These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Über die Wirkung von Rhamnetin und Hesperetin auf das Froschherz. Zusammenhang zwischen der Struktur und dem Wirkungsmechanismus der Flavon- und der Flavanonsubstanzen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Froschherzversuche nach Straub.2.Das Rhamnetin hat eine dem Quercetin ähnliche günstige Wirkung auf das ermüdete, sowie durch Narkoticis oder Milchsäure vergiftetes Froschherz.3.Das Hesperetin schädigt, obwohl es in Wasser fast unlöslich ist, in charakteristischer Weise die Herzarbeit und ist für die schnelle Kompensierung der Milchsäurewirkung nicht geeignet.4.Das abweichende pharmakologische Verhalten dürfte seine Erklärung darin finden, daß im Phenolkern des Hesperetins in

A. v. Jeney; Anna G. Czimmer

1938-01-01

2

Überbrückung der Kluft zwischen normativer Ethik und dem Grundprinzip der Gnade mit Bezugnahme auf Scheidung und Wiederheirat innerhalb der christlichen Kirchen und Gemeinschaften.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Arbeit schlägt eine Brücke über den Graben zwischen dem normativ-ethischen Anspruch an die Lebenslänglichkeit einer Ehe und Gottes gnädigem Handeln gegenüber dem scheiternden… (more)

Binder-Wüstiner, Beatrice, 1958-

2012-01-01

3

Geschlechtsentwicklung zwischen Genen und Hormonen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Unterschiede zwischen männlichen und weiblichen Individuen entstehen durch die Wirkung geschlechtsspezifischer Gene und Hormone. Durch die Wirkung spezifischer Gene entwickelt sich aus einer undifferenzierten Gonadenanlage ein Testes oder Ovar, in dem Geschlechtshormone gebildet werden. Diese sind für die Differenzierung des inneren und äußeren Genitale, für die Pubertätsentwicklung und Fertilität nötig. Geschlechtstypische Unterschiede werden aber auch im Gehirn gefunden,

U. Kuhnle; W. Krahl

2003-01-01

4

Wirkungsunterschiede zwischen Digitalis purpurea und Digitalis lanata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Qualitative Unterschiede zwischen Digitalis purpurea und lanata bestehen:1.hinsichtlich der Latenzzeit, die am hypodynamen Straubschen Herzen für Digitalis purpurea 3–4 mal so lang ist, als für Digitalis lanata in gleicher Konzentration.2.wird die maximale Arbeitsleistung (Minutenvolumen) des durchströmten isolierten Froschherzens durch Digitalis lanata rascher erreicht als durch Digitalis purpurea gleicher Konzentration. Die therapeutische Phase dagegen dauert bei dem mit Digitalis purpurea

Fritz Heim

1936-01-01

5

Immunmodulation der chronischen Pankreatitis durch Tacrolimus und Rapamycin - eine tierexperimentelle Arbeit.  

E-print Network

??Die chronische Pankreatitis (CP) ist eine bis dato medikamentös nur begrenzt beeinflußbare Erkrankung. Ein Zusammenhang zwischen der Schwere der Pankreasschädigung und dem Maß der spezifischen… (more)

Küber, Verena

2012-01-01

6

Das Schwermetall Cadmium und seine negativen Auswirkungen auf den menschlichen Körper.  

E-print Network

??Das allgemeine Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Bearbeitung und kritische Bewertung des Zusammenhangs zwischen dem Schwermetall Cadmium und den dadurch entstehenden Erkrankungen des menschlichen Organismus.… (more)

Barilich, Kathrin

2012-01-01

7

Pollution taxation and environmental quality.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Zusammenhang zwischen der Verwendung von Umweltsteuern und deren Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualität. Da Umweltsteuern als Politikinstrument augenscheinlich sehr… (more)

Reis, Sebastian

2009-01-01

8

Analyse einer reziproken Translokation zwischen den Chromosomen C (10) und D 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eine balancierte Translokation zwischen dem kurzen Arm eines Chromosoms der Gruppe C (6–12), als C (10) bezeichnet, und dem langen Arm eines Chromosomes D1 wurde bei einer gesunden Frau nachgewiesen, die zwei Fehlgeburten hatte und deren einziges lebend geborenes Kind multiple Fehlbildungen aufwies: Balkenagenesie, Aortenatresie, Radiusaplasie, Cystennieren. Die cytogenetischen Untersuchungen werden im einzelnen beschrieben und im Hinblick auf den Mechanismus

R. A. Pfeiffer; M. MEY; W. LENZ

1967-01-01

9

Zusammenhang zwischen Risslaufenergie und J-Risswiderstandskurven. (Connection between crack propagation energy and J crack resistance curves).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For pressure vessel steel 22 Ni Mo Cr 3 7, crack initiation and crack growth are first examined on CT samples and SENT samples. For the CT samples, crack resistance curves are determined based on the J integral concept by the conventional process (12), wh...

D. Memhard, W. Klemm

1991-01-01

10

Wurzelschäden und Waldsterben: Zur Bestimmung morphometrischer Kenngrößen von Feinwurzelsystemen mit dem IBAS—erste Ergebnisse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  In einer vergleichenden Untersuchung von Feinwurzelsystemen wurde erstmals ein Bildanalysesystem (IBAS) eingesetzt, um Schäden\\u000a am Wurzelsystem der Fichte quantitativ zu erfassen.\\u000a \\u000a Die ermittelten Kenngrößen der Feinwurzelsysteme, wie z. B. Verzweigung, Segmentlänge und Fläche ergaben einen deutlichen\\u000a Zusammenhang zwischen den Zuwachsverlusten und der Feinwurzelintensität.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Die Befunde werden mit Blick auf die Schädigung der Assimilationsorgane im Zuge des Waldsterbens diskutiert.

H. Blaschke; U. Brehmer; H. Schwarz

1985-01-01

11

ASTER DEM performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, G.G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

2005-01-01

12

Zusammenhänge zwischen dem betriebsverhalten von sbr-brennstoff und anforderungen an die produktqualität  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Beitrag werden zunächst die allgemeinen Grundlagen der Erstellung einer Produktspezifikation dargelegt. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele erfolgt eine Begründung für die Formulierungen von Spezifikationsanforderungen an die U,Pu-Mischoxid-Tablette aufgrund vorliegender experimenteller Erfahrungen, modellmä?ig formulierter Erwartungen oder fertigungsbedingter Erfordernisse. Die aus der Sicht des Auslegers zu beachtenden Kriterien werden jeweils genannt.

Dünner, Ph.

1982-04-01

13

Über Oxy-Ephedrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Es wird an Hand der Oxy-Ephedrine der Zusammenhang zwischen Konstitution und Wirkung in der Reihe Ephedrin — Suprarenin besprochen.2.Auf Grund der Versuchsergebnisse wird der Unterschied zwischen „sympathomimetischen und sympathikotropen” Stoffen betont.3.Die Mono-oxy-Ephedrine bilden einen Übergang von dem nur sympathomimetisch (muskulotrop) wirkenden Ephedrin zu dem rein sympathikotropen (neurotropen) Suprarenin.4.Die Stellungen der OH-Gruppen sind untereinander nicht gleichwertig; die Suprareninähnlichkeit nimmt in

O. Schaumann

1931-01-01

14

Freundliches und respektvolles Führungsverhalten und die Arbeitsfähigkeit von Beschäftigten  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a In diesem Kapitel werden die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zum Zusammenhang zwischen freundlichem, respektvollem\\u000a Verhalten von Vorgesetzten und der Arbeitsfähigkeit ihrer Mitarbeiter dargestellt. Eine Stichprobe von N = 1.275 Beschäftigten\\u000a verschiedener Branchen wurde mit dem FVVB, dem Fragebogen zur Vorgesetzten-Verhaltensbeschreibung (Fittkau-Garthe u. Fittkau\\u000a 1971) und dem WAI, dem Work Ability Index (vgl. Tuomi et al. 2003) befragt. Da die Arbeitsfähigkeit

Jochen Prümper; Matthias Becker

15

Zur Differentialdiagnose zwischen Dementia praecox und Hysterie bzw. Psychogenie  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Eingegangen am 27. Mdrz 1921.) Die Differentialdiagnose zwischen Hysterie und Dementia praecox, wichtig vor allem wegen des Unterschieds ihrer l~'ogaose, ist trotz der Verschiedenheit ihrer 7~tiologie und ihres Wesens keineswegs stets einfach. Beide Erkrankungen kSrmen symptomatologisch sich auBerordentlich ~hneln. Das hat auch J u n g dazu veranlaBt, zwischen beiden Krankheiten eine psychologische Verwandtschaft (aUerdir~gs keine Identifikation) zu konstruieren, indem

Alfred Wichmann; E. Meyer

1922-01-01

16

Verhaltensunterschiede zwischen europäischen Formen der Silbermöwengruppe (Larus argentatus — cachinnans — fuscus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Der Verhaltensvergleich zwischenL. a. argentatus bzw.a. argenteus (Nordsee),L. a. michahellis (Mittelmeer) undL. fuscus (Ostsee) erbrachte formale Differenzen bezüglich der wichtigsten Rufe und einiger Stellungen und Bewegungen. Danach scheintL. a. michahellis (geltend fürcachinnans) vonL. argentatus argenteus ebenso verschieden zu sein wieL. fuscus vonargenteus. Ähnlichkeiten in Rufformen und Bewegungen wurden zwischenL. a. michahellis undL. fuscus festgestellt. Beide gelbfüßigen Formen zeigen eine

Friedrich Goethe

1963-01-01

17

E-Books im Spannungsfeld zwischen Verlagen, Aggregatoren, Bibliotheken und  

E-print Network

1 E-Books im Spannungsfeld zwischen Verlagen, Aggregatoren, Bibliotheken und Nutzern E-Book-Workshop für MPG-Bibliothekare 25. Oktober 2012 in Leipzig Dr. Arlette Piguet #12;2 Der E-Book-Markt #12;3 PUBLIZIEREN Fundamentale Veränderungen durch IuK- Technologien Neue Möglichkeiten: Google Book Search; Amazon

18

Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil simulations --liquefaction  

E-print Network

Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil simulations -- liquefaction Granular materials: Are they simple? Discrete Element Modeling of Soils as Granular Materials Matthew R. Kuhn Donald P. Shiley School http:// faculty.up.edu / kuhn / papers / DEM_Corvallis.pdf #12;Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil

Kuhn, Matthew R.

19

Einleitung Das Modell von Keller und Segel Erweiterungen des Models von Keller und Segel Zusammenhang Populations-und Zellbetrachtung Literatur Bakterielle Musterbildung, Chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Aufbau E. Coli Bakterien in einem Kapillargef¨a� Galactose als Energiequelle 5 / 48 #12;Einleitung Das Zellbetrachtung Literatur Das Experiment von Adler Versuchsaufbau und Beobachtung Aufbau E. Coli Bakterien Zusammenhang Populations- und Zellbetrachtung Literatur Bakterielle Musterbildung, Chemotaxis Bakterielle

Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

20

Über die Anregungs- und Ionisierungsspannungen von Neon und Argon und ihren Zusammenhang mit den Spektren dieser Gase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Obwohl fr Farbstoffe die Leuchtdauer und Polarisation der Lumineszenzstrahlung und fr viele unter ihnen auch die Leuchtfhigkeit\\u000a selbst durch die Viskositt des Lsungsmittels bedingt ist, existiert doch keine vollstndige Parallelitt zwischen diesen\\u000a Eigenschaften: einerseits steigt die Polarisation (wie schon Wawilow und Lewschin gezeigt) mit wachsender Zhigkeit nicht\\u000a ber einen gewissen Grad, anderseits ist die Nachleuchtdauer auch fr manche

G. Hertz

1923-01-01

21

Morphometric characterisation of landform from DEMs.  

E-print Network

??Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are fundamental datasets for environmental modelling. They provide the basic data from which terrain indices that represent or influence environmental phenomena… (more)

Wang, Daming

2008-01-01

22

SRTM DEM and its application advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) provides for the first time a near-global high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) with great advantages of homogeneous quality and free availability. The last 10 years or so have seen rapid advances in the data processing and applications of SRTM DEM. From the perspective of SRTM, we present in this article a brief overview of

Liping Yang; Xingmin Meng; Xiaoqiang Zhang

2011-01-01

23

TanDEM-X high resolution DEMs and their applications to flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava flow modeling can be a powerful tool in hazard assessments; however, the ability to produce accurate models is usually limited by a lack of high resolution, up-to-date Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This is especially obvious in places such as Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where active lava flows frequently alter the terrain. In this study, we use a new technique to create high resolution DEMs on Kilauea using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the TanDEM-X (TDX) satellite. We convert raw TDX SAR data into a geocoded DEM using GAMMA software [Werner et al., 2000]. This process can be completed in several hours and permits creation of updated DEMs as soon as new TDX data are available. To test the DEMs, we use the Harris and Rowland [2001] FLOWGO lava flow model combined with the Favalli et al. [2005] DOWNFLOW model to simulate the 3-15 August 2011 eruption on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. Results were compared with simulations using the older, lower resolution 2000 SRTM DEM of Hawaii. Effusion rates used in the model are derived from MODIS thermal infrared satellite imagery. FLOWGO simulations using the TDX DEM produced a single flow line that matched the August 2011 flow almost perfectly, but could not recreate the entire flow field due to the relatively high DEM noise level. The issues with short model flow lengths can be resolved by filtering noise from the DEM. Model simulations using the outdated SRTM DEM produced a flow field that followed a different trajectory to that observed. Numerous lava flows have been emplaced at Kilauea since the creation of the SRTM DEM, leading the model to project flow lines in areas that have since been covered by fresh lava flows. These results show that DEMs can quickly become outdated on active volcanoes, but our new technique offers the potential to produce accurate, updated DEMs for modeling lava flow hazards.

Wooten, Kelly M.

24

Studien in dem Romanstil Otto Ludwigs  

E-print Network

bestehen schien." S. 420. — "Es kamen die goldgelben Schwäne herbei, schmieg tan sich liebkosend unter sie wie lebendige Kähne am schatti­ gen Ufer." S. 430. — "Grosse, rote Blumen, wie ich hernacherfuhr, Lotosblumen winkten aus dem schmaragdenen Grün...

Trovillo, Bessie

1910-01-01

25

Morphological segmentation of physiographic features from DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terrain can be segmented into three predominant physiographic features; mountains, basins and piedmont slopes. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical morphological based algorithm to segment the terrain of a digital elevation model (DEM) into the three predominant physiographic features. Ultimate erosion is used to extract the peaks and pits of the DEM. Conditional dilation is performed on the peaks and pits of the DEM to extract the mountain and basin pixels, respectively. The unclassified pixels are assigned as piedmont slope pixels. The combination of the mountain, basin and piedmont slope regions form the physiographically segmented DEM. The effectiveness of the proposed physiographic segmentation algorithm is tested by implementing it on the Global Digital Elevation Model (GTOPO30) of the Great Basin, Nevada, USA.

Sathymoorthy, D.; Palanikumar, R.; Sagar, B. S. D.

2007-01-01

26

Das Informatik-Forum Stuttgart - mehr Dialog zwischen Theorie und Anwendung notwendig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mit der Gründung des Informatik- Forum Stuttgart wird seit 1996 eine Plattform angeboten, die den Dialog zwischen der universitären Forschung, der Informatikausbildung und der IT-Wirtschaft in der Region Stuttgart intensivieren soll. In der Informatik hat sich eine Lücke zwischen Theorie und Anwendung entwickelt. Es ist nicht erkennbar, dass diese Lücke kleiner wird, eher das Gegenteil zeichnet sich ab. Verglichen mit anderen Branchen besteht die Gefahr, dass Anwender wesentlich später von Erkenntnissen aus der Forschung profitieren. Der entstandene Interaktionsstau zwischen Theorie und Anwendung der Informatik sollte abgebaut werden. An einigen Beispielen wird aufgezeigt, wo das besonders wichtig erscheint.

Hieber, Ludwig

27

Untersuchungen zur Kopplung zwischen induzierten Translokationen und Genen für männliche Sterilität bei Gerste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Untersucht werden die Ergebnisse von F3-Kopplungstests an insgesamt 111 Kombinationen zwischen 47 verschiedenen Translokationen und 5 Genen für männliche Sterilität:msg1 undmsg4 (Chromosom 5),msg6 (Chromosom 6),msg24 undmsg25 (Chromosom 4).

Gottfried Künzel; Friedrich Scholz

1982-01-01

28

Bodenkontaminationen in Rüstungsaltlasten aus dem Ersten Weltkrieg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Ergebnisse ausgewählter Bodenproben aus Delaborierungsstandorten von Munition aus dem 1. Weltkrieg zeigen, dass als Hauptkontaminanten\\u000a Dinitrobenzole, TNT und Metabolite sowie Dinitronaphthaline vorliegen. Der Nachweis von 1,2-Dinitrobenzol neben 1,3-Dinitrobenzol\\u000a zeigt, dass während des ersten Weltkrieges offensichtlich auf die Sulfit-Wäsche bei der Dinitrobenzol-Produktion verzichtet\\u000a wurde. Die Ergebnisse belegen, dass bei der Untersuchung von Rüstungs-altlaststandorten aus dem 1. Weltkrieg die Parameterlisten\\u000a für

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf; Eberhard von Löw

2003-01-01

29

Heteronukleare Spinentkopplung unter dem Einfluß thermischer Bewegungen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unter der Annahme magnetischer Dipol-IS-Wechselwirkung wird eine Theorie der heteronuklearen Spinentkopplung für kurze Korrelationszeiten entwickelt. Diese enthält als Spezialfälle die kernmagnetischen Relaxationsraten im rotierenden und im festen Koordinatensystem sowie die Kreuzpolarisation zwischen den Spins I und S. In Übereinstimmung mit dieser Theorie tritt für die protonenentkoppelte C-13 Resonanz von Butanol, das in einem NaY-Zeolith adsorbiert ist, ein Maximum der Linienbreite als Funktion der Temperatur zwischen - 150°C und + 90°C auf.Translated AbstractHeteronuclear Spin Decoupling in the Presence of Thermal MotionAssuming magnetic dipolar I-S interaction, a general short -correlation time theory is presented which includes as special cases also well-known formulas for relaxation rates in the rotating and laboratory frame and for the cross polarization between I and S spins. In accordance with this theory for the proton-decoupled C-13 resonance of butanol adsorbed in a NaY zeolite, a maximum of the linewidth is observed as a function of temperature between - 150°C and + 90°C.

Ernst, H.; Fenzke, D.; Pfeifer, H.

30

Objective constitutive relations from DEM Stefan Luding  

E-print Network

by integrating Newtons equations of motion (Herrmann, Hovi, and Luding 1998; Kishino 2001; Luding, Lätzel are then sufficient to inte- grate (explicitly) Newtons equations of motion and follow all particles during the interaction laws and inserting those into a discrete element model (DEM), one can follow the particles

Luding, Stefan

31

Incorporating DEM Uncertainty in Coastal Inundation Mapping  

PubMed Central

Coastal managers require reliable spatial data on the extent and timing of potential coastal inundation, particularly in a changing climate. Most sea level rise (SLR) vulnerability assessments are undertaken using the easily implemented bathtub approach, where areas adjacent to the sea and below a given elevation are mapped using a deterministic line dividing potentially inundated from dry areas. This method only requires elevation data usually in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). However, inherent errors in the DEM and spatial analysis of the bathtub model propagate into the inundation mapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of spatially variable and spatially correlated elevation errors in high-spatial resolution DEMs for mapping coastal inundation. Elevation errors were best modelled using regression-kriging. This geostatistical model takes the spatial correlation in elevation errors into account, which has a significant impact on analyses that include spatial interactions, such as inundation modelling. The spatial variability of elevation errors was partially explained by land cover and terrain variables. Elevation errors were simulated using sequential Gaussian simulation, a Monte Carlo probabilistic approach. 1,000 error simulations were added to the original DEM and reclassified using a hydrologically correct bathtub method. The probability of inundation to a scenario combining a 1 in 100 year storm event over a 1 m SLR was calculated by counting the proportion of times from the 1,000 simulations that a location was inundated. This probabilistic approach can be used in a risk-aversive decision making process by planning for scenarios with different probabilities of occurrence. For example, results showed that when considering a 1% probability exceedance, the inundated area was approximately 11% larger than mapped using the deterministic bathtub approach. The probabilistic approach provides visually intuitive maps that convey uncertainties inherent to spatial data and analysis. PMID:25250763

Leon, Javier X.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

2014-01-01

32

The HELI-DEM model estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global DEMs are fundamental for global applications and are necessary also at the local scale, in regions where local models are not available. Local DEMs are preferred when they are available and if are characterized by better accuracies and resolutions. In general, two problems arise. Firstly, an interest region could be patched by several partly overlapping DEMs that present similar accuracies and spatial resolutions: they should be merged in a unified model. Moreover, even when the interest region is covered by one unified DEM, local DEMs with better accuracy could be available and should be used to locally improve it. All these problems have been addressed within HELI-DEM project. HELI-DEM (HELvetia-Italy Digital Elevation Model) is a project that has been funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) within the Italy-Switzerland cooperation program. It started in 2010 and finished at the end of 2013. The involved institutions in the project were Fondazione Politecnico di Milano, Politecnico di Milano, Politecnico di Torino, Regione Lombardia, Regione Piemonte and Scuola Universitaria della Svizzera Italiana. One specific aim of the project was the creation and the publication of a unified Digital Elevation Model for the part of the Alps between Italy and Switzerland. The interest area is prevalently mountainous, with heights that range from about 200 m to 4600 m. Three low Resolution DTMs (20-25-50 m of resolution) are available that partly overlap and patch the whole project area: they are characterized by accuracies of some meters. Also High Resolution DTMs (1-5 m) are available: they have accuracies of some decimeters but cover limited areas of the project. The various models are available in different reference frames (the European ETRF89 and the Italian Roma40) and are gridded either in cartographic or geographic coordinates. Before merging them, a validation of the input data has been performed in three steps: cross validation of LR DTMs, validation of LR DTMs by HR DTMs and final check by geodetic techniques. The comparisons confirm the accuracy of HR data and the presence of few local anomalies in LR DTMs. Considering the goal of the project and the previous results, two different DTMs have been produced. Both of them cover the whole project area (boundaries: ? = 7.80° East and ? = 10.70° East, ? = 45.10° North e ? = 46.70° North). They are gridded in ETRF2000 geographical coordinates and their spatial resolution is 2 × 10-4 degrees. The former has been obtained by interpolating and merging all the input LR DTMs on a new common grid. This DTM has been called HD-1. HD-1 presents the same local anomalies of the LR DTMs used as input for the interpolation: therefore, at least in areas where better data (HR DTMs) are available, its correction was needed. In order to avoid sharp discontinuities, corrections obtained by HR DTMs have been filtered by a numerical FFT approach before applying them. The result of this correction has been called HD-2. HD-1 and HD-2 have already been published by an open access geoservice.

Biagi, L.; Caldera, S.; Carcano, L.; Lucchese, A.; Negretti, M.; Sansò, F.; Triglione, D.; Visconti, M. G.

2014-04-01

33

Spracherwerb - Vergleich zwischen Kindern mit Down-Syndrom und unbeeinträchtigten Kindern unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Syntax.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Spracherwerb bei Down-Syndrom Kindern“. Um diesen näher zu beschreiben, erläutere ich vorerst den Spracherwerb unbeeinträchtigter Kinder um… (more)

Lischke, Nadine Catrine

2013-01-01

34

DEM from Cartosat data and comparison to DEM from other sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until a few years ago DEMs were used only by specialized scientists for terrain analysis, product development and decision making and by the army for military operations planning. Recently the DEM are used in a variety of both commercial and public business and management fields within telecommunications, navigation, constructions, energy, disaster management, transportation, weather forecast, remote sensing, geology, land cover classification, civil engineering and many more. All these applications could be summarised in four major categories: Commercial applications, Industrial applications, Military applications and Environmental-Ecological applications. Thus, there is a huge pressure for very accurate elevation data covering the entire planet surface. Image stereopairs form satellite sensors seem to provide a quite accurate and cost affordable source of elevation data. One of the newest satellite sensors with stereo collection capability is Cartosat. It can acquire stereopairs along the track with a 2,5m spatial resolution covering areas of 30X30km. In this study we compare a DEM created from a Cartosat stereopair to DEM created from other elevation data sources: 1/50.000 topographic maps, SRTM data, airphotos stereo-pair. The area of study is situated in Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. Points of known elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these three DEMs. The elevation difference between the different DEMs was calculated. Elevation profiles and derived maps (slope and aspect) were created and compared. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed and the results are presented.

Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Lathourakis, Georgios

2008-10-01

35

DEM Data for Lahar Modeling: Lahars From Popocatépetl Volcano (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of lahars has become important for related hazards assessment, particularly in regions with scarce geologic record. Digital terrain data is a crucial element for mass-flow modeling but limited by availability of DEM's. Remote sensing technology offers perspectives for DEM generation. DEMs derived from ASTER stereo satellite images and SRTM from Popocatépetl Volcano, taken on 2001, were evaluated using two simple, non-dynamic lahar models LAHARZ and MSF. Laharic volumes were based on the 1995-2001 events. Results of model runs for the Huiloac gorge based on the ASTER-DEM show that only lahars with a volume of 5x106 m3 or larger reach towns 11km away. Lahars modeled with SRTM-DEM travel 1.8 km further downstream. The ASTER-based model tends to a stronger lateral distribution of the flow volume, thus limiting the longitudinal distribution. In comparison to the observed lahar of corresponding volume in 1997, the modeled lahars fit in travel distance by ca. 2 and 4 km for SRTM and ASTER, respectively. The flow paths for the ASTER and SRTM DEMs are consistent except for the middle section where an erroneous flow-routing of the ASTER model can be observed, caused by an error of the respective DEM. ASTER and SRTM DEMs, are suitable for use with LAHARZ and MSF. Flow path prediction is more reliable with SRTM data but with coarser spatial resolution. Errors of the ASTER DEM affecting the prediction of flow paths are mainly identified in deeply incised gorges with north-facing slopes due to the sensor geometry. LAHARZ is more sensitive to errors of the ASTER DEM than the MSF model. Lahar modeling with the ASTER-DEM results in a finer spaced predicted inundation area but does not add any significant information in comparison with the SRTM DEM. The verification and sensitivity of the DEM used is fundamental when deriving hazards maps to forecast inundation areas.

Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Julio-Miranda, P.; Delgado-Granados, H.; Kääb, A.

2007-05-01

36

DEM simulation of experimental dense granular packing  

SciTech Connect

In this study we present numerical analysis performed on the experimental results of sphere packings of mono-sized hard sphere whose packing fraction spans across a wide range of 0.59<{Phi}<0.72. Using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT), we have full access to the 3D structure of the granular packings. Numerical analysis performed on thr data provides the first experimental proofs of how densification affects local order parameters. Furthermore by combining Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the experimental results from XCT, we investigate how the intergranular forces change with the onset of crystallization.

Hanifpour, Maryam; Allaei, Mehdi Vaez [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Francois, Nicolas; Saadatfar, Mohammad [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

2013-06-18

37

DEM based simulation of concrete structures on GPU  

E-print Network

DEM based simulation of concrete structures on GPU Marie Durand* -- Philippe Marin** -- François and implementation of the discrete element method (DEM) on GPU and present performance results for simulations to the GPU. R�SUM�. Pour simuler des structures soumises à de la fracturation, la méthode des éléments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Incorporating Atomic Data Errors in Stellar DEM Reconstruction  

E-print Network

Incorporating Atomic Data Errors in Stellar DEM Reconstruction Hosung Kang , David A. van Dyk Scientific Abstract. We develop a powerful new method to reconstruct stellar Differential Emission Measures (DEMs), whose Bayesian framework allows us to incorporate atomic and calibration errors as prior

Wolfe, Patrick J.

39

Cytochrom b-Sequenz-Vergleiche zwischen Wisent (Bison bison bonasus) und Hausrind (Bos primigenius f. taurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vom Wisent (bison bison bonasus) wurde die Nukleotid-Sequenz des Cytochrom b-Gens bestimmt. Die erstellte Basenfolge und die daraus ermittelte Aminosäuren-Sequenz wurde mit den entsprechenden Sequenzen des Rindes aus der EMBL-Datenbank verglichen. Dabei wurden die Basen- bzw. die Aminosäurensubstitutionsraten sowie das Verhältnis von Transitionen zu Transversionen berechnet. Die Homologien zwischen den verglichenen Nukleotid- und Aminosäuren-Sequenzen von Wisent und Rind entsprachen den

Stefanie Zimmermann; R. Zehner; A. Herzog

1998-01-01

40

Neuroökonomie und Neuromarketing — Erkenntnisse der Gehirnforschung für die Gestaltung von Beziehungen zwischen Kunden und Unternehmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innerhalb der letzten Jahre hat die Beachtung von Ergebnissen der Neuroökonomie und des Neuromarketing sowohl in der Wissenschaft\\u000a als auch in der Praxis deutlich zugenommen. Im Rahmen der Neuroökonomie werden ökonomische Fragestellungen mit neurowissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen und Methoden analysiert (vgl. Hain\\/ Kenning\\/\\u000a Lehmann-Waffenschmidt 2007). Der Schwerpunkt der Forschung liegt vor allem darauf, zu ergründen, wie im Gehirn zwischen Verhaltensalternativen\\u000a gewählt wird.

Christian Duchmann; Armin Töpfer

41

Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation differs extremely between several photogrammetric software packages. In this article, the calibration results of a suitable camera system will be shown. For a small format consumer grade camera, the authors will give the proof of ability for photogrammetric measurements purposes. This includes the results of different processing approaches for DEM generation of environments showing high object height variations.

Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

2013-08-01

42

DEM Uncertainty propagation in second derivatives geomorphometrical maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to model the uncertainty from DEM a special model was created and implemented as Python script in ArcGIS Desktop using the ArcPy SDK provided by ESRI. The model is based on Monte Carlo simulation for generating noise and Map Algebra for adding the noise to DEM. The model can be used and independent script or combined with any other models. The inputs of the model are a DEM and an estimation of the DEM accuracy expressed as mean and standard deviation of the errors. The mean and standard deviation may be obtained from a crossvalidation/validation operation, if the model is obtained with geostatistics or by a simple validation with ground control points, if the model is obtained by other means than geostatistics. The DEM uncertainty propagation model assumes that the errors are normally distributed and thus the noise is normal distributed. This version of the model requires a Spatial Analyst extension, but the future versions may be used without or with Spatial Analyst extension. The main issue related with the addition of noise to DEM's in order to compensate for uncertainty is that the second derivatives are almost impossible to extract. This drawback was overcome by using and interpolated noisy surface in the uncertainty propagation model. Statistical analysis on raster obtained in each Monte Carlo simulation; for each realization of the model the following statistical analysis are performed: mean, minimum, maximum, range and standard deviation are extracted and saved as ESRI GRID format When the model finishes the specialist have an image about the uncertainties that might be contained by the DEM and in the same time have a collection of DEM that can be used to generate first and second order derivatives

Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Ursaru, Petre

2013-04-01

43

Space Ranger Alien Quest.  

E-print Network

??Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Exekutiven Funktionen und den Autismusspektrumstörungen wird bereits seit einigen Jahrzehnten untersucht, gerät jedoch derzeit immer mehr in den Fokus des wissenschaftlichen… (more)

Buscher, Hannah

2013-01-01

44

Evaluating the Accuracy of dem Generation Algorithms from Uav Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC). This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

Ruiz, J. J.; Diaz-Mas, L.; Perez, F.; Viguria, A.

2013-08-01

45

Novel application of DEM to modelling comminution processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comminution processes in which grains are broken down into smaller and smaller sizes represent a critical component in many industries including mineral processing, cement production, food processing and pharmaceuticals. We present a novel DEM implementation capable of realistically modelling such comminution processes. This extends on a previous implementation of DEM particle breakage that utilized spherical particles. Our new extension uses super-quadric particles, where daughter fragments with realistic size and shape distributions are packed inside a bounding parent super-quadric. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach in different particle breakage scenarios and examine the effect of the chosen minimum resolved particle size. This incorporation of the effect of particle shape in the breakage process allows for more realistic DEM simulations to be performed, that can provide additional fundamental insights into comminution processes and into the behaviour of individual pieces of industrial machinery.

Delaney, Gary W.; Cleary, Paul W.; Sinnott, Matt D.; Morrison, Rob D.

2010-06-01

46

Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

2008-01-01

47

Die Jahrhundert-Messung Mithilfe des Venus-Transits wurde die Distanz zwischen Erde und Sonne ermittelt  

E-print Network

Die Jahrhundert-Messung Mithilfe des Venus-Transits wurde die Distanz zwischen Erde und Sonne genaue Vermessung des Sonnensystems. Mithilfe des erdnächsten Plane- ten, der Venus, sollte das gelin 3.Juni 1769 sollte die Venus als kleine schwarze Scheibe vor der Sonne vorbeizie- hen ­ ein

Imamoglu, Atac

48

Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the differences between the computed baselines and the K-band ranges vary around a mean. In the end a systematic deviation or bias cannot be detected this way. A 3-D assessment of the baseline accuracies including biases can be gained by comparison of independently derived baselines as here from GFZ and DLR. Indeed it turns out that the different baselines show systematic differences of a few millimeters. From this it can be concluded that for the TanDEM-X mission an unknown bias in the baselines is possible which in turn would hurt the anticipated DEM accuracy limit. In order to control a possible baseline bias, a calibration chain via SAR calibration data takes has been invented in the TanDEM-X ground segment. This chain delivers corrections to the baseline bias so that unbiased baselines with sub-millimeter accuracies can be provided to secure the DEM accuracy requirement.

Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

49

Tanzendes Tier oder exzentrische Positionalität - Philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Darwinismus und Kulturalismus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zunächst kurz vorweg zu den Formeln im Titel: "exzentrische Positionalität“ ist der Kategorienvorschlag der Philosophischen Anthropologie (genauer: von Helmuth Plessner) für den Menschen, für seine "Sonderstellung“ unter den Lebewesen - ich werde diesen Begriff erläutern. So viel kann man sagen: Der Terminus ist nicht schwieriger als "Transzendentalität“ oder das "Apriori“ oder "Autopoiesis“, also Begriffe, mit deren Orientierungswert in der intellektuellen Öffentlichkeit bereits gespielt wird, bietet aber möglicherweise mehr Erschließungskraft als die Kunstbegriffe z. B. von Kant, Maturana oder Luhmann. Und "tanzendes Tier“ ist ein glücklicher Anschauungsbegriff, eine Art Übersetzung für "exzentrische Positionalität“ - also ein "verrücktes“ Lebewesen, eine Verrückung im evolutionären Leben, die dieses Lebewesen von Natur aus zu einer bestimmten Art von Lebensführung, nämlich Kultur nötigt. Die Absicht des Beitrages ist es, die Philosophische Anthropologie als eine spezifische Theorietechnik zu präsentieren, um einen adäquaten Begriff des Menschen zu erreichen, und zwar eine Theoriestrategie angesichts des cartesianischen Dualismus - also des Dualismus zwischen Naturalismus und Kulturalismus.

Fischer, Joachim

50

The DEM of Mt. Etna: Geomorphological and structural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Mt. Etna is presented; it has altimetric and planimetric resolution of l m and 5 m, respectively, and covers an area of about 120 km2. This 3-D view of Mt. Etna allowed both recognition and location of the main morphostructural and volcano-tectonic features of the volcano. A slope map has been generated from the

Massimiliano Favalli; Fabrizio Innocenti; Maria Teresa Pareschi; Giorgio Pasquarè; Francesco Mazzarini; Stefano Branca; Luciano Cavarra; Alessandro Tibaldi

1999-01-01

51

Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

Raabe, Alexander

52

Impact of orbital parameters on DEM production by SAR interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are interested to the impact of the orbital parameters on interferometric height calculated in range geometry. They use their exact formulation (Abdelfattah, 98), given the mathematical dependency of the interferogram phase and the target height, in order to extract an analytical estimation of the required orbital parameters accuracy for DEM generation. They propose a quantitative assessment of the

R. Abdelfattah; J. M. Nicolas; M. R. Boussema

2000-01-01

53

Determination of fibrillatory frequency for assessment of the atrial electrophysiologic state in human atrial fibrillation –  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung   Vorhofflimmern (VHF) ist das elektrographische Bild mehrerer simultaner Kreiserregungen in den Vorhöfen. Weder der natürliche\\u000a Verlauf von VHF noch die Effektivität therapeutischer Maßnahmen sind mit klinischen oder echokardiographischen Variablen vorhersagbar.¶???Im\\u000a Gegensatz dazu konnten verschiedene Untersuchungen einen Zusammenhang zwischen invasiv ermittelter atrialer Flimmerfrequenz\\u000a (atriale Zykluslänge) und VHF-Komplexität, klinischem Verhalten sowie Kardioversionserfolg feststellen. Die atriale Flimmerfrequenz\\u000a kann ebenfalls aus dem Oberflächen-EKG

A. Bollmann; H. U. Klein; H.-D. Esperer

2000-01-01

54

DEM integrity monitor experiment (DIME) flight test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses flight test results of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) integrity monitor. The DEM Integrity Monitor Experiment (DIME) was part of the NASA Synthetic Vision System (SVS) flight trials at Eagle-Vail, Colorado (EGE) in August/September, 2001. SVS provides pilots with either a Heads-down Display (HDD) or a Heads-up Display (HUD) containing aircraft state, guidance and navigation information, and a virtual depiction of the terrain as viewed 'from the cockpit'. SVS has the potential to improve flight safety by increasing the situational awareness (SA) in low to near zero-visibility conditions to a level of awareness similar to daytime clear-weather flying. This SA improvement not only enables low-visibility operations, but may also reduce the likelihood of Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). Because of the compelling nature of SVS displays high integrity requirements may be imposed on the various databases used to generate the imagery on the displays even when the target SVS application does not require an essential or flight-critical integrity level. DIME utilized external sensors (WAAS and radar altimeter) to independently generate a 'synthesized' terrain profile. A statistical assessment of the consistency between the synthesized profile and the profile as stored in the DEM provided a fault-detection capability. The paper will discuss the basic DIME principles and will show the DIME performance for a variety of approaches to Runways 7 and 25 at EGE. The monitored DEMs are DTED Level 0, USGS with a 3-arcsec spatial resolution, and a DEM provided by NASA Langley. The test aircraft was a Boeing 757-200.

Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Young, Steve D.; Sayre, Jonathon; Campbell, Jacob; Vadlamani, Ananth

2002-07-01

55

Das Zusammenleben des Menschen mit dem Braunbären (Ursus arctos) in den Westkarpaten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Im Jahr 1932, als mit dem ganzjährigen Schutz der Bären in den Westkarpaten begonnen wurde, lebten von ihnen auf dem Gebiet der Slowakei nur noch etwa 20. Nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg waren es 50 bis 80, im Jahre 1967 um die 300 und in der Gegenwart schon um die 600 auf einer Fläche von ungefähr 1,13 Mill. ha Wald. Ab

P. Hell; F. Bevilaqua

1988-01-01

56

High Resolution DEM Derived from Thermal Infrared Images: Example of Aber Benoit (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intertidal DEM have a growing interest for ecological, geological and land development purposes. However, due to the characteristics of this environment, DEM are not easy to obtain and frequently not good enough in resolution to be interpreted. In this study, waterline method has been used to build a high-resolution DEM. This technique is basically based on the accurate localization of

Damien Gaudin; Christophe Delacourt; Pascal Allemand; Marion Jaud; Jérôme Ammann; Chantal Tisseau; Véronique Cuq

2009-01-01

57

Constructing DEM from characteristic terrain information using HASM method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the construction of DEM, terrain features (e.g. valleys or stream lines, ridges, peaks, saddle points) are important for improving DEM accuracy and saw many applications in hydrology, precision agriculture, military trajectory planning, etc. HASM (High Accuracy Surface Modeling) is a method for surface modeling, which is based on the theory of surface. Presently, HASM is only used for scattered point's interpolation. So the work in this paper attempts to construct DEM based on the characteristic terrain information as stream lines and scattered points by HASM method. The course is described as the following steps. Firstly TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) from the scattered points is generated. Secondly, each segment of the stream lines is well oriented to represent stream lines' flow direction, and a tree data structure (that has parent, children and brothers) is used to represent the whole stream lines' segments. A segment is a curve which does not intersect with other segments. A Water Course Flow (WCF) line is a set of segment lines connected piecewise but without overlapping or repetition, from the most upper reaches to the most lower reaches. From the stream lines' tree data structure, all the possible WCF lines are enumerated, and the start point and end point of each WCF lines is predicted from searching among the TIN. Thirdly, given a cell size, a 2-D matrix for the research region is built, and the values of the cells who were traversed by the stream lines by linear interpolation among each WCF lines. Fourthly, all the valued cells that were passed through by the stream line and that were from the scattered points are gathered as known scattered sampling points, and then HASM is used to construct the final DEM. A case study on the typical landform of plateau of China, KongTong gully of Dongzhi Plateau, Qingyang, Gausu province, is presented. The original data is manually vecterized from scanned maps 1:10,000, includes scattered points, stream lines, contour lines, precipitous cliff lines of a region of area about 4×5 square km. For simplicity only the former two kinds of data sources are used. By Comparing with the result from stream-line-constrained TIN and hydrologically correct DEM construction method Thin plate Spline (TPS, that is implemented as command TopoToRaster in ArcGIS 9.0 and later version)through visual inspection, HASM gets a more desirable DEM and more reasonable integration of information of the terrain features. Finally, some challenges and future research about HASM is also given.

Song, Dunjiang; Yue, Tianxiang; Du, Zhengping; Wang, Qingguo

2010-11-01

58

Reconstructing Stellar DEMs from X-ray Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature distribution of Emission Measure is a powerful tool to characterize and understand the composition and physical structure of stellar coronae. Numerous methods have been proposed in the literature to compute the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) based on line fluxes measured from identifiable lines in high-resolution EUV and X-ray spectra. Here we describe a new and powerful method that we have developed to reconstruct DEMs that improves significantly on previous algorithms and further allows for incorporating atomic data errors into the calculations. Some notable features of our algorithm are: an ability to fit to either a selected subset of lines with measured fluxes or to perform a global fit to all lines over the full wavelength range of the instrument, to fully incorporate line blends, to obtain error bars to determine the significance of features seen in the reconstructed DEM, and to directly incorporate prior information such as atomic line sequences, known atomic data errors, systematic effects due to calibration uncertainties, etc. We use highly structured models to account for the mixing of the ion/temperature specific spectra, the mixing of continuum photons with those from the multitude of spectral lines, instrumental response, the effective area of the instrument, and background contamination. We introduce the statistical framework of data augmentation (e.g., EM algorithms and MCMC samplers), in which we treat photon count in each level of the hierarchical structure as missing data. We implement a multi-scale (wavelet-like) prior distribution to smooth the DEM, which gives us the flexibility to overcome lack of information especially with low count data. In this talk we provide several simulation studies with both high-count and low-count data to evaluate the proposed method. We also provide several DEM reconstruction results of the active star alpha Aur (Capella), and validate the method by comparing our results to previous estimates of the Capella DEMs. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding for this project partially provided by NSF grant DMS-01-04129 and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 (Chandra X-ray Center).

Kang, H.; van Dyk, D.; Kashyap, V.; Connors, A.

2004-08-01

59

A comparative appraisal of hydrological behavior of SRTM DEM at catchment level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data has emerged as a global elevation data in the past one decade because of its free availability, homogeneity and consistent accuracy compared to other global elevation dataset. The present study explores the consistency in hydrological behavior of the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) with reference to easily available regional 20 m contour interpolated DEM (TOPO DEM). Analysis ranging from simple vertical accuracy assessment to hydrological simulation of the studied Maithon catchment, using empirical USLE model and semidistributed, physical SWAT model, were carried out. Moreover, terrain analysis involving hydrological indices was performed for comparative assessment of the SRTM DEM with respect to TOPO DEM. Results reveal that the vertical accuracy of SRTM DEM (±27.58 m) in the region is less than the specified standard (±16 m). Statistical analysis of hydrological indices such as topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length factor (SLF) and geometry number (GN) shows a significant differences in hydrological properties of the two studied DEMs. Estimation of soil erosion potentials of the catchment and conservation priorities of microwatersheds of the catchment using SRTM DEM and TOPO DEM produce considerably different results. Prediction of soil erosion potential using SRTM DEM is far higher than that obtained using TOPO DEM. Similarly, conservation priorities determined using the two DEMs are found to be agreed for only 34% of microwatersheds of the catchment. ArcSWAT simulation reveals that runoff predictions are less sensitive to selection of the two DEMs as compared to sediment yield prediction. The results obtained in the present study are vital to hydrological analysis as it helps understanding the hydrological behavior of the DEM without being influenced by the model structural as well as parameter uncertainty. It also reemphasized that SRTM DEM can be a valuable dataset for hydrological analysis provided any error/uncertainty therein is being properly evaluated and characterized.

Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, K. N.

2014-11-01

60

Development of parallel DEM for the open source code MFIX  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the development of a parallel Discrete Element Method (DEM) solver for the open source code, Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) based on the domain decomposition method. The performance of the code was evaluated by simulating a bubbling fluidized bed with 2.5 million particles. The DEM solver shows strong scalability up to 256 processors with an efficiency of 81%. Further, to analyze weak scaling, the static height of the fluidized bed was increased to hold 5 and 10 million particles. The results show that global communication cost increases with problem size while the computational cost remains constant. Further, the effects of static bed height on the bubble hydrodynamics and mixing characteristics are analyzed.

Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Tafti, Danesh

2013-02-01

61

DEM Simulation of Rotational Disruption of Rubble-Pile Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our study of rotation induced disruption of a self-gravitating granular aggregate by using a Discrete Element Method (DEM) granular dynamics code, a class of simulation commonly used in the granular mechanics community. Specifically, we simulate the behavior of a computer simulated asteroid when subjected to an array of rotation rates that cross its disruption limit. The code used to carry out these studies implements a Soft-sphere DEM method as applied for granular systems. In addition a novel algorithm to calculate self-gravitating forces which makes use of the DEM static grid has been developed and implemented in the code. By using a DEM code, it is possible to model a poly-disperse aggregate with a specified size distribution power law, incorporate contact forces such as dry cohesion and friction, and compute internal stresses within the gravitational aggregate. This approach to the modeling of gravitational aggregates is complementary to and distinctly different than other approaches reported in the literature. The simulations use both 2D and 3D modeling for analysis. One aim of this work is to understand the basic processes and dynamics of aggregates during the disruption process. We have used these simulations to understand how to form a contact binary that mimics observed asteroid shapes, how to accelerate the rotation rate of the aggregate so that it has enough time to reshape and find a stable configuration and how to analyze a system that has an occasionally changing shape. From a more physical point of view, we have focused on the understanding of the dynamics of the reshaping process, the evolution of internal stresses during this reshaping and finding the critical disruption angular velocity. This research was supported by a grant from NASA's PG&G Program: NNX10AJ66G

Sanchez, Paul; Scheeres, D. J.

2010-10-01

62

BOREAS Regional DEM in Raster Format and AEAC Projection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This data set is based on the GTOPO30 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) produced by the United States Geological Survey EROS Data Center (USGS EDC). The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region (1,000 km x 1000 km) was extracted from the GTOPO30 data and reprojected by BOREAS staff into the Albers Equal-Area Conic (AEAC) projection. The pixel size of these data is 1 km. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

Knapp, David; Verdin, Kristine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

63

Efficient parallel CFD-DEM simulations using OpenMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes parallelization strategies for the Discrete Element Method (DEM) used for simulating dense particulate systems coupled to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). While the field equations of CFD are best parallelized by spatial domain decomposition techniques, the N-body particulate phase is best parallelized over the number of particles. When the two are coupled together, both modes are needed for efficient parallelization. It is shown that under these requirements, OpenMP thread based parallelization has advantages over MPI processes. Two representative examples, fairly typical of dense fluid-particulate systems are investigated, including the validation of the DEM-CFD and thermal-DEM implementation with experiments. Fluidized bed calculations are performed on beds with uniform particle loading, parallelized with MPI and OpenMP. It is shown that as the number of processing cores and the number of particles increase, the communication overhead of building ghost particle lists at processor boundaries dominates time to solution, and OpenMP which does not require this step is about twice as fast as MPI. In rotary kiln heat transfer calculations, which are characterized by spatially non-uniform particle distributions, the low overhead of switching the parallelization mode in OpenMP eliminates the load imbalances, but introduces increased overheads in fetching non-local data. In spite of this, it is shown that OpenMP is between 50-90% faster than MPI.

Amritkar, Amit; Deb, Surya; Tafti, Danesh

2014-01-01

64

A NEW INSAR DERIVED DEM OF BLACK RAPIDS GLACIER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a new digital elevation model representing the 1995 surface of surge-type Black Rapids Glacier and the surrounding central Alaska Range, using ERS-1/2 repeat-pass interferometry. First, we isolated the topographic phase from three interferograms with contrasting perpendicular baselines. Next we attempted to automatically unwrap this topographic phase but encountered numerous errors due to the terrain containing areas of poor coherence from fringe aliasing, radar layover or shadow. We then consistently corrected these persistent phase-unwrapping errors in all three interferograms using an iterative semi-automated approach that capitalizes on the multi-baseline nature of the data set. Over the surface of Black Rapids Glacier, the accuracy of the new DEM is estimated at better than +/- 12 m. Ground-surveyed spot elevations from 1995 corroborate this accuracy estimate. Comparison of the new DEM with a 1951 U.S. Geological Survey topographic map, and with ground survey data from other years, shows the gradual return of Black Rapids Glacier to pre-surge conditions. In the 44-year period between 1951 and 1995 the observed average steepening of the longitudinal profile is ~0.6°. The maximum elevation changes in the ablation and accumulation zones are -256 m and +75 m, respectively, suggesting corresponding average rates of elevation change of about -5.8 m/yr and +1.7 m/yr. These rates are 1.5-2 times higher than those indicated by the ground survey spot elevation measurements over the period 1975 to 2005. Considering the significant overlap of the two periods of measurement, the inferred average rates for 1951-1975 would have to be very large (-7.5 m/yr and +2.3 m/yr, respectively) for these two findings to be consistent. A second comparison with the recently released ASTER G-DEM (data from 2001) led to no glaciologically usable results due to major artifacts in the ASTER G-DEM. We therefore conclude that the 1951 U.S. Geological Survey map and the ASTER G-DEM both appear biased over the Black Rapids Glacier surface and caution is advised when using either for quantitative estimates of elevation change over the glacier surface.

Shugar, D. H.; Rabus, B.; Clague, J. J.

2009-12-01

65

Effect of DEM mesh size on AnnAGNPS simulation and slope correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the impact of the mesh size of the digital elevation model (DEM) on terrain attributes\\u000a within an Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source pollution (AnnAGNPS) Model simulation at watershed scale and provide a correction\\u000a of slope gradient for low resolution DEMs. The effect of different grid sizes of DEMs on terrain attributes was examined

Xiaoyan Wang; Q. Lin

2011-01-01

66

Untersuchungen über Wachstumserscheinungen von Proteus vulgaris Hauser unter dem Einfluß hoher Penicillinkonzentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Unter dem Einfluß von Penicillin bildet Bacterium vulgare (Proteus vulgaris) in einer einfachen serumfreien Nährlösung Kugelzellen, die in ihrer Gestalt von der Normalform der Bakterienzelle stark abweichen, aber in ihrer Entstehung und im Erscheinungsbild dem L-Phasenwachstum sehr ähneln.2.Phasenkontrastmikroskopische Untersuchungen ergaben, daß die beobachteten Formen sich vom L-Phasenwachstum durch den Besitz von wahrscheinlich zwei Membranen unterscheiden.3.Lebendzellzählungen und Trübungsmessungen führten zu dem

F. Radler; A. Rippel-Baldes

1956-01-01

67

Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, mn pixels,  

E-print Network

Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, mÃ?n pixels, containing a particular solar feature, for t = 1, 2, . . . , T. btM sianFieldRandomGaus I M I I bbb T t bbtt bbb bb 2 1 2 )( #12;Solar DEM.bI : the measure error of the ith row and jth column pixel of the certain image in color band b. ijbe #12;Solar DEM

Wolfe, Patrick J.

68

A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

Foxgrover, Amy C., Barnard, Patrick L.

2012-01-01

69

Improving Cartosat-1 DEM accuracy using synthetic stereo pair and triplet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartosat-1 is the first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite capable of providing along-track stereo images. Cartosat-1 provides forward stereo images with look angles +26° and -5° with respect to nadir for generating Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), Orthoimages and value added products for various applications. A pitch bias of -21° to the satellite resulted in giving reverse tilt mode stereo pair with look angles of +5° and -26° with respect to nadir. This paper compares DEMs generated using forward, reverse and other possible synthetic stereo pairs for two different types of topographies. Stereo triplet was used to generate DEM for Himalayan mountain topography to overcome the problem of occlusions. For flat to undulating topography it was shown that using Cartosat-1 synthetic stereo pair with look angles of -26° and +26° will produce improved version of DEM. Planimetric and height accuracy (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) of less than 2.5 m and 2.95 m respectively were obtained and qualitative analysis shows finer details in comparison with other DEMs. For rugged terrain and steep slopes of Himalayan mountain topography simple stereo pairs may not provide reliable accuracies in DEMs due to occlusions and shadows. Stereo triplet from Cartosat-1 was used to generate DEM for mountainous topography. This DEM shows better reconstruction of elevation model even at occluded region when compared with simple stereo pair based DEM. Planimetric and height accuracy (RMSE) of nearly 3 m were obtained and qualitative analysis shows reduction of outliers at occluded region.

Giribabu, D.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

2013-03-01

70

Near-automatic generation of lava dome DEMs from photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) of growing lava domes is critical for hazard assessment. However, most techniques require expertise and time (e.g. photogrammetry) or expensive equipment (e.g. laser scanning and radar-based techniques). Here, we use a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community that offers the potential for near-automatic DEM construction using a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. The technique is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/ staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit scaling or full georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or knowledge of scale within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Here we demonstrate the results of using the technique for deriving 3D models of the Volcán de Colima lava dome. 5 image sets have been collected by different people over a period of 12 months during overflights in a light aircraft. Although the resulting imagery is of variable quality for 3D reconstruction, useful data can be extracted from each set. Scaling and georeferencing is carried out using a combination of ortho-imagery (downloaded from Bing) and a few GPS points. Overall precisions are ~1 m and DEM qualities are sufficient to quantify dome loss and talus gain from small rockfall sites, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome as it collapses.

James, M. R.; Varley, N.

2012-04-01

71

TanDEM-X Mission: Overview and Evaluation of intermediate Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Aerospace Center (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) currently conducts the bistatic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Mission TanDEM-X, which shall result in a DEM of global coverage in an unprecedented resolution and accuracy according to DTED level 3 standard. The mission is based on the two SAR satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X that have been launched in June 2007 and 2010, respectively. After the commissioning phase of TanDEM satellite and the orbital adjustment the bistatic image acquisition in close formation began end of 2010. The data collection for the mission is scheduled to last about three years, i.e., the bigger part of the required data have been already gathered. Based on this data DLR will conduct several processing steps in order to come up finally with a global and seamless DEM of the Earth's landmass which shall meet the envisaged specifications. Since the entire mission is an endeavor in the framework of a private-public-partnership, the private partner, Astrium, will eventually commercialize the DEM product. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the data collection and the deliverables that will come along with TanDEM-X mission. Furthermore, we will analyze a DEM derived from early stage immediate products of the mission.

Soergel, U.; Jacobsen, K.; Schack, L.

2013-10-01

72

The effects of DEM resolution and neighborhood size on digital soil survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrain characteristics, such as slope gradient, slope aspect, profile curvature, contour curvature computed from digital elevation model (DEM), are among the key inputs to digital soil surveys based on geographic information systems (GIS). These terrain attributes are computed over a neighborhood (spatial extent). The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effect of DEM resolution and neighborhood size

Michael P. Smith; A-Xing Zhu; James E. Burt; Cynthia Stiles

2006-01-01

73

DEM resolution effects on shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse the effects of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution on the results of a model that simulates spatially explicit relative shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution patterns and quantities. We analyse distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative hazard for shallow landsliding for four different DEM resolutions (grid sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100

L. F. G. Claessens; G. B. M. Heuvelink; J. M. Schoorl; A. Veldkamp

2005-01-01

74

Solar DEM Model Proposal : A solar image in color band b, mn pixels,  

E-print Network

Solar DEM Model Proposal : A solar image in color band b, m�n pixels, containing a particular solar 11 )( #12;Solar DEM Model Proposal : the volume (abundance?) of ion ii : the proportion of the total volume at temperature t t T t bitt I i ib MIE 11 )( #12;Solar Dataset · 15 Filters.txt files

Wolfe, Patrick J.

75

Unterschiede in Größe und Form der Griffelbeine ( Ossa metacarpalia II und V) und der Vorderfußwurzel (Os carpale primum, Os carpale secundum et tertium) zwischen dem Rothirsch ( Cervus elaphus Linné 1758) und Damhirsch ( Dama dama dama Linné 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Von 48 Stück Rotwild und 12 Stück Damwild wurden die Griffelbeine sowie die distalen Carpalknochen exakt vermessen. Dabei zeigte sich, daß die Griffelbeine immer nur an den Vorderläufen zu beobachten waren. Die medialen Griffelbeine waren stets länger als die lateralen mit Ausnahme von 4 Stück männlichen Rotwildes. Das Os carpale primum fand sich bei allen untersuchten Tieren; bei jungen Kälbern

W. Dondorf; Beerfelden; W. Hofmann

1984-01-01

76

First 2 years of TanDEM-X mission: Interferometric performance overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement (TanDEM-X) mission comprises two nearly identical satellites: TerraSAR-X (TSX, launched in June 2007), and TanDEM-X (TDX, launched in June 2010), which form an innovative and flexible single-pass radar interferometer. The primary objective of the mission is to generate a worldwide and consistent digital elevation model (DEM) with an unprecedented accuracy. After a calibration phase of the TDX satellite, which was performed during the first 3 months after its launch, the two satellites were brought into close formation to begin the bistatic commissioning phase. Then, in December 2010, TanDEM-X started the operational global DEM acquisition in bistatic configuration. During the last 2 years, dedicated analyses on test acquisitions as well as persistent monitoring of the interferometric performance have been carried out, which are the subject of this paper. Key quantities in estimating interferometric performance such as coherence, relative height error, and phase-unwrapping indicators are investigated, showing the outstanding capabilities of TanDEM-X. Then, the main focus is shifted to those critical areas which, for various reasons, have shown unsatisfactory data quality and therefore must be reacquired with optimized imaging geometries in order to fulfill the DEM accuracy requirements. Promising results have been obtained so far, and future strategies to handle the critical data are discussed. This paper will present an overview of the interferometric performance of TanDEM-X, based on investigations performed in the first 2 years of mission operation, and will include results from the bistatic commissioning phase until the end of the first global DEM acquisition.

Martone, Michele; Rizzoli, Paola; Bräutigam, Benjamin; Krieger, Gerhard

2013-09-01

77

SRTM DEM levels over papyrus swamp vegetation - a correction approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SRTM DEM, a digital elevation model based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of February 2000 is a source of elevation data with nearly worldwide coverage. It has proven its usefulness in various regions but problems persist for densely vegetated areas where, caused by the organic matter and water content of the vegetation, the radar signal is reflected at some level between the vegetation canopy and the ground level. This level varies with different types and densities of vegetation cover and has so far not been assessed for papyrus areas. The paper describes the approach and establishment of a correction factor for a pilot area in the Sudd swamps of southern Sudan based on comparison of SRTM reference levels and ground control points collected during field surveys between 2004 and 2006. Results show a correction factor between the sensed and the real surface of 4.66 m and a average penetration depth of the radar signal into the dense papyrus vegetation of 0.34 m.

Petersen, G.; Lebed, I.; Fohrer, N.

2009-08-01

78

SPH-DEM simulations of grain dispersion by liquid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dispersion of an initially packed, static granular bed by the injection of a liquid jet. This is a relevant system for many industrial applications, including paint dispersion or food powder dissolution. Both decompaction and dispersion of the powder are not fully understood, leading to inefficiencies in these processes. Here we consider a model problem where the liquid jet is injected below a granular bed contained in a cylindrical cell. Two different initial conditions are considered: a two-phase case where the bed is initially fully immersed in the liquid and a three-phase case where the bed and cell are completely dry preceding the injection of the liquid. The focus of this contribution is the simulation of these model problems using a two-way coupled SPH-DEM granularliquid method [M. Robinson, M. Ramaioli, and S. Luding, submitted (2013) and http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0752 (2013)]. This is a purely particle-based method without any prescribed mesh, well suited for this and other problems involving a free (liquidgas) surface and a partly immersed particle phase. Our simulations show the effect of process parameters such as injection flow rate and injection diameter on the dispersion pattern, namely whether the granular bed is impregnated bottom-up or a jet is formed and compare well with experiments.

Robinson, Martin; Luding, Stefan; Ramaioli, Marco

2013-06-01

79

Morphological changes at Mt. Etna detected by TanDEM-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produced a DEM of the Mt. Etna volcano using TanDEM-X data collected on October 9, 2012. The TanDEM-X data were acquired in bistatic mode with TSX as master sensor and TDX as receive only sensor. The pre-existing SRTM DEM was used for geometrical reference (geocoding, initial height model, large scale reference). The interferogram was computed with 4 looks in range and 4 looks in azimuth. After compensation of the SRTM heights, the differential TanDEM-X interferogram looked overall quite flat but showed local deviations related to noise (e.g. over the sea), topographic effects related to the low resolution of the SRTM DEM, and deviations related to actual changes of the topography, as observed in the Mount Etna peak region. After phase unwrapping, addressed with a minimum-cost flow algorithm and slight spatial filtering, the unwrapped phases were converted to relative heights. In order to move to absolute heights the SRTM height reference was used under the assumption that the deviation from the SRTM DEM is zero at large scale and without any linear trend. Finally, the height model was resampled into geographical coordinates. In the framework of the MED-SUV project, and thanks to the availability of a dense GPS network of more than 100 benchmarks periodically measured by INGV_OE, the TanDEM-X model has been validated. By computing the difference of the elevations provided by TanDEM-X with those measured by GPS we obtained a mean difference of 0.7 m and a standard deviation of 5.2 m. These values are biased by a few GPS benchmarks located in steep areas unfavorable illuminated by the radar. Without considerations of the two more unfavorable GPS stations, the height mean difference and a standard deviation are 0.6 m and 4.3 m respectively. We also performed correlation analyses of the height differences with respect to topography, latitude and longitude and we could exclude any elevation-related errors or geometrical ramp distortions. In the following, we compared the 2012 TanDEM-X model with the 2000 SRTM DEM in order to evaluate the morphological changes occurred on the volcano during the 12 years time lap. The pixel size of SRTM-DEM is about 90 m and we resampled the TanDEM-X model to fit this value. The results show that most of the variations occurred in the Valle del Bove and on the summit crater areas. In order to compare DEMs with the same pixel size, we performed a further comparison with a 5m ground resolution optical DEM, produced in 2004 and covering only the summit area. The variations in topography have been compared with ground mapping surveys, confirming a good correlation with the spatial extension of the lava flows and of the pyroclastic deposits occurred on Mt. Etna in the last seven years. The comparison between the two DEM's (2004-2012) allows calculating the amount of volcanics emitted and to clearly monitoring the growth and development of the New South East Crater (NSEC). TanDEM-X is a useful tools to monitor volcanic area characterized by a quit frequent activity (a paroxysm every 5-10 days), such us Mt. Etna, especially if concentrated in areas not easily accessible.

Wegmuller, Urs; Bonforte, Alessandro; De Beni, Emanuela; Guglielmino, Francesco; Strozzi, Tazio

2014-05-01

80

Ecology and behavior of reintroduced Hawaiian Geese Von dem Fachbereich Biologie  

E-print Network

records and biometrics. Russel Naisbit was of invaluable assistance collecting behavioral data and TerryEcology and behavior of reintroduced Hawaiian Geese Von dem Fachbereich Biologie der Universität

Black, Jeff

81

DEM automatic extraction on Rio de Janeiro from WV2 stereo pair images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of three-dimensional data has become, for a lot of mapping applications, very important. DEM are applied for modelling purposes, i.e. the 3D city model generation, but principally for imagery orthorectification. In aerial photogrammetry is well known the suitable use of stereo imagery to produce an accurate DEM, but the limits of the process (cost, schedule of data collection, highly technical staff) and the new advanced digital image processing algorithms have open the work scenario to the remote sensing data. This research has wanted to investigate the possibility to obtain accurate DEMs by means of automatic terrain extraction algorithms implemented in Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) from stereoscopic remote sensing images collected by DigitalGlobe's WorldView-2 (WV2) satellite. The DEM of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and the correspondent digital orthoimages have been the results.

Malinverni, E. S.

2014-02-01

82

Leistungsentwicklung und Doping dargestellt an ausgewählten Beispielen.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit beschäftigt sich primär mit dem Zusammenhang von Leistungsentwicklungen und Doping im Sport. Als Methode zur Behandlung der Fragestellung wurde die Hermeneutik ausgewählt.… (more)

Windisch, Karl

2009-01-01

83

HELI-DEM portal for geo-processing services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HELI-DEM (Helvetia-Italy Digital Elevation Model) is a project developed in the framework of Italy/Switzerland Operational Programme for Trans-frontier Cooperation 2007-2013 whose major aim is to create a unified digital terrain model that includes the alpine and sub-alpine areas between Italy and Switzerland. The partners of the project are: Lombardy Region, Piedmont Region, Polytechnic of Milan, Polytechnic of Turin and Fondazione Politecnico from Italy; Institute of Earth Sciences (SUPSI) from Switzerland. The digital terrain model has been produced by integrating and validating the different elevation data available for the areas of interest, characterized by different reference frame, resolutions and accuracies: DHM at 25 m resolution from Swisstopo, DTM at 20 m resolution from Lombardy Region, DTM at 5 m resolution from Piedmont Region and DTM LiDAR PST-A at about 1 m resolution, that covers the main river bed areas and is produced by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Further results of the project are: the generation of a unique Italian Swiss geoid with an accuracy of few centimeters (Gilardoni et al. 2012); the establishment of a GNSS permanent network, prototype of a transnational positioning service; the development of a geo-portal, entirely based on open source technologies and open standards, which provides the cross-border DTM and offers some capabilities of analysis and processing through the Internet. With this talk, the authors want to present the main steps of the project with a focus on the HELI-DEM geo-portal development carried out by the Institute of Earth Sciences, which is the access point to the DTM outputted from the project. The portal, accessible at http://geoservice.ist.supsi.ch/helidem, is a demonstration of open source technologies combined for providing access to geospatial functionalities to wide non GIS expert public. In fact, the system is entirely developed using only Open Standards and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) both on the server side (services) and on the client side (interface). In addition to self developed code the system relies mainly on teh software GRASS 7 [1], ZOO-project [2], Geoserver [3] and OpenLayers [4] and the standards WMS [5], WCS [6] and WPS [7]. At the time of writing, the portal offers features like profiling, contour extraction, watershed delineation and analysis, derivatives calculation, data extraction, coordinate conversion but it is evolving and it is planned to extend to a series of environmental modeling that the IST developed in the past like dam break simulation, landslide run-out estimation and floods due to landslide impact in artificial basins. [1] Neteler M., Mitasova H., Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach. 3rd Ed. 406 pp, Springer, New York, 2008. [2] Fenoy G., Bozon N., Raghavan V., ZOO Project: The Open Wps Platform. Proceeding of 1st International Workshop on Pervasive Web Mapping, Geoprocessing and Services (WebMGS). Como, http://www.isprs.org/proceedings/XXXVIII/4-W13/ID_32.pdf, 26-27 agosto 2010. [3] Giannecchini S., Aime A., GeoServer, il server open source per la gestione interoperabile dei dati geospaziali. Atti 15a Conferenza Nazionale ASITA. Reggia di Colorno, 15-18 novembre 2011. [4] Perez A.S., OpenLayers Cookbook. Packt Publishing, 2012. ISBN 1849517843. [5] OGC, OpenGIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms, 2006. [6] OGC, OGC WCS 2.0 Interface Standard - Core, http://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=41437, 2010b. [7] OGC, OpenGIS Web Processing Service, http://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=24151, 2007.

Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Molinari, Monia

2014-05-01

84

ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM across all the GEOSS Societal Benefit areas was shown. The release of the global tiled research-grade DEM resulted in a significant increase in demand for ASTER elevation models, and increased awareness of related products. No cost access to these data has also promoted new applications of remotely sensed data, increasing their use across the full range of the GEOSS societal benefit areas. In addition, the simplified data access and greatly expanded pool of users resulted in a number of suggestions from researchers in many disciplines for possible enhancements to future versions of the ASTER GDEM. The broad distribution of the product can be directly attributed to the adoption of fundamental GEOSS data sharing principles, which are directed toward expanded access by minimizing time delay and cost, thus facilitating data use for education, research, and a range of other applications. The ASTER GDEM demonstrated the need and user demand for an improved global DEM product as well as the added benefit of not only “full and open” distribution, but “free and open” distribution.

Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

2010-12-01

85

Dementia-free life expectancy (DemFLE) in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain an insight into the burden of dementia in an aging society, life expectancy with dementia and its counterpart dementia-free life expectancy (DemFLE) in The Netherlands are presented. Sullivan's method was used to calculate DemFLE. For elderly living either independently or in homes for the elderly prevalence figures on dementia were obtained from the Rotterdam Elderly Study (RES; n

Rom J. M. Perenboom; Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Monique M. B. Breteler; Alewijn Ott; Harry P. A. Van de Water

1996-01-01

86

Histologie der Vena saphena magna unter dem Gesichtswinkel der Architektur-Pathologie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es lag in der Natur der mechanisch-funktionellen Priifungen der Vena saphena magna (V. s. m.) 1, dab bei jenen Untersuchungen nicht Einzelelemente eines Organs oder Organsystems -- bier des Venensystems zur Priifung dienten, sondern die Summe aller E]emente -- sowohl des Zellsystems als auch der Fasersys~eme. Wenn ieh weiterhin in dem genannten ersten Tell dieser Arbeit sehrieb, daB in dem

R. Neumann

1937-01-01

87

Monitoring lava dome changes by means of differential DEMs from TanDEM-X interferometry: Examples from Merapi, Indonesia and Volcán de Colima, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the amount of erupted material during a volcanic crisis is one of the major challenges in volcano research. One way to do this and to discriminate between juvenile and non-juvenile fraction is to assess topographic changes before and after an eruption while using area-wide 3D data. LiDAR or other airborne systems may be a good source, but the recording fails when clouds due to volcanic activity obstruct the sight. In addition, costs as well as logistics are high for local observatories. When dealing with dome-building volcanoes, acquiring the data gets further complicated. As the volcano dome can change rapidly in active phases, it is nearly impossible to collect data at the right time. However, when dealing with gross volume change estimates, at least two data sets - taken directly before and after the eruption - are essential. The innovative German Earth observation mission TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is of great importance to overcome some of these problems. The two almost identical radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X fly in a close formation, thus recording images of the same place on the Earth surface at the same time (bistatic mode). As the radar signal penetrates clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the area of investigation can be generated without problems even with cloud cover. A time series analysis of the differential DEMs therefore opens the possibility to assess volume changes at active lava domes. We choose Merapi in Indonesia and Volcán de Colima in Mexico as test sites. Both volcanoes reside in a state of long term effusive eruption, interrupted every few years by phases of dome destruction, generation of pyroclastic flows and deposition of volcanic material. The availability of extensive ground truth data for both test sites further enables to validate the spaceborne data and results. Here, we analyze lava dome changes due to the hazardous Merapi 2010 eruption. We show a series of DEMs derived by TanDEM-X interferometry taken before and after the eruption. Our results reveal that the eruption had led to a topographic change of up to 200 m in the summit area of Merapi. We further show the ability of the TanDEM-X data to observe much smaller topographic changes using Volcán de Colima as second test site. An explosion at the crater rim signaled the end of magma ascent in June 2011. The bistatic TanDEM-X data give important information on this explosion as we can observe topographic changes of up to 20 m and less in the summit area when comparing datasets taken before and after the event. We further analyzed datasets from the beginning of the year 2013 when Colima got active again after a dormant period. Our results indicate that repeated DEMs with great detail and good accuracy are obtainable, enabling a quantitative estimation of volume changes in the summit area of the volcano. As the TanDEM-X mission is an innovative mission, the present study serves as a test to employ data of a new satellite mission in volcano research. An error analysis of the DEMs to evaluate the volume quantifications was therefore also conducted.

Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

2013-12-01

88

Coastal DEMs integrate seafloor bathymetry and land topography to depict Earth's solid surface, and help us better understand a variety of ocean processes.  

E-print Network

Sheet What is a coastal DEM? A coastal DEM depicts Earth's land surface and ocean bottom. It is madeCoastal DEMs integrate seafloor bathymetry and land topography to depict Earth's solid surface, and help us better understand a variety of ocean processes. Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Fact

89

Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land Processes DAAC This presentation covers the issues associated with the release of this very popular product, including issues raised by many of our users.

Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

2009-12-01

90

Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

1990-05-01

91

TecDEM: A MATLAB Based Toolbox for understanding Tectonics from Digital Elevation Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TecDEM is a MATLAB based tool box for understanding the tectonics from digital elevation models (DEMs) of any area. These DEMs can be derived from data of any spatial resolution (Low, medium and High). In the first step we extract drainage network from the DEMs using flow grid approach. Drainage network is a group of streams having elevation and catchment area information as a function of spatial locations. We implement an array of stream structure to study this drainage network. Knickpoints can be identified on each stream of the drainage network by a graphical user interface and are helpful for understanding stream morphology. Stream profile analysis in steady state condition is applied on all streams to calculate geomorphic parameters and regional uplift rates. Hack index is calculated for all the profiles at a certain interval and over the change of knickpoints. Reports menu of this tool box generates detailed statistics report, complete tabulated report, graphical output of each analyzed stream profile and Hack index profile. All the calculated values are part of stream structure and is saved as .mat file for later use with this tool box. The spatial distribution of geomorphic parameters, uplift rates and knickpoints are exported as a shape files for visualization in professional GIS software. We test this tool box on DEMs from different tectonic settings worldwide and received verifiable results with other studies.

Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S. A.; Gloaguen, R.

2009-04-01

92

An effective depression filling algorithm for DEM-based 2-dimensional surface flow modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface runoff process in fluvial/pluvial flood modelling is often simulated employing a two-dimensional (2-D) diffusive wave approximation to described by grid based digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a serious problem of this approach may arise when using a 2-D surface flow model which exchanges flows through adjacent cells, or conventional rink removal algorithms which also allow flow to be exchanged along diagonal directions, due to the existence of artificial depression in DEMs. This study firstly analyses the two types of depressions in DEMs and reviews the current depression filling algorithms with a medium sized basin in South-East England, the Upper Medway Catchment (220 km2) used to demonstrate the depression issue in 2-D surface runoff simulation by MIKE SHE with different DEM resolutions (50 m, 100 m and 200 m). An alternative depression-filling algorithm for 2-D overland flow modelling is developed and evaluated by comparing the simulated flows at the outlet of the catchment. This result suggests that the depression estimates at different grid resolution of DEM highly influences overland flow estimation and the new depression filling algorithm is shown to be effective in tackling this issue when comparing simulations in sink-dominated and sink-free digital elevation models, especially for depressions in relatively flat areas on digital land surface models.

Zhu, D.; Ren, Q.; Xuan, Y.; Chen, Y.; Cluckie, I.

2012-09-01

93

Comparison of Low Altitude Photogrammetric Methods for Obtaining Dems and Orthoimages of Archaeological Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work it is performed a comparison of two methods for obtaining digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages of medium-sized archaeological sites (500-5000 m2). The photogrammetric methods analyzed consist in the use of a light aerial platform applying the normal case of photogrammetry (vertical photographs and regular blocks), and the second one is based on a network of oblique photographs, taken from a telescopic mast, using a DEM obtained from a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) survey. The main goal is to analyze the more efficient method for these studies taking into account variables such the working time, the accuracy obtained in the final products, the visual analysis of final orthoimages, etc. This study has been applied to the same archaeological site in two different epochs. The image acquisition was performed before and after a conservation intervention at the archaeological site. The results have shown similar characteristics for both products (DEMs and orthoimages) and accuracies but the density of DEMs and the visual analysis of orthoimages have shown differences that allows us to select the more adequate method taking into account the characteristics of each case. Thus the DEMs obtained using the TLS survey has shown more density of points while the visual analysis of orthoimages has shown a better behaviour (radiometrically and visually) in the case of vertical photographs.

Mozas-Calvache, A. T.; Pérez-García, J. L.; Cardernal-Escarcena, F. J.; Delgado, J.; Mata-deCastro, E.

2012-07-01

94

Analysis of Triterpenoid Resinous Materials by Direct Exposure Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DEMS): PCA Evaluation of Mass Spectral Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of triterpenic resinous materials (frankincense resin, mastic resin, dammar resin and birch bark pitch) was performed using direct exposure electron ionisation mass spectrometry (DE-MS). DE-MS provides a mass spectral fingerprint of organic materials in a few minutes which highlights the main components in the sample. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) on DE-MS data enabled us

F. Modugno; E. Ribechini; M. P. Colombini; M. Calderisi

95

A beginner's guide to stereo-derived DEM production and analysis using ISIS, ASP, and ArcMap  

E-print Network

A beginner's guide to stereo-derived DEM production and analysis using ISIS, ASP, and ArcMap v. 1 ............................................................................................................................5 2. Processing the images with ISIS

Rathbun, Julie A.

96

FEM × DEM modelling of cohesive granular materials: Numerical homogenisation and multi-scale simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents a multi-scale modelling approach of cohesive granular materials, its numerical implementation and its results. At microscopic level, Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to model dense grains packing. At the macroscopic level, the numerical solution is obtained by a Finite Element Method (FEM). In order to bridge the micro- and macro-scales, the concept of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) is applied, in which the average REV stress and the consistent tangent operators are obtained in each macroscopic integration point as the results of DEM's simulation. In this way, the numerical constitutive law is determined through the detailed modelling of the microstructure, taking into account the nature of granular materials. We first elaborate the principle of the computation homogenisation (FEM × DEM), then demonstrate the features of our multiscale computation in terms of a biaxial compression test. Macroscopic strain location is observed and discussed.

Nguyen, Trung Kien; Combe, Gaël; Caillerie, Denis; Desrues, Jacques

2014-10-01

97

Quality assessment of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in view of the Altiplano hydrological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topography is crucial data input for hydrological modeling but in many regions of the world, the only way to characterize topography is the use of satellite-based Digital Elevation Models (DEM). In some regions, the quality of these DEMs remains poor and induces modeling errors that may or not be compensated by model parameters tuning. In such regions, the evaluation of these data uncertainties is an important step in the modeling procedure. In this study, which focuses on the Altiplano region, we present the evaluation of the two freely available DEM. The shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM), a product of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Advanced Space Born Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Map (ASTER GDEM), data provided by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan (MESI) in collaboration with the NASA, are widely used. While the first represents a resolution of 3 arc seconds (90m) the latter is 1 arc second (30m). In order to select the most reliable DEM, we compared the DEM elevation with high qualities control points elevation. Because of its large spatial coverture (track spaced of 30 km with a measure of each 172 m) and its high vertical accuracy which is less than 15 cm in good weather conditions, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board on the Ice, Cloud and Land elevation Satellite of NASA (ICESat) represent the better solution to establish a high quality elevation database. After a quality check, more than 150 000 ICESat/GLAS measurements are suitable in terms of accuracy for the Altiplano watershed. This data base has been used to evaluate the vertical accuracy for each DEM. Regarding to the full spatial coverture; the comparison has been done for both, all kind of land coverture, range altitude and mean slope.

Satgé, F.; Arsen, A.; Bonnet, M.; Timouk, F.; Calmant, S.; Pilco, R.; Molina, J.; Lavado, W.; Crétaux, J.; HASM

2013-05-01

98

Morphometry and parameter assessment of scoria cones fields: a DEM-based morphometric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cinder cones are relatively small but common volcanic features that form by the eruption of low-viscosity, generally basaltic magma during strombolian or hawaiian eruptions. Often they appear in volcanic fields, providing geomorphic evidence of a particular eruptive behaviour. Also, when a big number of scoria cones are scattered over a large area, it means that there the magma can find several different ways to reach the Earth's surface. These facts as well as the time-space distribution of the cones have important implications toward the understanding of local geological settings, and have substantial inferences for hazard assessment. The recent availability of freely downloadable topographic data increases the efficiency and precision of the collection of morphometric parameters of scoria cones. Various digital elevation models (DEMs) at different resolution can nowadays be found on the internet: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEMs (SRTM; http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm); the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM; http://www.gdem.aster.ersdac.or.jp); the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED; http://seamless.usgs.gov); TINITALY DEMs (http://kharita.rm.ingv.it); etc. Measurements of scoria cone characteristics using DEMs engage errors that are dependent on the DEM resolution and accuracy. The SRTM DEM was discarded because of the too low resolution. Obviously, the errors involved in scoria cone morphometry are also dependent on the cone dimensions. In this work we measured the discrepancies of the widely used morphometric parameters (V, H,Wco, and H/Wco) between DEMs from different sources (LIDAR = 2 m, TINITALY = 10 m, NED ~ 10 m, ASTER ~ 30 m) as a function of scoria cone volume, in order to assess the precision of these free available DEMs. As a result, we identified cone volume values, depending on resolution, beyond which the morphometric and volumetric measurements are reliable. Based on this assessment, scoria cones have been selected having well defined circular boundaries, no breaching, and being separated from the surrounding terrain by an abrupt change in slope. Using the created data base, cone height (Hco), cone width or basal diameter (Wco), and cone volume (V) have been calculated and compared for hundreds of cones, belonging to 32 cone field disseminated over the world. Some of the studied fields are well known, but for most of them we provide the first systematic results of scoria cone morphometry.

Fornaciai, Alessandro; Karátson, Dávid; Favalli, Massimiliano; Tarquini, Simone

2010-05-01

99

How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when there are areas of internal drainage nearby.

Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

2014-02-01

100

Basic study on uncertainty related to failure phenomenon by MPS method or DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MPS (Moving Particle Semi-implicit) method or DEM (Discrete Element Method) is useful to simulate strong nonlinear phenomenon like slope failure. The calculated result, however, is often affected by very small difference of model or material property, even difference of computation environment. It is shown that the variation of the response does not depend on the variation of model stiffness when the nonlinearity is strong, through numerical simulation of slope failure by MPS. It is also shown that the distribution of moving distance of falling rock does not affected by variation of initial position in DEM simulation though the individual response is highly sensitive to the position.

Yoshida, Ikumasa; Ohba, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Makoto

101

Time series analysis of the relationship between private consumer expenditure and disposable personal income for the case of Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Verfahren der Zeitreihenanalyse zur Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Konsum und Einkommen herangezogen. In der theoretischen Literatur wird die Existenz eines derartigen Zusammenhangs ja seit Jahrzehnten unterstellt. Die empirische Verifikation dieser evidenten Kausalbeziehung hat sich jedoch als sehr schwierig herausgestellt. Vor allem die Prognosefähigkeit der zahlreich geschätzten Regressionsgleichungen läßt zu wünschen übrig. Dies dürfte darauf zurückgehen,

Gerhard Thury

1980-01-01

102

Influence of Lossy Compressed DEM on Radiometric Correction for Land Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World coverage Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have progressively increased their spatial resolution (e.g., ETOPO, SRTM, or Aster GDEM) and, consequently, their storage requirements. On the other hand, lossy data compression facilitates accessing, sharing and transmitting large spatial datasets in environments with limited storage. However, since lossy compression modifies the original information, rigorous studies are needed to understand its effects and consequences. The present work analyzes the influence of DEM quality -modified by lossy compression-, on the radiometric correction of remote sensing imagery, and the eventual propagation of the uncertainty in the resulting land cover classification. Radiometric correction is usually composed of two parts: atmospheric correction and topographical correction. For topographical correction, DEM provides the altimetry information that allows modeling the incidence radiation on terrain surface (cast shadows, self shadows, etc). To quantify the effects of the DEM lossy compression on the radiometric correction, we use radiometrically corrected images for classification purposes, and compare the accuracy of two standard coding techniques for a wide range of compression ratios. The DEM has been obtained by resampling the DEM v.2 of Catalonia (ICC), originally having 15 m resolution, to the Landsat TM resolution. The Aster DEM has been used to fill the gaps beyond the administrative limits of Catalonia. The DEM has been lossy compressed with two coding standards at compression ratios 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 and 200:1. The employed coding standards have been JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC; the former is an international ISO/ITU-T standard for almost any type of images, while the latter is a recommendation of the CCSDS consortium for mono-component remote sensing images. Both techniques are wavelet-based followed by an entropy-coding stage. Also, for large compression ratios, both techniques need a post processing for correctly delimiting coastline, avoiding the confusion between elevation and no-data values. Six (from March 2005 to May 2007) geometrically corrected Landsat-5 images on the path-row 197-031 have been used. The six optical bands and the NDVI for each date have been introduced in a powerful hybrid classification process. The training areas and the ground truth have been obtained from the Mapa de Cobertes del Sòl de Catalunya (v. 3), a land cover map created by photointerpretation of 0.5 m orthophotomaps acquired between 2005 and 2007 and covering all the extension of Catalonia. The legend has been reduced from 233 categories to 21. Preliminary results have shown that the effect on land cover classification of applying lossy compression to the DEM used in the radiometric correction is small (lower than 1%) even for compression ratios up to 200:1. Comparing classification performance after a compression of 5:1 and and a compression of 200:1 with both coding standards showed that: a) the percentage of correctly classified image was 73%; b) 20% was wrongly classified; c) 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 5:1; and d) also 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 200:1. These results are the first in the literature to analyze the effect of DEM lossy compressing when DEM are employed for radiometric correction.

Moré, G.; Pesquer, L.; Blanes, I.; Serra-Sagristà, J.; Pons, X.

2012-12-01

103

DEM simulation of industrial particle flows: case studies of dragline excavators, mixing in tumblers and centrifugal mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete element methods (DEM) are now sufficiently well developed to plausibly model industrial and mining related particle flows. Three cases studies of such DEM simulations are presented here; dragline excavators, mixing in tumblers and charge motion in centrifugal mills. They show the breadth of application now possible and the types of predictions that can be made for each. More importantly,

Paul W. Cleary

2000-01-01

104

Determination of coalescence kernels for high-shear granulation using DEM simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete element method (DEM) modeling is used in parallel with a model for coalescence of deformable surface wet granules. This produces a method capable of predicting both collision rates and coalescence efficiencies for use in derivation of an overall coalescence kernel. These coalescence kernels can then be used in computationally efficient meso-scale models such as population balance equation (PBE) models.

Justin A. Gantt; Ian T. Cameron; James D. Litster; Edward P. Gatzke

2006-01-01

105

Nach dem Urteil: Diskussion um Studiengebhren Die Zukunft lernt im Kindergarten ......... S.3  

E-print Network

Nach dem Urteil: Diskussion um Studiengebühren Die Zukunft lernt im Kindergarten ......... S.3.uni-potsdam.de/portal/apr05/uniaktuell Portal 4-6/05 Die Zukunft lernt im Kindergarten Kinderlabor an der Universität Potsdam im Kindergarten zu den wichtigsten Lernphasen gehören. Denn im dritten, vierten und fünften

Potsdam, Universität

106

Diffusion-Based Coarse Graining in Hybrid Continuum--Discrete Solvers: Applications in CFD--DEM  

E-print Network

In this work, a coarse graining method previously proposed by the authors based on solving diffusion equations is applied to CFD--DEM simulations, where coarse graining is used to obtain solid volume fraction, particle phase velocity, and fluid--particle interaction forces. By examining the conservation requirements, the variables to solve diffusion equations for in CFD--DEM simulations are identified. The algorithm is then implemented to a CFD--DEM solver based on OpenFOAM and LAMMPS, the former being a general-purpose, three-dimensional CFD solver based on unstructured meshes. Numerical simulations are performed for a fluidized bed by using the CFD--DEM solver with the diffusion-based coarse graining algorithm. Converged results are obtained on successively refined meshes, even for meshes with cell sizes comparable to or smaller than the particle diameter. This is a critical advantage of the proposed method over many existing coarse graining methods, and would be particularly valuable when small cells are r...

Sun, Rui

2014-01-01

107

A High-Speed Delta-Sigma Modulator with Relaxed DEM Timing Requirement  

E-print Network

presents a high-speed digital feed- forward Delta-Sigma Modulator which relaxes timing requirement accurate transfer functions and highly linear analog-to-digital conversion. However, the performanceA High-Speed Delta-Sigma Modulator with Relaxed DEM Timing Requirement Sunwoo Kwon and Un-Ku Moon

Moon, Un-Ku

108

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ILIAMNA VOLCANO, ALASKA, USING ASTER TIR, SRTM DEM, AND AEROMAGNETIC DATA  

E-print Network

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ILIAMNA VOLCANO, ALASKA, USING ASTER TIR, SRTM DEM and digital elevation models to create a hazard index that characterizes slope stability on active volcanoes. Introduction Volcano monitoring in the Aleutians is of great importance due to the heavy amount of airplane

109

A quick algorithm of counting flow accumulation matrix for deriving drainage networks from a DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized auto-extraction of drainage networks from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been widely used in hydrological modeling and relevant studies. Several essential procedures need to be implemented in eight-directional(D8) watershed delineation method, among which a problem need to be resolved is the lack of a high efficiency algorithm for quick and accurate computation of flow accumulation matrix involved in river network delineations. For the problem of depression filling, the algorithm presented by Oliver Planchon has resolved it. This study was aimed to develop a simple and quick algorithm for flow accumulation matrix computations. For this purpose, a simple and high efficiency algorithm of the time complexity of O(n) compared to the commonly used code of the time complexity of O(n2) orO(nlogn) , has been developed. Performance tests on this newly developed algorithm were conducted for different size of DEMs, and the results suggested that the algorithm has a linear time complexity with increasing sizes of DEM. The computation efficiency of this newly developed algorithm is many times higher than the commonly used code, and for a DEM of size 1000*1000, flow accumulation matrix computation can be completed within only several seconds compared with about few minutes needed by common used algorithms.

Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yonghe; Xie, Hongbo; Xiang, ZhongLin

2011-06-01

110

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA  

E-print Network

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA and Geology University of Nebraska ­ Omaha 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, NE 68182-0199, U.S.A. bishop, a volcano in the Andes of Chile/Bolivia, was developed from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

Bolch, Tobias

111

Challenges of simulating undrained tests using the constant volume method in DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefaction during earthquakes can cause significant infrastructural damage and loss of life, motivating a fundamental study of undrained sand response using discrete element modeling (DEM). Two methods are widely used in DEM for simulating the undrained response of soil. One approach is to numerically couple the DEM code with a fluid model. Alternatively, if the soil is fully saturated and water is assumed to be incompressible, the volume of the sample can be held constant to simulate an undrained test. The latter has the advantage of being computationally straightforward, but the assumption of a constant volume can cause some issues which are discussed in this paper. Depending on the contact model selected, extremely high deviatoric stresses and pore water pressures can be generated for dense samples using the constant volume approach which are not observed in corresponding laboratory tests. Furthermore the results of these constant volume simulations tend to be sensitive to the strain rate selected. The evolution of particle size distribution caused by grain crushing is also ignored in most undrained simulations. For these reasons, authors often restrict the extent of the data presented to physically-realistic ranges and report results in non-dimensional terms, e.g., using stress ratios (q/p') or stresses normalized by the initial confining pressure. This paper aims to highlight some of these issues, explore whether the constant volume approach is appropriate and make recommendations for future analysis of undrained soil behavior using DEM.

Hanley, Kevin J.; Huang, Xin; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Kwok, Fiona

2013-06-01

112

Landform analysis of slope movements using DEM in Higashikubiki area, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various numerical analyses using 25m-grid DEMs were compared with rasterized slope movement distribution maps and geological maps of the Higashikubiki area in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Slope movement distribution maps included five classes: “stable slope”, “landslide mass”, “landslide scarp”, “collapse scarp” and “crack”. Their statistical characteristics were clarified by numerical landform analyses for each lithology. Frequency distributions of slope angle were

Junko Iwahashi; Shiaki Watanabe; Takahiko Furuya

2001-01-01

113

90-METER DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM) FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the 90-meter digital elevation model (DEM) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using US Geological Su...

114

Die mit dem Roboter tanzen Seite 14 Eine Frau fr neue Materialien Seite 38  

E-print Network

Die mit dem Roboter tanzen Seite 14 Eine Frau für neue Materialien Seite 38 Doppelter Einsatz für die Geothermie Seite 40 Fokus IT-Security Sicher in die vernetzte Welt Seite 18 stay connected DasObEstayconnected Weltweitverfügbarin deutscherundenglischer Sprachemitder kostenloseniPad-App unterdiesemlink» Mediadaten2013 Daten2013

115

Preliminary assessment of SRTM X band DEMs of Southern Africa for hydrogeological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Table Mountain Group (TMG) Aquifer Feasibility Study and Pilot Project is a major hydrogeological project in the mountains fringing the eastern side of the Cape Town metropolitan area. An earlier study using a 30 m×30 m DEM demonstrated that the TMG topography is spatially and structurally well correlated with the patterns of fracture deformation, partly inherited from the break-up

A. Mlisa; C. Hartnady; M. R. Inggs

2003-01-01

116

Reconstructing Stellar DEMs from X-ray Spectra CHASC (California-Harvard AstroStatistics Collaboration)  

E-print Network

' & $ % Reconstructing Stellar DEMs from X-ray Spectra CHASC (California-Harvard Astro the composition and physical structure of stellar coronae. Numerous methods have been proposed in the literature information such as atomic line se- quences, known atomic data errors, systematic e#11;ects due to calibration

Wolfe, Patrick J.

117

A DEMS and cyclic voltammetry study of NH 3 oxidation on platinized platinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of ammonia on platinized platinum has been studied with cyclic voltammetry and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). These techniques show the surface to be highly covered with adsorbates during the selective oxidation of ammonia to N2 at potentials where platinum is free of oxides. These adsorbates are inactive in the formation of N2 and consist of NHx, probably

J. F. E. Gootzen; A. H. Wonders; WHM Visscher; R. A. van Santen; J. A. R. van Veen

1998-01-01

118

Improving Soil Salinity Prediction with High Resolution DEM Derived from LiDAR Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of integration of LiDAR derived terrain and hydrological features with other salinity related datasets to improve prediction of areas at risk from salinity in a catchment area in Victoria, Australia. Terrain and hydrological features including slope, drainage density and hilltop were generated from LiDAR derived DEM and a relative low

Xiaoye Liu; Jim Peterson; Zhenyu Zhang; Shobhit Chandra

2005-01-01

119

MULTIBIT QUADRATURE SIGMA-DELTA MODULATOR WITH DEM SCHEME Roberto Maurino*, Christos Papavassiliou**  

E-print Network

mismatch noise shaping method that can be used with this DEM scheme is introduced. 1. INTRODUCTION frequency at +Fs/4. The ideal shaped quantization noise has very little power (a deep notch) at +Fs/4 is equivalent to mixing with a cosine at a frequency Fs/2, which frequency shifts the mismatch introduced noise

Papavassiliou, Christos

120

Detailed geomorphological mapping from high resolution DEM data (LiDAR, TanDEM-X): two case studies from Germany and SE Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major obstacles are hampering the production of high resolution geomorphological maps: the complexity of the subject that should be depicted and the enormous efforts necessary to obtain data by field work. The first factor prevented the establishment of a generally accepted map legend; the second hampered efforts to collect comprehensive sets of geomorphological data. This left geomorphologists to produce applied maps, focusing on very few layers of information and often not sticking to any of the numerous standards proposed in the second half of the 20th century. Technological progress of the recent years, especially in the fields of digital elevation models, GIS environments, and computational hardware, today offers promising opportunities to overcome the obstacles and to produce detailed geomorphological maps even for remote or inhospitable regions. The feasibility of detailed geomorphological mapping from two new sets of digital elevation data, the 1 m LiDAR DTM provided by Germany's State Surveying Authority and the upcoming TanDEM-X DEM, has been evaluated in two case studies from a low mountain range in Germany and a high mountain range in SE Tibet. The results indicate that most layers of information of classical geomorphological maps (e.g. the German GMK) can be extracted from this data at appropriate scales but that significant differences occur concerning the quality and the grades of certainty of key contents. Generally, an enhancement of the geomorphographical, especially the geomorphometrical, and a weakening of geomorphogenetical contents was observed. From these findings, theoretical, methodological, and cartographical remarks on detailed geomorphological mapping from DEM data in GIS environments were educed. As GIS environments decouple data and design and enable the geomorphologist to choose information layer combinations freely to fit research topics, a general purpose legend becomes obsolete. Yet, a unified data structure is demanded to ensure that data collected by different scientists or in different studies can be exchanged and reused.

Loibl, D.

2012-04-01

121

Fusion of high-resolution DEMs derived from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X InSAR datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voids caused by shadow, layover, and decorrelation usually occur in digital elevation models (DEMs) of mountainous areas that are derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) datasets. The presence of voids degrades the quality and usability of the DEMs. Thus, void removal is considered as an integral part of the DEM production using InSAR data. The fusion of multiple DEMs has been widely recognized as a promising way for the void removal. Because the vertical accuracy of multiple DEMs can be different, the selection of optimum weights becomes a key problem in the fusion and is studied in this article. As a showcase, two high-resolution InSAR DEMs near Mt. Qilian in northwest China are created and then merged. The two pairs of InSAR data were acquired by TerraSAR-X from an ascending orbit and COSMO-SkyMed from a descending orbit. A maximum likelihood fusion scheme with the weights optimally determined by the height of ambiguity and the variance of phase noise is adopted to syncretize the two DEMs in our study. The fused DEM has a fine spatial resolution of 10 m and depicts the landform of the study area well. The percentage of void cells in the fused DEM is only 0.13 %, while 6.9 and 5.7 % of the cells in the COSMO-SkyMed DEM and the TerraSAR-X DEM are originally voids. Using the ICESat/GLAS elevation data and the Chinese national DEM of scale 1:50,000 as references, we evaluate vertical accuracy levels of the fused DEM as well as the original InSAR DEMs. The results show that substantial improvements could be achieved by DEM fusion after atmospheric phase screen removal. The quality of fused DEM can even meet the high-resolution terrain information (HRTI) standard.

Jiang, Houjun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yong; Liao, Mingsheng

2014-06-01

122

Warum Astrologie nicht funktionieren kann  

E-print Network

There exists many different versions of astrology that are different from each other and sometimes even in conflict with each other. But the basis of every astrological system is the assumption of a connection between the motion of celestial bodies and the fate of man. An analysis of the methods of astrology shows that - regardless of which special system is used - there exists no consistent basis that allows to deduce general and verifiable rules. An astrological analysis is therefore always arbitrary and meaningless. Astrology does not work. ----- Astrologie existiert in vielen verschiedenen Versionen die sich oft deutliche voneinander unterscheiden und sogar widersprechen. Allen gemeinsam ist aber die grundlegende Annahme eines Zusammenhangs zwischen der Bewegung der Himmelsk\\"orper und dem Schicksal der Menschen. Eine Analyse der astrologischen Methodik zeigt, dass sie - egal in welcher konkreten Auspr\\"agung - \\"uber keine in sich schl\\"ussige Grundlage verf\\"ugt, anhand der sich allgemeing\\"ultige und \\...

Freistetter, Florian

2011-01-01

123

DEM extraction and its accuracy analysis with ground-based SAR interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two altimetry models extracting DEM (Digital Elevation Model) with the GBSAR (Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology are studied and their accuracies are analyzed in detail. The approximate and improved altimetry models of GBSAR were derived from the spaceborne radar altimetry based on the principles of the GBSAR technology. The error caused by the parallel ray approximation in the approximate model was analyzed quantitatively, and the results show that the errors cannot be ignored for the ground-based radar system. For the improved altimetry model, the elevation error expression can be acquired by simulating and analyzing the error propagation coefficients of baseline length, wavelength, differential phase and range distance in the mathematical model. By analyzing the elevation error with the baseline and range distance, the results show that the improved altimetry model is suitable for high-precision DEM and the accuracy can be improved by adjusting baseline and shortening slant distance.

Dong, J.; Yue, J. P.; Li, L. H.

2014-03-01

124

DEM generation and tidal deformation detection for sulzberger ice shelf, West Antarctica using SAR interferometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study we generated a relative Digital Elevation Model (DEM) over the Sulzberger Ice Shelf, West Antarctica using ERS1/2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry data. Four repeat pass differential interferograms are used to find the grounding zone and to classify the study area. An interferometrically derived DEM is compared with laser altimetry profile from ICESat. Standard deviation of the relative height difference is 5.12 m and 1.34 m in total length of the profile and at the center of the profile respectively. The magnitude and the direction of tidal changes estimated from interferogram are compared with those predicted tidal differences from four ocean tide models. Tidal deformation measured in InSAR is -16.7 cm and it agrees well within 3 cm with predicted ones from tide models.

Baek, S.; Kwoun, O. -I.; Bassler, M.; Lu, Z.; Shum, C. K.; Dietrich, R.

2004-01-01

125

A 'Drift' algorithm for integrating vector polyline and DEM based on the spherical DQG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient integration method of vector and DEM data on a global scale is one of the important issues in the community of Digital Earth. Among the existing methods, geometry-based approach maintains the characteristics of vector data necessary for inquiry and analysis. However, the complexity of geometry-based approach, which needs lots of interpolation calculation, limits its applications greatly in the multi-source spatial data integration on a global scale. To overcome this serious deficiency, a novel 'drift' algorithm is developed based on the spherical Degenerate Quadtree Grid (DQG) on which the global DEMs data is represented. The main principle of this algorithm is that the vector node in a DQG cell can be moved to the cell corner-point without changing the visualization effects if the cell is smaller or equal to a pixel of screen. A detailed algorithm and the multi-scale operation steps are also presented. By the 'drift' algorithm, the vector polylines and DEM grids are integrated seamlessly, avoiding lots of interpolation calculating. Based on the approach described above, we have developed a computer program in platform OpenGL 3D API with VC++ language. In this experiment, USGS GTOPO30 DEM data and 1:1,000,000 DCW roads data sets in China area are selected. Tests have shown that time consumption of the 'drift' algorithm is only about 25% of that of the traditional ones, moreover, the mean error of drift operation on vector nodes can be controlled within about half a DQG cell. In the end, the conclusions and future works are also given.

Wang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Wenmin; Zhao, Xuesheng

2014-03-01

126

Asperity Degradation and Damage in the Direct Shear Test: A Hybrid FEM\\/DEM Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper investigates the processes of joint surface damage and near-surface intact rock tensile failure using a hybrid\\u000a FEM\\/DEM code. Selected Barton and Choubey JRC profiles were simulated in direct shear tests and the surface damage mechanisms\\u000a investigated in terms of joint surface wear or tensile fracturing of intact rock along the joint plane. Shear strength and\\u000a displacement profiles for

A. Karami; D. Stead

2008-01-01

127

Von und ber Albert Einstein aus dem Bibliotheksbestand des kiz der Universitt Ulm  

E-print Network

Von und über Albert Einstein aus dem Bibliotheksbestand des kiz der Universität Ulm Titel Autor Synthese Madary, Carl Alberti 1921 J96: B 3500/1921 M Akademie-Vorträge Einstein, Albert Treder, Hans- Jürgen Akademie-Verl. 1979 BZ: p QC 3/1979 E Ex.2 W: p QC 3/1979 E Albert Einstein: sein Einflu� auf

Pfeifer, Holger

128

Über das Wachstum der Legeröhre des Bitterlings unter dem Einfluß des weiblichen Sexualhormons II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Zusatz von 5–8 M.E. Progynon pro Kubikzentimeter zum Aquarienwasser bewirkte innerhalb 48 Stunden ein Wachsen der während der Ruhezeit reduzierten Legeröhre des Bitterlingweibchens bis zu einer Länge von 20 mm; dieses durch Hormonzufuhr während der Ruhezeit hervorgerufene Wachstum entspricht vollkommen dem Wachstum der Legeröhre des Bitterlingweibchens zur Laichzeit.2.Beim kastrierten Männchen des Bitterlings bewirkt Zusatz von Progynon zum Aquarienwasser oder

Walter Fleischmann; Susanne Kann

1934-01-01

129

DEM simulation of fluidized beds for gas-phase olefin polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature behavior of particles and gas in a fluidized bed reactor for polyolefin (PO, i.e., polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP)) production was numerically analyzed based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Simulation was performed using a numerical code (modified SAFIRE code) by modifying SAFIRE ver.1 of Mikami, Kamiya and Horio (1998, Chemical Engineering Science, 53, 1927–1940) by incorporating the

Yasunobu Kaneko; Takeo Shiojima; Masayuki Horio

1999-01-01

130

A novel algorithm with heuristic information for extracting drainage networks from raster DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracting drainage networks from raster DEMs is a necessary requirement in almost all hydrological and environmental analyses and determining surface water flow direction is a fundamental problem. In a raster environment, surface water flow direction of each cell can be directed to the neighboring cell with the steepest downslope drop (The basic D8, deterministic eight-neighbour method), which is inadequate for routing flow over pits and flats. Several improved algorithms are proposed to find the outlet of pits and flats, which typically use entirely different procedures for processing pits and flats. Being different from others, this paper presents a new method to route flow through the pits and flats by searching for the outlet using the heuristic information to compensate inadequate searching information of other methods. Heuristic information can reveal the general trend of the DEM and help the proposed algorithm find the outlet of pits and flats accurately. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can handle pits and flats effectively in one procedure. This new algorithm is implemented in Pascal and experiments are carried out on actual DEM data. It can be seen from the comparison of the drainage networks generated by the proposed algorithm and ArcGIS 9.2, the proposed algorithm with heuristic information can get a closer match result with existing river networks and avoid the generation of the unrealistic parallel drainage lines, unreal drainage lines and spurious terrain features.

Yang, W.; Hou, K.; Yu, F.; Liu, Z.; Sun, T.

2010-01-01

131

A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

2010-01-01

132

A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

2010-01-01

133

Creating Shaded Relief Images and 3D Scenes Using Aerial Photos, DEMs, Arc, and ArcScene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first part of this activity teaches students how to make a high quality shaded relief image of an aerial photo using ArcMap, an orthophoto, and a DEM by matching the illumination direction on the hillshade created from the DEM with the illumination direction at the time the photo was taken. In the second part of this activity, students use a digital orthophoto with an associated DEM, and ArcScene to construct a high resolution 3D visual version of the scene that can be tilted, panned, and zoomed in real time, providing an outstanding way for students to visualize landscape. This activity does not come with a data set. Any orthophoto and DEM can be used.

Tewksbury, Barb

134

APPENDIX II II.1 Goodwin Creek DEM, Land Use, Soil Type, and Watershed Definition at Different Spatial  

E-print Network

APPENDIX II II.1 Goodwin Creek DEM, Land Use, Soil Type, and Watershed Definition at Different.5 Percentage of the area covered by each land use type in sub-basin 14---- II-13 #12;II.1 GOODWIN CREEK DEM SOIL TYPE FOR EACH GRID SIZE AND SUB-BASIN 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Goodwin Creek sub-basin 4 30

Julien, Pierre Y.

135

Coupling photogrammetric data with DFN-DEM model for rock slope hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and mechanical analyses of rock mass are key components for rock slope stability assessment. The complementary use of photogrammetric techniques [Poropat, 2001] and coupled DFN-DEM models [Harthong et al., 2012] provides a methodology that can be applied to complex 3D configurations. DFN-DEM formulation [Scholtès & Donzé, 2012a,b] has been chosen for modeling since it can explicitly take into account the fracture sets. Analyses conducted in 3D can produce very complex and unintuitive failure mechanisms. Therefore, a modeling strategy must be established in order to identify the key features which control the stability. For this purpose, a realistic case is presented to show the overall methodology from the photogrammetry acquisition to the mechanical modeling. By combining Sirovision and YADE Open DEM [Kozicki & Donzé, 2008, 2009], it can be shown that even for large camera to rock slope ranges (tested about one kilometer), the accuracy of the data are sufficient to assess the role of the structures on the stability of a jointed rock slope. In this case, on site stereo pairs of 2D images were taken to create 3D surface models. Then, digital identification of structural features on the unstable block zone was processed with Sirojoint software [Sirovision, 2010]. After acquiring the numerical topography, the 3D digitalized and meshed surface was imported into the YADE Open DEM platform to define the studied rock mass as a closed (manifold) volume to define the bounding volume for numerical modeling. The discontinuities were then imported as meshed planar elliptic surfaces into the model. The model was then submitted to gravity loading. During this step, high values of cohesion were assigned to the discontinuities in order to avoid failure or block displacements triggered by inertial effects. To assess the respective role of the pre-existing discontinuities in the block stability, different configurations have been tested as well as different degree of fracture persistency in order to enhance the possible contribution of rock bridges on the failure surface development. It is believed that the proposed methodology can bring valuable complementary information for rock slope stability analysis in presence of complex fractured system for which classical "Factor of Safety" is difficult to express. References • Harthong B., Scholtès L. & F.V. Donzé, Strength characterization of rock masses, using a coupled DEM-DFN model, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05642.x, 2012. • Kozicki J & Donzé FV. YADE-OPEN DEM: an open--source software using a discrete element method to simulate granular material, Engineering Computations, 26(7):786-805, 2009 • Kozicki J, Donzé FV. A new open-source software developed for numerical simulations using discrete modeling methods, Comp. Meth. In Appl. Mech. And Eng. 197:4429-4443, 2008. • Poropat, G.V., New methods for mapping the structure of rock masses. In Proceedings, Explo 2001, Hunter Valley, New South Wales, 28-31 October 2001, pp. 253-260, 2001. • Scholtès, L. & Donzé FV. Modelling progressive failure in fractured rock masses using a 3D discrete element method, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 52:18-30, 2012a. • Scholtès, L. & Donzé, F.-V., DEM model for soft and hard rocks: role of grain interlocking on strength, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.10.005, 2012b. • Sirovision, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, Siro3D Sirovision 3D Imaging Mapping System Manual Version 4.1, 2010

Donze, Frederic; Scholtes, Luc; Bonilla-Sierra, Viviana; Elmouttie, Marc

2013-04-01

136

Creating High Quality DEMs of Large Scale Fluvial Environments Using Structure-from-Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, advances in survey and sensor technology have generated new opportunities to investigate the structure and dynamics of fluvial systems. Key geomatic technologies include the Global Positioning System (GPS), digital photogrammetry, LiDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The application of such has resulted in a profound increase in the dimensionality of topographic surveys - from cross-sections to distributed 3d point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs). Each of these technologies have been used successfully to derive high quality DEMs of fluvial environments; however, they often require specialized and expensive equipment, such as a TLS or large format camera, bespoke platforms such as survey aircraft, and consequently make data acquisition prohibitively expensive or highly labour intensive, thus restricting the extent and frequency of surveys. Recently, advances in computer vision and image analysis have led to development of a novel photogrammetric approach that is fully automated and suitable for use with simple compact (non-metric) cameras. In this paper, we evaluate a new photogrammetric method, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), and demonstrate how this can be used to generate DEMs of comparable quality to airborne LiDAR, using consumer grade cameras at low costs. Using the SfM software PhotoScan (version 0.8.5), high quality DEMs were produced for a 1.6 km reach and a 3.3 km reach of the braided Ahuriri River, New Zealand. Photographs used for DEM creation were acquired from a helicopter flying at 600 m and 800 m above ground level using a consumer grade 10.1mega-pixel, non-metric digital camera, resulting in object space resolution imagery of 0.12 m and 0.16 m respectively. Point clouds for the two study reaches were generated using 147 and 224 photographs respectively, and were extracted automatically in an arbitrary coordinate system; RTK-GPS located ground control points (GCPs) were used to define a 3d non-linear transformation to convert the point clouds to the absolute NZTM coordinate system, with average errors of 0.06 m in the horizontal and 0.11 m in the vertical dimensions. The final point clouds extracted had typical point spacings of 0.25 m, well above the metric resolution of airborne LiDAR. To improve data handling, the final point cloud was decimated to point spacings of 0.5 m using a recently developed gridding procedure (Rychkov, Brasington, & Vericat, 2012), and finally converted into a DEM using a Delaunay constrained TIN in ArcGIS. Results reveal SfM's ability to produce high quality terrain products of large scale fluvial environments that can outperform LiDAR, and can potentially compare with TLS. PhotoScan offers a straightforward method to generate, transform, and export DEMs that requires little user knowledge of photogrammetric processes. Further, the affordability and reduced field work offer low budget researchers the ability to produce repeat surveys for in-depth temporal studies. Funding supported by the New Zealand Department of Conservation.

Javernick, L. A.; Brasington, J.; Caruso, B. S.; Hicks, M.; Davies, T. R.

2012-12-01

137

Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lahars are among the most serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availability of digital elevation models (DEMs), however, is often limited and thus an obstacle to lahar modeling. Remote-sensing technology has now opened new perspectives in generating DEMs. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of DEMs derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for lahar modeling on Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Two GIS-based models are used for lahar modeling, LAHARZ and a flow-routing-based debris-flow model (modified single-flow direction model, MSF), both predicting areas potentially affected by lahars. Results of the lahar modeling show that both the ASTER and SRTM DEMs are basically suitable for use with LAHARZ and MSF. Flow-path prediction is found to be more reliable with SRTM data, though with a coarser spatial resolution. Errors of the ASTER DEM affecting the prediction of flow paths due to the sensor geometry are associated with deeply incised gorges with north-facing slopes. LAHARZ is more sensitive to errors of the ASTER DEM than the MSF model. Lahar modeling with the ASTER DEM results in a more finely spaced predicted inundation area but does not add any significant information in comparison with the SRTM DEM. Lahars at Popocatépetl are modeled with volumes of 1 × 10 5 to 8 × 10 6 m 3 based on ice-melt scenarios of the glaciers on top of the volcano and data on recent and historical lahar events. As regards recently observed lahars, the travel distance of lahars of corresponding volume modeled with LAHARZ falls short by 2 to 4 km. An important finding is that the travel distance of potential lahar events modeled with LAHARZ may differ by about 2 km when using SRTM or ASTER data because of varying lateral flow-volume distribution. As a consequence, verification and sensitivity analysis of the DEM is fundamental to deriving hazard maps from predicted modeled inundation areas. Because of the global coverage of this type of remote-sensing data, the conclusion that both SRTM and ASTER-derived DEMs are feasible for lahar modeling opens a wide field of application in volcanic-hazards studies.

Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Miranda, P. Julio; Delgado Granados, H.; Kääb, A.

2008-02-01

138

Computer vision: automating DEM generation of active lava flows and domes from photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) form fundamental data for assessing many volcanic processes. We present a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community to produce DEMs from a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. Two case studies, based on the Volcán de Colima lava dome and the Puyehue Cordón-Caulle obsidian flow, highlight the advantages of the technique in terms of the minimal expertise required, the speed of data acquisition and the automated processing involved. The reconstruction procedure combines structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated software (e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/). SfM-MVS reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional geo-referencing software has been developed. Although this step requires the presence of some control points, the SfM-MVS approach has significantly easier image acquisition and control requirements than traditional photogrammetry, facilitating its use in a broad range of difficult environments. At Colima, the lava dome surface was reconstructed from recent and archive images taken from light aircraft over flights (2007-2011). Scaling and geo-referencing was carried out using features identified in web-sourced ortho-imagery obtained as a basemap layer in ArcMap - no ground-based measurements were required. Average surface measurement densities are typically 10-40 points per m2. Over mean viewing distances of ~500-2500 m (for different surveys), RMS error on the control features is ~1.5 m. The derived DEMs (with 1-m grid resolution) are sufficient to quantify volumetric change, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome following an explosion in June 2011. At Puyehue Cordón-Caulle, images of the active lava flow were taken on foot from a ridge overlooking the flow. To assess the evolution of the flow front, two DEMs were derived from collections of ~400 images taken on different days. To scale and geo-reference the data, one image sequence was accompanied by simultaneous collection of a GPS track using a consumer handheld GPS unit; no control points were used. The second survey was then scaled and georeferenced to the first, using features identifiable in both image sets, giving an RMS error of ~0.22 m. DEM comparison then allows advance rates and mechanisms to be identified, and comparisons drawn with emplacement processes of basaltic flows. In both case studies, the SfM-MVS approach allowed DEM generation when access or lack of dedicated surveying equipment and expertise prevented standard techniques from being deployed.olima dome 2011: 3D point cloud data

James, M. R.; Varley, N. R.; Tuffen, H.

2012-12-01

139

Sensitivity of watershed attributes to spatial resolution and interpolation method of LiDAR DEMs in three distinct landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study investigates scaling relationships of watershed area and stream networks delineated from LiDAR DEMs. The delineations are tested against spatial resolution, including 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 m, and interpolation method, including Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Moving Average (MA), Universal Kriging (UK), Natural Neighbor (NN), and Triangular Irregular Networks (TIN). Study sites include Mosquito Creek, Scotty Creek, and Thomas Brook, representing landscapes with high, low, and moderate change in elevation, respectively. Results show scale-dependent irregularities in watershed area due to spatial resolution at Thomas Brook and Mosquito Creek. The highest sensitivity of watershed area to spatial resolution occurred at Scotty Creek, due to high incidence of LiDAR sensor measurement error and subtle changes in elevation. Length of drainage networks did not show a scaling relationship with spatial resolution, due to algorithmic complications of the stream initiation threshold. Stream lengths of main channels at Thomas Brook and Mosquito Creek displayed systematic increases in length with increasing spatial resolution, described through an average fractal dimension of 1.059. The scaling relationship between stream length and DEM resolution allows estimation of stream lengths from low-resolution DEMs in the absence of high-resolution DEMs. Single stream validation at Thomas Brook showed the 1 m DEM produced the lowest length error and highest spatial accuracy, at 3.7% and 71.3%, respectively. Single stream validation at Mosquito Creek showed the 25 m DEM produced the lowest length error, and the 1 m DEM the highest spatial accuracy, at 0.6% and 61.0%, respectively.

Goulden, T.; Hopkinson, C.; Jamieson, R.; Sterling, S.

2014-03-01

140

Die Darstellung von Außenseitern in Klaus Manns Erzählungen aus dem Exil  

E-print Network

?hrend seiner Schulzeit entdeckt Klaus Mann ?eine starke Sympathie f?r das moralisch Degradierte, Verlorene, S?ndige, Angefaulte? (Mann, Kind 125) von der er selbst behauptet, dass er sie seit dem behalten habe. Bereits in seiner Kindheit betrachtet er sich... etwas f?r sich selber gewinnen? (Mann, Kind 168). Klaus Mann verl?sst Deutschland am 13.03.1933. Das Exil verst?rkt seine Au?enseiter-Empfindung. Innerhalb der zersplitterten Exilgemeinschaft findet er keinen Platz. Am Ende des Wendepunktes...

Kroh, Regine

2008-05-20

141

Der Kalte Krieg in der Peripherie Griechische Physiker und Atomenergie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert Ansichten griechischer Physiker zur Atomenergie und deren mögliche Anwendung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, insbesondere während des Kalten Kriegs. Einerseits werden Ansichten von Physik- Professoren griechischer Universitäten präsentiert - beispielsweise von Dimitrios Hondros, der Student von Arnold Sommerfeld und Mitarbeiter von Peter Debye in München war, und andererseits wird die Politik der griechischen Regierung für die Etablierung eines Forschungsinstitutes diskutiert, das der Entwicklung der Atomenergie dienen sollte; ebenfalls wird eine öffentliche Meinungsumfrage zu diesen Thema, die in den Tageszeitungen der damaligen Zeit präsentiert wurde, diskutiert.

Vlahakis, George N.

142

A study of evolution of near-earth daemon's fluxes with using Dark Electron Multipliers (DEMs)  

E-print Network

DEMs have been used to experimental studying the temporal evolution of the March maximum of fluxes of near-Earth daemons. It is shown that part of objects from near-Earth almost circular heliocentric orbits (NEACHOs), from which a rather intense flux proceeds during only about four weeks, forms in the second half of March the population in geocentric Earth-surface-crossing orbits (GESCOs). The resistance of the Earth's matter results in that GESCO objects sink into the Earth's interior, so that the GESCO population nearly disappears by the end of April.

E. M. Drobyshevski; M. E. Drobyshevski; S. A. Ponyaev

2012-06-04

143

Michael Zimmer’s Diary: Ein deutsches Tagebuch aus dem Amerikanischen Biirgerkrieg  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Michael Zimmer’s Diary: Ein deutsches Tagebuch aus dem Amerikanischen Biirgerkrieg 2005 by William D. Keel This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly... Communication and Copyright. Please share your stories about how Open Access to this book benefits you. This is the published version of the book, made available with the permission of the publisher. William D. Keel. Review of “Michael Zimmer’s Diary: Ein...

Keel, William

2005-01-01

144

Multi-frequency study of DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We have studied the H ii region DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to understand its physical characteristics and morphology in different wavelengths. Methods: We performed a spectral analysis of archived XMM-Newton EPIC data and studied the morphology of DEM L299 in X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. We used H?, [S ii], and [O iii] data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS) and radio 21 cm line data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Parkes Telescope as well as radio continuum data (3 cm, 6 cm, 20 cm, 36 cm) from ATCA and from the Molonglo Synthesis Telescope (MOST). Results: Our morphological studies imply that, in addition to the supernova remnant SNR B0543-68.9 reported in previous studies, a superbubble also overlaps the SNR in projection. The position of the SNR is clearly defined through the [S ii]/H? flux ratio image. Moreover, the optical images show a shell-like structure that is located farther to the north and is filled with diffuse X-ray emission, which again indicates the superbubble. Radio 21 cm line data show a shell around both objects. Radio continuum data show diffuse emission at the position of DEM L299, which appears clearly distinguished from the H ii region LHA 120-N 164 that lies south-west of it. We determined the spectral index of SNR B0543-68.9 to be ? = -0.34, which indicates the dominance of thermal emission and therefore a rather mature remnant. We determined the basic properties of the diffuse X-ray emission for the SNR, the superbubble, and a possible blowout region of the bubble, as suggested by the optical and X-ray data. We obtained an age of (8.9+9.2-5.4) kyr for the SNR and a temperature of (0.64+0.73-0.20) keV for the hot gas inside the SNR, as well as a thermal energy content and temperature of the hot gas inside the superbubble of (4.3+8.1-2.6) × 1050 ?0.5 erg and (0.74+0.36-0.30) keV, with ? being the gas-filling factor. Conclusions: We conclude that DEM L299 consists of a superposition of SNR B0543-68.9 and a superbubble, which we identified based on optical data. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA.

Warth, Gabriele; Sasaki, Manami; Kavanagh, Patrick J.; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.; Points, Sean D.; Bozzetto, Luke M.

2014-07-01

145

Generation of pixel-level resolution lunar DEM based on Chang'E-1 three-line imagery and laser altimeter data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring high resolution topography products of the Moon is an important issue for further lunar exploration. In this paper, we present a data processing flow of 3D reconstruction based on Chang'E-1 (CE-1) three-line imagery (120 m) and laser altimeter (LAM) data to acquire pixel-level resolution DEM. First, initial global disparity estimation was generated, and then corresponding points were acquired pixel-by-pixel by Adaptive Support-Weight Approach. A Least Square Image matching method was used to achieve sub-pixel accuracy, ultimately resulting in pixel-level resolution DEM (120 m). Global lunar 100 m DEM (GLD100 DEM) from LROC WAC stereo imagery is employed for comparison analysis and the mean elevation difference between two DEMs is less than 120 m. Experimental results show that the processing flow is effective and reliable for acquiring pixel-level DEM based on CE-1 data.

Zhang, Wuming; Zhang, Xiaobin; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Yan, Guangjian; Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Guoqing

2013-09-01

146

Dual-scale validation of a medium-resolution coastal DEM with terrestrial LiDAR DSM and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of medium-resolution photogrammetric-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to model coastal inundation risk is commonplace in the geosciences. However, these datasets are often characterised by relatively large and loosely defined elevation errors, which can seriously limit their reliability. Post-processed and static RTK dual-frequency GPS data and very high-resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanning DSM data are used here to quantify the magnitude and spatial distribution of elevation error on a 10 km coastal section of a medium-resolution photogrammetric DEM. The validation data are captured at two scales and spatial-resolutions to minimise the risk of spatial bias in the validation results. The strengths and shortcomings of each validation dataset are assessed, and the complimentary value of GPS and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for external validation is demonstrated. Elevation errors highlighted in the photogrammetric DEM are found to be significantly larger than suggested by the data suppliers, with a tendency for the larger errors to occur with increasing proximity to the coastline. The results confirm the unsuitability of the DEM tested for the local spatial modelling of coastal inundation risk, highlighting difficulties that may be prone to occur when similar DEM datasets are used in coastal studies elsewhere.

Coveney, Seamus; Stewart Fotheringham, A.; Charlton, Martin; McCarthy, Timothy

2010-04-01

147

DEM simulations of the evolution of fault zones in brittle-ductile layered rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of normal faults in brittle ductile layered rocks is modeled in this work using the Discrete Element Model (DEM) approach. The simulations were realized using the open source DEM package ESyS-Particle (https://launchpad.net/esys-particle/). The models consist of one cemented layer inside a cohesionless granular material above a basement fault in a gravity field. The cohesion of the cemented layer and the angle of the basement fault were varied. Different random packings of the material were used to estimate the effect of the material heterogeneity. Results show, that two structural domains exist, a graben domain and a precursor domain. In both of these domains, the variation in cohesion of the hard layer produces large differences in the structural evolution. As expected, the largest changes in fault gouge evolution occur when the increase in cohesion of the hard layer make the minimum principle stress become tensile. The main parameter that determines the amount of tectonic abrasion in the fault zones is the cohesion of the brittle layer. This leads to a gradual thinning of the layer with low cohesion and development of blocks and fragments in case of a relatively high cohesion. Thus, continuity of the sheared layer is higher in the rocks with low cohesion. The structural domain also affects the continuity of the brittle layer: in the precursor domain the brittle layer is more continuous than in the graben domain.

Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.; Abe, Steffen

2013-04-01

148

Assessing volume change of tropical Peruvian glaciers from multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although far smaller than large polar ice caps, mountain glaciers are significant contributors to sea level rise and tropical glaciers in particular are sources of critical water resources to regional societies. The glaciers in Cordillera Blanca, the Andes of Peru, hold important environmental and economic concerns of regional water supplies to communities in the arid western part of the country under continued global climate change. Yet steep relief and remote locations present challenges for measuring mass changes in tropical glaciers. Remotely sensed images provide feasible opportunities to measure glacier surface area changes. We use a combination of satellite and airborne remote sensing, digital photogrammetry and geospatial techniques to assess the surface area, volume and topographic changes of key glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru between 1962 and 2008. The intercomparison of digital elevation models (DEMs) from airborne Light Detection and Range (LiDAR) data of 2008, multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) of 2001-2008 and stereo-paired airborne photographs of 1962 for deriving elevation differences over time reveal the data quality to measure the volume loss in the area. The DEMs over non-glacier areas in the study sites were selected and differentially corrected Global Positioning System (dGPS) data points were used for comparison as well. The motivation of this study is to refine a surface area to volume scaling for tropical glaciers to enable extrapolation of more detailed inventory of glacier volume and water resources.

Huh, K.; Mark, B. G.

2012-12-01

149

Assessment of an ASTER-generated DEM for 2D hydrodynamic flood modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood modeling often provides inputs to flood hazard management. In the present work we studied the flooding characteristics in the data scarce region of the Lake Tana basin at the source of the Blue Nile River. The study required to integrate remote sensing, GIS with a two-dimensional (2D) module of the SOBEK flood model. The resolution of the topographic data in many areas, such as the Lake Tana region, is commonly too poor to support detailed 2D hydrodynamic modeling. To overcome such limitations, we used a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) which was generated from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image. A GIS procedure is developed to reconstruct the river terrain and channel bathymetry. The results revealed that a representation of the river terrain largely affects the simulated flood characteristics. Simulations indicate that effects of Lake Tana water levels propagate up to 13 km along the Ribb River. We conclude that a 15 m resolution ASTER DEM can serve as an input to detailed 2D hydrodynamic modeling in data scarce regions. However, for this purpose it is necessary to accurately reconstruct the river terrain geometry and flood plain topography based on ground observations by means of a river terrain model.

Tarekegn, Tesfaye Haimanot; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, Tom; Reggiani, P.; Alkema, Dinand

150

Kinematic behaviour of a large earthflow defined by surface displacement monitoring, DEM differencing, and ERT imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large earthflow-type landslides are destructive mass movement phenomena with highly unpredictable behaviour. Knowledge of earthflow kinematics is essential for understanding the mechanisms that control its movements. The present paper characterises the kinematic behaviour of a large earthflow near the village of ?ubietová in Central Slovakia over a period of 35 years following its most recent reactivation in 1977. For this purpose, multi-temporal spatial data acquired by point-based in-situ monitoring and optical remote sensing methods have been used. Quantitative data analyses including strain modelling and DEM differencing techniques have enabled us to: (i) calculate the annual landslide movement rates; (ii) detect the trend of surface displacements; (iii) characterise spatial variability of movement rates; (iv) measure changes in the surface topography on a decadal scale; and (v) define areas with distinct kinematic behaviour. The results also integrate the qualitative characteristics of surface topography, in particular the distribution of surface structures as defined by a high-resolution DEM, and the landslide subsurface structure, as revealed by 2D resistivity imaging. Then, the ground surface kinematics of the landslide is evaluated with respect to the specific conditions encountered in the study area including slope morphology, landslide subsurface structure, and local geological and hydrometeorological conditions. Finally, the broader implications of the presented research are discussed with particular focus on the role that strain-related structures play in landslide kinematic behaviour.

Prokešová, Roberta; Kardoš, Miroslav; Tábo?ík, Petr; Medve?ová, Alžbeta; Stacke, Václav; Chudý, František

2014-11-01

151

Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

Li, Tingwen

2012-04-01

152

Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Galvin, Janine [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

2012-01-01

153

DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.

2012-12-01

154

Semi-automated extraction of landslides in Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast availability and improved quality of optical satellite data and digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as the need for complete and up-to-date landslide inventories at various spatial scales have fostered the development of semi-automated landslide recognition systems. Among the tested approaches for designing such systems, object-based image analysis (OBIA) stepped out to be a highly promising methodology. OBIA offers a flexible, spatially enabled framework for effective landslide mapping. Most object-based landslide mapping systems, however, have been tailored to specific, mainly small-scale study areas or even to single landslides only. Even though reported mapping accuracies tend to be higher than for pixel-based approaches, accuracy values are still relatively low and depend on the particular study. There is still room to improve the applicability and objectivity of object-based landslide mapping systems. The presented study aims at developing a knowledge-based landslide mapping system implemented in an OBIA environment, i.e. Trimble eCognition. In comparison to previous knowledge-based approaches, the classification of segmentation-derived multi-scale image objects relies on digital landslide signatures. These signatures hold the common operational knowledge on digital landslide mapping, as reported by 25 Taiwanese landslide experts during personal semi-structured interviews. Specifically, the signatures include information on commonly used data layers, spectral and spatial features, and feature thresholds. The signatures guide the selection and implementation of mapping rules that were finally encoded in Cognition Network Language (CNL). Multi-scale image segmentation is optimized by using the improved Estimation of Scale Parameter (ESP) tool. The approach described above is developed and tested for mapping landslides in a sub-region of the Baichi catchment in Northern Taiwan based on SPOT imagery and a high-resolution DEM. An object-based accuracy assessment is conducted by quantitatively comparing extracted landslide objects with landslide polygons that were visually interpreted by local experts. The applicability and transferability of the mapping system are evaluated by comparing initial accuracies with those achieved for the following two tests: first, usage of a SPOT image from the same year, but for a different area within the Baichi catchment; second, usage of SPOT images from multiple years for the same region. The integration of the common knowledge via digital landslide signatures is new in object-based landslide studies. In combination with strategies to optimize image segmentation this may lead to a more objective, transferable and stable knowledge-based system for the mapping of landslides from optical satellite data and DEMs.

Eisank, Clemens; Hölbling, Daniel; Friedl, Barbara; Chen, Yi-Chin; Chang, Kang-Tsung

2014-05-01

155

Using DEMs to evaluate morphological change around an emergent vegetation patch over repeated hydrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flume experiments tested a sand-gravel sediment mixture and two model emergent vegetation patches of varying stem density to explore changes in bed morphology around a patch when subjected to a series of repeated hydrographs. The wake area downstream of emergent vegetation patches is typically considered a region of sediment accumulation. However, the extent to which mixed size sediment transports and deposits around emergent vegetation patches remains poorly defined. This uncertainty is heightened by changes in bed morphology over large temporal scales and unsteady flow conditions. In these experiments unsteady flow hydrographs were discretized with 17 four-minute constant flow intervals with magnitudes modeled to fit the asymmetrical shape of the NRCS dimensionless unit hydrograph. Hydrographs were applied to a channel of mixed gravel and sand sediment in which a patch of emergent vegetation was fixed. The same hydrograph was repeated in each experiment and between hydrographs, a 2-hour baseflow was run to simulate lower flow periods and provide a flow history to the channel. Suspended and bedload sediment transport rates were measured during every flow interval of each hydrograph. After each hydrograph a detailed digital elevation model (DEM) was created to map the bed morphology and allow for DEM differencing. A unit bed adjustment parameter, ?b, is introduced to quantify the amount of reach-averaged channel change and monitor morphological stability over the scales of multiple hydrographs. Flow and sediment conditions were repeated for patches with sparse and dense stem densities. Results indicated that the total sediment yield over each hydrograph was reduced for both the sparse and dense model patches relative to unvegetated channel conditions. In the case of the sparse patch, the channel reached a dynamically stable state in one fewer hydrograph than when there was no patch present. A characteristic morphology developed downstream of the patch, with a mound of sediment accumulation forming within 10 patch diameters and significant ripple formation beyond this point farther downstream. The channel bed adjusted in a similar fashion for the dense patch, though the sediment mound was locally higher just downstream of the patch, not as extensive laterally, and dune formation was somewhat delayed and not as regular as for the sparse patch. More erosion was observed adjacent to the dense patch than for the sparse, consistent with flow acceleration due to increased channel blockage. Overall, the dense patch appeared to introduce more variability in the channel bed morphology, reflected by a larger range and standard deviation of bed elevations for the series of DEMs.

Waters, K. A.; Curran, J. C.

2013-12-01

156

Mechanical behavior modeling of sand-rubber chips mixtures using discrete element method (DEM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubber shreds in mixture with sandy soils are widely used in geotechnical purposes due to their specific controlled compressibility characteristics and light weight. Various studies have been carried out for sand or rubber chips content in order to restrain the compressibility of the mass in different structures such as backfills, road embankments, etc. Considering different rubber contents, sand-rubber mixtures can be made which lead mechanical properties of the blend to go through changes. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of adding different rubber portions on the global engineering properties of the mixtures. This study is performed by using Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulations showed that adding rubber up to a particular fraction can improve maximum bearing stress characteristics comparing to sand alone masses. Taking the difference between sand and rubber stiffness into account, the result interpretation can be developed to other soft and rigid particle mixtures such as powders or polymers.

Eidgahee, Danial Rezazadeh; Hosseininia, Ehsan Seyedi

2013-06-01

157

MC-DEM: a novel simulation scheme for modeling dense granular media  

E-print Network

This article presents a new force model for performing quantitative simulations of dense granular materials. Interactions between multiple contacts (MC) on the same grain are explicitly taken into account. Our readily applicable method retains all the advantages of discrete element method (DEM) simulations and does not require the use of costly finite element methods. The new model closely reproduces our recent experimental measurements, including contact force distributions in full 3D, at all compression levels up to the experimental maximum limit of 13\\%. Comparisons with traditional non-deformable spheres approach are provided, as well as with alternative models for interactions between multiple contacts. The success of our model compared to these alternatives demonstrates that interactions between multiple contacts on each grain must be included for dense granular packings.

Brodu, Nicolas; Behringer, Robert P

2014-01-01

158

Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part 1 - Verification studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware, it is now possible to perform large simulations of granular flows using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). As a result, solids are increasingly treated in a discrete Lagrangian fashion in the gas–solids flow community. In this paper, the open-source MFIX-DEM software is described that can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles. This method is referred to as the continuum discrete method (CDM) to clearly make a distinction between the ambiguity of using a Lagrangian or Eulerian reference for either continuum or discrete formulations. This freely available CDM code for gas–solids flows can accelerate the research in computational gas–solids flows and establish a baseline that can lead to better closures for the continuum modeling (or traditionally referred to as two fluid model) of gas–solids flows. In this paper, a series of verification cases is employed which tests the different aspects of the code in a systematic fashion by exploring specific physics in gas–solids flows before exercising the fully coupled solution on simple canonical problems. It is critical to have an extensively verified code as the physics is complex with highly-nonlinear coupling, and it is difficult to ascertain the accuracy of the results without rigorous verification. These series of verification tests set the stage not only for rigorous validation studies (performed in part II of this paper) but also serve as a procedure for testing any new developments that couple continuum and discrete formulations for gas–solids flows.

Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Li, Tingwen; Pannala, Sreekanth

2012-04-01

159

Open Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part 1 - Verification Studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware, it is now possible to perform large simulations of granular flows using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). As a result, solids are increasingly treated in a discrete Lagrangian fashion in the gas–solids flow community. In this paper, the open-source MFIX-DEM software is described that can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles. This method is referred to as the continuum discrete method (CDM) to clearly make a distinction between the ambiguity of using a Lagrangian or Eulerian reference for either continuum or discrete formulations. This freely available CDM code for gas–solids flows can accelerate the research in computational gas–solids flows and establish a baseline that can lead to better closures for the continuum modeling (or traditionally referred to as two fluid model) of gas–solids flows. In this paper, a series of verification cases is employed which tests the different aspects of the code in a systematic fashion by exploring specific physics in gas–solids flows before exercising the fully coupled solution on simple canonical problems. It is critical to have an extensively verified code as the physics is complex with highly-nonlinear coupling, and it is difficult to ascertain the accuracy of the results without rigorous verification. These series of verification tests set the stage not only for rigorous validation studies (performed in part II of this paper) but also serve as a procedure for testing any new developments that couple continuum and discrete formulations for gas–solids flows.

Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Li, Tingwen; Pannala, Sreekanth

2012-04-01

160

Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part I verification studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware, it is now possible to perform large simulations of granular flows using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). As a result, solids are increasingly treated in a discrete Lagrangian fashion in the gas solids flow community. In this paper, the open-source MFIX-DEM software is described that can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles. This method is referred to as the continuum discrete method (CDM) to clearly make a distinction between the ambiguity of using a Lagrangian or Eulerian reference for either continuum or discrete formulations. This freely available CDM code for gas solids flows can accelerate the research in computational gas solids flows and establish a baseline that can lead to better closures for the continuum modeling (or traditionally referred to as two fluid model) of gas solids flows. In this paper, a series of verification cases is employed which tests the different aspects of the code in a systematic fashion by exploring specific physics in gas solids flows before exercising the fully coupled solution on simple canonical problems. It is critical to have an extensively verified code as the physics is complex with highly-nonlinear coupling, and it is difficult to ascertain the accuracy of the results without rigorous verification. These series of verification tests set the stage not only for rigorous validation studies (performed in part II of this paper) but also serve as a procedure for testing any new developments that couple continuum and discrete formulations for gas solids flows.

Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Galvin, Janine [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

2012-01-01

161

Analysis of initial drainage network evolution from aerial photography and a DEM time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of erosion rill or gully networks is a formative process in initial landscape development. Digital representations of drainage networks are often derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on morphometric parameters, or mapped in field surveys or from aerial photographs. This study attempted to reconstruct and analyze the first five years of erosion rill network evolution in the 6 ha artificial catchment 'Hühnerwasser', which serves as a real world-laboratory to study patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development. The drainage network was characterized in a twofold approach, based on the analysis of remotely-sensed data. We used high-resolution drone-based aerial photographs to map the actively eroding rill network for four states of development, and a time series of ten Digital Elevation Models to characterize the morphology of the surface. Rill network maps and morphometric parameters were combined to allow for region-specific analyses of morphometry for different parts of the rill network. After a rapid growth of the erosion rill network during the first two years of development, a reduction of the area of actively eroding rills was observed. Region-specific analysis of morphometry indicates an increase in flow accumulation in the central parts of the rill network, which suggests that locally evolving feedback cycles between flow accumulation and erosion affected rill network development, in addition to the effects of precipitation characteristics and the growth of vegetation cover. The combination of drainage network characterization from aerial photography and DEMs could improve analyses of initial drainage network development in experimental studies, as it allows for critical comparisons of flow accumulation patterns and the actual patterns of erosion rills or gullies.

Schneider, Anna; Gerke, Horst H.; Maurer, Thomas; Nenov, Rossen; Raab, Thomas

2013-04-01

162

A Progressive Black Top Hat Transformation Algorithm for Estimating Valley Volumes from DEM Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of valley incision and valley volume are important parameters in geomorphology and hydrology research, because they are related to the amount erosion (and thus the volume of sediments) and the amount of water needed to create the valley. This is not only the case for terrestrial research but also for planetary research as such figuring out how much water was on Mars. With readily available digital elevation model (DEM) data, the Black Top Hat (BTH) transformation, an image processing technique for extracting dark features on a variable background, has been applied to DEM data to extract valley depth and estimate valley volume. However, previous studies typically use one single structuring element size for extracting the valley feature and one single threshold value for removing noise, resulting in some finer features such as tributaries not being extracted and underestimation of valley volume. Inspired by similar algorithms used in LiDAR data analysis to separate above ground features and bare earth topography, here we propose a progressive BTH (PBTH) transformation algorithm, where the structuring elements size is progressively increased to extract valleys of different orders. In addition, a slope based threshold was introduced to automatically adjust the threshold values for structuring elements with different sizes. Connectivity and shape parameters of the masked regions were used to keep the long linear valleys while removing other smaller non-connected regions. Preliminary application of the PBTH to Grand Canyon and two sites on Mars has produced promising results. More testing and fine-tuning is in progress. The ultimate goal of the project is to apply the algorithm to estimate the volume of valley networks on Mars and the volume of water needed to form the valleys we observe today and thus infer the nature of the hydrologic cycle on early Mars. The project is funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis program.

Luo, W.; Pingel, T.; Heo, J.; Howard, A. D.

2013-12-01

163

Fusion of hyperspectral images and lidar-based dems for coastal mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal mapping is essential for a variety of applications such as coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal development and planning. Various mapping techniques, like ground and aerial surveying, have been utilized in mapping coastal areas. Recently, multispectral and hyperspectral satellite images and elevation data from active sensors have also been used in coastal mapping. Integrating these datasets can provide more reliable coastal information. This paper presents a novel technique for coastal mapping from an airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral image and a light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-based digital elevation model (DEM). The DEM was used to detect and create a vector layer for building polygons. Subsequently, building pixels were removed from the AVIRIS image and the image was classified with a supervised classifier to discriminate road and water pixels. Two vector layers for the road network and the shoreline segments were vectorized from road pixels and water-body border pixels using several image-processing algorithms. The geometric accuracy and completeness of the results were evaluated. The average positional accuracies for the building, road network, and shoreline layers were 2.3, 5.7, and 7.2 m, respectively. The detection rates of the three layers were 93.2%, 91.3%, and 95.2%, respectively. Results confirmed that utilizing laser ranging data to detect and remove buildings from optical images before the classification process enhances the outcomes of this process. Consequently, integrating laser and optical data provides high-quality and more reliable coastal geospatial information.

Elaksher, Ahmed F.

2008-07-01

164

A New Processing Chain based on Neural Networks for the Construction of X-SAR DEM: Tuning of new algorithms and Validation of the Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the activity we plan to perform concerns the description of a new approach for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) based on neural network and the relative activity of their validation. The DEM have been extracted from the X-SAR images caught by the COSMO-SKYMED Italian space mission fully devoted to remote sensing. In particular we have developed in parallel two processing chain to obtain DEMs. The first one applies the conventional algorithms currently used and implemented in the DORIS open source software developed by Delft University. The second one implements our algorithms which apply neural networks to determine the features of the single pixels taking into account also the behavior of neighboring pixels. Thus a comparison of the achieved DEM with the two different processing chain is performed. For the validation of DEMs obtained with our algorithms we plan to construct a third DEM overlapped to the other two, using the GPS-RTK technique. This technique is capable to return DEMs with a precision of few tens of centimeters; i.e. enough precise to validate the X-SAR DEM. For the validation activity we have selected an area close to Matera Space Geodesy Center which cover both flat an hilly surfaces.

Brizio, Franco; Gentili, Mario; Fabrizi, Marco; Vespe, Francesco; Benedetto, Catia

2013-04-01

165

Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace Ada Byron wird als Tochter von Anna Byron und dem Dichter Lord Byron 1815 in England  

E-print Network

Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace Ada Byron wird als Tochter von Anna Byron und dem Dichter¨uckkehrt, lernt Ada ihn nie kennen. Sie verbringt ihre Kindheit bei ihrer zur¨uckgezogen lebenden Mutter. Diese k¨ummert sich auch um Adas Erziehung. Anna Byron hatte selbst Algebra, Geometrie und Astronomie bei dem

Pientka, Brigitte

166

Correction of Positional Errors and Geometric Distortions in Topographic Maps and DEMs Using a Rigorous SAR Simulation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of surveying and mapping, a large volumes of topographic maps and digital elevation models have been created at various scales throughout the world. However, positional errors and geometric distortions may exist in the topographic contour maps and their derived DEMs due to inaccurate ground control and poor navigation techniques in the early years. In this paper, we

Hongxing Liu; Zhiyuan Zhao; Kenneth C. Jezek

2004-01-01

167

Capturing Micro-topography of an Arctic Tundra Landscape through Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Acquired from Various Remote Sensing Platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to improve the spatial and temporal scaling and extrapolation of plot level measurements of ecosystem structure and function to the landscape level has been identified as a persistent research challenge in the arctic terrestrial sciences. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capabilities on satellite, fixed wing, helicopter and unmanned aerial vehicle platforms over the past decade, these present costly, logistically challenging (especially in the Arctic), technically demanding solutions for applications in an arctic environment. Here, we present a relatively low cost alternative to these platforms that uses kite aerial photography (KAP). Specifically, we demonstrate how digital elevation models (DEMs) were derived from this system for a coastal arctic landscape near Barrow, Alaska. DEMs of this area acquired from other remote sensing platforms such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Airborne Laser Scanning, and satellite imagery were also used in this study to determine accuracy and validity of results. DEMs interpolated using the KAP system were comparable to DEMs derived from the other platforms. For remotely sensing acre to kilometer square areas of interest, KAP has proven to be a low cost solution from which derived products that interface ground and satellite platforms can be developed by users with access to low-tech solutions and a limited knowledge of remote sensing.

Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tweedie, C. E.; Oberbauer, S. F.

2013-12-01

168

Classification and mapping of anthropogenic landforms on cultivated hillslopes using DEMs and soil thickness data --Example from the  

E-print Network

Classification and mapping of anthropogenic landforms on cultivated hillslopes using DEMs and soil landforms of decametric width on cultivated hillslopes and their relations to soil thickness variability, France. Two types of landforms were identified: lynchets, similar to those described as soil terraces

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

A generic procedure for automatically segmenting landforms into landform elements using DEMs, heuristic rules and fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust new approach for describing and segmenting landforms which is directly applicable to precision farming has been developed in Alberta. The model uses derivatives computed from DEMs and a fuzzy rule base to identify up to 15 morphologically defined landform facets. The procedure adds several measures of relative landform position to the previous classification of Pennock et al. (Geoderma

R. A. MacMillan; W. W. Pettapiece; S. C. Nolan; T. W. Goddard

2000-01-01

170

IELTS 2014 an der Universitt Osnabrck Auch in diesem Jahr bietet das Sprachenzentrum, in Zusammenarbeit mit dem British  

E-print Network

, in Zusammenarbeit mit dem British Council Germany, wieder den IELTS (Academic) an. Der Test findet statt am: 6 ausschlie�lich über die Webseite des British Council. Der Test kostet in diesem Jahr 195,- EUR. Bitte folgen Sie an die Hotline des British Council (030 311 099 -10) oder bei Nichterreichbarkeit an den Support (ielts

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

171

Zur Verbreitung und Bestandssituation des Rebhuhns ( Perdix perdix L.) in Luxemburg, Lothringen, Rheinland-Pfalz und dem Saarland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durch eine Befragung der Jägerschaft wurde eine flächendeckende Erfassung der Rebhuhnpopulationen im Großherzogtum Luxemburg und in Lothringen (Department Moselle, Frankreich) sowie in Rheinland-Pfalz und dem Saarland (BRD) durchgeführt. Es wurde festgestellt, daß das Rebhuhn im Untersuchungsraum nahezu flächendeckend verbreitet ist. Der Bestandstrend geht leicht nach oben. Die Populationsdichten sind jedoch, in Abhängigkeit von den naturräumlichen Gegebenheiten, sehr unterschiedlich. Ein positiver

V. Guthörl; P. Miiller

1991-01-01

172

The effect of DEM resolution on the computation of the factor of safety using an infinite slope model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is essential for reliable landslide susceptibility assessments. In this paper, two DEMs derived from ASTER (ASTER GDEM v.2 with 30 m horizontal resolution) and TerraSAR-X (GeoElevation10 with 10 m horizontal resolution) data are compared to study the effects of resolution on the derived slope and wetness index parameters in the application of the infinite slope model for the computation of the factor of safety. Several slope stability scenarios representing different wetness conditions with 5, 10 and 100 mm d- 1 of steady-state recharge were calculated for the eastern flank of Mount Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Each scenario was conducted by computing the static factor of safety with mean values of the bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion, and failure depth parameters, as well as for their normally distributed values by Monte Carlo simulation. All scenarios were applied to both DEMs. The scenarios were evaluated by calculating the success/prediction rate using the respective area under the curve (AUC) and an existing landslide inventory. Additionally, uncertainties in the estimated positions of landslides were taken into account. Depending on the particular scenario, the success rate of the GeoElevation10 model shows differences up to 3% compared to the ASTER GDEM model. This apparent improvement is mainly caused by the higher ground resolution in GeoElevation10. However, the success rate increases for the 10 mm d- 1 and decreases for the 100 mm d- 1 steady-state recharge conditions. Consequently, the more detailed flow direction in the GeoElevation10 DEM has the highest impact under conditions with lower water saturation. The slight improvement in the total model quality shows that the higher resolution of the DEM has a small impact on poorly parameterized models, in which the material properties are described by roughly estimated parameters. Therefore, the application of a high-resolution DEM to areas with a lack of data on the soil's physical properties is inefficient due to its low cost-benefit ratio. For quick analysis, the ASTER GDEM is of a suitable quality. To fully benefit from the high resolution of the DEMs, other parameters should be available in appropriate detail.

Fuchs, Michael; Torizin, Jewgenij; Kühn, Friedrich

2014-11-01

173

Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.

2013-12-01

174

The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.

2012-04-01

175

Creation of a Multiresolution and Multiaccuracy Dtm: Problems and Solutions for Heli-Dem Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is part of "HELI-DEM" (HELvetia-Italy Digital Elevation Model) project, funded by the European Regional Development Fund within the Italy-Switzerland cooperation program. The aim of the project is the creation of a unique DTM for the alpine and subalpine area between Italy (Piedmont, Lombardy) and Switzerland (Ticino and Grisons Cantons); at present, different DTMs, that are in different reference frames and have been obtained with different technologies, accuracies, and resolutions, have been acquired. The final DTM should be correctly georeferenced and produced validating and integrating the data that are available for the project. DTMs are fundamental in hydrogeological studies, especially in alpine areas where hydrogeological risks may exist. Moreover, when an event, like for example a landslide, happens at the border between countries, a unique and integrated DTM which covers the interest area is useful to analyze the scenario. In this sense, HELI-DEM project is helpful. To perform analyses along the borders between countries, transnational geographic information is needed: a transnational DTM can be obtained by merging regional low resolution DTMs. Moreover high resolution local DTMs should be used where they are available. To be merged, low and high resolution DTMs should be in the same three dimensional reference frame, should not present biases and should be consistent in the overlapping areas. Cross-validation between the different DTMs is therefore needed. Two different problems should be solved: the merging of regional, partly overlapping low and medium resolution DTMs into a unique low/medium resolution DTM and the merging with other local high resolution/high accuracy height data. This paper discusses the preliminary processing of the data for the fusion of low and high resolution DTMs in a study-case area within the Lombardy region: Valtellina valley. In this region the Lombardy regional low resolution DTM is available, with a horizontal resolution of 20 meters; in addition a LiDAR DTM with a horizontal resolution of 1 meter, which covers only the main hydrographic basins, is also available. The two DTMs have been transformed into the same reference frame. The cross-validation of the two datasets has been performed comparing the low resolution DTM with the local high resolution DTM. Then, where significant differences are present, GPS survey have been used as external validation. The results are presented. Moreover, a possible strategy for the future fusion of the data, is shortly summarized at the end of the paper.

Biagi, L.; Carcano, L.; Lucchese, A.; Negretti, M.

2013-01-01

176

The TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X Formation Acquisition-from Planning to Realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 21, 2010 the TanDEM-X satellite (TDX) was injected into orbit at 15,700 km distance from its twin satellite TerraSAR-X (TSX), which has been in orbit since 2007. Already one month later TDX acquired a formation with TSX in order to build up the first single-pass radar interferometer in space. Within three years of close formation flying with flexible baselines ranging from 150 m to a few kilometers the twin satellites will collect interferometric radar measurements for the generation of a global digital elevation model with unprecedented accuracy. This paper elaborates on the TDX pre-launch analysis performed in the fields of collision assessment during orbit injection and target formation acquisition. To avoid a critical close approach shortly after TDX separation, the risk of collision between the already flying TSX satellite and the newly injected elements (DNEPR upper-stage, gas dynamic shield, and TDX satellite) had to be carefully analyzed. Further, the paper discusses a fuel-saving formation acquisition strategy, for which the maneuver budget is analyzed as a function of launch day and launch injection accuracy. Finally, flight results are presented to illustrate the successful formation acquisition realized in July 2010 and the formation reconfiguration process from the 20 km wide formation into the 300-400 m close formation performed in October 2010. This reconfiguration marked the start of the bi-static TDX/TSX instrument operation.

Kahle, Ralph; Schlepp, Benjamin; Meissner, Florian; Kirschner, Michael; Kiehling, Reinhard

2012-09-01

177

Electrically-enhanced deposition of fine particles on a fiber: A numerical study using DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition of small particles, charged or polarized, on a fiber embedded in a coupled field of electrostatics and viscous flow, has received renewed attention due to the technological needs of PM2.5 capture as well as the challenges of unresolved fundamental physics. In this paper, we introduce a general computational method for this complex particle-electric-flow interactions, in which a boundary-element method (BEM) for the electrostatic field induced by the macroscopic fiber, an optimized multiple expansion method for the long-range electrostatic field induced by the particles, and a Discrete Element Method (DEM) that accounts for electrostatic, fluid and adhesive contact forces on particles are combined for the 3D simulation. The deposition mechanisms of charged and polarized particles on the fiber are investigated using the combined approach. First, it is found that the pre-polarization of fine particles dramatically enhances the deposition rate even by nearly an order of magnitude. Second, the effect of particle charge on the deposition is two-fold. The attractive particle-fiber interaction increases the initial deposition rate, and affects the further filtration process because of particle loading effect in this initial stage. The particle-particle repulsion always inhibits the deposition. Third, the charged particles tend to form new small dendrites rather than deposit on existing dendrites, causing the dendrite number larger than that in the cases of polarized or neutral particles.

Yang, Mengmeng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Guanqing; Yao, Qiang

2013-06-01

178

An algorithm for phase-offset evaluation in InSAR DEM generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is a technique for the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of an observed scene. It exploits the phase difference (interferogram) of two SAR images relevant to the same area and acquired by two different look angles. To recover the topographic information from an InSAR data pair, it is necessary to evaluate a proper phase offset value to add to the unwrapped SAR interferogram. Generally, such a phase offset is accurately estimated by using Corner Reflectors (CRs) properly deployed over the illuminated area. Nevertheless, in some cases of practical interest, CRs cannot be used: in order to overcome this limit, different algorithms have been proposed in literature. In this paper, we present an algorithm aimed at estimating the InSAR phase-offset without using CRs. To this aim, we first present a theoretical analysis, validated by experiments carried out on simulated data, for the evaluation of the phase offset and, thereafter, we apply the proposed method on real data acquired by the X-band airborne OrbiSAR system. Comparisons with results achieved by using CRs properly deployed over the test site are also included.

Perna, S.; Esposito, C.; Lanari, R.; Pauciullo, A.; Wimmer, C.; Berardino, P.

2013-10-01

179

Production of Optimized DEM Using IDW Interpolation Method (Case Study; Jam and Riz Basin-Assaloyeh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, preparing the optimized Digital Elevation Model (DEM)of Jam and Riz basin was studied by use of Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and utilization of GIS technique. Performing of IDW method depends on several factors including cell size, number of neighbor`s points, point searching radius and optimized power. On this basis, two Geostatistical methods were used for determination of points searching radius of standard ellipse and standard deviation ellipse. Considering the fixed cell size in network with value of 3 which represents weighting degree of points and with determining the rotation angle and measure of axis of standard deviation ellipse and calculation of optimized radius in standard ellipse by use of statistical method, then optimized power was automatically derived in ArcGIS 9.2 environment. In this method the number of neighbor's points was selected with four repetition points of 3, 5, 7 and 15. However, 8 digital elevation models were gained after the mentioned processes. Finally, digital elevation models of 1 to 8 were compared with control points using compare means test in SPSS11.5 statistical software which shown the IDW-3 with the best conditions recommended as the optimized model. Although the results are showing a similar forms but from them IDW3 model has the lowest mean standard error of 0.26842 which is used seven neighbor points.

Soleimani, K.; Modallaldoust, S.

180

Distribution characteristics analysis of sites around Taihu Lake basin based on DEM and ETM+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ancient sites of different cultural period distributed in the Taihu lake basin. The natural environment is the material foundation that the mankind relies for existence and development, so it's necessary to master the natural environment at that time in order to understand the culture of site. The paper analyzed morphological characteristics and temporal and spatial distribution of ancient site using GIS spatial analysis method which based on the remote sensing image and DEM data. Some terrain indexes were selected as the evaluation factor including altitude, slope, aspect, slope shape and surface rolling, which were used to analyze the relation between the spatial location of ancient site and the natural environment. The research shows the spatial location of ancient sites have a close relationship with natural environment by the terrain analysis and hydrological analysis. Especially, the water distribution plays an important role in the constraints of the distribution of ancient sites, meanwhile the ancients showed the capacity to adapt the environment. Throughout the development of the ancient sites, ancients and nature depend on each other for existence.

Yu, Lijun; Nie, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

2012-01-01

181

Cooperative dynamics of a group of intruders subsiding in granular media: A DEM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically investigated the subsidence of a group of solid intruders in a randomly generated granular bed using discrete element method (DEM) in 2D and explored the cooperative behaviour of these intruders. Five intruders with a specified separation distance were placed on the surface of the granular bed and released to subside with zero impact velocity. Dynamics of the intruders was analysed. In addition, the effects of friction, boundary constraints, and the diameter and density ratio of the intruders to particles in the granular bed on the cooperative dynamics were also examined. It was found that friction and boundary constraints significantly affected the subsiding kinematics of the intruders. Most interestingly, it was shown that the intruders subside in a cooperative manner as they initially split from each other, and then move toward each other, resembling the flying pattern of a flock of birds in the air. This cooperative behaviour is in broad agreement with the experimental observations of Pacheco-Vazquez and Ruiz-Suarez (2010).

Goey, Cher Hui; Wu, Chuan-Yu

2013-06-01

182

Classification of topography using DEM data and its correlation with the geology of Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous topography from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data is frequently segmented into terrain classes based on local morphological characteristics of terrain elevation, e.g., local slope gradient and convexity. The resulting classes are often used as proxies for the average shear wave velocity up to 30 m, and the determination of ground types as required by the Eurocode (EC8) for computing elastic design spectra. In this work, we investigate the links between terrain related variables, particularly slope gradient, extracted for the area of Greece from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 arc second global topographic data available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), with: (a) the global terrain classification product of Iwahashi and Pike (2007) in which 16 terrain types are identified for the same spatial resolution, and (b) information on geological units extracted at the same resolution from the geological map of Greece at a scale of 1/500000 as published from the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME). An interpretation of these links is presented within the context of understanding the reliability of using geology, slope and terrain classes for site characterizations of earthquake risk in a high seismicity area like Greece. Our results indicate that slope is a somewhat biased proxy for solid rocks, whereas in Alluvial deposits the distance to and type of the nearest geological formation appears to provide qualitative information on the size of the sedimentary deposit.

Zargli, Eleni; Liodakis, Stelios; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Savvaidis, Alexandros

2013-08-01

183

Predicting anthropogenic streambed shifts in Beckley, West Virginia, modeled over 15 years using LANDSAT TM and DEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic change of streambeds in the Beckley, West Virginia watershed region was modeled using Landsat 5 TM satellite data from 1988 and 2003, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for 1969 and 2005. Comparing the 15 year land cover changes and the 36 year elevation shifts, and using a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), in ESRI ArcMap and ERDAS Imagine, a streambed shift model was created. The model predicted land cover and elevation changes for 2018, using inputs from geospatial differencing of 2003 and 1988 land cover as well as 2003 and 1969 DEM data. Further analysis using hydrodynamic differential equations provided in depth information on stream clogging over the 15 year study period.

Reinhardt, Andrew D.

184

Estimating the rate and elevation dependence of net accretion in a freshwater tidal marsh using DEM-registered surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater marshes contribute to estuary health by filtering excess sediment and nutrients delivered from the watershed, but their extent and persistence is threatened by rising sea level. To maintain a semi-emergent position, the marsh surface must gain elevation by accreting mineral and/or organic material at a rate comparable to sea level rise. Historic records of sea level rise (SLR) are available from tide gages, but records of historic elevation change at the necessary precision are rare. Additionally, sedimentation, compaction, erosion, and the resultant net elevation gain are spatially heterogeneous across a marsh, varying with elevation, among other factors. We solve this issue at our study site by taking advantage of a 1992 total station survey of the marsh and RTK GPS surveys from 2005 and 2012, and registering them all against an airborne LiDAR derived DEM. Thus, although no points are directly reoccupied, survey vs. DEM trends can be found for each survey, and an average rate of elevation change can be calculated as a function of DEM elevation. We found rates of net elevation gain ranging spatially from 3-5 mm/yr between the years 1992-2012, similar to the historic rate of SLR at a nearby Washington, DC tide gage of 4 mm/yr over the past 28 years. Net elevation change varied as DEM elevation increased, with several local minima and maxima potentially related to variations and transitions in vegetation community. Assuming IPCC predicted sea level rise and a fixed relationship between elevation and net accretion, we then forecast marsh elevation relative to sea level and associated vegetative community changes through the 21st century using an inundation model that considers net accretion and a constant relationship between vegetation community type and elevation.

Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Sanders, G.

2012-12-01

185

Studien auf dem Gebiet der Holzschutzchemie.—Fünfte Mitteilung: Über den Chemismus der Fixierung von U: und UA=Salzen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Da die Fixierung von U- und UA-Salzen auf einer Reduktion des Bichromats zu schwerlslichen Chromiverbindungen beruht, wird\\u000a systematisch das Reduktionsvermgen des Holzes, des Lignins, des Kohlehydratanteils des Holzes sowie von Modellsubstanzen\\u000a untersucht. Es zeigt sich, da die freien Hydroxylgruppen des Lignins vornehmlich die Reduktion bewirken. Rntgenographische\\u000a Untersuchungen der entstandenen schwerlslichen Chromiverbindungen ergaben Diagramme, die im Falle des Lignins mit dem

Wilhelm Sandermann; Gerd-Zeno Jonas; Hans Stockmann

1954-01-01

186

Quantifying Ice-sheet/Ice-shelf Dynamics and Variability with Meter-scale DEM and Velocity Timeseries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are losing mass at an increasing rate, although loss due to accelerating flow and dynamic thinning remains poorly understood. We are using complementary data from repeat satellite and airborne observations to investigate the relationship between ice-sheet/ice-shelf dynamics and geometry on seasonal to interannual timescales. High-resolution along-track stereo imagery from commercial satellite vendors DigitalGlobe and GeoEye provides unprecedented spatial (~0.5 m/px with ~17 km swath width) and temporal (weekly/monthly) resolution for these efforts. We have developed an automated pipeline using open-source software to produce orthoimage, DEM, and surface velocity products from DigitalGlobe imagery. High-contrast surface texture (e.g. sastrugi, crevasses) visible at sub-meter resolution provides near-perfect image correlation (~99% success rate) during DEM and velocity map derivation. Elevation data from IceBridge ATM/LVIS, ICESat GLAS, and GPS campaigns are used to correct DEMs and perform accuracy assessment. Preliminary tests over exposed bedrock provide relative vertical accuracy estimates of <1-2 m for Worldview-1/2 DEMs. Velocity data from TerraSAR-X and GPS campaigns provide validation for surface velocity products, with horizontal error estimates of <10 m. Velocity and elevation change products with 2-4 m/px spatial resolution allow for unprecedented 3D dynamic characterization of sub-km flow transition zones (e.g. grounding lines, shear margins), capturing both local and regional variations due to melting and dynamic thinning. We present timeseries for West Greenland (Jakobshavn front - 20 observations, Jakobshavn south catchment - 10) and West Antarctica (Pine Island and Thwaites - 5 each) from 2009-2012. These observations complement ongoing efforts to measure and model outlet glacier dynamics, with implications for future ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Moratto, Z. M.; Porter, C.; Morin, P. J.

2012-12-01

187

Direct micromechanics derivation and DEM confirmation of the elastic moduli of isotropic particulate materials: Part I No particle rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the macroscopic elastic moduli of a statistically isotropic particulate aggregate material via the homogenization methods of Voigt (1928) (kinematic hypothesis), Reuss (1929) (static hypothesis), and Hershey (1954) and Kröner (1958) (self-consistent hypothesis), originally developed to treat crystalline materials, from the directionally averaged elastic moduli of three regular cubic packings of uniform spheres. We determine analytical expressions for these macroscopic elastic moduli in terms of the (linearized) elastic inter-particle contact stiffnesses on the microscale under the three homogenization assumptions for the three cubic packings (simple, body-centered, and face-centered), assuming no particle rotation. To test these results and those in the literature, we perform numerical simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) to measure the overall elastic moduli of large samples of randomly packed uniform spheres with constant normal and tangential contact stiffnesses (linear spring model). The beauty of DEM is that simulations can be run with particle rotation either prohibited or unrestrained. In this first part of our two-part series of papers, we perform DEM simulations with particle rotation prohibited, and we compare these results with our theoretical results that assumed no particle rotation. We show that the self-consistent homogenization assumption applied to the locally body-centered cubic (BCC) packing most accurately predicts the measured values of the overall elastic moduli obtained from the DEM simulations, in particular Poisson's ratio. Our new analytical self-consistent results lead to significantly better predictions of Poisson's ratio than all prior published theoretical results. Moreover, our results are based on a direct micromechanics analysis of specific geometrical packings of uniform spheres, in contrast to all prior theoretical analyses, which were based on difficult-to-verify hypotheses involving overall inter-particle contact distributions. We continue the analysis begun in this first part for the case of unrestrained particle rotation in Part II, Fleischmann et al. (2013).

Fleischmann, J. A.; Drugan, W. J.; Plesha, M. E.

2013-07-01

188

Studien auf dem Gebiete der Holzschutzchemie—7. Mitteilung: Untersuchung frühgeschichtlicher Hölzer und deren Bedeutung für den Holzschutz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Isolierung und Bestimmung der für die Dauerhaftigkeit frühgeschichtlicher Hölzer verantwortlichen natülichen Schutzstoffe\\u000a kann dem Chemiker nützliche Hinweise für die Synthese organischer Holzschutzmittel geben. Aus diesem Grunde wurden gut erhaltene\\u000a ägyptische Sarghölzer (Holza etwa 4500 Jahre alt, Holzb etwa 3000 Jahre alt) sowie Hölzer aus Tempeln der alten Maya-Metropole\\u000a Tikal (Guatemala) und Chichen-Itza (Alter etwa 1150 bwz. 600 bis 1000

W. Sandermann; H. H. Dietrichs; H. Gottwald

1958-01-01

189

Precise Determination of the Baseline Between the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

TerraSAR-X, launched on June 15, 2007, and TanDEM-X, to be launched in September 2009, both carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) category A payload instrument package. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), for precise orbit determination and atmospheric sounding and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) serving as target for the global

Rolf Koenig; Markus Rothacher; Grzegorz Michalak; Yongjin Moon

2008-01-01

190

The Physics of Supernova Remnant Blast Waves. I. Kinematics of DEM L71 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

We present the results from Fabry-Perot imaging spectroscopy of the Balmer-dominated supernova remnant DEM L71 (0505-67.9) in the LMC. Spectra extracted from the entire circumference of the blast wave reveal the broad and narrow component H-alpha line emission characteristic of non-radiative shocks in partially neutral gas. The new spectra of DEM L71 include portions of the rim that have not been previously observed. We find that the broad component width varies azimuthally along the edge of DEM L71, ranging from 450+/-60 km/s along the eastern edge to values as high as 985 (+210)(-165) km/s along the faint western edge. In part of the faint northern rim the broad component is not detected, possibly indicating a lower density in these regions and/or a broad component width in excess of 1000 km/s. Between the limits of zero and full electron-ion temperature equilibration at the shock front, the allowed range of shock velocities is 430-560 km/s along the east rim and 700-1250 km/s along other parts of the blast...

Ghavamian, P; Hughes, J P; Williams, T B; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara E.; Hughes, John P.

2003-01-01

191

Influence of small scale topography on early spring activity in martian polar areas. An example study based on DEM of Inca City region.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the newly generated HiRISE DEM of Inca City region with 1-meter spatial resolution we are able to estimate the solar energy distribution over the surface on the scale of topographical irregularities, such as the sides of araneiforms channels. In the present study this DEM serves as a model terrain to test the previously proposed hypothesis of early initialisation of CO2 activity by solar illumination of topography on the meter-scale [1].

Portyankina, G.; Pommerol, A.; Aye, K.-M.; Thomas, N.; Mattson, S.; Hansen, C. J.

2013-09-01

192

An evaluation of LIDAR and IFSAR-derived digital elevation models in leaf-on conditions with USGS Level 1 and Level 2 DEMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of four different remote sensing based methods for deriving digital elevation models (DEMs) was conducted in a flood-prone watershed in North Carolina. New airborne LIDAR (light detecting and ranging) and IFSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR)) data were collected and corresponding DEMs created. These new sources were compared to two methods: Gestalt Photomapper (GPM) and contour-to-grid, used by

Michael E. Hodgson; John R. Jensen; Laura Schmidt; Steve Schill; Bruce Davis

2003-01-01

193

DEM–CFD simulation of the particle dispersion in a gas–solid two-phase flow for a fuel-rich\\/lean burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to numerically investigate the particle dispersion mechanisms in the gas–solid two-phase jet for a fuel-rich\\/lean burner by means of coupling the discrete element method (DEM) with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The DEM was employed to deal with the particle–particle and the particle–wall interaction in the computation of solid flow; while gas flow was

Hao Zhou; Guiyuan Mo; Jiapei Zhao; Kefa Cen

2011-01-01

194

Integration of SRTM DEM and Hydraulic Analysis for Flood Response Planning.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to delineate potential flood inundation areas is one of the most important requirements for flood response planning. Historical hydrologic records and high-resolution topographic data are essential to model flood inundation and to map areas at risk of inundation. For Afghanistan, historical hydrologic data enable the analysis of flood frequency, but the accurate delineation of flood inundation zones is limited by the lack of high- resolution elevation data. This study has developed a method for coupling hydraulic analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to delineate flood risk maps of the Helmand and Kabul drainage basins in Afghanistan. Land surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used to create an area-elevation profile with respect to the rivers that flow into these two basins. Using the profile, we computed cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter for each 1-m increment in elevation. Manning's equation was applied to compute river discharge for each 1-m increment in water level using cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and slope of the respective river reach. Results for the gauged river reaches were compared with 25, 50, and 100-year return period floods based on a flood frequency from the historical stream flow data, and associated depths of water were estimated for each return period flood. Peak flows at gauge stations were extrapolated to ungauged river reaches based on upstream drainage area. The estimated depths of water for each river reach were used as thresholds to identify areas subject to flood inundation, using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to the rivers. The resulting flood inundation polygons were combined in a GIS with roads, infrastructure, settlements, and higher resolution satellite imagery to identify potential hazards due to flooding, and provide detailed information for flood response planning.

Pervez, M.; Asante, K. O.; Smith, J. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

2006-12-01

195

Beziehungen zwischen Menschenbild und Psychotherapíe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The part played by psychotherapy in the treatment of different clinical conditions such as functional disturbances, neuroses, psychosomatic disease and a variety of somatic diseases varies in importance. It can be the treatment, an important part of a course of treatment, or only supportive to other clinical measures. In spite of differences in psycho-therapeutic approach, all forms of psychotherapy have

Christa Kohler; Karl Seidel

1974-01-01

196

GIS modelling of earthquake damage zones using satellite remote sensing and DEM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating earthquake that occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, on the 12th May 2008, caused widespread damage and devastation to rural communities and economy. The terrain of the entire region has been weakened and is now highly susceptible to long-term slope instability that will trouble this region for many years to come. Before the earthquake, the maximum seismic intensity expected in the region was VI-VIII in the 12-degree Liedu scale (the intensity measure adopted in China). However, the actual intensity caused by the earthquake ranged between VIII and XI. The seismic intensity map is practical for regional guidance but lacks the detail to provide an adequate representation of the true damage level, in terms of current status and future potential in such a seismically active and populated region, especially when the hazards and risks are likely to be multiple and cascading in high relief areas. This paper presents a GIS based novel approach to earthquake damage zone modelling using satellite remote sensing and DEM data. The novelty is to take into account the co-seismic ground deformation (measured using differential SAR interferometry) as an important modulating factor in modelling the susceptibility of earthquake related geohazards, together with conventional multi-criteria factors which draw on geological and topographical variables such as rock competence, slope, proximity to drainage, and fracture density. The modulating effect of the earthquake greatly enhances the susceptibility in the areas where the majority of the ensuing landslides and debris-flows actually took place. When this susceptibility model is further modulated by the mapped surface disruption caused by the earthquake (which encompasses all forms of mass movement and urban destruction), it is directly linked to seismic intensity and we call it " earthquake damage". The output earthquake damage map represents both the current damage status as well as the future damage (hazard) potential. The resulting earthquake damage map for the Beichuan region clearly defines a series of zones of increasing seismic intensity, approximately corresponding to Liedu values VIII-XI but with great details.

Liu, Jian Guo; Mason, Philippa J.; Yu, Eric; Wu, Meng-Che; Tang, Chuan; Huang, Runqiu; Liu, Hanhu

2012-02-01

197

Diffusive modeling of global river and floodplain dynamics based on 1km-resolution DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial water circulation is important both as a component of the climate system and as a freshwater supplying system for human beings. Recent advances in remote sensing have achieved global-scale observation of surface water storage and movement from satellites (e.g. inundated area extent by microwave imagers, terrestrial water storage by GRACE, water surface altitude and river discharge possibly by SWOT). On the other hand, global river routing models, which are practically the only available tool for simulating terrestrial water circulation, have not adequately represented the physical mechanism of terrestrial water storage and movement, such as floodplain inundation dynamics regulated by much smaller-scale topography than global model resolution. A newly developed global river routing model named “Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain model” (CaMa-Flood) overcomes this drawback by detailed representation of sub-grid-scale topography (ex. river channel cross-section, catchment boundaries, and floodplain elevation profile). These sub-grid features regulating surface water dynamics are objectively parameterized based on 1km-resolution global DEM and flow direction map. This approach enables explicit prediction of surface water altitude, which is essential for diffusive wave modeling of floodplain inundation dynamics. Thus, CaMa-Flood is expected to simulate not only realistic river discharge but also water depth, inundated area extent, and surface water storage. Improvements from previous global river routing models achieved by CaMa-Flood are summarized as follows: (1) objective parameterization of sub-grid topographies using 1km-resolution datasets, (2) explicit representation of floodplain inundation dynamics, (3) diffusive wave modeling for flow computation instead of kinematic wave modeling, and (4) two dimensional expression of inundated area extent which can be validated against satellite observations. Ability of CaMa-Flood is tested by comparing simulated river discharge and inundated area extent with in-situ and satellite observations. Simulated river discharge by CaMa-Flood shows better agreement to observation in daily time scale at most major basins, compared to outputs from previous global river routings. For central Amazonian floodplains where floodplain inundation is most active in the world, spatio-temporal variation of simulated inundated area by CaMa-Flood shows almost similar pattern to satellite estimates. Impacts of introducing 1km-resolution topography and floodplain inundation dynamics on these improvements will be discussed.

Yamazaki, D.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

2009-12-01

198

Forecasting of Storm-Surge Floods Using ADCIRC and Optimized DEMs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing the accuracy of storm-surge flood forecasts is essential for improving preparedness for hurricanes and other severe storms and, in particular, for optimizing evacuation scenarios. An interactive database, developed by WorldWinds, Inc., contains atlases of storm-surge flood levels for the Louisiana/Mississippi gulf coast region. These atlases were developed to improve forecasting of flooding along the coastline and estuaries and in adjacent inland areas. Storm-surge heights depend on a complex interaction of several factors, including: storm size, central minimum pressure, forward speed of motion, bottom topography near the point of landfall, astronomical tides, and, most importantly, maximum wind speed. The information in the atlases was generated in over 100 computational simulations, partly by use of a parallel-processing version of the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model. ADCIRC is a nonlinear computational model of hydrodynamics, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the US Navy, as a family of two- and three-dimensional finite-element-based codes. It affords a capability for simulating tidal circulation and storm-surge propagation over very large computational domains, while simultaneously providing high-resolution output in areas of complex shoreline and bathymetry. The ADCIRC finite-element grid for this project covered the Gulf of Mexico and contiguous basins, extending into the deep Atlantic Ocean with progressively higher resolution approaching the study area. The advantage of using ADCIRC over other storm-surge models, such as SLOSH, is that input conditions can include all or part of wind stress, tides, wave stress, and river discharge, which serve to make the model output more accurate. To keep the computational load manageable, this work was conducted using only the wind stress, calculated by using historical data from Hurricane Camille, as the input condition for the model. Hurricane storm-surge simulations were performed on an eight-node Linux computer cluster. Each node contained dual 2-GHz processors, 2GB of memory, and a 40GB hard drive. The digital elevation model (DEM) for this region was specified using a combination of Navy data (over water), NOAA data (for the coastline), and optimized Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data (over land). This high-resolution topographical data of the Mississippi coastal region provided the ADCIRC model with improved input with which to calculate improved storm-surge forecasts.

Valenti, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

2006-01-01

199

New insights from DEM's into form, process and causality in Distributive Fluvial Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in platforms and sensors, as well as advances in our ability to access these rich data sources in near real time presents geoscientists with both opportunities and problems. We currently record raster and point cloud data about the physical world at unprecedented rates with extremely high spatial and spectral resolution. Yet the ability to extract scientifically useful knowledge from such immense data sets has lagged considerably. The interrelated fields of database creation, data mining and modern geostatistics all focus on such interdisciplinary data analysis problems. In recent years these fields have made great advances in analyzing the complex real-world data such as that captured in Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) and satellite imagery and by LIDAR and other geospatially referenced data sets. However, even considering the vast increase in the use of these data sets in the past decade these methods have enjoyed only a relatively modest penetration into the geosciences when compared to data analysis in other scientific disciplines. In part, a great deal of the current research weakness is due to the lack of a unifying conceptual approach and the failure to appreciate the value of highly structured and synthesized compilations of data, organized in user-friendly formats. We report on the application of these new technologies and database approaches to global scale parameterization of Distributive Fluvial Systems (DFS) within continental sedimentary basins and illustrate the value of well-constructed databases and tool-rich analysis environments for understanding form, process and causality in these systems. We analyzed the characteristics of aggradational fluvial systems in more than 700 modern continental sedimentary basins and the links between DFS within these systems and their contributing drainage basins. Our studies show that in sedimentary basins, distributive fluvial and alluvial systems dominate the depositional environment. Consequently, we have found that studies of modern tributary drainage systems in degradational settings are likely insufficient for understanding the geomorphology expressed within these basins and ultimately for understanding the basin-scale architecture of dominantly distributive fluvial deposits preserved in the rock record.

Scuderi, Louis; Weissmann, Gary; Hartley, Adrian; Kindilien, Peter

2014-05-01

200

Der Briefwechsel zwischen Sidonie Na?dherny? und Albert Bloch : September 1947-September 1950 : mit einer Einfu?hrung in die Widmungsgedichte von Karl Kraus an Sidonie Na?dherny?  

E-print Network

. Ich sah sein Zimmer vor mir, in dem er mir öfters Briefe von Ihnen vorlas, ich erinnerte mich, dass er öfters von Ihnen mit aufrichtiger Hochschätzung sprach . . . und wie konnte ich vergessen, dass er selbst im März 1931 mir Ihr Buch mit seiner...

Champion, Elke Lorenz

1998-01-01

201

Direct micromechanics derivation and DEM confirmation of the elastic moduli of isotropic particulate materials:. Part II Particle rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I, Fleischmann et al. (2013), we performed theoretical analyses of three cubic packings of uniform spheres (simple, body-centered, and face-centered) assuming no particle rotation, employed these results to derive the effective elastic moduli for a statistically isotropic particulate material, and assessed these results by performing numerical discrete element method (DEM) simulations with particle rotations prohibited. In this second part, we explore the effect that particle rotation has on the overall elastic moduli of a statistically isotropic particulate material. We do this both theoretically, by re-analyzing the elementary cells of the three cubic packings with particle rotation allowed, which leads to the introduction of an internal parameter to measure zero-energy rotations at the local level, and numerically via DEM simulations in which particle rotation is unrestrained. We find that the effects of particle rotation cannot be neglected. For unrestrained particle rotation, we find that the self-consistent homogenization assumption applied to the locally body-centered cubic packing incorporating particle rotation effects most accurately predicts the measured values of the overall elastic moduli obtained from the DEM simulations, in particular Poisson's ratio. Our new self-consistent results and theoretical modeling of particle rotation effects together lead to significantly better theoretical predictions of Poisson's ratio than all prior published results. Moreover, our results are based on a direct micromechanics analysis of specific geometrical packings of uniform spheres, in contrast to prior theoretical analyses based on hypotheses involving overall inter-particle contact distributions. Thus, our results permit a direct assessment of the reasons for the theory-experiment discrepancies noted in the literature with regard to previous theoretical derivations of the macroscopic elastic moduli for particulate materials, and our new theoretical results greatly narrow such discrepancies.

Fleischmann, J. A.; Drugan, W. J.; Plesha, M. E.

2013-07-01

202

Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

2012-07-01

203

Airborne LiDAR DEMs as a tool for deriving information on past glacier extent and ice flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantification of ice volumes and the identification of ice flow regimes within historical glacier systems are important steps towards understanding historical phases of glacier advance and disintegration in the context of Holocene climate fluctuation. Topographic LiDAR DEMs provide an excellent tool for gaining various kinds of spatially distributed information. Several case studies have been performed in the Austrian Alps, where LiDAR DEMs are available for almost the entire glacier area. LiDAR DEMs achieve vertical accuracies of few decimetres and can be used to calculate hillshade images with flat incidence angles, so that the surface structures of moraines and other glacial deposits can be identified. These hillshade images were used together with aerial photographs to identify the LIA (Little Ice Age) moraines and the elevation of the lateral moraines, so that, together with information on today's ice volume, a lower limit for the LIA ice volume could be calculated. The resulting LIA glacier areas showed good coincidence with former reconstructions based on field mapping and airborne photogrammetry. In addition to that, historical ice flow directions could be derived from the structure of basal moraines. These data allow an interpretation of the changing contribution of specific tributary glaciers to a joint glacier tongue, which may result in an important switch in ice dynamics leading to fast glacier advances recorded by frontal moraines. The combination of terrestrial long-term observations and LiDAR data documents the genesis of specific geomorphological features in the periglacial area by recording the processes occurring during the disintegration of glacier tongues. For example, the deposition of the material from former medial moraines in the newly formed periglacial area can be identified and quantified from the LiDAR data as well as debris flows or rock falls from the LIA moraines.

Seiser, Bernd; Fischer, Andrea

2014-05-01

204

The Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for Fully Compressible Two-Phase Flows in Ducts of Spatially Varying Cross-Section  

SciTech Connect

Typically, multiphase modeling begins with an averaged (or homogenized) system of partial differential equations (traditionally ill-posed) then discretizes this system to form a numerical scheme. Assuming that the ill-posedness problem is avoided by using a well-posed formulation such as the seven-equation model, this presents problems for the numerical approximation of non-conservative terms at discontinuities (interfaces, shocks) as well as unwieldy treatment of fluxes with seven waves. To solve interface problems without conservation errors and to avoid this questionable determination of average variables and the numerical approximation of the non-conservative terms associated with 2 velocity mixture flows we employ a new homogenization method known as the Discrete Equations Method (DEM). Contrary to conventional methods, the averaged equations for the mixture are not used, and this method directly obtains a (well-posed) discrete equation system from the single-phase system to produce a numerical scheme which accurately computes fluxes for arbitrary numbers of phases and solves non-conservative products. The method effectively uses a sequence of single phase Riemann equation solves. Phase interactions are accounted for by Riemann solvers at each interface. Flow topology can change with changing expressions for the fluxes. Non-conservative terms are correctly approximated. Some of the closure relations missing from the traditional approach are automatically obtained. Lastly, we can often times identify the continuous equation system, resulting from taking the continuous limit with weak wave assumptions, of the discrete equations. This can be very useful from a theoretical standpoint. As a first step toward implict integration of the DEM method in multidimensions, in this paper we construct a DEM model for the flow of two compressible phases in 1-D ducts of spatially varying cross-section to test this approach. To relieve time step size restrictions due to stiffness and to achieve tighter coupling of equations, a fully implicit time integration method is employed. For the first time, we demonstrate on a converging-diverging two-phase nozzle that this well-posed, 2 pressure, 2 velocity DEM model can be integrated to a meaningful steady-state with both phases treated as compressible.

Ray A. Berry; Richard Saurel; Tamara Grimmett

2009-07-01

205

Dry coating in a high shear mixer: Comparison of experimental results with DEM analysis of particle motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental dry coating of guest particles on the surface of host particles is performed by mechanical forces in a high shear mixer called ``Cyclomix''. The studied system (a mixture of particles of sugar, ``Suglet™'' as host particles and magnesium stearate as guest particles) was chosen as a model one to achieve better understandings of the phenomena during mixing. To simulate the flow of host/guest particles in the mixer, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was applied. Experimental results such as flowability and wettability can be explained by particles flows evolutions with different rotational speed or duration treatment inside the Cyclomix.

Serris, E.; Sato, A.; Chamayou, A.; Galet, L.; Baron, M.; Grosseau, P.; Thomas, G.

2013-06-01

206

A new lunar global DEM derived from Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter data based on crossover adjustment with local topographic constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a crossover adjustment method with local topographic constraint and a new lunar global digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Chang'E-1Laser Altimeter (LAM) data based on the crossover adjustment. With about 9.12 million altimetric points acquired by the LAM, we derived more than 141,000 crossovers that cover the entire lunar surface after eliminating outliers of orbits and altimetric points. The global lunar surface is divided into 32 local blocks, and the least squares adjustment of crossover differences is performed for each block using the local topographic constraint information extracted from the planar areas. Smooth transitions among the neighbouring blocks are ensured through sufficient overlapping areas and virtual control points from the planar areas. After the crossover adjustment, root mean square (RMS) of the residuals is reduced from 149.51 m to 54.75 m after using three parameters for each profile in each block in the mid-latitude region. In polar regions, RMS is reduced from more than 150 m to less than 100 m after using seven parameters for each profile. The resulting lunar global DEM has a significantly improved quality in the local consistencies, i.e. artefacts in the original DEM are eliminated or decreased. The new lunar global DEM is also compared with the laser altimeter data from NASA's LRO mission and JAXA's KAGUYA mission. After comparison, the result shows that the DEMs are consistent and that adjustment does not deform the lunar terrain.

Hu, Wenmin; Di, Kaichang; Liu, Zhaoqin; Ping, Jinsong

2013-10-01

207

Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids fluidized beds: Part II - Validation studies  

SciTech Connect

With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Sreekanth, Pannala

2012-04-01

208

Developing and programming a watershed traversal algorithm (WTA) in GRID-DEM and adapting it to hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for programming hydrological processes into watersheds using grid-type digital elevation models (DEMs) is investigated. This methodology is based on the basic configuration of the flow directions structure in the DEM, which is stored in files where information about topological relations and other frequently used features are saved. Some basic functions for managing topological data that significantly simplify the source code programming are also presented and described. We develop an algorithm that runs the entire drainage network in a watershed in both directions, upwards and downwards, which is ideal for incorporating structural models of hydrological processes that occur in basins or assessing its characteristics. The main attribute of this method is that information about hydrological processes and properties is transmitted during the routing from one area to another of the basin. The information is used when developing models of these hydrological processes and transmitted throughout the basin. At the end of the article, using this methodology with the SHEE software is illustrated with some examples.

Mateo Lázaro, Jesús; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; García Gil, Alejandro; Edo Romero, Vanesa

2013-02-01

209

Hydrography change detection: the usefulness of surface channels derived From LiDAR DEMs for updating mapped hydrography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1:24,000-scale high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) mapped hydrography flow lines require regular updating because land surface conditions that affect surface channel drainage change over time. Historically, NHD flow lines were created by digitizing surface water information from aerial photography and paper maps. Using these same methods to update nationwide NHD flow lines is costly and inefficient; furthermore, these methods result in hydrography that lacks the horizontal and vertical accuracy needed for fully integrated datasets useful for mapping and scientific investigations. Effective methods for improving mapped hydrography employ change detection analysis of surface channels derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) digital elevation models (DEMs) and NHD flow lines. In this article, we describe the usefulness of surface channels derived from LiDAR DEMs for hydrography change detection to derive spatially accurate and time-relevant mapped hydrography. The methods employ analyses of horizontal and vertical differences between LiDAR-derived surface channels and NHD flow lines to define candidate locations of hydrography change. These methods alleviate the need to analyze and update the nationwide NHD for time relevant hydrography, and provide an avenue for updating the dataset where change has occurred.

Poppenga, Sandra K.; Gesch, Dean B.; Worstell, Bruce B.

2013-01-01

210

Sudan und Sd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?  

E-print Network

Gebieten im Nord-Sudan (Provinz Blue Nile, Provinz South Kordofan und Region Abyei) zu Konflikten zwischenSudan und Süd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation? Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (Fachbereich aktuellen Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan haben, wie die Konflikte innerhalb der beiden

Koenig, Friederike - Fachbereich 2 Biologie

211

The mass balance record and surge behavior of Drangajökull Ice Cap (Iceland) from 1946 to 2011 deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution and accuracy (e.g. based on LiDAR survey) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of glaciers and their close vicinity have significantly improved the methods for calculation of geodetic mass balance and study of changes in glacier dynamics. However additional data is needed to extend such studies back in time. Here we present a geodetically derived mass balance record for Drangajökull ice cap (NW-Iceland) since 1946 to present. The mass balance is calculated from a series of DEMs derived by photogrammetric processing of aerial photographs (years: 1946, 1975, 1985, 1994) and a LiDAR DEM (2011). All Ground Control Points (GCPs) used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs, used in the photogrammetric processing, are picked from the LiDAR derived DEM, thus eliminating the time consuming and expensive in situ survey of GCPs. The LiDAR DEM also helps to assess the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived DEMs, by analyzing the residuals in elevation in ice-free areas. For the DEMs of 1975, 1985 and 1994 the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the residuals is less than 2 m, whereas the accuracy of the DEM of 1946 is worse, with RMSE of 5.5 m, caused by the deteriorated images. The geodetic mass balance yields a negative specific mass balance of ~-0.5 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1946-1975, followed by periods of positive mass balance: ~0.2 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1975-1985 and ~0.3 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1985-1994. Negative specific mass balance of ~-0.6 m w.e.a-¹ is derived for the period 1994-2011. High mass redistribution is observed during 1985-1994 and 1994-2011 on the three main outlets of the ice cap, related to surges. The derived orthophotographs allow tracking of stable features at individual locations on the northern part of Drangajökull, indicating an average velocity of 5-10 m a-¹ for the period 1946-1985 and speeding up in the last two periods due to a surge.

Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

2014-05-01

212

Machine vision approach to auto-generation of high resolution, continental-scale geomorphometric map from DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphometric map (GM) is a map of landforms delineated exclusively on the basis of their morphology; it depicts a classification of landscape into its constituent elements. GM is a valuable tool for visual terrain analysis, but more importantly, it's a perfect terrain representation for its further algorithmic analysis. GMs themselves are auto-generated from DEM. We have developed a new technique for auto-generation of GMs that is based on the principle of machine vision. Such approach approximates more closely the mapping process of human analyst and results in an efficient generation of GMs having quality and utility superior to maps generated by a standard technique based on differential geometry. The core of the new technique is a notion of geomorphon. A geomorphon is a relief-invariant, orientation-invariant, and size-flexible abstracted elementary unit of terrain. It is calculated from DEM using simple ternary patterns defined on a neighborhood which size adapts to the character of local terrain. Geomorphons are both terrain attributes and landform types at the same time; they allow for a direct and highly efficient, single-step classification and mapping of landforms. There are 498 unique geomorphons but only a small fraction of them are found in typical natural terrain. The geomorphon-based mapping technique is implemented as a GRASS GIS extension written in ANSI C and will be available in the public domain. In order to showcase the capabilities of geomorphons we have calculated the GM for the entire conterminous United States from the 30m/pixel NED DEM. The map shows ten most abundant landforms: flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, spur, slope, hollow, footslope, valley, and pit; a lookup table was used to assign each of the remaining 488 infrequent forms to a morphologically closest mapped form. The result is a unique, never before seen, type of map that clearly shows multiple geomorphic features and indicates the underlying geologic processes. The auto-generation of GM from this high resolution, continental size raster having 168000x104000 cells took 60 hours on a single processor computer. Future applications of such GM include coupling it with a search tool capable of querying the continental-scale GM in order to identify all instances of a given type of local landscape.

Jasiewicz, J.; Stepinski, T. F.

2012-04-01

213

The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography are essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (? 25 points m- 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner's vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner's position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC (Agisoft PhotoScan) and DEMMCM (MicMac), respectively, with spatial resolutions of 1 × 1 m. Comparing the DEMs with the 1098 GCPs showed that the DEMTLS was the most accurate data product, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.5 cm, followed by the DEMMCM and the DEMPSC, which had RMSE values of 9.0 and 13.9 cm, respectively. The DEMPSC had absolute errors along the border of the study area that ranged from 15.0 to 52.0 cm, indicating the presence of systematic errors. Although the derived DEMMCM was accurate, an error analysis along a transect showed that the errors in the DEMMCM data tended to increase in areas of lower elevation. Compared with TLS, UAS is a promising tool for data collection because of its flexibility and low operational cost. However, improvements are needed in the photogrammetric processing of the aerial photographs to remove non-linear distortions.

Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

2014-06-01

214

Frühkindliche Bildung und spätere kognitive und nichtkognitive Fähigkeiten: deutsche und internationale Evidenz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dieser Artikel präsentiert Ergebnisse mehrerer international vergleichender und deutscher mikroökonometrischer Untersuchungen zum Zusammenhang zwischen frühkindlicher Bildung und späteren kognitiven und nichtkognitiven Fähigkeiten anhand der TIMSS-, PISA-, IGLU- und DJI-Kinderpanel- Datensatze. Die teils neue Evidenz belegt, dass der Besuch frühkindlicher Bildungseinrichtungen meist positiv mit späteren kognitiven und sozialen Kompetenzen zusammenhängt. Die international vergleichende Evidenz zu kognitiven Fähigkeiten deutet insbesondere auf eine

Martin Schlotter; Ludger Wößmann

2010-01-01

215

Magensekretion und Haut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Nach Diskussion der möglichen Zusammenhänge zwischen Hautkrankheiten und Magensekretionsstörungen werden die Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Auswertung von mittels der fraktionierten Magenausheberung erhobenen Befunden bei Hautkranken mitgeteilt. Berücksichtigt wurden bei der Auswertung 224 Patienten mit 9 verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern, bei denen ein Zusammenhang mit intestinalen Störungen vermutet wird (chronische Urticaria, Rosacea, Prurigo simplex subacuta, Acne vulgaris, Acne necroticans, polymorphe Lichtdermatose, seborrhoisches Ekzem,

H. Zaun; H. Halbauer

1965-01-01

216

Numerical slope stability simulations of chasma walls in Valles Marineris/Mars using a distinct element method (dem).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NUMERICAL SLOPE STABILITY SIMULATIONS OF CHASMA WALLS IN VALLES MARINERIS/MARS USING A DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD (DEM). B. Imre (1) (1) German Aerospace Center, Berlin Adlershof, bernd.imre@gmx.net The 8- to 10-km depths of Valles Marineris (VM) offer excellent views into the upper Martian crust. Layering, fracturing, lithology, stratigraphy and the content of volatiles have influenced the evolution of the Valles Marineris wallslopes. But these parameters also reflect the development of VM and its wall slopes. The scope of this work is to gain understanding in these parameters by back-simulating the development of wall slopes. For that purpose, the two dimensional Particle Flow Code PFC2D has been chosen (ITASCA, version 2.00-103). PFC2D is a distinct element code for numerical modelling of movements and interactions of assemblies of arbitrarily sized circular particles. Particles may be bonded together to represent a solid material. Movements of particles are unlimited. That is of importance because results of open systems with numerous unknown variables are non-unique and therefore highly path dependent. This DEM allows the simulation of whole development paths of VM walls what makes confirmation of the model more complete (e.g. Oreskes et al., Science 263, 1994). To reduce the number of unknown variables a proper (that means as simple as possible) field-site had to be selected. The northern wall of eastern Candor Chasma has been chosen. This wall is up to 8-km high and represents a significant outcrop of the upper Martian crust. It is quite uncomplex, well-aligned and of simple morphology. Currently the work on the model is at the stage of performing the parameter study. Results will be presented via poster by the EGS-Meeting.

Imre, B.

2003-04-01

217

MARE2DEM: an open-source code for anisotropic inversion of controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data using parallel adaptive 2D finite elements (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work announces the public release of an open-source inversion code named MARE2DEM (Modeling with Adaptively Refined Elements for 2D Electromagnetics). Although initially designed for the rapid inversion of marine electromagnetic data, MARE2DEM now supports a wide variety of acquisition configurations for both offshore and onshore surveys that utilize electric and magnetic dipole transmitters or magnetotelluric plane waves. The model domain is flexibly parameterized using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygonal regions, allowing for complicated structures such as topography or seismically imaged horizons to be easily assimilated. MARE2DEM efficiently solves the forward problem in parallel by dividing the input data parameters into smaller subsets using a parallel data decomposition algorithm. The data subsets are then solved in parallel using an automatic adaptive finite element method that iterative solves the forward problem on successively refined finite element meshes until a specified accuracy tolerance is met, thus freeing the end user from the burden of designing an accurate numerical modeling grid. Regularized non-linear inversion for isotropic or anisotropic conductivity is accomplished with a new implementation of Occam's method referred to as fast-Occam, which is able to minimize the objective function in much fewer forward evaluations than the required by the original method. This presentation will review the theoretical considerations behind MARE2DEM and use a few recent offshore EM data sets to demonstrate its capabilities and to showcase the software interface tools that streamline model building and data inversion.

Key, K.

2013-12-01

218

freenet Sync auf dem iPhone einrichten Diese Anleitung beschreibt die Einstellungen zur freenet Sync Konfiguration Ihres iPhones.  

E-print Network

freenet Sync auf dem iPhone einrichten Diese Anleitung beschreibt die Einstellungen zur freenet Sync Konfiguration Ihres iPhones. Schritt 1: Tippen Sie in Ihrem Home-Screen auf "Einstellungen". #12 Sie anschlie�end gefragt, ob Sie dabei die Kontakte auf Ihrem iPhone behalten oder löschen möchten um

Gediga, Günther

219

Suitability evaluation of fruit trees in Fujian southern mountain areas based on DEM and GIS using a multi-criteria evaluation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach to identify suitable areas for the production of banana, lichee and longyan in Southeast of Fujian Province in China is presented. Climate, terrain and soil databases were used to integrate GIS coverage. Because of the varied topography of Fujian province, the yearly average temperature and minimum temperature were modeled through DEM for

Qiu Bingwen; Chi Tianhe; Wang Qinmin; Wang Xiaoqin; Lan Zhangren

2004-01-01

220

Assessment of a Near-Global 30-meter Resolution DEM Derived from the Publicly Available SRTM Data Set for Use in Orthorectification of Satellite SAR Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) utilized an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) flown onboard the space shuttle Endeavour to obtain high resolution elevation data of Earth's land surface. Virtually all land surface between +/- 60 degrees latitude was mapped. Regions within these bounds contain some data gaps but this represents less than 0.2 % of the coverage. Standard publicly-available data sets from SRTM include a 3 arc-second (~90 meter) resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with absolute average global vertical accuracy of approximately 4 to 5 meters. A 1 arc-second (~30 meter) resolution DEM has also been developed, but only the portion of the data set covering the United States is publicly available. The finished version of these products has been edited for pixel-level errors and delineation of coastlines and water bodies, although some data voids are still present. Utilizing such DEMs of appropriate resolution in a common framework with satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data allows robust ortho-rectification and geo-referencing of the SAR data sets. We have derived a 1 arc-second resolution DEM over the entire domain of the SRTM coverage using a 3- dimensional interpolation scheme applied to the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM. Development of this product involves (1) translation of SRTM products into the WGS84 datum, (2) interpolation of the lower resolution DEMs to 1 arc- second, and (3) assembly of the global-scale 1 arc-second DEM. We assess effectiveness of this interpolation scheme through comparative statistical analysis of the 3 arc-second finished product, the 1 arc-second finished product, and the 1 arc-second interpolated product over selected test regions within the USA where all products are available. Comparisons are also made to standard GTOPO30 products for regions inside and outside of the USA. Comparisons are presented for regions representative of gentle and complex terrain. Ortho-rectification of SAR data such as those obtained from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and ALOS PALSAR allows for an accurate representation of these data, providing crucial information accounting for effects of topography on geophysical retrievals. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

McDonald, K. C.; Chapman, B.; Podest, E.; Jimenez, A.

2007-12-01

221

Estimation of mass change rates of surge-type glaciers in the Karakoram derived from TanDEM-X and SRTM Digital Elevation Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in the Karakoram region exhibit stable and advancing termini positions accompanied by less negative or even positive surface mass balances in comparison to the adjacent Greater Himalaya Range and the Hindu Kush mountains. Moreover, a large number of surge-type glaciers is found in the Karakoram. During the active phase of a surge, ice masses are shifted from the reservoir area towards the receiving area of a glacier. Remote sensing based methods provide various possibilities to identify surge-type glaciers (termini position changes, surface velocity variations, mass changes), where in-situ measurements are hardly available. The present study focuses on glacier mass changes in the Karakoram between 2000 and 2013 derived from DEM differencing. We used the C-band SRTM DEM (February, 2000) and high resolution TanDEM-X data (2011-2013). Due to quasi bi-static image acquisitions, TanDEM-X data is very suitable for interferometric elevation generation minimizing decorrelation impacts. However, influences of different penetration depths of X- and C-band have to be considered. We quantified glacier volume and mass changes for the central part of the Karakoram for a twelve year period. For a surge-type glacier in the Shimshal Valley we observed a mass relocation of 2.96±2.52 m/a w.e. close to its snout between 2000 and 2012. Further case studies will be presented including annual mass changes (2011-2013) determined using repeat TanDEM-X acquisitions. In addition to interannual surface velocity changes, mass change observations can help to obverse the propagation of the surge front down-glacier and quantify the relocation of mass during an active surge phase.

Rankl, Melanie; Braun, Matthias; Vijay, Saurabh

2014-05-01

222

Characterization of the Sediment Routing System of the Argentine Las Peñas Thrust From ASTER Imagery Interpretation and DEM Terrain Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an arid region north of Mendoza, Argentina active structures of the Precordilleran fold and thrust belt control sedimentation in the proximal Andean foreland basin. Initiation of new thrust faults and along-strike growth of fault-propagation folds drives uplift of hanging-wall source areas. Drainage basin initiation and development in the Las Peñas thrust hanging-wall triggers erosion of sediment, controlling transport and depositional mechanisms in the associated alluvial fan system. Alluvial fans are classified as either sheetflood or debris-flow fans based on the areally dominant process responsible for producing the sediment wedge as recorded in the surface character and morphology of the fans. Traditionally, information about these systems has been directly measured using manual methods such as ground surveying and visible image interpretation. This study implements remote sensing with ASTER spectral data and derived topographic data to characterize both fan surfaces and drainage basins. AST14DMO data include fourteen ASTER Level-1B calibrated nadir looking radiance bands at 15-m (VNIR), 30-m (SWIR) and 90-m (TIR) resolution. AST14DMO also includes the ASTER 30-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from stereoscopic data from the VNIR sensor. These bands were used in rule-based classification implemented in statistical software. The classification was used for mapping and measuring the patterns and spectral characteristics of fan surfaces. TIR and VNIR explanatory variables in decision trees highlighted differences in fan environmental variables including soil conditions, sediment size, and vegetation (moisture, roughness, and composition) indicative of process and rate of deposition on alluvial fans. Terrain Analysis conducted with the ASTER 30-m DEM focused on morphology of the drainage basin sector of the sediment routing system. Drainage basin characteristics including areal extent, slope, aspect, hypsometric curves, and bedrock geology were identified and compared. The information was used to interpret transport and depositional mechanisms within the system, as well as identify source materials and possible ranges of fluid-sediment concentrations for each basin. The geometry of the developing Las Peñas thrust controls attributes of both drainage basin source areas, and alluvial fan depositional environments as shown by their variation along the fault. The techniques and setting of this study inform interpretations of processes active in modern systems that are applicable to ancient systems on Earth and elsewhere.

Abrahamson, I. S.; Schmitt, J.

2009-12-01

223

Developing sub 5-m LiDAR DEMs for forested sections of the Alpine and Hope faults, South Island, New Zealand: Implications for structural interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kilometre-wide airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys were collected along portions of the Alpine and Hope faults in New Zealand to assess the potential for generating sub 5-m bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) from ground return data in areas of dense rainforest (bush) cover as an aid to mapping these faults. The 34-km long Franz-Whataroa LiDAR survey was flown along the densely-vegetated central-most portion of the transpressive Alpine Fault. Six closely spaced flight lines (200 m apart) yielded survey coverage with double overlap of swath collection, which was considered necessary due to the low density of ground returns (0.16 m-2 or a point every 6 m2) under mature West Coast podocarp-broadleaf rainforest. This average point spacing (˜2.5 m) allowed for the generation of a robust, high quality 3-m bare earth DEM. The DEM confirmed the zigzagged form of the surface trace of the Alpine Fault in this area, originally recognised by Norris and Cooper (1995, 1997) and highlights that the surface strike variations are more variant than previously mapped. The 29-km long Hurunui-Hope LiDAR survey was flown east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps along the dextral-slip Hope Fault, where the terrain is characterised by lower rainfall and more open beech forest. Flight line spacings of ˜275 m were used to generate a DEM from the ground return data. The average ground return values under beech forest were 0.27 m-2 and yielded an estimated cell size suitable for a 2-m DEM. In both cases the LiDAR revealed unprecedented views of the surface geomorphology of these active faults. Lessons learned from our survey methodologies can be employed to plan cost-effective, high-gain airborne surveys to yield bare earth DEMs underneath vegetated terrain and multi-storeyed canopies from densely forested environments across New Zealand and worldwide.

Langridge, R. M.; Ries, W. F.; Farrier, T.; Barth, N. C.; Khajavi, N.; De Pascale, G. P.

2014-07-01

224

An iterative LiDAR DEM-aided algorithm for GNSS positioning in obstructed/rapidly undulating environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new algorithm to aid stand-alone GNSS positioning in areas of bad signal reception using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Traditional Height-Aiding (HA) algorithms assume either a preset (fixed) value for the receiver elevation or rely on the elevation value that corresponds to the nearest available position fix. This may lead in erroneous receiver elevation estimates that, under circumstances, are inefficient to aid effectively GNSS positioning. In this study, the receiver elevation is updated at every iteration step of the navigation solution through dynamic interpolation of the elevation model. The algorithm, because of its ability to extract and fully exploit the elevation information derived from a digital model, it can prove particularly useful in forested areas with steep-sloped terrain. Extended test runs were undertaken to validate the correctness of the mathematical model and the feasibility of the algorithm and associated software. Particularly, analysis of a dataset acquired in a forested, rapidly undulating environment reveals significant average improvement in all performance metrics of positioning, namely the GNSS position availability (50%), accuracy (56%) and external reliability (86%) compared to the Standard Point Positioning (SPP) solution. Moreover, it was found that the method can cope successfully in marginal operating conditions with situations of bad satellite geometry and satellite signals affected by interference due to tree canopy.

Danezis, Chris; Gikas, Vassilis

2013-09-01

225

Numerical Modelling of the Anisotropic Mechanical Behaviour of Opalinus Clay at the Laboratory-Scale Using FEM/DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Opalinus Clay (OPA) is an argillaceous rock formation selected to host a deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in Switzerland. It has been shown that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in this formation is heavily affected by the anisotropic mechanical response of the material related to the presence of bedding planes. In this context, the purpose of this study is twofold: (i) to illustrate the new developments that have been introduced into the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM) to model layered materials and (ii) to demonstrate the effectiveness of this new modelling approach in simulating the short-term mechanical response of OPA at the laboratory-scale. A transversely isotropic elastic constitutive law is implemented to account for the anisotropic elastic modulus, while a procedure to incorporate a distribution of preferentially oriented defects is devised to capture the anisotropic strength. Laboratory results of indirect tensile tests and uniaxial compression tests are used to calibrate the numerical model. Emergent strength and deformation properties, together with the simulated damage mechanisms, are shown to be in strong agreement with experimental observations. Subsequently, the calibrated model is validated by investigating the effect of confinement and the influence of the loading angle with respect to the specimen anisotropy. Simulated fracture patterns are discussed in the context of the theory of brittle rock failure and analyzed with reference to the EDZ formation mechanisms observed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory.

Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Vietor, Tim

2014-01-01

226

Leveraging the power of multi-core platforms for large-scale geospatial data processing: Exemplified by generating DEM from massive LiDAR point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years improvements in spatial data acquisition technologies, such as LiDAR, resulted in an explosive increase in the volume of spatial data, presenting unprecedented challenges for computation capacity. At the same time, the kernel of computing platforms the CPU, also evolved from a single-core to multi-core architecture. This radical change significantly affected existing data processing algorithms. Exemplified by the problem of generating DEM from massive air-borne LiDAR point clouds, this paper studies how to leverage the power of multi-core platforms for large-scale geospatial data processing and demonstrates how multi-core technologies can improve performance. Pipelining is adopted to exploit the thread level parallelism of multi-core platforms. First, raw point clouds are partitioned into overlapped blocks. Second, these discrete blocks are interpolated concurrently on parallel pipelines. On the interpolation run, intermediate results are sorted and finally merged into an integrated DEM. This parallelization demonstrates the great potential of multi-core platforms with high data throughput and low memory footprint. This approach achieves excellent performance speedup with greatly reduced processing time. For example, on a 2.0 GHz Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform, the proposed parallel approach can process approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 12 min and produces a 27,500×30,500 raster DEM, using less than 800 MB main memory.

Guan, Xuefeng; Wu, Huayi

2010-10-01

227

Identification of structural controls in an active lava dome with high resolution DEMs: Volcán de Colima, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the topography of active lava domes is critical for detecting changes that may trigger or influence collapse or explosive activity. Internal dome structure and conditions are more difficult to elucidate, but also play vital roles. Here, we describe the exposure (following an explosion) of significant scarps in the active dome at Volcán de Colima, Mexico, that are interpreted as evidence of brittle failure planes and a complex internal dome morphology. In the first use of automated 3D computer vision reconstruction techniques (structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo, SfM-MVS) on an active volcanic dome, we derive high resolution surface models from oblique and archive photographs taken with a consumer camera. The resulting 3D models were geo-referenced using features identified in a web-sourced orthoimage; no ground-based measurements were required. In December 2010, the dome (2.14 × 106 m3) had a flat upper surface, reflecting an overall ductile emplacement regime. Between then and May 2011, a period of low explosivity was accompanied by a small volume loss (0.4 × 105 m3) and arcuate steps appeared in the dome surface, suggesting the presence of localized planes of weakness. The complex array of summit scarps was exposed following a significant explosion in June 2011, and is interpreted to be the surface expression of fault planes in the dome. The 1-m resolution DEMs indicated that the region of greatest volume loss was not coincident with the assumed location of the conduit, and that heterogeneity within the dome may have been important during the June explosion.

James, M. R.; Varley, N.

2012-11-01

228

Lineament Mapping for Hydrogeological Characterization of Volcanic Terrains Using Products Derived from DEMs, Radar, Landsat and Aster Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing techniques can be used in the characterization of landscapes for assessing groundwater resources. Expressions of the subsurface geological conditions, such as faulting, qualitative proximity of the groundwater table to the surface, and changes in bedrock geology, can be inferred from satellite imagery. Products obtained from satellite imagery can identify areas of higher potential for more detailed water resources exploration activities, such as surface geophysics, hydrochemistry and hydraulic analysis to be focus on these priority areas. Lineament mapping has been the most common application of remotely sensed imagery to delineate places for geophysical studies and well drilling. A remote sensing-based protocol is presented for characterizing fracture networks, discontinuities and boundaries of local and regional aquifer systems, and to evaluate their control on natural hydrological behavior and well yields in volcanic aquifers. The protocol is tested using satellite imagery (RADARSAT-1, Landsat TM and ETM+, Aster) and two DEMs (30- and 90-m spatial resolutions) applied to the Quito Aquifer System (QAS). The aquifer is located in the Central Inter-Andean Valley of Ecuador, a region affected by active volcanism and faulting and characterized by basins filled with series of volcanic deposits and primary and reworked sedimentary rocks. Coincidence analysis was applied after initial processing and interpretation to obtain a lineament map of the study areas. By combining our results with those from previous geological studies and hydrogeological data, a pattern of fracturing that is affecting the hydrogeology of the QAS can be distinguished and an improved understanding of the regional flow systems was gained.

Rios-Sanchez, M.; Gierke, J. S.; Muñoz-Martínez, T.

2010-12-01

229

DEMS 4th period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, you are going to practice finding multiples and adding fractions! FIRST, you will practice finding multiples with the Mayor of Pumpkinville. You will START with finding multiples of 2. THEN, you will find multiples of 3 through 12. Once you have TEN multiples of EACH number, you may move to the next game! GOOD LUCK! CLICK HERE -->Pumpkin Multiples Once you have ...

Smith, Ms.

2009-02-14

230

Milchforschung mit dem Elektronenmikroskop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study reports on the use of the electron microscope to solve problems in dairy science. Results of the structure studies of milk fat globules, butter, whipped cream, casein particles, cheese and of microorganisms occurring in milk are presented and their importance for the manufacture of cheese and butter stressed. Structural changes of the milk constituents as a

Anne-Marie Knoop

1979-01-01

231

Zur Unterscheidung von Thamnobryum subserratum (Hook. ex Harv.) Nog. & Z. Iwats. und Thamnobryum neckeroides (Hook.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung: Die Unterschiede zwischen den jüngst in Europa nachgewiesenen Thamnobryum subserratum, welches unter diesem Namen aus Japan und als Th. allegheniense aus Nordamerika bekannt ist, sowie dem zuvor nur aus dem westlichen Nordamerika bekannten Thamnobryum neckeroides und dem heimischen Thamnobryum alopecurum sind nach der Literatur zusammengestellt und an Hand von Herbarmaterial illustriert. Die Variabilität von Thamnobryum alopecurum ist diskutiert. Abstract:

E. Lawton; Jan-Peter Frahm

232

Differential Movement across Byrd Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: A combined (U-Th)/He and DEM Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Byrd Glacier, a major outlet glacier crossing the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), marks a major discontinuity in the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross orogen, with plutonic and upper-amphibolite metamorphic rocks to the north and folded limestones and conglomerates to the south. The objectives of this study are to assess possible differential movement across an inferred fault under Byrd Glacier, measure the timing of unroofing, and gain an overall better understanding of the architecture of the TAM. One datum for assessing possible differential movement in this area is the Kukri peneplain: an unconformity on the Ross basement rocks, which is overlain by Devonian to Triassic sediments and only mildly deformed. To determine the timing of unroofing, euhedral apatites separated from rock samples collected from a variety of elevations and locations north and south of Byrd Glacier were dated using single crystal (U-Th)/He thermochronology. The (U-Th)/He data reveal distinct cooling histories north and south of Byrd Glacier. Data on age vs. elevation plots indicate an offset of ~1 km across Byrd Glacier with a common denudation rate of ~0.04 mm/yr between 180 - 40 Ma. Two models plausibly explain this geochronologic data. In the first model, a relative uniform unroofing across Byrd Glacier is offset by later fault displacement; the second model involves differential unroofing with the north side exhumed earlier than the south side. To test the relative merits of these models, we utilize the Kukri peneplain. A Landsat image of the Byrd Glacier area was overlain on Aster Global DEM data and spot elevations of the Kukri peneplain to the north and south of Byrd Glacier were mapped where possible. The difference in elevation of the peneplain as projected in a cross section across Byrd Glacier shows an offset of approximately 550 m. The results of this study suggest a model of relatively uniform unroofing with later fault displacement that uplifted the south side relative to the north side. This method of combining geochronologic and remote geomorphic analysis, utilizing a peneplain as a datum, has provided insight into a likely unroofing model, denudation history, and better understanding of differential movement, which can complement other thermochronologic studies elsewhere within the TAM.

Foley, D. J.; Stump, E.; van Soest, M. C.; Whipple, K. X.; Hodges, K.

2010-12-01

233

Activity of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira Volcanoes (Dem. Rep. of Congo) Revealed Using Geological, Geophysical and InSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based monitoring of active volcanoes in Africa can be problematic due to political instabilities, safety issues and poor accessibility. Remote-sensing techniques such as Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR, more commonly InSAR), are therefore very useful and provide robust observational tools for natural hazard assessment, regardless of local conditions. Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes (which experienced nine eruptions from December 1996 to January 2010) are located in the western branch of the East African Rift (Virunga Volcanic Province, North Kivu, Dem. Rep. of Congo). InSAR has recorded ground displacements related to most of the tectonic and volcanic events that have occurred since 1996 using SAR images from the JERS, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2 and ALOS satellites. This database provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution of deformation, leading to insights into tectonic and volcanic processes. Loss of coherence within the SAR signal due to rapid-changing equatorial vegetation hampers the use of InSAR as a volcano-tectonic monitoring tool. We partially overcome this limitation using 1) a large number of SAR images, including about 150 ENVISAT and more than 100 RADARSAT-1 images, 2) short repeat times of 24 and 35 days for RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT, respectively, and 3) satellites with longer wavelengths, such as JERS and ALOS. Using a large dataset combining short revisit time SAR images significantly increases the chances of producing interferograms with good coherence. A longer wavelength radar signal better penetrates vegetation cover, also increasing coherence. Furthermore, useful data were retrieved in low-coherence areas by applying the “StaMPS” (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers) method, which combines a small baseline and persistent scatterers approach, to our largest SAR datasets. Using several look angles from both ascending and descending orbital tracks, we were able to characterize the 3D ground displacement field. A 3D Mixed Boundary Element Method is used to infer geometry and physical characteristics of the sources controlling volcanic unrest and tectonic activity. In addition, we combined our InSAR database with other available data, such as seismicity from a network maintained since 2002 and results from geological and geophysical surveys from the volcanoes, to better constrain source processes. The improved understanding and constraints on volcanic processes in the North Kivu area made possible by this multidisciplinary approach will be highlighted with a few case studies of recent volcanic activity.

Wauthier, C.; Cayol, V.; Hooper, A.; Kervyn, F.; Marinkovic, P.; D'Oreye, N.; Poland, M. P.

2010-12-01

234

InSAR techniques for reliable deformation estimation in volcanic areas and a first glance of Tandem-DEM accuracy - test site El Hierro Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and availability of deformation measurements using InSAR techniques is limited due to decorrelation effects, atmospheric disturbances and the SAR side-looking geometry (layover and shadowing). In this talk, we present our recent research and achievements on advanced InSAR techniques in order to retrieve reliable deformation signals from active volcanoes using high resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) images. Another highlight of this talk is the evaluation of an experimental TanDEM-X (TDX) RawDEM with a resolution of approximately 6 m in order to compensate the topographic phase. A volcanic test site which is currently highly active -El Hierro- has been selected to demonstrate the developed techniques: 1) PSI processing in volcanic areas using high resolution TSX images; 2) Mitigation of atmospheric delay distortions; 3) Fusion of multi-geometrical PSI clouds. In order to measure the deformation from 2011 to 2013 at El Hierro [1], two stacks of stripmap TSX Mission data have been acquired, one in ascending orbit and one in descending. Each stack has more than 25 scenes. More than 1.5 million PSs have been detected (SCR>3.0 dB). The stratified atmospheric delay for each acquisition has been integrated for the PSI reference network and, afterwards, interpolated and compensated for all PSs. A linear deformation model has been assumed for PSI processing. For the descending orbit stack, a relative deformation from -21.7 to 131.8 mm/y from Sep. 2011 to Jan. 2013 with respect to a reference point located on the northeast coast has been measured. On the one hand, the spatial variation of the deformation has a good agreement with the seismicity distribution [1]. On the other hand, the deformation magnitude agrees with in-situ GPS measurements [2]. In ascending orbit, the linear deformation rate varies from -22.8 to 90.9 mm/y. This different range of value is due to a scene acquired on Feb. 2010, which has been included in order to obtain the pre-seismic deformation signal. Comparing the results before and after stratified atmospheric delay compensation, the atmospheric induced deformation is correlated with height, but not linear. The deformation error induced by atmosphere has an absolute impact of more than 10 mm/y in this case. In topography, the maximum error is up to10 m. A TDX-RawDEM has been used for topographic phase removal. A significant improvement in single differential interferograms has been observed when compared to SRTM-DEM based topography removal. The topographic updates of the RawDEM are located mostly in urban areas and in vegetated areas. Most of height differences are located in a range between -5 and 5 m, except for layover and shadowing areas. In this case, the standard deviation of the uncalibrated RawDEM height noise is better 2.5 m both in ascending orbit and in descending orbit. [1] Lopez, C., et al. (2012), Monitoring the volcanic unrest of El Hierro (Canary Islands) before the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett. [2] GPS Deformation: www.seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp/sagiya/Sagiyas_Page/Canary.html

Cong, X.; Eineder, M.; Fritz, T.

2013-12-01

235

Tracking and evolution of irrigation triggered active landslides by multi-source high resolution DEM: The Jiaojiacun landslide group of Heifangtai (Northwest of China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of three large hydropower stations, i.e. Liujia, Yanguo and Bapan, resulted in the immigration of the impacted people to Heifangtai from 1960s. To support the living and farming of the immigrated people, a large amount of water has been pumped from the Yellow River to Heifangtai, which has changed the former underground water budget and led to 111 landslides from 1968 in this area. To reveal the deformation process of landslides in Heifangtai, a quantitative deformation analysis model of landslide based on multi-source DEM data is established using four periods of topographic maps obtained in 1970, 2001, 2010 and 2013 respectively, including two 1:10000 topographic maps and two 1:1000 data acquired from 3D Laser Scanner. The whole study area was divided into two sections based on the two distinct kinds of landslide patterns. The selected morphometric parameters, residual topographic surface and surface roughness, extracted from three typical landslides, and the statistical analysis (Box-plot diagrams) of the temporal variations of these parameters, allowed the reconstruction and tracking of these landslides. We monitored the changing of landslide boundaries, average vertical and horizontal displacement rates and zones of uplift and subsidence. The volumes of removed and/or accumulated material were estimated as well. We can then demonstrate the kinematics of landslides based on information from high-resolution DEM, and the changing table of underground water, ring-shear test and soil-water characteristic curve referenced from other researchers. The results provide a new insight on the use of multi-source high resolution DEM in the monitoring of irrigation-triggered landslides.

Zeng, Runqiang; Meng, Xingmin; Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Guan; Lee, Yajun; Zhang, Yi

2014-05-01

236

Seasonal variabilty of surface velocities and ice discharge of Columbia Glacier, Alaska using high-resolution TanDEM-X satellite time series and NASA IceBridge data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Columbia Glacier is a grounded tidewater glacier located on the south coast of Alaska. It has lost half of its volume during 1957-2007, more rapidly after 1980. It is now split into two branches, known as Main/East and West branch due to the dramatic retreat of ~ 23 km and calving of iceberg from its terminus in past few decades. In Alaska, a majority of the mass loss from glaciers is due to rapid ice flow and calving icebergs into tidewater and lacustrine environments. In addition, submarine melting and change in the frontal position can accelerate the ice flow and calving rate. We use time series of high-resolution TanDEM-X stripmap satellite imagery during 2011-2013. The active image of the bistatic TanDEM-X acquisitions, acquired over 11 or 22 day repeat intervals, are utilized to derive surface velocity fields using SAR intensity offset tracking. Due to the short temporal baselines, the precise orbit control and the high-resolution of the data, the accuracies of the velocity products are high. We observe a pronounce seasonal signal in flow velocities close to the glacier front of East/Main branch of Columbia Glacier. Maximum values at the glacier front reach up to 14 m/day were recorded in May 2012 and 12 m/day in June 2013. Minimum velocities at the glacier front are generally observed in September and October with lowest values below 2 m/day in October 2012. Months in between those dates show corresponding increase or deceleration resulting a kind of sinusoidal annual course of the surface velocity at the glacier front. The seasonal signal is consistently decreasing with the distance from the glacier front. At a distance of 17.5 km from the ice front, velocities are reduced to 2 m/day and almost no seasonal variability can be observed. We attribute these temporal and spatial variability to changes in the basal hydrology and lubrification of the glacier bed. Closure of the basal drainage system in early winter leads to maximum speeds while during a fully developed basal drainage system speeds are at their minimum. We also analyze the variation in conjunction with the prevailing meteorological conditions as well as changes in calving front position in order to exclude other potential influencing factors. In a second step, we also exploit TanDEM-X data to generate various digital elevation models (DEMs) at different time steps. The multi-temporal DEMs are used to estimate the difference in surface elevation and respective ice thickness changes. All TanDEM-X DEMs are well tied with a SPOT reference DEM. Errors are estimated over ice free moraines and rocky areas. The quality of the TanDEM-X DEMs on snow and ice covered areas are further assessed by a comparison to laser scanning data from NASA Icebridge campaigns. The time wise closest TanDEM-X DEMs were compared to the Icebridge tracks from winter and summer surveys in order to judge errors resulting from the radar penetration of the x/band radar signal into snow, ice and firn. The average differences between laser scanning and TanDEM-X in August, 2011 and March, 2012 are observed to be 8.48 m and 14.35 m respectively. Retreat rates of the glacier front are derived manually by digitizing the terminus position. By combining the data sets of ice velocity, ice thickness and the retreat rates at different time steps, we estimate the seasonal variability of the ice discharge of Columbia Glacier.

Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

2014-05-01

237

Preliminary Identification of Major Faults in the Namche Barwa: Results from a NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM Calibrated With Field Mapping and Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking features of the Himalayan eastern syntaxis, Tibet, is the Tsangpo River Gorge, whose erosive power has created over 7000 m of local relief in the region of Namche Barwa. The erosion rate at Namche Barwa is rapid relative to other parts of the Himalaya, and the geodynamic/surface interaction is hypothesized to be very similar to the tectonic aneurism identified in the western syntaxis (Nanga Parbat and the Indus River, Pakistan) by Zeitler et al. (2001). Although the Namche Barwa is rapidly eroding, most of the active faults that accommodate exhumation have not been mapped. Based on the hypothesis that underlying tectonic processes are recorded in distinct topographic signatures, this study utilizes the NASA seamless Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) in conjunction with seismicity and field mapping to identify potential locations of active faults in this rapidly-eroding region for further field investigation. This type of calibration of remote-sensed DEM and TM (ETM+) data with field mapping and seismicity can by applied to identify active faults in other regions, such as the politically- and geographically-restricted southeastern portion of Namche Barwa or other remote sites on Earth, a critical first step in forming topographic descriptions that can determine where and how the landscape is responding to underlying geodynamic processes. Globally, unprecedented opportunities for remote studies of topography will arise as more 90-m SRTM and data of similar resolution are released, and it is timely to further characterize their uses and limits.

Ault, A. L.; Meltzer, A. S.; Kidd, W. S.

2003-12-01

238

Surface lowering and flow speed decrease of Khumbu Glacier detected from GPS survey and ASTER-DEM, in Nepal Himalayas between 1995 and 2004.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four characteristic areas in the debris-covered ablation zone have been surveyed intermittently on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal Himalayas since 1978. We carried out ground survey by differential GPS (DGPS) in 2004 to clarify changes in surface elevation and flow speeds of the glacier. Surface lowerings are obtained by comparison of digital elevation model (DEM, 60 m grid size), which are generated from the survey data in 1978, 1995, 1999 and 2004. Since it was too dangerous to access to the other two areas, middle parts of the ablation zone, due to surface roughness we use ASTER DEM, which was verified by the ground survey. Flow speeds are also obtained in comparison with position of ice pinnacles at the upper area. We clarify the lowerings of the glacier surface. The surface lowering was not significant at the lowest area (4900 m.a.s.l). Remarkable acceleration of surface lowering was found at the middle area (about 5100 m.a.s.l.), where, glacier surface is undulating in comparison to other areas. The topographic feature might affect to the surface lowering. In the most upper area (about 5300 m.a.s.l.), surface lowering is continued. Surface flow speeds between 1995 and 2004, decreased in comparison with that between 1956 and 1995. Our results suggest that the recent decrease of ice flux from the accumulation zone might enhance the surface lowering of glacier.

Nuimura, T.; Fukui, K.; Asahi, K.; Fujita, K.; Ageta, Y.

2006-12-01

239

Uplift mechanism for a shallow-buried structure in liquefiable sand subjected to seismic load: centrifuge model test and DEM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a centrifuge model test and distinct element method (DEM), this study provides new insights into the uplift response of a shallow-buried structure and the liquefaction mechanism for saturated sand around the structure under seismic action. In the centrifuge test, a high-speed microscopic camera was installed in the structure model, by which the movements of particles around the structure were monitored. Then, a two-dimensional digital image processing technology was used to analyze the microstructure of saturated sand during the shaking event. Herein, a numerical simulation of the centrifuge experiment was conducted using a two-phase (solid and fluid) fully coupled distinct element code. This code incorporates a particle-fluid coupling model by means of a "fixed coarse-grid" fluid scheme in PFC3D (Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions), with the modeling parameters partially calibrated based on earlier studies. The physical and numerical models both indicate the uplifts of the shallow-buried structure and the sharp rise in excess pore pressure. The corresponding micro-scale responses and explanations are provided. Overall, the uplift response of an underground structure and the occurrence of liquefaction in saturated sand are predicted successfully by DEM modeling. However, the dynamic responses during the shaking cannot be modeled accurately due to the restricted computer power.

Zhou, Jian; Wang, Zihan; Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Jiao

2014-06-01

240

Delineation of subglacial bedrock structure in glaciated regions using DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery: An example of the Land Glacier catchment, West Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Land Glacier of coastal Marie Byrd Land is proximal to the inferred tectonic boundary between the Ross and Amundsen provinces of the Marie Byrd Land terrane in West Antarctica. Its asymmetrical upper catchment draws ice from the volcanic peaks of the western Flood Range, a linear mountain change that is thought to be fault-controlled. A north-flowing ice stream with velocities >1200m/yr, Land Glacier occupies a narrow outlet flanked by sparse rock exposures along the remote Hobbs Coast. The narrow configuration and high flow velocity of the ice stream, together with the contrast in rock types on either side, suggest that the locus of Land Glacier is controlled by bedrock structures, however no faults have been mapped in this remote region on the basis of traditional ground-based methods nor airborne geophysics. We employ a new approach to mapping of subglacial bedrock faults and geological contacts in this region that entails quantitative analysis of high resolution DEMs computed from high resolution WorldView stereographic imagery. DEMs are computed using ERDAS Imagine's LPS eATE algorithm, followed by MATLAB-based routines to interpolate and remove artifacts in the terrain model. The resolution of the ice sheet DEM is 3 to 5 m, providing sufficient resolution for identification of geometrically regular features in the ice surface topography that may be attributable to bedrock faults and lithological contacts. The first phase of our ongoing work focuses upon lineaments that form a systematic array with regular geometry and spacing, that may be fault-controlled. A procedure involving use of hillshade applied from multiple sun angles, slope aspect, and slope gradient analysis of the high resolution DEMs was carried out in ArcGIS for characterization of the surface lineaments. We used the following criteria to distinguish bedrock-controlled lineaments from ice flow lineations: 1) laterally continuous for a minimum distance of 3 km, 2) vertical relief of ? 50m across a lineament, and 3) a minimum gradient of 5°. Raster layers of computed slope and aspect were cross-referenced to DEMs to confirm the location and geometry of lineaments that were identified. For the Land Glacier region, we discern two dominant sets of km-scale lineaments oriented ~E-W (~270-285°) and NW-SE (315-330°). The E-W trending lineaments are the most abundant and laterally continuous, with lengths up to 20 km and relief as high as 150 m. This trend is parallel to that of the Flood Range volcanoes that are ? 6 Ma in age. The NW-SE trending lineations range up to 14 km in length and attain 180 m of relief; they are coparallel to the alignment in the Ames Range (volcano ages 6 to 15 Ma). Potentially the regionally extensive Land Glacier lineament array is controlled by bedrock structures formed or reactivated during two Neogene stress states (e.g. Paulson & Wilson (2010, JGSL v167). Structural inheritance is a likelihood due to protracted tectonism and lithospheric thinning in West Antarctica since Cretaceous time.

Robertson, A. M.; Contreras, A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Gottfried, M.; Porter, C.

2012-12-01

241

Identifizierung und Charakterisierung von Interaktionen synaptischer Proteine aus Mus musculus.  

E-print Network

??Das postsynaptische Protein Neurobeachin brachte in einer Hefe-2-Hybrid-Suche die Interaktion zwischen der BEACH-Domäne mit dem Transkriptionsfaktor PLZF hervor. Diese Interaktion konnte in weiteren Experimenten aber… (more)

Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika

2005-01-01

242

Cilja Harders. Zwischen Rebellion und Restauration: Geschlechterverhltnisse  

E-print Network

. Dabei gibt es weder ,,den" Islam noch ein exklusives Rollenmodell, das für alle Muslime und alle Zeiten Glaubensgemeinschaft, sei es in Indonesien, im Iran oder in Deutschland? Hat die Demokratisierungsbewegung der schlie�lich: Ist Geschlechtergerechtigkeit im Islam möglich und wenn ja, wie? Diese Fragen stehen im

Hamburg,.Universität

243

Über Interferenzen zwischen zwei schwachen Reizen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Der indirekt gereizte Muskel hat in seiner Reaktion auf den elektrischen Strom eine grosse Ähulichkeit mit einer physikalischen Vorrichtung, bei der eine Eisenmasse durch den Strom in Bewegung gesetzt und gegen ein „Erfolgsorgan“ geschleudert wird.2.„Reizt“ man diese Vorrichtung durch zwei schwache Stromstösse, so lässt sich der Erfolg in den Satz fassen: Ein subliminaler Stromstoss wirkt auf einen darauf folgenden

Martin Gildemeister

1908-01-01

244

c Lerche, Uni. Freiburg, 1 Statistik: Zwischen  

E-print Network

. Datenerhebung #12;c Lerche, Uni. Freiburg, 13 Strittige Sozialstatistiken I. Verbreitung der Prostitution um Prostitution um 1850 in New York a) Sch¨atzung des Bischofs der Methodistenkirche (1866): 11 000 ­ 12 000 b Sozialstatistiken I. Verbreitung der Prostitution um 1850 in New York a) Sch¨atzung des Bischofs der

Lerche, Hans Rudolf

245

Bilder als Vermittler zwischen Krebsforschung und Mathematik  

E-print Network

emerge from the epithelial tissue layer of the colon. Structural Organization of the Colon The human body Cyclin CDK = Cyclin-abhängige Protein-Kinase 3D-Visualisierung für CDK2_HUMAN Systems Biology: Omics;1/7/2010 2 Zellzyklus Cyclin Die CDK-Proteine steuern den Zellzyklus durch das Binden von Cyclin CDK2 CDK-Protein

Rostock, Universität

246

Flow Dynamics from Elevation Changes on the Malaspina-Seward Glacier System, Alaska-Yukon, using High Resolution Airborne and SRTM InSAR-Derived DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Malaspina piedmont glacier, with an area of 2400 km2 (Post and LaChapelle, 2000), includes the Agassiz and Marvine Glaciers to the west and east, respectively, of the central Seward Lobe. Upper Seward Glacier, mostly in Yukon, Canada, is a broad icefield that forms the main accumulation area of Malaspina Glacier. Mt. Irving nunatak divides Upper Seward into western and eastern halves. Lower Seward Glacier, mostly in Alaska, connects Upper Seward to Malaspina Glacier. The combined Malaspina-Seward glacier system, including all tributaries, has a total area of about 5,000 km2 (Molnia, 2001). The glaciers of the Malaspina system are characterized by complex flow dynamics, including quasi-periodic surging and pulsating flow. High-resolution DEMs produced from airborne and spaceborne single-pass X-Band InSAR by Intermap Technologies, Inc. (August 2002) and the German Aerospace Center (from the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, February 2000), respectively, are used to derive short-term surface elevation changes. An adjustment for systematic error in the SRTM DEM is applied. Snow depth vs. altitude is estimated using the mass balance model of Tangborn (1999) on these glaciers from Sept. 1999 to Feb. 2000, and is used to adjust the SRTM DEM to a late summer 1999 level. During the 3-year 1999 to 2002 time period, the Seward Lobe of Malaspina thinned over its eastern half, while the western half thickened by about 10 +/- 1 m on average. This suggests that the main flow direction has changed from southeast, the direction of a major surge in 1987-88 (A. Post, pers. comm.), to southwest. Surges in alternate directions have been hypothesized by A. Post (pers. comm.) as the cause of the intricately folded moraines on Malaspina Glacier. Marvine Glacier, which surged in 2000 (K. Echelmeyer, pers. comm.), shows thickening in its ablation area of up to 60 +/- 1 m and thinning in its accumulation area of up to 60 +/- 1 m. The 3-year mean surface lowering on Agassiz, Malaspina (Seward Lobe), Lower Seward, Marvine and Hayden Glaciers, including a -3.2 m adjustment of the SRTM heights for systematic error, was about 2.7 +/- 1 m, or 0.9 +/- 0.4 m yr-1. References Molnia, B., Glaciers of Alaska, Alaska Geographic, 28 (2), 2001. Post, A., and E. LaChapelle, Glacier Ice, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2000. Tangborn, W.V., A mass-balance model that uses low-altitude meterological observations and the altitude area of a glacier, Geograf. Ann., 81(A), 753-765, 1999.

Muskett, R. R.; Lingle, C. S.; Rabus, B. T.; Tangborn, W. V.

2003-12-01

247

A new set of MATLAB functions (TecDEM toolbox) to analyze erosional stages in landscapes and base-level changes in river profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We implemented three new functions in the MATLAB-based TecDEM toolbox [1,2]: surface index, topographic position index, and the analysis of base-levels in river longitudinal profiles. These tools provide useful ways to understand the effects of base-level changes on topography such as stream captures, erosion or rejuvenation of pre-existing topographic features and anomalies in river longitudinal profiles. We developed a new index (referred as "surface index") which provides a quick way to map simultaneously preserved and eroded portions of an elevated landscape. This index classifies landscapes according to their erosional stages using the combination of the hypsometric integral, which efficiently highlights flat surfaces, and the surface roughness, which substantially increases with incision. We also implemented the commonly used "topographic position index". This index provides a simple way to classify the landscapes as valleys, ridges and flat areas. However, its application in tectonic geomorphology can go far beyond as it discriminates valleys shapes and reveals other important features such as wind gaps and knickpoints when associated to the extracted river system. Finally, we implemented a tool allowing the estimation of base-level changes using the reconstruction of river longitudinal profiles. River profiles can be decomposed in concave or convex segments. Relict base-levels are typically associated to gently concave segments in river profiles. By restoring the initial shape of these segments we are able to estimate the amount of incision between the present day base-level and the relict base-level. All these tools were successfully tested in different settings such as Central America, Central Europe and Pamir. In addition to the description of these tools we provide examples from these different areas. [1] Shahzad, F., & Gloaguen, R. (2011). TecDEM: A MATLAB based toolbox for tectonic geomorphology, Part 1: Drainage network preprocessing and stream profile analysis. Computers & Geosciences, 37, 250-260. [2] Shahzad, F., & Gloaguen, R. (2011). TecDEM: A MATLAB based toolbox for tectonic geomorphology, Part 2: Surface dynamics and basin analysis. Computers & Geosciences, 37, 261-271.

Andreani, Louis; Gloaguen, Richard; Shahzad, Faisal

2014-05-01

248

Untersuchungen zum Befall von Fichten-Fangbäumen durch Borkenkäfer im Zusammenhang mit Mondphasen zur Fällungszeit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing on a model postulating that the biophysical power according to moon phase in connection with electrical-magnetical powers influence the vital functions of plants and animals positively or negatively, spruces were felled under same conditions during different moon phases. Than the following attacks of scolytid beetles were observed. These examinations were repeated over several years. For spruces of Waldviertel (Lower

Else Jahn

1982-01-01

249

Zur soziologischen Definition von Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Um den Zusammenhang zwischen Religion und Gewalt analysieren zu können, ist es zuerst notwendig, einen hinreichend klaren\\u000a Begriff von Religion als sozialem Phänomen zu entwickeln. Nun hat aber bereits Max Weber, der seinen Status als Klassiker\\u000a des soziologischen Denkens nicht zuletzt seinen begriffsdefinitorischen Leistungen verdankt, seine Studien über die Religiösen Gemeinschaftenmit der auffallend zurückhaltenden Bemerkung eröffnet, dass eine Religionsdefinition bestenfalls

Thomas Vollmer

250

Time-averaged discharge rate of subaerial lava at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, measured from TanDEM-X interferometry: Implications for magma supply and storage during 2011-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X) synthetic aperture radar imagery provides a measurement of elevation change over time. On the East Rift Zone (EZR) of K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, the effusion of lava causes changes in topography. When these elevation changes are summed over the area of an active lava flow, it is possible to quantify the volume of lava emplaced at the surface during the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data—a parameter that can be difficult to measure across the entirety of an ~100?km2 lava flow field using ground-based techniques or optical remote sensing data. Based on the differences between multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs collected days to weeks apart, the mean dense-rock equivalent time-averaged discharge rate of lava at K?lauea between mid-2011 and mid-2013 was approximately 2?m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of K?lauea's 1983–present ERZ eruption. This result implies that there was an increase in the proportion of lava stored versus erupted, a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the volcano, or some combination of both during this time period. In addition to constraining the time-averaged discharge rate of lava and the rates of magma supply and storage, topographic change maps derived from space-based TanDEM-X data provide insights into the four-dimensional evolution of K?lauea's ERZ lava flow field. TanDEM-X data are a valuable complement to other space-, air-, and ground-based observations of eruptive activity at K?lauea and offer great promise at locations around the world for aiding with monitoring not just volcanic eruptions but any hazardous activity that results in surface change, including landslides, floods, earthquakes, and other natural and anthropogenic processes.

Poland, Michael P.

2014-01-01

251

Re-evaluation of factors controlling earthquake-induced landslides based on new Chi-Chi landslide inventory and high resolution DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of landslides were triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw 7.6) and subsequent aftershocks. They were re-mapped from fused SPOT images and recently checked by using aerial photo-pairs. Some omitted landslides due to the limitation of satellite images resolution were added to the dataset. Deposit areas that previously recognized as landslides are removed. The new dataset was then re-examined to sieve out some exceptional cases of landslide not intended in statistical analysis, for example, structural-controlled landslides of the Tsaoling landslide and the Chiufengerhshan landslide. To better characterize the factors affecting earthquake triggered landslides, we used newly surveyed 5-m resolution DEM for statistical analysis. Result can be summarized as follows: (1) Slope gradient is the most important factor affecting landslides in each drainage basin. (2) Closest distant to fault-rupture plane is the most important source-distance factor controlling landslides. (3) Arias intensity presents good correlation to landslide failure, especially the corrected Arias intensity does. (4) Most landslides concentrated in the region exceeding 250 gals. (5) Slope aspect shows some correlations to landslide occurrence in each drainage basin. (6) Slope height also plays an important role in the occurrence of landslides. (7) Goodness of correlation for each landslide controlling factor shows some differences among six drainage basins.

Lee, Chyi-Tyi

2010-05-01

252

Scale-dependency of stream gradients derived from LiDAR DEM and its relationship to watershed morphology in the Southern Japanese Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock erosion in streams is a key element in determining topography of mountain watershed. Failures in steep slopes can often be controlled by riverbed incision with regard to base level changes, where knickzone propagation often has a significant impact on such stream incision. Here we analyze longitudinal morphology of bedrock rivers in a steep mountain watershed in terms of stream gradient, using a high-resolution (1 m) LiDAR DEM in a steep mountain watershed at Ikawa, central Japan. By computing stream gradients with different measure lengths, scale-dependent changes in the gradient are revealed. Relative steepness of riverbed is then quantified using the scaling gradients. Spatial distribution of relative steepness in the watershed indicates that longitudinal riverbed morphology often correspond to morphological condition of slopes with differing types of channel head. Streams in subwatersheds with gentle slopes have less steepness while those in subwatersheds with steep slopes in which failures are frequent. These differences are not likely derived from lithological or tectonic factors, but from geomorphic history in the watershed. The steepness index can also be used for detection of knickzones comprising small knickpoints and waterfalls, whereas location of knickzones has rarely been identified quantitatively in such an uppermost steep mountainous watersheds. The distribution of relative steepness and knickzones possibly reflect incision waves occurring in the watershed: late- or post-glacial base level lowering could have caused formation of knickzones, and some of the propagating knickzones reached upper portions in the watershed while the uppermost area seems to be preserved.

Hayakawa, Y. S.; Imaizumi, F.; Hattanji, T.

2008-12-01

253

Simulation of lake-aquifer interaction at Lake Naivasha, Kenya using a three-dimensional flow model with the high conductivity technique and a DEM with bathymetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifers near Lake Naivasha, Kenya are important water resources and are used extensively for irrigation and for municipal and domestic water supplies. Head data for a 79-year period (1932-2010) were analyzed to develop a conceptual model of aquifer-lake interaction and used to develop a three-dimensional numerical model. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model with four layers was used to simulate ground-water flow in the aquifers and lake-aquifer interaction. The lake is simulated by specifying a high hydraulic conductivity for lake-volume grid cells. The 90 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that includes the bathymetry improved the 3-D representation of the lake in the groundwater system and helped to define the deformed layer that honors the stratigraphy. The calibration process was carried out using PEST in conjunction with pilot points and regularization. The finite difference groundwater model results were comparable with measured head data and isotopic and hydro-chemical data. The sensitivity of the computed lake level was tested using the "high-K" method to the choice of K2/K1, where K2 and K1 are the hydraulic conductivity of the lake node and the aquifer (respectively). Higher values of K2/K1 should be used with higher regional gradients on the order of 0.002 to ensure mainly accurate calculations of seepage rates to and from the lake.

Yihdego, Yohannes; Becht, Robert

2013-10-01

254

Investigating the definition of flood maps using a 2D hydraulic routing model forced by a DEM-based fully continuous rainfall-runoff algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing efforts of remote sensing technologies to provide more accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) at the global scale are supporting the use of terrain analysis and hydrologic and hydraulic modelling algorithms for flood mapping in ungauged basins. In this work we implement a fully continuous hydrologic-hydraulic model feeded by a rainfall synthetic time series for providing river hydrographs that are routed along the channel using a bidimensional hydraulic model for the detailed physically-based characterization of the inundation process. In this way the whole physical process is represented, from the net rainfall to the flow time series, avoiding any conceptual sub-method (design hyetograph and hydrograph) commonly needed to apply standard flood modelling and mapping procedures. Nevertheless, the floodplain information is no longer deterministic as the result of the evaluation of the impact on the river valley of a single design hydrologic scenario (event-based approach,EBA), but the final result is composed of a combination of data derived by the application of a fully-continuous approach (FCA). Indeed FCA provides a flow depth time series for each single cell of the inundated domain. The final flood map should be, thus, the result of a proper analysis of this dataset in statistical, qualitative and quantitative terms. Otherwise this would lead to an undefined flooding scenario that could be useless for flood risk management and decision making in urban plans.

Nardi, Fernando; Petroselli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Salvatore

2013-04-01

255

Studien über Reflexe und Rhythmen beim Goldfisch (Carassius auratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Haut des Goldfisches besitzt eine hohe Empfindlichkeit gegen Wasserströmung. Nach Rückenmarkdurchschneidung in der Gegend zwischen dem 16. und dem 6. letzten Wirbel ist die Reizbarkeit dieses „Hautstromsinnes“ im Hintertier oft höher als die des intakten Seitenliniensystems im gleichen Vordertier. Der Hautsinn wird nur durch rasche Stromstöße erregt; gleichmäßige, beliebig hoch anschwellende Stromreize bleiben unbeantwortet. (Also keine „Rheotaxis“ mit Hilfe

Erich Holst

1934-01-01

256

Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963  

SciTech Connect

The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process.

Thiede, B.

1992-01-01

257

Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

258

Das Kreuz auf dem Schlachtfeld  

E-print Network

TRANSCRIPTION; MESSAGE: April 15. Wir sind immer noch hier, sind in Hdbg. noch keine Aussichten fü r Frieden? Es grü sst Sie recht herzlich [Carl Bechtel?] Viele Grü sse an Ihre ganze Familie!; SENT TO: [Postmarked] Saarburg, Lothringen, 12...TRANSLATION; MESSAGE:We are still here [A]ny prospect of peace in [Heidelberg?] Warmest greetings to you from [Carl Bechtel?] Many greetings to your whole family!; SENT TO:[Postmarked] Saarburg, Lorraine [i.e., ceded to France after the war], 12...

Schmidlin, A. [author

2012-03-05

259

Beiträge zur ernährungsbiologie einheimischer süsswasserprosobranchier  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Untersucht wurden 4 Süßwasserprosobranchier: Bithynia tentaculata L., Theodoxus fluviatilis L., Lithoglyphus naticoides C.Pfr. und Valvata piscinalisMüll.2.Bithynia ist in der Lage, die mit dem Atemwasser eingestrudelten Partikel durch die Ausbildung eines Kiemenschleimfilters abzufiltrieren, sie zur Nahrungswurst zu formen und auf einem besonderen Wege dem Munde zuzuführen. Das Tier vermittelt erndhrungsphysiologisch zwischen Strudlern und Schlammfressern.3.Theodoxus befördert die mit dem Atemstrom eingestrudelten Detrituspartikelchen

Heinrich Schäfer

1953-01-01

260

Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirynchus albus) inhabits sandy-bedded rivers in the Mississippi River basin including the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers and has experienced decline generally associated with the fragmentation and alteration of these river systems. Knowledge gaps in the life history of the pallid sturgeon include lack of an understanding of conditions needed for successful reproduction and recruitment. We employed hydroacoustic tools to investigate habitats utilized by spawning pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, and the Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota USA from 2008-2013. Reproductive pallid sturgeon were tracked to suspected spawning locations by field crews using either acoustic or radio telemetry, a custom mobile mapping application, and differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Female pallid sturgeon were recaptured soon after spawning events to validate that eggs had been released. Habitats were mapped at presumed spawning and embryo incubation sites using a multibeam echosounder system (MBES), sidescan sonar, acoustic Doppler current profiler, an acoustic camera and either a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) or DGPS. High-resolution DEM's and velocimetric maps were gridded from at a variety of scales from 0.10 to 5 meters for characterization and visualization at spawning and presumed embryo incubation sites. Pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri River are deep (6-8 meters) and have high current velocities (>1.5 meters per second). These sites are also characterized by high turbidity and high rates of bedload sediment transport in the form of migrating sand dunes. Spawning on the channelized Lower Missouri River occurs on or adjacent to coarse angular bank revetment or bedrock. Collecting biophysical information in these environmental conditions is challenging, and there is a need to characterize the substrate and substrate condition at a scale relevant to spawning fish and developing embryos (< 1 meter). The Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota provides the closest analog to a reference condition for pallid sturgeon spawning habitat with a natural flow regime and relatively natural channel geomorphology. Recent documented suspected spawning on the Yellowstone River occurs in a a sand-bedded reach with patches of gravel deposits, in zones of higher velocity (1.0-1.5 meters per second) compared to the ranges of velocities available in an adjacent reach and over a range of depths (2-5 meters). Results from substrate assessments at pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers may have implications for sediment and flow management as well as provide guidance for potential habitat manipulation in support of the recovery of the pallid sturgeon.

Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

2013-12-01

261

Analyse der neuropsychologischen Leistungen bei der DSM-IV Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung : Profil, Verlauf und Zusammenhang mit Traumaerfahrungen.  

E-print Network

??In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden traumatisierte BPS-Patientinnen untersucht. Zusammenfassend geht diese Arbeit der Frage nach, wie die neuropsychologischen Funktionen bei dieser Patientengruppe ausgebildet sind. Konkret… (more)

Silva Saavedra, Anamaría

2006-01-01

262

Analyse arztstrafrechtlicher Ermittlungsverfahren der Staatsanwaltschaft Aachen zwischen 1978 und 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altogether, 318 preliminary proceedings were initiated against physicians, compared to 2 against nonmedical practitioners. The majority i.e., 192 proceedings, dealt with charges of torture and deprivation of freedom committed against patients under psychiatric treatment. Ninety-nine proceedings were based on negligent bodily injury and negligent homicide and 15 on failure to give medical assistance. Other reasons were given in isolated cases

H. Althoff; Th. Solbach

1984-01-01

263

Nr. 288 / 2012 // 22. 10. 2012 Lebensmittel zwischen Illusion und  

E-print Network

Mettke, München), Ethik, Nachhaltigkeit und Corporate Social Responsibility (Professor Dr. Olaf Sosnitza Lebensmittelproduktion lässt. Im Mittelpunkt des Vortrags von Professor Claas Christian Germelmann vom Lehrstuhl für

Ullmann, G. Matthias

264

Frage Was macht eine Inversion mit Abstande zwischen Punkte? Frage Was macht eine Inversion mit Abstande zwischen Punkte?  

E-print Network

Dreiecke OAB und O I(A) I(B) sind ¨ahnlich, weil Winkel O gleich ist, und |OA| |OB| = |OI(B)| |OI(A)| , #12 ¨ahnlich, weil Winkel O gleich ist, und |OA| |OB| = |OI(B)| |OI(A)| , weil |OA| · |OI(A)| = #12;Frage, weil Winkel O gleich ist, und |OA| |OB| = |OI(B)| |OI(A)| , weil |OA| · |OI(A)| = |OA| · |OI(B)| #12

Matveev, Vladimir S.

265

Shape-selected nanocrystals for in situ spectro-electrochemistry studies on structurally well defined surfaces under controlled electrolyte transport: A combined in situ ATR-FTIR/online DEMS investigation of CO electrooxidation on Pt  

PubMed Central

Summary The suitability and potential of shape selected nanocrystals for in situ spectro-electrochemical and in particular spectro-electrocatalytic studies on structurally well defined electrodes under enforced and controlled electrolyte mass transport will be demonstrated, using Pt nanocrystals prepared by colloidal synthesis procedures and a flow cell set-up allowing simultaneous measurements of the Faradaic current, FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed reaction intermediates and side products in an attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR-FTIRS) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) measurements of volatile reaction products. Batches of shape-selected Pt nanocrystals with different shapes and hence different surface structures were prepared and structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods. The potential for in situ spectro-electrocatalytic studies is illustrated for COad oxidation on Pt nanocrystal surfaces, where we could separate contributions from two processes occurring simultaneously, oxidative COad removal and re-adsorption of (bi)sulfate anions, and reveal a distinct structure sensitivity in these processes and also in the structural implications of (bi)sulfate re-adsorption on the CO adlayer. PMID:24991511

Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jurgen

2014-01-01

266

Unkrautflora in Mais  

Microsoft Academic Search

In den Jahren 2000 bis 2004 wurde von der Syngenta Agro GmbH in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Hohenheim ein Unkrautmonitoring in Mais durchgeführt. Ziel des Monitorings war, das Artenspektrum, die Stärke der Verunkrautung und das Verbreitungsgebiet von Unkrautarten im Maisanbau in Deutschland zu erfassen. Die Unkrauterhebungen wurden jedes Jahr einmal vor der chemischen Unkrautbekämpfung zwischen dem 2. und 6. Blattstadium

J. Mehrtens; M. Schulte; K. Hurle

2005-01-01

267

Entwicklung und Aufbau einer Population der Silbermöwe, Larus argentatus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

X. Zusammenfassung Die neben dem Institutsgebäude der Vogelwarte Helgoland in Wilhelmshaven gelegene Silbermöwenpopulation nahm ihren Anfang mit 2 Paaren im Jahre 1948, wuchs bis 1955 auf 51, 1956 auf über 100 Paare an und schwankte 1957–1959 zwischen 127 und 139 Paaren. 1960 waren es mindestens 150 Paare.

R. Drost; E. Focke; G. Freytag

1961-01-01

268

Free and total amino acids in the non-protein fraction of an artisan blue cheese during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Während des Reifungsprozesses bei drei Partien Blauschimmelkäse wurde der Verlauf des Gehaltes an freien und gesamten Aminosäuren der in 5% iger Phosphorwolframsäure löslichen Fraktion mittels HPLC beobachtet. Die Korrelationskoeffizienten zwischen dem Gehalt an freien und Gesamt-Aminosäuren während der Reifungszeit waren positiv und größer als 0,85 für die meisten Aminosäuren. Ein geringerer Korrelationsgrad im Verlauf der Reifung war bei den

Dolores Gonzáles de Llano; M. Carmen Polo; Mercedes Ramos; Pedro Martín-Alvarez

1991-01-01

269

Fakultat fur Physik und Astronomie Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg  

E-print Network

auf dem L¨osungsgleichgewicht von SF6 zwischen der Wasserprobe und einem sog. Headspacegas in der Studiengang Physik vorgelegt von Rainer Klement aus Geldersheim 2005 #12;#12;Optimierung von SF6 Arbeit ist es, neue M¨oglichkeiten zur SF6-Wasserprobenahme darzustellen und ¨uber die damit verbundenen

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

270

Erfahrungen mit einem Corpus cavernosum-Vena saphena-Shunt bei der Behandlung des Priapismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird über 5 Fälle von Priapismus, bei denen eine Anastomose zwischen der Vena saphena magna und dem Corpus cavernosum penis durchgeführt wurde, berichtet. Da die venose Stase in den Schwellkòrpern des Penis bei längerem Bestehen über eine Trabekelfibrose zur Impotenz führt und bei Fallen, die frühzeitig operiert wurden, die Potenz erhalten blieb, wird vorgeschlagen, bei alien Fallen von

A.-A. Kollwitz; W. Brosig

1970-01-01

271

Ein seltener schwacher A 3 -Rezeptor „A 3 w “, seine Analyse und Vererbung. Zugleich ein Beispiel für die mögliche Wirkung von modifizierenden Genen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es wird über einen Übergangstyp berichtet, dessen Receptorstärke zwischen A3 und A4 liegt (A3w). Die Natur von A3, und speziell hier A3w, ist noch ungeklärt. Unter Hinweis auf den Fall vonYoung undWitebsky (1945) wurde auch in der hier beschriebenen Familie eine Abweichung von dem vonFriedenreich für A3 angenommenen Vererbungstyp demonstriert.

O. Prokop; A. Simon; A. Rackwitz

1960-01-01

272

Diphenylhydantoin: Correlation between protein binding and albumin concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es besteht eine negative Korrelation zwischen dem nichtgebundenen Anteil an Diphenylhydantoin und der Albuminkonzentration im Plasma des Patienten. Aus dieser Relation kann die Eiweißbindung ohne spezielle Bindungsstudien graphisch bestimmt werden. Die Ergebnisse hierzu wurden aus einer Untersuchung erhalten, in der bei Patienten mit nephrotischem Syndrom ein auf das Doppelte erhöhter Anteil an nichtgebundenem Diphenylhydantoin beobachtet wurde. Eine Dosisreduktion war

R. Gugler; D. L. Azarnoff; D. W. Shoeman

1975-01-01

273

Codegenerierung für Assoziationen in MOF 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Spezifikation von MOF 2.0 enth ¨ alt neue Konstrukte zum Ausdr¨ ucken von Beziehungen zwischen Assoziationen. Damit diese Konstrukte in modellgetriebenen Entwicklungsprozessen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden k ¨ onnen, werden Abbildungen auf objektorientierte Programmiersprachen ben ¨ otigt. Im Rahmen dieses Papiers stellen wir M¨ oglichkeiten vor, die neuen Konstrukte auf Java-Code abzubilden. Unsere Vor- schl¨ age basieren auf dem Java

Carsten Amelunxen; Andy Schürr; Lutz Bichler

2004-01-01

274

Een opwekking om voort the gaan met het kruisen van individuen tot verschillende linneonten van get geslacht Verbascum behoorend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Aus der Litteratur wird gezeigt, dassDarwin einen Bastard vanVerbascum thapsus x lychnitis gehabt hat, welche mit dem Pollen beider Eltern einige wenige Samen gab und dassMendel einen Bastard zwischenVerbascum phoeniceum undV. blattaria gehabt hat, welche bei Selbstbefruchtung über 100 gut ausgebildete Samen producirte. Über die Nachkommen dieser Samen wird leider nicht berichtet.

J. P. Lotsy

1920-01-01

275

Gerhard Ertl 78 M A X P L A N C K F O R S C H U N G 4 / 2 0 0 7  

E-print Network

. ,,Es war der Teufel los!", sagt Ertl und lacht. ,,Das Zimmer voll mit Journa- listen. Und einer wollte entwickelt haben Fritz Haber und Carl Bosch, beide ebenfalls Nobel- preisträger, zwischen 1905 und 1913. Doch. Seinem Forscherdrang setzte Mut- ter Ertl jedoch bald ein Ende. ,,Du kannst nicht weiter in dem Zimmer

276

L'impact des conditions financières sur la décision d'investissement  

Microsoft Academic Search

[ger] Seit etwa zehn Jahren besteht erneut ein Interesse für Studien über die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Investitions -und Finanzierungsentscheidungen der Unternehmen. Dass die Finanzierungsbedingungen eines Unternehmens dessen tatsächliches Verhalten beeinflussen, ist ein altes Thema. Mit dem Aufkommen der neuen Mikroökonomie und insbesondere des Paradigmas der Informationsprobleme wird ihm wieder zunehmend Interesse entgegengebracht. Bei theoretischen wie auch empirischen Arbeiten wurden die Wechselwirkungen

Fabienne Rosenwald

2001-01-01

277

Channel planform geometry and slopes from freely available high-spatial resolution imagery and DEM fusion: Implications for channel width scalings, erosion proxies, and fluvial signatures in tectonically active landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid expansion of high-spatial resolution optical sensors and imagery over the last decade presents exceptional opportunities for quantifying visible attributes of geomorphic systems. In this study, we detail a simple, robust methodology (ChanGeom) to extract continuous channel width and centerline datasets for single-thread channels using freely available high-spatial resolution imagery currently available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Comparisons with a global dataset of field and lidar-derived channel widths indicate minimal errors associated with the imagery and ChanGeom methodology (< 1% overall), while examples from the Goriganga River (Indian Himalaya) and the Yakima River (WA, USA) emphasize the benefit of empirical width values over established channel width scalings in deciphering fluvial responses to complex landscape forcings in tectonically active regions. Additionally, accurate centerline delineation from the ChanGeom methodology provides improved sinuosity measurements, and when fused with coarse resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), removes along-profile shortening and coincident increases in reach-scale channel slope. Lastly, comparisons of ASTER GDEM V2, SRTM V4.1, and lidar channel profiles extracted in moderate to high-relief regions demonstrate the inferiority of the ASTER GDEM for channel slope calculations, despite the apparent spatial resolution advantages (9 ×). The methodology presented here will facilitate new discoveries in the fluvial environment that have historically been difficult due to access and imagery resolution issues, and provide greater perspective on channel signatures and responses to a host of landscape forcings, especially in tectonically active bedrock and lower order drainage systems.

Fisher, G. Burch; Bookhagen, Bodo; Amos, Colin B.

2013-07-01

278

Fractal Image Informatics: from SEM to DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new branch of Fractal Geometry: Fractal Image Informatics, devoted to the systematic and standardized fractal analysis of images of natural systems. The methods of this discipline are based on the properties of multiscale images of selfaffine fractal surfaces. As proved in the paper, the image inherits the scaling and lacunarity of the surface and

K. Oleschko; J.-F. Parrot; G. Korvin; M. Esteves; M. Vauclin; C. Gaona Salado; S. Cherkasov

2008-01-01

279

Fractal Image Informatics: from SEM to DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce a new branch of Fractal Geometry: Fractal Image Informatics, devoted to the systematic and standardized fractal analysis of images of natural systems. The methods of this discipline are based on the properties of multiscale images of selfaffine fractal surfaces. As proved in the paper, the image inherits the scaling and lacunarity of the surface and of its reflectance distribution [Korvin, 2005]. We claim that the fractal analysis of these images must be done without any smoothing, thresholding or binarization. Two new tools of Fractal Image Informatics, firmagram analysis (FA) and generalized lacunarity (GL), are presented and discussed in details. These techniques are applicable to any kind of image or to any observed positive-valued physical field, and can be used to correlate between images. It will be shown, by a modified Grassberger-Hentschel-Procaccia approach [Phys. Lett. 97A, 227 (1983); Physica 8D, 435 (1983)] that GL obeys the same scaling law as the Allain-Cloitre lacunarity [Phys. Rev. A 44, 3552 (1991)] but is free of the problems associated with gliding boxes. Several applications are shown from Soil Physics, Surface Science, and other fields.

Oleschko, K.; Parrot, J.-F.; Korvin, G.; Esteves, M.; Vauclin, M.; Torres-Argüelles, V.; Salado, C. Gaona; Cherkasov, S.

2008-05-01

280

Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

Bruce, Alease

2001-01-01

281

NUDOSSI – DER OSTEN AUF DEM BROT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Radebeul wird eine ostdeutsche Frühstücks- und Markenikone produziert – allerdings erst seit knapp vierzig Jahren und das\\u000a auch noch mit insgesamt über zehn Jahren Unterbrechung: der Haselnuss-Nougat-Brotaufstrich Nudossi von der Firma Vadossi.\\u000a Beide Marken gehören heute zur Sächsischen und Dresdner Back- und Süßwaren GmbH. Lange vor DDR-Zeiten war Dresden bereits\\u000a berühmt für seine zahlreichen süßen Spezialitäten.

Arnd Zschiesche; Oliver Errichiello

282

Großstadt und Geschlechterordnung: Geschichten aus dem Kino  

Microsoft Academic Search

In der Geschlechterforschung werden zunehmend Vorstellungen einer stabilen - meist essentialistisch gedachten - Geschlechterdichotomie und deren Verlängerung in entsprechend duale räumlich- topographische Aufteilungen in Frage gestellt. Besonders am Phänomen großer Städte, so wird behauptet, verdichte sich die Problematisierung der Geschlechterverhältnisse. Für manche Stadtfilme der neunziger Jahre trifft dies zu: Es läßt sich ganz gut beobachten, daß Geschlechterrollen ihre Eindeutigkeit und

Dorothea Kress

1999-01-01

283

Gutartig oder bsartig? Die Diagnose aus dem  

E-print Network

? #12;A B Angenommen wir hätten nur die Expressionswerte von zwei Genen #12;A B Ein neuer Patient #12;A #12;... und bei tausenden Genen erhält man von jeder Trennebene natürlich eine ganze Liste von Genen

Spang, Rainer

284

Jagd nach dem O'Conell-Effekt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, I focus on the O'Connell effect of the WUMa variable V502 Cyg, with the main aim of showing it in the lightcurve. 166 observations were collected in V and B band (100 and 66 measurements, respectively) from my private observatory in Kästenberg, Austria, Ossiacher Tauern, at an elevation of 890 m. All data were acquired with an Apo 130/1200 and an Apogee Alta U16M CCD camera. Photometric colour band and narrowband data were collected simultaneously and evaluated. The combination of photometric data with data for deep-sky imaging I have termed "pretty-picture-photometry". This combination of photometric measurements with colour and narrowband data is presented here in the case of V502 Cyg in its surrounding deep-sky field. Norbert Reichman is member of the BAV.

Reichmann, Norbert

2013-03-01

285

Dem Generation with WORLDVIEW-2 Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For planning purposes 42 km coast line of the Black Sea, starting at the Bosporus going in West direction, with a width of approximately 5 km, was imaged by WorldView-2. Three stereo scenes have been oriented at first by 3D-affine transformation and later by bias corrected RPC solution. The result is nearly the same, but it is limited by identification of the control points in the images. Nevertheless after blunder elimination by data snooping root mean square discrepancies below 1 pixel have been reached. The root mean square discrepancy at control point height reached 0.5 m up to 1.3 m with a base to height relation between 1:1.26 and 1:1.80. Digital Surface models (DSM) with 4 m spacing have been generated by least squares matching with region growing, supported by image pyramids. A higher percentage of the mountainous area is covered by forest, requiring the approximation based on image pyramids. In the forest area the approximation just by region growing leads to larger gaps in the DSM. Caused by the good image quality of WorldView-2 the correlation coefficients reached by least squares matching are high and even in most forest areas a satisfying density of accepted points was reached. Two stereo models have an overlapping area of 1.6 km times 6.7 km allowing an accuracy evaluation. Small, but nevertheless significant differences in scene orientation have been eliminated by least squares shift of both overlapping height models to each other. The root mean square differences of both independent DSM are 1.06m or as a function of terrain inclination 0.74 m + 0.55 m ? tangent (slope). The terrain inclination in the average is 7° with 12% exceeding 17°. The frequency distribution of height discrepancies is not far away from normal distribution, but as usual, larger discrepancies are more often available as corresponding to normal distribution. This also can be seen by the normalized medium absolute deviation (NMAS) related to 68% probability level of 0.83m being significant smaller as the root mean square differences. Nevertheless the results indicate a standard deviation of the single height models of 0.75 m or 0.52 m + 0.39* tangent (slope), corresponding to approximately 0.6 pixels for the x-parallax in flat terrain, being very satisfying for the available land cover. An interpolation over 10 m enlarged the root mean square differences of both height models nearly by 50%.

Büyüksalih, G.; Baz, I.; Alkan, M.; Jacobsen, K.

2012-07-01

286

Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)  

Cancer.gov

In March 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) completed a retrospective cohort mortality and nested case-control study of 12,315 workers at eight non-metal mining facilities to investigate risk of lung cancer in relation to quantitative measures of historical exposure to diesel exhaust, after taking into account smoking and other lung cancer risk factors

287

Future earthquake source faults on deep sea-floor around the Boso triple plate junction revealed by tectonic geomorphology using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boso triple junction, which is the only example of a triple trench junction on earth, is located off the southeast of Boso peninsula, where the Izu-Bonin trench meets with the Japan trench and the Sagami trench. Boso submarine canyon, which is extended to Katsuuma basin about 7000m deep, forms an incised meander along the north side of Sagami trough. Taito spur separate Katsuuma basin from Bando abyssal basin about 9000m deep, where Japan trench meet with Isu-Bonin trench. In this paper, we present detailed stereo-paired topographic images produced from 0.002 degree (about 150m) DBEM (Digital Bathymetry Model), which processed from the depth sounding data obtained by Japan Coast Guard and JAMSTEC around Boso triple junction. It enables us to observe submarine geomorphology easily and precisely. We identified submarine active faults and other tectonic features related to subduction by using the similar standard for air-photo interpretation of inland active faults. We made more precise submarine active tectonic geomorphological map around Boso triple junction than that by previous workers. Numerous distinct faults on the so-called outer rise associated with subduction of Pacific plate are regarded as normal faulting as widely accepted. While the normal faults on the outer rise are parallel to the trench in the southern part of the Japan trench and the northern part of the Izu-Bonin trench, these normal faults around the east of the triple junction with NNW-SSE extend slightly oblique to the trench. The western margin of Bando abyssal basin is bounded by the thrust faults, which form east-facing 200-500m-high convex scarps associated with raised basin floor to the west of the scarp. These faults also deform Mogi submarine fan surface and uplift to the west along the extension of the scarp. The antecedent valley is extended for about 10km across Taito spur that is an active anticlinal ridge about 1000m high. Katsuura basin is surrounded by terraced former basin floor that is tilted to the west, indicating up-growing of Taito spur. Northeastern part of Izu bar on Philippine Sea plate is characterized by rather smooth extensive convex slope between 1500m-7500m for over 200km long along the trench. On the lower part of the slope below 6000m, several gullies such as Mikura canyon and Kita-Hachijo canyon dissecting the slope forms rapids, probably due to continuous up-warping by subsurface thrusting dipping to the west under the slope. It is noteworthy that we can identify prominent active tectonic features on even very deep sea-floor along the plate boundaries, by using 3D images produced from 150 meter grid DEM.

Goto, H.; Nakata, T.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Izumi, N.; Nishizawa, A.; Horiuchi, D.; Kido, Y. N.

2013-12-01

288

Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen Oberösterreich und dem angrenzenden Niederösterreich, Teil HI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic records from eastern Upper Austria and the adjacent part of Lower Austria, Part ID New records of 100 rare vascular plant species are presented from eastern Upper Austria and the adjacent part of Lower Austria. Many of the species are aliens. The new localities are discussed with respect to relevant literature and the regional distribution of the species is

F. ESSL

289

Funde bemerkenswerter Gefaßpflanzenarten in den Mollner Kalkvoralpen, dem mittleren Steyrtal und dem oberen Kremstal (Oberösterreich)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of remarkable vascular plant species in the Mollner Kalkvoralpen, the middle Steyr valley and upper Krems valley (Upper Austria) New records of 58 rare vascular plant species of the upper Krems valley, the middle Steyr valley and the adjacent Upper Austrian limestone Alps are presented. The majority of the records was made during biotope mapping-projects of the area between

F. ESSL; C. H. EICHBERGER; K. HOLBER; C. H. JUSTIN; C. OTT; A. PÜRSTINGER; G. SCHNEEWEISS; P. SCHÖNSWETTER; M. STAUDINGER; O. STÖHR; A. TRIBSCH; B. TURNER

290

Die Kumulation der galenischen Präparate aus Folia Digitalis purpurea und aus Folia Digitalis lanata, im Zusammenhang mit ihrem Gehalt an reinen Glykosiden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Kumulation der reinen Glykosidfraktionen aus Digitalis purpurea und aus Digitalis lanata wurde nach 2 Tagen bestimmt. Es zeigte sich, daß in Bezug auf diese Eigenschaft die Glykoside sich folgenderweise reihen lassen: 1. Lanatoxin, 2. Digitoxin, 3. Lanadigin, 4. Bigitalin, 5., 6. und 7.: Gitalin, Lanatalin und Glykosid IV.

R. A. Hoekstra

1932-01-01

291

Arbeitsmotivation und Arbeitszufriedenheit  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obwohl Messungen zur Arbeitszufriedenheit und -motivation gerne als interne Angelegenheit durchgeführt werden und die Messwerte\\u000a auch häufigintern bleiben, können veröffentlichte Untersuchungen stellvertretend Aussagen zu Einstellungen zur Organisation,\\u000a Arbeit und Arbeitsumfeld aufzeigen. Gutknecht (2005\\/06) befragte zwischen 2003 und 2005 knapp 400 Arbeitnehmende aus der IT-Branche\\u000a und dem Berufsmilitär bezüglich ihrer organisationsspezifi schen Einstellungen. Seine Ergebnisse beziehen sich besonders auf\\u000a die Wahrnehmung

Verena Berchtold-Ledergerber

292

Gesellschaftswandel und Schulsystem im Modernen Industriestaat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaum sind die westlichen Industriestaaten dank einer liberalen Wirtschaftsordnung wieder zu Wohlstand gekommen, beginnt sich eine wachsende Differenz zwischen dem rational durchorganisierten Wirtschaftssektor und den mehr oder weniger sich selbst iiberlassenen geseUschaftlichen Verh~iltnissen bemerkbar zu machen. Diese Differenz beginnt auf der einen Seite, den technischen und wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt bereits empfindlich zu begrenzen. Schon bedroht die schwindende Effektivit~t aber auf der

Walter L. Bühl

1968-01-01

293

Wages and prices in Europe: A test of the German leadership thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Löhne und Preise in Europa. Ein Test der These von der Vorherrschaft der Bundesrepublik. — Die Autoren prüfen die These, da\\\\\\u000a das EuropÄische WÄhrungssystem (EWS) der Bundesrepublik zur Führung bei der InflationsbekÄmpfung verhalf. Dabei werden zwei\\u000a AnsÄtze verwendet. Bei dem ersten wird die Bedeutung der deutschen Inflationserwartungen für die Erwartungen in anderen EWS-LÄndern\\u000a untersucht, beim zweiten die Kointegration zwischen der

Michael J. Artis; Dilip Nachane

1990-01-01

294

Zum Ablauf des Brutgeschäftes bei Enten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Fortpflanzungszeit und anschließende Großgefiedermauser nehmen bei Enten über 100 Tage in Anspruch. Spät brütende Populationen können daher in Zeitdruck kommen.2.Im Ismaninger Teichgebiet (Oberbayern) liegt der Mittelwert des Legebeginns beiAnas platyrhynchos etwa Mitte Mai,Anas strepera Ende Mai,Aythya ferina Anfang Juni undA. fuligula nach dem 10. Juni (Tab. 1). Theoretisch hätten daher die ? im Mittel erst zwischen Ende August und

Einhard Bezzel; Eberhard von Krosigk

1971-01-01

295

Bleigehalte in Rothirschgeweihen aus Nordrhein-Westfalen: Ein Beitrag zum historischen Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untersucht wurde der Bleigehalt in 141 Rothirschgeweihen aus vier Regionen Nordrhein-Westfalens (Abb. 1). Das Material entstammte einem Zeitraum vom 17.\\/frühen 18. Jahrhundert bis zum Jahr 1997. Die Bleikonzentrationen im Geweihknochen schwankten zwischen 0,3 und 1100 mg Pb\\/kg Trockensubstanz (Abb. 2, Tab. 1–6). Sehr hohe Bleigehalte fanden sich in Geweihen des 17.\\/frühen 18. Jahrhunderts aus dem Raum Schmidtheim (Eifel). Hohe Bleiwerte

H. Kierdorf; U. Kierdorf

1999-01-01

296

kM C d KidMensaCard Kids kostenloses Essen in der Mensa fr Kinder von Studierenden  

E-print Network

kM C d KidMensaCard Kids kostenloses Essen in der Mensa für Kinder von Studierenden �ber 150 immer einfach. Ab jetzt gibt es die MensaCard Kids für Kinder zwischen 0 und 10 Jahren! Wir danken dem Studentenwerk Hannover für die Unterstützung.g Wie funktioniert die MensaCard Kids? · gültig für Studierende mit

Manstein, Dietmar J.

297

Aufbau von organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagementprozessen im Projekt IntegraTUM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Das Projekt IntegraTUM wird in enger Kooperation zwischen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) und dem Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) durchgeführt. In diesem Projekt werden Dienste gemeinsam entwickelt, die nachhaltig vom LRZ betrieben werden sollen. Die damit verbundene Rezentralisierung erfordert auch eine enge Kooperation im Falle von technischen Störungen und Fehlern im Betriebsablauf bei diesen Diensten über die Organisationsgrenzen hinweg. Unsere Aktivitäten in diesem organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagement werden hier beschrieben.

Hommel, Wolfgang; Knittl, Silvia

298

Schwermetalle in Federn von Habichten ( Accipiter gentilis ) aus unterschiedlich belasteten Gebieten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Mit standardisierten Habicht-Mauserfedern läßt sich die Schwermetallbelastung von Landschaftsausschnitten repräsentativ erfassen, wie der Vergleich mit auf physikalisch-technischem Weg ermittelten Depositionsraten aus dem gleichen Untersuchungsgebiet bestätigt. Zwischen den Cadmium-, Blei- und Kupfergehalten in standardisierten Habicht-Mauserfedern und den gemessenen Depositionsraten dieser Elemente besteht eine signifikante Korrelation. Die einzelnen Handschwingen zeigten unterschiedlich hohe Cadmium-, Blei- und Kupfergehalte, abhängig von ihrer Stellung im

Edmund Hahn; Karin Hahn; Markus Stoeppler

1989-01-01

299

Environmental control of pollen grain distribution patterns in the Gulf of Guinea and offshore NW-Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Vor der afrikanischen Küste zwischen Marokko und Kamerun gelangen Pollenkörner in die marinen Sedimente, die durch Wind oder mit dem Wasser von Flüssen herantransportiert worden sind. Dabei hat Windtransport eine größere Bedeutung als Flußtransport. Durch die Häufigkeit und Verbreitung der Pollenkörner (Isopollenkarten) vonPinus, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae\\/Amaranthaceae und den Asteraceae Tubuliflorae in den marinen Sedimenten wird gezeigt, daß der Transport in diesen

Lydie M. Dupont; Chiori O. C. Agwu

1991-01-01

300

Über den Wirkungsmechanismus des Ephedrins und den Unterschied in der Wirkungsstärke zwischen seinen Isomeren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die Blutdruckwirkung des Ephedrins ist nicht als Herzwirkung aufzufassen. Sie ist eine rein periphere Gefäßwirkung und kommt dadurch zustande, daß durch das Ephedrin die Gefäße für Suprarenin sensibilisiert werden. An und für sich unwirksame Ephedrinkonzentrationen verursachen an den mit verdünnten Suprareninlösungen durchströmten Froschgefäßen eine starke, langanhaltende Vasokonstriktion.2.Mit derselben Methode lä\\\\t sich auch die sensibilisierende Wirkung des Kokains und die

Otto Schaumann

1928-01-01

301

Zwischen Copernicus und Kepler - M. Michael Maestlinus Mathematicus Goeppingensis 1550-1631.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book contains the written versions of talks given at a symposium held in Tübingen between 2000 October 11 - 13, and organized by the faculty of physics of Tübingen University. Michael Mästlin (1550 - 1631) was an esteemed astronomer. He was among the first who described comets as cosmic bodies, and who attempted an orbital determination. Already at an early stage, he adhered to Copernicus' heliocentric system, which he transmitted to Kepler. During 47 years, Mästlin was a professor of mathematical sciences in Tübingen, and played an outstanding role in the scientific life of his university. The contributions deal with various aspects of the life and works of Mästlin: his well-received textbook of astronomy, his role in the rejection of the 1582 calender reform by the protestants, his celestial observations, his relation to Kepler and to Galilei, his position to the progress of science of his time. Other contributions analyze contemporary attempts of the quadrature of the circle, give an overview of Mästlin's surviving published and manuscript works, and provide a vivid decription of the everyday life of a Tübingen professor around 1600. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.

Betsch, Gerhard; Hamel, Jürgen

302

Zusammenhänge zwischen fibrinolytischer Aktivität des Blutes und aseptischen Wundheilungsstörungen im Tierexperiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird im Tierversuch nachgewiesen, daß es durch Steigerung der fibrinolytischen Aktivität des Blutes mit Hilfe von Streptokinasen gelingt, die Wundheilung wesentlich zu stören und die Reißfestigkeit der Muskulatur laparotomierter Ratten auf fast ein Viertel des Normalwertes herabzusetzen. Diese Wirkung ist um so klarer, je früher der Fibrinabbau in Gang gesetzt wird. Eine Verhinderung der Wundheilungsstörung durch gleichzeitige Gabe

H. Benzer; G. Blümel; F. Piza

1963-01-01

303

Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

Sölch, Dennis

304

Die unveröffentlichten Gedichte der Marte Brill (1894–1969): Leiden zwischen Lebenslust und Todessehnsucht  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Although Marte Brill's novel of exile, Der Schmelztiegel, was posthumously published in 2002, this has not been the case with the poetry she wrote largely between 1910 and 1919. After briefly sketching Brill's difficult life of exile in Spain (Mallorca), Italy, and Brazil, this article aims at an analysis of her poetry with its neoromantic, symbolistic, and expressionistic elements. Thematically

Reinhard Andress

2011-01-01

305

Die unveröffentlichten Gedichte der Marte Brill (1894–1969): Leiden zwischen Lebenslust und Todessehnsucht  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Marte Brill's novel of exile, Der Schmelztiegel, was posthumously published in 2002, this has not been the case with the poetry she wrote largely between 1910 and 1919. After briefly sketching Brill's difficult life of exile in Spain (Mallorca), Italy, and Brazil, this article aims at an analysis of her poetry with its neoromantic, symbolistic, and expressionistic elements. Thematically

Reinhard Andress

2011-01-01

306

Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

Bauer, Annemarie

1986-03-01

307

Charakterisierung des Plasmamembranproteoms aus dem olfaktorischen Epithel von Mus musculus.  

E-print Network

??Für das Verständnis der Abläufe im olfaktorischen System sind Kenntnisse über die Proteinzusammensetzung der Plasmamembran (PM) eine wichtige Voraussetzung. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde erstmalig… (more)

Adler, Jenny

2009-01-01

308

Case Study: Dem Bones - Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study for high school and undergraduate students in anatomy and physiology. In particular this case study explores anatomy of the skeleton (including landmarks), sex and age determination via pelvic and skull morphology. Users of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science will be required to register (free) to gain access to the answer key (and must be of teaching status to receive the key). Included in the resource are the case overview, objectives, case study, teaching notes and answer key.

Alease S. Bruce (University of Massachusetts-Lowell Department of Health and Clinical Sciences)

2001-07-09

309

Neue Daten zur Flora von Wien, Niederösterreich und dem Burgenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

New or rediscovered (*) taxa are presented for the flora of Vienna (Alyssum hirsutum, Carex divisa*, Cerastium lenoreanum*, Herniaria incana, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale and Rubus laciniatus), for Lower Austria (Cotoneaster bullatus (!), C. dammeri, C. divaricatus (!), Elymus hispidus subsp. barbulatus x E. repens subsp. repens (!) and Ferulago galbanifera*), for Bureenland (Althaea cannabina, Duchesnea indica. Echinochloa crus-galli subsp.

H. MELZER

310

Title: Canadian Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Keywords (Subject): Contours, Digital Elevation

311

Mssbauerspektrometer auf dem Mars Mssbauer spectrometer on Mars  

E-print Network

worden. Um zwei Landestellen genau zu unter suchen, startete die NASA 2003 die ,,Mars ExplorationRoverMission Mission. The two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are the second generation of robotic Mars explorers after "Mars Pathfinder". The main objective of the mission is to search for evidence of water activity

Hanke-Bourgeois, Martin

312

Herstellung und Stabilisierung submikroner organischer Wirkstoffe mit dem RESS - Verfahren.  

E-print Network

??RESS (Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluids) was used to micronize and stabilize organic substances. Pure substances used were benzoic acid, Ibuprofen, Griseofulvin, Phytosterol and polylactic… (more)

Hils, Peter

2009-01-01

313

The Need for SPIRIT DEMs to Quantify Antarctic Ice Sheet  

E-print Network

Discharge: ASAID (IPY Project #88) · Map grounding line from satellite imagery · Determine elevation along: #12;A slightly larger nutshell: · Map grounding line from satellite imagery · Map hydrostatic line of Antarctica #12;Hydrostatic Line in process #12;Elevation Determination · Customized software to ingest all

Berthier, Etienne

314

DEM simulation of diametrical compression test on particle compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2 Dimensional discrete element analysis is carried out with diametrical stressing condition to understand the fracture behaviour of particle compounds. The new surface generation and particle size distributions are also analysed to study an efficiency of the crushing system. Concrete spheres of 150 mm diameter with properties of B35 (35 N\\/mm2 compressive strength) are chosen to represent particle compounds.

Manoj Khanal; Wolfgang Schubert; Jürgen Tomas

2005-01-01

315

New Base-Map for Geological Mapping - The DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the XIX century detail geological maps were produced in series of sheets with standardized format. At least three factors\\u000a in all sheets of series were unified and controlled:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a - The location of geological unit in geological space was controlled by a base-map made of standard topographic sheet according\\u000a to conventional flat co-ordinate systmem; the third ordinate the elevation

Stanis?aw Ostaficzuk

316

Topographic SAR interferometry formulation for high-precision DEM generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In repeat-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, the approximations, allowing the phase-to-height conversion, prevent high-resolution mapped relief. In this paper, we present a more general and exact formulation giving a new relationship between the interferogram phase and the target height. It is based on the interferometric SAR geometry and on a better expansion of the path length difference between the

Riadh Abdelfattah; Jean Marie Nicolas

2002-01-01

317

DEMS 2nd, 5th and 6th period  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, you are going to practice finding multiples and solving fraction problems! FIRST, you are going to help the Mayor of Pumpkinville find multiples! Begin with the number 2. You will need to collect FIVE multiples of 2 BEFORE choosing another number. Find multiples of numbers 3 through 12 before moving to the next game. GOOD LUCK! CLICK HERE --> Pumpkin Multiples Once you ...

Smith, Ms.

2009-02-15

318

EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem.  

E-print Network

together. This leads to browning and drying of the leaves, which eventually curl upwards and inwards, competition for space and food can be great and many larvae fail to survive. Life Cycle of Cameraria ohridella

319

10 Jahre Erfahrung mit dem Goretexfaden® bei Frontalissuspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Bei angeborener Ptose mit einer schlechten Levatorfunktion ist zur Hebung des Lides nur die Frontalisschlinge möglich.\\u000a \\u000a Verschiedene homologe und autologe Materialien wurden als Frontalisschlinge verwendet. Bekannte Komplikationen sind Infektion\\u000a und Abstoßung. Im Zeitraum 1990 bis 2000 wurden 42 Patienten mit einer angeborenen Ptose und schlechter Levatorfunktion einer\\u000a Frontalisschlingenoperation unterzogen. 39 Patienten wurden mit einem Goretexfaden, 3 Patienten mit einem Mersilenefaden

K. Müllner; S. Lindner; A. Langmann

2002-01-01

320

Forecasting of Storm Surge Floods Using ADCIRC and Optimized DEMs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing the accuracy of storm surge flood forecasts is essential for improving preparedness for hurricanes and other severe storms and, in particular, for optimizing evacuation scenarios. An interactive database, developed by WorldWinds, Inc., contains atlases of storm surge flood levels for the Louisiana/Mississippi gulf coast region. These atlases were developed to improve forecasting of flooding along the coastline and estuaries and in adjacent inland areas. Storm surge heights depend on a complex interaction of several factors, including: storm size, central minimum pressure, forward speed of motion, bottom topography near the point of landfall, astronomical tides, and most importantly, maximum wind speed. The information in the atlases was generated in over 100 computational simulations, partly by use of a parallel-processing version of the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model. ADCIRC is a nonlinear computational model of hydrodynamics, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the US Navy, as a family of two- and three-dimensional finite element based codes. It affords a capability for simulating tidal circulation and storm surge propagation over very large computational domains, while simultaneously providing high-resolution output in areas of complex shoreline and bathymetry. The ADCIRC finite-element grid for this project covered the Gulf of Mexico and contiguous basins, extending into the deep Atlantic Ocean with progressively higher resolution approaching the study area. The advantage of using ADCIRC over other storm surge models, such as SLOSH, is that input conditions can include all or part of wind stress, tides, wave stress, and river discharge, which serve to make the model output more accurate.

Valenti, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

2005-01-01

321

Granular physics in low-gravity environments using DEM  

E-print Network

Granular materials of different sizes are present on the surface of several atmosphere-less Solar System bodies. The phenomena related to granular materials have been studied in the framework of the discipline called Granular Physics; that has been studied experimentally in the laboratory and, in the last decades, by performing numerical simulations. The Discrete Element Method simulates the mechanical behavior of a media formed by a set of particles which interact through their contact points. The difficulty in reproducing vacuum and low-gravity environments makes numerical simulations the most promising technique in the study of granular media under these conditions. In this work, relevant processes in minor bodies of the Solar System are studied using the Discrete Element Method. Results of simulations of size segregation in low-gravity environments in the cases of the asteroids Eros and Itokawa are presented. The segregation of particles with different densities was analysed, in particular, the case of comet P/Hartley 2. The surface shaking in these different gravity environments could produce the ejection of particles from the surface at very low relative velocities. The shaking causing the above processes is due to: impacts, explosions like the release of energy by the liberation of internal stresses or the re accommodation of material. Simulations of the passage of impact-induced seismic waves through a granular medium were also performed. We present several applications of the Discrete Element Methods for the study of the physical evolution of agglomerates of rocks under low-gravity environments.

G. Tancredi; A. Maciel; L. Heredia; P. Richeri; S. Nesmachnow

2011-11-26

322

Multiscale curvatures for identifying channel locations from DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curvature based methods are suitable for channel identification in digital elevation models. One obstacle in using these methods is the fact that channels generally occur at multiple scales in the landscape, from small creeks to large rivers. In this paper, we show how likely channel pixels can be identified simultaneously at a range of scales using multiscale curvature operators applied to digital elevation models. Our proposed Hyperscale Channel Extraction (HCE) method localizes channels at the smallest scale while simultaneously tracking the shape of the channel at a full interval of scales (the hyperscale). We test the method using two different types of curvature, and apply and validate it to a catchment representing terrain with a high slope sampled by airborne laser altimetry. The test results demonstrate that by explicitly employing the extra dimension of scale to localize channels, (a) we are able to robustly identify channel pixels, as possible channel locations are tracked through a full interval of scales, (b) no more a priori determination of the relevant scale is necessary, and (c) only one parameter remains to be set: a threshold on the curvature value that has a clear physical interpretation.

Koenders, R.; Lindenbergh, R. C.; Storms, J. E. A.; Menenti, M.

2014-07-01

323

Floristische Beobachtungen aus dem östlichen oberösterreichischen Alpenvorland II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic observations from the eastern Upper Austrian alpine foothills II Abstract: For 26 rare or decreasing species new localities in the eastern Upper Austrian foothills and a few new localities in the western area of Lower Austria are reported. Most of them are species of segetal and ruderal habitats (Amaranlhus albus, Bromus secalinus, Camelina microcarpa, Chenopodium botrys, Ch. bonus-henricus, Ch.

F. ESSL

324

Interpolation of phenological phases on a digital elevation model (DEM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the VegDyn project (a cooperation between Joanneum Research, Institute of Digital Image Processing, LFZ Raumberg-Gumpenstein and ZAMG) consists in quantifying and modelling the relationship between individual growth stages of grassland on the one hand and atmospheric parameters, remotely sensed data and phenological observations on the other. The model simulates the beginning and the end of the vegetation period and the growth stages of grassland with temperature as input variable. Thus it will be possible to explore changes of the timing of the vegetation period and the growth stages of grassland in possible future climate scenarios, which are calculated by climate models. In the context of the VegDyn project we developed methods for the spatial interpolation of phenological phases on a digital elevation model with a 250 m grid resolution in the complex terrain of the Alps. The final result is a series of maps of long term mean entry dates and maps of entry dates of individual years, which can for instance be related with the Net Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter maps from satellite observations. Apart from the yearly input via the conventional observational network based on voluntary observers and the input via the web interface, the Austrian phenological data base is still being supplemented by data from the paper archive. The elevation of the station network ranges from 100 to 1700 m. The station density can reach up to 100 or more stations per phase and season during 1951 - 2009. From more than 280 observed phases including phases from wild (woody and herbaceous) and agricultural plants those have been selected, which are related to cultivated grassland and which can be detected by remote sensing. In order to be selected for spatial interpolation the phase must satisfy a number of criteria: a minimum number of stations and, in order to have a meaningful long term mean entry date, a minimum number of observations per station during 1951 - 2009. If this minimum number is set to 20 years, there remain averagely 129 stations per phase, which fulfil the criterion. An average observer notes about 51 phases. This results in a rather high year to year fluctuation of observing stations and observed phases. The applied interpolation methods are linear regression with the entry dates as dependent and the station coordinates as independent variables, height reduced inverse distance weighting, and height reduced mean. For the latter two methods the search radius and the number of selected nearest neighbouring stations for interpolation have been optimised via trial and error. Interpolation quality is being checked via spatial cross validation, where the average anomaly, explained spatial variance (correlation squared or RSQ) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) serve as quality criteria. The resulting set of maps contains the interpolated long term mean phenological entry date and the entry dates of a series of individual years (1990 - 2009) for each of the three methods. This enables a comparison of the three interpolation methods and an evaluation of the quality of the results.

Schöngaßner, Thomas C.; Scheifinger, Helfried

2010-05-01

325

Zusammenfassung Um zu erfahren, wie ein kosystem aus dem  

E-print Network

with fast species turn-over for 50 years is followed by little change in older stages when animal calculations show that the pioneer communities in the glacier foreland react strongly to climate change. Die is described in chapter 6, this chapter focuses on the settlement of inverte- brate animals in the glacier

Middeldorp, Aart

326

Aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn… — Die Pflanzenreste aus dem mittelalterlichen Abwasserkanal der Grabung Am Hof 10, Wien 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeobotanical analysis of the filling of a medieval sewage drain in the 1st district in Vienna (excavation “Am Hof 10”) resulted in a large amount of plant remains, predominantly 1,172 grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) pips and their fragments. Among the cultivated cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare), emmer (Triticum dicoccum), spelt (Triticum spelta), and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) were unequivocally identified,

Andreas G. Heiss; Ursula Thanheiser

2013-01-01

327

Schlusswort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojektes ProMoLeS wurde bereits zu Projektbeginn der Industriearbeitskreis Montagelösungen für die Leistungselektronik" gegründet, welcher unter der organisatorischen und fachlichen Leitung vom bayerischen Cluster Leistungselektronik im ECPE e.V. eine Plattform für den Austausch zwischen Unternehmen der Leistungselektronik bietet. Ziel des Industriearbeitskreises ist es daher, mit neuen und innovativen Lösungen einen Beitrag zur Sicherung der Montagearbeitsplätze am Standort Deutschland zu leisten. Der Arbeitskreis richtet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte von Unternehmen, die leistungselektronische Systeme oder deren Komponenten entwickeln und herstellen: Entwicklungsingenieure, Fertigungsplaner, Fertigungstechnologen, Fertigungsleiter, Arbeitsorganisatoren, Qualitätsbeauftragte sowie Wissenschaftler an Hochschulen, die auf den genannten Gebieten arbeiten. Ziel und Zweck des Arbeitskreises ist es, Wissen und Erfahrung auszutauschen, persönliche Kontakte von Fachleuten zwischen Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen zu verstärken, Kooperationen in dem Gebieten der Entwicklung, Fertigung, Logistik oder Qualifizierung aufzubauen, strategisch relevante Themen zu erkennen und gemeinsame Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte zu initiieren. Damit soll die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Unternehmen verbessert und Arbeitsplätze am Standort gesichert werden.

Pfeffer, Michael; Reinhardt, Andreas

328

Die Dispositionsqualität einer Rettungsleitstelle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Qualitätsmanagement in der Leitstelle sollte neben quantitativen Parametern wie Zeitintervallen auch inhaltliche Fragestellungen\\u000a beleuchten. Bezogen auf den Notrufabfrage- und Dispositionsprozess wäre somit die Korrelation zwischen vermuteter und tatsächlicher\\u000a Notfalllage zu untersuchen. Hierzu ist eine Rückmeldung über Art und “Schwere” des Notfalls erforderlich, die von dem vor\\u000a Ort agierenden Rettungsdienstpersonal an die Leitstelle übermittelt werden muss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Im hessischen Main-Kinzig-Kreis wurde

W. Lenz; M. Luderer; G. Seitz; M. Lipp

2000-01-01

329

TGF-?1Antisense beeinflusst kollagenbindende Integrine im Keloid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a Hintergrund  Das Keloid stellt aufgrund der ungeklärten Pathophysiologie eine klinische Herausforderung dar. Dem Zytokin TGF-?1 („transforming\\u000a growth factor beta1“) wird im Keloid eine zentrale Rolle zugesprochen. Die Kommunikation zwischen Matrix und Zellen erfolgt\\u000a über Integrine, welche durch dieses Zytokin beeinflusst werden können.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methoden  Wir verglichen mittels Immunhistochemie die Expressionsmuster von ?1?1, ?2?1 und ?3?1 aus normaler Haut mit Keloidgewebe.\\u000a Anschließend untersuchten

G. Bran; U. Sommer; F. Meinzer; U. R. Goessler; K. Hörmann; F. Riedel; H. Sadick

2010-01-01

330

Correspondence between Tycho Brahe and Thaddeus Hagecius - the beginnings. (German Title: Briefwechsel zwischen Tycho Brahe und Thaddaeus Hagecius - Anfänge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voluminous correspondence of Tycho is one of the most interesting sources of the history of astronomy. Nevertheless, it is until today poorly known and rarely cited (Thoren being a counter-example), and a modern critical edition is lacking. Among Tycho Brahe's most frequent correspondents are Wilhelm, the landgrave of Hesse, and his court astronomer Ch. Rothmann. At third place - regarding the number of letters - we find the court physician and astronomer Thaddaeus Hagecius from Prague. Their correspondence lasted from 1575 tpo 1597. This article presents and analyses the most important letters of the Hagecius - Brahe correspondence.

Smolka, Josef

331

Zwischen Web 2.0, virtuellen Welten und Game-based Learning - Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web 2.0, virtuelle Welten und Game-based Learning werden als Allheilmittel moderner Wissensvermittlung an Hochschulen genannt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt nach einer Einführung in die Thematik Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld anhand ausgewählter Web 2.0-Dienste, der virtuellen Welt Second Life, eines an der TUM entwickelten Frameworks für Gamebased Learning Applikationen und eines Lernspiels. Diese werden anhand von konkreten Lehr- und Lernszenarien vorgestellt und anhand der bisherigen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich kritisch beleuchtet.

Pongratz, Hans

332

Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im Vergleich zur Leber enthielt der Dickdarm der Ratte 20 - 30 % an r1B1 und 3 % an r1A1, während im Dickdarm des Menschen die 3 - 5fache Menge an h1B1 und 25 - 50 % an h1A1 gefunden wurden. Die nicht identifizierte Form verhielt sich wie die r1B1. Die für die Leber der Ratte bekannte geschlechtsabhängige Expression wurde im Gastrointestinaltrakt nicht beobachtet. Die Verteilung der Sulfotransferasen im Colon und Ileum des Menschen wurde immunhistochemisch untersucht; für die Gewebe der Ratte war die Spezifität der zur Verfügung stehenden Antiseren nicht ausreichend. Im Colon traten h1B1-spezifische Färbungen in den differenzierten Enterozyten am oberen Ende der Krypten auf, im Dünndarm wurden die Epithelzellen der Zotten gefärbt. Die Färbung konzentrierte sich auf das Zytoplasma. Eine ähnliche Verteilung zeigte sich für h1A1 und h1A3, auer da zusätzlich eine intensive Färbung der Endothelzellen der Kapillaren in der Submukosa des Ileums auftrat. Im Dickdarm war dies nur bei den Kapillaren in den Lymphfollikeln zu erkennen. Die h2A1 war lediglich im Zytoplasma der Epithelzellen der Zotten des Ileums nachzuweisen, während im Colon keine Farbreaktion auftrat. Durch die Verwendung der rekombinanten Indikatorstämme TA1538-h1A1, -h1A3 und -h1B1 und des Ausgangsstammes Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 im Ames-Test wurde gezeigt, da verschiedene benzylische und allylische Alkohole durch im humanen Colon exprimierte Sulfotransferasen zu Mutagenen aktiviert werden. In den meisten Fällen erwies sich eine der drei Sulfotransferasen als besonders effizient in der Bioaktivierung, während durch die anderen Formen kein oder nur ein schwacher Effekt verursacht wurde. Die Bioaktivierung von Promutagenen durch Sulfotransferasen im Colon mu im Zusammenhang mit der Lokalisation diskutiert werden. Die Zellen im Darm, in denen immunhistochemisch Sulfotransferasen detektiert wurden, haben mit Ausnahme des Endothels je nach Abschnitt eine Lebensdauer von maximal fünf Tagen und machen keine weiteren Zellteilungen mehr durch. Daher sind DNA-Schäden in diesen Zellen ein seh

Teubner, Wera

2001-05-01

333

Phäno- und Genotypisierung von Staphylococcus aureus, isoliert von Rindermastitiden aus dem Bundesstaat Sao Paulo, Brasilien.  

E-print Network

??Im vorliegenden wurden 87 S. aureus-Kulturen, isoliert aus Milchproben von 87 an subklinischer Mastitis erkrankter Kühe 23 verschiedener Betriebe von sechs unterschiedlichen Bezirken des Bundesstaats… (more)

Gouvêa Cabral, Kenio de

2003-01-01

334

Preprocessing: Geocoding of AVIRIS data using navigation, engineering, DEM, and radar tracking system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data have geometric characteristics and representation which depend on the type of the acquisition system used. To correlate such data over large regions with other real world representation tools like conventional maps or Geographic Information System (GIS) for verification purposes, or for further treatment within different data sets, a coregistration has to be performed. In addition to the geometric characteristics of the sensor there are two other dominating factors which affect the geometry: the stability of the platform and the topography. There are two basic approaches for a geometric correction on a pixel-by-pixel basis: (1) A parametric approach using the location of the airplane and inertial navigation system data to simulate the observation geometry; and (2) a non-parametric approach using tie points or ground control points. It is well known that the non-parametric approach is not reliable enough for the unstable flight conditions of airborne systems, and is not satisfying in areas with significant topography, e.g. mountains and hills. The present work describes a parametric preprocessing procedure which corrects effects of flight line and attitude variation as well as topographic influences and is described in more detail by Meyer.

Meyer, Peter; Larson, Steven A.; Hansen, Earl G.; Itten, Klaus I.

1993-01-01

335

Extraction of ground control points (GCPs) from synthetic aperture radar images and SRTM DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualified ground control points (GCPs) are crucial in the geolocation of a remotely sensed image. If a region has no published map, the geographical coordinates of GCPs must be obtained indirectly. Although these can be re?constructed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image using sensor position and velocity, this conventional method does not provide accurate GCPs owing to the variable

2006-01-01

336

Ergebnisse der Pankreas- transplantation nach dem Internationalen Pankreas-Trans-plantationsregister (IPTR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Das Internationale Pankreas-Transplantationsregister (IPTR) erstellt in erster Linie Univarianzanalysen. Darüber hinaus versucht dieses Register, mittels Multivarianzanalyse Risikofaktoren zu definieren, die auf die Organfunktionsrate Einflu? nehmen. Auf statistische Einzelheiten sei auf die weiterführende Literatur verwiesen. Bei der simultanen Pankreas- und Nierentransplantation (SPK) leben über 90% der Patienten 1 Jahr nach Transplantation. Mehr als 80% der Patienten haben ein funktionierendes Nierentransplantat

W.-D. Illner; W. Land

1996-01-01

337

Beobachtungen von Diffusionsprozessen im Schichtensystem Silber-Zinksulfid mit dem Photoemissions-Elektronenmikroskop  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the photoemission electron microscope Balzers Metioscope KE 3 the diffusion processes were investigated which occur at elevated temperatures in a system of silver and zincsulfide coatings.

M. Auwärter; H. K. Pulker; Ch. Zaminer

1969-01-01

338

DEM-based analysis of landscape organization: 2) Application to catchment comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delineation of homogeneous landscape elements (or "hydrologic response units") is often a prerequisite in field investigations and the application of semi-distributed hydrologic (or coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical) models. Delineation and quantification of dominant landscape elements requires methods to extract the features from digital elevation data or other readily available information. It is often assumed that hillslope and riparian areas constitute the two most important and identifiable landscape units contributing to catchment runoff in upland humid catchments. In addition, we have found that that the degree of hillslope water expression in stormflow is partially a function of riparian to hillslope reservoir ratios and landscape organization. Therefore, we developed a simple approach for quantifying landscape organization and distributed riparian to hillslope area ratios (riparian buffer ratios), as described in the accompanying contribution. Here we use this method as a framework for comparing and classifying diverse catchments located in Europe, the U.S., and New Zealand. Based on the three catchments Maimai (New Zealand), Panola (Georgia) and Sleepers (Vermont) we obtained the following preliminary results: (1) Local area entering the stream channels was most variable at Maimai and consistently diffuse at Sleepers and Panola. Also the median local area entering the channel network was largest at Maimai and smallest at Sleepers and Panola. This demonstrates the degree of landscape dissection (highest for Maimai) and the concentration of hillslope inputs along the stream network. (2) Riparian areas were smallest at Maimai, larger at Sleepers, and largest at Panola. The combination of riparian zone extent and focused (Maimai) versus diffuse (Sleepers and Panola) hillslope inputs to riparian zones controls local riparian to hillslope area ratios (riparian buffer capacities). (3) Area was accumulated to a large extend in the channel heads in all catchments. At Sleepers about 75 percent of all area originated from sub-catchments of less than 5 ha, whereas this proportion was 50 and 40 percent at Panola and Maimai respectively.

Seibert, J.; McGlynn, B.

2003-04-01

339

Modeling of glacier bed topography from glacier outlines, central branch lines, and a DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the expected future climate change, glacier ice as a resource will be further diminished and its sea-level rise contribution further increased. A key for a more accurate determination of future glacier evolution is to improve our currently sparse knowledge on glacier bedrock topography. Here, we present a simplified method implemented in a geographic information system to approximate subglacial

Frank Paul; Andreas Linsbauer

2012-01-01

340

DEM Simulation of Direct Shear: 1. Rupture Under Constant Normal Stress Boundary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particle-based distinct element method and its grain-based method are used to generate and simulate a synthetic specimen calibrated to the rupture characteristics of an intact (non-jointed) low-porosity brittle rock deformed in direct shear. The simulations are compared to the laboratory-generated ruptures and used to investigate rupture at various normal stress magnitudes. The fracturing processes leading to shear rupture zone creation and the rupture mechanism are found to be normal stress dependent (progressing from tensile splitting to shear rupture) and show partial confirmation of rupture zone creation in nature and in experiments from other materials. The normal stress dependent change is found to be due to the orientation of the major principal stress and local stress concentrations internal to the synthetic specimens being deformed. The normal stress dependent rupture creation process results in a change to the rupture zone's geometry, shear stress versus horizontal displacement response, and thus ultimate strength.

Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.; Bahrani, N.

2014-09-01

341

Praxisorientierter Ansatz zur kartographischen Darstellung von Karst-Grundwasserressourcen - Erfahrungen aus dem SWISSKARST-Projekt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of their abundant water resources, in Switzerland as well as in other countries, the location and extent of karst aquifers have not yet been systematically studied and documented - mainly due to the lack of systematic and dedicated approaches for their characterization. In the framework of a project aiming at documenting the karst aquifers in Switzerland (SWISSKARST Project) the pragmatic KARSYS approach has been developed to systematically assess the main characteristics of karst aquifers and karst systems. One part of this project deals with the development of a practical method for mapping 2D hydrogeological karst systems, which is designed to address both scientific and applied issues. A series of maps based on the approach is proposed to describe the main characteristics of karst groundwater systems resulting in a synthesized map which suitably combines all relevant information.

Malard, Arnauld; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Sinreich, Michael; Weber, Eric; Vouillamoz, Jonathan; Eichenberger, Urs

2014-09-01

342

Paroodectes feisti , der erste Miacide (Carnivora, Mammalia) aus dem Mittel-Eozän von Messel  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  From the Middle Eocene (Lower Lutetian) Oil Shale of Messel near Darmstadt (South-Hesse) the first completely preserved Miacid\\u000a is described. The systematic position of the Miacidae is discussed before. A short review of the paleogeographic (North-America,\\u000a Eurasia) and stratigraphic (L. Paleocene — U. Eocene, ? U. Oligocene) distribution is given; the fossil record of European\\u000a species is more detailed. The

Rainer Springhorn

1980-01-01

343

Dry Coating In A High Shear Mixer: Comparison Of Experimental Results With DEM Analysis Of Particle  

E-print Network

particles respectively. Suglets, products of Colorcon INC., are spherical cores mainly composed of sucrose conical chamber and a vertical rotor that can rotate clockwise direction from 200 rpm to 3000 rpm, with four pairs of flat-bladed impellers from bottom to top. Free volume of the chamber is 1000 cm3 . FIGURE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Die verlorengegangene Institution. Die Frage der parlamentarischen Wahlprüfung vor dem Nationalen Runden Tisch 1989 in Budapest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jurisdiction over disputed parliamentary elections by petition was an English (British) institution in origin. It became an especially important institution in Hungary because there were numerous instances of corrupt practice in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the early years (1848\\/49, 1861, 1865–68) the plenary sessions of the Chamber of Deputies decided the issue, later parliamentary commissions acted (1868–1901), then

JÓZSEF RUSZOLY

2003-01-01

345

Widerstrebet nicht dem Bösen mit Gewalt: Die Rezeption des Tolstoischen Pazifismus bei Stefan Zweig  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early twentieth century, Leo Tolstoy was regarded as one of the most influential pacifists in the world. In my paper,\\u000a I will argue that Stefan Zweig’s literary development from tacitly supporting Austrian nationalism to showing active commitment\\u000a to the pacifist cause owes much to the influence of Tolstoy’s writings on peace and civil disobedience. Focusing particularly\\u000a on the

Stephan Resch

346

A First-Day "Realia" Activity: "Was ist in dem Umschlag?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first day of class is in many ways the most important one of the term. Students come into the classroom alert to everything around them, eager to piece together clues that will answer their ill-defined yet urgent question: "What is this course going to be like?" What teachers say and do on the first day of class is crucial, creating a first…

Bjornstad, Jennifer I.

2004-01-01

347

Call for a Joint Master thesis: Cohesive powder (Regolith) properties by DEM simulations  

E-print Network

, the Moon, Mars, some asteroids, and other terrestrial planets and moons. This material displays strong van in detail For asteroids, at least data about the typical grain sizes can be given and the bulk material can granular matter of high porosity, composed of angular silicate or carbonaceous chondrite particles

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

348

Assessment of sidewall erosion in large gullies using multi-temporal DEMs and logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in the last decades gully erosion has been a thriving research field, few studies have specifically addressed the contribution and location of sidewall erosion processes in gullies. In this paper, sidewall erosion in some large gullies in a Mediterranean area (Anoia-Penedès, NE Spain) is mapped and assessed for two time intervals (1975–1995 and 1995–2002), using detailed digital elevation models

J. A. Mart??nez-Casasnovas; M. C. Ramos; J. Poesen

2004-01-01

349

Semantic Tagging of Domain-Specific Text Documents with DIAsDEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of electronically available information are stored in textual form. The extrac- tion of semantics from these documents and the characterization of their contents into a database- like schema is a necessary prerequisite for efficient search and for the fusion of documents se- mantically belonging together, be they documents about the same company, police reports or legal attests related

Henner Graubitz; Karsten Winkler; Myra Spiliopoulou

350

Toxikologie der synthetischen Antioxidantien BHA und BHT im Vergleich mit dem natürlichen Antioxidans Vitamin E  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicology of the food preservatives butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) as well as the naturally occurring vitamin E (a-tocopherol) is described. In high dosages all three compounds induce in animals impairment of blood clotting, which can be explained by an antagonism with vitamin K. Specific toxic effects to the lung have only been observed with BHT. The other described

Regine Kahl; Hermann Kappus

1993-01-01

351

Qualitätszentrierte Softwareentwicklung in wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppen Auf dem Weg vom Prototypen zum Produkt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neue Bildverarbeitungsmethoden werden häufig hauptsächlich für Publikationszwecke entwickelt. DieWeiterentwicklung bis zur Verwendbarkeit für klinische Anwender erfordert zusätzlichen Aufwand und wird daher oft nicht weiter verfolgt. In dieser Arbeit wurden mehrere Bildanalyseverfahren unserer Abteilung konsequent zu einem stabilen und benutzbaren Softwareprodukt weiter entwickelt, so dass es für den Einsatz bei klinischen Partnern und als Demonstrationssoftware auf Messen verwendbar ist. Wir beschreiben das Vorgehen bei der Weiterentwicklung, welche Erfahrungen gemacht wurden und welcher zusätzliche Aufwand damit verbunden ist.

Maleike, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Heimann, T.; Nolden, M.; Poxleitner, J.; Schöbinger, M.; Schwarz, T.; Seitel, M.; Wegner, I.; Wolber, P.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

352

DEMS: A Data Mining Based Technique to Handle Missing Data in Mobile Sensor Network Applications  

E-print Network

in static sensor networks (SSNs), but little research has been done for those in MSNs, which are more to inaccurate results. Also, certain restrictions, such as hostile environments and disaster areas [8], make or ocean environment require constant mobility that can be achieved only if the sensors themselves

Gruenwald, Le

353

DEMS: A Data Mining Based Technique to Handle Missing Data in Mobile Sensor Network Applications  

E-print Network

in static sen- sor networks (SSNs), but little research has been done for those in MSNs, which are more to inaccurate results. Also, certain restrictions, such as hostile environments and disas- ter areas [22], make- mosphere or ocean environment require constant mobility that can be achieved only if the sensors themselves

Zeinalipour, Demetris

354

RESEARCH/REVIEW ARTICLE A new DEM of the Austfonna ice cap by combining differential  

E-print Network

alternatives but typically too expensive for large-scale topographic map- ping. High-resolution satellite and Antarctica (DiMarzio et al. 2007). In the case of Arctic glaciers and ice caps, data gaps between satellite Remote Sensing Satellites 1/2 (ERS-1/2) in 1996. ICESat elevations from winter 2006Á08 were used

Kääb, Andreas

355

A multi-bit hybrid DSM over full-scale range without feedback DEM.  

E-print Network

??Evolution of the mobile communication standards and proliferation of hand-held devices mandate stringent Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) speci?cations. Among various ADCs, a ?? ADC is best… (more)

Kwon, Sunwoo, 1974-

2009-01-01

356

Ein einzelnes Spaltsinnesorgan auf dem Spinnentarsus: seine Erregung in Abhängigkeit von den Parametern des Luftschallreizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The distal fifth of the tarsi of all walking legs of Cupiennius salei (Labidognatha, Ctenidae) bears several single slit sense organs. One sensory slit on the front of each tarsus is unusual for its large size and constant position. Its long axis runs parallel to that of the tarsus (Figs. 1, 2).2.Impulses can be recorded from this large organ with

Friedrich G. Barth

1967-01-01

357

Ein Lemurenrest aus dem eozänen Ölschiefer der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  First primate remains from the eocene “oil-shale” of Messel are described. It is the skeleton of the lower part of the body.\\u000a Since teeth are missing it can only be determined as Adapidae gen. et sp. indet. It differs fromAdapis in the proportions of the calcaneus. The foot shows an opposable and broadened hallux. The second toe is differentiated as

Wighart V. Koenigswald

1979-01-01

358

Research Article Effects of lidar post-spacing and DEM resolution to mean slope  

E-print Network

CHOW*{ and MICHAEL E. HODGSON{ {Department of Earth and Resource Science, University of Michigan--Flint, Flint, MI 48502, USA {Department of Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA

Hodgson, Michael E.

359

Proprocessing: Geocoding of AVIRIS Data Using Navigation, Engineering, DEM, and Radar Tracking System Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data have geometric characteristics and representation which depend on the type of the acquisition system used. To correlate such data over large regions with other real world representation lools like conventional maps or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for verification purposes, or for further treatment within different data sets, a coregistration has to be performed.

Meyer, P.; Larson, S. A.; Hansen, E. G.; Itten, K. I

1993-01-01

360

Reparative Vorgänge an der Iris des pigmentierten Kaninchenauges nach Bestrahlung mit dem Argon-Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reparative processes of the pigmented iris of the rabbit were analysed with ultrastructural methods.1.Clearing of the damaged area by macrophages is the first step in the reparative processes. Clump cells are macrophages which are observed from the first day of the injury until the ninth week.2.Repair of the anterior surface of the iris is largely finished after 32 days.3.The

G. K. Huber; E. Zypen; F. Fankhauser

1979-01-01

361

Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

2008-03-26

362

Das Verhalten des Schlag-und Minutenvolumens Herzkranker unter dem Einfluß der Digitalis(Strophanthin)Behandlung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird über Untersuchungen der Strophanthinwirkung auf die einzelnen, nach den von Brömser u. Ranke errechneten Formeln zur Schlagvolumenbestimmung bestimmten Kreislauffaktoren, insbesondere auf das Schlag- und Minutenvolumen Herzkrankeer berichtet.

A. Böger; F. Diehl

1933-01-01

363

Rekonstruktion ausgedehnter Schleimhautdefekte im Mundhöhlen- und Oropharynxbereich mit dem revaskularisierten Jejunumtransplantat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Grundlagen: Seit 1990 werden in einer interdisziplinärer Zusammenarbeit ausgedehnte Weichteilverluste nach radikaler Resektion von Mundhöhlen-\\u000a und Oropharynxkarzinomen mit revaskularisierten Dünndarmtransplantaten gedeckt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methodik: In den vergangenen 3 Jahren wurden bei 46 Patienten mikrovaskuläre Jejunumtransplantationen durchgeführt. 35 Patienten mit\\u000a einer Nachbeobachtungszeit von mindestens 6 Monaten wurden nachuntersucht. Mit nur 2 Transplantatteilverlusten hat sich die\\u000a Dünndarmtransplantation bei uns von Beginn an als

W. Millesi; J. Knabl; Th. Rath; Hildegunde Piza-Katzer; E. Wenzl; B. Niederle

1994-01-01

364

Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM/SPH Analysis  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC, permitting the simulation of fluid-structure interaction. We will present results from a study of detonation-induced fracture and fragmentation of geologic media surrounding a tunnel using LDEC.

Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

2007-04-05

365

SPH-DEM simulations of grain dispersion by liquid injection Martin Robinson  

E-print Network

simulations show the effect of process parameters such as injection flow rate and injection diameter and dams. Industrially, the dispersion of solid particles in a liquid is of broad relevance for chemical considers the dispersion of poppy seeds con- tained in a cylindrical cell, by the liquid injected from

Luding, Stefan

366

Trichodina dohrni n. sp., eine neue fischpathogene Ciliatenart aus dem Golf von Neapel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of the genus Trichodina, T. dohrni, is described from the gills of a Bathygobius capitoCuv. et Val. from the Gulf of Naples. The new species is characterized by the absence of the inner aboral cilia, the height of the adoral cilia which never is situated higher than the midst of the body. Differences concerning the measures of

Heinz-Hermann Reichenbach-Klinke

1956-01-01

367

Die Entwicklung des Zooplanktons und-benthos unter dem Einfluss des Abwassers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Basing on sixteen short papers presented by experts from Rumania, Yugoslavia and Hungary, the author reports on the effects\\u000a of waste waters on the zooplankton and zoobenthos of the Danube and its tributaries. The numerous themes treated in the said\\u000a papers are grouped according to the type of pollution and the various stages of organization.\\u000a \\u000a In the coming years, the

Anne Bothár

1982-01-01

368

Neue Erkenntnisse auf dem Gebiete der Parasitologie und der parasitären Erkrankungen des Menschen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing interest in the parasites of man in the Federal Republic of Germany is connected with the unbounded keenness of German people to travel. They favor southern regions with warm climates which are usually infested with parasites. Thus the general practitioner is nowadays confronted in his daily routine with “imported” pathogenic organisms and diseases as yet unknown to him or with which he need not have reckoned in the past. Furthermore, new information now exists on the development of well-known parasites of our regions, which can be pathogenic to man. Fortunately, new reliable drugs have come on the market, rendering some parasitic diseases harmless.

Piekarski, G.

1980-01-01

369

Extraction of ground control points (GCPs) from synthetic aperture radar image using DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data have serious geometric distortions caused by inherent side looking geometry and are usually corrupted by speckle noises so that it is difficult to identify ground control points (GCPs). The location of the pixel in a given SAR image can be derived from the knowledge of sensor position and velocity. We propose a GCP extraction algorithm

Sang-Hoon Hong; H.-S. Jung; J.-S. Won; Hong-Gab Kim

2004-01-01

370

Pseudobilharziella filiformis n. sp., eine neue Vogelbilharzie aus dem Höckerschwan, Cygnus olor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Bei 3 Jungschwänen, die einem durch schweren Befall mitTrematoden, Cestoden undHirudineen verursachten Sterben zum Opfer gefallen waren, wurde eine neue Vogelbilharzie gefunden, die der von

Lothar Szidat

1938-01-01

371

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DRAINAGE NETWORKS EXTRACTED FROM DEMS AND CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES IN LEBANON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage networks are major elements of watershed assessment as they reflect its topographic, geologic, hydrogeologic and tectonic characteristics. The conventional identification of drainage networks from aerial photographs and topographic maps is effort and time consuming. Therefore, many algorithms have been developed in the last three decades for the extraction of drainage networks from satellite imageries (Spot, Landsat, Radar). But these

C. Abdallah; R. Bou Kheir; M. Khawlie; G. Faour

2006-01-01

372

Structural Analysis of Central Luzon, Philippines, Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Luzon Island (13-16°N, 120-122°E), which is bounded to the east by Philippine Trench, to the west by Manila Trench, to the north by Digdig-Dingalan Fault (DDF) and to the south by Verde Island Passage Fault (VIPF), is one of the most seismically and volcanologically active regions in the Philippines. Active seismicity and violent earthquakes in the region are evidently related to the activities along the subduction zones and branches of the Philippine Fault system. Volcanic eruptions and periodic swarms of volcanic earthquakes were also observed in three active volcanoes, i.e., Pinatubo, Taal Volcano Island and Banahaw, while young calderas of Taal and Laguna de Bay are demonstrably fault-bounded. We use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data with 90 m spatial resolution to conduct regional mapping of the faults and volcanic structures in this region. Of particular interests are the NE-SW set of normal faults within the Macolod Corridor, the right-lateral Marikina Valley Fault System (MVFS), the prevalence of N-S trending structures and the series of NW-SE structures that parallel to sub-parallel the active branches of the Philippine Fault. Using ENVI software package, we processed the SRTM data into shaded relief images and examined the lineament features from different azimuth directions and angles of artificial illumination. The prominent NW-SE structures in this area revealed by SRTM data were formed as sinistral shears that parallel the seismically active DDF and VIPF. The N-S trending structures, including some segments of MVFS and N-S oriented fold axes, were apparently generated by an earlier E-W compression, but recently displayed dextral movement with localized vertical component and pull-apart zones. The overprinting of recent fault kinematics on previously formed structures suggest a dramatic shift of regional stress distribution in Central Luzon. The dextral movement along MVFS and the extensional NE-SW faults within the Macolod Corridor are consistent with the regional deformation due to coupling of DDF and VIPF movements. Similarly, the E-W to ENE-WSW and N-S to NNE-SSW structures probably formed as Riedel and anti-Riedel shears.

Torres, R.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Garbeil, H.; Bautista, L.; Ramos, E.

2002-12-01

373

Erster nachweis der gattung Euthycarcinus (Arthropoda) aus dem oberkarbon von ibbenbüren (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Deutschland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time the genusEuthycarcinus could be identified in the Upper Carboniferous system. A new species,E. ibbenburensis, is described and its taxonomic position discussed. Evidence is given by sedimentological as well as by morphological data\\u000a thatEuthycarcinus was part of the Upper Carboniferous limnic fauna.

Stephan Schultka

1991-01-01

374

JeDEM 3(1): 33-41, 2011 ISSN 2075-9517  

E-print Network

in the planet's 25,000 peer-reviewed research journals across all scholarly and scientific fields. Without planet's c. 25,000 peer-reviewed journals (and conference proceedings), across all scholarly contributions), and traditional on the subject of peer review and peer-reviewed publication (Harnad 1998). 1

Carr, Leslie

375

Determination of probability distributions for Strahler stream lengths based on Poisson process and DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the basic tasks in géomorphologie analysis is to know the probability distributions of the stream lengths of different orders. In practical applications, this information is useful for basin rainfall-runoff modelling. The objective of this study is to determine the length distributions of the Strahler streams. A Poisson process was used to derive the theoretical distributions. The result showed

MING-SANG YANG; KWAN TUN LEE

2002-01-01

376

Determination of probability distributions for Strahler stream lengths based on Poisson process and DEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the basic tasks in geomorphologic analysis is to know the probability distributions of the stream lengths of different orders. In practical applications, this information is useful for basin rainfall-runoff modelling. The objective of this study is to determine the length distributions of the Strahler streams. A Poisson process was used to derive the theoretical distributions. The result showed

MING-SANG YANG; KWAN TUN LEE

2001-01-01

377

Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM\\/DEM Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both

J P Morris; M B Rubin; G I Block; M P Bonner

2005-01-01

378

Simulations of fracture and fragmentation of geologic materials using combined FEM\\/DEM analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore distinct element code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both

J. P. Morris; M. B. Rubin; G. I. Block; M. P. Bonner

2006-01-01

379

Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

2005-05-26

380

Numerus clausus: Finden wir mit dem «Eignungstest für das Medizinstudium» die Geeigneten?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Für die Zulassung zum Studium der Medizin wird seit 1998 ein Numerus clausus an den Universi- täten Basel, Bern, Freiburg und Zürich angewen- det. Als Zulassungskriterium dient ein Eignungs- test. Welche Erfahrungen liegen bezüglich dieser Zulassung vor - berücksichtigt sie wie gefordert die Eignung? Diese Frage konnte nun auch erst- mals in der Schweiz anhand konkreter empiri- scher Daten

K.-D. Hänsgen; B. Spicher

381

DEMS: a data mining based technique to handle missing data in mobile sensor network applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mobile Sensor Network (MSN) applications, sensors move to increase the area of coverage and\\/or to compensate for the failure of other sensors. In such applications, loss or corruption of sensor data, known as the missing sensor data phenomenon, occurs due to various reasons, such as power outage, network interference, and sensor mobility. A desirable way to address this issue

Le Gruenwald; Rahul Shukla; Hanqing Yang

2010-01-01

382

Druckausgleich im außenpolitischen Umfeld der ASEAN: Auf dem Langen Marsch von ASEAN+1 zu ASEAN+6?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nineties of the last century began as an agreeable time for the three Indochina states, at least as far as foreign policy and the options for joining subregional and regional FTAs were concerned. After China had succeeded in getting leverage on the ASEAN however, they became more and more squeezed into the Chinese corner, particularly after having signed the

Oskar Weggel

2006-01-01

383

Quality checking of DEM derived from satellite data (SPOT and SRTM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread availability of good quality digital elevation data opens the door to systematic and improved automation of orthoimage production, in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy and the checks on aid applications with remote sensing activity. Best practice for produc- tion of VHR (<1m pixel imagery) meeting these requirements usually states a quality of 5m RMSE in Z

Simon Kay; Peter Spruyt; Szabolcs Mihály; Gyula Ivan

384

Elektrotechnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die elektrische Leitfähigkeit von Metallen im Zustande höchster Reinheit und ihre Abhängigkeit von der Stromrichtung bei nicht regulären Kristallen ist ausführlich in Bd. II behandelt. Die folgende Tabelle enthält nur die technisch wichtigsten Metalle. Da Verunreinigungen, mechanische Bearbeitung und alle Störungen der kristallinen Struktur die Leitfähigkeit herabsetzen, sind die Werte der Leitfähigkeit der reinen Metalle als obere Grenzwerte anzusehen, die von technischen Metallen nicht erreicht werden. Außer der Leitfähigkeit ? in ?-1cm-1 und dem spezifischen Widerstand ? in ? cm oder in ? mm2/m = 10-4? cm ist auch der Temperaturkoeffizient des Widerstandes zwischen 0 °C und 100 °C {? _0}^circ ;100^circ = 1/{100} bullet {? 100^circ - {? _0}^circ }/{{? _0^circ }} angegeben. Der Temperaturkoeffizient wächst mit steigender Reinheit des Metalles. Schon geringe fremde Beimengungen drücken ihn stark herab, Härtung durch mechanische Bearbeitung verkleinert ihn in geringem Maße; dagegen wird er durch Ausglühen vergrößert.

Schulze, A.; Schulz, P.; Lau, H.; Claußnitzer, W.; Schusterius, C.

385

Über die Wechselwirkung des Humats mit den mineralischen Bestandteilen des Bodens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Um den Charakter der Wechselwirkung zwischen dem Humat (welches aus Torf mit alkalischem Auszug gewonnen wurde) mit Ton zu\\u000a ermitteln, wurden die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften ihrer Mischungen erforscht.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Umtauschkapazität und Benetzungswärme der Mischungen sind der Regel der Additivität untergeordnet.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Die Wasserdampfsorption und elektrolytische Koagulationsschwelle sind dieser Regel nicht untergeordnet.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Die Adsorption geringer Humatmengen von Silikagel wurde

M. W. Tschapek; N. Ssakun

1944-01-01

386

Economic convergence on different spatial levels: the conflict between cohesion and growth Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz auf verschiedenen räumlichen Ebenen: Der Konflikt zwischen Kohäsion und Wachstum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of economic disparities within the European Union strongly depends on the regional level considered. Whereas the economic gap between the member states has de- creased over the last decades, regional disparities have rather deepened. The reason for these contradictory findings can be found in the increasing disparities within many of the member states: Especially in growing economies the

Hans Kramar

387

"Astronomica" in the Correspondence between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoull (German Title: "Astronomica" im Briefwechsel zwischen Leonhard Euler und Daniel Bernoulli)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Euler Commission of the Swiss Academy of Sciences intends to terminate the edition of Leonhard Euler's works in the next year 2011 after nearly one hundred years since the beginning of the editorial works. These works include, e.g., Volume 3 of the Series quarta A which will contain the correspondence between Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1783) and which is currently being edited by Dr. Emil A. Fellmann (Basel) and Prof. Dr. Gleb K. Mikhailov (Moscow). This correspondence contains more than hundred letters, principally from Daniel Bernoulli to Euler. Parts of this correspondence were published uncommented already in 1843. It is astonishing that, apart from mathematics and physics (mainly mechanics and hydrodynamics), many topics addressed concern astronomy. The major part of the preserved correspondence between Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, in which astronomical themes are discussed, concerns celestial mechanics as the dominant discipline of theoretical astronomy of the eighteenth century. It was triggered and coined mainly by the prize questions of the Paris Academy of Science. In more than two thirds of the letters current problems and questions concerning celestial mechanics of that time are treated, focusing on the lunar theory and the great inequality in the motions of Jupiter and Saturn as special applications of the three body problem. In the remaining letters, problems concerning spherical astronomy are solved and attempts are made to explain certain phenomena in the field of "cosmic physics" concerning astronomical observations.

Verdun, Andreas

2010-12-01

388

A Study of the Novel of Otto Ludwig based on “Maria,” “Die Heiterethei u. i Widerspiel” and “Zwischen Himmel u. Erde”  

E-print Network

UIer-^ sjaiej. i t s e l f would make an excellent comedy, as do many parts of Dickens' novels. His Cricket on the Hearth i s often played as a comedy. Frau Bügel,Hannesie's mother i s characterized by her house and also by other personal p e c u l i a r i..., Christmas Carol and Chimes,1844,Cricket on the Hearth 1845, Dombey and Son,1837, David Copperfield 1849-50, Bleak House 1852. Transla­ tions of Diekens into German appeared from 1840-5 That Ludwig * read and admired Dickens we know from hisn...

Palmer, Emma Mae

1909-01-01

389

The Astronomische Gesellschaft between international activities and national barriers (1863-1933). (German Title: Die Astronomische Gesellschaft zwischen internationaler Wirksamkeit und nationalen Schranken (1863-1933))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG), founded in 1863, was always intended to be an international society of astronomers, but it was at the same time always dominated by German astronomers. This is expressed in the national background of the members and in the usage of German as the business language, as well as in other facts. It is shown that this polarity between international activities and national barriers originated in the circumstances of the foundation. Using examples from publications and archival sources, the international activities of the AG and the relation of some members to these are being traced between 1863 and 1933. For this the regulations in the statutes, the activities and the relation to the International Astronomical Union have been analysed.

Dick, Wolfgang R.

390

A review of "Orthodoxie als Konsensbildung. Das theologische Disputationswesen an der Universitat Wittenberg zwischen 1570 und 1710" by Kenneth G. Appold  

E-print Network

- duction, Appold turns in part 1 of his book to the background, context and structure of the art of disputation as practiced at the University of Wittenberg, the leading Lutheran university of the sixteenth century. The narrative begins with Jakob Andreae?s... inaugural lecture in 1577, just after the purge of crypto- Calvinist scholars from Wittenberg theological faculty. Appold traces Andreae?s efforts, with Saxon Elector August I, to establish a new method of theologi- cal education and its outcomes...

Boettcher, Susan R.

2007-01-01

391

Zwischen Wollen, aber nicht können und Können, aber nicht wollen: Übergangsprobleme von Jugendlichen in Japan am Beispiel der „Freeter`` und „NEETs``  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caught between wanting but not being able to, and being able, but not wanting to: Transitional problems among Japanese youths based on the examples of "Freeters" and "NEETs" - The study of processes of transition from the education system to employment is particularly important in light of youth unemployment. In Japan this transition process is often declared to be successful. In recent years, however, numerous signs have indicated a change in the situation. This article analyses this problem based on the examples of two Japanese social groups, "Freeters" and "NEETs". These terms refer to young adults who do not immediately move into to regular employment. The article begins by analysing the causes, then comments on education policy measures undertaken to tackle the issue. Drawing on scientifically grounded models it is shown that both social groups are characterised by meagre formal school qualifications. Social background, by contrast, is not particularly relevant; although there are hints that parents' financial means play an increasingly important role in determining whether a young person attends a high-level educational institution. Although public opinion in Japan frequently attributes values and attitudes to these groups that deviate from the norm, this is not conclusively supported by existing empirical findings. Consequently, the reasons for these transitional problems tend to be perceived as being connected to the difficult labour market situation resulting from the ongoing economic crisis. In addition to certain education policy initiatives, Japan will therefore rely heavily in future on the ability to effectively manage the integration of its shrinking cohorts of school and university graduates.

Eswein, Mikiko; Pilz, Matthias

2012-08-01

392

Venture Kapital und Life Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

393

Astronomische Kupferstiche von Gottfried Teuber für Erhard Weigel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zum Spektrum nichtverbaler Zeugnisse aus der Geschichte der Wissenschaften zählen auch die zahlreichen bildhaften Dokumente, auf denen die Objekte der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung festgehalten sind, darunter auch die Kupferstiche (später Fotografien), die den astronomischen Büchern und Schriften beigegeben worden sind. Welcher wissenschaftshistorisch relevante Informationsgehalt ist nun solchen nichtverbalen Zeugnissen neben dem künstlerischen Aspekt der Illustration des Textes zuzubilligen? In Form einer Fallstudie soll im Vortrag ein bisher wenig beachteter Aspekt einer Antwort auf diese Frage angerissen werden. Im Rahmen dieser Fallstudie werden einige Kupferstiche aus dem Himmels=Zeiger`` von Erhard W eigel (1625-1699) vorgestellt, seit 1653 Professor für Mathematik an der Universität Jena und maßgeblicher Initiator der Kalenderreform in den protestantischen Ländern von 1699. Die in diesen Stichen enthaltenen Informationen können grob in drei Gruppen eingeteilt werden: A Aussagen zur Astronomie (dargestellte Himmelserscheinung), B Aussagen zur Drucktechnik (und künstlerischen Gestaltung), C Aussagen zur Biographie (des Herstellers bzw. Auftraggebers). Meines Erachtens ist der Aspekt C in der Historiographie bisher nicht erkannt worden. Hierauf soll mit einem Beispiel aufmerksam gemacht werden, wobei es um die Biographien von zwei Personen geht: die des Buchautors (Weigel) und die des Herstellers des Kupferstiches (Gottfried Teuber). Die Auswertung des Beispiels zeigt, daß durch Beachtung der sonst unauffällig erscheinenden Hersteller eines Kupferstiches Ansatzpunkte gefunden werden können, um Material für die noch unzureichend erforschte Beziehung zwischen den Gelehrten aus der ersten Reihe und deren Gehilfen aufzuspüren.

Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

394

854 Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. Id, No. 4, 1977 with the known spectra'.2of other NF4+salts clearly dem-  

E-print Network

bands in (NF4)$nF6 are also straightforward. The vibrational spectra of octahedral SnF6'- are ~ell-known'~~'~-'~and establish the presence of SnF62-in (NFJ2SnF6 (see Table 11). The anion spectrum in NF4SnF5shows a pattern tentative as- signments for the stretching modes of SnF5-and GeFS-based on tetrameric anions, which

Goodman, Wayne

395

DEM and bathymetry estimation for mapping a tide?coordinated shoreline from fine spatial resolution satellite sensor imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery has considerable potential for mapping a shoreline. Although fine spatial resolution imagery typically allows the instantaneous shoreline to be mapped with high accuracy, interest is normally focused on a reference shoreline, defined on a stable vertical datum, which is generally not apparent in the imagery unless acquired at a time carefully coordinated with the

A. M. Muslim; G. M. Foody

2008-01-01

396

Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lahars are among the most serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past

C. Huggel; D. Schneider; P. Julio Miranda; H. Delgado Granados; A. Kääb

2008-01-01

397

Extraction of morphotectonic features from DEMs: Development and applications for study areas in Hungary and NW Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the consistent application of digital terrain analysis methods to identify tectonic phenomena from geomorphology is developed and presented through two case studies. Based on the study of landforms related to faults, geomorphological characteristics are translated into mathematical and numerical algorithms. Topographic features represented by digital elevation models of the test areas were extracted, described and interpreted in

G. Jordan; B. M. L. Meijninger; D. J. J. van Hinsbergen; J. E. Meulenkamp; P. M. van Dijk

2005-01-01

398

DEM Simulation of Direct Shear: 2. Grain Boundary and Mineral Grain Strength Component Influence on Shear Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of mineral grain and grain boundary strength is investigated using a calibrated intact (non-jointed) brittle rock specimen subjected to direct shear with a particle-based distinct element method and its embedded grain-based method. The adopted numerical approach allows one to independently control the grain boundary and mineral grain strength. The investigation reveals that, in direct shear, the normal stress ( ? n) applied to a rock specimen relative to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) determines the resulting rupture mechanism, the ultimate rupture zone geometry, and thus its shear stress versus horizontal displacement response. This allows one to develop a rupture matrix based on this controlling parameter (i.e., ? n/UCS). Mineral grain strength reductions result in the lowering of the apparent cohesion intercept of the peak linear Coulomb strength envelope, while grain boundary strength reductions change the peak linear Coulomb strength envelope to a bi-linear or curved shape. The impact of grain boundary strength is only relevant at ? n/UCS ratios <0.17 where tensile and dilatant rupture mechanisms dominate. Once shear rupture begins to be the dominant rupture mechanism in a brittle rock (i.e., at ? n/UCS ratios >0.17), the influence of weakened grain boundaries is minimized and strength is controlled by that of the mineral grains.

Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.

2014-09-01

399

DEM-optical-radar data integration for palaeohydrological mapping in the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

North?western Sudan, as a part of the eastern Sahara, is among the driest places on earth. However, the region underwent drastic climatic changes through the alternation of dry and wet conditions in the past. During humid phases, when the rain was plentiful over a prolonged time period, the surface was veined by rivers and dotted by large lakes. The new

E. Ghoneim; F. El-Baz

2007-01-01

400

EU-Overhead in Horizon 2020 (Stand: Januar 2014) Anders als noch im 7. Forschungsrahmenprogramm, in dem die Universitt Heidelberg  

E-print Network

EU-Overhead in Horizon 2020 (Stand: Januar 2014) Anders als noch im 7. Forschungsrahmenprogramm berechneten indirekten Kosten (Overhead) der Universität mit einbezogen hat, gewährt die EU in Horizon 2020 direkten Kosten. Da es aufgrund der in Horizon 2020 definierten Erstattung von 100% der gesamten

Heermann, Dieter W.

401

The Great Sumatran Fault Strike-slip Syntaxes in North Sumatra: New Insights From DEM and Fieldwork Data Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique subduction produces slip partitioning or decoupling, in which underthrusting of the subducting slab accommodates the margin-normal component of slip while a trench-parallel strike-slip fault accommodates margin-parallel slip. This process triggers the individualization of slivers of lithosphere between the trench slope and the large-scale strike-slip fault, that control the location of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This tectonic setting is seen in the Sumatran section of the Sunda arc-trench system, in which the Great Sumatran Fault (GSF) acts as the main strike-slip system. The accurate definition of the structure and geometry of the GSF, as well as that of its main splays, allow proper constraints on the relative motion of the fore-arc sliver plate and its internal deformation. We present a detailed structural analysis on the basis of GDEM and outcrop data at the northernmost tip of Sumatra, including the northwest islands (i.e., between 4,5N and 6N). In this area, we identify two main deformation domains along the GSF, in relation to a western and an eastern branch. The GSF's splays form the structural highs bounding the Aceh Basin as well as distinctive offshore strike-slip syntaxes responsible for the formation of the NW Sumatra islands. Fieldwork observations in relation to the western branch of the GSF show strike-slip or oblique-slip motions and roughly N-S main stress indicators. A >500m2 fault plane exposure shows well-preserved calcite crystallizations and slickenlines, which mark a transition from pure strike to oblique-slip during N-S transpression. In the offshore, the Pulau Aceh islands developed as a transpressional system of thrust splays splitting westwards from the NNW-SSE western trending line of the GSF. These top-to-the-north thrusts, which become younger northward, formed by N-S to NE-SW main stresses. A tectonic restoration based on the geometry of the thrust system points to >20% shortening accommodated by pure reverse dip-slip. The eastern branch of the GSF built the Pulau Weh Island, a tens-of-kms scale Riedel system, which principal stress axis is N-S. The GSF eastern branch further bifurcates in Pulau Weh, resulting in the development of two NNW-trending ridges to the sides of the island, which are parallel to the main deformation zone. Synthetic R and P systems, with N and NW orientations, are marked regionally by structural highs. The strike-slip syntaxes and the wide distribution of deformation of and within the Sumatra fore-arc sliver document the delocalization of the GSF system. More than 20% of the strike-slip motion in the GSF is accommodated by pure contraction and similar or larger percentages are expected from associated fault splays and strike-slip systems at oblique angles.

Fernández-Blanco, David; Philippon, Mélody

2014-05-01

402

A ‘kinder blue’: analysing the police management of the Sheffield anti-‘Lib Dem’ protest of March 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports issued by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Constabulary, and the Manual of Guidance on Keeping the Peace, jointly produced by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), the Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland (ACPOS) and the National Police Improvement Agency (NPIA), have advocated a more permissive approach to policing public order, involving a greater emphasis on

David Waddington

2012-01-01

403

Vergleichende Gesichtsfelduntersuchung am Octopus 2000R mit dem Global-Analyse-Programm G1 nach «grid pattern»  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Universitäts-Augenklinik Innsbruck patients with diabetic macular edema are treated with grid pattern since February 1986. Thirty-two eyes from 18 patients were tested with the program G1 on perimeter Octopus 2000R before and after grid pattern. The evaluated parameters presented by the program G1 are discussed.

G. F. Kieselbach; S. Juen

1988-01-01

404

Looking Through the Ice: Searching for Past and Present Habitable Zones in the Martian North Polar Region Using MOLA DEMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal systems have been acknowledged as important gateways to accessing a potential subsurface biology (extant or extinct) on Mars. Groundwater circulation, sustained for up to one billion years by large plutonic bodies (as modeled by previous authors), might well be capable of tapping into a deep subsurface biosphere and subsequently carrying members of microbial communities to the surface. Hence, future

M. C. Payne; J. D. Farmer

2002-01-01

405

Identification of Geomorphic Signatures of Neotectonic Activity Using dem in the Precambrian Terrain of Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the relative tectonic activity classes, five geomorphic indices such as stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width - valley height ratio (Vf) and drainage basin shape (Bs) of ninety-four sub-basins of Valapattanam river basin have been analysed by applying the standard formulae. Relative tectonic activity classes (Iat) obtained by the average (S/n) of different classes of geomorphic indices have been classified into three groups. Group I shows high tectonic activity with values of S/n < 2; group II shows moderate tectonic activity with S/n > 2 to < 2.5; and group III shows low tectonic activity with values of S/n ? 2.5. Field evidences such as deep valleys, sudden changes in the river course and waterfalls at fault planes clearly agree with the values and classes of tectonic geomorphic indices.

Jayappa, K. S.; Markose, V. J.; Nagaraju, M.

2012-07-01

406

über die ReaktionsÄnderungen im Herzen wÄhrend der Belastung, bei Herzinsuffizienz und unter dem Einflu\\\\ von Strophanthin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Eine Methode der fortlaufenden pH-Messung im strömenden Blut au\\\\erhalb des Körpers mittels Glaselektroden wird ausführlich beschrieben. Die aktuelle Reaktion des arteriellen und venösen Coronarblutes wird am HerzlungenprÄparat von Hunden unter verschiedenen Bedingungen gemessen.

Kl. Gollwitzer-Meier

1942-01-01

407

Kurzbiographie Thomas Stocker, Universitt Bern Thomas Stocker hat an der ETH Zrich Umweltphysik studiert und 1987 mit dem Doktorat  

E-print Network

Vorsitzenden der Arbeitsgruppe I des IPCC. IPCC hat den Sachstandsbericht Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis am 27. September 2013 verabschiedet. Die wichtigsten Aussagen aus diesem Bericht sind Engagement im Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) der UNO wurde er im September 2008 zum

Stocker, Thomas

408

Electrooxidation of acetaldehyde on a carbon supported Pt catalyst at elevated temperature/ pressure: an on-line DEMS study  

E-print Network

acid show very low reactivi- ties even at 100°C, and a high apparent activation energy of 173±6 kJ mol transport conditions, employing high temperature / high pressure (3 bar overpressure) on-line differential. incomplete oxidation to acetic acid) of the reac- tion. Complete oxidation to CO2 prevails at higher

Ulm, Universität

409

Fossile Reptil-Eischalen (Chelonia, Crocodilia, Dinosauria) aus dem unteren Barremium von Galve (Provinz Teruel, SE-Spanien)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The Lower Cretaceous vertebrate bearing sediments of Galve (province of Teruel, SE Spain) have yielded some hundred fossil\\u000a eggshell fragments, all slightly diagenetically altered. Concerning their microstructure, an assignment of the material to\\u000a different taxa of reptiles was possible. The eggshell assemblage of Galve consists of a-c) three types of chelonian eggshells,\\u000a one of them probably representing the subfamily Batagurinae,

Rolf Kohring

1990-01-01

410

Die Überwinterungsknospen des Krausen Laichkrauts ( Potamogeton crispus ) als Nahrung für den Höckerschwan ( Cygnus olor ) auf dem Federsee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the highly eutrophicated, shallow Lake Federsee no submersed macrophytes grew, until 1982 a waste water pipeline around the lake was put in operation. In 1983Potamogeton crispus began to colonize the lake and its abundance increased from year to year. The growth cycle, however, remained very short and the macrophyte always died off between the end of June and

Hans Günzl

1993-01-01

411

VLASTNICKTV M AVCR Abhandlungen aus dem math. Seminar der Univ.Hamburg DE 1 (1922) -67 (1997)  

E-print Network

mathematica NL 1 (1983) - 51 (1998) 23 (1991) - neúplné 28 (1992) - neúplné Acta arithmetica PL 4 (1958) - 85 mathematica Hungarica viz. do svazku 40 Acta mathematica Academiae scientiarum Hungaricae HU S.II : 1 (1950) - 39 (1982) 41 (1983) - 56 (1990) Acta mathematica informatica univ. Ostrav. CZ 1 (1993) - 5 (1997

Cerveny, Vlastislav

412

3338 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 44, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006 High-Accuracy Urban DEM Using  

E-print Network

3338 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 44, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006 High (PS) technique is a power- ful operational tool that exploits a long series of synthetic aperture and near) is addressed, and an easy and efficient solution is proposed. The results obtained in the Milan

Perissin, Daniele

413

PeliGRIFF, a parallel DEM-DLM\\/FD direct numerical simulation tool for 3D particulate flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of particulate flows at moderate to high concentration and finite Reynolds number is addressed by parallel direct\\u000a numerical simulation. The present contribution is an extension of the work published in Computers & Fluids 38:1608 (2009), where systems of moderate size in a 2D geometry were examined. At the numerical level, the suggested method is inspired\\u000a by the framework

Anthony Wachs

414

Screening zum Antibiotika-Transfer aus dem Boden in Getreide in Regionen Nordrhein-Westfalens mit großen Viehbeständen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung:  In einem vorangegangenen Forschungsprojekt wurde ein Transfer von Antibiotika aus güllebeaufschlagtem Boden in den als Nahrungs-\\u000a und Futtermittel genutzten Teil des Getreides, das Korn, nachgewiesen. Unklar blieb jedoch, ob dieser Transfer auch in der\\u000a Praxis der konventionellen Landwirtschaft von Bedeutung ist, da in der Regel die Antibiotikagehalte in Güllen aus der landwirtschaftlichen\\u000a Praxis geringer sind als die Gehalte, die unter

M. Freitag; D. H. Yolcu; H. Hayen; T. Betsche; Manfred Grote

2008-01-01

415

Wildverluste durch den Einsatz landwirtschaftlicher Maschinen nach einer Erhebung aus dem Jagdjahr 1976\\/77 in Nordrhein-Westfalen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhand einer Erhebung von Schätzwerten über Wildverluste durch landwirtschaftlichen Maschineneinsatz aus 36 Kreisgruppengebieten in Nordrhein-Westfalen werden Verlustzahlen der Wildarten Reh, Hase, Wildkaninchen, Fasan und Rebhuhn angegeben. Dabei sind neben den absoluten Zahlenangaben die Daten auf die jeweilige Jahresstrecke der einzelnen Tierart sowie auf verschiedene landwirtschaftliche Nutzflächen bezogen. Nach nordrhein-westfälischen Verhältnissen sind dabei die Federwildarten Fasan und Rebhuhn einschl. ihrer Gelege

L. Kittler

1979-01-01

416

Suche nach der Produktion einzelner Top-Quarks durch Flavor-ändernde neutrale Ströme mit dem CDF II Experiment.  

E-print Network

??Verschiedene phaenomenologische Erweiterungen des Standard Modells sagen die Produktion von Einzel-Top-Quarks mittels Flavor-aendernden Neutralen Stroemen (FCNC) in fuehrender Ordnung vorher. Ein Beispiel fuer einen solchen… (more)

Papaikonomou, Antonios

2009-01-01

417

CFD Analysis of the Effect of Temperature and Buoyancy Due to Concrete Building Structures Based from an Integrated DEM and  

E-print Network

_c directional properties are designed or naturally produced\\ as for instance in the case of composites\\ foams be induced by loadings\\ giving rise to various types of damage\\ as for instance in the case of concrete

Alberta, University of

418

Phonologische und orthographische Verarbeitungsfähigkeiten in der Worterkennung und Rechtschreibung legasthener Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener im Deutschen und Englischen  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZusammenfassungDieser Artikel stellt eine Untersuchung vor, die der Frage des Zusammenhangs phonologischer und orthographischer Verarbeitungsfähigkeiten in der Worterkennung und Rechtschreibung legasthener Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener in der deutschen und englischen Sprache nachgeht. Auf der Grundlage der linguistischen Kodierungsdifferenzenhypothese und auf der Grundlage von Ergebnissen aktueller Untersuchungen zur Prädiktorenextraktion im Fremdsprachenlernen wird mit Hilfe von Strukturgleichungsmodellen geprüft, ob ein grundlegender Zusammenhang

Roswitha Romonath; Claudia Wahn; Noel Gregg

2005-01-01

419

Effect of peripheral ?-carrageenan-induced inflammation on the blood-spinal cord barrier and the tight junction protein occludin.  

E-print Network

??Die Blut-Hirn und Blut-Rückenmarks-Schranke sind durch eine komplexe Interaktion zwischen Endothelzellen und verschiedenen Zelltypen des Zentralen Nervensystems charakterisiert. Sogenannte Tight Junctions zwischen den Endothelzellen bilden… (more)

Püngel, Isabella

2011-01-01

420

Controlling betrieblicher Weiterbildung zwischen Hoffnung und Illuson - oder: Auch im Westen nicht viel Neues (The Controlling of Within-Company Further Education between Hope and Illusion, or: Nothing New in the West).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a survey of recent within-company further education publications available in German speaking areas, Anglo-Saxon countries, France, and Switzerland. Argues that there is a basic consensus evident in these publications. Critiques published patent remedies for controlling within-company further education. Searches for new methods of…

Bank, Volker

2002-01-01

421

The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing

Georg Singer

2005-01-01

422

Die allgemeine Terminologielehre--ein Grenzgebiet zwischen Sprachwissenschaft, Logik, Ontologie, Informatik und den Sachwissenschaften (The Theory of General Terminology--An Intersection of Linguistics, Logic, Ontology, Information Science, and the Technical Sciences)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expanded version of a lecture held at the University of Vienna, May 25, 1972, and in shorter form at the Third International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22, 1972. (DD)

Wuster, Eugen

1974-01-01

423

Wie verändert der SMAD4-Verlust die Interaktionen zwischen Tumorzellen sowie Matrix und Stroma an der invasiven Front? : Einblicke in mögliche Mechanismen durch umfassende Untersuchungen des Transkriptoms Cytokin-behandelter humaner kolorektaler Tumorzelllinien.  

E-print Network

??Der Tumorsuppressor SMAD4 fungiert als Transkriptionsfaktor im TGF?-Signalweg und integriert zelluläre Antworten auf weitere Cytokine und Wachstumsfaktoren. Zur Suche nach neuen Zielgenen von SMAD4 im… (more)

Becker, Heiko

2013-01-01

424

Topologie und Dynamische Netzwerke: Anwendungen Der Optimierung MIT Zukunft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die optimale Auslegung von Infrastrukturen z. B. bei der Verkehrsplanung und bei der Planung von Versorgungssystemen, die optimale Strukturierung bzw. Formgebung von Materialien und Werkstücken z. B. im Leichtbau sind aktuelle Themen angewandter Forschung. In beiden Bereichen wurde bis in die jüngste Zeit vornehmlich eine simulationsbasierte Optimierung auf der Grundlage einer Parameterjustierung vorgenommen, die oft wenig systematisch und zeit- und kostenintensiv ist. Stattdessen erweisen sich modellbasierte mathematische Optimierungsalgorithmen zusammen mit moderner numerischer Simulations-und Visualisierungstechnologie zunehmend als Katalysator neuer Technologien. Eine so verstandene Mathematische Optimierung kann bereits auf beeindruckende Erfolgsgeschichten verweisen und so den Anspruch als eine Zukunftsdisziplin behaupten. Diesem Anspruch trägt die Einrichtung des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1253, Optimierung mit partiellen Differentialgleichungen’ im Jahre 2006 Rechnung, in dem über 25 Projekte im Bundesgebiet sowohl auf die theoretische Fundierung, als auch und insbesondere auf die Verzahnung zwischen Methodenentwicklung und numerischer Realisierung fokussieren. Forschung im Bereich der mathematischen Optimierung und Steuerung von Prozessen bzw. Eigenschaften, die mit Hilfe partieller Differentialgleichungen, so genannten, verteilten Systemen’, beschrieben werden, erfolgt im Kontext konkreter und exemplarischer Anwendungssituationen, die neue mathematische Herausforderungen markieren: Sicherheitsvorgaben etwa bei der Belastung von Gas- und Frischwasserleitungen oder solche für die Belastbarkeit von Verkehrsflugzeugen führen auf Druckbeschränkungen bzw.

Leugering, Günter; Martin, Alexander; Stingl, Michael

425

Zeitschriftfr Feldherpetologie, Supplement13:127-134 August 2008 D. GLANDT& R.JEHLE (Hrsg.):DerMoorfrosch/TheMoor Frog  

E-print Network

Department für Evolutionsbiologie, UniversitätWien, Althanstrasse 14,A-1090 Wien, �sterreich, cornelia.ries mit akustischenSignalen in Zusammenhang gebracht, deren Erforschung bereits eine lange Tradition

Hödl, Walter

426

Conditional logistic regression and odds ratio multifactor dimensionality reduction for the analysis of interactions of environmental risk factors and the 5-HT2A  – 1438 G/A polymorphism in anorexia nervosa.  

E-print Network

??Es ist bekannt, dass das Serotonin-System mit Essverhalten und Essstörungen in Zusammenhang steht. Im Zuge jüngerer genetischer Forschung wurden mehrere sogenannte Polymorphismen im Serotonin-System identifiziert.… (more)

Nader, Ingo

2008-01-01

427

3D Execution Monitor (3D-EM): Using 3D Circuits to Detect Hardware Malicious Inclusions in General Purpose Processors  

E-print Network

microprocessors for its high-assurance needs. Those applications include everything from advanced weaponry in a modern processor. 1. The Threat to Microprocessors Today's Defense Department relies on advanced

428

Baron von Zach's business relations with the Munich entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider (German Title: Geschäftsbeziehungen des Barons von Zach zu dem Münchner Unternehmer Joseph von Utzschneider)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the astronomer von Zach on the one side and the entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider and his partner Georg von Reichenbach on the other dates presumably from the year 1807 when Zach spent two months in Munich. Already in the same year Zach had ordered an instrument for himself and began to solicit business for the institute of Reichenbach, Utzschneider, and Liebherr, which was founded in 1804. One of the clients canvassed by Zach was the director of the observatory in Naples Zuccari. Zuccari had ordered the whole equipment for the new observatory from this institute in 1813. The instruments for Naples, which were completed in 1814, were sent accompanied by Reichenbach by land and sea to their destination where Reichenbach supervised their setup. At that time Reichenbach had separated from Utzschneider who kept the optical institute in Benediktbeuern with his new partner Joseph von Fraunhofer whereas Reichenbach became owner of the mathematical-mechanical institute in Munich. For personal and economical reasons Utzschneider began soon after to produce not only optical glass but also optical devices similar to those offered by Reichenbach. As soon as two institutes in Munich competed against each other on the market for sophisticated geodetical and astronomical instruments Zach sided with Utzschneider. Zach's main professional argument for this decision was that both competitors got the optical glass for their instruments from Utzschneider's optical institute in Benediktbeuern. This meant that Utzschneider had first choice and so the optical part of his instruments could be considered as better than that of Reichenbach`s instruments. Zach's role as an agent in Italy and France for the sale of products coming from Utzschneider's manufactories is highlighted by three of Zach's letters to Utzschneider from 1817 and 1818, two of which are reproduced here for the first time.

Schneider, Ivo

429

Filmisches Philosophieren: ,,Moon" Der Astronaut Sam Bell (Sam Rockwell) befindet sich seit fast drei Jahren auf dem Mond, um dort alleine den Abbau des zur Kernfusion  

E-print Network

Filmisches Philosophieren: ,,Moon" Der Astronaut Sam Bell (Sam Rockwell) befindet sich seit fast Sam eine Entdeckung, die all seine Ã?berzeugungen in Frage stellt... Der Science-Fiction Film ,,Moon zum einzig relevanten MaÃ?stab menschlichen Handelns avanciert. ,,Moon" stellt den zweiten Film der

Schubart, Christoph

430

Up Close and Personal – The Interplay between Information Technology and Human Agency in the Policing of the 2011 Sheffield Anti-Lib Dem Protest  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter constitutes a case study of South Yorkshire Police’s (SYP’s) handling of a protest outside the Sheffield City\\u000a Hall venue of a Liberal Democrat party conference on 11-12 March 2011. The demonstration occurred in the wake of a number\\u000a of high-profile official reports advocating a more permissive approach to protest policing. The chapter describes and analyses\\u000a two particular aspects

Kerry McSeveny; David Waddington

431

Untersuchung der Empfänglichkeit von Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio), Koi-Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio koi), Zebrabärblingen (Danio rerio), Regenbogenforellen (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gegenüber Myxobolus cerebralis, dem Erreger der Drehkrankheit.  

E-print Network

??Ziel der vorliegenden Dissertationsarbeit war es, die mögliche Empfänglichkeit von Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio), Koi-Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio koi) und Zebrabärblingen (Danio rerio) gegenüber der Drehkrankheit mittels… (more)

Oumouna, Mhamed

2009-01-01

432

Simultanbestimmungen der Lotabweichungskomponenten xi und eta MIT Dem Prismenastrolabium (Simultaneous Determination of the xi and eta Components of Vertical Deflection with a Prism Astrolabe).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Astronomical observation of latitudes and longitudes on the geoid profile at 48 deg latitude were carried out at 5 stations. A table sets out all stations of this profile with their deflection of the vertical components in the system RE 1950.

A. Roedde

1984-01-01

433

Difficulties During the Barometic Discharging of Liquids from the Vacuum by Means of Gravity Tubes Schwierigkeiten Beim Barometrischen Ausschleusen von Fluessigkeiten Aus Dem Vakuum Mittels Fallrohren.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The barometric discharging of liquid, used to cool rocket exhaust gases by means of gravity tubes, and its efficiency improvement by means of an air vent, is discussed. This cooling system is used at rocket test stands, and the cooling of the exhaust gase...

H. Lambrecht

1973-01-01

434

Simulating Hydrologic Interactions With a Model Formulation Based on DEM-Derived Surface Flow Paths and Boundary Condition-Resolved Exchange Fluxes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proper understanding and representation of the interactions between the different components of the hydrosphere (atmosphere, land surface, soil zone, aquifers) is increasingly relevant to climate prediction, environmental protection, and water management. There is a variety of models and modeling approaches currently in use to model atmosphere/surface/subsurface interactions. Rigorous testing of available models is extremely important, in particular with regards to how interactions are parameterized and how different processes (or process submodels) are integrated or coupled. The coupling term for the model tested in this work is computed as the balance between atmospheric forcing (rainfall and potential evaporation) and the amount of water that can actually infiltrate or exfiltrate the soil. Surface runoff is represented by a diffusion wave equation for both overland and channel flow, with the drainage network extracted from digital terrain data. Sensitivity tests, intercomparison studies, and other model applications are used to illustrate features and challenges for this particular model formulation, in relation to other approaches where relevant. Some of the validation challenges and other issues, for this and similar coupled hydrologic models, include grid resolution effects (are these models scale invariant?), observation/measurement difficulties (for rill or sheet flow land surface routing paradigms, for example), poorly-known behavior during evaporation/drying stages as compared to rainfall/infiltration periods (physics and numerics), and a possible bias to overestimation of near-surface soil moisture and groundwater levels (linked to the treatment of surface and other boundary conditions).

Paniconi, C.; Camporese, M.; Dagès, C.; Orlandini, S.; Putti, M.; Sulis, M.; Weill, S.

2010-12-01

435

Bietet das NexGen LPS Flex mobile-Knieprothesen- system Vorteile gegenüber dem NexGen LPS? - Ein Vergleich klinischer und radiologischer Ergebnisse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under experimental conditions, mobile bearing knee prostheses have several advantages. The optimized congruence of the tibio- femoral joint surface allows a knee flexion of more than 1208 without creating instability or increase of wear. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the results of a prospective randomized study after implantation of the mobile bearing knee prosthesis NexGen LPS

D. Wohlrab; J. Ditl; R. Herrschelmann; U. Schietsch; W. Hein; R. Hube

2005-01-01

436

Ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II - Kinematics of DEM 45, 137, 165, 174, and 208  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity fields of five ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud are investigated in order to distinguish among possible origins. Velocities were mapped by the use of the CTIO pressure-scanned Fabry-Perot interferometer at the forbidden O III line, and the high-resolution line profiles obtained were used to determine the dynamical ages of the nebulae. Comparison

Y.-H. Chu

1982-01-01

437

Factors that control the development of fault-bend versus fault-propagation folds: Insights from mechanical models based on the discrete element method (DEM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role and relative importance of a range of geometric and mechanical factors in the development of contractional fault-related folds, with an emphasis on defining the factors that promote the development of fault-bend and fault-propagation folds. We construct a series of discrete-element mechanical models in order to test the effects of fault dip, bulk material strength, mechanical layer anisotropy and spacing, sedimentation rate, and boundary conditions on the style of fault-related fold that develops. We find that fault-bend folding is most favored at low fault ramp dips, with thinly-spaced mechanical layers, and strong layer strength contrasts. In contrast, conditions that inhibit slip on a potential upper detachment surface, such as increased friction and a fixed foreland boundary, encourage the development of fault-propagation folds. Additionally, steeper fault dips, more widely-spaced mechanical layers, and decreased layer strength contrast favor the increased localization of shear during the growth of structures. This leads to structures that deform by a mixture of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding styles. Observations of the distortional strains that develop in the model provide insight into the relationship between the different deformation mechanisms, such as flexural slip and localized shear, which accommodate structural growth and ultimately determine fault-related folding style. Thus, these models provide a context for understanding how rock and fault properties influence whether structures evolve as fault-bend or fault-propagation folds, or as combinations of these end members. We apply these insights to interpret two natural examples from the offshore Niger Delta outer fold-and-thrust belt that exhibit changes in structural style through time as a result of changes in fault properties and syntectonic sedimentation.

Hughes, Amanda N.; Benesh, Nathan P.; Shaw, John H.

2014-11-01

438

MAPPING RELATIVE INUNDATION VULNERABILITY OF LAND PARCELS ON LOW-LYING GROUND: EXEMPLIFICATION WITH A PHOTOGRAMMETRICALLY-DERIVED DEM-BASED MODEL OF LAKES ENTRANCE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the townscape of Lakes Entrance (Victoria, Australia) as a case study, it is shown how, via adoption of a suitable digital spatial data handling process path, a high- resolution bare earth terrain model suitable for flood and storm surge\\/storm tide inundation modelling of low-lying coastal townscapes can be derived photogrammetrically. Model applications refer mostly to urban area planning and

P. J. Wheeler; J. Kunapo; J. A. Peterson; M. McMahon

439