution of the internal variables such as average co-ordination number and induced anisotropy during deformation along with the macroscopic behaviour of the assemblage in drained and undrained shear tests. In a qualitative sense, the macroscopic stress-strain results and stress path evolution in these simulations using 3-D assemblies demonstrate that DEM simulations are capable of reproducing realistic compression and shear behaviour of granular materials.

  19. Ice dynamics of Himalayan glaciers (Himachal Pradesh, India) using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are the natural indicators of climate change. Himalaya is a part of widely spread mountain range consisting of second largest ice mass after polar region. The glaciers in Himalaya are located in Himachal Pradesh and other territories of India. The precipitation in the region is influenced by both Indian summer monsoon and mid-latitude winter westerlies. The glacier discharge influences the river basins and provides fresh water for various infrastructural necessities of urbanization in the state. The study aims to estimate the ice thickness and volume change during the decade (2011-2000) and annually during 2011-2014. For this, TanDEM-X DEMs are subtracted from the SRTM C/X band DEM of 2000. In addition, ice flow dynamics are quantified by the constellation of TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data using SAR offset tracking method. The primary investigations reveal that the terminus velocity of Bada Shigri (G077683E32169N), the biggest glacier of the state, Chhota Shigri( G077513E32227N), a bench-mark glacier, and other glacier (G077547E32162N) in 2011 found out to be < 2cm/day. The upper stream velocities of the glaciers are increased linearly and influenced by glacier tributaries.

  20. Comparison of SIFT and SURF based DEM extraction approaches on a GEOEYE-1 satellite stereo-pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    A MATLAB module for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction from Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite stereo-pair imagery is used to compare the efficiency of two well established feature detection and description algorithms. A procedure for parallel processing of cascading image tiles is used for handling the large datasets requirements of VHR satellite imagery. Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithms are used to detect potentially tentative feature matches in the members of the stereo-pair. The resulting feature pairs are filtered using the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm by using a variable distance threshold. Finally, tentative feature matches are converted to point cloud ground coordinates for DEM generation. A 0.5 m × 0.5 m Geoeye-1 stereo-pair acquired over an area of 25 km2 in the island of Crete, Greece is used as input for the module. The resulting 2 m × 2 m DEMs has superior detail over previously developed 2 m and 5 m DEMs that are used as reference, and yields a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of about 1 m compared to ground truth measurements. Results suggest that SURF's superior runtime performance outweighs the slightly better feature quality attained with SIFT.

  1. Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from TanDEM-X and comparison with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Heise, Stefan; Michalak, Grzegorz; Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    On 21 June 2010 the TerraSAR-X satellite was joined by the TanDEM-X satellite. A Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) experiment using the twin satellites has been carried out to estimate the precision of GPS atmospheric soundings. For the Day Of Year (DOY) 330-336, 2011, we analyze phase and amplitude data recorded by GPS receivers separated by a few hundred meters in a low earth orbit and derive collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. In the altitude range 10-20 km the standard deviation between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity does not exceed 0.15%. The standard deviation is rapidly increasing for lower and higher altitudes; close to the surface and at an altitude of 30 km the standard deviation reaches 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. Systematic deviations between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity in the considered altitude range (0-30 km) are negligible. The results confirm the anticipated high precision of the GPS RO technique. However, the difference in the retrieved refractivity in the lower troposphere for different Open Loop (OL) signal tracking parameters, altered onboard TanDEM-X for DOY 49-55, 2012, calls for an in depth analysis. At the moment we can not exclude that a potential bias in the OL Doppler model introduces a bias in our retrieved refractivity at altitudes <8 km.

  2. Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation (ICESat) Satellite Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Greenland and Antarctica at NSIDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, D. L.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T.; Fowler, D.; Zwally, J.; Dimarzio, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation (ICESat) satellite launched on 12 January 2003. The primary objective of the ICESat mission is to provide global measurements of polar ice sheet elevation to discern changes in ice volume and ice sheet mass balance over time. Secondary objectives of the mission are to measure sea ice thickness, cloud and atmospheric properties, land topography, vegetation canopy heights, ocean surface topography, and surface reflectivity. The GLAS instrument has three lasers, each of which has a 1064 nm laser channel for surface altimetry and dense cloud heights, and a 532 nm lidar channel for the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols. Here we present information about 2 DEMs now available at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, one for Antarctica and one for Greenland. The ICESat/GLAS Antarctic DEM has a 500m grid spacing and the Greenland one has 1km grid spacing. They are both derived solely from GLAS/ICESat laser altimetry profile data from the first seven operational periods (from February 2003 through June 2005) of the GLAS instrument. The ICESat Antarctic DEM provides unprecedented detail for regions between 81.5 S and 86.0 S, because of the higher orbital inclination of ICESat relative to past satellite altimeters. However, some artifacts remain in these early DEMs as a result of gridding, cloud effects, and the relatively large spacing between orbit track lines at lower latitudes (e.g., > 20km at 70 N and S) We will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these laser altimetry derived DEMs.

  3. Constructing a Comprehensive Tool for Deriving Drainage Network using Semi-Open Source Tools and Comparision on Different DEM Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P. K.; Yadav, P.

    2014-11-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) provides elevation information in raster format for an area which help in analysis as these phenomena are gravity depended. Hydrological study requires creation of drainage network map. DEM is the primary input for this process. Generally 6 or more processes are required to be completed to get the drainage network. These are available in form of hydrology tools in the ArcGIS software. These processes are manual and time consuming which increases the chances of human error. An automated process is constructed in this paper which aims to create a tool that can handle multiple files in an intelligent manner. The input DEM plays a significant role in hydrological studies. This study attempts to do a comparative study to analyse the variation in the drainage network and the intermediate products with the change in the input DEM. A tool is created using ArcPy site package in Python programming language to integrate all required hydrology tools. The script is then used to create a tool in ArcGIS 10 which takes location as an input parameter and perform the process on all the DEM files inside the directory. The tool creates separate directory for every DEM file and thus reduces the chances of file mismanagement. The proposed tool is tested on two different datasets namely ASTER GDEM and Cartosat DEM. The tool runs efficiently on both the datasets and thus provides results to compare the drainage pattern produced by these different data sources.

  4. Influence of the external DEM on PS-InSAR processing and results on Northern Appennine slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, B.; Schmidt, D. A.; Simoni, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an InSAR analysis of slow moving landslide in the Northern Appennines, Italy, and assess the dependencies on the choice of DEM. In recent years, advanced processing techniques for synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) have been applied to measure slope movements. The persistent scatterers (PS-InSAR) approach is probably the most widely used and some codes are now available in the public domain. The Stanford method of Persistent Scatterers (StamPS) has been successfully used to analyze landslide areas. One problematic step in the processing chain is the choice of an external DEM that is used to model and remove the topographic phase in a series of interferograms in order to obtain the phase contribution caused by surface deformation. The choice is not trivial, because the PS InSAR results differ significantly in terms of PS identification, positioning, and the resulting deformation signal. We use four different DEMs to process a set of 18 ASAR (Envisat) scenes over a mountain area (~350 km2) of the Northern Appennines of Italy, using StamPS. Slow-moving landslides control the evolution of the landscape and cover approximately 30% of the territory. Our focus in this presentation is to evaluate the influence of DEM resolution and accuracy by comparing PS-InSAR results. On an areal basis, we perform a statistical analysis of displacement time-series to make the comparison. We also consider two case studies to illustrate the differences in terms of PS identification, number and estimated displacements. It is clearly shown that DEM accuracy positively influences the number of PS, while line-of-sight rates differ from case to case and can result in deformation signals that are difficult to interpret. We also take advantage of statistical tools to analyze the obtained time-series datasets for the whole study area. Results indicate differences in the style and amount of displacement that can be related to the accuracy of the employed DEM.

  5. Creation of a Multiresolution and Multiaccuracy Dtm: Problems and Solutions for Heli-Dem Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, L.; Carcano, L.; Lucchese, A.; Negretti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The work is part of "HELI-DEM" (HELvetia-Italy Digital Elevation Model) project, funded by the European Regional Development Fund within the Italy-Switzerland cooperation program. The aim of the project is the creation of a unique DTM for the alpine and subalpine area between Italy (Piedmont, Lombardy) and Switzerland (Ticino and Grisons Cantons); at present, different DTMs, that are in different reference frames and have been obtained with different technologies, accuracies, and resolutions, have been acquired. The final DTM should be correctly georeferenced and produced validating and integrating the data that are available for the project. DTMs are fundamental in hydrogeological studies, especially in alpine areas where hydrogeological risks may exist. Moreover, when an event, like for example a landslide, happens at the border between countries, a unique and integrated DTM which covers the interest area is useful to analyze the scenario. In this sense, HELI-DEM project is helpful. To perform analyses along the borders between countries, transnational geographic information is needed: a transnational DTM can be obtained by merging regional low resolution DTMs. Moreover high resolution local DTMs should be used where they are available. To be merged, low and high resolution DTMs should be in the same three dimensional reference frame, should not present biases and should be consistent in the overlapping areas. Cross-validation between the different DTMs is therefore needed. Two different problems should be solved: the merging of regional, partly overlapping low and medium resolution DTMs into a unique low/medium resolution DTM and the merging with other local high resolution/high accuracy height data. This paper discusses the preliminary processing of the data for the fusion of low and high resolution DTMs in a study-case area within the Lombardy region: Valtellina valley. In this region the Lombardy regional low resolution DTM is available, with a horizontal resolution of 20 meters; in addition a LiDAR DTM with a horizontal resolution of 1 meter, which covers only the main hydrographic basins, is also available. The two DTMs have been transformed into the same reference frame. The cross-validation of the two datasets has been performed comparing the low resolution DTM with the local high resolution DTM. Then, where significant differences are present, GPS survey have been used as external validation. The results are presented. Moreover, a possible strategy for the future fusion of the data, is shortly summarized at the end of the paper.

  6. Satellite-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) selection, preparation and correction for hydrodynamic modelling in large, low-gradient and data-sparse catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarihani, Abdollah A.; Callow, John N.; McVicar, Tim R.; Van Niel, Thomas G.; Larsen, Joshua R.

    2015-05-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that accurately replicate both landscape form and processes are critical to support modelling of environmental processes. Topographic accuracy, methods of preparation and grid size are all important for hydrodynamic models to efficiently replicate flow processes. In remote and data-scarce regions, high resolution DEMs are often not available and therefore it is necessary to evaluate lower resolution data such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for use within hydrodynamic models. This paper does this in three ways: (i) assessing point accuracy and geometric co-registration error of the original DEMs; (ii) quantifying the effects of DEM preparation methods (vegetation smoothed and hydrologically-corrected) on hydrodynamic modelling relative accuracy; and (iii) quantifying the effect of the hydrodynamic model grid size (30-2000 m) and the associated relative computational costs (run time) on relative accuracy in model outputs. We initially evaluated the accuracy of the original SRTM (?30 m) seamless C-band DEM (SRTM DEM) and second generation products from the ASTER (ASTER GDEM) against registered survey marks and altimetry data points from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). SRTM DEM (RMSE = 3.25 m,) had higher accuracy than ASTER GDEM (RMSE = 7.43 m). Based on these results, the original version of SRTM DEM, the ASTER GDEM along with vegetation smoothed and hydrologically corrected versions were prepared and used to simulate three flood events along a 200 km stretch of the low-gradient Thompson River, in arid Australia (using five metrics: peak discharge, peak height, travel time, terminal water storage and flood extent). The hydrologically corrected DEMs performed best across these metrics in simulating floods compared with vegetation smoothed DEMs and original DEMs. The response of model performance to grid size was non-linear and while the smaller grid sizes (?120 m) improved the hydrodynamic model results, these offered only slight improvements at very significant computational costs compared to grid size of 120 m, with grid sizes 250 m and greater decreasing in model accuracy. This study highlights the important impact that the quality of the underlying DEM has, and in particular how sensitive hydrodynamic models are to preparation methods and how important vegetation smoothing and hydrological correction of the base topographic data for modelling floods in low-gradient and multi-channel environments.

  7. DEM4-26. Deming`s General Least Square Fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Goldman, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1988-03-01

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming`s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard`s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested, and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.

  8. Numerical modelling by the Stokes--DEM coupled simulation for a roof at hot magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of a granular media has been suggested to play an important role in a reheated magma chamber by a hot intrusion (e.g. Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011). Although several mechanisms, such as Rayleigh Taylor instability, unzipping, and rhythmic convection (e.g. Shibano et.al. 2012, 2013), have been proposed for characterizing upward migration process in a crystalline magma chamber, their contributions in the long geodynamical time scale are not clear yet. Thus we perform numerical simulations to investigate the thermal evolution of the magma chamber with basal intrusion in three dimensions. In order to solve high-viscosity fluid and particle dynamics for modelling a melt--crystal jammed state of the magma, we have developed a coupled Stokes--DEM simulation code with two key techniques: formulation of particle motion without inertia and semi-implicit treatment of particle motion in the fluid equation (Furuichi and Nishiura 2014). Our simulation can successfully handle sinking particles in a high-viscosity fluid. We examine different types of the granular media heated from the bottom with varying parameters. We especially focus on pattern of the settling particles against the melt density contrast between upper and lower region.

  9. Macromolecular Structure Modeling from 3DEM Using VolRover 2.01

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Bettadapura, Radhakrishna

    2012-01-01

    We report several tools for 3DEM structure identification and model-based refinement developed by our research group and implemented in our in-house software package, VolRover. For viral density maps with icosahedral symmetry, we segment the capsid, polymeric and monomeric subunits using segmentation techniques based on symmetry detection and fast marching. For large biomolecules without symmetry information, we use a multi-seeded fast-marching method to segment meaningful substructures. In either case, we subject the resulting segmented subunit to secondary structure detection when the EM resolution is sufficiently high, and rigid-body fitting when the corresponding crystal structure is available. Secondary structure elements are identified by our volume- and boundary-based skeletonization methods as well as a new method, currently in development, based on solving the grassfire flow equation. For rigid-body fitting, we use a translational fast Fourier based scheme. We apply our segmentation, secondary structure elements identification, and rigid-body fitting techniques to the PSB 2011 cryo-EM modeling challenge data, and compare our results to those submitted from other research groups. The comparisons show that our software is capable of segmenting relatively accurate subunits from a viral or protein assembly, and that the high segmentation quality leads in turn to high-quality results of secondary structure elements identification and rigid-body fitting. PMID:22696407

  10. New DEMs may stimulate significant advancements in remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Matt; Fatland, Dennis R.

    From Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo to increasing corn yields in Kansas to greenhouse gas flux in the Arctic, the importance of soil moisture is endemic to world affairs and merits the considerable attention it receives from the scientific community. This importance can hardly be overstated, though it often goes unstated.Soil moisture is one of the key variables in a variety of broad areas critical to the conduct of societies' economic and political affairs and their well-being; these include the health of agricultural crops, global climate dynamics, military trafficability planning, and hazards such as flooding and forest fires. Unfortunately the in situ measurement of the spatial distribution of soil moisture on a watershed-scale is practically impossible. And despite decades of international effort, a satellite remote sensing technique that can reliably measure soil moisture with a spatial resolution of meters has not yet been identified or implemented. Due to the lack of suitable measurement techniques and, until recently digital elevation models (DEMs), our ability to understand and predict soil moisture dynamics through modeling has largely remained crippled from birth [Grayson and Bloschl, 200l].

  11. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  12. Spontaneous structures in three-dimensional bubbling gas-fluidized bed by parallel DEM–CFD coupling simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Tsuji; Keizo Yabumoto; Toshitsugu Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Flow structures induced by bubbles formed in three-dimensional shallow rectangular gas-fluidized beds are investigated by the DEM–CFD coupling simulation. A numerical code is parallelized and more than 4.5million particles are tracked in the maximum by using 16 CPUs. To investigate the domain-size dependency, the cross-sectional area of beds is enlarged by the factors up to 82 and the results are

  13. Studien auf dem Gebiete der Holzschutzchemie—7. Mitteilung: Untersuchung frühgeschichtlicher Hölzer und deren Bedeutung für den Holzschutz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Sandermann; H. H. Dietrichs; H. Gottwald

    1958-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Die Isolierung und Bestimmung der für die Dauerhaftigkeit frühgeschichtlicher Hölzer verantwortlichen natülichen Schutzstoffe\\u000a kann dem Chemiker nützliche Hinweise für die Synthese organischer Holzschutzmittel geben. Aus diesem Grunde wurden gut erhaltene\\u000a ägyptische Sarghölzer (Holza etwa 4500 Jahre alt, Holzb etwa 3000 Jahre alt) sowie Hölzer aus Tempeln der alten Maya-Metropole\\u000a Tikal (Guatemala) und Chichen-Itza (Alter etwa 1150 bwz. 600 bis 1000

  14. Detecting Blind Fault with Fractal and Roughness Factors from High Resolution LiDAR DEM at Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. S.; Yu, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    There is no obvious fault scarp associated with blind fault. The traditional method of mapping this unrevealed geological structure is the cluster of seismicity. Neither the seismic event nor the completeness of cluster could be captured by network to chart the location of the entire possible active blind fault within short period of time. High resolution DEM gathered by LiDAR could denote actual terrain information despite the existence of plantation. 1-meter interval DEM of mountain region at Taiwan is utilized by fractal, entropy and roughness calculating with MATLAB code. By jointing these handing, the regions of non-sediment deposit are charted automatically. Possible blind fault associated with Chia-Sen earthquake at southern Taiwan is served as testing ground. GIS layer help in removing the difference from various geological formation, then multi-resolution fractal index is computed around the target region. The type of fault movement controls distribution of fractal index number. The scale of blind fault governs degree of change in fractal index. Landslide induced by rainfall and/or earthquake possesses larger degree of geomorphology alteration than blind fault; special treatment in removing these phenomena is required. Highly weathered condition at Taiwan should erase the possible trace remained upon DEM from the ruptured of blind fault while reoccurrence interval is higher than hundreds of years. This is one of the obstacle in finding possible blind fault at Taiwan.

  15. Das gemeinsame Klangideal von Belcanto und altitalienischen Geigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Heike

    Die erste Frage, mit der wir uns unter dieser Themenstellung zu beschäftigen haben, ist die nach der Begründung eines Klangideals, das dem Gesang und dem Streichinstrumentenklang gemeinsam ist. Wieso ist es überhaupt berechtigt, von einem Klangideal auszugehen? Ein Vergleich zwischen den klanglichen Charakteristika von Gesangstil und Streicherklang in den unterschiedlichsten Kulturen ergibt zweierlei: Zum einen findet man zwischen Kulturen große

  16. Near-real time orbit determination for the GPS, CHAMP, GRACE, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grzegorz Michalak; Rolf Koenig

    2010-01-01

    The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences developed a near-real time (NRT) orbit gen-eration system for GPS and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites to support radio occultation data processing for the CHAMP, GRACE, Terra-SAR-X and the upcoming TanDEM-X mis-sions and fast baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission. Precise NRT orbits are being generated for the CHAMP and GRACE-A satellites since

  17. Release of a 10-m-resolution DEM for the whole Italian territory: a new, freely available resource for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Favalli, M.; Fornaciai, A.; Vinci, S.; Doumaz, F.

    2012-04-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are fundamental in any kind of environmental or morphological study. DEMs are obtained from a variety of sources and generated in several ways. Nowadays, a few global-coverage elevation datasets are available for free (e.g., SRTM, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm; ASTER, http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/). When the matrix of a DEM is used also for computational purposes, the choice of the elevation dataset which better suits the target of the study is crucial. Recently, the increasing use of DEM-based numerical simulation tools (e.g. for gravity driven mass flows), would largely benefit from the use of a higher resolution/higher accuracy topography than those available at planetary scale. Similar elevation datasets are neither easily nor freely available for all countries worldwide. Here we introduce a new web resource which made available for free (for research purposes only) a 10 m-resolution DEM for the whole Italian territory. The creation of this elevation dataset was presented by Tarquini et al. (2007). This DEM was obtained in triangular irregular network (TIN) format starting from heterogeneous vector datasets, mostly consisting in elevation contour lines and elevation points derived from several sources. The input vector database was carefully cleaned up to obtain an improved seamless TIN refined by using the DEST algorithm, thus improving the Delaunay tessellation. The whole TINITALY/01 DEM was converted in grid format (10-m cell size) according to a tiled structure composed of 193, 50-km side square elements. The grid database consists of more than 3 billions of cells and occupies almost 12 GB of disk memory. A web-GIS has been created (http://tinitaly.pi.ingv.it/ ) where a seamless layer of images in full resolution (10 m) obtained from the whole DEM (both in color-shaded and anaglyph mode) is open for browsing. Accredited navigators are allowed to download the elevation dataset.

  18. Influence of small scale topography on early spring activity in martian polar areas. An example study based on DEM of Inca City region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, G.; Pommerol, A.; Aye, K.-M.; Thomas, N.; Mattson, S.; Hansen, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    By using the newly generated HiRISE DEM of Inca City region with 1-meter spatial resolution we are able to estimate the solar energy distribution over the surface on the scale of topographical irregularities, such as the sides of araneiforms channels. In the present study this DEM serves as a model terrain to test the previously proposed hypothesis of early initialisation of CO2 activity by solar illumination of topography on the meter-scale [1].

  19. Two types of the regular stratovolcano shape: a DEM-based morphometrical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, Dávid; Favalli, Massimiliano; Tarquini, Simone; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Wörner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    We studied the shape of the most regular-shaped stratovolcanoes of the world to mathematically define the form of the ideal stratovolcano. Based on the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM data, we selected the 20 most circular and symmetrical volcanoes, which incidentally all belong to subduction-related arcs surrounding the Pacific. The selection of volcanoes benefits from the introduction of a new definition of circularity, which is more robust than previous definitions, being independent of the erosional dissection of the cone. Our study on the shape of stratovolcanoes was based on the analysis of the radial elevation profiles of each volcano. The lower half section of the volcanoes is always well fitted by a logarithmic curve, while the upper half section is not, and falls into two groups: it is fitted either by a line ("C-type", conical upper part) or by a parabolic arc ("P-type", parabolic/concave upper part). Chemical composition of the two groups' eruptive products indicates higher SiO2 and/or higher H2O content for C-type volcanoes, which could imply a higher incidence of mildly explosive (e.g. strombolian) eruptions. We propose that this higher explosivity is responsible for forming the constant uppermost slopes by the deposition of ballistic tephra and its subsequent stabilisation at a constant angle. In contrast, P-type volcanoes are characterized by a smaller SiO2 and H2O content, which can be responsible for a higher incidence of effusive events and/or a lower incidence of upper flank-forming (i.e. mild) explosive eruptions. Therefore, the concave upper flanks of these volcanoes may be shaped prevailingly by lava flows. Based on this hypothesis, we propose that the advanced morphometric analysis of the elevation profile of stratovolcanoes can provide insights into their dominant eruptive style.

  20. Potential tsunamigenic landslides at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Insight from marine DEM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalbore, Daniele; Romagnoli, Claudia; Bosman, Alessandro; Chiocci, Francesco Latino

    2011-03-01

    Seafloor mapping and morphometric analysis of landslide scars can provide useful insights for marine geo-hazard assessment, as demonstrated by several studies performed on different geological settings. The availability of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) obtained through swath bathymetry allows us to apply this approach to the submarine portions of Stromboli volcano, affected for about 90% of their extension by mass-wasting features. Two main kinds of tsunamigenic landslides have been recognized and analyzed. Large-scale sector collapses are catastrophic events that mobilize up to few km 3 of material, generating huge tsunami waves that may affect Stromboli and propagate in surrounding areas. The related hazard is not very high as these collapses show recurrence periods of some (or more) thousand years. Conversely, medium-scale landslides are more hazardous as they occur at higher frequency with respect to the previous events, i.e. from some hundreds up to a few tens of years. These events are able to generate local but severe tsunamis when occurring in shallow-water, as demonstrated by the recent 2002 tsunamigenic landslides that struck the Stromboli coasts with waves up to 10 m high. Medium-scale landslides mobilize volumes up to some millions of cubic meters and may also evolve landwards through retrogressive processes, thus affecting coastal sectors. This study highlights that the main predisposing factors controlling medium-scale slope failures at Stromboli are high slope gradient and sedimentation rates; eruptive activity also plays a key role, as recently witnessed by the 2002 landslide.

  1. Assessment of potential catastrophic landslides in Taiwan by airborne LiDAR-derived DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chin-Shyong; Hsieh, Yu-Chung; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Chiu, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Hung-Jen; Fei, Li-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    The heavy rainfall of Typhoon Morakot caused severe damage to infrastructures, property and human lives in southern Taiwan in 2009. The most atrocious incident was the Hsiaolin landslide, which buried more than 400 victims. After this catastrophic event, the recognition of localities of deep-seated landslides becomes a critical issue in landslide hazard mitigation induced from extreme climate events. Consequently the airborne LiDAR survey was carried out in first phase from 2010 to 2012 by Central Geological Survey, MOEA in Taiwan in order to assess the potential catastrophic deep-seated landslides in the steep and rocky terrain in south-central Taiwan. The second phase of LiDAR survey is ongoing from 2013 to 2015 for the recognition and the assessment of possible impact area induced by deep-seated landslide in the mountainous area of whole Taiwan. Transitionally, the recognition of potential deep-seated landslide sites is adopted in term of landslide inventories from space-borne images, aerial photographs and field investigation. However, it is difficult to produce robust landslide inventories due to the poor spatial resolution of ground elevation and highly dense vegetation in mountainous area in Taiwan. In this study, the 1 m LiDAR-derived DEM is used to extract key geomorphological features such as crown cracks, minor scarps, toe of surface rupture at meter to sub-meter scale hidden under forests with high degree of accuracy. Preliminary result shows that about 400 potential landslide sites have been recognized to improve the quality of landslide inventories. In addition, detailed contour maps and visualized images are reproduced to outline the shape of potential deep-seated landslides. Further geomorphometric analyses based on hillshade, aspect, slope, eigenvalue ratio (ER) and openness will be integrated to easily create landslide inventories to mitigate landslide disasters in Taiwan mountainous area.

  2. With high resolution DEM to enhanced maps of Dominant Runoff Processes (DRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Michael; Naef, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The reaction of a river on intense rainfall depends on the distribution of the dominant runoff processes (DRP) Hortonian Overland Flow (HOF), Saturated Overland Flow (SOF), Sub-surface Flow (SSF) or Deep Percolation (DP) within its catchment area. A decision scheme to determine the DRP was implemented in a GIS, using high resolution data of soils, geology, land use and topography. With the scheme, a DRP map was derived for the Kanton of Zurich with an area of 1730 km2, which lies in the Swiss Plateau and covers a wide range of topography, geology and flood producing precipitation regimes. Detailed soil maps are essential for the derivation of high resolution dominant runoff processes maps because they contain information about the soil infiltration and the storage capacity. In the Kanton of Zurich, only a small part of the forested areas is covered by detailed soil maps. Information like soil depth and soil water regime had to be derived from the forest vegetation map (1:5'000). In this map, species of plants, grouped to forest communities, are delineated, depending on their preferred site conditions. Besides geology, topography and climate, also soil water regime and soil depth influence the occurence of plant species. However, a comparison between the soil water regime, indicated by detailed soil maps and the forest vegetation map shows that not all forest communities are selective for the soil water regime and soil depth. Thus, only some forest communities can be used, to derive the DRP. For the other forest communities, an automatic method had to be developed to derive soil water regime and soil depth, based on a high resolution geological map and a laser scanned DEM. With the high resolution topographic information, small creeks, drainage ditches and erosion ditches could be identified. These areas indicate where a fast runoff reaction during heavy rainfalls can be expected. Creeks and drainage ditches suggest that soils do not drain properly and are saturated. Erosion ditches indicate the generation of quick SOF, caused by limited soil depth. In 20 catchments of different sizes, with different topography and different geology, the automatically derived DRP maps were compared with manually developed ones. In 80% to 99%, the automatically derived DRP areas match the manually developed ones or differ by 1 step in process intensity. As this method allows the derivation of enhanced DRP maps in high resolution, the DRP maps can also be used to forecast the runoff reaction of small catchments.

  3. Forecasting of Storm-Surge Floods Using ADCIRC and Optimized DEMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenti, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the accuracy of storm-surge flood forecasts is essential for improving preparedness for hurricanes and other severe storms and, in particular, for optimizing evacuation scenarios. An interactive database, developed by WorldWinds, Inc., contains atlases of storm-surge flood levels for the Louisiana/Mississippi gulf coast region. These atlases were developed to improve forecasting of flooding along the coastline and estuaries and in adjacent inland areas. Storm-surge heights depend on a complex interaction of several factors, including: storm size, central minimum pressure, forward speed of motion, bottom topography near the point of landfall, astronomical tides, and, most importantly, maximum wind speed. The information in the atlases was generated in over 100 computational simulations, partly by use of a parallel-processing version of the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model. ADCIRC is a nonlinear computational model of hydrodynamics, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the US Navy, as a family of two- and three-dimensional finite-element-based codes. It affords a capability for simulating tidal circulation and storm-surge propagation over very large computational domains, while simultaneously providing high-resolution output in areas of complex shoreline and bathymetry. The ADCIRC finite-element grid for this project covered the Gulf of Mexico and contiguous basins, extending into the deep Atlantic Ocean with progressively higher resolution approaching the study area. The advantage of using ADCIRC over other storm-surge models, such as SLOSH, is that input conditions can include all or part of wind stress, tides, wave stress, and river discharge, which serve to make the model output more accurate. To keep the computational load manageable, this work was conducted using only the wind stress, calculated by using historical data from Hurricane Camille, as the input condition for the model. Hurricane storm-surge simulations were performed on an eight-node Linux computer cluster. Each node contained dual 2-GHz processors, 2GB of memory, and a 40GB hard drive. The digital elevation model (DEM) for this region was specified using a combination of Navy data (over water), NOAA data (for the coastline), and optimized Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data (over land). This high-resolution topographical data of the Mississippi coastal region provided the ADCIRC model with improved input with which to calculate improved storm-surge forecasts.

  4. Sediment budget estimation in a small torrential catchment using DEM of difference approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezak, Nejc; Grigillo, Dejan; Rusjan, Simon; Šraj, Mojca; Urban?i?, Tilen; Kozmus Trajkovski, Klemen; Petrovi?, Dušan; Mikoš, Matjaž

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the sediment budget (net erosion change) in a small torrential catchment using the DEM of difference (DoD) approach. The Kuzlovec torrent (~ 0.7 km2; in the Gradaš?ica River catchment) is located approximately 20 km west of the City of Ljubljana and is part of the Sava River basin. The elevation ranges between 394 and 847 m.a.s.l, the mean catchment slope is 27.3°, the mean annual precipitation typically ranges between 1600 to 1800 mm, forest covers more than 85% of the area, and the predominant soil type is Rendzic Leptosol (according to the FAO classification). Using the Terestrical Laser Scanning (TLS) a digital terrain model (DTM) with a 5 cm grid cell was obtained. A smaller (about 25 m wide and 160 m long) specific study site with a mean slope of 37° was selected in order to ensure the high quality of data. A high resolution (several million points) surveys were performed in April 2013 and August 2014. In the night from 4th to 5th of August 2014 an extreme flash flood happened in the investigated area. Three tipping bucket rain gauges and one disdrometer, which are located in the Gradaš?ica River catchment, measured 110 to 185 mm of rainfall in less than 10 hours. Two rain gauges measured about 110 mm, one rain gauge (the closest to the Kuzloved torrent) recorded approximately 140 mm of rainfall, while the disdrometer measured 185 mm of rainfall. The estimated return period of this rainfall event (based on the rain gauge data) was between 100 and 250 years, however based on the disdrometer observations the return period was larger than 250 years. The Gumbel distribution was used in order to construct the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship and the data from 1976 to 2008 was used for this purpose. Furthermore, the maximum one minute rainfall intensity measured by the disdrometer was 288 mm/h. This high rainfall intensities triggered several shallow landslides and caused intense soil erosion processes, especially large bedload and suspended load movement along the stream channel network. A DoD approach was used to estimate the net erosion change in the selected section of the Kuzlovec torrent. A mean difference in the elevation between the DTM 2014 (after flash flood) and DTM 2013 (before flash flood) was -0.104 m. Based on the grid cell size (0.05 m) and number of cells (~ 1.93 106) a net erosion of about 500 m3 was calculated. Furthermore, uncertainty estimation is needed to validate the calculated net erosion change between two DTMs.

  5. Effects of Historical Landslide distribution and DEM resolution on the Accuracy of Landslide susceptibility mapping using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, D.; Bandibas, J.

    2013-12-01

    An efficient and accurate method of generating landslide susceptibility maps is very important to mitigate the loss of properties and lives caused by this type of geological hazard. The study area is Niigata, Japan sustained extensive landslide damage triggered by earthquake on 2004. This study focuses on the development of an accurate and efficient method of data integration, processing and generation of a landslide susceptibility map using an ANN (Artificial Neural Network), and data from some type of DEM (Digital Elevation Models) and landslide distribution map. DEM was generated from aerial photograph, laser scanning data, topographic map and ASTER. Two Landslide distribution maps are derived from NIED and GSI. The effects of the DEM resolution and landslide distribution on the accuracy of landslide susceptibility mapping has been analyzed using ANN in this study. The method contains two major phases. The first phase is the data integration and analysis, and the second is the artificial neural network training and mapping. The data integration and analysis phase involves GIS based statistical analysis relating landslide occurrence to geological and geomorphological parameters. The parameters include slope, aspect, elevation and geology. This phase determines the geological and geomorphological factors that are significantly correlated with landslide occurrence. The second phase further relates the landslide susceptibility index to the important geological and geomorphological parameters identified in the first phase through ANN training. The trained ANN is then used to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The area provided enough landslide data to check the efficiency and accuracy of the developed method. Based on the initial results of the experiment, the developed method is more than 90% accurate in determining the probability of landslide occurrence in a particular area.

  6. DEM and GIS analysis of the stream gradient index to evaluate effects of tectonics: The Normandy intraplate area (NW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Marianne; Amorese, Daniel; Lagarde, Jean-Louis

    2010-07-01

    Computer-based geomorphometry using a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) allows the analysis of the three-dimensional properties of landscape. This methodology is particularly useful in an intraplate region like western Europe where the simple visual inspection of the topography cannot resolve the evolutionary trends of landforms. In these domains, the morphologies of the topographic surface may be controlled mainly by climate under a low rate of tectonic deformation. Among the geomorphometric parameters, the stream length index ( SL) has been used to characterize fluvial systems in relation to tectonics movements. This work develops an algorithm to derive and map the SL index using a DEM and GIS, to investigate its spatial variations in a broad area. The algorithm is applied to a zone of weak intraplate deformation: the coastal lowlands of Normandy (France). The obtained spatial distributions of SL point to anomalous zones with high SL values. These zones are adjacent to mapped fault scarps and characterized by changes in flow direction. A Kruskal-Wallis test shows that the bedrock lithology has no impact on the SL value. Therefore, the SL variations can be related mainly to a differential uplift due to Quaternary tectonic forcing. Quaternary sea level fluctuations may also be responsible for high SL values in a part of the coastal lowland.

  7. Hydrography change detection: the usefulness of surface channels derived From LiDAR DEMs for updating mapped hydrography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Gesch, Dean B.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2013-01-01

    The 1:24,000-scale high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) mapped hydrography flow lines require regular updating because land surface conditions that affect surface channel drainage change over time. Historically, NHD flow lines were created by digitizing surface water information from aerial photography and paper maps. Using these same methods to update nationwide NHD flow lines is costly and inefficient; furthermore, these methods result in hydrography that lacks the horizontal and vertical accuracy needed for fully integrated datasets useful for mapping and scientific investigations. Effective methods for improving mapped hydrography employ change detection analysis of surface channels derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) digital elevation models (DEMs) and NHD flow lines. In this article, we describe the usefulness of surface channels derived from LiDAR DEMs for hydrography change detection to derive spatially accurate and time-relevant mapped hydrography. The methods employ analyses of horizontal and vertical differences between LiDAR-derived surface channels and NHD flow lines to define candidate locations of hydrography change. These methods alleviate the need to analyze and update the nationwide NHD for time relevant hydrography, and provide an avenue for updating the dataset where change has occurred.

  8. Modeling the motion and orientation of various pharmaceutical tablet shapes in a film coating pan using DEM.

    PubMed

    Ketterhagen, William R

    2011-05-16

    Film coating uniformity is an important quality attribute of pharmaceutical tablets. Large variability in coating thickness can limit process efficiency or cause significant variation in the amount or delivery rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to the patient. In this work, the discrete element method (DEM) is used to computationally model the motion and orientation of several novel pharmaceutical tablet shapes in a film coating pan in order to predict coating uniformity. The model predictions are first confirmed with experimental data obtained from an equivalent film coating pan using a machine vision system. The model is then applied to predict coating uniformity for various tablet shapes, pan speeds, and pan loadings. The relative effects of these parameters on both inter- and intra-tablet film coating uniformity are assessed. The DEM results show intra-tablet coating uniformity is strongly influenced by tablet shape, and the extent of this can be predicted by a measure of the tablet shape. The tablet shape is shown to have little effect on the mixing of tablets, and thus, the inter-tablet coating uniformity. The pan rotation speed and pan loading are shown to have a small effect on intra-tablet coating uniformity but a more significant impact on inter-tablet uniformity. These results demonstrate the usefulness of modeling in guiding drug product development decisions such as selection of tablet shape and process operating conditions. PMID:21356296

  9. DEM-based Approaches for the Identification of Flood Prone Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Roth, Giorgio; Sole, Aurelia

    2013-04-01

    The remarkable number of inundations that caused, in the last decades, thousands of deaths and huge economic losses, testifies the extreme vulnerability of many Countries to the flood hazard. As a matter of fact, human activities are often developed in the floodplains, creating conditions of extremely high risk. Terrain morphology plays an important role in understanding, modelling and analyzing the hydraulic behaviour of flood waves. Research during the last 10 years has shown that the delineation of flood prone areas can be carried out using fast methods that relay on basin geomorphologic features. In fact, the availability of new technologies to measure surface elevation (e.g., GPS, SAR, SAR interferometry, RADAR and LASER altimetry) has given a strong impulse to the development of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based approaches. The identification of the dominant topographic controls on the flood inundation process is a critical research question that we try to tackle with a comparative analysis of several techniques. We reviewed four different approaches for the morphological characterization of a river basin with the aim to provide a description of their performances and to identify their range of applicability. In particular, we explored the potential of the following tools. 1) The hydrogeomorphic method proposed by Nardi et al. (2006) which defines the flood prone areas according to the water level in the river network through the hydrogeomorphic theory. 2) The linear binary classifier proposed by Degiorgis et al. (2012) which allows distinguishing flood-prone areas using two features related to the location of the site under exam with respect to the nearest hazard source. The two features, proposed in the study, are the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network and the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path. 3) The method by Manfreda et al. (2011) that suggested a modified Topographic Index (TIm) for the identification of flood prone area. 4) The downslope index proposed by Hjerdt et al. (2004) that quantifies the topographic controls on hydrology by evaluating head differences following the (surface) flow path in the steepest direction. The method does not use the exit point at the stream as reference; instead, the algorithm looks at how far a parcel of water has to travel along its flow path to lose a given head potential, d [m]. This last index was not defined with the aim to describe flood prone areas; in fact it represents an interesting alternative descriptor of morphological features that deserve to be tested. Analyses have been carried out for some Italian catchments. The outcomes of the four methods are presented using, for calibration and validation purposes, flood inundation maps made available by River Basin Authorities. The aim is, therefore, to evaluate the reliability and the relative errors in the detection of the areas subject to the flooding hazard. These techniques should not be considered as an alternative of traditional procedures, but additional tool for the identification of flood-prone areas and hazard graduation over large regions or when a preliminary identification is needed. Reference Degiorgis M., G. Gnecco, S. Gorni, G. Roth, M. Sanguineti, A. C. Taramasso, Classifiers for the detection of flood-prone areas using remote sensed elevation data, J. Hydrol., 470-471, 302-315, 2012. Hjerdt, K. N., J. J. McDonnell, J. Seibert, A. Rodhe, A new topographic index to quantify downslope controls on local drainage, Water Resour. Res., 40, W05602, 2004. Manfreda, S., M. Di Leo, A. Sole, Detection of Flood Prone Areas using Digital Elevation Models, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 10, 781-790, 2011. Nardi, F., E. R. Vivoni, S. Grimaldi, Investigating a floodplain scaling relation using a hydrogeomorphic delineation method, Water Resour. Res., 42, W09409, 2006.

  10. Low-altitude remote sensing dataset of DEM and RGB mosaic for AB corridor on July 13 2013 and L2 corridor on July 21 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baptiste Dafflon

    Low-altitude remote sensing dataset including DEM and RGB mosaic for AB (July 13 2013) and L2 corridor (July 21 2013).Processing flowchart for each corridor:Ground control points (GCP, 20.3 cm square white targets, every 20 m) surveyed with RTK GPS. Acquisition of RGB pictures using a Kite-based platform. Structure from Motion based reconstruction using hundreds of pictures and GCP coordinates. Export of DEM and RGB mosaic in geotiff format (NAD 83, 2012 geoid, UTM zone 4 north) with pixel resolution of about 2 cm, and x,y,z accuracy in centimeter range (less than 10 cm). High-accuracy and high-resolution inside GCPs zone for L2 corridor (500x20m), AB corridor (500x40) DEM will be updated once all GCPs will be measured. Only zones between GCPs are accurate although all the mosaic is provided.

  11. Modeling the DEM Error effects in InSAR time-series results; with application to inter-seismic ground deformation estimation along the Chaman Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.

    2011-12-01

    Temporal surface deformation, estimated from InSAR time-series techniques, is affected by various sources of errors, including topographic artifacts, atmospheric delay, orbital errors and noise. Topographic artifacts are the results of the inaccuracy of the DEMs, which are used to remove the topographic signal from the differential interferograms. While the DEM error effect in each interferogram is proportional to it's perpendicular baseline, but this effect was not well known and modeled in InSAR time-series results. We present a mathematical model for the DEM error effects in the estimated phase history, resulted from SBAS time-series inversion of interferometric phases. This model enables us to recognize the DEM error effects in the estimated temporal displacement signal. Using this model, we clarify that while selecting small spatial baseline interferograms minimizes the DEM error effect in the individual interferograms, but it cannot necessarily reduce this effect in the time-series results. We show the results of verification of the proposed model using simulated and real InSAR data sets. Based on this model we present our proposed new algorithm to correct the DEM error effects in InSAR time-series inversion results, as a post-processing method, which is independent of any preliminary assumption about the temporal deformation signal. We discuss the efficiency of the proposed method using the simulated and real data sets. We have used this post processing time-series technique to estimate the inter-seismic ground deformation along the Chaman fault. This fault is the transform boundary of Indian and Eurasian plates; located at the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lack of geodetic data in this seismogenic area has been the main obstacle for accurate strain rate estimation. Here we present our results and interpretations of processing Envisat-ASAR acquisitions from different ascending and descending tracks covering the most parts of the fault from 2004 to 2010, which reveals creeping along some segments of the fault.

  12. The mass balance record and surge behavior of Drangajökull Ice Cap (Iceland) from 1946 to 2011 deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2014-05-01

    High resolution and accuracy (e.g. based on LiDAR survey) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of glaciers and their close vicinity have significantly improved the methods for calculation of geodetic mass balance and study of changes in glacier dynamics. However additional data is needed to extend such studies back in time. Here we present a geodetically derived mass balance record for Drangajökull ice cap (NW-Iceland) since 1946 to present. The mass balance is calculated from a series of DEMs derived by photogrammetric processing of aerial photographs (years: 1946, 1975, 1985, 1994) and a LiDAR DEM (2011). All Ground Control Points (GCPs) used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs, used in the photogrammetric processing, are picked from the LiDAR derived DEM, thus eliminating the time consuming and expensive in situ survey of GCPs. The LiDAR DEM also helps to assess the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived DEMs, by analyzing the residuals in elevation in ice-free areas. For the DEMs of 1975, 1985 and 1994 the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the residuals is less than 2 m, whereas the accuracy of the DEM of 1946 is worse, with RMSE of 5.5 m, caused by the deteriorated images. The geodetic mass balance yields a negative specific mass balance of ~-0.5 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1946-1975, followed by periods of positive mass balance: ~0.2 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1975-1985 and ~0.3 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1985-1994. Negative specific mass balance of ~-0.6 m w.e.a-¹ is derived for the period 1994-2011. High mass redistribution is observed during 1985-1994 and 1994-2011 on the three main outlets of the ice cap, related to surges. The derived orthophotographs allow tracking of stable features at individual locations on the northern part of Drangajökull, indicating an average velocity of 5-10 m a-¹ for the period 1946-1985 and speeding up in the last two periods due to a surge.

  13. ffnungszeiten Mo-Fr 7:30-21:30 Uhr, Beratung 9:00-18:00 Uhr Zum 1.1.2011 tritt das HRZ fr die Universitt Bonn dem neuen Adobe Rahmenvertrag des

    E-print Network

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    herausgebracht. Diesen können Sie im Downloadbereich für McAfee herunterladen. Die Antivirussoftware von Sophos Sophos hinterlegte Konfigurationsdatei herunter und führen sie auf dem System, auf dem Sophos installiert Sophos-Version durchgeführt. 1 von 1 01.12.2010 11:15 #12;

  14. The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography are essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (? 25 points m- 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner's vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner's position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC (Agisoft PhotoScan) and DEMMCM (MicMac), respectively, with spatial resolutions of 1 × 1 m. Comparing the DEMs with the 1098 GCPs showed that the DEMTLS was the most accurate data product, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.5 cm, followed by the DEMMCM and the DEMPSC, which had RMSE values of 9.0 and 13.9 cm, respectively. The DEMPSC had absolute errors along the border of the study area that ranged from 15.0 to 52.0 cm, indicating the presence of systematic errors. Although the derived DEMMCM was accurate, an error analysis along a transect showed that the errors in the DEMMCM data tended to increase in areas of lower elevation. Compared with TLS, UAS is a promising tool for data collection because of its flexibility and low operational cost. However, improvements are needed in the photogrammetric processing of the aerial photographs to remove non-linear distortions.

  15. DEM corrections on series of wrapped interferograms as a tool to improve deformation monitoring around Siling Co lake in Tibet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducret, Gabriel; Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lasserre, Cécile; Guillaso, Stéphane; Twardzik, Cedric

    2010-05-01

    In order to increase our knowledge on the lithosphere rheological structure under the Tibetan plateau, we study the loading response due to lake Siling Co water level changes. The challenge here is to measure the deformation with an accuracy good enough to obtain a correct sensivity to model parameters. InSAR method in theory allow to observe the spatio-temporal pattern of deformation, however its exploitation is limited by unwrapping difficulties linked with temporal decorrelation and DEM errors in sloppy and partially incoherent areas. This lake is a large endhoreic lake at 4500~m elevation located North of the strike-slip right lateral Gyaring Co fault, and just to the south of the Bangong Nujiang suture zone, on which numerous left-lateral strike slip are branching. The Siling Co lake water level has strongly changed in the past, as testified by numerous traces of palaeo-shorelines, clearly marked until 60 m above present-day level. In the last years, the water level in this lake increased by about 1~m/yr, a remarkably fast rate given the large lake surface (1600~km2). The present-day ground subsidence associated to the water level increase is studied by InSAR using all ERS and Envisat archived data on track 219, obtained through the Dragon cooperation program. We chose to compute 750~km long differential interferograms centered on the lake to provide a good constraint on the reference. A redundant network of small baseline interferograms is computed with perpendicular baseline smaller than 500~m. The coherence is quickly lost with time (over one year), particularly to the North of the lake because of freeze-thaw cycles. Unwrapping thus becomes hazardous in this configuration, and fails on phase jumps created by DEM contrasts. The first work is to improve the simulated elevation field in radar geometry from the Digital Elevation Model (here SRTM) in order to exploit the interferometric phase in layover areas. Then, to estimate DEM error, we mix the Permanent Scattered and Small Baseline methods. The aim is to improve spatial and temporal coherence. We use as a reference strong and stable amplitude points or spatially coherent areas, scattered within the SAR scene. We calculate the relative elevation error of every point in the neighbourhood of reference points. A global inversion allows to perform spatial integration of local errors at the radar image scale. Finally, we evaluate how the DEM correct ion of wrapped interferograms improves the unwrapping step. Furthermore, to help unwrapping we also compute and then remove from the wrapped interferograms the residual orbital trend and the phase-elevation relationship due variations in atmospheric stratification. Stack of unwrapped small baseline interferograms show clearly the average subsidence rate around the lake of about 4 mm/yr associated to the present-day water level increase. To compare the observed deformation to the water level elevation changes, we extract from satellite images in the period 1972 to 2009 the water level changes. The deformation signal is discussed in terms of end-members visco-elastic models of the lithosphere and uppermost mantle.

  16. Improvement of Forest Height Retrieval By Integration of Dual-Baseline PolInSAR Data And External DEM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Wang, C.; Zhu, J.; Fu, H.; Wang, C.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have shown that polarimetric synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PolInSAR) is a powerful technique for forest height mapping and monitoring. However, few researches address the problem of terrain slope effect, which will be one of the major limitations for forest height inversion in mountain forest area. In this paper, we present a novel forest height retrieval algorithm by integration of dual-baseline PolInSAR data and external DEM data. For the first time, we successfully expand the S-RVoG (Sloped-Random Volume over Ground) model for forest parameters inversion into the case of dual-baseline PolInSAR configuration. In this case, the proposed method not only corrects terrain slope variation effect efficiently, but also involves more observations to improve the accuracy of parameters inversion. In order to demonstrate the performance of the inversion algorithm, a set of quad-pol images acquired at the P-band in interferometric repeat-pass mode by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) with the Experimental SAR (E-SAR) system, in the frame of the BioSAR2008 campaign, has been used for the retrieval of forest height over Krycklan boreal forest in northern Sweden. At the same time, a high accuracy external DEM in the experimental area has been collected for computing terrain slope information, which subsequently is used as an inputting parameter in the S-RVoG model. Finally, in-situ ground truth heights in stand-level have been collected to validate the inversion result. The preliminary results show that the proposed inversion algorithm promises to provide much more accurate estimation of forest height than traditional dualbaseline inversion algorithms.

  17. Mit der ,,Reise nach Ixtlan" beendete der amerikanische Anthropologe Carlos Castaneda --er starb 1998 --den ungewhnlichen Bericht ber seine zehnjhrige Lehrzeit bei dem

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    #12;Mit der ,,Reise nach Ixtlan" beendete der amerikanische Anthropologe Carlos Castaneda -- er Castaneda Reise nach Ixtlan Die Lehre des Don Juan Aus dem Amerikanischen von Thomas Lindquist Scanned Titel ,,Journey to Ixtlan" im Verlag Simon and Schuster, New York © Carlos Castaneda 1972 Für die

  18. An evaluation of LIDAR-and IFSAR-derived digital elevation models in leaf-on conditions with USGS Level 1 and Level 2 DEMs

    E-print Network

    Hodgson, Michael E.

    An evaluation of LIDAR- and IFSAR-derived digital elevation models in leaf-on conditions with USGS points. One unique aspect of this study was the LIDAR and IFSAR data were collected during leaf is the absolute elevation accuracy of the digital elevation information that can be extracted from the DEM using

  19. 1682 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 43, NO. 7, JULY 2005 On Merging High-and Low-Resolution DEMs From

    E-print Network

    Segall, Paul

    data in airborne Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) DEMs using a low-resolution Shuttle, they sometimes suffer from artifacts and missing data due to roll of the aircraft, layover, and flight planning missing data so that the interpolated regions have the same spectral content as the valid regions

  20. freenet Sync auf dem iPhone einrichten Diese Anleitung beschreibt die Einstellungen zur freenet Sync Konfiguration Ihres iPhones.

    E-print Network

    Gediga, Günther

    freenet Sync auf dem iPhone einrichten Diese Anleitung beschreibt die Einstellungen zur freenet Sync Konfiguration Ihres iPhones. Schritt 1: Tippen Sie in Ihrem Home-Screen auf "Einstellungen". #12 Sie anschließend gefragt, ob Sie dabei die Kontakte auf Ihrem iPhone behalten oder löschen möchten um

  1. Global Zero -Auf dem Weg zu einer atomwaffenfreien Welt? Seit es Kernwaffen gibt, existiert auch die Vision einer atomwaffenfreien Welt. Im Zeitalter des Kalten

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Global Zero - Auf dem Weg zu einer atomwaffenfreien Welt? Seit es Kernwaffen gibt, existiert auch von Grund auf anders. Doch lässt dies die Vision von ,,Global Zero" möglich und wünschenswert Maier, Universität Regensburg, das Konzept von Global Zero vor und gab einen fundierten Überblick über

  2. Mit dem Befehl make bersetzt man ein Programm, welches man geschrieben hat, nicht direkt, sondern man liest aus der Datei makefile die Informationen, welche

    E-print Network

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    Kapitel 5 makefile Mit dem Befehl make übersetzt man ein Programm, welches man geschrieben hat, nicht direkt, sondern man liest aus der Datei makefile die Informationen, welche Datei mit welchen. Falls das Pro- gramm eine Datei mit anderem Namen, z.B. anderesMakefile benutzen soll, muss man make mit

  3. Zur Unterscheidung von Thamnobryum subserratum (Hook. ex Harv.) Nog. & Z. Iwats. und Thamnobryum neckeroides (Hook.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lawton; Jan-Peter Frahm

    Zusammenfassung: Die Unterschiede zwischen den jüngst in Europa nachgewiesenen Thamnobryum subserratum, welches unter diesem Namen aus Japan und als Th. allegheniense aus Nordamerika bekannt ist, sowie dem zuvor nur aus dem westlichen Nordamerika bekannten Thamnobryum neckeroides und dem heimischen Thamnobryum alopecurum sind nach der Literatur zusammengestellt und an Hand von Herbarmaterial illustriert. Die Variabilität von Thamnobryum alopecurum ist diskutiert. Abstract:

  4. Topographic changes due to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake as revealed by the differential DEM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhikun; Zhang, Zhuqi; Dai, Fuchu; Yin, Jinhui; Zhang, Huiping

    2014-07-01

    Landscape evolution in active orogenic regions is inevitably affected by the repeated strong earthquakes triggered by the corresponding active faults. However, the lack of adequate methods for the documentation and monitoring of mountain-building processes has resulted in a shortage of quantitative estimates of orogenic and eroded volumes. A strong earthquake and its associated co-seismic landslides represent a sudden pulse in landscape evolution in tectonically active areas. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake dramatically modified the topography of the Longmen Shan region. Based on topographic data before the earthquake and stereo pairs of post-earthquake remote sensing imagery, we derived pre- and post-earthquake DEMs (digital elevation models) of the three regions along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. By comparing the geomorphic features before and after the earthquake, we find that the Wenchuan earthquake smoothed the steep relief and caused a co-seismic uplift of the Longmen Shan region. The medium-relief regions increased; however, the high-relief regions decreased, indicating that the local relief is controlled by repeated strong earthquakes. The changed slope aspect indicates that the formation and modification of the east- and west-facing slopes are controlled by tectonic events in the Longmen Shan region, which might be associated with the regional stress field. However, the unchanged aspects of other slopes might be controlled by long-term erosion rather than tectonic events. The topographic changes, landslide volume and co-seismic uplift indicate that the greatest seismically induced denudation occurred in association with a thrust faulting mechanism and low-angle fault geometry. Our findings reveal that the local relief has been shaped by the localized, seismically induced high rate of denudation within the plateau margins, and that the formation of local relief is also related to tectonic events, especially the events that have occurred on low-angle faults. This study also indicates that the multi-temporal DEM differential method is valuable in detecting seismically induced topographic change.

  5. Mass changes of outlet glaciers along the Nordensjköld Coast, northern Antarctic Peninsula, based on TanDEM-X satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, Helmut; Floricioiu, Dana; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Nagler, Thomas; Kern, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers of the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the period 2011 to 2013, using topographic data of high vertical accuracy and great spatial detail, acquired by bistatic radar interferometry of the TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X satellite formation. The study area includes glaciers draining into the Larsen-A, Larsen Inlet, and Prince-Gustav-Channel embayments. After collapse of buttressing ice shelves in 1995 the glaciers became tidewater calving glaciers and accelerated, resulting in increased ice export. Downwasting of most glaciers is going on, but at reduced rates compared to previous years in accordance with deceleration of ice flow. The rate of mass depletion is 4.2 ± 0.4 Gt a-1, with the largest contribution by Drygalski Glacier amounting to 2.2 ± 0.2 Gt a-1. On the technological side, the investigations demonstrate the capability of satellite-borne single-pass radar interferometry as a new tool for accurate and detailed monitoring of glacier volume change.

  6. Empirical relationships among triangular facet slope, facet height and slip rates along active normal faults from ASTER DEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimi, Christina; Ganas, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    ASTER DEM data (30-m pixel size) are used to derive empirical relationships between triangular facet attributes and slip rates along active normal faults. We sampled 232 triangular facets along 10 normal faults in Greece and Bulgaria that slip with rates from 0.1 mm/yr up to 1.3 mm/yr. The studied normal faults accumulate Quaternary tectonic strain in well-known extensional provinces, such as central Greece, Crete and SW Bulgaria. The normal fault footwalls analysed herein have been developed under similar long-term climatic conditions. It is suggested that two key geometrical features of the youngest generation of triangular facets (slope angle and height) can provide useful metrics to assess rates of deformation when seismological and geodetic data are lacking or not found in sufficient quantity to make reasonable assessments. Our derived empirical relation between slip rate and facet slope angle is: Y=0.057•X-1 where Y is fault slip rate (mm/yr) and X is facet slope angle (degrees), with an R² = 0.728. It is envisaged that our analysis may be helpful in assessing seismic hazard along normal faults with similar facet characteristics in other extensional settings. Note: This research was funded by The Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk (RASOR) project http://www.rasor-project.eu/

  7. Numerical Modelling of the Anisotropic Mechanical Behaviour of Opalinus Clay at the Laboratory-Scale Using FEM/DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Vietor, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) is an argillaceous rock formation selected to host a deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in Switzerland. It has been shown that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in this formation is heavily affected by the anisotropic mechanical response of the material related to the presence of bedding planes. In this context, the purpose of this study is twofold: (i) to illustrate the new developments that have been introduced into the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM) to model layered materials and (ii) to demonstrate the effectiveness of this new modelling approach in simulating the short-term mechanical response of OPA at the laboratory-scale. A transversely isotropic elastic constitutive law is implemented to account for the anisotropic elastic modulus, while a procedure to incorporate a distribution of preferentially oriented defects is devised to capture the anisotropic strength. Laboratory results of indirect tensile tests and uniaxial compression tests are used to calibrate the numerical model. Emergent strength and deformation properties, together with the simulated damage mechanisms, are shown to be in strong agreement with experimental observations. Subsequently, the calibrated model is validated by investigating the effect of confinement and the influence of the loading angle with respect to the specimen anisotropy. Simulated fracture patterns are discussed in the context of the theory of brittle rock failure and analyzed with reference to the EDZ formation mechanisms observed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory.

  8. Slope Analysis of Scarps in Deuteronilus Mensae from Mola Data and Viking D.E.M: Evidence for Landslides Controlled by Ground Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Frey, V.

    2000-08-01

    The surface of Mars is affected by a large variety of features related to ice like lobate debris aprons, softened craters or fretted channels. Many of these features are observed in the region of Deuteronilus Mensae where kilometer high scarps separate northern plains from southern highlands. The formation of lobate debris aprons at the foot of these scarps involves processes due to ice creep and mass wasting. The measurements of the volume of these debris aprons from new MOLA data (Mars Observer Laser Altimeter) conclude that only huge landslides can produce such volumes. The goal of this study is to test this result by the measurements of the slopes of scarps using both MOLA data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) calculated from Viking images. It also point out that the combination between MOLA data and Viking DEM is very useful to measure steep slopes. Additional information can be found in the original extended abstract.

  9. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  10. InSAR-DEM analyses integrated with geologic field methods for the study of long-term seismogenic fault behavior: Applications in the axial zone of the central Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzi, A.; Pugliese, G.

    The integration of terrain computer modeling with field methods may provide a powerful mechanism for understanding active faults geometry, kinematics and long-term fault behavior. Radar interferometry was used on ERS tandem images to create a geocoded DEM (InSAR-DEM) with a nominal 20-m spatial-resolution of the central Apennines axial zone, a seismically active area characterized by historical destructive earthquakes with M 7. The potential was tested of InSAR-DEM application to the Fucino and Sulmona basin boundary faults, which have well-defined seismological, paleoseismological and/or geological evidence for their having seismogenic sources. In particular, slope maps extracted from the InSAR-DEM were used for fault scarps detection, whether on carbonate bedrock (fault scarp type 2) or affecting continental deposits within the basin (fault scarp type 1), and compared with the available geological and new field data. In order to assess the DEM accuracy and to evaluate morphometric parameters related to the long-term slip-rates of the faults, a set of topographic profiles was extracted from the InSAR-DEM and compared with analogous profiles derived from the available topographic map (i.e., 1/25,000, with 25 m contour interval). In particular, the use of InSAR-DEM analyses showed its better results, with respect to the standard topography, for urban/agricultural gently sloped areas where fault scarps affected unconsolidated and particularly soft sediments (e.g., Fucino basin fault systems), while in severely sloped carbonate ridge and forested areas low coherences and layover effects made InSAR-DEM application problematic. A maximum value of 1.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 slip-rate was obtained for the Fucino boundary fault. Finally, the recognized en-échelon pattern of the Sulmona basin boundary fault, provided a segmentation model for this structure corroborated by geological-structural field data.

  11. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum periimplantären Gewebezustand bei implantatgetragenen Einzelzahnversorgungen von vollkeramischen CAD\\/CAM-Kronen nach dem CEREC 3 Verfahren zu metallkeramischen Einzelzahnrestaurationen unter Verwendung des DNA-Tests micro-IDent ® plus der Firma Hain-Lifescience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-W. Fromme; G. Krekeler

    2007-01-01

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG  Die Frage nach dem gewebefreundlicheren Kronenwerkstoff fr Implantatversorgungen soll beantwortet werden: Vollkeramik (CEREC\\u000a 3D Kronen) versus Metallkeramik. Die subgingivale Keimbelastung an vergleichbaren Restaurationen wird an je 15 Patienten untersucht\\u000a mit dem hoch sensitiven DNA-Keimtest, micro-IDentplus der Firma Hain-Lifescience (11 Parodontopathogene). Im Ergebnis schneidet die vollkeramische Restauration bezglich der\\u000a Keimbelastung besser ab als die metallkeramische, so dass sich die Vollkeramik als

  12. Seasonal changes of surface velocity and elevation of Columbia Glacier, Alaska using time-series TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Alaskan glaciers are a major contributor to global sea-level rise from glaciers and ice caps outside the polar ice sheets. Columbia Glacier is a large tidewater glacier located on the coast of south-central Alaska. The glacier has retreated ˜ 21 km and lost half of its volume during 1957-2007, more rapidly after 1980. It is now split into two branches, known as Main/East and West branch. In this study, we used time series of high-resolution TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X stripmap satellite imagery during 2011-2014 to investigate the temporal development of glacier surface velocities, elevation and mass changes. The active SLC images of the bistatic TanDEM-X acquisitions, acquired over 11 or 22 days repeat intervals, are utilized to derive surface velocity fields using SAR intensity offset tracking. We observed a very strong seasonal variability in the surface velocities. Maximum values at the ice front reach up to 14.43 m/day in May and reduced to 2 m/day in October in the year 2012. However, at a distance of 17.5 km from the ice front, almost no seasonal variability can be observed. A significant influence in the distance to the terminus and elevation was detected. We attributed this temporal and spatial variability of surface velocity to changes in the basal hydrology and lubrification of the glacier bed. Similar fluctuations are observed in consecutive years. In a second step, we exploited TanDEM-X data by interferometrically generating time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) . For quantitative volume change estimates, we used DEMs of almost similar months of the observational years in order to minimize errors resulting from variable X-band radar penetration. The main branch gained a volume of 12.77± 2.89km^3in 2011-12, but lost -18.94± 3.21km^3in 2012-13 . A slight gain was observed with 1.05± .88km^3in 2013-14. However, the west branch gained volume only in 2011-12 and lost in the consecutive years. Moreover, the west branch retreated by ˜ 3km and lost its area twice faster than the main branch during 2011-14.

  13. Aufgabenblatt AAufgaben

    E-print Network

    Kraeutle, Serge

    #=0) Hinweis zu f): Partialbruchzerlegung (2+2+2+2+2+4=14 Punkte) A20) (FlË? acheninhalt zwischen Grafen) Berechnen Sie den FlË? acheninhalt zwischen dem Grafen der Funktion f(x) = x sin x und der x­Achse in den

  14. Nierenzellkarzinom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schlichter; T. Steiner; H. Wunderlich; J. Schubert

    2002-01-01

    Das Nierenzellkarzinom (NZK) ist nach dem Prostata- und Harnblasenkarzinom der dritthäufigste urologische Tumor und macht etwa 3% aller Malignome des Erwachsenenalters aus. Die Inzidenz für diesen Tumor beträgt in den Industrienationen zwischen 4–15\\/100.000 Einwohner.

  15. Mapping SOC content and bulk density of a disturbed peatland relict with electromagnetic induction and DEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altdorff, Daniel; Bechtold, Michel; van der Kruk, Jan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; von Hebel, Christian; Huisman, Johan Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands represent a huge storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), and there is considerable interest to assess the total amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems. However, reliable field-scale information about peat properties, particularly SOC content and bulk density (BD) necessary to estimate C stocks, remains difficult to obtain. A potential way to acquire information on these properties and its spatial variation is the non-invasive mapping of easily recordable physical variables that correlate with peat properties, such as bulk electrical conductivity (ECa) measured with electromagnetic induction (EMI). However, ECa depends on a range of soil properties, including BD, soil and water chemistry, and water content, and thus results often show complex and site-specific relationships. Therefore, a reliable prediction of SOC and BD from ECa data is not necessarily given. In this study, we aim to explore the usefulness of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict the peat soil properties SOC and BD from multi-offset EMI and high-resolution DEM data. The quality of the MLR models is assessed by cross-validation. We use data from a medium-scale disturbed peat relict (approximately 35ha) in Northern Germany. The potential explanatory variables considered in MLR were: EMI data of six different integral depths (approximately 0.25, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1, and 1.80 m), their vertical heterogeneity, as well as several topographical variables extracted from the DEM. Ground truth information for SOC, BD content and peat layer thickness was obtained from 34 soil cores of 1 m depth. Each core was divided into several 5 to 20 cm thick layers so that integral information of the upper 0.25, 0.5, and 1 m as well as from the total peat layer was obtained. For cross-validation of results, we clustered the 34 soil cores into 4 classes using K-means clustering and selected 8 cores for validation from the clusters with a probability that depended on the size of the cluster. With the remaining 26 samples, we performed a stepwise MLR and generated separate models for each depth and soil property. Preliminary results indicate reliable model predictions for SOC and BD (R² = 0.83- 0.95). The RMSE values of the validation ranged between 3.5 and 7.2 vol. % for SOC and 0.13 and 0.37 g/cm³ for BD for the independent samples. This equates roughly the quality of SOC predictions obtained by field application of vis-NIR (visible-near infrared) presented in literature for a similar peatland setting. However, the EMI approach offers the potential to derive information from deeper depths and allows non-invasive mapping of BD variability, which is not possible with vis-NIR. Therefore, this new approach potentially provides a more useful tool for total carbon stock assessment in peatlands.

  16. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  17. DEMS 3rd Period

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Smith

    2009-02-15

    Today, you will practice solving fraction problems! First, be sure you have SCRATCH PAPER and a PENCIL to help solve each problem. You will need to solve FIVE problems on your paper. You MUST show your work! Be sure to reduce your fraction to the LOWEST terms. GOOD LUCK! CLICK HERE -->Add Those Fractions! Once you have practiced adding fractions, ...

  18. Untersuchungen zum Befall von Fichten-Fangbäumen durch Borkenkäfer im Zusammenhang mit Mondphasen zur Fällungszeit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Else Jahn

    1982-01-01

    Basing on a model postulating that the biophysical power according to moon phase in connection with electrical-magnetical powers influence the vital functions of plants and animals positively or negatively, spruces were felled under same conditions during different moon phases. Than the following attacks of scolytid beetles were observed. These examinations were repeated over several years. For spruces of Waldviertel (Lower

  19. Intercomparison of DEM-based approaches for the identification of flood-prone areas in different geomorphologic and climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; De Paola, Francesco; Sole, Aurelia; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Floods represent the most critical natural hazard for many countries and their frequency appears to be increasing in recent times. The legal constraints of public administrators and the growing interest of private companies (e.g., insurance companies) in identifying the areas exposed to the flood risk, is determining the necessity of developing new tools for the risk classification over large areas. Nowadays, among the numerous hydrologic and hydraulic methods regularly used for practical applications, 2-D hydraulic modeling represents the most accurate approach for deriving detailed inundation maps. Nevertheless, data requirement for these modeling approaches is certainly onerous, limiting their applicability over large areas. On this issue, the terrain morphology may provide an extraordinary amount of information useful to detect areas that are particularly prone to serious flooding. In the present work, we compare the reliability of different DEM-derived quantitative morphologic descriptors in characterizing the relationships between geomorphic attributes and flood exposure. The tests are carried out using techniques of pattern classification, such as linear binary classifiers (Degiorgis et al., 2012), whose ability is evaluated through performance measures. Simple and composed morphologic features are taken into account. The morphological features are: the upslope contributing area (A), the local slope (S), the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network (D), the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path (H), the curvature (downtriangle2H). In addition to the mentioned features, the study takes into consideration a number of composed indices, such as: the modified topographic index (Manfreda et al., 2011), the downslope index (DI) proposed by Hjerdt et al. (2004), the ratio between the elevation difference H and the distance to the network D, and other indices. Each binary classifier is applied in several catchments in order to verify the reproducibility of the procedures in different geomorphologic, climatic and hydrologic conditions. The study explores the use of these procedures in gauged river basins located in Italy and in an ungauged basin located in Africa. References Degiorgis, M., G. Gnecco, S. Gorni, G. Roth, M. Sanguineti, A.C. Taramasso, 2012. Classifiers for the detection of flood-prone areas using remote sensed elevation data, J. Hydrol., 470-471, 302-315. Hjerdt, K. N., J.J. McDonnell, J. Seibert, A. Rodhe, A new topographic index to quantify downslope controls on local drainage, Water Resour. Res., 40, W05602, 2004. Manfreda, S., M. Di Leo, A. Sole, Detection of Flood Prone Areas using Digital Elevation Models, J. Hydrol. Eng., 16(10), 781-790, 2011.

  20. Activity of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira Volcanoes (Dem. Rep. of Congo) Revealed Using Geological, Geophysical and InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, C.; Cayol, V.; Hooper, A.; Kervyn, F.; Marinkovic, P.; D'Oreye, N.; Poland, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-based monitoring of active volcanoes in Africa can be problematic due to political instabilities, safety issues and poor accessibility. Remote-sensing techniques such as Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR, more commonly InSAR), are therefore very useful and provide robust observational tools for natural hazard assessment, regardless of local conditions. Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes (which experienced nine eruptions from December 1996 to January 2010) are located in the western branch of the East African Rift (Virunga Volcanic Province, North Kivu, Dem. Rep. of Congo). InSAR has recorded ground displacements related to most of the tectonic and volcanic events that have occurred since 1996 using SAR images from the JERS, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2 and ALOS satellites. This database provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution of deformation, leading to insights into tectonic and volcanic processes. Loss of coherence within the SAR signal due to rapid-changing equatorial vegetation hampers the use of InSAR as a volcano-tectonic monitoring tool. We partially overcome this limitation using 1) a large number of SAR images, including about 150 ENVISAT and more than 100 RADARSAT-1 images, 2) short repeat times of 24 and 35 days for RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT, respectively, and 3) satellites with longer wavelengths, such as JERS and ALOS. Using a large dataset combining short revisit time SAR images significantly increases the chances of producing interferograms with good coherence. A longer wavelength radar signal better penetrates vegetation cover, also increasing coherence. Furthermore, useful data were retrieved in low-coherence areas by applying the “StaMPS” (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers) method, which combines a small baseline and persistent scatterers approach, to our largest SAR datasets. Using several look angles from both ascending and descending orbital tracks, we were able to characterize the 3D ground displacement field. A 3D Mixed Boundary Element Method is used to infer geometry and physical characteristics of the sources controlling volcanic unrest and tectonic activity. In addition, we combined our InSAR database with other available data, such as seismicity from a network maintained since 2002 and results from geological and geophysical surveys from the volcanoes, to better constrain source processes. The improved understanding and constraints on volcanic processes in the North Kivu area made possible by this multidisciplinary approach will be highlighted with a few case studies of recent volcanic activity.

  1. Photogrammetric Processing of IceBridge DMS Imagery into High-Resolution Digital Surface Models (DEM and Visible Overlay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Dotson, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The DMS (Digital Mapping System) has been a sensor component of all DC-8 and P-3 IceBridge flights since 2009 and has acquired over 3 million JPEG images over Arctic and Antarctic land and sea ice. The DMS imagery is primarily used for identifying and locating open leads for LiDAR sea-ice freeboard measurements and documenting snow and ice surface conditions. The DMS is a COTS Canon SLR camera utilizing a 28mm focal length lens, resulting in a 10cm GSD and swath of ~400 meters from a nominal flight altitude of 500 meters. Exterior orientation is provided by an Applanix IMU/GPS which records a TTL pulse coincident with image acquisition. Notable for virtually all IceBridge flights is that parallel grids are not flown and thus there is no ability to photogrammetrically tie any imagery to adjacent flight lines. Approximately 800,000 Level-3 DMS Surface Model data products have been delivered to NSIDC, each consisting of a Digital Elevation Model (GeoTIFF DEM) and a co-registered Visible Overlay (GeoJPEG). Absolute elevation accuracy for each individual Elevation Model is adjusted to concurrent Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) Lidar data, resulting in higher elevation accuracy than can be achieved by photogrammetry alone. The adjustment methodology forces a zero mean difference to the corresponding ATM point cloud integrated over each DMS frame. Statistics are calculated for each DMS Elevation Model frame and show RMS differences are within +/- 10 cm with respect to the ATM point cloud. The DMS Surface Model possesses similar elevation accuracy to the ATM point cloud, but with the following advantages: · Higher and uniform spatial resolution: 40 cm GSD · 45% wider swath: 435 meters vs. 300 meters at 500 meter flight altitude · Visible RGB co-registered overlay at 10 cm GSD · Enhanced visualization through 3-dimensional virtual reality (i.e. video fly-through) Examples will be presented of the utility of these advantages and a novel use of a cell phone camera for aerial photogrammetry will also be presented.

  2. Tracking and evolution of irrigation triggered active landslides by multi-source high resolution DEM: The Jiaojiacun landslide group of Heifangtai (Northwest of China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Runqiang; Meng, Xingmin; Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Guan; Lee, Yajun; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The construction of three large hydropower stations, i.e. Liujia, Yanguo and Bapan, resulted in the immigration of the impacted people to Heifangtai from 1960s. To support the living and farming of the immigrated people, a large amount of water has been pumped from the Yellow River to Heifangtai, which has changed the former underground water budget and led to 111 landslides from 1968 in this area. To reveal the deformation process of landslides in Heifangtai, a quantitative deformation analysis model of landslide based on multi-source DEM data is established using four periods of topographic maps obtained in 1970, 2001, 2010 and 2013 respectively, including two 1:10000 topographic maps and two 1:1000 data acquired from 3D Laser Scanner. The whole study area was divided into two sections based on the two distinct kinds of landslide patterns. The selected morphometric parameters, residual topographic surface and surface roughness, extracted from three typical landslides, and the statistical analysis (Box-plot diagrams) of the temporal variations of these parameters, allowed the reconstruction and tracking of these landslides. We monitored the changing of landslide boundaries, average vertical and horizontal displacement rates and zones of uplift and subsidence. The volumes of removed and/or accumulated material were estimated as well. We can then demonstrate the kinematics of landslides based on information from high-resolution DEM, and the changing table of underground water, ring-shear test and soil-water characteristic curve referenced from other researchers. The results provide a new insight on the use of multi-source high resolution DEM in the monitoring of irrigation-triggered landslides.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Four DEM-Based Fluvial Terrace Mapping Methods Across Variable Geomorphic Settings: Application to the Sheepscot River Watershed, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are utilized in geomorphic studies as recorders of land-use, climate, and tectonic history. Advances in digital topographic data, such as high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar surveys, has promoted the development of several methods used to extract terraces from DEMs based on their characteristic morphology. The post-glacial landscape of the Sheepscot River watershed, Maine, where strath and fill terraces are present and record Pleistocene deglaciation, Holocene eustatic forcing, and Anthropocene land-use change, was selected to implement a comparison between terrace mapping methodologies. At four study sites within the watershed, terraces were manually mapped to facilitate the comparison between fully and semi-automated DEM-based mapping procedures, including: (1) edge detection functions in Matlab, (2) feature classification algorithms developed by Wood (1996), (3) spatial relationships between interpreted terraces and surrounding topography (Walter et al., 2007), and (4) the TerEx terrace mapping toolbox developed by Stout and Belmont (2014). Each method was evaluated based on its accuracy and ease of implementation. The four study sites have varying longitudinal slope (0.1% - 5%), channel width (<5 m - 30 m), relief in surrounding landscape (15 m - 75 m), type and density of surrounding land use, and mapped surficial geologic units. In general, all methods overestimate terrace areas (average predicted area 136% of the manually defined area). Surrounding topographic relief appears to exert the greatest control on mapping accuracy, with the most accurate results (92% of terrace area mapped by Walter et al., 2007 method) achieved where the river valley was most confined by adjacent hillslopes. Accuracy decreased for study sites surrounded by a low-relief landscape, with the most accurate results achieved by the TerEx toolbox (Stout and Belmont, 2014; predicted areas were 45% and 89% of manual delineations). Our work informs future studies by highlighting the strengths and drawbacks of each method tested and by making recommendations for the types of geomorphic settings where each is most appropriate. The tested algorithms represent powerful new ways to analyze landscape history over large regions using high-resolution, lidar DEMs.

  4. Mass changes of glaciers over the Central Karakoram derived from TanDEM-X and SRTM/X-SAR Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankl, Melanie; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Snow cover and glaciers in the Karakoram region are important freshwater resources for many downriver communities as they provide water for irrigation and hydro power. A better understanding of current glacier changes is hence an important baseline information. Glaciers in the Karakoram have shown stable and positive glacier mass balances during recent years as well as stable and advancing termini positions. The Karakoram is also known for a large number of surge-type glaciers. Here, we present geodetic glacier elevation and mass changes using TanDEM-X and SRTM/X-SAR Digital Elevation Models between 2000 and 2012. Based on previous glacier inventories for the Karakoram, we show elevation changes and glacier mass balances for glaciers with advancing and stable termini between 2000 and 2012 as well as surge-type glaciers separately. In order to convert volume changes to mass changes, we applied different density scenarios (i.e., constant densities for ice and snow or zonally variable densities). Our findings show average glacier thickening of +0.01 ± 0.02 m a-1 or mass gain of +0.0099 ± 2.8x10-5 Gt a-1(using a density of 850 kg m-3) between 2000 and 2012 for parts of the Central Karakoram. Surge-type glaciers and advancing glaciers indicated slight surface lowering, while the majority of the studied glaciers showed stable termini and surface thickening. Our measurements are independent from varying penetration depths of the radar signal or temporal decorrelation between image acquisitions. Both datasets were acquired in the X-band frequency under assumed similar surface conditions. The bistatic TanDEM-X mission is highly suitable for interferometric processing due to high spatial resolutions and only 3 sec time lag between TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X overpasses. We want to stress the enormous potential of the TanDEM-X mission to estimate geodetic glacier mass balances, in particular when compared to elevation data sets acquired in a similar frequency and comparable observation period.

  5. Hydrometeorologische Ergebnisse aus Abflußmessungen im Bereich des Hintereisferners (Ötztaler Alpen) in den Jahren 1957 bis 1959

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Lang

    1966-01-01

    Während der Internationalen Geophysikalischen Jahre 1957 bis 1959 wurde an einer Pegelmeßstelle bei 2287 m Höhe der Abfluß vom Hintereis- und Kesselwandferner registriert. Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht sollen spezifischen Merkmale des Abflusses aus dem zu 58% vergleitscherten Einzugsgebiet 26,6 km2) im Zusammenhang mit den meteorologischen Beidingungen dargestellt werden.

  6. ffnungszeiten Mo-Fr 7:30-21:30 Uhr, Beratung 9:00-18:00 Uhr Im Modul "Statistische Auswertung mit SPSS" vom 27.02. bis 09.03. sind noch Pltze frei.

    E-print Network

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    Jahresbeginn läuft der neue Landes-Lizenzvertrag für Sophos-Antivirus, der für die Universität zusätzliche April auf die Institute umlegen. Im Zusammenhang mit dem neuen Lizenzvertrag wurde auch die neue Sophos auf die neue Version 10, Sophos-Anwender unter Windows erkennen dies z.B. am neuen Sophos-Logo im

  7. Turnen und Turnphilologie des 19. Jahrhunderts als Vorläufer moderner Sportwissenschaft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Krüger

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassungen  Die Grundlagen der modernen Sportwissenschaft in Deutschland wurden im Rahmen der Turnbewegung, besonders in der zweiten Hälfte\\u000a des 19. Jh.s, geschaffen. Körperliche Übungen und Spiele unter dem Namen „Turnen“ entwickelten sich damals zur spezifischen\\u000a Körperkultur der Deutschen im Zusammenhang mit dem Prozess der kulturellen Nationsbildung. Die Institutionalisierung des Turnens\\u000a in Schule und Verein als einer systematischen Form der Leibesübungen forderte

  8. GPS radio occultation with TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X: sensitivity of lower troposphere sounding to the Open-Loop Doppler model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, F.; Beyerle, G.; Heise, S.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) technique provides valuable input for numerical weather prediction and is considered as a data source for climate related research. Numerous studies outline the high precision and accuracy of RO atmospheric soundings in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this altitude region (8-25 km) RO atmospheric soundings are considered to be free of any systematic error. In the tropical (30° S-30° N) Lower (<8 km) Troposphere (LT), this is not the case; systematic differences with respect to independent data sources exist and are still not completely understood. To date only little attention has been paid to the Open Loop (OL) Doppler model. Here we report on a RO experiment carried out on-board of the twin satellite configuration TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X which possibly explains to some extent biases in the tropical LT. In two sessions we altered the OL Doppler model aboard TanDEM-X by not more than ±5 Hz with respect to TerraSAR-X and compare collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. We find a systematic difference in the retrieved refractivity. The bias mainly stems from the tropical LT; there the bias reaches up to ±1%. Hence, we conclude that the negative bias (several Hz) of the OL Doppler model aboard TerraSAR-X introduces a negative bias (in addition to the negative bias which is primarily caused by critical refraction) in our retrieved refractivity in the tropical LT.

  9. Co-seismic vertical displacements from a single post-seismic lidar DEM: example from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišin, Ivana; Hinojosa-Corona, Alejandro; Parsons, Barry

    2015-07-01

    A method is outlined by means of which it is possible to estimate high-resolution vertical displacements due to an earthquake even in the case where high-resolution topography is lacking before the earthquake. This result can be achieved by combining a highly accurate, post-event digital elevation model (DEM), for example lidar, with archived satellite imagery. The method is illustrated by calculating vertical displacements for the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. For this earthquake, there are both pre- and post-event lidar DEMs from which vertical displacements may also be estimated after correcting for the lateral advection of topography due to horizontal displacements. A comparison between the two means of deriving vertical displacements shows generally good agreement, with the displacements obtained using satellite imagery performing better in high relief areas. As a result of this property, we are able to trace the vertical offsets due to the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake as the rupture jumped from the Pescadores fault to the Borrego fault in propagating through the high relief of the Sierra Cucapah.

  10. Semi-automatic recognition and mapping of event-induced landslides by exploiting multispectral satellite images and DEM in a Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondini, Alessandro C.; Chang, Kang-tsung; Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2012-10-01

    Landslides occur every year in many areas of the world, causing casualties, economic and environmental losses. Landslide inventory maps are important to document the extent of the landslide phenomena in a region, for risk estimation and management, and to study landscape evolution. We present a method to facilitate the semi-automatic recognition and mapping of event induced shallow landslides. The method is based on the combination in a Bayesian framework of information extracted from High Resolution optical multispectral satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The landslide membership probability is estimated from post-event satellite images using a supervised image classification method. The likelihood of landslide occurrence is obtained adopting a "data-driven" approach, intersecting existing landslide inventories with maps of morphometric parameters (slope and curvature) calculated from the DEM. We tested the method in the Huaguoshan basin, Taiwan, where it proved capable of detecting and mapping landslides triggered by Typhoon Morakot in August 2009. Compared to other pixel-based approaches, the method reduces significantly the typical "salt-and-pepper" effect of landslide classifications, and allows the internal classification of landslide areas in landslide source areas and landslide travel and depositional ("run out") areas.

  11. Uplift mechanism for a shallow-buried structure in liquefiable sand subjected to seismic load: centrifuge model test and DEM modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Zihan; Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Jiao

    2014-06-01

    Based on a centrifuge model test and distinct element method (DEM), this study provides new insights into the uplift response of a shallow-buried structure and the liquefaction mechanism for saturated sand around the structure under seismic action. In the centrifuge test, a high-speed microscopic camera was installed in the structure model, by which the movements of particles around the structure were monitored. Then, a two-dimensional digital image processing technology was used to analyze the microstructure of saturated sand during the shaking event. Herein, a numerical simulation of the centrifuge experiment was conducted using a two-phase (solid and fluid) fully coupled distinct element code. This code incorporates a particle-fluid coupling model by means of a "fixed coarse-grid" fluid scheme in PFC3D (Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions), with the modeling parameters partially calibrated based on earlier studies. The physical and numerical models both indicate the uplifts of the shallow-buried structure and the sharp rise in excess pore pressure. The corresponding micro-scale responses and explanations are provided. Overall, the uplift response of an underground structure and the occurrence of liquefaction in saturated sand are predicted successfully by DEM modeling. However, the dynamic responses during the shaking cannot be modeled accurately due to the restricted computer power.

  12. A GIS modeled DEM-based hydrologic watershed network of the Greenland Ice Sheet and non-ice land surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Increased mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet and subsequent global sea level rise has amplified the need to understand Greenland's hydrology and melt patterns. Drainage basins for Greenland's land surface and ice sheet were produced using the GLAS/IceSat 1km surface DEM and a hydrostatic surface pressure grid over the ice sheet. The pressure grid was modeled using the surface DEM and a 5km bedrock elevation grid (Bamber et al., 2001), assuming hydrostatic pressure and no conduit flow within the ice sheet as per Lewis & Smith (2009). Pour points were generated using an 8-pixel pour point derivation algorithm (Jenson & Domingue, 1988) and were used to model watersheds and flow networks. This work provides a complete watershed, flow and drainage network dataset for the entirety of Greenland - both land and ice surface regions. Potential applications include ice sheet melt water routing to the ocean, supraglacial melt water patterns, and the separation of specific ice melt drainage networks from snow melt networks. These basins act as a base for the incorporation of finer resolution IceBridge and GLAS/IceSat data products.

  13. Testing the influence of vertical, pre-existing joints on normal faulting using analogue and 3D discrete element models (DEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; von Hagke, Christoph; Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.

    2015-04-01

    Brittle rocks are often affected by different generations of fractures that influence each other. We study pre-existing vertical joints followed by a faulting event. Understanding the effect of these interactions on fracture/fault geometries as well as the development of dilatancy and the formation of cavities as potential fluid pathways is crucial for reservoir quality prediction and production. Our approach combines scaled analogue and numerical modeling. Using cohesive hemihydrate powder allows us to create open fractures prior to faulting. The physical models are reproduced using the ESyS-Particle discrete element Modeling Software (DEM), and different parameters are investigated. Analogue models were carried out in a manually driven deformation box (30x28x20 cm) with a 60° dipping pre-defined basement fault and 4.5 cm of displacement. To produce open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper were mounted in the box to a depth of 5 cm at a spacing of 2.5 cm. Powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely (column height of 19 cm), and the paper was removed. We tested the influence of different angles between the strike of the basement fault and the joint set (0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20°, and 25°). During deformation we captured structural information by time-lapse photography that allows particle imaging velocimetry analyses (PIV) to detect localized deformation at every increment of displacement. Post-mortem photogrammetry preserves the final 3-dimensional structure of the fault zone. We observe that no faults or fractures occur parallel to basement-fault strike. Secondary fractures are mostly oriented normal to primary joints. At the final stage of the experiments we analyzed semi-quantitatively the number of connected joints, number of secondary fractures, degree of segmentation (i.e. number of joints accommodating strain), damage zone width, and the map-view area fraction of open gaps. Whereas the area fraction does not change distinctly, the number of secondary fractures and connected joints increases strongly with increasing angles between basement fault and joint strike. Integrating these models with a 3-dimensional DEM code using the ESyS-Particle software allows for retrieving 4D information from the models, as well as for testing other parameters such as joint spacing or joint depth. Our DEM models are capable of robustly reproducing all characteristic features observed in the analogue models, and will provide a quantitative measure of the influence of joint-fault angle on permeability of cohesive rocks that have experienced more than one brittle deformation phase.

  14. Full-waveform and discrete-return lidar in salt marsh environments: An assessment of biophysical parameters, vertical uncertatinty, and nonparametric dem correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.

    High-resolution and high-accuracy elevation data sets of coastal salt marsh environments are necessary to support restoration and other management initiatives, such as adaptation to sea level rise. Lidar (light detection and ranging) data may serve this need by enabling efficient acquisition of detailed elevation data from an airborne platform. However, previous research has revealed that lidar data tend to have lower vertical accuracy (i.e., greater uncertainty) in salt marshes than in other environments. The increase in vertical uncertainty in lidar data of salt marshes can be attributed primarily to low, dense-growing salt marsh vegetation. Unfortunately, this increased vertical uncertainty often renders lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEM) ineffective for analysis of topographic features controlling tidal inundation frequency and ecology. This study aims to address these challenges by providing a detailed assessment of the factors influencing lidar-derived elevation uncertainty in marshes. The information gained from this assessment is then used to: 1) test the ability to predict marsh vegetation biophysical parameters from lidar-derived metrics, and 2) develop a method for improving salt marsh DEM accuracy. Discrete-return and full-waveform lidar, along with RTK GNSS (Real-time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System) reference data, were acquired for four salt marsh systems characterized by four major taxa (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata, and Salicornia spp.) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. These data were used to: 1) develop an innovative combination of full-waveform lidar and field methods to assess the vertical distribution of aboveground biomass as well as its light blocking properties; 2) investigate lidar elevation bias and standard deviation using varying interpolation and filtering methods; 3) evaluate the effects of seasonality (temporal differences between peak growth and senescent conditions) using lidar data flown in summer and spring; 4) create new products, called Relative Uncertainty Surfaces (RUS), from lidar waveform-derived metrics and determine their utility; and 5) develop and test five nonparametric regression model algorithms (MARS -- Multivariate Adaptive Regression, CART -- Classification and Regression Trees, TreeNet, Random Forests, and GPSM -- Generalized Path Seeker) with 13 predictor variables derived from both discrete and full waveform lidar sources in order to develop a method of improving lidar DEM quality. Results of this study indicate strong correlations for Spartina alterniflora (r > 0.9) between vertical biomass (VB), the distribution of vegetation biomass by height, and vertical obscuration (VO), the measure of the vertical distribution of the ratio of vegetation to airspace. It was determined that simple, feature-based lidar waveform metrics, such as waveform width, can provide new information to estimate salt marsh vegetation biophysical parameters such as vegetation height. The results also clearly illustrate the importance of seasonality, species, and lidar interpolation and filtering methods on elevation uncertainty in salt marshes. Relative uncertainty surfaces generated from lidar waveform features were determined useful in qualitative/visual assessment of lidar elevation uncertainty and correlate well with vegetation height and presence of Spartina alterniflora. Finally, DEMs generated using full-waveform predictor models produced corrections (compared to ground based RTK GNSS elevations) with R2 values of up to 0.98 and slopes within 4% of a perfect 1:1 correlation. The findings from this research have strong potential to advance tidal marsh mapping, research and management initiatives.

  15. Die Konstitution des Alpensteinbockes ( Capra i. ibex L.) in Abhängigkeit von Geschlecht, Alter, Herkunft und Jahreszeit in Graubünden (Schweiz) und im Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso (Italien)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giacometti; B. Bassano; V. Peracino; P. Ratti

    1997-01-01

    Biometrische Daten von 4183 Steinböcken aus dem Kanton Graubünden, Schweiz (in den Jahren 1987 bis 1992 erlegt) sowie von 108 Tieren aus dem Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso, Italien (zwischen 1987 und 1996 immobilisiert) wurden ausgewertet. Ziel der Arbeit war es, die Konstitution des Steinwildes in Abhängigkeit von Geschlecht, Alter, Herkunft und Jahreszeit zu charakterisieren und mögliche Ursachen für die gefundenen

  16. Der Sterbeort: „Wo sterben die Menschen heute in der Schweiz?“

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fischer; G. Bosshard; U. Zellweger; K. Faisst

    2004-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Amtliche Informationen zum Sterbeort werden seit 1987 im Bundesamt für Statistik (BfS) nicht mehr erhoben. Somit können aus dieser Quelle für die Schweiz keine Aussagen über die Entwicklung des Sterbeortes gemacht werden. Methoden Mittels eines Fragebogens wurden Ärztinnen und Ärzte aus der Deutsch-Schweiz, welche zwischen dem 1. Juni und dem 30. Oktober 2001 ein Todesfallformular unterzeichneten, zum konkreten

  17. Studien über Reflexe und Rhythmen beim Goldfisch (Carassius auratus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Holst

    1934-01-01

    Die Haut des Goldfisches besitzt eine hohe Empfindlichkeit gegen Wasserströmung. Nach Rückenmarkdurchschneidung in der Gegend zwischen dem 16. und dem 6. letzten Wirbel ist die Reizbarkeit dieses „Hautstromsinnes“ im Hintertier oft höher als die des intakten Seitenliniensystems im gleichen Vordertier. Der Hautsinn wird nur durch rasche Stromstöße erregt; gleichmäßige, beliebig hoch anschwellende Stromreize bleiben unbeantwortet. (Also keine „Rheotaxis“ mit Hilfe

  18. Electrocatalytic mechanism and kinetics of SOMs oxidation on ordered PtPb and PtBi intermetallic compounds: DEMS and FTIRS study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongsen; Alden, Laif; Disalvo, F J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2008-07-01

    The electrocatalytic activities and mechanisms of PtPb and PtBi ordered intermetallic phases towards formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation have been studied by DEMS and FTIRS, and the results compared to those for a pure polycrystalline platinum electrode. While PtPb exhibits an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of all three organic molecules when compared to a Pt electrode, PtBi exhibits an enhanced catalytic activity towards formic acid and formaldehyde oxidation, but not methanol. FTIRS data indicate that adsorbed CO does not form on PtPb or PtBi intermetallic compounds during the oxidation of formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol, and therefore their oxidation on both PtPb and PtBi intermetallic compounds proceeds via a non-CO(ads) pathway. Quantitative DEMS measurements indicate that only CO(2) was detected as a final product during formic acid oxidation on Pt, PtPb and PtBi electrodes. At a smooth polycrystalline platinum electrode, the oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol produces mainly intermediates (formaldehyde and formic acid), while CO(2) is a minor product. In contrast, CO(2) is the major product for formaldehyde and methanol oxidation at a PtPb electrode. The high current efficiency of CO(2) formation for methanol and formaldehyde oxidation at a PtPb electrode can be ascribed to the complete dehydrogenation of formaldehyde and formic acid due to electronic effects. The low onset potential, high current density and high CO(2) yield make PtPb one of the most promising electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications using small organic molecules as fuels. PMID:18563235

  19. Aktuelle Jubilen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena sollen die Anlsse fr die in loser Folge erscheinenden ,,Chemiehistorischen Notizen" liefern, die sich vor

    E-print Network

    Rossak, Wilhelm R.

    Aktuelle Jubiläen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena sollen die für die historische Entwicklung der Jenaer Chemie zu fördern. Chemiehistorische Notiz 1/2012 Prof. Dr Chemie vertretungsweise wahrzunehmen."2 FRANZ HEIN wurde 1892 in eine künstlerisch ambitionierte Familie

  20. Aktuelle Jubilen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena sollen die Anlsse fr die in loser Folge erscheinenden ,,Chemiehistorischen Notizen" liefern, die sich vor

    E-print Network

    Rossak, Wilhelm R.

    Aktuelle Jubiläen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena sollen die für die historische Entwicklung der Jenaer Chemie zu fördern. Chemiehistorische Notiz 6/2014 100 Jahre Zeitschrift ,,Chemie der Erde" 1914 - 20141 von Klaus Heide und Peter Hallpap Drei wesentliche

  1. Aktuelle Jubilen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena sollen die Anlsse fr die in loser Folge erscheinenden ,,Chemiehistorischen Notizen" liefern, die sich vor

    E-print Network

    Rossak, Wilhelm R.

    Aktuelle Jubiläen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena sollen die für die historische Entwicklung der Jenaer Chemie zu fördern. Chemiehistorische Notiz 3 Institut für Organische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie (Humboldtstr. 10) von Peter Hallpap Die

  2. Aktuelle Jubilen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena sollen die Anlsse fr die in loser Folge erscheinenden ,,Chemiehistorischen Notizen" liefern, die sich vor

    E-print Network

    Rossak, Wilhelm R.

    Aktuelle Jubiläen aus dem Bereich der Chemie an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena sollen die für die historische Entwicklung der Jenaer Chemie zu fördern. Chemiehistorische Notiz 1 An die Universität Jena wurde er 1922 als Nachfolger des zu früh verstorbenen Professors der Chemie und

  3. Time-averaged discharge rate of subaerial lava at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, measured from TanDEM-X interferometry: Implications for magma supply and storage during 2011-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X) synthetic aperture radar imagery provides a measurement of elevation change over time. On the East Rift Zone (EZR) of K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, the effusion of lava causes changes in topography. When these elevation changes are summed over the area of an active lava flow, it is possible to quantify the volume of lava emplaced at the surface during the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data—a parameter that can be difficult to measure across the entirety of an ~100?km2 lava flow field using ground-based techniques or optical remote sensing data. Based on the differences between multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs collected days to weeks apart, the mean dense-rock equivalent time-averaged discharge rate of lava at K?lauea between mid-2011 and mid-2013 was approximately 2?m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of K?lauea's 1983–present ERZ eruption. This result implies that there was an increase in the proportion of lava stored versus erupted, a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the volcano, or some combination of both during this time period. In addition to constraining the time-averaged discharge rate of lava and the rates of magma supply and storage, topographic change maps derived from space-based TanDEM-X data provide insights into the four-dimensional evolution of K?lauea's ERZ lava flow field. TanDEM-X data are a valuable complement to other space-, air-, and ground-based observations of eruptive activity at K?lauea and offer great promise at locations around the world for aiding with monitoring not just volcanic eruptions but any hazardous activity that results in surface change, including landslides, floods, earthquakes, and other natural and anthropogenic processes.

  4. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  5. Geschichtlicher Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Die Nachweise einer schadlosen Ableitung von Abwässern lassen sich bis weit in die Vergangenheit zurückverfolgen. Sie waren bereits zur damaligen Zeit eine Forderung zur Pflege der öffentlichen Reinlichkeit. Der Kanalisationsbau ist auch immer ein Ausdruck der Kultur eines Volkes gewesen. So kann festgestellt werden, dass im Zusammenhang mit der Hochkultur eines Volkes auch der Kanalbau ein vorherrschendes Thema war. Der Kanalbau steht auch in einem engen Zusammenhang mit dem Wasserleitungsbau. Es ist nur logisch, dass dort wo Wasser teilweise aus großer Entfernung herangeführt worden ist, dieses dann nach Gebrauch auch wieder schadlos beseitigt werden musste.

  6. Geomorphic change detection using repetitive topographic surveys and DEMs of Differences: Implementation for short-term transformation of the ice-cored moraines in the Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The exposed glacial forelands are supposed to be intensively transformed by geomorphological processes due to the paraglacial adjustment of the topography. To recognize how high is the activity of such processes, we monitored the transformation rates of ice-cored moraines on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden. The main objectives were to: (1) analyse the spatial and temporal aspects of debris flow activity in cm-scale, (2) quantify the short-term (seasonal and intra-seasonal) rate of volume changes, (3) compare transformations of the ice-cored moraine surfaces due to active geomorphic processes (including dead-ice backwasting and debris mass movements) with transformations caused by dead-ice downwasting only. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. In total, four different locations were scanned, containing seven active debris flows or other mass wasting processes, and including non-active surfaces. Sites were chosen to ensure representation from different parts of the end moraine, different types of dominant processes (debris flows, debris falls, etc.) as well as different types of morphology (exposed ice cliffs, steep debris slope, gentle debris flows lobes, etc.). Altogether, the total scanned area was about 14,200 m2, of which 5,500 m2 were transformed by the active mass movement processes. Ten measurement sessions were carried out: three in summer of 2012, three in summer of 2013, and four in summer of 2014, which allowed for assessing the seasonal (annual) and intra-seasonal (weekly) variations. The results of the surveys in the form of cloud points were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) with cell size 0.05 m. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences - DoDs, which enabled us to investigate the volume of and spatial patterns of transformations. The surveys indicate high dynamic rates of landforms' transformations. The mean annual volume loss of sediments and dead-ice for the most active parts of the moraines was up to 1.8 m a-1. However, most of the transformation occurred during summer, with the short-term values of mean elevation changes as high as -104 mm/day. In comparison, the dynamics of the other (i.e. non-active) parts of the ice-cored moraines were much lower, namely, the mean annual lowering (attributed mainly to dead-ice downwasting) was up to 0.3 m a-1, whereas lowering during summer was up to 8 mm/day. Our results indicate that in the case of the studied glaciers, backwasting was much more effective than downwasting in terms of landscape transformation in the glacier forelands. However, despite the high activity of localised mass movement processes, the overall short-term dynamic of ice-cored moraines for the studied glaciers was relatively low. We suggest that as long as debris cover is sufficiently thick (thicker than the permafrost's active layer depths), the mass movement activity would occur only under specific topographic conditions and/or due to occurrence of external meltwater sources and slope undercutting. In the other areas, ice-cored moraines remain a stable landsystem component in a yearly to decadal time-scale. Our results support the hypothesis of a spatio-temporal switching between stable and active conditions within an ice-marginal environment. The project was funded by the Polish National Science Centre as granted by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/ST10/06494.

  7. On the investigation of the performances of a DEM-based hydrogeomorphic floodplain identification method in a large urbanized river basin: the Tiber river case study in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Fernando; Biscarini, Chiara; Di Francesco, Silvia; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2013-04-01

    Floodplains are critical landscape features for their importance in both ecohydrological and socio-economic terms. River valleys are, in fact, the domain where the interdependence of the complex human-environmental interface is more significant. Riparian zones, along perennial channels, where the frequency of saturation is high and most flooding occurs, are also the areas where urban areas and infrastructures (e.g. highways, bridges, railways, etc) are more present. This is mainly due to geomorphologic conditions since those areas are predominantly flat and easier to develop. One of the more challenging issues under changing climatic, environmental and human drivers for implementing efficient current and future urban plans is to accurately and timely identify, map and characterize the potential flooding scenarios of floodplains. This is currently achieved by implementing detailed topographic, hydrologic and hydraulic studies for flood modeling and mapping for different frequencies (i.e. return time), but those activities are rarely implemented at the large (river basin) scale for their economic cost and time of implementation. In addition to that, flood map updating is not as frequent as needed for following the rapid changing land use conditions. As a result, it is very often the case that urban plans are based on heterogeneous and discontinuous flood map information. Nevertheless, several recent researches demonstrated the potential for the use of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to define the floodplain feature by means of automated hydrogeomorphic methods. This means identifying the flood prone area by filtering potentially inundated cells by implementing proper morphological and hydrological analyses. In this work we implemented the flooplain identification model proposed by Nardi et al. (WRR, 2006) which automatically extract the river network and estimate flood water levels according to a predefined scaling Leopold law. Inundated areas are consequently identified as those river buffers, draining towards the channel, with an elevation that is less than the maximum flow depth of the corresponding outlet. Keeping in mind that this hydrogeomorhic model performances are strictly related to the quality and properties of the input DEM and that the intent of this kind of methodology is not to substitute standard flood modeling and mapping methods, in this work the performances of this approach are qualitatively evaluated by comparing results with standard flood maps. The Tiber river basin was selected as case study, one of the main river basins in Italy covering a drainage area of approximately 17.000 km2. This comparison is interesting for understanding the performance of the model in a large and complex domain where the impact of the urbanization matrix is significant. Results of this investigation confirm the potential of such DEM-based floodplain mapping models for providing a fast timely homogeneous and continuous inundation scenario to urban planners and decision makers, but also the drawbacks of using such methodology where the humans are significantly and rapidly modifying the surface properties.

  8. Constraining the DEM and the kinematics of an unstable slope in the Maurienne Valley (French Alps) from remote and ground optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, Johann; Donze, Frédéric; Jongmans, Denis; Yvart, Sébastien; Lacroix, Pascal; Brenguier, Ombeline; Baillet, Laurent; Lescurier, Anne; Muller, Nicolas; Larose, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Clay-rich rocks are abundant in the Alps where they make a significant part of the sedimentary cover. When they are exposed, these rocks may form reliefs that are affected by rock falls. The failed material quickly transform into rock debris with a fine-grained matrix, which accumulates on slope and in gullies. Historical chronicles show that devastating debris flows can be triggered in the Alpine valleys in case of heavy rain falls. An unstable slope located in the Flysch zone (of Eocene age) has been chosen in the Maurienne valley (French Alps), which is 1 km wide at this location. The study area (0.3 km2) exhibits a rough topography with a slope varying between 20° at the bottom and 90° at the top, for a difference in elevation of about 500 m. The site has been affected by three rock falls (with a volume of about 30,000 m3) in the last fifteen years. The fallen material has filled two gullies. A debris flow occurred in one of this gully in January 2012 and covered a road on a thickness of 4 m. Seismic prospecting was carried out in this 400 long gully and at the cliff top. The results showed that the rock is strongly fractured and deconsolidated over a thickness of at least 10 m and could be affected by further collapses in the near future. A displacement measurement strategy, based on low-cost remote sensing techniques, has been developed in order to obtain spatially-distributed information on the kinematics of the slope and to better understand the double mechanism (fall-flow). Different remote sensing optical techniques using various platforms (satellite, helicopter, drone, and ground) have been first applied in order to obtain DEMs of the site at various scales. The resolution ranges from 1 cm (close range terrestrial optical photogrammetry) to 2 m (Pleiades images), with 50 cm for the helicopter. The DEMs accuracies were estimated from the results of a differential GPS survey. We discuss the optimum strategy to monitor both the flow and the cliff.

  9. Beiträge zur ernährungsbiologie einheimischer süsswasserprosobranchier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinrich Schäfer

    1953-01-01

    1.Untersucht wurden 4 Süßwasserprosobranchier: Bithynia tentaculata L., Theodoxus fluviatilis L., Lithoglyphus naticoides C.Pfr. und Valvata piscinalisMüll.2.Bithynia ist in der Lage, die mit dem Atemwasser eingestrudelten Partikel durch die Ausbildung eines Kiemenschleimfilters abzufiltrieren, sie zur Nahrungswurst zu formen und auf einem besonderen Wege dem Munde zuzuführen. Das Tier vermittelt erndhrungsphysiologisch zwischen Strudlern und Schlammfressern.3.Theodoxus befördert die mit dem Atemstrom eingestrudelten Detrituspartikelchen

  10. Situationen des erweiterten Selbstmords

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Rasch

    1966-01-01

    Bericht über 49 Fälle von gelungenem erweiterten Selbtmord zwischen dem 1.1.50 und dem 31.12.1961 im Bereich der Hansestadt Hamburg. 28mal handelte es sich bei dem Täter um einen Mann, 21mal war eine Frau die Täterin. Im Verhalten der Geschlechter fanden sich Differenzen, die sich statistisch sichern ließen: Männer töten vorwiegend den Intimpartner, Frauen vorwiegend die eigenen Kinder. Männer töten vorwiegend

  11. Simulation of lake-aquifer interaction at Lake Naivasha, Kenya using a three-dimensional flow model with the high conductivity technique and a DEM with bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Becht, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Aquifers near Lake Naivasha, Kenya are important water resources and are used extensively for irrigation and for municipal and domestic water supplies. Head data for a 79-year period (1932-2010) were analyzed to develop a conceptual model of aquifer-lake interaction and used to develop a three-dimensional numerical model. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model with four layers was used to simulate ground-water flow in the aquifers and lake-aquifer interaction. The lake is simulated by specifying a high hydraulic conductivity for lake-volume grid cells. The 90 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that includes the bathymetry improved the 3-D representation of the lake in the groundwater system and helped to define the deformed layer that honors the stratigraphy. The calibration process was carried out using PEST in conjunction with pilot points and regularization. The finite difference groundwater model results were comparable with measured head data and isotopic and hydro-chemical data. The sensitivity of the computed lake level was tested using the "high-K" method to the choice of K2/K1, where K2 and K1 are the hydraulic conductivity of the lake node and the aquifer (respectively). Higher values of K2/K1 should be used with higher regional gradients on the order of 0.002 to ensure mainly accurate calculations of seepage rates to and from the lake.

  12. Nonlinear Force-Free Magnetic Fields of Active Regions based on automated loop tracing in AIA/SDO images with DEM discrimination of chromospheric and coronal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, P.; AIA/SDO Team

    2013-07-01

    We developed a forward-fitting code that computes a nonlinear force-free magnetic field (NLFFF) solution constrained by line-of-sight magnetograms from HMI/SDO and by coronal loop structures detected in EUV images from AIA/SDO. The 2D coordinates of coronal loop structures are detected with an improved version of the Oriented Coronal CUrved Loop Tracing (OCCULT-2) code, an automated pattern recognition algorithm that has demonstrated a quality and fidelity in loop tracing that matches visual perception. One fundamental limitation in the completeness of detecting coronal loops comes from the background confusion of coronal loop EUV emission with low-temperature (T=10^4-10^6 K) emission from the chromosphere and transition region, as well as T ~ 1.0 MK emission from reticulated ``moss structure'' that stems from the footpoints of hotter (T 2-8 MK) coronal loops. We employ a pixel-wise differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the 7 coronal AIA filters in order to produce uncontaminated emission measure maps in coronal temperature ranges, which allows an improved performance of automated loop tracing. A nonlinear force-free magnetic field solution is then computed by forward-fitting of an analytical NLFFF solution of twisted coronal field lines to the automatically traced coronal loop coordinates. We demonstrate the performance of this magnetic field modeling for a number of solar active regions observed with SDO. The developed method is able to calculate the most realistic magnetic field models of solar active regions that match all available observable constraints.

  13. Das Kreuz auf dem Schlachtfeld 

    E-print Network

    Schmidlin, A. [author

    2012-03-05

    TRANSCRIPTION; MESSAGE: April 15. Wir sind immer noch hier, sind in Hdbg. noch keine Aussichten fü r Frieden? Es grü sst Sie recht herzlich [Carl Bechtel?] Viele Grü sse an Ihre ganze Familie!; SENT TO: [Postmarked] Saarburg, Lothringen, 12...TRANSLATION; MESSAGE:We are still here [A]ny prospect of peace in [Heidelberg?] Warmest greetings to you from [Carl Bechtel?] Many greetings to your whole family!; SENT TO:[Postmarked] Saarburg, Lorraine [i.e., ceded to France after the war], 12...

  14. SPIRIT DEM applications over Svalbard

    E-print Network

    Berthier, Etienne

    Product F. Paul GIUZ CH-Zurich Uni 1 outline, terminus H. Rott Enveo AU-Innsbruck Industry 2 snow line A) · Topographic phase for 2-pass InSAR · Orthoprojection of automatic camera data · Glacier outline mapping glaciers, L2: L1 & topography · Terminus: ms sensors (automated), intersection of central flow line

  15. Das Kreuz auf dem Schlachtfeld

    E-print Network

    Schmidlin, A. [author

    2012-03-05

    TRANSCRIPTION; MESSAGE: April 15. Wir sind immer noch hier, sind in Hdbg. noch keine Aussichten fü r Frieden? Es grü sst Sie recht herzlich [Carl Bechtel?] Viele Grü sse an Ihre ganze Familie!; SENT TO: [Postmarked] Saarburg, Lothringen, 12...TRANSLATION; MESSAGE:We are still here [A]ny prospect of peace in [Heidelberg?] Warmest greetings to you from [Carl Bechtel?] Many greetings to your whole family!; SENT TO:[Postmarked] Saarburg, Lorraine [i.e., ceded to France after the war], 12.4.15. [Stamped] 1st Heidelberg Mobile Home Guard Infantry Battalion, 2nd Company. [To] Ms. Maria Kolbe, Heidelberg, Kronprinzenstr. 28. Saarburg...

  16. Estimating Mangrove Canopy Height and Above-Ground Biomass in Everglades National Park with Airbone LiDAR and TanDEM-X Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal mangroves forests of Everglades National Park (ENP) are well protected from development. Nevertheless, climate change, hurricanes and other anthropogenic disturbances have affected these intertidal ecosystems. Understanding and monitoring forest structural parameters such as canopy height and above-ground biomass (AGB) are important for the establishment of an historical database for past, present and future ecosystem comparison. Forest canopy height has a well understood and directly proportional correlation with AGB. It is possible to derive it using (1) airborne LiDAR/Laser Scanning (ALS) or (2) space-borne radar systems such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and TanDEM-X (TDX). A previous study of the mangrove canopy height and AGB in the ENP was conducted a decade ago based on ALS data acquired in 2004 in conjunction with SRTM data, which were acquired in 2000 (Simard et al. 2006). In this study we estimated canopy height and AGB using an ALS dataset acquired in 2012 and TDX data acquired during the years 2012-2014. The ALS dataset was acquired along a 16.5 x 1.5 km swath of mangrove forest with variable canopy height. The sampled areas were representative of mangrove stature and structure in the whole ENP. Analysis of the ALS dataset showed that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters close to the coastal ENP waters. Additionally, by comparing our ALS results with those of a previous study by Simard et al. (2006) we identified areas where mangrove height changes greater than ± 3 meters occurred. To expand the study area to the full ENP mangrove ecosystem we processed single-polarization TDX data to obtain a Digital Canopy Model (DCM) that represents the mangrove canopy height. In order to obtain the true canopy height we calibrated the TDX phase center height with ALS true canopy height. Preliminary results of a corrected single-polarized (HH) TDX scene show that mangrove canopy height can reach up to ~25 meters in the western region of the ENP.

  17. Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirynchus albus) inhabits sandy-bedded rivers in the Mississippi River basin including the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers and has experienced decline generally associated with the fragmentation and alteration of these river systems. Knowledge gaps in the life history of the pallid sturgeon include lack of an understanding of conditions needed for successful reproduction and recruitment. We employed hydroacoustic tools to investigate habitats utilized by spawning pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, and the Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota USA from 2008-2013. Reproductive pallid sturgeon were tracked to suspected spawning locations by field crews using either acoustic or radio telemetry, a custom mobile mapping application, and differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Female pallid sturgeon were recaptured soon after spawning events to validate that eggs had been released. Habitats were mapped at presumed spawning and embryo incubation sites using a multibeam echosounder system (MBES), sidescan sonar, acoustic Doppler current profiler, an acoustic camera and either a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) or DGPS. High-resolution DEM's and velocimetric maps were gridded from at a variety of scales from 0.10 to 5 meters for characterization and visualization at spawning and presumed embryo incubation sites. Pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri River are deep (6-8 meters) and have high current velocities (>1.5 meters per second). These sites are also characterized by high turbidity and high rates of bedload sediment transport in the form of migrating sand dunes. Spawning on the channelized Lower Missouri River occurs on or adjacent to coarse angular bank revetment or bedrock. Collecting biophysical information in these environmental conditions is challenging, and there is a need to characterize the substrate and substrate condition at a scale relevant to spawning fish and developing embryos (< 1 meter). The Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota provides the closest analog to a reference condition for pallid sturgeon spawning habitat with a natural flow regime and relatively natural channel geomorphology. Recent documented suspected spawning on the Yellowstone River occurs in a a sand-bedded reach with patches of gravel deposits, in zones of higher velocity (1.0-1.5 meters per second) compared to the ranges of velocities available in an adjacent reach and over a range of depths (2-5 meters). Results from substrate assessments at pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers may have implications for sediment and flow management as well as provide guidance for potential habitat manipulation in support of the recovery of the pallid sturgeon.

  18. Wer entdeckte die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie? Prioritätsstreit zwischen Hilbert und Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Klaus P.

    2005-09-01

    Im November 1915 arbeiteten Albert Einstein und David Hilbert an den Feldgleichungen der Gravitationstheorie. Im Jahre 1997 behaupteten die Wissenschaftshistoriker Corry, Renn und Stachel in einer viel beachteten Arbeit, Hilbert habe die entscheidenden Formeln von Einstein gestohlen. Grundlage ihrer Argumentation war eine wieder gefundene Korrekturfahne von Hilberts entscheidender Arbeit. Die Physikhistorikerin Daniela Wuensch bringt jedoch detaillierte Argumente dafür vor, dass die entscheidende Quelle, nämlich die Korrekturfahne, in neuerer Zeit manipuliert worden ist, um Einsteins Priorität unangetastet zu lassen. Einstein bleibt aber der Entdecker der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.

  19. Das isolierte Kaninchenherz: ein Vergleich zwischen fünf Varianten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Schmitz-Spanke; Esther Seyfried; Uwe Schwanke; Bernhard Korbmacher; Ulrich Sunderdiek; Joachim Winter; Solange Garcia Pomblum; Valdeci Pomblum; Emmeran Gams; Jochen D. Schipke

    2002-01-01

    Hintergrund: Das isolierte Herz ist seit mehr als 100 Jahren als experimentelles Modell fest etabliert. Material und Methodik: In der vorliegenden Studie werden fünf verschiedene Varianten dises Modells miteinander verglichen: 1. modifizierte Langendorff-Anlage (LA) mit modifizierter Krebs-Henseleit-(KH-)Lösung a) ohne (n = 13) und b) mit (n = 16) Rinderalbumin, 2. LA mit KH-Lösung mit Albumin und Rindererythrozyten (n = 14),

  20. Die Enthüllungsplattform WikiLeaks zwischen Bürgerservice und Sicherheitsrisiko

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Riemann

    \\u000a Im Laufe der Zeit wurde vor allem von politischer Seite immer wieder gefordert, das Internet dürfe kein „rechtsfreier Raum“\\u000a sein. Dieser Warnung liegt der Eindruck zugrunde, dass das Netz unrechtmäßiges Verhalten nicht nur begünstige, sondern in\\u000a einigen Fällen sogar erst ermögliche – man denke zum Beispiel an internetspezifische Delikte wie das Phishing.

  1. Über die antagonistischen Beziehungen zwischen Hinterlappenhormonen und Insulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Velhagen

    1929-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  \\u000a1. \\u000aDie blutzuckererhöhende und insulinantagonistische Substanz des Hinterlappens ist sowohl in der Pars neuralis wie in der Pars intermedia enthalten.\\u000a2. \\u000aUm die Insulinhypoglykämie zu verhindern, müssen sehr große Mengen von Hinterlappensubstanz zugeführt werden.\\u000a3. \\u000aAuch durch wiederholte Zufuhr von Hinterlappenauszug läßt sich die Wirkung des im Körper kreisenden Insulins nicht aufheben; es tritt kein Diabetes mellitus auf. Hypophysäre

  2. Beziehungen zwischen Putzverhalten und Sammelbereitschaft bei der Honigbiene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Pflumm

    1969-01-01

    1.Different activities of nectar gathering honeybees (Apis mellifica) were measured as functions of the stimuli introduced at an artificial food source in the laboratory (Fig. 1). The concentration (c) of the sucrose solution, its influx velocity (v) and the air temperature (T) at the food source were experimentally varied. If one of the variables was changed, the two others remained

  3. Insights on the 2010 Lava Flows of Piton de la Fournaise Using Cosmo-SkyMed and TanDEM-X Data: Lava Displacement Rates, Thicknesses, and Volume Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bato, M. G.; Froger, J. L.; Harris, A. J. L.; Villeneuve, N.

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of lava flow after its emplacement provides volume and constraints for lava flow emplacement simulations that help assess pending volcanic hazards. Additionally, it gives us better insights in understanding the dynamics of the underlying magmatic plumbing system and the possible mechanism of the eruption. In this work, we developed a technique using monostatic Cosmo-SkyMed and bistatic TanDEM-X data to calculate the volume, measure the thickness, and the horizontal and vertical displacements immediately after the emplacement of the October 2010 lava flow at Piton de la Fournaise. Results show that the thickest part of the October 2010 lava flow is about 13 to 16 m and the DRE volume is estimated to fall within the range of 1.71 to 3.00 x 106 m3 (±1?), depending on which InSAR database was used. We also observe that the October 2010 lava flow is subsiding at a maximum rate of 14 cm yr-1. Apart from the vertical displacement, joint sliding and centripetal displacement were also identified with a maximum rate of 4.0 cm yr-1. We cross-validated our InSAR results with the mixed-pixel technique of Harris [1997] in terms of the estimated volumes. Our analysis shows that the volume derived using a few TanDEM-X interferograms fitted well within the range of volume given by the mixed-pixel technique as compared to the huge monostatic Cosmo-SkyMed database. In addition to the October 2010 lava flow, we also characterized the thin lava flow deposit of the December 2010 eruption, however using only bistatic TanDEM-X data. In this case of thin lava deposits, we expect that TanDEM-X are best to use in deriving the thickness and estimating the volume as these type of data are more sensitive to topographic change. Reference: Harris AJL, Blake S, Rothery DA, Stevens NF., 1997. A chronology of the 1991 to 1993 Mount Etna eruption using advanced very high resolution radiometer data: implications for real-time thermal volcano monitoring. Geophys. Res. Lett. 102:7985-8003.

  4. Long-term erosion rates of Neogene to Quaternary volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna plateau, Central Andes: an SRTM DEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, Dávid; Telbisz, Tamás.; Wörner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Neogene to Quaternary volcanism of the Central Andes offers a unique opportunity to study long-term erosion of stratovolcanoes. On the basis of SRTM DEM data, we invesigated 35 stratovolcanoes of the 3,800-4,000 m high, arid-hyperarid Altiplano-Puna plateau (from 14oS, 64oW to 27oS, 74oW). The volcanoes have been selected on geomorphological criteria such as (1) a single, "mature" cone-shape with considerable size, (2) location on a relatively flat basement, (3) no overlap with other volcanic centres, and (4) lack of calderas or sector collapse scars. Volcanoes of various age (Mid-Miocene to Quaternary based on sporadic radiometric dates) and various degradation stage have been included in order to infer long-term erosion rates. The method we follow is to quantitatively compare the existing topography with the present-day active volcanoes, e.g. Parinacota (Northern Chile). By applying an advanced computational method, we fit the relief of the undissected, almost perfect reference cone over the degraded volcanic edifice. This way, we can precisely calculate (a) the degree of denudation by difference between the computed initial volume from the fit and the observed volume, and (b) for volcanoes with radiometric age constraint the erosion rate (m/Ma) as the areal mean of denudation divided by age. Our results show that (a) the studied volcanoes are degraded to various extent up to ~40% (denudation ratio) of the paleo-volume. In accordance, their relative height which is progressively lower shows a moderately good correlation with denudation (r2 = 0.70). Using the available age constraints, we obtained a stronger correlation between age and denudation (r2 = 0.82 for all volcanoes, and r2 = 0.95 without the southernmost hyperarid and northernmost semihumid volcanoes). (b) Therefore, calculating erosion rates gives highly reliable results. The youngest volcanoes (e.g. Ollagüe, Tacora) shows 50-100 m/Ma erosion rates which fits well to the initially rapid degradation of active volcanic edifices without vegetation cover. Long-term erosion rates of the Pliocene to Miocene volcanoes, in constrast, are much lower and more uniform (7-17 m/Ma), in agreement with other, similarly low erosion rates obtained by other methods (e.g. cosmogenic nuclides) for the Altiplano-Puna highland. Our rates show the smallest values for the hyperarid Puna and the southern Altiplano (e.g. Maricunga volcano), and the greatest values for the semihumid Southern Peru (e.g. Ccarhuaraso, Jatunpuco volcanoes). Moreover, using the very good age vs denudation correlation as a geomorphological dating tool, we are able to estimate ages for undated volcanoes of the Central Andes or for other regions under similar climate conditions.

  5. Jurassic penetrative deformation and Cenozoic uplift in the Central High Atlas (Morocco): A tectonic model. structural and orogenic inversions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgard Laville; Alain Piqué

    1992-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Der zentrale Hohe Atlas ist eine intrakontinentale Gebirgskette, die sich im Bereich der zwischen dem Sahara-Plateau und dem marokkanischen Variszikum gelegenen Trias- und Jurabecken herausbildete. Dieses junge Gebirge, dessen höchste Erhebungen über 4000 Meter hoch sind, ist durch einen relativ geringen Verkürzungsgrad gekennzeichnet. Axial tritt jedoch eine Schieferung auf im Bereich der N80° E ausgerichteten antiklinalen Hauptfalten sowie rund um

  6. Volatile compounds of blackcurrant juice and wine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merja Leino; Heikki Kallio

    1993-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Flüchtige Verbindungen von Saft, Konzentrat und Wein der Schwarzen Johannisbeere wurden mittels der dynamischen Kopfraum-gaschromatographischen Methode untersucht, wobei die flüchtigen Substanzen selektiv mit einer Capillarsäule erfaßt wurden. Es konnten bei der Duo-trio-Bestimmung des Aromas signifikante sensorische Unterschiede zwischen dem Wein aus Saft und dem Wein aus Konzentrat festgestellt werden, während ein nur geringer Unterschied bei der Zusammensetzung der flüchtigen

  7. Distance à la frontière technologique, rigidités de marché, éducation et croissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Cette; Philippe Askenazy; Philippe Aghion; Renaud Bourlès; Nicolas Dromel

    2008-01-01

    [ger] Diese Studie knüpft an die jüngste Fachliteratur über die Wachstumsdeterminanten entsprechend dem technologischen Stand der Länder an. Neben den Auswirkungen der Bildung und der Regulierung der Güter-und Arbeitsmärkte untersucht sie auch eine mögliche Wechselwirkung zwischen diesen Regulierungen. Herangezogen werden Daten über 17 OECD-Länder aus dem Zeitraum 1985-2003. Aufgezeigt werden vor allem die Merkmale der Auswirkungen des Ausbildungsniveaus der Bevölkerung

  8. Composition and origin of the clay cover on North Brazilian laterites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Truckenbrodt; B. Kotschoubey; W. Schellmann

    1991-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Der Belterra-Ton in N-Brasilien ist ein gelblicher, homogener kaolinitischer Ton mit unterschiedlichen Gibbsitgehalten. Er ist durchschnittlich 5 bis 10 m mächtig und liegt einer lateritischen Verwitterungskruste auf. Aus drei Gebieten Amazoniens wurden vollständige Profile, bestehend aus Belterra-Ton, Bauxit\\/Latent und Saprolit\\/Ausgangsgestein, untersucht. Die chemischen und mineralogischen Analysendaten zeigen eine klare Beziehung zwischen dem Belterra-Ton und der liegenden Verwitterungsdecke, vor allem dem

  9. Wie weit reicht das Selbstbestimmungsrecht des Patienten?Stellungnahme zum Beitrag aus Der Internist (2000) 41: 604

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ulsenheimer

    2000-01-01

    Der Konflikt zwischen ärztlichem Gewissen und religiöser Überzeugung des Patienten keimt insbesondere dann auf, wenn es um\\u000a das Thema “Bluttransfusion bei den Zeugen Jehovas” geht. Auf dieses Problem, mit dem sich die Justiz schon des öfteren beschäftigt\\u000a hat, wurde auch in der Rubrik Medizinrecht von Der Internist eingegangen. In dem dort vorgestellten Fall wurde einem Anhänger\\u000a der Zeugen Jehovas, der

  10. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a different elevations. A 1m/pixel ground resolution set covering an area of about 200km² and mapping the eastern part of the Sierra Arana (Andalucía, Spain) includes a kartsic field directly to the south-east of the ridge and the cliffs of the "Riscos del Moro". A 4m/pixel ground resolution set covering an area of about 900km² includes the landslide active Diezma region (Andalucía, Spain) and the water reserve of Francisco Abellan lake. The third set has a 3m/pixel ground resolution, covers about 100km² and maps the Famennian rocks formations, known as part of "La Calestienne", outcropping near Beauraing and Rochefort in the Namur Province (Belgium). The DEM and orthophoto's have been referenced using ground control points from satellite imagery (Spain, Belgium) and DPGS (Belgium). The quality of produced DEM were then evaluated by comparing the level and accuracy of details and surface artefacts between available topographic data (SRTM- 30m/pixel, topographic maps) and the three Stratochip sets. This evaluation showed that the models were in good correlation with existing data, and can be readily be used in geomorphology, structural and natural hazard studies.

  11. Das Pädagogische Konzept Maria Montessoris: Die Permanente Diskussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Röhrs

    1979-01-01

    In diesem Aufsatz wird unter Berücksichtigung der leitenden pädagogischen Ideen Maria Montessoris die innere Geschlossenheit ihrer Bestrebungen begründet herausgestellt. Dazu werden die Wechselbezüge zwischen den einzelnen Wirkstätten und Werken geklärt. In starker Betonung der anthropologischen Grundlagen des Werkes Maria Montessoris kommt zum Ausdruck, dass ihr gesamtes Ringen der Erhellung des Kindseins als dem Fundament menschlicher Entwicklung galt. In diesem gedanklichen

  12. Feiertagsstreichung, 40-Stunden-Woche, Steuererhöhung - ein Konzept zur mittelfristigen Haushaltssanierung?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Hendricks; Dieter Ondracek; Udo Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    Fehlt der Bundesregierung ein mittelfristiges Konzept zur Haushaltssanierung? Dr. Barbara Hendricks, Bundesministerium der Finanzen, erläutert mit ihrem Beitrag das Haushaltskonzept der Bundesregierung für das Jahr 2005 und unterstreicht, dass das Konzept einen Weg aus dem Konflikt zwischen notwendigem Defizitabbau einerseits und konjunkturellen Erfordernissen andererseits weist. Dieter Ondracek, Deutsche Steuer-Gewerkschaft, sieht vor allem eine Notwendigkeit darin, dass Bewegung in die Struktur

  13. Unkrautflora in Mais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mehrtens; M. Schulte; K. Hurle

    2005-01-01

    In den Jahren 2000 bis 2004 wurde von der Syngenta Agro GmbH in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Hohenheim ein Unkrautmonitoring in Mais durchgeführt. Ziel des Monitorings war, das Artenspektrum, die Stärke der Verunkrautung und das Verbreitungsgebiet von Unkrautarten im Maisanbau in Deutschland zu erfassen. Die Unkrauterhebungen wurden jedes Jahr einmal vor der chemischen Unkrautbekämpfung zwischen dem 2. und 6. Blattstadium

  14. Soziale Ungleichheit, Erkrankungsrisiko und Lebenserwartung: Kritik der sozialepidemiologischen Ungleichheitsforschung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gfinther Steinkamp

    1993-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die sozialepidemiologische Ungleichheitsforschung, die sich mit der Beziehung zwischen sozialer Schicht und Krankheit\\/Lebenserwartung beschäftigt, begibt sich durch eine ausbleibende theoriegeleitete Konzeptualisierung der komplexen Kausalkette von sozialer Ungleichheit bis hin zum Individuum und durch die fehlende Ausdifferenzierung ihrer einzelnen Glieder erheblicher Erkenntnismöglichkeiten. Zur Behebung dieser Defizite wird ein hierarchisches Mehrebenen-Prozesmodell vorgeschlagen, in dem die Lage im System sozialer Ungleichheit (Makroebene)

  15. Die ökologische Landwirtschaft vom Mauerblümchen zum 'mainstream': Wunschdenken oder konzeptionelles Rückgrat in der Entwicklungshilfe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Kotschi

    1998-01-01

    1. Einleitung ZwischenErnte, diese Wortschöpfung mag auf das Ziel unserer Veranstaltung hinweisen. Wir wollen zurückblicken und nach vorn schauen. Im Rückblick will AGRECOL Bilanz ziehen zu dem, was versucht und was erreicht wurde, um die Landwirtschaft in der Entwicklungshilfe zu ökologisieren. Und, wir wollen thematisieren, wie an diesem Ziel weiter gearbeitet werden kann. Der große und vielfältige Kreis von Teilnehmern

  16. Jubilumsball der HU zum 200. Geburtstag

    E-print Network

    Röder, Beate

    WASKOMMT Jubiläumsball der HU zum 200. Geburtstag Unter dem Motto ,,Kosmos. Ein Ball zwischen Himmel und Erde" wird am 4. Dezember das Jubiläumsjahr der HU mit einer rauschenden Ballnacht ausklin erhältlich. www.hu200.de/uniball Bewerbungsfrist für die ,,Junge Islam Konferenz" Noch bis zum 15. November

  17. zukunft forschung 020950 CHEMIE UND BIOLOGIE

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    zukunft forschung 020950 ZWISCHEN CHEMIE UND BIOLOGIE Als erfolgreiche Nachwuchswissenschaftlerin in Großbritannien. Dem Leiter ihrer neuen Forschungsgruppe wurde in diesem Jahr der Chemie-Nobelpreis zuerkannt. B auf die bioor- ganische Chemie spezialisiert hatte. In der Gruppe um den RNA-Spezialisten Ronald

  18. Codegenerierung für Assoziationen in MOF 2.0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Amelunxen; Andy Schürr; Lutz Bichler

    2004-01-01

    Die Spezifikation von MOF 2.0 enth ¨ alt neue Konstrukte zum Ausdr¨ ucken von Beziehungen zwischen Assoziationen. Damit diese Konstrukte in modellgetriebenen Entwicklungsprozessen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden k ¨ onnen, werden Abbildungen auf objektorientierte Programmiersprachen ben ¨ otigt. Im Rahmen dieses Papiers stellen wir M¨ oglichkeiten vor, die neuen Konstrukte auf Java-Code abzubilden. Unsere Vor- schl¨ age basieren auf dem Java

  19. Een opwekking om voort the gaan met het kruisen van individuen tot verschillende linneonten van get geslacht Verbascum behoorend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Lotsy

    1920-01-01

    Résumé Aus der Litteratur wird gezeigt, dassDarwin einen Bastard vanVerbascum thapsus x lychnitis gehabt hat, welche mit dem Pollen beider Eltern einige wenige Samen gab und dassMendel einen Bastard zwischenVerbascum phoeniceum undV. blattaria gehabt hat, welche bei Selbstbefruchtung über 100 gut ausgebildete Samen producirte. Über die Nachkommen dieser Samen wird leider nicht berichtet.

  20. Proseminar zu "Mathematische Populationsgenetik" 1. Die ABO Blutgruppen konnen (im einfachsten Fall) durch drei Allele, A, B und

    E-print Network

    Hermisson, Joachim

    . Betrachte nur den Fall Q > 0, in dem es zwei verschiedene, reelle L¨osungen gibt. Dann erf¨ullt y = p-p+ p(t) p-, t . e) F¨ur + = 0 alterniert p(t) zwischen p(0) und p(1). 7. Es gibt Merkmale, bzw. Gene, bez

  1. Das vorliegende Buch ist das dritte in einer Reihe von Bnden, die der organische Che-

    E-print Network

    Das vorliegende Buch ist das dritte in einer Reihe von Bänden, die der organische Che- miker Klaus ­ der Verlag vergibt die Titel etwas schematisch. Aber das ist auch schon das Einzige, was dem ausführlich das politische und kulturelle Umfeld: in der ,,Saccharin-Saga" etwa den Streit zwischen den beiden

  2. HEIDELBERGER VORTRGE ZUR KULTURTHEORIE

    E-print Network

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    -WALLBRECHT (HEIDELBERG) Hörsaal 14 der Neuen Universität Mittwoch, 23. Oktober 2013, 19 Uhr s.t. JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE: WEST-ÖSTLICHER DIVAN EIN LIEBESGESPRÄCH ZWISCHEN HATEM UND SULEIKA MIT KLAVIERSTÜCKEN VON CLAUDE VON DR. TAREK TAWFIK (KAIRO) GESPRÄCH MIT DEM REFERENTEN UND DR. GABRIELE BERRER

  3. kM C d KidMensaCard Kids kostenloses Essen in der Mensa fr Kinder von Studierenden

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    kM C d KidMensaCard Kids kostenloses Essen in der Mensa für Kinder von Studierenden Über 150 immer einfach. Ab jetzt gibt es die MensaCard Kids für Kinder zwischen 0 und 10 Jahren! Wir danken dem Studentenwerk Hannover für die Unterstützung.g Wie funktioniert die MensaCard Kids? · gültig für Studierende mit

  4. Size-exclusion chromatographic behaviour of metal chelates of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Shibukawa; Masanori Saito; Rokuro Kuroda

    1984-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Das gel-chromatographische Verhalten von 8-Hydroxychinolin (HOx) und seinen Metall(II,III)-chelaten an Fractogel PVA 2000\\u000a in p-Dioxan oder 1,2-Dichlorethan wurde untersucht. Durch Zusatz einer kleinen Menge des Liganden zum Lösungsmittel konnten\\u000a die Metallchelate stabilisiert werden, so daß sich symmetrische Elutionspeaks ergaben. Eine Beziehung zwischen dem Verteilungskoeffizienten\\u000a und dem Molekularvolumen (abgeleitet aus dem Ogston-Laurent-Modell) deutet darauf hin, daß Cu(Ox)2 und Zn(Ox)2 in p-Dioxan

  5. Shape-selected nanocrystals for in situ spectro-electrochemistry studies on structurally well defined surfaces under controlled electrolyte transport: A combined in situ ATR-FTIR/online DEMS investigation of CO electrooxidation on Pt

    PubMed Central

    Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The suitability and potential of shape selected nanocrystals for in situ spectro-electrochemical and in particular spectro-electrocatalytic studies on structurally well defined electrodes under enforced and controlled electrolyte mass transport will be demonstrated, using Pt nanocrystals prepared by colloidal synthesis procedures and a flow cell set-up allowing simultaneous measurements of the Faradaic current, FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed reaction intermediates and side products in an attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR-FTIRS) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) measurements of volatile reaction products. Batches of shape-selected Pt nanocrystals with different shapes and hence different surface structures were prepared and structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods. The potential for in situ spectro-electrocatalytic studies is illustrated for COad oxidation on Pt nanocrystal surfaces, where we could separate contributions from two processes occurring simultaneously, oxidative COad removal and re-adsorption of (bi)sulfate anions, and reveal a distinct structure sensitivity in these processes and also in the structural implications of (bi)sulfate re-adsorption on the CO adlayer. PMID:24991511

  6. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte Abbildung von Verfahren der Landnutzung möglich ist. Die Modellverfahren wurden in eine umfangreiche Datenbank eingebunden. Sie wurden mit Hilfe eines Fuzzy- Regelsystems hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele bewertet. Die systematisch bewerteten Verfahren wurden in ein Betriebsmodell integriert, womit eine weitergehende Analyse der Zielbeziehungen und die Berechnung von Szenarien mit unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglicht wurde. Die Analyse der Beziehung verschiedener Ziele zueinander (Zieldivergenz, Zielkonvergenz) zeigte, dass sich mit der Verfolgung vieler Umweltqualitätsziele auch positive Effekte für andere Umweltqualitätsziele ergaben. Teilweise konnte allerdings auch eine Zieldivergenz festgestellt werden, die auf mögliche Zielkonflikte hinweist. Bei der Analyse der Szenarienergebnisse zeigte sich, dass die vorgeschlagenen Veränderungen von Rahmenbedingungen vielfach eine Verschlechterung für verschiedene Umweltqualitätsziele mit sich bringen. Eine Ursache dafür liegt darin, dass bei der Definition der Szenarien die Bedeutung der Stilllegungen unterschätzt wurde. The objective of this research was to show the opportunities and limitations associated with integrating of environmental goals into agricultural land use management. For this purpose, the impact of agricultural land uses on six environmental quality goals was analysed for an approximately 16.000 ha study region within the biosphere reserve Schorfheide-Chorin in north-eastern Brandenburg (Germany). The environmental quality goals considered were protection of ground water, preservation of groundwater recharge, protection of the soil against wind and water erosion and preservation of animal species typical of the agricultural landscape, in particular partridge, amphibians and cranes. For each environmental quality goal, an evaluation framework is presented which enables an assessment of the impact of agricultural land uses on the environmental quality goals. The evaluation framework was applied to assess the impact of land uses of twenty farms in the s

  7. Dem Bones Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease S. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    In this case study, a forensic anthropologist must determine the age and sex as well as look for signs of trauma to a skeleton found in a shallow grave in a state park. Students simulate the actual procedures used in a forensics lab and learn to identify bones, landmarks, and anatomical features associated with sex, age, height, and pathology. The case was developed for use in a freshman-level human anatomy and physiology course. It could also be used in biology, anatomy, and anthropology courses.

  8. Die Zwergohreule Ein Vogel aus dem Sden

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    liegt in Südeuropa. Doch auch in der Schweiz bestehen einzelne, kleine Populationen. Wie im übrigen Reduktion des Insektenangebots geführt hat. Ob die Zwergohreule in der Schweiz langfristig eine Chance hat rötliche Form scheint in der Schweiz häufiger zu sein. Wenn die Zwergohreule mitten am Tag gestört wird

  9. Jagd nach dem O'Conell-Effekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, I focus on the O'Connell effect of the WUMa variable V502 Cyg, with the main aim of showing it in the lightcurve. 166 observations were collected in V and B band (100 and 66 measurements, respectively) from my private observatory in Kästenberg, Austria, Ossiacher Tauern, at an elevation of 890 m. All data were acquired with an Apo 130/1200 and an Apogee Alta U16M CCD camera. Photometric colour band and narrowband data were collected simultaneously and evaluated. The combination of photometric data with data for deep-sky imaging I have termed "pretty-picture-photometry". This combination of photometric measurements with colour and narrowband data is presented here in the case of V502 Cyg in its surrounding deep-sky field. Norbert Reichman is member of the BAV.

  10. Fusion der Wirbelsäule mit dem Autopolymerisat Palacos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pfeiffer

    1967-01-01

    Die Versteifungsoperationen (Fusionen) an der Wirbelsäule in Form einer dorsalen Verriegelung mit Knochenspänen haben den Nachteil, daß die Knochenzellen des Implantats absterben und vom lebenden Knochen ersetzt werden müssen, so daß sich daraus zwanglos ergibt, daß die Kranken nach der Operation mehrere Monate immobilisiert werden müssen. Es wurde deshalb ein Verfahren entwickelt, die dorsale Verriegelung mit einem schnellhärtenden Kunststoff durchzuführen.

  11. Comparison of Lidar and GPS DEMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chassereau

    2010-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) has become a widely accepted method for collecting surface elevation data. Depending on the mission specifications, lidar data can have a vertical accuracy of up to 0.10m in optimal conditions, with a realistic range of 0.15-0.30m. Error is primarily introduced with increasing slope and vegetation density. When reconstructing the topography of a salt marsh, a

  12. AUS DEM LEHRSTUHL ZAHNERHALTUNG UND PARODONTOLOGIE

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Zahnmedizin der Fakultät für Medizin der Universität Regensburg vorgelegt von Andreas Jaeger 2014 #12;#12;AUS DES BLUTFLUSSES IN DER GINGIVA Inaugural - Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Zahnmedizin

  13. DEM simulation of growth normal fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang; Nien, Wie-Tung; Chan, Pei-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Slip of the fault can cause deformation of shallower soil layers and lead to the destruction of infrastructures. Shanchiao fault on the west side of the Taipei basin is categorized. The activities of Shanchiao fault will cause the quaternary sediments underneath the Taipei basin to become deformed. This will cause damage to structures, traffic construction, and utility lines within the area. It is determined from data of geological drilling and dating, Shanchiao fault has growth fault. In experiment, a sand box model was built with non-cohesive sand soil to simulate the existence of growth fault in Shanchiao Fault and forecast the effect on scope of shear band development and ground differential deformation. The results of the experiment showed that when a normal fault containing growth fault, at the offset of base rock the shear band will develop upward along with the weak side of shear band of the original topped soil layer, and this shear band will develop to surface much faster than that of single top layer. The offset ratio (basement slip / lower top soil thickness) required is only about 1/3 of that of single cover soil layer. In this research, it is tried to conduct numerical simulation of sand box experiment with a Discrete Element Method program, PFC2D, to simulate the upper covering sand layer shear band development pace and scope of normal growth fault slip. Results of simulation indicated, it is very close to the outcome of sand box experiment. It can be extended to application in water pipeline project design around fault zone in the future. Keywords: Taipei Basin, Shanchiao fault, growth fault, PFC2D

  14. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)

    Cancer.gov

    In March 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) completed a retrospective cohort mortality and nested case-control study of 12,315 workers at eight non-metal mining facilities to investigate risk of lung cancer in relation to quantitative measures of historical exposure to diesel exhaust, after taking into account smoking and other lung cancer risk factors

  15. Selbstmord mit dem Strom der Lichtleitung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Buhtz

    1930-01-01

    Selbstmorde durch Elektrizit~t sind verh~iltnism~Big selten. Es sind nut etwa 30 FMle in der Literatur bekannt. Diese Zahl ist im Verh~ltnis zu den Unf~llen durch Elektrizit~t versehwindend gering. Es verlohnt sich daher, einen weiteren, besonders interessanten Fall kurz zu sehildern, zumal er naeh verschiedenen Riohtungen vonder Mehrzahl der bereits beschriebenen abweicht. Jaeffe# und Gey 3 begriinden die Seltenheit des elektrischen

  16. Auf dem Weg zum universellen Quantencomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Dieter; Calarco, Tommaso; Zoller, Peter

    2000-11-01

    Die Quantenmechanik eröffnet faszinierende Perspektiven für die Kommunikation und die Informationsverarbeitung. Um universell programmierbare Quantenrechner realisieren zu können bedarf es der Implementierung von Konzepten zur Quanteninformationsverarbeitung die sich auf eine große Anzahl von Qubits anwenden lassen.

  17. Transurethrale Laserenukleation der Prostata mit dem Holmiumlaser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rassweiler; M. Roder; M. Schulze; R. Muschter

    2008-01-01

    Zusammenfassung\\u000a Zielsetzung  Die Effektivität eines Holmiumlasersystems mit mittlerer Leistung (50 W) und neuartigem Gewebemorcellator für die transurethrale\\u000a Laserenukleation der Prostata (TULP) wird analysiert und Literaturergebnissen bisheriger Holmiumlaser-Enukleationen der Prostata\\u000a (HoLEP; 100 W) gegenübergestellt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material und Methoden  Von Dezember 2003 bis Januar 2008 wurden 129 Patienten mit benigner Prostatahyperplasie mittels TULP behandelt. Bei 45 Fällen\\u000a mit 25-W-Laserleistung (Gruppe A; 2,0 J, 12 Hz) erfolgte die Gewebefragmentierung mit bipolarem Resektoskop (VISTA\\/ACMI),

  18. Future earthquake source faults on deep sea-floor around the Boso triple plate junction revealed by tectonic geomorphology using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Nakata, T.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Izumi, N.; Nishizawa, A.; Horiuchi, D.; Kido, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    Boso triple junction, which is the only example of a triple trench junction on earth, is located off the southeast of Boso peninsula, where the Izu-Bonin trench meets with the Japan trench and the Sagami trench. Boso submarine canyon, which is extended to Katsuuma basin about 7000m deep, forms an incised meander along the north side of Sagami trough. Taito spur separate Katsuuma basin from Bando abyssal basin about 9000m deep, where Japan trench meet with Isu-Bonin trench. In this paper, we present detailed stereo-paired topographic images produced from 0.002 degree (about 150m) DBEM (Digital Bathymetry Model), which processed from the depth sounding data obtained by Japan Coast Guard and JAMSTEC around Boso triple junction. It enables us to observe submarine geomorphology easily and precisely. We identified submarine active faults and other tectonic features related to subduction by using the similar standard for air-photo interpretation of inland active faults. We made more precise submarine active tectonic geomorphological map around Boso triple junction than that by previous workers. Numerous distinct faults on the so-called outer rise associated with subduction of Pacific plate are regarded as normal faulting as widely accepted. While the normal faults on the outer rise are parallel to the trench in the southern part of the Japan trench and the northern part of the Izu-Bonin trench, these normal faults around the east of the triple junction with NNW-SSE extend slightly oblique to the trench. The western margin of Bando abyssal basin is bounded by the thrust faults, which form east-facing 200-500m-high convex scarps associated with raised basin floor to the west of the scarp. These faults also deform Mogi submarine fan surface and uplift to the west along the extension of the scarp. The antecedent valley is extended for about 10km across Taito spur that is an active anticlinal ridge about 1000m high. Katsuura basin is surrounded by terraced former basin floor that is tilted to the west, indicating up-growing of Taito spur. Northeastern part of Izu bar on Philippine Sea plate is characterized by rather smooth extensive convex slope between 1500m-7500m for over 200km long along the trench. On the lower part of the slope below 6000m, several gullies such as Mikura canyon and Kita-Hachijo canyon dissecting the slope forms rapids, probably due to continuous up-warping by subsurface thrusting dipping to the west under the slope. It is noteworthy that we can identify prominent active tectonic features on even very deep sea-floor along the plate boundaries, by using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM.

  19. Determination of traces of polyoxyethylene non-ionic surfactants in water by solvent extraction-spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihide Saito; Kazuyoshi Hagiwara

    1983-01-01

    Das Bestimmungsverfahren beruht auf der Komplexbildung zwischen dem nichtionischen Polyoxyethylen-Tensid (APE) und Natriumpikrat. Der Komplex wird mit 1,2-Dichlorethan extrahiert und die Extinktion bei 378 nm gemessen. Quaternäre Ammoniumverbindungen sowie Eisen(III) verursachen positive Fehler, wobei jedoch die Störung durch Fe(III) durch Maskierung mit CyDTA beseitigt werden kann. Huminsäuren, anionische Tenside sowie übliche Kationen und Anionen stören nicht. Für APE vom allgemeinen

  20. Determination of bisacodyl and its hydrolysis products in bisacodyl formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Laik Ali

    1979-01-01

    Es wird über eine hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographische Methode zur Bestimmung von Bisacodyl und seinen beiden Zersetzungsprodukten, der halbverseiften- und der vollverseiften Ester berichtet. Die Bestimmung erfolgte auf einer C18 Reversed-Phase Säule mit dem Fließmittel Wasser-Acetonitril-Natriumacetat bei 254 nm. Zehn bisacodylhaltige Präparate, magensaftresistente Dragees und Zäpfchen, wurden analysiert. Der Gehalt an den beiden Verseifungsprodukten lag zwischen 0,1 und 1,67%. Die Nachweisgrenze beträgt für

  1. Digitale Foto- und VideodokumentationTeil 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmidt; N. Stasche

    2000-01-01

    Bilder und Videos sind die geeigneten Medien zur Dokumentation von normalen und pathologischen Befunden. Zwischen den ersten\\u000a Farbbildern und der Entwicklung des ersten digitalen Fotoapparats liegen nur 150 Jahre. Wie schnell sich die Technik der digitalen\\u000a Foto- und Videodokumentation entwickelt und welche Rolle Sie für den HNO-Arzt in Klinik und Praxis spielt, wird in dem nachfolgenden\\u000a Beitrag beschrieben. Teil 1

  2. Evidenz-basierte Ethik

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Strech

    2008-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Mit dem Konzept der Evidenz-basierten Medizin wurde die Verwendungsweise von empirischen Informationen in den Gesundheitswissenschaften\\u000a stark verändert. Ein grundlegendes Charakteristikum dieses Konzeptes ist die Unterscheidung zwischen empirischen Informationen\\u000a per se und „Evidenzen“ im Sinne von qualitativ hochwertigeren empirischen Informationen. Dieses Konzept der Evidenzbasierung\\u000a findet sich zunehmend auch im Kontext der angewandten Ethik. In der internationalen Fachpresse sind in den letzten

  3. Vertrauensfragen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Wiele

    2011-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Vertrauen oder Kontrolle als Führungsprinzip — vor dem Hintergrund der Unternehmens- und Informationssicherheit ist die Entscheidung\\u000a zwischen beiden Prinzipien in den vergangenen Monaten schwieriger geworden. Auf der einen Seite haben seit 2009 eine ganze\\u000a Reihe gestandener und hochrangiger Manager ihre Posten verloren und ihre Unternehmen in Reputationstiefs gestürzt, weil sie\\u000a Mitarbeiter zu streng überwacht und dabei Datenschutzgrenzen überschritten haben, die

  4. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer – Non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer and carcinoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. End

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  GRUNDLAGEN: Die Prognose von Lungentumoren hängt von der Histologie und dem Tumorstadium ab. Der häufigste Tumortyp ist das\\u000a nicht-kleinzellige Bronchuskarzinom (NSCLC) mit einer 5-Jahresüberlebensrate zwischen 67 % (Stadium IA) und <5 % (Stadium\\u000a IV). METHODIK: Eine rezente Literaturübersicht zeigt diagnostische und therapeutische Standards des nicht-kleinzelligen Bronchuskarzinoms\\u000a und der neuroendokrinen Tumore (Leitlinien). ERGEBNISSE: Im Stadium I\\/II ist bei funktioneller Operabilität eine

  6. Schwermetalle in Federn von Habichten ( Accipiter gentilis ) aus unterschiedlich belasteten Gebieten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund Hahn; Karin Hahn; Markus Stoeppler

    1989-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Mit standardisierten Habicht-Mauserfedern läßt sich die Schwermetallbelastung von Landschaftsausschnitten repräsentativ erfassen, wie der Vergleich mit auf physikalisch-technischem Weg ermittelten Depositionsraten aus dem gleichen Untersuchungsgebiet bestätigt. Zwischen den Cadmium-, Blei- und Kupfergehalten in standardisierten Habicht-Mauserfedern und den gemessenen Depositionsraten dieser Elemente besteht eine signifikante Korrelation. Die einzelnen Handschwingen zeigten unterschiedlich hohe Cadmium-, Blei- und Kupfergehalte, abhängig von ihrer Stellung im

  7. Subarachnoidalblutung aus Aneurysma der A. communicans anterior bei einem SexualstraftäterÜberlegungen zur Schuldfähigkeit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Mielke; E. Donauer; R. Luthe

    1996-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Ein 32jähriger Mann wird der versuchten Vergewaltigung angeklagt. Nachdem sich beim Urinieren am Straßenrand eine Erektion\\u000a eingestellt hatte, näherte er sich einem zufällig vorbeikommenden 9 Jahre alten Mädchen und rieb sein Glied zwischen ihren\\u000a Beinen bis zum Samenerguß. Er war geständig, machte aber eine partielle Amnesie geltend. Zeugenaussagen berichten über eine\\u000a Orientierungsstörung des Beschuldigten kurz vor dem Ereignis. Er

  8. Niccolò Machiavelli, II Principe, Rom 1532

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Kailitz

    Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) beriet im Stadtstaat Florenz in der kurzen Zeit des republikanischen Zwischenspiels (1494–1512)\\u000a die mächtigsten Männer und drückte der Außenpolitik seinen Stempel auf. Seine politischen Erfahrungen, nicht zuletzt als Botschafter\\u000a von Florenz an zahlreichen europäischen Höfen, prägten seine politische Philosophie. Machivalli war beeindruckt von der Stärke\\u000a Frankreichs und Spaniens, aber auch der fragilen Machtbalance zwischen dem Kaiser, den

  9. Eine qualitative Studie zum Mediennutzungsverhalten von Leserinnen der Zeitschrift Glamour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Wilhelm; Michael Meyen

    Seit Mitte der 90er Jahre hat sich eine neue Generation von Frauenzeitschriften auf ei- nem als übersättigt geltenden Markt etabliert. Amica, Allegra, Joy und Glamour richten sich an Leserinnen zwischen 18 und 35 Jahren und haben mit einer Mischung aus Mode, Service, Tipps und Klatsch Klassiker wie Brigitte, Freundin, Für Sie oder Emma zurückgedrängt (Wehrle\\/Busch 2002). Glamour aus dem US-Verlag

  10. The southern extension of the East African Rift System and related igneous activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Vail

    1968-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Neue Einzelheiten über das Bruchmuster in der Spät- und Post-Karroo im Osten des südlichen Afrikas sowie über die damit verbundenen Magmagesteine sind auf einer Karte angegeben. Das Bruchmuster hat eine außerordentliche Ähnlichkeit mit dem Ostafrikanischen Graben, welcher eine Fortsetzung davon ist.Ein enger Parallelismus besteht zwischen den Brüchen des tektonischen Grabens und den intrakratonischen, orogenetischen Zonen sowie auch örtlich innerhalb der

  11. Aufbau von organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagementprozessen im Projekt IntegraTUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Knittl, Silvia

    Das Projekt IntegraTUM wird in enger Kooperation zwischen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) und dem Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) durchgeführt. In diesem Projekt werden Dienste gemeinsam entwickelt, die nachhaltig vom LRZ betrieben werden sollen. Die damit verbundene Rezentralisierung erfordert auch eine enge Kooperation im Falle von technischen Störungen und Fehlern im Betriebsablauf bei diesen Diensten über die Organisationsgrenzen hinweg. Unsere Aktivitäten in diesem organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagement werden hier beschrieben.

  12. Einfluß von pH-Wert und Magnesium auf die antibakterielle Aktivität von Chinolonpräparaten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Smith; N. T. Ratcliffe

    1986-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Aktivität von zehn verschiedenen antibakteriellen Substanzen der 4-Chinolon-Gruppe gegenEscherichia coli KL 16 wurde bei pH-Werten zwischen 5,6 und 8,3, dem pH-Bereich von Urin, geprüft. Der pH beeinflußte die minimalen Hemmkonzentrationen aller Substanzen, doch bestimmte der Substituent in Position C7 bei jedem der 4-Chinolone, in welcher Weise seine Aktivität durch die Wasserstoffionenkonzentration verändert wurde. Wenn ein 4-Chinolon in Position

  13. Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen Oberösterreich und dem angrenzenden Niederösterreich, Teil HI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. ESSL

    Floristic records from eastern Upper Austria and the adjacent part of Lower Austria, Part ID New records of 100 rare vascular plant species are presented from eastern Upper Austria and the adjacent part of Lower Austria. Many of the species are aliens. The new localities are discussed with respect to relevant literature and the regional distribution of the species is

  14. Beziehungen Zwischen Wurzelwachstum, Transpiration und CO 2 -Gaswechsel bei Einigen Kakteen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Kausch

    1965-01-01

    1.When roots of cacti which have been kept dry for many months are remoistened, absorbing roots are formed after a few hours.2.The transpiration rate increases rapidly within a day after the remoistening. This is an indication, that as soon as the roots appear, water-absorption begins immediately, and a rapid improvement of the water relationships in the plant occurs.3.The CO2-exchange of

  15. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  16. Zum Vorkommen einiger Spinte zwischen Tessalit und Niamey (Französisch-Westafrika)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilli Koenig

    1956-01-01

    lJber die Biologie der Spinte (Meropidae) ist noch r~lativ wenig bekannt. Da viele Arten in offenem, nut schiitter bewachsenen Gel\\/~ndo heil3er Zonen leben und als gewaal.dte Flieger eine~ sehr weiten Aktionsraum beaaspruchen, ist ihre Beobachtung in freier Wildbahn ziemlich anstrengend und zeitraubend. Besonders fiber das Brutverhaltea kann die Feldbeobachtung Spinte sind ErdhShlenbriiter -- nur teilweise, Auskunft geben. In der Biologischen

  17. Mathematisch-Statistische Differenzierungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Selbstmord und Unfall bei Sturz aus der Höhe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Berghaus

    1978-01-01

    Summary On the basis of 185 deaths caused by falls from height we examined the probability to differentiate between suicide and accident. Variables about the person, about the course and the background of the action as well as about the injury-pattern were taken into consideration. Contingency table analysis, chi-sqare tests and probportional reduction in error measure were used first to

  18. Wissensquelle Die eTH-BiBlioTHek zwiscHen

    E-print Network

    Imamoglu, Atac

    Versicherungsrecht Corporate Finance Epidemiologie und Biostatistik Ethnobotanik und Ethnomedizin FamilienrechtInnen Universitäre Didaktik Weiterbildungskurse Advanced Real Estate Valuation Arabic Papyrology Webclass Behavioural Finance for Private Banking eCF Basic / Advanced Corporate Finance eCF Valuation Embodiment Erkenne Dich

  19. Über die Rückbildung der Psoriasis capitis nach mechanischer Epilation (Beziehungen zwischen psoriatischer Efflorescenz und Follikelproliferation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Franz

    1978-01-01

    The pathomorphological and pathophysiological reactions of the spontaneous and artificially induced skincycle in psoriasis capitis-lesions were clinically and histologically investigated.1.After the epilation in the psoriasis capitis-lesion a healing of the psoriatic efflorescence was observed.2.Histologically a close correlation between the induced anagen and the regression of the psoriasis existed: As a cause of this phenomenon an interaction between the dermis, the

  20. waren. 1990-1991 schwankten diese Raten zwischen 2% und 28% (Mittel: 10%)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) Estimate of outcrossing rate between lines of field beans (Vicia faba) in various conditions with isozymic pollinisation chez deux lignées de féverole de printemps (Vicia faba L var equina Steudel). Effets sur les : Hyme- noptera) sur la pollinisation de la féve- role de printemps (Vicia faba L var equi- na Steudel

  1. Über den Wirkungsmechanismus des Ephedrins und den Unterschied in der Wirkungsstärke zwischen seinen Isomeren

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Schaumann

    1928-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Die Blutdruckwirkung des Ephedrins ist nicht als Herzwirkung aufzufassen. Sie ist eine rein periphere Gefäßwirkung und kommt dadurch zustande, daß durch das Ephedrin die Gefäße für Suprarenin sensibilisiert werden. An und für sich unwirksame Ephedrinkonzentrationen verursachen an den mit verdünnten Suprareninlösungen durchströmten Froschgefäßen eine starke, langanhaltende Vasokonstriktion.2.Mit derselben Methode lä\\\\t sich auch die sensibilisierende Wirkung des Kokains und die

  2. Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sölch, Dennis

    Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

  3. Schlusswort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Michael; Reinhardt, Andreas

    Im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojektes ProMoLeS wurde bereits zu Projektbeginn der Industriearbeitskreis Montagelösungen für die Leistungselektronik" gegründet, welcher unter der organisatorischen und fachlichen Leitung vom bayerischen Cluster Leistungselektronik im ECPE e.V. eine Plattform für den Austausch zwischen Unternehmen der Leistungselektronik bietet. Ziel des Industriearbeitskreises ist es daher, mit neuen und innovativen Lösungen einen Beitrag zur Sicherung der Montagearbeitsplätze am Standort Deutschland zu leisten. Der Arbeitskreis richtet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte von Unternehmen, die leistungselektronische Systeme oder deren Komponenten entwickeln und herstellen: Entwicklungsingenieure, Fertigungsplaner, Fertigungstechnologen, Fertigungsleiter, Arbeitsorganisatoren, Qualitätsbeauftragte sowie Wissenschaftler an Hochschulen, die auf den genannten Gebieten arbeiten. Ziel und Zweck des Arbeitskreises ist es, Wissen und Erfahrung auszutauschen, persönliche Kontakte von Fachleuten zwischen Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen zu verstärken, Kooperationen in dem Gebieten der Entwicklung, Fertigung, Logistik oder Qualifizierung aufzubauen, strategisch relevante Themen zu erkennen und gemeinsame Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte zu initiieren. Damit soll die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Unternehmen verbessert und Arbeitsplätze am Standort gesichert werden.

  4. BEAGLE2 SIMULATION, KINEMATICS CALIBRATION, AND ENVIRONMENT DEM GENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Barnes; Edward Taylor; Nigel Phillips; Alain Gossant; Gerhard Paar

    Beagle2 (1) as part of the ESA Mars Express mission (2) will be launched in June 2003. The primary science goal of Beagle2 is to search for the presence of life on the planet with the aid of a sophisticated package of scientific instruments (3). These include mass, Mossbauer and X-ray spectrometers, a microscope, stereo camera system (SCS), and environment

  5. Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen oberösterreichischen Alpenvorland II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. ESSL

    Floristic observations from the eastern Upper Austrian alpine foothills II Abstract: For 26 rare or decreasing species new localities in the eastern Upper Austrian foothills and a few new localities in the western area of Lower Austria are reported. Most of them are species of segetal and ruderal habitats (Amaranlhus albus, Bromus secalinus, Camelina microcarpa, Chenopodium botrys, Ch. bonus-henricus, Ch.

  6. Interpolation of phenological phases on a digital elevation model (DEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngaßner, Thomas C.; Scheifinger, Helfried

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of the VegDyn project (a cooperation between Joanneum Research, Institute of Digital Image Processing, LFZ Raumberg-Gumpenstein and ZAMG) consists in quantifying and modelling the relationship between individual growth stages of grassland on the one hand and atmospheric parameters, remotely sensed data and phenological observations on the other. The model simulates the beginning and the end of the vegetation period and the growth stages of grassland with temperature as input variable. Thus it will be possible to explore changes of the timing of the vegetation period and the growth stages of grassland in possible future climate scenarios, which are calculated by climate models. In the context of the VegDyn project we developed methods for the spatial interpolation of phenological phases on a digital elevation model with a 250 m grid resolution in the complex terrain of the Alps. The final result is a series of maps of long term mean entry dates and maps of entry dates of individual years, which can for instance be related with the Net Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter maps from satellite observations. Apart from the yearly input via the conventional observational network based on voluntary observers and the input via the web interface, the Austrian phenological data base is still being supplemented by data from the paper archive. The elevation of the station network ranges from 100 to 1700 m. The station density can reach up to 100 or more stations per phase and season during 1951 - 2009. From more than 280 observed phases including phases from wild (woody and herbaceous) and agricultural plants those have been selected, which are related to cultivated grassland and which can be detected by remote sensing. In order to be selected for spatial interpolation the phase must satisfy a number of criteria: a minimum number of stations and, in order to have a meaningful long term mean entry date, a minimum number of observations per station during 1951 - 2009. If this minimum number is set to 20 years, there remain averagely 129 stations per phase, which fulfil the criterion. An average observer notes about 51 phases. This results in a rather high year to year fluctuation of observing stations and observed phases. The applied interpolation methods are linear regression with the entry dates as dependent and the station coordinates as independent variables, height reduced inverse distance weighting, and height reduced mean. For the latter two methods the search radius and the number of selected nearest neighbouring stations for interpolation have been optimised via trial and error. Interpolation quality is being checked via spatial cross validation, where the average anomaly, explained spatial variance (correlation squared or RSQ) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) serve as quality criteria. The resulting set of maps contains the interpolated long term mean phenological entry date and the entry dates of a series of individual years (1990 - 2009) for each of the three methods. This enables a comparison of the three interpolation methods and an evaluation of the quality of the results.

  7. Weg aus dem Schuldenhaushalt: Ist eine Tilgung der Staatsschulden möglich?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Overhaus; Ulrich Maas; Aiginger. Karl; Margit Schratzenstaller-Altzinger

    2012-01-01

    Ist die Zunahme der Staatsverschuldung ein Problem und ist es sinnvoll und möglich, die Staatsschulden zu tilgen? Manfred Overhaus, ehemals Staatssekretär im Bundesministerium der Finanzen, stellt ein Konzept vor, das die im Grundgesetz verankerte Schuldenbremse in eine Schuldentilgung, die seiner Ansicht nach die Bürger nicht überfordern würde, fortentwickelt. Ulrich Maas, Mitglied des Vorstandes der KPMG AG Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft und Vorsitzender des

  8. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; ?otar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky-view factor, for example, is an essential variable in many fields, e.g. in meteorology. RVT produces two types of results: 1) the original files have a full range of values and are intended for further analyses in geographic information systems, 2) the simplified versions are histogram stretched for visualization purposes and saved as 8-bit GeoTIFF files. This means that they can be explored in non-GIS software, e.g. with simple picture viewers, which is essential when a larger community of non-specialists needs to be considered, e.g. in public collaborative projects. The tool recognizes all frequently used single band raster formats and supports elevation raster file data conversion.

  9. Strahlentherapie des Prostatakarzinoms: Stadieneinteilung und Bestrahlungsplanung mit dem Transrektalen Ultraschall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Braun; R. Hofmann; H. Czempiel

    1985-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate is a cheap and well-reproducible examination for the prostate and seminal vesicles. The local tumor extension of a prostatic carcinoma can be visualized. By documentation of the ultrasound image on a polaroid paper picture, the topometric section of the prostate can be obtained. This picture can be used for dosimetry in individual radiation therapy-planning. Computed

  10. DEM Solutions Develops Answers to Modeling Lunar Dust and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne; Calle, Carlos; LaRoche, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    With the proposed return to the Moon, scientists like NASA-KSC's Dr. Calle are concerned for a number of reasons. We will be staying longer on the planet's surface, future missions may include dust-raising activities, such as excavation and handling of lunar soil and rock, and we will be sending robotic instruments to do much of the work for us. Understanding more about the chemical and physical properties of lunar dust, how dust particles interact with each other and with equipment surfaces and the role of static electricity build-up on dust particles in the low-humidity lunar environment is imperative to the development of technologies for removing and preventing dust accumulation, and successfully handling lunar regolith. Dr. Calle is currently working on the problems of the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces, particularly to those of Mars and the Moon, and is heavily involved in developing instrumentation for future planetary missions. With this end in view, the NASA Kennedy Space Center's Innovative Partnerships Program Office partnered with OEM Solutions, Inc. OEM Solutions is a global leader in particle dynamics simulation software, providing custom solutions for use in tackling tough design and process problems related to bulk solids handling. Customers in industries such as pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, and materials processing as well as oil and gas production, agricultural and construction, and geo-technical engineering use OEM Solutions' EDEM(TradeMark) software to improve the design and operation of their equipment while reducing development costs, time-to-market and operational risk. EDEM is the world's first general-purpose computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to use state-of-the-art discrete element modeling technology for the simulation and analysis of particle handling and manufacturing operations. With EDEM you'can quickly and easily create a parameterized model of your granular solids system. Computer-aided design (CAD) models of real particles can be imported to obtain an accurate representation of their shape. EDEM(TradeMark) uses particle-scale behavior models to simulate bulk solids behavior. In addition to particle size and shape, the models can account for physical properties of particles along with interaction between particles and with equipment surfaces and surrounding media, as needed to define the physics of a particular process.

  11. Über den Antagonismus der Lokalanästhetika gegenüber dem Veratrineffekt am Muskel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schüller; F. Athmer

    1921-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Der Veratrineffekt am quergestreiften Muskel läßt sich durch die verschiedensten Lokalanästhetika, besonders durch Anästhesinlösungen, aufheben; und zwar so, daß die in der Veratrinkurve enthaltene, mehr oder weniger verdeckte, normale Anfangszuckung fast unverändert wieder erscheint.

  12. Forecasting of Storm Surge Floods Using ADCIRC and Optimized DEMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenti, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Increasing the accuracy of storm surge flood forecasts is essential for improving preparedness for hurricanes and other severe storms and, in particular, for optimizing evacuation scenarios. An interactive database, developed by WorldWinds, Inc., contains atlases of storm surge flood levels for the Louisiana/Mississippi gulf coast region. These atlases were developed to improve forecasting of flooding along the coastline and estuaries and in adjacent inland areas. Storm surge heights depend on a complex interaction of several factors, including: storm size, central minimum pressure, forward speed of motion, bottom topography near the point of landfall, astronomical tides, and most importantly, maximum wind speed. The information in the atlases was generated in over 100 computational simulations, partly by use of a parallel-processing version of the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model. ADCIRC is a nonlinear computational model of hydrodynamics, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the US Navy, as a family of two- and three-dimensional finite element based codes. It affords a capability for simulating tidal circulation and storm surge propagation over very large computational domains, while simultaneously providing high-resolution output in areas of complex shoreline and bathymetry. The ADCIRC finite-element grid for this project covered the Gulf of Mexico and contiguous basins, extending into the deep Atlantic Ocean with progressively higher resolution approaching the study area. The advantage of using ADCIRC over other storm surge models, such as SLOSH, is that input conditions can include all or part of wind stress, tides, wave stress, and river discharge, which serve to make the model output more accurate.

  13. Performance analysis of DEM automatic extraction from SPOT5 sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nonin; S. Piccard

    2003-01-01

    During the first six months following the successful SPOT5 launch, the capabilities of its various sensors for topographic applications have been widely tested. This paper summarizes the extensive experiments we made with SPOT5 high resolution sensors in the domain of automatic terrain extraction. Correlation based Digital Elevation Models were produced from along the track HRS and cross track HRG stereo

  14. DEM Measurements of Moving UV Features in Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor); Kucera, T. A.; Landi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-thermal features with speeds of 5-70 km/s perpendicular to the line of sight are common in the prominences which showed traceable motions. These speeds are noticeably higher than the typical speeds of 5-20 km/s observed in H-alpha data from "quiet" prominences and are more typical of "activated" prominences in which H-alpha blob speeds of up to 40 km/s have been reported. In order to make a more quantitative determination of the thermal properties of the moving features seen in the UV, we use the SOHO Cororial Diagnostic Spectrometer to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The resulting observations in lines of O III, O IV, O V, Ne IV, Ne V, Ne VI, and Ne VII allow us to calculate the differential emission measure of moving features and provide a test of models of flows in prominences.

  15. Kafka's "Vor dem Gesetz": The Case for an Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickar, Gertrud Bauer

    1975-01-01

    Uses a parable from a Kafka novel to illustrate and support the premise that language and literature study should be integrated, even in the early stages. Reading short literary works can explain involved language problems better than long explanations, and can also stimulate further literary study. (CHK)

  16. Die Schwereorientierung der Bienen unter dem Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lindauer; Hermann Martin

    1968-01-01

    1.The indication of the direction in the waggle dance on a vertical comb is influenced by the earth's magnetic field; the regularely small deviations in the dance (the residual misdirections called “Restmissweisung”) disappear as the magnetic field is compensated to 4%.2.Fluctuations in the total intensity of about 1000 ? influence the deviation; this is also the case if the bees

  17. Error tracking of radargrammetric DEM from RADARSAT images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Toutin

    1999-01-01

    In the 1960s, stereoscopic methods were first applied to radar images to derive ground elevation. Unfortunately, research uncovered contradictions between error propagation theory and practical results. These contradictions combined with the lack of stereo radar pairs led to the decline of radargrammetry. The launch in 1995 of RADARSAT, with its various operating modes and specific geometric characteristics, has turned the

  18. Deoxynivalenol in Mehlproben des Jahres 1999 aus dem Einzelhandel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usleber E; Lepschy J; Märtlbauer E

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  To study the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in retail cereal products, wheat and rye samples were purchased in 1999 from supermarkets\\u000a and “organic food” shops in Munich, Germany. DON was analysed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 78 of these samples were additionally\\u000a analysed by HPLC. The following contamination rates (%) and mean DON levels were found: wheat flour type 405

  19. Enossale Implantatversorgung von Tumorpatienten mit dem Bone-Lock-System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kovács; Johann Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die implantologische Versorgung von Patienten nach ablativer Tumorchirurgie und Defektrekonstruktion erfolgt meist abseits strenger Maßstäbe der Erfolgsbeurteilung. Deshalb untersuchten wir die von Juni 1990 bis Juni 1996 bei 58 Tumorpatienten enoral gesetzten 210 Implantate regelmäßig nach. Verwendung fand ausschließlich das enossale Bone-Lock-Implantatsystem (Howmedica Leibinger GmbH, Freiburg). Untersucht wurden der Plaqueindex (Silness und Löe), der Sulkusblutungsindex (Löe), die Sondierungstiefe, die

  20. Erste klinische Erfahrungen mit dem Argonlaser bei der Rhinopathia vasomotorica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lenz; J. Eichler; G. Schäfer; J. Salk; J. Knof

    1977-01-01

    The construction of a laser-beam-guide system for application in the nasal cavity is presented. An Ar+-laser beam of 1–3 W is conducted to the end tube of 4 mm diameter using two movable arms connected with two rotating mirrors. The beam diameter at the exit of the system is 0.7 mm. The technical procedure for the application of the laser

  1. 7.5-Minute Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) performs a wide variety of tasks related to the environment including data acquisition for use in geographical information systems. This data set provides elevation data for the contiguous US, Hawaii, and Alaska. Data are in one-by-one degree blocks and available via an online interface or by ftp download (instructions provided in the User Guide). Specific data can be located via alphabetical list, state, or a graphic of the US.

  2. Case Study: Dem Bones - Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease S. Bruce (University of Massachusetts-Lowell Department of Health and Clinical Sciences)

    2001-07-09

    This is a case study for high school and undergraduate students in anatomy and physiology. In particular this case study explores anatomy of the skeleton (including landmarks), sex and age determination via pelvic and skull morphology. Users of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, case study, teaching notes and answer key.

  3. Dem Generation with Short Base Length Pleiades Triplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.; Topan, H.

    2015-03-01

    An image triplet of Pleiades images covering the area of Zonguldak, Turkey has been investigated. The height to base relation of the first to the last image is just 1:4.5 and for the first and the second image 1:9. This is quite below the usual height to base relation of 1:1.6 for a typical stereo pair of space images. The corresponding small angle of convergence influences the possible vertical accuracy, but images with such a small angle of convergence are more similar to each other as images with larger convergence angles. This enables a better image matching, improving the vertical accuracy and compensating partially the influence of poor intersection geometry. Even over forest areas no matching gaps occurred. Height models are generated with different base configurations and compared with a reference height model. Pleiades images are distributed with 50cm ground sampling distance instead of the physical size of 70cm, the image quality justifies this zooming and also the geometric results are in the range of other space images with originally 50cm GSD. The image orientation by bias corrected Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC) is leading with more as 160 ground control points (GCP) to root mean square (RMS) differences slightly below 1.0 GSD of the distributed images (0.5m GSD). Only negligible systematic errors have been identified. With the combination of the first and last image a standard deviation of the generated height model of 1.6m, respectively for flat terrain close to 1.0m has been reached in relation to a reference height model. The small angle of convergence is not as much influencing the height accuracy as according to simple geometric relation.

  4. Blendempfindlichkeit und Halos nach “phakic IOL”Operation zur Behandlung einer hohen Myopie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maroccos; F. Vaz; A. Marinho; J. Guell; C. P. Lohmann

    2001-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  \\u000a \\u000a Hintergrund. Die Implantation intraokularer Linsen in phake Augen befindet sich derzeit in der klinischen Erprobung zur Korrektur der\\u000a Myopie.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patienten und Methodik. Bei 40 myopen Augen wurden vor und zwischen dem 5. und 6. postoperativen Monat die Blendempfindlichkeit und die Halogre\\u000a bestimmt. Anhand der implantierten IOL wurden die Patienten in 4 Gruppen unterteilt: In 10 Augen wurde eine Artisan

  5. Lärm auf der Intensivstation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Siebig; S. Kuhls; U. Gather; M. Imhoff; T. Müller; T. Bein; B. Trabold; S. Bele; C. E. Wrede

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung\\u000a Hintergrund  Der durch zahlreiche Alarme in der Intensivmedizin bedingte Lärm führt zu Pegeln von über 80 dB. Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit\\u000a war es zu evaluieren, ob relevante Unterschiede zwischen Intensivstationen („intensive care units“, ICU) mit unterschiedlicher\\u000a Schwerpunktversorgung hinsichtlich der Häufigkeit der Alarmierung, dem zeitlichen Auftreten, den Alarmarten und den zugrunde\\u000a liegenden Vitalparametern der Patienten bestehen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methoden  Auf fünf verschiedenen ICU des Universitätsklinikums Regensburg

  6. Agrarkonomische Fachexkursion ,Landwirtschaft zwischen Plan und Markt` 2.10.-10.10.2010 Programm der Agrarkonomische Fachexkursion nach Belarus

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    der Agrarökonomische Fachexkursion nach Belarus der Fakultät für Agrarwissenschaften der Georg 15 Uhr Besichtigung der Staatlichen Weißrussischen Agraruniversität (Belarus State Agricultural (Institute for Systematic Research in Agriculture of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus) und

  7. Zur Wirkung der Narkotika auf die Blutdruckregulation und zur Differenzierung zwischen Schlaf und Narkose (nach Untersuchungen beim Elektrokrampf)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schoetensack; Joseph Hann

    1951-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Bei Katze, Hund und Kaninchen fhrt der Elektrokrampf unter Curare zu einer Blutdrucksteigerung, wie sie sich durch i. v.\\u000a Injektion von 10–100 ? Adrenalin erzeugen lt. Sie ist durch Yohimbin aufhebbar.\\u000a \\u000a Wird der Elektrokrampf in Evipannarkose durchgefhrt, so kommt es statt dessen zu einer Blutdrucksenkung, die sich durch Eserin\\u000a verstrken und durch Atropin aufheben lt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Die am curaresierten Tier durch

  8. Correspondence between Tycho Brahe and Thaddeus Hagecius - the beginnings. (German Title: Briefwechsel zwischen Tycho Brahe und Thaddaeus Hagecius - Anfänge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Josef

    The voluminous correspondence of Tycho is one of the most interesting sources of the history of astronomy. Nevertheless, it is until today poorly known and rarely cited (Thoren being a counter-example), and a modern critical edition is lacking. Among Tycho Brahe's most frequent correspondents are Wilhelm, the landgrave of Hesse, and his court astronomer Ch. Rothmann. At third place - regarding the number of letters - we find the court physician and astronomer Thaddaeus Hagecius from Prague. Their correspondence lasted from 1575 tpo 1597. This article presents and analyses the most important letters of the Hagecius - Brahe correspondence.

  9. Zwischen Web 2.0, virtuellen Welten und Game-based Learning - Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Hans

    Web 2.0, virtuelle Welten und Game-based Learning werden als Allheilmittel moderner Wissensvermittlung an Hochschulen genannt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt nach einer Einführung in die Thematik Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld anhand ausgewählter Web 2.0-Dienste, der virtuellen Welt Second Life, eines an der TUM entwickelten Frameworks für Gamebased Learning Applikationen und eines Lernspiels. Diese werden anhand von konkreten Lehr- und Lernszenarien vorgestellt und anhand der bisherigen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich kritisch beleuchtet.

  10. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  11. ZOO-FISH analysis with 7 human chromosome specific libraries detects conserved regions between human and camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Abdo, G; Rettenberger, G; Stranzinger, G

    1997-01-12

    Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the camel karyotype have been established by using heterologous chromosome painting experiments called ZOO-FISH. Biotin-labelled DNA libraries from seven flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on camel chromosomes. Human DNA libraries 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 19 and 21 hybridized to camel chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 21, 25, 32 and 33, were used in identifying and delineating 10 segments of homology. Comparison of ZOO-FISH results with several species within the artiodactyls allowed the study of karyotype rearrangements and the transfer results from the human genome project and the animal gene maps. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Homologe Chromosomenregionen zwischen einzelnen Humanchromosomen und dem Kamelkaryotyp wurden mittels Verwendung der heterologen Chromosomenhybridisierung, genannt ZOO-FISH, dargestellt. Biotin-markierte DNS-Bibliotheken von sieben durchflusszytometrisch sortierten Humanchromosomen wurden als Proben für die Fluoreszenz In Situ Hybridisierung (FISH) auf Kamelchromosomen verwendet. Human DNS-Bibliotheken der Chromosomen 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 19 und 21 hybridisierten auf die Kamelchromosomen 2, 6, 7, 21, 25, 32 und 33, und identifizierten 10 homologe Segmente zwischen Mensch und Kamel. Vergleichende Ergebnisse aus ZOO-FISH Daten unterschiedlicher Spezies innerhalb der Artiodaktilen erlauben das Studium der Karyotypenbildung und die Uebertragung von Daten aus dem Human Genom Projekt und den Genkarten der Tiere. PMID:21395831

  12. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im Vergleich zur Leber enthielt der Dickdarm der Ratte 20 - 30 % an r1B1 und 3 % an r1A1, während im Dickdarm des Menschen die 3 - 5fache Menge an h1B1 und 25 - 50 % an h1A1 gefunden wurden. Die nicht identifizierte Form verhielt sich wie die r1B1. Die für die Leber der Ratte bekannte geschlechtsabhängige Expression wurde im Gastrointestinaltrakt nicht beobachtet. Die Verteilung der Sulfotransferasen im Colon und Ileum des Menschen wurde immunhistochemisch untersucht; für die Gewebe der Ratte war die Spezifität der zur Verfügung stehenden Antiseren nicht ausreichend. Im Colon traten h1B1-spezifische Färbungen in den differenzierten Enterozyten am oberen Ende der Krypten auf, im Dünndarm wurden die Epithelzellen der Zotten gefärbt. Die Färbung konzentrierte sich auf das Zytoplasma. Eine ähnliche Verteilung zeigte sich für h1A1 und h1A3, auer da zusätzlich eine intensive Färbung der Endothelzellen der Kapillaren in der Submukosa des Ileums auftrat. Im Dickdarm war dies nur bei den Kapillaren in den Lymphfollikeln zu erkennen. Die h2A1 war lediglich im Zytoplasma der Epithelzellen der Zotten des Ileums nachzuweisen, während im Colon keine Farbreaktion auftrat. Durch die Verwendung der rekombinanten Indikatorstämme TA1538-h1A1, -h1A3 und -h1B1 und des Ausgangsstammes Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 im Ames-Test wurde gezeigt, da verschiedene benzylische und allylische Alkohole durch im humanen Colon exprimierte Sulfotransferasen zu Mutagenen aktiviert werden. In den meisten Fällen erwies sich eine der drei Sulfotransferasen als besonders effizient in der Bioaktivierung, während durch die anderen Formen kein oder nur ein schwacher Effekt verursacht wurde. Die Bioaktivierung von Promutagenen durch Sulfotransferasen im Colon mu im Zusammenhang mit der Lokalisation diskutiert werden. Die Zellen im Darm, in denen immunhistochemisch Sulfotransferasen detektiert wurden, haben mit Ausnahme des Endothels je nach Abschnitt eine Lebensdauer von maximal fünf Tagen und machen keine weiteren Zellteilungen mehr durch. Daher sind DNA-Schäden in diesen Zellen ein seh

  13. EM results from the simulation EM results on a real data Gibbs results from the simulation Alternative sampling of the DEM Reconstructing stellar DEM and metallicity

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    EM results from the simulation EM results on a real data Gibbs results from the simulation, 2010 #12;EM results from the simulation EM results on a real data Gibbs results from the simulation are and µ. #12;EM results from the simulation EM results on a real data Gibbs results from the simulation

  14. Zwischen "Fassade" und "wirklicher Absicht": Eine Betrachtung uber die dritte Erziehungsreform in Japan = Between "Facade" and "Real Intent": Observations on Japan's Third Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Toshiko

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that the Japanese educational system consists of the "facade" of ministerially-decreed harmony and the "real intent" of competition. Argues that the balance between the two has been endangered by recent reforms that seek to promote "creativity and diversification." Suggests that policymakers did not analyze factors that might impede…

  15. Zwischen Gesetz und Fall. Mutmassungen uber Typologien als Padagogische Wissensform (Between General Law and the Individual Case. Conjectures Concerning Typologies as a Form of Pedagogical Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Considers the mediation between scientific knowledge and practical action as a crucial feature of professional teaching. Investigates the assumption that typologies represent a form of knowledge which can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Differentiates between two forms of typological thinking and discusses reservations concerning…

  16. Von den Weltkriegen nach Rom: Ideen und Stationen auf dem Weg zur EWG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schmale

    \\u000a Seit den 1860er Jahren sorgte eine wachsende wirtschaftliche Verflechtung Europas für ein Fortschreiten der faktischen Integration.\\u000a Einer der wichtigsten Theoretiker dieser Integration um einen franzö-sisch-britischen-deutschen Kern war der englische Philosoph\\u000a Herbert Spencer (1820–1903; A System of Synthetic Philosophy, 1855–1896). Diese faktische Integration wurde von verschiedenen sozialen Gruppen\\u000a mitgetragen, deren Identität aus nationalen, aber ebensosehr aus internationalen und europäischen Elementen zusammengesetzt

  17. Strategisches Nachverhandeln zur Lösung von Anreizproblemen in unvollständigen Verträgen am Beispiel der Wohnungsprivatisierung nach dem Altschuldenhilfegesetz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Sander

    1998-01-01

    Governments may draft contracts with market agents for allocating subsidies and pursuing specific policy goals. Contract enforcement via binding commitments is difficult, however, when exogenous (environmental) and endogenous (behavioural) risks interact. Analyzing the old debt compromise in east German housing, it results that a sophisticated design of contractual incompleteness may provide a reasonable safeguard against opportunistic behaviour. Yet it involves

  18. TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X: Revolution in spaceborne radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Faller; M. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available imagery is and will remain indispensable to civilian and military organizations gathering various types of geo-spatial information. Whether fulfilling international agreements, providing military contingents in international peacekeeping or humanitarian missions, or conducting joint technical exercises with other countries - a reliable access to timely, high resolution remote sensing data is an essential basis for well-informed decision making, particularly

  19. Radiometric Calibration of High Resolution UAVSAR Data Using Low Resolution SRTM DEMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Riel; M. Simard

    2010-01-01

    Airborne and spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter data have the potential to retrieve information on forest structure, above-ground biomass, and moisture content. However, SAR backscatter data contain both geometric and radiometric distortions due to underlying topography and the radar viewing geometry. These distortions can significantly affect the estimation of various scientific quantities. For example, a backscatter error of 1

  20. Verification and validation of a DEM-CFD model and multiscale modelling of cohesive fluidization regimes 

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Prashant

    2015-06-29

    Fluidization of solid particles using gas flow is an important process in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The dynamics of fluidisation are intricately related to particle scale physics. Fluid-particle interactions ...

  1. Physician anger: Leggo dem managed care blues--leadership beyond the era of managed cost.

    PubMed

    Kirz, H L

    1999-01-01

    While managed care has caused great disruption, it has also provided physician executives with a natural leadership raison d'être. Managed care, with all its pros and cons, is largely a response to certain unrelenting trends. The core functions of leaders comprise the stewardship of organizations and colleagues in response to these trends. Four trends are explored: (1) The demise of open-ended funding of American health care; (2) continued competition for health care resources; (3) thriving pluralism; and (4) patients continually adjusting to assure themselves of appropriate health care access, quality, and service. In the 21st century, the industry will need a new brand of leader, one capable of balancing the needs of the professionals with the business and accountability requirements of a permanently competitive and resource-constrained service industry. The keys to successful leadership in the future include: (1) Clear service differentiation and a compelling vision to match it; (2) recruiting and retaining top clinical talent, including the required return to physician self-direction and governance; (3) successful partnerships with others outside your organization; and (4) a steady focus on performance in all its dimensions. PMID:10351726

  2. Die Ultrastruktur der Zellen aus dem interstitiellen Bindegewebe von Arion rufus (L.), Pulmonata, Gastropoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Wondrak

    1969-01-01

    The connective tissue of the membranes and the body wall ofArion rufus (L.) shows the following details:1.The vesicular cells (Blasenzellen) are characterized by numerous vesicles produced by the cell membrane. They appear in two different functional states: a) as cells, which contain a high amount of glycogen but only few membranes of the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and b) as cells,

  3. Die Therapie der Osteoporose aus dem Blickwinkel einer auf Evidenz basierenden Medizin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Pfeifer; Reiner Lehmann; Helmut W. Minne

    2001-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Definition und sozioökonomische Bedeutung: Die Osteoporose ist eine Erkrankung, bei der eine verminderte Knochenmasse zu einem Anstieg des Risikos für Knochenbrüche führt. Sie stellt eine erhebliche Belastung für die Systeme der Sozialversicherung in den entwickelten Ländern dar. In Deutschland leiden etwa zwei Millionen Frauen und 800 000 Männer unter den Folgen von Wirbelkörperfrakturen. Schätzungen zur Häufigkeit der Schenkelhalsfrakturen liegen

  4. Inventarliste der laufend gehaltenen Zeitschriften/ Stand 2001 (Titelnderungen entnehmen Sie bitte dem Katalog)

    E-print Network

    Morik, Katharina

    1991 TE 49 Deutsche Tennis Zeitung ab 1982 LE 69 Deutsches Turnen ab 1984 LE 39 Diskussion Tischtennislehre ab 1986 LE 64 Turnen und Sport ab 1973 LE 135 Unterrichten mit Geographie aktuell ab 1988 GO 4

  5. Permafrost investigations at the Lake Hövsgöl, northern Mongolia, using DC resistivity tomography and DEM-analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzelmuller, B.; Heggem, E. S. F.; Frauenfelder, R.; Romanovsky, V.; Sharkhuu, N.; Jambaljav, Y.; Tumensetseg, S.; Kääb, A.; Goulden, C.

    2003-04-01

    The region of Lake Hövsgöl, northern Mongolia, lies at the southern edge of Siberia and forms the southern-most fringe of the Siberian continuous permafrost zone. Analysis of long-term temperature data from the area indicates that annual temperatures have warmed by about 1.5^oC over the last 40 years. Being at the southern fringe of permafrost existence, temperature changes are supposed to have a major impact on permafrost degradation and thus on the environment, in interaction with human activities like nomadic pasture use. The objective of this study is to define the distribution of permafrost and the depth of the active zones in detail, and to begin a monitoring program of soil and permafrost temperatures in the study area. During these studies (a) field measurements of ground temperature, (b) analyses of geophysical parameters (mainly ground resistivities), and (c) the generation and analyses of digital elevation models and satellite imagery were carried out. The field measurements provided the basis for the later development of statistical/empirical and physical models of the permafrost distribution in the Hövsgöl area. This presentation will focus on the DC-resistivity tomography mapping of permafrost and digital elevation model analyses. The study showed that DC resistivity tomography was useful to distinguish the active layer and permafrost thickness under different types of surface cover. The project is funded by a five-year grant from the Global Environment Facility to the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS), implemented by the World Bank and a foundation of the Mongolian Long Term Ecological Research Program at Lake Hövsgöl.

  6. Visualization tools for extremely high resolution DEM from the LRO and other orbiter satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J.; McDonald, John

    2012-10-01

    Recent space missions have included laser altimetry instrumentation that provides precise high-resolution global topographic data products. These products are critical in analyzing geomorphological surface processes of planets and moons. Although highly valued, the high-resolution data is often overlooked by researchers due to the high level of IT sophistication necessary to use the high-resolution data products, which can be as large as several hundred gigabytes. Researchers have developed software tools to assist in viewing and manipulating data products derived from altimetry data, however current software tools require substantial off-line processing, provide rudimentary visualization or are not suited for viewing the new high-resolution data. We have adapted mVTK, a novel software visualization tool, to work with NASA's recently acquired Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data. mVTK is a software visualization package that dynamically creates cylindrical cartographic map projections from gridded high-resolution altimetry data in real-time. The projections are interactive 2D shade relief, false color maps that allow the user to make simple slope and distance measurements on the actual underlying high-resolution data. We have tested mVTK on several laser altimetry data sets including binned gridded record data from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter space missions.

  7. Study on Accuracy of 1-Degree DEM Versus Topographic Complexity Using GIS Zonal Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shan, Jie

    ; Muhammad Zaheer2 ; and Ejaz Hussain3 Abstract: Zonal analysis in geographic information systems is a useful Database subject headings: Geographic information systems; Digital techniques; Topographic surveys; Terrain navigation system INS , the post-processing operation will then calculate the three dimensional 3D

  8. Die Abhängigkeit des Operationstraumas bei Aorteneingriffen von dem gewählten ZugangEine prospektive Studie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kolvenbach; Karin Wellmann; O. Deling; Elisabeth Schwierz

    1998-01-01

    \\u000a Summary.   Transabdominal aortic replacement is the most widely accepted approach for aortic surgery. Several controlled studies report\\u000a a more favorable outcome after an extraperitoneal incision, yet there are an equal number of papers with contradictory results.\\u000a The aim of our study was to assess operative trauma after aortic surgery, depending on whether transperitoneal or extraperitoneal\\u000a access was used. As a

  9. Permafrost investigations at the Lake Hövsgöl, northern Mongolia, using DC resistivity tomography and DEM-analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Etzelmuller; E. S. F. Heggem; R. Frauenfelder; V. Romanovsky; N. Sharkhuu; Y. Jambaljav; S. Tumensetseg; A. Kääb; C. Goulden

    2003-01-01

    The region of Lake Hövsgöl, northern Mongolia, lies at the southern edge of Siberia and forms the southern-most fringe of the Siberian continuous permafrost zone. Analysis of long-term temperature data from the area indicates that annual temperatures have warmed by about 1.5^oC over the last 40 years. Being at the southern fringe of permafrost existence, temperature changes are supposed to

  10. The regular shape of stratovolcanoes: A DEM-based morphometrical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, Dávid; Favalli, Massimiliano; Tarquini, Simone; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Wörner, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    We studied the shape of the most regular-shaped stratovolcanoes of the world to mathematically define the form of the ideal stratovolcano. Based on the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data we selected 19 of the most circular and symmetrical volcanoes, which incidentally all belong to subduction-related arcs surrounding the Pacific. The selection of volcanoes benefitted from the introduction of a new definition of circularity which is more robust than previous definitions, being independent of the erosional dissection of the cone. Our study on the shape of stratovolcanoes was based on the analysis of the radial elevation profiles of each volcano. The lower half section of the volcanoes is always well fitted by a logarithmic curve, while the upper half section is not, and falls into two groups: it is fitted either by a line ("C-type", conical upper part) or by a parabolic arc ("P-type", parabolic/concave upper part). A quantitative discrimination between these groups is obtained by fitting their upper slope with a linear function: C-type volcanoes show small, whereas P-type volcanoes show significant negative angular coefficient. The proposed threshold between the two groups is - 50 × 10 - 4 °/m. Chemical composition of eruptive products indicates higher SiO 2 and/or higher H 2O content for C-type volcanoes, which could imply a higher incidence of mildly explosive (e.g. strombolian) eruptions. We propose that this higher explosivity is responsible for forming the constant uppermost slopes by the deposition of ballistic tephra and its subsequent stabilisation at a constant angle. By contrast, P-type volcanoes are characterized by a smaller SiO 2 and H 2O content, which can be responsible for a higher incidence of effusive events and/or a lower incidence of upper flank-forming (i.e. mild) explosive eruptions. Therefore, the concave upper flanks of these volcanoes may be shaped typically by lava flows. Based on this hypothesis, we propose that the morphometric analysis of the elevation profile of stratovolcanoes can provide insights into their dominant eruptive style.

  11. Processes of mass loss on a debris covered glacier determined by high resolution DEM differencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah; Benn, Doug I.; Mertes, Jordan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the response of debris-covered glaciers to climatic warming has seen significant disscussion. The insulating properties of a debris layer (> 5-6 cm) are well established however, in the Himalayas regionally averaged thinning rates, based on satellite laser altimetry, were found to be very similar on both debris-covered, and clean ice glaciers in the Himalayas. Overall mass loss rates on large debris covered glaciers have been discussed in conjunction with supraglacial lake development and growth but the processes involved in downwasting are often numerous and complex. Here we report on mass loss measurements, from a combination of in situ lake surveys and remote sensing, on large debris covered glacier in the Khumbu Himal Nepal. Lake bathymetry sonar surveys were conducted in the winter of 2009 and 2012, and GeoEye-1 stereo imagery was acquired in 2010 and 2012. The temporal data sets were combined and differencd to allow detailed investigation of glacial surface change over the 2 year period. Ngozumpa Glacier has a stagnant ice tongue extending down to ~4650 m asl, the lower 15 km of which is debris covered. This debris covered region is highly irregular with many hollows occupied by studded with numerous supraglacial ponds and lakes. In the early 1990s a base level lake was identified ~1 km from the glacier terminus. Our results show a highly complex pattern of glacial downwasting and lake change. Numerous examples of rapid supra glacial growth and drainage are evident, including the formation and enlargement of lakes along preexisting structures such as relic englacial drainage conduits. However, also in evidence are areas of significant lake shrinkage due to sedimentation and lake shore debris collapse. In addition to lake induced mass loss a background downwasting rate of ~ 0.5 m a-1 is evident in the lower ablation area where debris thicknesses are known to be between 1-3 m thick. The results illustrate the highly complex nature of debris covered glacier evolution and the myriad processes involved.

  12. Das Institut fr Biochemie ldt gemeinsam mit dem Ortsverband der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker zu einem

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    ; Institut für Chemie spricht zum Thema: NATURE'S INVENTORY FOR PEPTIDE SYNTHESIS Abstract: Peptides for the synthesis of these peptides: the ribosomal synthesis combined with a posttranslational modification and processing and the non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Important representatives of ribosomally synthesised

  13. Marketing in der Holzindustrie der BRD unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Absatzes auf dem Bausektor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Becker

    1972-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Die Holzindustrie sieht sich auf ihrer Absatzmrkten im Bausektor drei Tendenzen gegenbergestellt: 1. Steigende Nachfrage\\u000a nach industriell erzeugten, montagefertigen Bauteilen und den entsprechenden Dienstleistungen; 2. Zunehmende Ansprche an\\u000a die Qualitt der Produkte, einschlielich der funktionalen und sthetischen Eigenschaften; 3. Strkere Differenzierung des\\u000a Angebotes. Durch planvolle, marktorientierte Unternehmensfhrung (Marketing) kann die Holz-industrie ihre Wettbewerbsfhigkeit\\u000a auf den Mrkten des Bausektors erhalten und

  14. Erste klinische Erfahrungen mit dem neuen Non-Contact Mapping-System EnSite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Spitzer; L. Károlyi; H.-H. Ebert

    2000-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Das Non-Contact Mapping-System ist ein neues Instrument zur Ablation komplexer Arrhythmien. Das System ermöglicht die 3-dimensionale\\u000a visualisierte Darstellung von fokalen oder Reentryarrhythmien. Durch simultanes Mapping genügt theoretisch ein Schlag der\\u000a Arrthythmie zur Erstellung der endokardialen Aktivierungs-Maps. Zu beachten sind der relativ breite Durchmesser sowie die\\u000a potentielle Thrombogenität des Katheters.

  15. CampusHD0313 + + + + + Frhlingsgefhle wecken... mit dem Lieblingsrezept zum Nachkochen + + + + +

    E-print Network

    2 Tel: 06221. 54 37 50 E-Mail: pbs@stw.uni-heidelberg.de Anmeldung und Terminvereinbarung Mo - Do 8. 54 37 58 E-Mail: sozb@stw.uni-heidelberg.de Persönliche Termine sind nach Vereinbarung möglich: 06221. 54 34 98 E-Mail: kitav@stw.uni-heidelberg.de Sprechzeiten: Mo - Do 9.30 - 12.00 Uhr und nach

  16. Extraction of Surface Properties from a High Accuracy DEM Using Multiscale Remote Sensing Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacopo Grazzini; Nektarios Chrysoulakis

    Research into understanding relationships between landscape pattern and process has been influenced by the intro- duction of fractal geometry and the advent of fractal analysis. With the increasing availability of high-resolution digi- tal elevation data from increasingly larger areas of the Earth's surface, together with advances in geocomputation and the field of geomorphometry, the concept of fractals has became even

  17. Die Darstellung von Außenseitern in Klaus Manns Erzählungen aus dem Exil

    E-print Network

    Kroh, Regine

    2008-05-20

    This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the depiction of outsiders in Klaus Mann's stories that were written in exile. Based on a sociological and literary definition of the term "outsider," this study investigates ...

  18. SICHTWEISEN ÄLTERER MENSCHEN AUF MEDIZINISCHE VERSORGUNG AUF DEM LAND – EINE EMPIRISCHE STUDIE AUS DEUTSCHLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Maria Noack; Holger Bergmann

    2011-01-01

    With demographic change, many rural regions in Germany face the challenge to ensure an appropriate provision of basic services, also for the increasing share of immobile population groups. Among others, the growing number of old and very old people will increase the demand for medical care. Although, on the whole health care in Germany is very good, in some rural

  19. Web Service for Extracting Stream Networks from DEM Data , I. Molloyc

    E-print Network

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    as a Web Service within the framework of GeoBrain, an open, interoperable, distributed, standard-compliant) separating cells that are channel and those that are not based on channelization mechanism and some threshold

  20. Preprocessing: Geocoding of AVIRIS data using navigation, engineering, DEM, and radar tracking system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Peter; Larson, Steven A.; Hansen, Earl G.; Itten, Klaus I.

    1993-01-01

    Remotely sensed data have geometric characteristics and representation which depend on the type of the acquisition system used. To correlate such data over large regions with other real world representation tools like conventional maps or Geographic Information System (GIS) for verification purposes, or for further treatment within different data sets, a coregistration has to be performed. In addition to the geometric characteristics of the sensor there are two other dominating factors which affect the geometry: the stability of the platform and the topography. There are two basic approaches for a geometric correction on a pixel-by-pixel basis: (1) A parametric approach using the location of the airplane and inertial navigation system data to simulate the observation geometry; and (2) a non-parametric approach using tie points or ground control points. It is well known that the non-parametric approach is not reliable enough for the unstable flight conditions of airborne systems, and is not satisfying in areas with significant topography, e.g. mountains and hills. The present work describes a parametric preprocessing procedure which corrects effects of flight line and attitude variation as well as topographic influences and is described in more detail by Meyer.

  1. Fusion of hyperspectral images and lidar-based dems for coastal mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed F. Elaksher

    2008-01-01

    Coastal mapping is essential for a variety of applications such as coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal development and planning. Various mapping techniques, like ground and aerial surveying, have been utilized in mapping coastal areas. Recently, multispectral and hyperspectral satellite images and elevation data from active sensors have also been used in coastal mapping. Integrating these datasets can

  2. Spuren von Massenbewegungen auf dem Grund des Vierwaldstttersees bei Weggis: Die Ereignisse von 1601 und 1795

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    - Acoustics GeoSwath mit 125 kHz eingesetzt; zur Positionierung diente ein Leica GPS System 500 mit RTK gerätespezifischen Software GeoSwath Plus prozessiert. Der aus den gefilterten Daten berechnete Rasterdatensatz mit

  3. RESEARCH PAPER DEM simulation of impact force exerted by granular flow on rigid

    E-print Network

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    . Teufelsbauer · Y. Wang · S. P. Pudasaini · R. I. Borja · W. Wu Received: 25 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 May, Darmstadt, Germany S. P. Pudasaini School of Sciences, Katmandu University, Lalitpur, Nepal R. I. Borja-documented laboratory experiments with dry sand were reported by Pudasaini et al. [20, 22, 23], Chiou [2], and Moriguchi

  4. RESEARCH/REVIEW ARTICLE A new DEM of the Austfonna ice cap by combining differential

    E-print Network

    Kääb, Andreas

    aperture radar (SAR) and optical shape-from-shading have been tied to airborne radio echo-sounding surface, Hagen et al. 2010), to extract surface velocities from two-pass syn- thetic aperture radar (SAR). Airborne SAR interferometry (Dall et al. 2001) and laser scanning (Arnold et al. 2006) are good

  5. AS?METR?K ??FRELEME ALGOR?TMALARINDA ANAHTAR DE????M S?STEMLER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarik Yerlikaya

    In this study we firstly classified the crypto algorithms. We represent symmetric and asymmetric algorithms' structure and properties. Examined this crypto systems' advantages and disadvantages. Diffie-Hellan which is the first key exchange method that reduces symmetric crypto algorithms secret key security problem is analyzed. Showed how public secret key between people is being created using Diffie-Hellman key exchange method and

  6. MURGANGAKTIVITT AUF EINEM BEWALDETEN KEGEL DER SCHWEIZER ALPEN SEIT DEM SPTEN HOLOZN

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    on the forested cone of the Ritigraben torrent (Valais, Swiss Alps) allowed reconstruction of 123 debris torrent. In contrast, very low activity is observed for the last 10 years with only one debris-flow event

  7. Praxisorientierter Ansatz zur kartographischen Darstellung von Karst-Grundwasserressourcen - Erfahrungen aus dem SWISSKARST-Projekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Arnauld; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Sinreich, Michael; Weber, Eric; Vouillamoz, Jonathan; Eichenberger, Urs

    2014-09-01

    In spite of their abundant water resources, in Switzerland as well as in other countries, the location and extent of karst aquifers have not yet been systematically studied and documented - mainly due to the lack of systematic and dedicated approaches for their characterization. In the framework of a project aiming at documenting the karst aquifers in Switzerland (SWISSKARST Project) the pragmatic KARSYS approach has been developed to systematically assess the main characteristics of karst aquifers and karst systems. One part of this project deals with the development of a practical method for mapping 2D hydrogeological karst systems, which is designed to address both scientific and applied issues. A series of maps based on the approach is proposed to describe the main characteristics of karst groundwater systems resulting in a synthesized map which suitably combines all relevant information.

  8. Theorien und Modelle der Chronifizierung: Auf dem Weg zu einer erweiterten Definition chronischer Rückenschmerzen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Raspe; A. Hüppe; C. Matthis

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Chronische Rückenschmerzen sind eine der häufigsten und aufwändigsten Gesundheitsstörungen. Eine Studienübersicht zeigt, dass Chronizität sehr unterschiedlich definiert wird, mit einem Überwiegen rein zeitlicher Bestimmungen. Rückenschmerzen werden als \\

  9. Qualitätszentrierte Softwareentwicklung in wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppen Auf dem Weg vom Prototypen zum Produkt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleike, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Heimann, T.; Nolden, M.; Poxleitner, J.; Schöbinger, M.; Schwarz, T.; Seitel, M.; Wegner, I.; Wolber, P.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

    Neue Bildverarbeitungsmethoden werden häufig hauptsächlich für Publikationszwecke entwickelt. DieWeiterentwicklung bis zur Verwendbarkeit für klinische Anwender erfordert zusätzlichen Aufwand und wird daher oft nicht weiter verfolgt. In dieser Arbeit wurden mehrere Bildanalyseverfahren unserer Abteilung konsequent zu einem stabilen und benutzbaren Softwareprodukt weiter entwickelt, so dass es für den Einsatz bei klinischen Partnern und als Demonstrationssoftware auf Messen verwendbar ist. Wir beschreiben das Vorgehen bei der Weiterentwicklung, welche Erfahrungen gemacht wurden und welcher zusätzliche Aufwand damit verbunden ist.

  10. Nr. 189 // 2014 // 16. Oktober 2014 Auf dem Campus geht was App

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    .apple.com/us/app/uni-bayreuth-campus-app/id926230633?l=de&ls=1&mt=8 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=de.uni_bayreuth.campusapp Campus Bayreuth ­ Wo Denken viel Platz zur Entfaltung hat`. Das 30-seitige Magazin stellt den Campus in seinen 2

  11. Mapping of debris-covered glaciers in the Garhwal Himalayas using ASTER DEMs and thermal data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bhambri; T. Bolch; R. K. Chaujar

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of debris-covered glaciers using remote-sensing techniques is recognized as one of the greatest challenges for generating glacier inventories and automated glacier change analysis. The use of visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) bands does not provide sufficient continual information to detect debris-covered ice with remote-sensing data. This article presents a semi-automated mapping method for the debris-covered glaciers of the Garhwal

  12. ["Simulanten des Irrsinns auf dem Vortragspult": dada, war and psychiatry--'active dynamics of trauma'].

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This paper relates stage performances of dada artists to war neurosis and shell shock as sociocultural phenomena. The leitmotif of this investigation is the notion of simulation, as dada artists were referred to as malingerers (simulators) of madness by the press at the time. I hypothesize that the performers imitate/simulate with drums, shouting and 'bruitist' sound poems, the noises of war, staging themselves as war neurotics in a kind of shocking clinical demonstration. Both discourses intersect in the fact that many dadaists try to dodge the draft by simulating madness. The scandalizing anti-art of dada will be understood as contagious anti-pedagogy, trying to vaccinate against the madness of the era. PMID:25671968

  13. Psilocybin, ein psychotroper Wirkstoff aus dem mexikanischen Rauschpilz Psilocybe mexicana Heim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hofmann; R. Heim; A. Brack; H. Kobel

    1958-01-01

    Summary The active principle ofPsilocybe mexicana Heim, a mexican mushroom with hallucinogenic properties, has been isolated in crystalline form. The compound has been given the namePsilocybin; it possesses indole characteristics and contains phosphorus. A second substance, closely related toPsilocybin but found only in traces, has been calledPsilocin.

  14. Comparison of mega-flood features of the Channeled Scabland and Martian outflow channels using DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Miki; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Although current Martian surfaces are too cold and dry to hold liquid water, fluvial features such as valley networks and outflow channels have been observed on the surfaces. The analyses of the fluvial features on Mars are useful for examining past climatic conditions. Outflow channels are the characteristic large flood features on Mars and similar to some large terrestrial flood features such as those in the Channeled Scabland in east-central Washington, USA. The channeled scabland was formed by the Pleistocene Missoula Flood derived from the margins of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Glacial Lake Missoula. Thus the Channeled Scabland is useful for a comparison with Martian flood features and examining the paleoenvironment on Mars. However the effect of the Missoula Flood on the formation of the Channeled Scabland has some unresolved questions. Therefore, in this study we analyze the topography of the Channeled Scabland and the area of Glacial Lake Missoula using the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) and The National Elevation Dataset (NED). We compare the topography of the Channeled Scabland with that of neighboring areas that has been free of megafloods., Topography in the area of Glacial Lake Missoula is also compared with neighboring areas without glacial lakes. We analyze the frequency distribution and statistical parameters of geomorphometric properties, e.g. slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, and drainage density of each region. We then compare the results with those for Martian outflow channels. The results show that average slope angle increases from the Channeled Scablands to non-megafloods areas, from areas without glacial lakes to the area of Glacial Lake Missoula, and from Martian flood areas to the Channeled Scabland. The same relation holds true for standard deviation except that the standard deviation of the Channeled Scabland is larger when compared to non-megafloods areas, reflecting the generally flat but locally steep topography of the former.

  15. DEM simulation of particle flow on a multi-deck banana screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Dong; A. B. Yu; I. Brake

    2009-01-01

    Banana screen is an important innovation in screening process in the past decades to improve screen capacity. Although, it is increasingly employed in the mineral industry, the control and optimisation are still limited due to the lack of fundamental understandings of the process. This paper presents a numerical study of the particle flow on a banana screen at a particle

  16. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT DETERMINATION AND DEM GENERATION USING MOMS-2P\\/PRIRODA THREE-LINE IMAGERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kornus; M. Lehner; H. Ebner; T. Ohlhof

    This paper describes the process of photogrammetric point determination by bundle adjustment using three-line imagery collected by MOMS-2P, the German Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner. Since May 1996 MOMS-2P is attached to the remote sensing module PRIRODA of the Russian space station MIR. Its stereo module with three differently oriented lenses allows for the acquisition of three-fold along track stereoscopic imagery.

  17. A DEM-based Watershed Model with Spatial Hortonian Infiltration and Ruh-Off/On

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physically based, distributed rainfall-runoff-runon model was developed for event-based studies of dynamic watershed processes, including space-time patterns of state variables (e.g., soil profile water storage) and fluxes (e.g., overland flow and infiltration). A routing hierarchy for dynamic ru...

  18. Reaktionscharakteristik von Neuronen aus dem Tectum opticum und Subtectum der Erdkröte Bufo bufo (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Ewert; H. W. Borchers

    1971-01-01

    In the European toad Bufo bufo (L.) activity from single neurons in the midbrain (tectum opticum, sub-tectum and tori semicirculari) could be elicited by visual, tactile, acoustic or vibratory stimulation (Fig. 3). Furthermore bi- and trimodal units were found. By means of single cell recording experiments in demobilized animals the present paper gives preliminary data about localization and response characteristics.

  19. Lib Dem candidate calls on rival parties to remove politics from running of NHS.

    PubMed

    2015-04-29

    Former health minister and Liberal Democrat candidate Norman Lamb, pictured, has called on his political rivals to back the creation of a non-partisan NHS commission after the general election. PMID:25921986

  20. Neue Erkenntnisse auf dem Gebiete der Parasitologie und der parasitären Erkrankungen des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarski, G.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing interest in the parasites of man in the Federal Republic of Germany is connected with the unbounded keenness of German people to travel. They favor southern regions with warm climates which are usually infested with parasites. Thus the general practitioner is nowadays confronted in his daily routine with “imported” pathogenic organisms and diseases as yet unknown to him or with which he need not have reckoned in the past. Furthermore, new information now exists on the development of well-known parasites of our regions, which can be pathogenic to man. Fortunately, new reliable drugs have come on the market, rendering some parasitic diseases harmless.

  1. Tau auf dem Bei Alzheimer-Forschung denkt man nicht unbedingt an Teilchenbeschleuniger. Das Deutsche

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    . Das Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, kurz DESY, hat Eva-Maria und Eckhard Mandelkow von der aller Welt kommen jährlich zu diesem Zweck an das Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron, kurz DESY, nach

  2. Astronomische Kupferstiche von Gottfried Teuber für Erhard Weigel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    Zum Spektrum nichtverbaler Zeugnisse aus der Geschichte der Wissenschaften zählen auch die zahlreichen bildhaften Dokumente, auf denen die Objekte der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung festgehalten sind, darunter auch die Kupferstiche (später Fotografien), die den astronomischen Büchern und Schriften beigegeben worden sind. Welcher wissenschaftshistorisch relevante Informationsgehalt ist nun solchen nichtverbalen Zeugnissen neben dem künstlerischen Aspekt der Illustration des Textes zuzubilligen? In Form einer Fallstudie soll im Vortrag ein bisher wenig beachteter Aspekt einer Antwort auf diese Frage angerissen werden. Im Rahmen dieser Fallstudie werden einige Kupferstiche aus dem Himmels=Zeiger`` von Erhard W eigel (1625-1699) vorgestellt, seit 1653 Professor für Mathematik an der Universität Jena und maßgeblicher Initiator der Kalenderreform in den protestantischen Ländern von 1699. Die in diesen Stichen enthaltenen Informationen können grob in drei Gruppen eingeteilt werden: A Aussagen zur Astronomie (dargestellte Himmelserscheinung), B Aussagen zur Drucktechnik (und künstlerischen Gestaltung), C Aussagen zur Biographie (des Herstellers bzw. Auftraggebers). Meines Erachtens ist der Aspekt C in der Historiographie bisher nicht erkannt worden. Hierauf soll mit einem Beispiel aufmerksam gemacht werden, wobei es um die Biographien von zwei Personen geht: die des Buchautors (Weigel) und die des Herstellers des Kupferstiches (Gottfried Teuber). Die Auswertung des Beispiels zeigt, daß durch Beachtung der sonst unauffällig erscheinenden Hersteller eines Kupferstiches Ansatzpunkte gefunden werden können, um Material für die noch unzureichend erforschte Beziehung zwischen den Gelehrten aus der ersten Reihe und deren Gehilfen aufzuspüren.

  3. The Great Sumatran Fault Strike-slip Syntaxes in North Sumatra: New Insights From DEM and Fieldwork Data Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Philippon, Mélody

    2014-05-01

    Oblique subduction produces slip partitioning or decoupling, in which underthrusting of the subducting slab accommodates the margin-normal component of slip while a trench-parallel strike-slip fault accommodates margin-parallel slip. This process triggers the individualization of slivers of lithosphere between the trench slope and the large-scale strike-slip fault, that control the location of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This tectonic setting is seen in the Sumatran section of the Sunda arc-trench system, in which the Great Sumatran Fault (GSF) acts as the main strike-slip system. The accurate definition of the structure and geometry of the GSF, as well as that of its main splays, allow proper constraints on the relative motion of the fore-arc sliver plate and its internal deformation. We present a detailed structural analysis on the basis of GDEM and outcrop data at the northernmost tip of Sumatra, including the northwest islands (i.e., between 4,5N and 6N). In this area, we identify two main deformation domains along the GSF, in relation to a western and an eastern branch. The GSF's splays form the structural highs bounding the Aceh Basin as well as distinctive offshore strike-slip syntaxes responsible for the formation of the NW Sumatra islands. Fieldwork observations in relation to the western branch of the GSF show strike-slip or oblique-slip motions and roughly N-S main stress indicators. A >500m2 fault plane exposure shows well-preserved calcite crystallizations and slickenlines, which mark a transition from pure strike to oblique-slip during N-S transpression. In the offshore, the Pulau Aceh islands developed as a transpressional system of thrust splays splitting westwards from the NNW-SSE western trending line of the GSF. These top-to-the-north thrusts, which become younger northward, formed by N-S to NE-SW main stresses. A tectonic restoration based on the geometry of the thrust system points to >20% shortening accommodated by pure reverse dip-slip. The eastern branch of the GSF built the Pulau Weh Island, a tens-of-kms scale Riedel system, which principal stress axis is N-S. The GSF eastern branch further bifurcates in Pulau Weh, resulting in the development of two NNW-trending ridges to the sides of the island, which are parallel to the main deformation zone. Synthetic R and P systems, with N and NW orientations, are marked regionally by structural highs. The strike-slip syntaxes and the wide distribution of deformation of and within the Sumatra fore-arc sliver document the delocalization of the GSF system. More than 20% of the strike-slip motion in the GSF is accommodated by pure contraction and similar or larger percentages are expected from associated fault splays and strike-slip systems at oblique angles.

  4. DEM-based reconstruction of southern Basse-Terre volcanoes (Guadeloupe archipelago, FWI): Contribution to the Lesser Antilles Arc construction

    E-print Network

    ,000-point database inferred from the analysis of the Guadeloupe Digital Elevation Model, 3D reconstructions ArcGIS software. Volumes and rates of construction were computed for each time span separating pauses in volcanic activity when erosion and catastrophic landslides become the dominant processes

  5. Analysis of landslide development using aerial photographs and DEMs comparison, along part of the Chacoura River valley, Quebec, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lévy; J. Locat; M. Jaboyedoff; D. Demers; A. Loye

    2009-01-01

    The large plains of Eastern Canada sensitive clays are cut by numerous rivers, in a way that their slopes have been and are still affected by landslides. They play an important role in the modelling of the landscape of these regions. Hence, the role of erosion as a trigger of landslides is important. On the Chacoura River, north of Louiseville

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping using geological data, a DEM from ASTER images and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisaku Kawabata; Joel Bandibas

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and accurate method of generating landslide susceptibility maps is very important to mitigate the loss of properties and lives caused by this type of geological hazard. This study focuses on the development of an accurate and efficient method of data integration, processing and generation of a landslide susceptibility map using an ANN and data from ASTER images. The

  7. THE NATURE OF COMPACTRADIO CORES IN GALAXIES 1 MaxPlanckInstitut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69,

    E-print Network

    Falcke, Heino

    ---but why? Three answers can be given easily: a) Because Martin Rees has said so (e.g. Lynden­Bell & Rees that a number of elliptical galaxies have compact radio nuclei. Fabian & Rees (1995) inter­ pret'', Y. Sofue (ed.), Kluwer #12; 2 H. FALCKE flat­spectrum radio cores. Comparison of radio and Hff flux

  8. PeliGRIFF, a parallel DEM-DLM\\/FD direct numerical simulation tool for 3D particulate flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Wachs

    The problem of particulate flows at moderate to high concentration and finite Reynolds number is addressed by parallel direct\\u000a numerical simulation. The present contribution is an extension of the work published in Computers & Fluids 38:1608 (2009), where systems of moderate size in a 2D geometry were examined. At the numerical level, the suggested method is inspired\\u000a by the framework

  9. Contribution of the Interferometric SAR (DEM) and Optical Data Fusion in the Environmental Changes Studies on the Kenyan Coastal Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jahjah; G. Laneve; F. di Stadio; C. Ulivieri

    2002-01-01

    The classical application of Landsat TM images for classification and change detection analysis faces some difficulties related to the presence of clouds and shadows which obscured various terrain features reducing the amount and quality of data used in the classification especially in coastal sub- tropical regions where cloud free conditions are rarely encountered. Thanks to the remote sensing activity of

  10. Spurenanalytische Untersuchungen an Tiefseetonen aus dem Atlantik : Ein Beitrag zur Deutung der geochemischen Sonderstellung von pelagischen Tonen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Wedepohl

    1960-01-01

    The data from these minor element investigations of Atlantic bottom samples shall contribute to a geochemical comparison of pelitic sediments from different oceans. General considerations about the source of abnormally high abundances of some elements in pelagic clays in comparison with near-shore argillaceous sediments should depend on representative data of best quality. Therefore only methods of X-ray fluorescence, d.c.-arc spectroscopy

  11. Die Überwinterungsknospen des Krausen Laichkrauts ( Potamogeton crispus ) als Nahrung für den Höckerschwan ( Cygnus olor ) auf dem Federsee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Günzl

    1993-01-01

    Summary In the highly eutrophicated, shallow Lake Federsee no submersed macrophytes grew, until 1982 a waste water pipeline around the lake was put in operation. In 1983Potamogeton crispus began to colonize the lake and its abundance increased from year to year. The growth cycle, however, remained very short and the macrophyte always died off between the end of June and

  12. A study on tangential force laws applicable to the discrete element method (DEM) for materials with viscoelastic or plastic behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kruggel-Emden; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer

    2008-01-01

    The discrete element method is a widely used particle orientated simulation approach for modeling granular systems. It is based on tracking each particle's movement and its interactions with the surroundings over time. The motion of a particle is given by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically. Therefore, models for the forces acting between particles in

  13. Finanzierung der gkv und umgestaltung des leistungsrechtes in der zahnmedizin insbesondere unter dem aspekt der kostenerstattung einschließlich der europarechtlichen perspektiven

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Weitkamp; Sebastian Ziller; René Krousky

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  In den vergangenen 30 Jahren griff der Gesetzgeber in Deutschland regelmäßig mit einer Vielzahl von Regulierungen in das System\\u000a der gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung (GKV) ein, um dessen Finanzierbarkeit zu gewährleisten — mit nur kurzfristigen Erfolgen.\\u000a Mit der 3. Stufe der Gesundheitsreform im Jahre 1997 wurde erstmals das Wahlrecht der gesetzlich Krankenversicherten auf Kostenerstattung\\u000a eingeführt, um nur ein Jahr später von der

  14. DEM-optical-radar data integration for palaeohydrological mapping in the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ghoneim; F. El-Baz

    2007-01-01

    North?western Sudan, as a part of the eastern Sahara, is among the driest places on earth. However, the region underwent drastic climatic changes through the alternation of dry and wet conditions in the past. During humid phases, when the rain was plentiful over a prolonged time period, the surface was veined by rivers and dotted by large lakes. The new

  15. 3338 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 44, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006 High-Accuracy Urban DEM Using

    E-print Network

    Perissin, Daniele

    -dependent elongations of high structures. Index Terms--Interferometry, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), terrain mapping, urban areas. I. INTRODUCTION DIFFERENTIAL synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) is a remote in the microwave domain (typically, the operating frequency is within the 1­10-GHz band), even subcentimeter range

  16. Anwendung der modifizierten Mischzellagglutination (mixed cell agglutination reaction, MCAR nach Davidsohn) in der forensischen Serologie; MCAR auf dem Klebebandstreifen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuo Ishiyama; Takeo Okada

    1975-01-01

    Summary In view of serological sensitivity, specificity and simple procedure of reaction pattern the modified mixed cell agglutination reaction (Davidsohn's MCAR) proved to be a very useful test for typing ABO isoantigens in forensic medicine. Its sensitivity surpasses in some cases, where very small amounts of isoantigens have to be detected, that of the absorption-elution reaction several thousand times. The

  17. A review of applications of satellite SAR, optical, altimetry and DEM data for surface water modelling, mapping and parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Z. N.; Popescu, I.; Mynett, A.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrological data collection requires deployment of physical infrastructure like rain gauges, water level gauges, as well as use of expensive equipment like echo sounders. Many countries around the world have recorded a decrease in deployment of physical infrastructure for hydrological measurements; developing countries especially have less of this infrastructure and where they exist, they are poorly maintained. Satellite remote sensing can bridge this gap, and has been applied by hydrologists over the years, with the earliest applications in water body and flood mapping. With the availability of more optical satellites with relatively low temporal resolutions globally, satellite data is commonly used for: mapping of water bodies, testing of inundation models, precipitation monitoring, and mapping of flood extent. Use of satellite data to estimate hydrological parameters continues to increase due to use of better sensors, improvement in knowledge of/and utilization of satellite data, and expansion of research topics. A review of applications of satellite remote sensing in surface water modelling, mapping and estimation is presented, and its limitations for surface water applications are also discussed.

  18. Impact of DEM mesh size and soil map scale on SWAT runoff, sediment, and NO 3–N loads predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Chaplot

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends to a great extent on how well model input spatial parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. It is assumed that reducing the precision of spatial input parameters affects the simulation results of runoff and sediment yield from the entire watershed. However, there may be no significant increase in the

  19. CFD Analysis of the Effect of Temperature and Buoyancy Due to Concrete Building Structures Based from an Integrated DEM and

    E-print Network

    Alberta, University of

    radar data, decimation of original cloud of points to reduce the excess of detail at regions with low curvature, and the introduction of a volume of air over the terrain surface (CFD domain). Landsat satellite of computers and algorithms, numerical low altitude wind simulation has become very attractive as it provides

  20. Fossile Vögel aus dem Neogen der Halbinsel Gargano (Italien), zweiter Teil = Fossil birds from the Gargano Peninsula (Italy), Part two

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ballmann

    1976-01-01

    A new collection of over three hundred bird bones from the Upper Miocene of Gargano is described. Eight different orders are represented: Anseriformes (1 species), Falconiformes (2), Galliformes (1), Strigiformes (6), Columbiformes (1), Apodiformes (1), Piciformes (1) and Passeriformes. Two of the three new species are assigned to extant genera: Columba omnisanctorum and Apus wetmorei, while a new strigid owl

  1. Identification and characterization of rock slope instabilities in Val Canaria (TI, Switzerland) based on field and DEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzio, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Matasci, Battista; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    In Alpine areas rockslides and rock avalanches represent common gravitational hazards that potentially constitute a danger for people and infrastructures. The aim of this study is to characterize and understand the different factors influencing the distribution of large slope instabilities affecting the Val Canaria (southern Switzerland). In particular the importance of the tectonic and lithological settings as well as the impact of the groundwater circulations are investigated in detail. Val Canaria is a SW-NE trending lateral valley that displays potential large rock slope failure. Located just above one of the main N-S communication way (Highway, Railway) through the Alps, the development of large instabilities in the Val Canaria might have dramatic consequences for the main valley downstream. The dominant geological structure of the study area is the presence of a major tectonic boundary separating two basement nappes, constituted by gneissic lithologies, i.e. the Gotthard massif and the Lucomagno nappe that are located in the northern and southern part of the valley respectively. The basement units are separated by meta-sediments of Piora syncline composed by gypsum, dolomitic breccia and fractured calc-mica schists. Along with detailed geological mapping, the use of remote sensing techniques (Aerial and Terrestrial Laser Scanning) allows us to propose a multi-disciplinary approach that combines geological mapping and interpretation with periodic monitoring of the most active rockslide areas. A large array of TLS point cloud datasets (first acquisition in 2006) constitute a notable input, for monitoring purposes, and also for structural, rock mass characterization and failure mechanism interpretations. The analyses highlighted that both valley flanks are affected by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation covering a total area of about 8 km2 (corresponding to 40% of the catchment area). The most active area corresponds to the lower part of the valley, where gypsum outcrops. Dissolution of gypsum at the bottom of the slope leads to the creation of large slope instabilities since deep seated creeping evidences are observed in both flanks of the valley. However, an important distinction between the slope instabilities characterizing the two valley flanks can be observed. The NW flank of the valley is influenced by the presence of high strength orthogneiss with a main foliation dipping into the slope with the consequent formation of gravitational compressional features, such as counter-scarps and trenches in the upper part of the slope. The presence of altered gypsum and persistent faults on SE flank represents the main geological factor leading to the development of slope instabilities. In this area the instability typologies are manly large collapse/dissolution and deep landsliding. In addition, periodic TLS acquisitions performed in the lower portion of the slope highlight continuous centimetric-scale displacements and an important rock fall activity. Several karst channels affecting the gypsum outcrops have been also identified. This suggests the primary influence of groundwater circulation. A 3D geological model based on several geological cross sections is performed to understand the importance of lithological boundaries as well as the orientation of structures (faults, fold, stratification) to investigate in detail the groundwater circulation.

  2. Optimierung der Photonenselektion für die Suche nach dem Zerfall des Higgsbosons in zwei leichte CP-ungerade Skalare

    E-print Network

    Braren, Früd; Schleper, Peter

    In some extensions of the Standard Model, extended Higgs sectors are postulated, from which, in addition to the Standard Model-like Higgs boson, a new CP-odd scalar arises. If this scalar’s mass is small, final states consisting of two photon pairs would be generated by the decay of the Higgs boson into two of the above mentioned scalars and the subsequent decays of the scalars into photon pairs. In the ATLAS detector, such a pair of photons would be reconstructed as a single photon. In order to analyse the data generated by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, one needs to know the efficiency of the photon pairs to be identified as a single photon. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, this identification efficiency is calculated and analysed for several photon selections and for three different masses of the scalar in the mass range of 100 to 400 MeV. This leads to the creation of an optimized cut menu for this final state. The aim of this is to make the analysis of the ATLAS-generated data with regard to this special...

  3. A real-time flood forecasting and simulation system based on GIS and DEM: Analysis of sensitivity to scale factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra G. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    The hydrometeorological telemetric networks in real time interrelated with weather forecasting and rainfall information obtained from remote sensing, constitute real forecasting and protection instruments in the event of flash flooding, so typical of semiarid environments. In this Thesis, spatial analysis approached with functions embedded in a Geographical Information System (GIS) are proposed. The aims are: (a) To combine efficiently information

  4. Electrooxidation of acetaldehyde on a carbon supported Pt catalyst at elevated temperature/ pressure: an on-line DEMS study

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    Electrooxidation of acetaldehyde on a carbon supported Pt catalyst at elevated temperature and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany Abstract The electrooxidation of acetaldehyde on a Pt and acetaldehyde concentration on the overall activity and on the selectivity (complete oxidation to CO2 vs

  5. Lehrkraft fr Deutsch in China gesucht Am Sprachlehrzentrum der ,,Hubei University of Technology" in Wuhan, an dem u.a.

    E-print Network

    Dringend Lehrkraft für Deutsch in China gesucht Am Sprachlehrzentrum der ,,Hubei University Bergischen Universität Wuppertal und den Universitäten in Wuhan teilnehmen, Deutsch lernen, wird der Fachstudium zwei Jahre Deutsch, um das dritte Studienjahr an der Universität Wuppertal absolvieren zu können

  6. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  7. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this element in the…

  8. Diglossische Prozesse (Zwischen Deutsch und Spanisch) unter den Spanischen Emigranten der 2. Generation in Deutschland: Eine Soziolinguistische Studie (Diglossia Processes (Between German and Spanish) Among Second Generation Spanish Immigrants in Germany: A Sociolinguistic Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karin Vilar

    1998-01-01

    Presents a sociolinguistic study of second-generation Spanish immigrants in Germany. Specific focus is on "diglossia processes," or how Spanish and German are used for different sociolinguistic situations. (Author/VL)

  9. Rückbezüge des Mathematikunterrichts und der Mathematikdidaktik in der BRD auf historische Vorausentwicklungen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Toepell

    2003-01-01

    Kurzreferat  Folgende Aspekte werden behandelt: 1. Lehrerbildung und Schulmathematik im 19.\\/20. Jahrhundert, 2. Zusammenhang von Schule\\u000a und Universität, 3. Das Schicksal der Geometrie, 4. Pädagogische Komponenten.

  10. Plausible Explanation Attempts against the Supraluminal Propagation of Light

    E-print Network

    Petra Schulz

    2006-09-25

    The supposed supraluminal velocities of light are caused above all by interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation from the sender and/or the own environment. Anti-Stokes frequencies which result in the consequence that the refractive index becomes less than 1 or negative during strong optical laser stimulation even are emitted in a increased manner under suitable conditions. The light propagation is retarded simultaneously by interaction within the matter. The velocity of light remains a limiting speed which can not be exceeded. The refractive index is defined in a new manner and a simple collision theory presented for impacts between photon and corpuscle. ----- Die vermeintlichen Ueberlichtgeschwindigkeiten werden vor allem durch Wechselwirkung der Materie mit der elektromagnetischen Strahlung aus dem Sender bzw. aus der eigenen Umgebung verursacht. Es werden unter geeigneten Bedingungen vermehrt anti-Stokessche Frequenzen emittiert, die zur Folge haben, dass die Brechzahl kleiner als 1 oder bei starker Laseranregung sogar negativ wird. Gleichzeitig wird durch die Wechselwirkung innerhalb der Materie die Lichtausbreitung gebremst. Die Lichtgeschwindigkeit bleibt eine Grenzgeschwindigkeit, die nicht ueberschritten werden kann. Die Brechzahl wird neu definiert und eine einfache Stosstheorie fuer Stoesse zwischen Photon und Teilchen vorgestellt.

  11. ‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and Early Modern German Book, Court and Performance Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Katritzky, MA

    2014-01-01

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden Mannes zieht die aktuelle geschichtswissenschaftliche Forschung in der Regel Verbindungslinien zwischen der frühneuzeitlichen Wahrnehmung von Hypertrichose-Fällen und Fragen der Ethnizität, ohne jedoch zu beachten, dass in der Frühen Neuzeit die Verbindung zwischen temporärem Hirsutismus und der krankhaften Verknüpfung von Unterernährung und Anorexie bekannt war. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden vier Fälle von an Hirsutismus erkrankten Frauen neu analysiert, unter Einbezug dieser medizinischen Perspektive und unter Beachtung von Texten und Abbildungen, die meine jüngsten Forschungen in der Herzog August Bibliothek und an deutschen Archiven ans Licht gefördert haben. Die hier betrachteten Fälle betreffen ein italienisches Mädchen, das 1355 von Anna von Schweidnitz, Kaiserin des Hl. Römischen Reichs, nach Prag gebracht wurde; Madeleine und Antonietta Gonzalez, die Töchter des ‘Wilden Manns’ von Teneriffa, die in den 1580er Jahren an deutschen Höfen bezeugt sind; die bärtige Sankt Kümmernis (Wilgefortis), und die bayerische Jahrmarktkünstlerin Barbara Urslerin. PMID:25598545

  12. Kultursensitive Elternarbeit in der Gesundheitsförderung und Übergewichtsprävention bei Kindern an Beispielen aus dem Modellvorhaben „Besser essen. Mehr bewegen. KINDERLEICHT-Regionen“

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Susanne Schack; Jennifer Matthes-Stiebel; Alexandra Heyer; Corinna Willhöft

    \\u000a Zahlreiche Studien belegen, dass der Anteil der übergewichtigen und adipösen Kinder in Deutschland in den letzten Jahrzehnten\\u000a stark angestiegen ist. Diese Entwicklung ist deshalb problematisch, weil Übergewicht und Adipositas die aktuelle Gesundheit\\u000a und Lebensqualität der Kinder beeinträchtigen und das Risiko für spätere chronische Krankheiten erhöhen können (Kurth\\/Schaffrath\\u000a Rosario 2007: 736; RKI 2008: 78-81). Besonders betroffen sind Kinder aus sozial benachteiligten

  13. Der Ornithologische Beobachter / Band 106 / Heft 3 / September 2009 327 Aus dem Schweizer Vogelschutz SVS/BirdLife Schweiz, der Ala, Schweizerische Gesellschaft fr Vogel

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Vogelschutz SVS/BirdLife Schweiz, der Ala, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Vogel kunde und Vogelschutz, und Schweiz und Empfehlungen für die Artenförderung Werner Müller, Christa Glauser, Thomas Sattler und Luc pro pose specific measures. Werner Müller, Schweizer Vogelschutz SVS/BirdLife Schweiz, Wiedingstrasse

  14. IEEE JOURNALON OCEANICENGINEERING, VOL. OE-4, NO. 3, JULY 1979 113 [20] -, "Architektur aus dem Meer," Deursche Buuzeit, vol. 11,no.

    E-print Network

    Moura, José

    , "Preliminary reportonattracting fish by oyster shell plantings in Chincoteague Bay, Mayland," Chesapeake Sci., vol. 1, no. 1,pp. 58-65, 1960. [27] H. T. Kami, "Studies on effect of shelter on standing crop manuscript). [28] C. H. Turner, "A study of artificial reefs," presented at the 5th Annu. Conv. Underwater

  15. A visual basic program for ridge axis picking on DEM data using the profile-recognition and polygon-breaking algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yet-Chung Chang; Gaurav Sinha

    2007-01-01

    For many scientists working with digital topographic data, extracting lineaments or linear features is an important step in structuring and analyzing raw data. A ridge axis, which represents the top a mountain ridge, is one of the most important topographic features used in a wide variety of applications. Algorithms and software for automating the extraction of ridges or ridge axes

  16. 242 Amtsblatt der Freien Hansestadt Bremen vom 23 . Mai 2012 Nr . 35 tens 48 Stunden vor dem Tag der Prfung erfolgt

    E-print Network

    Hoffmeister, Thomas S.

    9 . Mai 2007 (Brem .GBl . S . 339), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 8 des Gesetzes vom 22 . Juni 2010 (Brem .GBl . S . 375) die folgenden Änderungen des Allgemeinen Teils der Masterprüfungsordnungen derHG) i . V . m . § 62 BremHG in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 9 . Mai 2007 (Brem .GBl . S . 339

  17. UniReport Satzungen und Ordnungen vom 18.12.2009 1 Studienordnung fr den Studiengang Medizin mit dem Abschluss ,,rztliche Prfung"

    E-print Network

    Mester, Rudolf

    -nachweis Teilnahme- voraus- setzungen 1. Studienjahr 1.Halb- jahr 1 Anatomie I V 5 12 2 Biologie für Mediziner I V 1 Berufsfeld- erkundung P 1 X 12 Kursus der Anatomie I (makroskopische und mi- kroskopische Anatomie) P 5 13 X 13 Seminar Anatomie am Lebenden I S 0,33 X* 14 Praktikum der Physik für Mediziner P 3,33 15, 35 X 15

  18. An Assessment of the Potential Use of SRTM DEMs in Terrain Analysis for the Efficient Mapping of Soils in the Dyrlands Region of Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between soil properties and hill slope position is well established. Potential variations in the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) with topographic position must be considered in any mapping or inventory scheme. It is possible to establish statistical, geostatistical, and/ or ph...

  19. Factors that control the development of fault-bend versus fault-propagation folds: Insights from mechanical models based on the discrete element method (DEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Amanda N.; Benesh, Nathan P.; Shaw, John H.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the role and relative importance of a range of geometric and mechanical factors in the development of contractional fault-related folds, with an emphasis on defining the factors that promote the development of fault-bend and fault-propagation folds. We construct a series of discrete-element mechanical models in order to test the effects of fault dip, bulk material strength, mechanical layer anisotropy and spacing, sedimentation rate, and boundary conditions on the style of fault-related fold that develops. We find that fault-bend folding is most favored at low fault ramp dips, with thinly-spaced mechanical layers, and strong layer strength contrasts. In contrast, conditions that inhibit slip on a potential upper detachment surface, such as increased friction and a fixed foreland boundary, encourage the development of fault-propagation folds. Additionally, steeper fault dips, more widely-spaced mechanical layers, and decreased layer strength contrast favor the increased localization of shear during the growth of structures. This leads to structures that deform by a mixture of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding styles. Observations of the distortional strains that develop in the model provide insight into the relationship between the different deformation mechanisms, such as flexural slip and localized shear, which accommodate structural growth and ultimately determine fault-related folding style. Thus, these models provide a context for understanding how rock and fault properties influence whether structures evolve as fault-bend or fault-propagation folds, or as combinations of these end members. We apply these insights to interpret two natural examples from the offshore Niger Delta outer fold-and-thrust belt that exhibit changes in structural style through time as a result of changes in fault properties and syntectonic sedimentation.

  20. A test of the validity of morphometric analysis in determining tectonic activity from ASTER derived DEMs in the Jordan-Dead Sea Transform zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husam Abbas Ata

    2008-01-01

    The Jordan-Dead Sea Transform (JDTZ) is an active tectonic zone which is located between the Dead Sea in the north and the Gulf of Aqaba in the south and extends approximately 245 km. The JDTZ has a complicated geomorphological setting and varied geology and it contains a number of active faults that were associated with several significant destructive earthquakes in

  1. Der Text dieser Studienordnung ist nach dem aktuellen Stand sorgfltig er-stellt; gleichwohl ist ein Irrtum nicht ausgeschlossen. Verbindlich ist der amtli-

    E-print Network

    Fiebig, Peter

    offiziellen Amtsblatt veröffentlichte Text. Studienordnung für den Studiengang Zahnmedizin der Friedrich. April 1993 (BGBl S. 512), Ziele, Inhalte, Aufbau und Durchführung des Stu- diums der Zahnmedizin

  2. Erosion rates and erosion patterns of Neogene to Quaternary stratovolcanoes in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes: An SRTM DEM based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, D.; Telbisz, T.; Wörner, G.

    2012-02-01

    Erosion patterns and rates of 33 stratovolcanoes in the arid to hyperarid Central Andean Volcanic Zone (14°S to 27°S) have been constrained by morphometric modelling. All selected volcanoes belong to the short-lived, symmetrical, circular andesitic stratocone type, with ages spanning 14 Ma to recent. Starting from the initial, youthful volcano morphology of this type, represented in our study by Parinacota volcano, and comparing reconstructed volumes of progressively eroded volcanoes, such a time span allows us to infer long-term erosion rates. Typical erosion rates of < 10 to 20 m/Ma have been obtained for the Altiplano-Puna Plateau. Lowest erosion rates typify the hyperarid Puna plateau (7-9 m/Ma), while somewhat higher values (13-22 m/Ma) are recorded for volcanoes in the more humid South Peru, suggesting climatic control on differences in erosion rates. By contrast, much higher short-term erosion rates of 112 to 66 m/Ma, decreasing with age, are found for young (Late Quaternary) volcanoes, which indicates that juvenile volcanoes erode more rapidly due to their unconsolidated cover and steeper slopes; surface denudation slows down to approximately one tenth of this after a few Ma. An inverse correlation is observed between the degree of denudation (defined as volume removed by erosion/original volume) and edifice height from base to top after erosion. This relationship is independent of climate and original edifice elevation. The degree of denudation vs. volcano age provides a rough morphometric tool to constrain the time elapsed since the extinction of volcanic activity. This method can, however, only be applied to the volcanoes of the Altiplano (i.e. under uniform, long-term arid climate) with an uncertainty of ~ 1 Ma. Finally, an erosional pathway is suggested for volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna preserving a peculiar "edelweiss" valley pattern related to glaciations. This pattern may have overprinted previous drainages and resulted in a discontinuous height reduction of the degrading stratovolcanoes.

  3. Application of Landsat7 satellite data and a DEM for the quantification of thermokarst-affected terrain types in the periglacial Lena?Anabar coastal lowland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Grosse; Lutz Schirrmeister; Timothy J. Malthus

    2006-01-01

    Extensive parts of Arctic permafrost-dominated lowlands were affected by large-scale permafrost degradation, mainly through Holocene thermokarst activity. The effect of thermokarst is nowadays observed in most periglacial lowlands of the Arctic. Since permafrost degradation is a consequence as well as a significant factor of global climate change, it is necessary to develop efficient methods for the quantification of its past

  4. Nachweise diploider und triploider Sippen aus dem Dryopteris affinis Aggregat und einer Hybride mit Dryopteris filix-mas (Dryopteridaceae, Pteridophyta) im Gebiet der Obersauer (Luxemburg)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Krippel; Walter Bujnoch; Günther Zenner; Naturpark Öewersauer

    2009-01-01

    We record the first diploid specimens of the Dryopteris affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenk. group as well as a hybrid with Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott in the Upper-Sûre area in the Luxembourg Ardennes region. Compared to these rare ferns, Dryopteris borreri (Newm.) Newm. ex Oberh. & Tavel is more widely distributed in the Upper-Sûre region. To confirm the morphological studies, DNA-analyses were

  5. Klinikum und Fachbereich Medizin Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main Immunescape-Mechanismen von Borrelia burgdorferi, dem Erreger der Lyme Borreliose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kraiczy

    Um der bakteriolytischen Wirkung von Komplement zu entgehen, sind ausschließlich serum-resistente Borrelienisolate in der Lage, die Komplementregulatoren Faktor H, FHL-1 und FHR-1 zu binden. Diese Interaktion mit wirtsspezifischen Proteinen führt dazu, dass die zuvor eingeleitete Komplementaktivierung direkt auf der Erregeroberfläche kontrolliert wird und schlußendlich zum Erliegen kommt (Abb.). Als primäre Liganden für die Komplementregulatoren konnten in den letzten Jahren verschiedene

  6. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre-planning stage including a geomorphic approach. A sound geomorphic model is essential for the proper design of the site investigation, the interpretation of the data and application of effective mitigation measures. Once sinkhole areas are developed, urban elements largely restrict the applicability and performance of multiple techniques, substantially decreasing the feasibility and benefit/effort ratio of the investigations.

  7. St. Jude Medical utvecklar medicinsk teknik och tjnster som ger mer kontroll t dem som behandlar patienter med kardiologiska och neurologiska sjukdomar

    E-print Network

    . Jude Medical:s forskningsstipendium 2011 Stipendiets ändamål är att främja medicinteknisk innovation worldwide. The company is dedicated to advancing the practice of medicine by reducing risk wherever possible of the scholarship is to further enhance innovations in the area of medical technology with the goal of helping

  8. Mit diesem Band 1 und dem sich anschlieenden Band 2 wird ein Kompendium fur einen kompletten Analysiszug in einem Bachelor-Studiengang Mathematik

    E-print Network

    Racke, Reinhard

    Kurth, Dipl.-Math. Tobias Nau und Dipl.-Math. Michael Pokojovy f¨ur das Kor- rekturlesen und f Aufnahme in das Verlagsprogramm. Konstanz, M¨arz 2011 Robert Denk ­ Reinhard Racke #12;Inhaltsverzeichnis

  9. DEM analysis of the effect of particle-wall impact on the dispersion performance in carrier-based dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2015-06-20

    The impact between particles or agglomerates and a device wall is considered as an important mechanism controlling the dispersion of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In order to characterise the influencing factors and better understand the impact induced dispersion process for carrier-based DPIs, the impact behaviour between an agglomerate and a wall is systematically investigated using the discrete element method. In this study, a carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then allowed to impact with a target wall. The effects of impact velocity, impact angle and work of adhesion on the dispersion performance are analysed. It is shown that API particles in the near-wall regions are more likely to be dispersed due to the deceleration of the carrier particle resulted from the impact with the wall. It is also revealed that the dispersion ratio increases with increasing impact velocity and impact angle, indicating that the normal component of the impact velocity plays a dominant role on the dispersion. Furthermore, the impact induced dispersion performance for carrier-based DPI formulations can be well approximated using a cumulative Weibull distribution function that is governed by the ratio of overall impact energy and adhesion energy. PMID:25845718

  10. Geographic Information Network of Alaska: Real-Time Synoptic Satellite Data for Alaska and the High Arctic, Best Available DEMs, and Highest Available Resolution Imagery for Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Heinrichs; V. L. Sharpton; K. E. Engle; L. L. Ledlow; L. E. Seman

    2006-01-01

    In support of the International Polar Year, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) intends to make available to researchers three important Arctic data sets. The first is near-real-time synoptic scale data from GINA and NOAA\\/NESDIS satellite ground stations. GINA operates ground stations that receive direct readout from the AVHRR (1.1-km per pixel resolution) and MODIS (250- to 1000-meter) sensors

  11. Wasser Energie Luft 105. Jahrgang, 2013, Heft 2, CH-5401 Baden 95 Im KTI-Forschungsprojekt Nach-

    E-print Network

    Die Hasliaare zwischen Innertkirchen und Brienzersee in der Schweiz ist ein schwall- beeinträchtigtes werden, schreibt das neue Schweiz. Ge- wässerschutzgesetz eine Reduktion der negativen Auswirkungen von

  12. Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. allG. anGew. ent. 16 Giessen 2008 Incongruent phylogenetic hypotheses and character conflicts in morphology

    E-print Network

    Pass, Günther

    finden, gibt es widersprüchliche Hypothesen hinsichtlich der phylogenetischen Stellung der Collembola Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen zwischen Collembola, Protura, Diplura und Ecto- gnatha haben Unterstützung gefunden. Kann die

  13. Extraction of Watersheds from Digital Elevation Models Using Mathematical Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Sathyamoorthy

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical morphological based algorithm to extract watersheds from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is proposed. First, spurious peaks and pits in the DEM are removed by generating a smoothened DEM using morphological smoothening by reconstruction. The pits of the smoothed DEM are extracted by implementing ultimate erosion on the inverted smoothed DEM. The extracted pits are dilated

  14. CFD Analysis of the Effect on Buoyancy Due to Terrain Temperature Based on an Integrated DEM and Landsat Infrared Imagery Analisis CFD de vientos convectivos naturales debidos a la temperatura de un terreno basado en un modelo DEM integrado con imagenes infrarrojas Landsat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Garc ´ õa; Pierre Boulanger; Juan Duque; Santiago Giraldo

    This paper deals with the influence of concrete structures on atmospheric tem- perature and the convection winds generated in the Aburra Valley in Medell´õn, Colombia. This area is characterised by low wind velocities with a high in- dustry density. A digital elevation model was used from the Radar Shuttle Topography Mission and post-processed in order to obtain a valid volumetric

  15. Tinnitus-Verbesserung durch Kiefergelenk- Distraktions-Therapie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Linsen; U. Schmidt-Beer; B. Koeck

    Diese Studie versucht eine Korrelation zwischen Tinnitus und craniomandibulärer Dysfunktion (CMD) aufzuzeigen, beschäftigt sich mit der Koinzidenz zwischen der Diagnose Tinnitus und CMD und zeigt die Effekte funktionstherapeutischer Maßnah- men beim Tinnitus-Syndrom. 22 in der Klinik und Poliklinik für Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenheilkunde erfolglos konservativ (Infusions-, Analgetika- und Cortisontherapie) behandelte Patienten, wur- den auf CMD untersucht und anschließend nach funktionsthera- peutischen

  16. Teilzeitarbeit in Schweden, Großbritannien und Deutschland: individuelle Dynamik und Haushaltskontext im Ländervergleich

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Schulze Buschoff

    1999-01-01

    Deutliche Unterschiede zwischen den Erwerbsbeteiligungs- und Teilzeitraten von Frauen zwischen den europäischen Ländern kennzeichnen auch die neunziger Jahre. Ergebnis dieses Papiers ist, daß diese Unterschiede zu einem großen Teil als Effekte unterschiedlicher sozialpolitischer Rahmenbedingungen und Wohlfahrtsregime erklärt werden können. Auf der Basis von Längsschnittdaten dreier Länder (Schweden, Großbritannien und Deutschland), die nach Esping-Andersen (1990) die drei verschiedenen Typen von Wohlfahrtsregimen

  17. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  18. Task Force: Nahrungsmittel in China - Food security- und Food safety-Problematik in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Löhr; René Trappel

    2011-01-01

    Umweltverschmutzung, Urbanisierung sowie die Versorgung der noch immer wachsenden Bevölkerung sind große Herausforderungen für Chinas Nahrungsmittelpolitik im 21. Jahrhundert. Diese Publikation zeichnet verschiedene Aspekte im Zusammenhang mit Nahrungsmitteln in China nach - von der Produktion über den Konsum bis hin zur Entsorgung. Dabei stehen vor allem Food safety und Food security im Mittelpunkt, aber auch Chinas Rolle auf den weltweiten

  19. Anatomie und Physiologie der Spaltöffnungsapparate mit Verholzten Schliesszellmembranen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Kaufmann; I. Einleitung

    1927-01-01

    tion der Zelle oder des Zellverbandes innerhalb des pflanzlichen Organis- mus in enger Beziehung. Von der verschiedenen Funktion der chemisch voneinander abweichenden Zellwande hat man auf bestimmte Eigen- schaften einzelner Membranen geschlossen. Die Frage, in welchem Zusammenhang die Verholzung der Schliezellmembr anen und die Funktion der Stomata stehen, ist Gegenstand dieser Arbeit. Es ergab sich dabei die I~otwendigkeit, das Verhalten

  20. Icterus neonatorum gravis als Manifestation einer hereditären Sphärocytose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Betke

    1956-01-01

    Ein aus einer mit hereditärer Sphärocytose belasteten Familie stammendes Neugeborenes entwickelte am 4. Lebenstag einen Icterus gravis mit einem Bilirubinwert von 25,4 mg-% und beginnenden cerebralen Erscheinungen. Durch eine Austauschtransfusion wurde der schwere Zustand behoben. Im Alter von 4 Monaten erkrankte das Kind in Zusammenhang mit einem Infekt der oberen Luftwege an einer weiteren Krise, die zur Änämie führte, aber