A Structural Connection between Linear and 0-1 Integer Linear Formulations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.
2007-01-01
The connection between linear and 0-1 integer linear formulations has attracted the attention of many researchers. The main reason triggering this interest has been an availability of efficient computer programs for solving pure linear problems including the transportation problem. Also the optimality of linear problems is easily verifiable…
Ensemble segmentation using efficient integer linear programming.
Alush, Amir; Goldberger, Jacob
2012-10-01
We present a method for combining several segmentations of an image into a single one that in some sense is the average segmentation in order to achieve a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The goal is to find a point in the "space of segmentations" which is close to all the individual segmentations. We present an algorithm for segmentation averaging. The image is first oversegmented into superpixels. Next, each segmentation is projected onto the superpixel map. An instance of the EM algorithm combined with integer linear programming is applied on the set of binary merging decisions of neighboring superpixels to obtain the average segmentation. Apart from segmentation averaging, the algorithm also reports the reliability of each segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on manually annotated images from the Berkeley segmentation data set and on the results of automatic segmentation algorithms.
Investigating Integer Restrictions in Linear Programming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Thomas G.; Chelst, Kenneth R.; Principato, Angela M.; Wilhelm, Thad L.
2015-01-01
Linear programming (LP) is an application of graphing linear systems that appears in many Algebra 2 textbooks. Although not explicitly mentioned in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, linear programming blends seamlessly into modeling with mathematics, the fourth Standard for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010, p. 7). In solving a…
Detection of code spread OFDM based on 0-1 integer quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elghariani, Ali; Zoltowski, Michael D.
2012-05-01
In this paper we introduce Integer Quadratic Programming (MIQP) approach to optimally detect QPSK Code Spread OFDM (CS-OFDM) by formulating the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem. The Branch and Bound (BB) algorithm is utilized to solve this integer quadratic programming problem. Furthermore, we propose combined preprocessing steps that can be applied prior to BB so that the computational complexity of the optimum receiver is reduced. The first step in this combination is to detect as much as possible symbols using procedures presented in [9], which is basically based on the gradient of quadratic function. The second step detects the undetected symbols from the first step using MMSE estimator. The result of the latter step will be used to predict the initial upper bound of the BB algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed preprocessing combination when applied prior to BB provides optimal performance with a significantly reduced computational complexity.
Solving linear integer programming problems by a novel neural model.
Cavalieri, S
1999-02-01
The paper deals with integer linear programming problems. As is well known, these are extremely complex problems, even when the number of integer variables is quite low. Literature provides examples of various methods to solve such problems, some of which are of a heuristic nature. This paper proposes an alternative strategy based on the Hopfield neural network. The advantage of the strategy essentially lies in the fact that hardware implementation of the neural model allows for the time required to obtain a solution so as not depend on the size of the problem to be solved. The paper presents a particular class of integer linear programming problems, including well-known problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem and the Set Covering Problem. After a brief description of this class of problems, it is demonstrated that the original Hopfield model is incapable of supplying valid solutions. This is attributed to the presence of constant bias currents in the dynamic of the neural model. A demonstration of this is given and then a novel neural model is presented which continues to be based on the same architecture as the Hopfield model, but introduces modifications thanks to which the integer linear programming problems presented can be solved. Some numerical examples and concluding remarks highlight the solving capacity of the novel neural model.
Split diversity in constrained conservation prioritization using integer linear programming.
Chernomor, Olga; Minh, Bui Quang; Forest, Félix; Klaere, Steffen; Ingram, Travis; Henzinger, Monika; von Haeseler, Arndt
2015-01-01
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of biodiversity based on the evolutionary history of species. Here, we discuss several optimization problems related to the use of PD, and the more general measure split diversity (SD), in conservation prioritization.Depending on the conservation goal and the information available about species, one can construct optimization routines that incorporate various conservation constraints. We demonstrate how this information can be used to select sets of species for conservation action. Specifically, we discuss the use of species' geographic distributions, the choice of candidates under economic pressure, and the use of predator-prey interactions between the species in a community to define viability constraints.Despite such optimization problems falling into the area of NP hard problems, it is possible to solve them in a reasonable amount of time using integer programming. We apply integer linear programming to a variety of models for conservation prioritization that incorporate the SD measure.We exemplarily show the results for two data sets: the Cape region of South Africa and a Caribbean coral reef community. Finally, we provide user-friendly software at http://www.cibiv.at/software/pda.
Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2008-01-01
Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.
Accurate construction of consensus genetic maps via integer linear programming.
Wu, Yonghui; Close, Timothy J; Lonardi, Stefano
2011-01-01
We study the problem of merging genetic maps, when the individual genetic maps are given as directed acyclic graphs. The computational problem is to build a consensus map, which is a directed graph that includes and is consistent with all (or, the vast majority of) the markers in the input maps. However, when markers in the individual maps have ordering conflicts, the resulting consensus map will contain cycles. Here, we formulate the problem of resolving cycles in the context of a parsimonious paradigm that takes into account two types of errors that may be present in the input maps, namely, local reshuffles and global displacements. The resulting combinatorial optimization problem is, in turn, expressed as an integer linear program. A fast approximation algorithm is proposed, and an additional speedup heuristic is developed. Our algorithms were implemented in a software tool named MERGEMAP which is freely available for academic use. An extensive set of experiments shows that MERGEMAP consistently outperforms JOINMAP, which is the most popular tool currently available for this task, both in terms of accuracy and running time. MERGEMAP is available for download at http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~yonghui/mgmap.html.
Maximum likelihood pedigree reconstruction using integer linear programming.
Cussens, James; Bartlett, Mark; Jones, Elinor M; Sheehan, Nuala A
2013-01-01
Large population biobanks of unrelated individuals have been highly successful in detecting common genetic variants affecting diseases of public health concern. However, they lack the statistical power to detect more modest gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects or the effects of rare variants for which related individuals are ideally required. In reality, most large population studies will undoubtedly contain sets of undeclared relatives, or pedigrees. Although a crude measure of relatedness might sometimes suffice, having a good estimate of the true pedigree would be much more informative if this could be obtained efficiently. Relatives are more likely to share longer haplotypes around disease susceptibility loci and are hence biologically more informative for rare variants than unrelated cases and controls. Distant relatives are arguably more useful for detecting variants with small effects because they are less likely to share masking environmental effects. Moreover, the identification of relatives enables appropriate adjustments of statistical analyses that typically assume unrelatedness. We propose to exploit an integer linear programming optimisation approach to pedigree learning, which is adapted to find valid pedigrees by imposing appropriate constraints. Our method is not restricted to small pedigrees and is guaranteed to return a maximum likelihood pedigree. With additional constraints, we can also search for multiple high-probability pedigrees and thus account for the inherent uncertainty in any particular pedigree reconstruction. The true pedigree is found very quickly by comparison with other methods when all individuals are observed. Extensions to more complex problems seem feasible.
Learning oncogenetic networks by reducing to mixed integer linear programming.
Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens
2013-01-01
Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.
IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1994-01-01
IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.
Linear Darier's disease successfully treated with 0.1% tazarotene gel "short-contact" therapy.
Brazzelli, Valeria; Prestinari, Francesca; Barbagallo, Tania; Vassallo, Camilla; Agozzino, Marina; Borroni, Giovanni
2006-01-01
We report the case of a 25 year old man affected by linear Darier's disease. The patient presented with brownish keratotic papules involving the trunk in a linear pattern. These lesions were successfully treated within 6 weeks with 0.1% tazarotene gel "short contact". The good response that was obtained suggests that the use of "short contact" tazarotene could be useful in the treatment of linear Darier's disease.
Linear algorithms of affine synthesis in the Lebesgue space L^1 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terekhin, Pavel A.
2010-10-01
We prove that there are no linear algorithms of affine synthesis for affine systems in the Lebesgue space L^1 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack with respect to the model space \\ell^1, although the corresponding affine synthesis problem has a positive solution under the most general assumptions. At the same time, by imposing additional conditions on the generating function of the affine system, we can give an explicit linear algorithm of affine synthesis in the Lebesgue space when the model space is that of the coefficients of the system. This linear algorithm generalizes the Fourier-Haar expansion into orthogonal series.
Optimized Waterspace Management and Scheduling Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming
2016-01-01
TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR 2015-003 OPTIMIZED WATERSPACE MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING USING MIXED-INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING...effects on optimization quality . 24 3 NSWC PCD TR 2015-003 Optimized Waterspace Mgt 1 Introduction The use of autonomous systems to perform increasingly...constraints required for the mathematical formulation of the MCM scheduling problem pertaining to the survey constraints and logistics management . The
Zörnig, Peter
2015-08-01
We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.
An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1990-01-01
The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.
1980-05-31
Multiconstraint Zero - One Knapsack Problem ," The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 30, 1979, pp. 369-378. 69 [41] Kepler, C...programming. Shih [401 has written on a branch and bound method , Kepler and Blackman [41] have demonstrated the use of dynamic programming in the selection of...Portfolio Selection Model," IEEE A. Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-26, No. 1, 1979, pp. 2-7. [40] Shih, Wei, "A Branch and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahri, Susila
2016-04-01
In this research, the minimization of the fire station model is constructed. The maximum time data required by the firefighter is used to construct the minimization model of the fire station in Padang. The model is used to determine the minimum number of the available fire station in Padang town. By using Matlab 2013a, the solution of the model can be found based on the Branch and Bound method. It denotes that the fire station must be built in Lubuk Begalung and Kuranji sub-districts.
Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R
2013-10-15
Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.
Uncovering signal transduction networks from high-throughput data by integer linear programming.
Zhao, Xing-Ming; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Chen, Luonan; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2008-05-01
Signal transduction is an important process that transmits signals from the outside of a cell to the inside to mediate sophisticated biological responses. Effective computational models to unravel such a process by taking advantage of high-throughput genomic and proteomic data are needed to understand the essential mechanisms underlying the signaling pathways. In this article, we propose a novel method for uncovering signal transduction networks (STNs) by integrating protein interaction with gene expression data. Specifically, we formulate STN identification problem as an integer linear programming (ILP) model, which can be actually solved by a relaxed linear programming algorithm and is flexible for handling various prior information without any restriction on the network structures. The numerical results on yeast MAPK signaling pathways demonstrate that the proposed ILP model is able to uncover STNs or pathways in an efficient and accurate manner. In particular, the prediction results are found to be in high agreement with current biological knowledge and available information in literature. In addition, the proposed model is simple to be interpreted and easy to be implemented even for a large-scale system.
Wu, Z; Zhang, Y
2008-01-01
The double digestion problem for DNA restriction mapping has been proved to be NP-complete and intractable if the numbers of the DNA fragments become large. Several approaches to the problem have been tested and proved to be effective only for small problems. In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MIP) by following (Waterman, 1995) in a slightly different form. With this formulation and using state-of-the-art integer programming techniques, we can solve randomly generated problems whose search space sizes are many-magnitude larger than previously reported testing sizes.
A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad
2010-01-01
Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.
Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment.
Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, Chengxiang
2012-07-01
Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching.
Automatic Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits through Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming
Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias
2012-01-01
Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits. PMID:22536398
Poos, Alexandra M; Maicher, André; Dieckmann, Anna K; Oswald, Marcus; Eils, Roland; Kupiec, Martin; Luke, Brian; König, Rainer
2016-06-02
Understanding telomere length maintenance mechanisms is central in cancer biology as their dysregulation is one of the hallmarks for immortalization of cancer cells. Important for this well-balanced control is the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase genes. We integrated Mixed Integer Linear Programming models into a comparative machine learning based approach to identify regulatory interactions that best explain the discrepancy of telomerase transcript levels in yeast mutants with deleted regulators showing aberrant telomere length, when compared to mutants with normal telomere length. We uncover novel regulators of telomerase expression, several of which affect histone levels or modifications. In particular, our results point to the transcription factors Sum1, Hst1 and Srb2 as being important for the regulation of EST1 transcription, and we validated the effect of Sum1 experimentally. We compiled our machine learning method leading to a user friendly package for R which can straightforwardly be applied to similar problems integrating gene regulator binding information and expression profiles of samples of e.g. different phenotypes, diseases or treatments.
Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.
Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias
2012-01-01
Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.
Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment
Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, ChengXiang
2011-01-01
Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching. PMID:22711970
Aspect-Object Alignment with Integer Linear Programming in Opinion Mining
Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting; Yang, Wei
2015-01-01
Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial. PMID:26000635
Aspect-object alignment with Integer Linear Programming in opinion mining.
Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting; Yang, Wei
2015-01-01
Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial.
Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Siminelakis, Paraskeuas; Chairakaki, Aikaterini D; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G
2009-12-01
Understanding the mechanisms of cell function and drug action is a major endeavor in the pharmaceutical industry. Drug effects are governed by the intrinsic properties of the drug (i.e., selectivity and potency) and the specific signaling transduction network of the host (i.e., normal vs. diseased cells). Here, we describe an unbiased, phosphoproteomic-based approach to identify drug effects by monitoring drug-induced topology alterations. With our proposed method, drug effects are investigated under diverse stimulations of the signaling network. Starting with a generic pathway made of logical gates, we build a cell-type specific map by constraining it to fit 13 key phopshoprotein signals under 55 experimental conditions. Fitting is performed via an Integer Linear Program (ILP) formulation and solution by standard ILP solvers; a procedure that drastically outperforms previous fitting schemes. Then, knowing the cell's topology, we monitor the same key phosphoprotein signals under the presence of drug and we re-optimize the specific map to reveal drug-induced topology alterations. To prove our case, we make a topology for the hepatocytic cell-line HepG2 and we evaluate the effects of 4 drugs: 3 selective inhibitors for the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and a non-selective drug. We confirm effects easily predictable from the drugs' main target (i.e., EGFR inhibitors blocks the EGFR pathway) but we also uncover unanticipated effects due to either drug promiscuity or the cell's specific topology. An interesting finding is that the selective EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib inhibits signaling downstream the Interleukin-1alpha (IL1alpha) pathway; an effect that cannot be extracted from binding affinity-based approaches. Our method represents an unbiased approach to identify drug effects on small to medium size pathways which is scalable to larger topologies with any type of signaling interventions (small molecules, RNAi, etc). The method can reveal drug effects on
Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp.
Li, Y P; Huang, G H
2006-11-01
In this study, an interval-parameter two-stage mixed integer linear programming (ITMILP) model is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the City of Regina. In the ITMILP, both two-stage stochastic programming and interval linear programming are introduced into a general mixed integer linear programming framework. Uncertainties expressed as not only probability density functions but also discrete intervals can be reflected. The model can help tackle the dynamic, interactive and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system in the City, and can address issues concerning plans for cost-effective waste diversion and landfill prolongation. Three scenarios are considered based on different waste management policies. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing waste flow allocation patterns, the long-term capacity planning of the City's waste management system, and the formulation of local policies and regulations regarding waste generation and management.
Software For Integer Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1992-01-01
Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems (IESIP) program optimizes objective function of variables subject to confining functions or constraints, using discrete optimization or integer programming. Enables rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size. Integer programming required for accuracy in modeling systems containing small number of components, distribution of goods, scheduling operations on machine tools, and scheduling production in general. Written in Borland's TURBO Pascal.
Catanzaro, Daniele; Shackney, Stanley E; Schaffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell
2016-01-01
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is a precursor lesion of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Investigating its temporal progression could provide fundamental new insights for the development of better diagnostic tools to predict which cases of DCIS will progress to IDC. We investigate the problem of reconstructing a plausible progression from single-cell sampled data of an individual with synchronous DCIS and IDC. Specifically, by using a number of assumptions derived from the observation of cellular atypia occurring in IDC, we design a possible predictive model using integer linear programming (ILP). Computational experiments carried out on a preexisting data set of 13 patients with simultaneous DCIS and IDC show that the corresponding predicted progression models are classifiable into categories having specific evolutionary characteristics. The approach provides new insights into mechanisms of clonal progression in breast cancers and helps illustrate the power of the ILP approach for similar problems in reconstructing tumor evolution scenarios under complex sets of constraints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noor-E-Alam, Md.; Doucette, John
2015-08-01
Grid-based location problems (GBLPs) can be used to solve location problems in business, engineering, resource exploitation, and even in the field of medical sciences. To solve these decision problems, an integer linear programming (ILP) model is designed and developed to provide the optimal solution for GBLPs considering fixed cost criteria. Preliminary results show that the ILP model is efficient in solving small to moderate-sized problems. However, this ILP model becomes intractable in solving large-scale instances. Therefore, a decomposition heuristic is proposed to solve these large-scale GBLPs, which demonstrates significant reduction of solution runtimes. To benchmark the proposed heuristic, results are compared with the exact solution via ILP. The experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the exact method in runtime with minimal (and in most cases, no) loss of optimality.
Baliban, Richard C.; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Plazas-Mayorca, Mariana D.; Young, Nicolas L.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.
2010-01-01
A novel algorithm, PILOT_PTM, has been developed for the untargeted identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on a template sequence. The algorithm consists of an analysis of an MS/MS spectrum via an integer linear optimization model to output a rank-ordered list of PTMs that best match the experimental data. Each MS/MS spectrum is analyzed by a preprocessing algorithm to reduce spectral noise and label potential complimentary, offset, isotope, and multiply charged peaks. Postprocessing of the rank-ordered list from the integer linear optimization model will resolve fragment mass errors and will reorder the list of PTMs based on the cross-correlation between the experimental and theoretical MS/MS spectrum. PILOT_PTM is instrument-independent, capable of handling multiple fragmentation technologies, and can address the universe of PTMs for every amino acid on the template sequence. The various features of PILOT_PTM are presented, and it is tested on several modified and unmodified data sets including chemically synthesized phosphopeptides, histone H3-(1–50) polypeptides, histone H3-(1–50) tryptic fragments, and peptides generated from proteins extracted from chromatin-enriched fractions. The data sets consist of spectra derived from fragmentation via collision-induced dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, and electron capture dissociation. The capability of PILOT_PTM is then benchmarked using five state-of-the-art methods, InsPecT, Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist (VEMS), Modi, Mascot, and X!Tandem. PILOT_PTM demonstrates superior accuracy on both the small and large scale proteome experiments. A protocol is finally developed for the analysis of a complete LC-MS/MS scan using template sequences generated from SEQUEST and is demonstrated on over 270,000 MS/MS spectra collected from a total chromatin digest. PMID:20103568
Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas
2014-06-01
Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative.
Lee, Chaewoo
2014-01-01
The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm. PMID:25276862
Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo
2014-01-01
The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.
Zhang, Huiling; Huang, Qingsheng; Bei, Zhendong; Wei, Yanjie; Floudas, Christodoulos A
2016-03-01
In this article, we present COMSAT, a hybrid framework for residue contact prediction of transmembrane (TM) proteins, integrating a support vector machine (SVM) method and a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method. COMSAT consists of two modules: COMSAT_SVM which is trained mainly on position-specific scoring matrix features, and COMSAT_MILP which is an ab initio method based on optimization models. Contacts predicted by the SVM model are ranked by SVM confidence scores, and a threshold is trained to improve the reliability of the predicted contacts. For TM proteins with no contacts above the threshold, COMSAT_MILP is used. The proposed hybrid contact prediction scheme was tested on two independent TM protein sets based on the contact definition of 14 Å between Cα-Cα atoms. First, using a rigorous leave-one-protein-out cross validation on the training set of 90 TM proteins, an accuracy of 66.8%, a coverage of 12.3%, a specificity of 99.3% and a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.184 were obtained for residue pairs that are at least six amino acids apart. Second, when tested on a test set of 87 TM proteins, the proposed method showed a prediction accuracy of 64.5%, a coverage of 5.3%, a specificity of 99.4% and a MCC of 0.106. COMSAT shows satisfactory results when compared with 12 other state-of-the-art predictors, and is more robust in terms of prediction accuracy as the length and complexity of TM protein increase. COMSAT is freely accessible at http://hpcc.siat.ac.cn/COMSAT/.
Melas, Ioannis N; Samaga, Regina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Klamt, Steffen
2013-01-01
Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely
Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.; Klamt, Steffen
2013-01-01
Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely
Doolittle, R.
1994-11-15
The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.
Linear arrays of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 1.0-1.7 micron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackley, D. E.; Hladky, J.; Lange, M. J.; Mason, S.; Erickson, G.; Olsen, G. H.; Ban, V. S.; Forrest, S. R.; Staller, C.
1990-01-01
Separate absorption and multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (SAM-APDs) with a floating guard ring structure that is well-suited to array applications have been successfully demonstrated. Individual APDs have breakdown voltages greater than 80 V, multiplications over 40 at 100 nA dark current, and uniform spatial gain profiles. Uniform I-V characteristics and gains have been measured over linear dimensions as large as 1.2 cm. Gains over 10 at low multiplied dark currents were measured on 21 consecutive devices at the wafer level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shiu-Ming; Yu, Shih-Hsun; Chou, Mitch
2016-08-01
A non-saturating linear magnetoresistance (MR) is observed in Cu0.1Bi2Se3 in a wide range of temperatures. The crossover magnetic field, B*, deviating from the linear MR, increases as the temperature increases. The experimental results show that the normalized B*, inverse MR slope and mobility follow the same temperature dependence that is consistent with the model constructed by Parich and Littlewood (PL model). The mechanism of the T 2 dependent B* is systematically and comprehensively discussed through existing theories, and might be due to the electron-electron scattering in a highly uniform system with a few low mobility defects.
Trace of totally positive algebraic integers and integer transfinite diameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flammang, V.
2009-06-01
Explicit auxiliary functions can be used in the ``Schur-Siegel- Smyth trace problem''. In the previous works, these functions were constructed only with polynomials having all their roots positive. Here, we use several polynomials with complex roots, which are found with Wu's algorithm, and we improve the known lower bounds for the absolute trace of totally positive algebraic integers. This improvement has a consequence for the search of Salem numbers that have a negative trace. The same method also gives a small improvement of the upper bound for the integer transfinite diameter of [0,1].
Rajgaria, R.; Wei, Y.; Floudas, C. A.
2010-01-01
An integer linear optimization model is presented to predict residue contacts in β, α + β, and α/β proteins. The total energy of a protein is expressed as sum of a Cα – Cα distance dependent contact energy contribution and a hydrophobic contribution. The model selects contacts that assign lowest energy to the protein structure while satisfying a set of constraints that are included to enforce certain physically observed topological information. A new method based on hydrophobicity is proposed to find the β-sheet alignments. These β-sheet alignments are used as constraints for contacts between residues of β-sheets. This model was tested on three independent protein test sets and CASP8 test proteins consisting of β, α + β, α/β proteins and was found to perform very well. The average accuracy of the predictions (separated by at least six residues) was approximately 61%. The average true positive and false positive distances were also calculated for each of the test sets and they are 7.58 Å and 15.88 Å, respectively. Residue contact prediction can be directly used to facilitate the protein tertiary structure prediction. This proposed residue contact prediction model is incorporated into the first principles protein tertiary structure prediction approach, ASTRO-FOLD. The effectiveness of the contact prediction model was further demonstrated by the improvement in the quality of the protein structure ensemble generated using the predicted residue contacts for a test set of 10 proteins. PMID:20225257
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pong, Wai Yan
2007-01-01
We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegel, Jonathan W.; Siegel, P. B.
2011-01-01
Integers are sometimes used in physics problems to simplify the mathematics so the arithmetic does not distract students from the physics concepts. This is particularly important in exams where students should not have to spend a lot of time using their calculators. Common uses of integers in physics problems include integer solutions to…
Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S
2009-01-07
The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2011-01-01
One of the author's undergraduate students recently asked him whether it was possible to generate a random positive integer. After some thought, the author realised that there were plenty of interesting mathematical ideas inherent in her question. So much so in fact, that the author decided to organise a workshop, open both to undergraduates and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Jay Prakash; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Fuess, Hartmut; Pandey, Dhananjai
2013-09-01
Magnetization, dielectric, and calorimetric studies on Bi0.8 Pb0.2 Fe0.9 Nb0.1O3 (BF-0.2PFN) reveal very weak ferromagnetism but strong dielectric anomaly at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN) characteristic of magnetoelectric coupling. We correlate these results with nuclear and magnetic structure studies using x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques, respectively. Rietveld refinements using x-ray powder diffraction data in the temperature range 300 to 673 K reveal pronounced anomalies in the unit cell parameters at TN, indicating strong magnetoelastic coupling. The nuclear and magnetic structures of BF-0.2PFN were determined from neutron powder diffraction data using a representation theory approach. They show the occurrence of a first-order isostructural phase transition (IPT) accompanying the magnetic ordering below TN˜566 K, leading to significant discontinuous change in the ionic polarization (ΔPz˜1.6(3) μC/cm2) and octahedral tilt angle (˜0.3°) at TN. The ionic polarization obtained from refined positional coordinates of the nuclear structure and Born effective charges is shown to scale linearly with sublattice magnetization, confirming the presence of linear magnetoelectric coupling in BF-0.2PFN at the atomic level, despite the very low value of remanent magnetization (Mr).
Modelling with Integer Variables.
1984-01-01
H. Korte, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 3-53, 1979. 2. Bazaraa , M. and Shetty, M., Non-Linear Programming, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New...Survey," SIAM Review 18 (1976), pp. 710-760. 5. Bazaraa , M. and Shetty, M., Non-Linear Programming, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 1979. 6. Beale
Optimal Estimation of a Subset of Integers with Application to GNSS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brack, A.
2016-12-01
The problem of integer or mixed integer/real valued parameter estimation in linear models is considered. It is a well-known result that for zero-mean additive Gaussian measurement noise the integer least-squares estimator is optimal in the sense of maximizing the probability of correctly estimating the full vector of integer parameters. In applications such as global navigation satellite system ambiguity resolution, it can be beneficial to resolve only a subset of all integer parameters. We derive the estimator that leads to the highest possible success rate for a given integer subset and compare its performance to suboptimal integer mappings via numerical studies. Implementation aspects of the optimal estimator as well as subset selection criteria are discussed.
Investigating data envelopment analysis model with potential improvement for integer output values
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Mushtaq Taleb; Ramli, Razamin; Khalid, Ruzelan
2015-12-01
The decrement of input proportions in DEA model is associated with its input reduction. This reduction is apparently good for economy since it could reduce unnecessary cost resources. However, in some situations the reduction of relevant inputs such as labour could create social problems. Such inputs should thus be maintained or increased. This paper develops an advanced radial DEA model dealing with mixed integer linear programming to improve integer output values through the combination of inputs. The model can deal with real input values and integer output values. This model is valuable for situations dealing with input combination to improve integer output values as faced by most organizations.
Integer Operations Using a Whiteboard
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andrews, Delise R.
2011-01-01
Interactive whiteboards are somewhat unimpressive at first and look like the whiteboards that already hang on the walls of many classrooms. However, integrating interactive whiteboard technology in a unit on adding and subtracting integers enhances student engagement and understanding. In this article, the author describes how she used an…
Integers Made Easy: Just Walk It Off
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nurnberger-Haag, Julie
2007-01-01
This article describes a multisensory method for teaching students how to multiply and divide as well as add and subtract integers. The author uses sidewalk chalk and the underlying concept of integers to physically and mentally engage students in understanding the concepts of integers, making connections, and developing computational fluency.…
MISO - Mixed Integer Surrogate Optimization
Mueller, Juliane
2016-01-20
MISO is an optimization framework for solving computationally expensive mixed-integer, black-box, global optimization problems. MISO uses surrogate models to approximate the computationally expensive objective function. Hence, derivative information, which is generally unavailable for black-box simulation objective functions, is not needed. MISO allows the user to choose the initial experimental design strategy, the type of surrogate model, and the sampling strategy.
Integer programming, fullerenes and nanotubes
Fowler, P.W.; Hansen, P.; Leroy, C.; Sachs, H.
1994-12-31
Graph theoretic and integer programming techniques provide answers to a series of questions in organic chemistry. We focus on problems on fullerenes, or closed carbon-cage molecules with large number of carbon atoms, and nanotubes, which are similar open or closed end tubes of carbon atoms with a few manometer diameter. These problems include isomer enumeration, counting Kekul{acute e} structures (or perfect matchings), finding Kekul{acute e} structures with a maximum number of resonant hexagons (i.e., determining the Clar and Fries numbers) and finding the stability number of fullerenes.
Optimization of integer wavelet transforms based on difference correlation structures.
Li, Hongliang; Liu, Guizhong; Zhang, Zhongwei
2005-11-01
In this paper, a novel lifting integer wavelet transform based on difference correlation structure (DCCS-LIWT) is proposed. First, we establish a relationship between the performance of a linear predictor and the difference correlations of an image. The obtained results provide a theoretical foundation for the following construction of the optimal lifting filters. Then, the optimal prediction lifting coefficients in the sense of least-square prediction error are derived. DCCS-LIWT puts heavy emphasis on image inherent dependence. A distinct feature of this method is the use of the variance-normalized autocorrelation function of the difference image to construct a linear predictor and adapt the predictor to varying image sources. The proposed scheme also allows respective calculations of the lifting filters for the horizontal and vertical orientations. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed method produces better results than the other well-known integer transforms for the lossless image compression.
Stochastic Dynamic Mixed-Integer Programming (SD-MIP)
2015-05-05
door to stochastic optimization models, which are typically dynamic in nature. This project lays the foundation for stochastic dynamic mixed...project lays the foundation for stochastic dynamic mixed-integer and linear programming (SD-MIP). This project has produced several new ideas in...models. Recent research has opened the door to stochastic optimization models, which are typically dynamic in nature. This project lays the foundation for
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3425.0-1 Section 3425.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose....
Klise, Katherine; Laird, Carl; Moriarity, Dylan
2016-10-05
Chama is a python package which includes mixed-integer, stochastic programming formulations to determine sensor locations and technology that maximize the effectiveness of a detection program. The software includes the ability to (1) generate concentration profiles using a Gaussian Plume model, (2), define a wide range of sensor technology, including stationary and mobile sensors, point detectors and cameras, (3) optimize sensor location and type using coverage or impact statistics, and (4) generate maps of the site that include concentration plumes and sensor layout.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 4100.0-1 Section 4100.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General § 4100.0-1 Purpose. The purpose is to provide uniform guidance...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1864.0-1 Section 1864.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in Land § 1864.0-1 Purpose. The Secretary of the Interior has been...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3180.0-1 Section 3180.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: General § 3180.0-1 Purpose. The regulations in this part...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2650.0-1 Section 2650.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: Generally § 2650.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to provide procedures...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3150.0-1 Section 3150.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Gas Geophysical Exploration; General § 3150.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8223.0-1 Section 8223.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8340.0-1 Section 8340.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2720.0-1 Section 2720.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Conveyance of Federally-Owned Mineral Interests § 2720.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3802.0-1 Section 3802.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3190.0-1 Section 3190.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the part is to provide procedures...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2710.0-1 Section 2710.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: General Provisions § 2710.0-1 Purpose. The regulations in this part implement the sale authority...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3740.0-1 Section 3740.0-1 Public... 585, Multiple Mineral Development: General § 3740.0-1 Purpose. The Act of August 13, 1954 (68 Stat... provide for multiple mineral development of the same tracts of public lands, and for other purposes.”...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3420.0-1 Section 3420.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.0-1...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2461.0-1 Section 2461.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2740.0-1 Section 2740.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: General § 2740.0-1 Purpose. These regulations provide guidelines and procedures...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8351.0-1 Section 8351.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS MANAGEMENT AREAS Designated National Area § 8351.0-1 Purpose....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3130.0-1 Section 3130.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-1 Purpose. These...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2361.0-1 Section 2361.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3431.0-1 Section 3431.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3431.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide procedures for the sale of coal that...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3436.0-1 Section 3436.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to establish criteria...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8365.0-1 Section 8365.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.0-1 Purpose. The...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 4700.0-1 Section 4700.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide procedures for the management and use of the public lands...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3142.0-1 Section 3142.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT.../Diligent Development for Combined Hydrocarbon Leases § 3142.0-1 Purpose. This subpart provides...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3140.0-1 Section 3140.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8200.0-1 Section 8200.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES General § 8200.0-1 Purpose. This part 8200...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2911.0-1 Section 2911.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-1 Purpose. This subpart...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1882.0-1 Section 1882.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to establish procedures to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3435.0-1 Section 3435.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Lease Exchange § 3435.0-1...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1865.0-1 Section 1865.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Correction of Conveyancing Documents § 1865.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2091.0-1 Section 2091.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide a general restatement of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2640.0-1 Section 2640.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... of September 3, 1982 § 2640.0-1 Purpose. This subpart sets forth procedures for the issuance...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2920.0-1 Section 2920.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Easements: General Provisions § 2920.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...
28 CFR 0.1 - Organizational units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational units. 0.1 Section 0.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Organizational Structure of the Department of Justice § 0.1 Organizational units. The Department of Justice shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 41.0-1 Section 41.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Introduction § 41.0-1 Introduction. The regulations...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 20.0-1 Section 20.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 31.0-1 Section 31.0-1 Internal... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Introduction § 31.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part relate to the employment taxes imposed by subtitle...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 40.0-1 Section 40.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part 40...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 43.0-1 Section 43.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON TRANSPORTATION BY WATER § 43.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 43 are...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 44.0-1 Section 44.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Introduction § 44.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 48.0-1 Section 48.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 46.0-1 Section 46.0-1 Internal... TAX ON POLICIES ISSUED BY FOREIGN INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Introduction § 46.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 46 relate to the taxes on policies issued by...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 25.0-1 Section 25.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Gift Tax § 25.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1) The...
28 CFR 0.1 - Organizational units.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organizational units. 0.1 Section 0.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Organizational Structure of the Department of Justice § 0.1 Organizational units. The Department of Justice shall...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...
Molecular solutions to the binary integer programming problem based on DNA computation.
Yeh, Chung-Wei; Chu, Chih-Ping; Wu, Kee-Rong
2006-01-01
Binary optimization is a widely investigated topic in integer linear programming. This study proposes a DNA-based computing algorithm for solving the significantly large binary integer programming (BIP) problem. The proposed approach is based upon Adleman and Lipton's DNA operations to solve the BIP problem. The potential of DNA computation for the BIP problem is promising given the operational time complexity of O(nxk).
Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer
2016-01-01
This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…
Order and Value: Transitioning to Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bofferding, Laura
2014-01-01
As students progress from working with whole numbers to working with integers, they must wrestle with the big ideas of number values and order. Using objects to show positive quantities is easy, but no physical negative quantities exist. Therefore, when talking about integers, the author refers to number values instead of number quantities. The…
Effective integer-to-integer transforms for JPEG2000 coder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przelaskowski, Artur
2001-12-01
This paper considers reversible transforms which are used in wavelet compression according to nowadays JPEG2000 standard. Original data decomposition in a form of integer wavelet transformation realized in subband decomposition scheme is optimized by design and selection of the most effective transforms. Lifting scheme is used to construct new biorthogonal symmetric wavelets. Number and distribution of vanishing moments, subband coding gain, associated filter length, computational complexity and number of lifting steps were mainly analyzed in the optimization of designed transforms. Coming from many tests of compression efficiency evaluation in JPEG2000 standardization process, the best selected transforms have been compared to designed ones to conclude the most efficient for compression wavelet bases and their important features. Certain new transforms overcome all other in both phases of lossy-to-lossless compression (e.g. up to 0.5 dB of PSNR for 0.5 bpp in comparison to the state-of-art transforms of JPEG2000 compression, and up to 3dB over 5/3 standard reversible transform). Moreover, the lossy compression efficiency of proposed reversible wavelets is comparable to reference irreversible wavelets potential in several cases. The highest improvement over that reference PSNR values is close to 1.2 dB.
Integer lattice dynamics for Vlasov-Poisson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mocz, Philip; Succi, Sauro
2017-03-01
We revisit the integer lattice (IL) method to numerically solve the Vlasov-Poisson equations, and show that a slight variant of the method is a very easy, viable, and efficient numerical approach to study the dynamics of self-gravitating, collisionless systems. The distribution function lives in a discretized lattice phase-space, and each time-step in the simulation corresponds to a simple permutation of the lattice sites. Hence, the method is Lagrangian, conservative, and fully time-reversible. IL complements other existing methods, such as N-body/particle mesh (computationally efficient, but affected by Monte Carlo sampling noise and two-body relaxation) and finite volume (FV) direct integration schemes (expensive, accurate but diffusive). We also present improvements to the FV scheme, using a moving-mesh approach inspired by IL, to reduce numerical diffusion and the time-step criterion. Being a direct integration scheme like FV, IL is memory limited (memory requirement for a full 3D problem scales as N6, where N is the resolution per linear phase-space dimension). However, we describe a new technique for achieving N4 scaling. The method offers promise for investigating the full 6D phase-space of collisionless systems of stars and dark matter.
Integer cosine transform for image compression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, K.-M.; Pollara, F.; Shahshahani, M.
1991-01-01
This article describes a recently introduced transform algorithm called the integer cosine transform (ICT), which is used in transform-based data compression schemes. The ICT algorithm requires only integer operations on small integers and at the same time gives a rate-distortion performance comparable to that offered by the floating-point discrete cosine transform (DCT). The article addresses the issue of implementation complexity, which is of prime concern for source coding applications of interest in deep-space communications. Complexity reduction in the transform stage of the compression scheme is particularly relevant, since this stage accounts for most (typically over 80 percent) of the computational load.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 49.0-1 Section 49.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES... designated “Facilities and Services Excise Taxes.” The regulations relate to the taxes on communications...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3465.0-1 Section 3465.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. This subpart establishes rules for the management and protection of the surface of leased...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3430.0-1 Section 3430.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. These regulations set forth procedures for processing noncompetitive (preference right)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2300.0-1 Section 2300.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. (a) These regulations set forth procedures implementing the Secretary of the Interior's...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3410.0-1 Section 3410.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. This subpart provides for the issuance of licenses to explore for coal deposits subject...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 9260.0-1 Section 9260.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...-1 Purpose. This part establishes a single regulatory section in title 43 where the law...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1784.0-1 Section 1784.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. This subpart contains standards and procedures for the creation, operation and termination...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3427.0-1 Section 3427.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set out the protection that shall be afforded qualified...
Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the laws relating to the protection, management, and control of wild horses and burros under the administration...
Solution of Mixed-Integer Programming Problems on the XT5
Hartman-Baker, Rebecca J; Busch, Ingrid Karin; Hilliard, Michael R; Middleton, Richard S; Schultze, Michael
2009-01-01
In this paper, we describe our experience with solving difficult mixed-integer linear programming problems (MILPs) on the petaflop Cray XT5 system at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We describe the algorithmic, software, and hardware needs for solving MILPs and present the results of using PICO, an open-source, parallel, mixed-integer linear programming solver developed at Sandia National Laboratories, to solve canonical MILPs as well as problems of interest arising from the logistics and supply chain management field.
Textured growth of the high moment material Gd(0 0 0 1)/Cr(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stromberg, F.; Antoniak, C.; von Hörsten, U.; Keune, W.; Sanyal, B.; Eriksson, O.; Wende, H.
2011-07-01
By magnetic coupling of Fe and Gd via Cr interlayers, the large local moment of Gd can be combined with the high Curie temperature of Fe. The textured growth of a Gd film is studied here by preparing trilayer systems of Fe/Cr/Gd on MgO(1 0 0) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The thickness of the Cr interlayer was varied between 3 and 5 monolayers. The structural quality of the samples was confirmed by in situ RHEED and ex situ XRD measurements. Epitaxial Cr(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) growth was observed, as expected. By use of 57Fe-CEMS (conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy) in combination with the 57Fe tracer layer method the Fe/Cr interface could be examined on an atomic scale and well separated Fe/Gd layers for all Cr thicknesses were confirmed. The unusual Gd/Cr crystallographic relationship of Gd(0 0 0 1)parCr(0 0 1), with domains of the hexagonal Gd basal planes randomly oriented in the sample plane and not in registry with the underlying Cr(0 0 1) lattice, was found from combined RHEED and x-ray measurements. Annealing of the samples resulted in a remarkable improvement of the crystalline structure of the Gd layers. On the other hand, the appearance of a single line in the CEM spectrum leads to the conclusion that during annealing a small amount of Fe diffuses into the Cr layer. The electronic structure and magnetism of this system are investigated by first-principles theory.
From Totally Unimodular to Balanced O, +-1 Matrices: A Family of Integer Polytopes,
1992-07-07
AD-A254 552I tl 1111111111111 liii II lllll From Totally Unimodular to Balanced 0,1 Matrices : A Family of Integer Polytopes Michele ConfortiI Gwrard... Matrices : A Family of Integer Polytopes Michele Conforti1 D T IC Gwrard Cornuwjols ’S ELECTE Klaus Truemper AUG24 1992 f SAU July 7, 1992 I This docunmcnt...and DMS-9000376. 1Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Universiti di Padova, Via Belzoni 7, 35131 Padova, Italy. 2Carnegie Mellon University
Elementary Theory of Factoring Trinomials with Integer Coefficients over the Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donnell, William A.
2010-01-01
An important component of intermediate and college algebra courses involves teaching students methods to factor a trinomial with integer coefficients over the integers. The aim of this article is to present a theoretical justification of that which is often taught, but really never explained as to why it works. The theory is presented, and a…
Slip and Slide Method of Factoring Trinomials with Integer Coefficients over the Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donnell, William A.
2012-01-01
In intermediate and college algebra courses there are a number of methods for factoring quadratic trinomials with integer coefficients over the integers. Some of these methods have been given names, such as trial and error, reversing FOIL, AC method, middle term splitting method and slip and slide method. The purpose of this article is to discuss…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...
RSM 1.0 - A RESUPPLY SCHEDULER USING INTEGER OPTIMIZATION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.
1994-01-01
RSM, Resupply Scheduling Modeler, is a fully menu-driven program that uses integer programming techniques to determine an optimum schedule for replacing components on or before the end of a fixed replacement period. Although written to analyze the electrical power system on the Space Station Freedom, RSM is quite general and can be used to model the resupply of almost any system subject to user-defined resource constraints. RSM is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more computationally intensive, integer programming was required for accuracy when modeling systems with small quantities of components. Input values for component life cane be real numbers, RSM converts them to integers by dividing the lifetime by the period duration, then reducing the result to the next lowest integer. For each component, there is a set of constraints that insure that it is replaced before its lifetime expires. RSM includes user-defined constraints such as transportation mass and volume limits, as well as component life, available repair crew time and assembly sequences. A weighting factor allows the program to minimize factors such as cost. The program then performs an iterative analysis, which is displayed during the processing. A message gives the first period in which resources are being exceeded on each iteration. If the scheduling problem is unfeasible, the final message will also indicate the first period in which resources were exceeded. RSM is written in APL2 for IBM PC series computers and compatibles. A stand-alone executable version of RSM is provided; however, this is a "packed" version of RSM which can only utilize the memory within the 640K DOS limit. This executable requires at least 640K of memory and DOS 3.1 or higher. Source code for an APL2/PC workspace version is also provided. This version of RSM can make full use of any
Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions
2003-08-01
A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.
Reducing Truncation Error In Integer Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, J. Brooks; Berner, Jeffrey B.; Graham, J. Scott
1995-01-01
Improved method of rounding off (truncation of least-significant bits) in integer processing of data devised. Provides for reduction, to extremely low value, of numerical bias otherwise generated by accumulation of truncation errors from many arithmetic operations. Devised for use in integer signal processing, in which rescaling and truncation usually performed to reduce number of bits, which typically builds up in sequence of operations. Essence of method to alternate direction of roundoff (plus, then minus) on alternate occurrences of truncated values contributing to bias.
A Binomial Integer-Valued ARCH Model.
Ristić, Miroslav M; Weiß, Christian H; Janjić, Ana D
2016-11-01
We present an integer-valued ARCH model which can be used for modeling time series of counts with under-, equi-, or overdispersion. The introduced model has a conditional binomial distribution, and it is shown to be strictly stationary and ergodic. The unknown parameters are estimated by three methods: conditional maximum likelihood, conditional least squares and maximum likelihood type penalty function estimation. The asymptotic distributions of the estimators are derived. A real application of the novel model to epidemic surveillance is briefly discussed. Finally, a generalization of the introduced model is considered by introducing an integer-valued GARCH model.
PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.
2009-04-03
Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd-digit floating-point arithmetic. Maple and
Integer sequence discovery from small graphs
Hoppe, Travis; Petrone, Anna
2015-01-01
We have exhaustively enumerated all simple, connected graphs of a finite order and have computed a selection of invariants over this set. Integer sequences were constructed from these invariants and checked against the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS). 141 new sequences were added and six sequences were extended. From the graph database, we were able to programmatically suggest relationships among the invariants. It will be shown that we can readily visualize any sequence of graphs with a given criteria. The code has been released as an open-source framework for further analysis and the database was constructed to be extensible to invariants not considered in this work. PMID:27034526
Dollars & Sense: Students' Integer Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitacre, Ian; Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Philipp, Randolph A.; Lamb, Lisa L.; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2014-01-01
A story problem about borrowing money, presented in this article, may be represented with positive or negative numbers and thought about in different ways. The authors describe ideas related to integers (both positive and negative) and how students used them in relation to a story problem, and how they related these ideas to equations.
How to Differentiate an Integer Modulo n
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emmons, Caleb; Krebs, Mike; Shaheen, Anthony
2009-01-01
A number derivative is a numerical mapping that satisfies the product rule. In this paper, we determine all number derivatives on the set of integers modulo n. We also give a list of undergraduate research projects to pursue using these maps as a starting point.
Integer quantum Hall effect of interacting electrons in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ting, C. S.
2017-02-01
By taking into account the charge and spin orderings and the exchange interactions between all the Landau levels, we investigate the integer quantum Hall effect of electrons in graphene using the mean-field theory. We find that the fourfold degeneracy of the Landau levels cannot be completely lifted by the Coulomb interactions. In particular, at fillings ν =4 n +2 with n =0 ,1 ,... , there is no splitting between the fourfold degenerated Landau levels. We show that with doping the degenerated lowest empty level can be sequentially filled one by one; the filled level is lower than the empty ones because of the Coulomb-exchange interactions. This result explains the step Δ ν =1 in the quantized Hall conductivity. We present a highly efficient method for dealing with a huge number of the Coulomb couplings between all the Landau levels of the Dirac fermions.
ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.
1994-01-01
Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Elementary theory of factoring trinomials with integer coefficients over the integers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnell, William A.
2010-12-01
An important component of intermediate and college algebra courses involves teaching students methods to factor a trinomial with integer coefficients over the integers. The aim of this article is to present a theoretical justification of that which is often taught, but really never explained as to why it works. The theory is presented, and a suggestion for an inquiry-based learning project is given.
Unlimited Capacity Parallel Quantity Comparison of Multiple Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Cohen, Dale J.
2014-01-01
Research has shown that integer comparison is quick and efficient. This efficiency may be a function of the structure of the integer comparison system. The present study tests whether integers are compared with an unlimited capacity system or a limited capacity system. We tested these models using a visual search task with time delimitation. The…
Integer sparse distributed memory: analysis and results.
Snaider, Javier; Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; George, E Olusegun
2013-10-01
Sparse distributed memory is an auto-associative memory system that stores high dimensional Boolean vectors. Here we present an extension of the original SDM, the Integer SDM that uses modular arithmetic integer vectors rather than binary vectors. This extension preserves many of the desirable properties of the original SDM: auto-associativity, content addressability, distributed storage, and robustness over noisy inputs. In addition, it improves the representation capabilities of the memory and is more robust over normalization. It can also be extended to support forgetting and reliable sequence storage. We performed several simulations that test the noise robustness property and capacity of the memory. Theoretical analyses of the memory's fidelity and capacity are also presented.
Post-deposition growth kinetics of Ge on Ge(0 0 1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinkham, B. P.; Jenichen, B.; Kaganer, V. M.; Shayduk, R.; Braun, W.; Ploog, K. H.
2008-07-01
We study the nucleation and growth kinetics on the Ge(0 0 1) surface at elevated temperatures using in situ surface X-ray diffraction. The time evolution of characteristic length scales on the surface is analyzed through the widths of the different components of the integer-order (morphology sensitive) and fractional-order (reconstruction sensitive) diffraction peaks. We find an activation energy of 0.58 eV for Ge island nucleation during homoepitaxy, which implies a diffusion activation energy higher than that obtained for both adatom and dimer diffusion on Ge(0 0 1) in previous studies. Sub-monolayer homoepitaxial Ge islands coarsen according to a power law, with a relatively low time exponent of n=0.2. The coarsening of small 2×1 reconstruction domains on a flat surface prepared by deposition of an integer number of layers shows a strong temperature dependence, whereby the coarsening exponent decreases from 0.41 to 0.2 as the temperature is increased.
Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; Newcomer, M.; Dressnandt, N.; Villani, G.; Weber, M.; Holt, R.; /Rutherford
2011-05-01
This document describes the Serial Powering Interface (SPi) ASIC. SPi is a general purpose ASIC prototype designed for use in serial powering of silicon detector instrumentation. This description is written as a user manual to aid application, not as a design description. SPi is a generic custom ASIC, manufactured in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS by TSMC, to interface between a constant current source and silicon detector read-out chips. There is no SEU (single event upset) protection, but most (not all) components are radiation tolerant design. An operating voltage of 1.2 to 2.5 volts and other design features make the IC suitable for a variety of serial powering architectures and ROICs. It should be noted that the device is likely to be a prototype for demonstration rather than a product for inclusion in a detector. The next design(s), SPin, are likely to be designed for a specific application (eg SLHC). The component includes: (1) Seven bi-directional LVDS-like buffers for high data rate links to/from the read-out chips. These are AC coupled (series capacitor) off-chip for DC level conversion; (2) A programmable internal programmable shunt regulator to provide a defined voltage to readout chips when linked in a serial powering chain; (3) A programmable internal shunt regulator control circuit for external transistor control; (4) Shunt current measurement (for internal shunt regulator); (5) A programmable internal shunt regulator current alarm; and (6) Two programmable linear regulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Fei
In this article, we present a systematic approach to design chaos generators using integer order and fractional order differential equation systems. A series of multiwing chaotic attractors and grid multiwing chaotic attractors are obtained using linear integer order differential equation systems with switching controls. The existence of chaotic attractors in the corresponding fractional order differential equation systems is also investigated. We show that, using the nonlinear fractional order differential equation system, or linear fractional order differential equation systems with switching controls, a series of multiwing chaotic attractors can be obtained.
Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Trilayer Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, A.; Escoffier, W.; Poumirol, J. M.; Faugeras, C.; Arovas, D. P.; Fogler, M. M.; Guinea, F.; Roche, S.; Goiran, M.; Raquet, B.
2011-09-01
By using high-magnetic fields (up to 60 T), we observe compelling evidence of the integer quantum Hall effect in trilayer graphene. The magnetotransport fingerprints are similar to those of the graphene monolayer, except for the absence of a plateau at a filling factor of ν=2. At a very low filling factor, the Hall resistance vanishes due to the presence of mixed electron and hole carriers induced by disorder. The measured Hall resistivity plateaus are well reproduced theoretically, using a self-consistent Hartree calculations of the Landau levels and assuming an ABC stacking order of the three layers.
Fast Integer Ambiguity Resolution for GPS Attitude Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lightsey, E. Glenn; Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis
1999-01-01
In this paper, a new algorithm for GPS (Global Positioning System) integer ambiguity resolution is shown. The algorithm first incorporates an instantaneous (static) integer search to significantly reduce the search space using a geometric inequality. Then a batch-type loss function is used to check the remaining integers in order to determine the optimal integer. This batch function represents the GPS sightline vectors in the body frame as the sum of two vectors, one depending on the phase measurements and the other on the unknown integers. The new algorithm has several advantages: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can resolve the integers even when coplanar baselines exist. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.
Can statistical learning bootstrap the integers?
Rips, Lance J; Asmuth, Jennifer; Bloomfield, Amber
2013-09-01
This paper examines Piantadosi, Tenenbaum, and Goodman's (2012) model for how children learn the relation between number words ("one" through "ten") and cardinalities (sizes of sets with one through ten elements). This model shows how statistical learning can induce this relation, reorganizing its procedures as it does so in roughly the way children do. We question, however, Piantadosi et al.'s claim that the model performs "Quinian bootstrapping," in the sense of Carey (2009). Unlike bootstrapping, the concept it learns is not discontinuous with the concepts it starts with. Instead, the model learns by recombining its primitives into hypotheses and confirming them statistically. As such, it accords better with earlier claims (Fodor, 1975, 1981) that learning does not increase expressive power. We also question the relevance of the simulation for children's learning. The model starts with a preselected set of15 primitives, and the procedure it learns differs from children's method. Finally, the partial knowledge of the positive integers that the model attains is consistent with an infinite number of nonstandard meanings-for example, that the integers stop after ten or loop from ten back to one.
Horizontal visibility graphs from integer sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacasa, Lucas
2016-09-01
The horizontal visibility graph (HVG) is a graph-theoretical representation of a time series and builds a bridge between dynamical systems and graph theory. In recent years this representation has been used to describe and theoretically compare different types of dynamics and has been applied to characterize empirical signals, by extracting topological features from the associated HVGs which have shown to be informative on the class of dynamics. Among some other measures, it has been shown that the degree distribution of these graphs is a very informative feature that encapsulates nontrivial information of the series's generative dynamics. In particular, the HVG associated to a bi-infinite real-valued series of independent and identically distributed random variables is a universal exponential law P(k)=(1/3){(2/3)}k-2, independent of the series marginal distribution. Most of the current applications have however only addressed real-valued time series, as no exact results are known for the topological properties of HVGs associated to integer-valued series. In this paper we explore this latter situation and address univariate time series where each variable can only take a finite number n of consecutive integer values. We are able to construct an explicit formula for the parametric degree distribution {P}n(k), which we prove to converge to the continuous case for large n and deviates otherwise. A few applications are then considered.
An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki
2016-12-01
We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Menu-Driven Solver Of Linear-Programming Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.; Ferencz, D.
1992-01-01
Program assists inexperienced user in formulating linear-programming problems. A Linear Program Solver (ALPS) computer program is full-featured LP analysis program. Solves plain linear-programming problems as well as more-complicated mixed-integer and pure-integer programs. Also contains efficient technique for solution of purely binary linear-programming problems. Written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC software, Version 1.01. Packed program contains licensed material, property of IBM (copyright 1988, all rights reserved).
Statistical Mechanical Models of Integer Factorization Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Chihiro H.; Ohzeki, Masayuki
2017-01-01
We formulate the integer factorization problem via a formulation of the searching problem for the ground state of a statistical mechanical Hamiltonian. The first passage time required to find a correct divisor of a composite number signifies the exponential computational hardness. The analysis of the density of states of two macroscopic quantities, i.e., the energy and the Hamming distance from the correct solutions, leads to the conclusion that the ground state (correct solution) is completely isolated from the other low-energy states, with the distance being proportional to the system size. In addition, the profile of the microcanonical entropy of the model has two peculiar features that are each related to two marked changes in the energy region sampled via Monte Carlo simulation or simulated annealing. Hence, we find a peculiar first-order phase transition in our model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donoghue, John R.
2015-01-01
At the heart of van der Linden's approach to automated test assembly (ATA) is a linear programming/integer programming (LP/IP) problem. A variety of IP solvers are available, ranging in cost from free to hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this paper, I compare several approaches to solving the underlying IP problem. These approaches range from…
A Paper-and-Pencil gcd Algorithm for Gaussian Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szabo, Sandor
2005-01-01
As with natural numbers, a greatest common divisor of two Gaussian (complex) integers "a" and "b" is a Gaussian integer "d" that is a common divisor of both "a" and "b". This article explores an algorithm for such gcds that is easy to do by hand.
Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2016-08-01
The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is
Phase Diagram of a 2-D Plane Rotator Model with Integer and Half-Integer Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Souza, Adauto J. F.; Landau, D. P.
1996-03-01
A two-dimensional plane rotator spin model is simulated by employing the single cluster embeding Monte Carlo technique and the re-weighting histogram analysis. The system is described by the Hamiltonian^1 \\cal H = -J1 sum_< i,j > Si \\cdot Sj - J2 sum_< i,j > ( Si \\cdot Sj )^2. In adition to the familiar integer vortices, this model possesses half-integer vortex excitations as well. The system exhibits three low-temperature phases which may be identified by the behavior of suitably defined two-point correlation functions. The half- and integer-vortex densities as a function of temperature are calculated for several values of the parameter α = J_2/J_1. The phase boundaries are determined and the nature of the phase transitions is investigated. Research supported in part by the CNPq and the NSF. Permanent address: Departmento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil ^1 D.H. Lee and G. Grinstein Phys. Rev. Lett. \\underline55, 541, (1985)
Discrete Dirac equation on a finite half-integer lattice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.
1986-01-01
The formulation of the Dirac equation on a discrete lattice with half-integer spacing and periodic boundary conditions is investigated analytically. The importance of lattice formulations for problems in field theory and quantum mechanics is explained; the concept of half-integer Fourier representation is introduced; the discrete Dirac equation for the two-dimensional case is derived; dispersion relations for the four-dimensional case are developed; and the spinor formulation for the Dirac fields on the half-integer lattice and the discrete time variable for the four-dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation are obtained. It is argued that the half-integer lattice, because it takes the Dirac Lagrangian into account, is more than a mere relabeling of the integer lattice and may have fundamental physical meaning (e.g., for the statistics of fermions). It is noted that the present formulation does not lead to species doubling, except in the continuum limit.
Stacking-sequence optimization for buckling of laminated plates by integer programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, Raphael T.; Walsh, Joanne L.
1991-01-01
Integer-programming formulations for the design of symmetric and balanced laminated plates under biaxial compression are presented. Both maximization of buckling load for given total thickness, and the minimization of total thickness subject to a buckling constraint are formulated. The design variables that define the stacking sequence of the laminate are zero-one integers. It is shown that the formulation results in a linear optimization problem that can be solved on readily aviable software. Constraints on the stacking sequence such as a limit on the number of contiguous plies of the same orientation and limits on in-plane stiffnesses are easily accommodated. Examples are presented for graphite-epoxy plates under uniaxial and biaxial compression using a commercial software package based on the branch-and-bound algorithm.
Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.
Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush
2016-08-01
This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.
Stacking-sequence optimization for buckling of laminated plates by integer programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, Raphael T.; Walsh, Joanne L.
1991-01-01
Integer-programming formulations for the design of symmetric and balanced laminated plates under biaxial compression are presented. Both maximization of buckling load for a given total thickness and the minimization of total thickness subject to a buckling constraint are formulated. The design variables that define the stacking sequence of the laminate are zero-one integers. It is shown that the formulation results in a linear optimization problem that can be solved on readily available software. This is in contrast to the continuous case, where the design variables are the thicknesses of layers with specified ply orientations, and the optimization problem is nonlinear. Constraints on the stacking sequence such as a limit on the number of contiguous plies of the same orientation and limits on in-plane stiffnesses are easily accommodated. Examples are presented for graphite-epoxy plates under uniaxial and biaxial compression using a commercial software package based on the branch-and-bound algorithm.
43 CFR 3730.0-1 - Purpose; lands open.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose; lands open. 3730.0-1 Section 3730.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Public Law 359; Mining in Powersite Withdrawals: General § 3730.0-1 Purpose; lands...
43 CFR 3730.0-1 - Purpose; lands open.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose; lands open. 3730.0-1 Section 3730.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Public Law 359; Mining in Powersite Withdrawals: General § 3730.0-1 Purpose; lands...
The integer quantum hall effect revisited
Michalakis, Spyridon; Hastings, Matthew
2009-01-01
For T - L x L a finite subset of Z{sup 2}, let H{sub o} denote a Hamiltonian on T with periodic boundary conditions and finite range, finite strength intetactions and a unique ground state with a nonvanishing spectral gap. For S {element_of} T, let q{sub s} denote the charge at site s and assume that the total charge Q = {Sigma}{sub s {element_of} T} q{sub s} is conserved. Using the local charge operators q{sub s}, we introduce a boundary magnetic flux in the horizontal and vertical direction and allow the ground state to evolve quasiadiabatically around a square of size one magnetic flux, in flux space. At the end of the evolution we obtain a trivial Berry phase, which we compare, via a method reminiscent of Stokes Theorem. to the Berry phase obtained from an evolution around an exponentially small loop near the origin. As a result, we show, without any averaging assumption, that the Hall conductance is quantized in integer multiples of e{sup 2}/h up to exponentially small corrections of order e{sup -L/{zeta}}, where {zeta}, is a correlation length that depends only on the gap and the range and strength of the interactions.
Mixed-Integer Formulations for Constellation Scheduling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valicka, C.; Hart, W.; Rintoul, M.
Remote sensing systems have expanded the set of capabilities available for and critical to national security. Cooperating, high-fidelity sensing systems and growing mission applications have exponentially increased the set of potential schedules. A definitive lack of advanced tools places an increased burden on operators, as planning and scheduling remain largely manual tasks. This is particularly true in time-critical planning activities where operators aim to accomplish a large number of missions through optimal utilization of single or multiple sensor systems. Automated scheduling through identification and comparison of alternative schedules remains a challenging problem applicable across all remote sensing systems. Previous approaches focused on a subset of sensor missions and do not consider ad-hoc tasking. We have begun development of a robust framework that leverages the Pyomo optimization modeling language for the design of a tool to assist sensor operators planning under the constraints of multiple concurrent missions and uncertainty. Our scheduling models have been formulated to address the stochastic nature of ad-hoc tasks inserted under a variety of scenarios. Operator experience is being leveraged to select appropriate model objectives. Successful development of the framework will include iterative development of high-fidelity mission models that consider and expose various schedule performance metrics. Creating this tool will aid time-critical scheduling by increasing planning efficiency, clarifying the value of alternative modalities uniquely provided by multi-sensor systems, and by presenting both sets of organized information to operators. Such a tool will help operators more quickly and fully utilize sensing systems, a high interest objective within the current remote sensing operations community. Preliminary results for mixed-integer programming formulations of a sensor scheduling problem will be presented. Assumptions regarding sensor geometry
A review of «integer PPP» applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perosanz, Felix; Mercier, Flavien; Loyer, Sylvain; Petit, Gérard; Marty, Jean-Charles
2016-04-01
The possibility of fixing GNSS phase observations to integer values in PPP mode has been demonstrated by several authors. Various scientific and commercial services have started offering this option. In this presentation we first summarize the mathematical formalism needed to recover integer ambiguities while processing un-differenced GNSS phase observations. The improvements but also the limitations of "integer PPP" (IPPP) solutions are discussed. Then we make a review of several scientific results based on this method to illustrate its wide field of applications like oceanic buoy tracking, glacier deformation, atomic oscillator frequency transfer, LEO satellite orbit determination. Several ideas for future improvement are also discussed including the recommendation to IGS Analysis Centers to adopt a compatible approach to deliver "integer" clock products for a combined solution that would allow for IPPP solutions.
Computer Corner: Spreadsheets, Power Series, Generating Functions, and Integers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snow, Donald R.
1989-01-01
Implements a table algorithm on a spreadsheet program and obtains functions for several number sequences such as the Fibonacci and Catalan numbers. Considers other applications of the table algorithm to integers represented in various number bases. (YP)
Lossless image compression with projection-based and adaptive reversible integer wavelet transforms.
Deever, Aaron T; Hemami, Sheila S
2003-01-01
Reversible integer wavelet transforms are increasingly popular in lossless image compression, as evidenced by their use in the recently developed JPEG2000 image coding standard. In this paper, a projection-based technique is presented for decreasing the first-order entropy of transform coefficients and improving the lossless compression performance of reversible integer wavelet transforms. The projection technique is developed and used to predict a wavelet transform coefficient as a linear combination of other wavelet transform coefficients. It yields optimal fixed prediction steps for lifting-based wavelet transforms and unifies many wavelet-based lossless image compression results found in the literature. Additionally, the projection technique is used in an adaptive prediction scheme that varies the final prediction step of the lifting-based transform based on a modeling context. Compared to current fixed and adaptive lifting-based transforms, the projection technique produces improved reversible integer wavelet transforms with superior lossless compression performance. It also provides a generalized framework that explains and unifies many previous results in wavelet-based lossless image compression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jingwen; Chen, Jiazhen
2007-03-01
A new hyperspectral image compression method of spectral feature classification vector quantization (SFCVQ) and embedded zero-tree of wavelet (EZW) based on Karhunen-Loeve transformation (KLT) and integer wavelet transformation is represented. In comparison with the other methods, this method not only keeps the characteristics of high compression ratio and easy real-time transmission, but also has the advantage of high computation speed. After lifting based integer wavelet and SFCVQ coding are introduced, a system of nearly lossless compression of hyperspectral images is designed. KLT is used to remove the correlation of spectral redundancy as one-dimensional (1D) linear transform, and SFCVQ coding is applied to enhance compression ratio. The two-dimensional (2D) integer wavelet transformation is adopted for the decorrelation of 2D spatial redundancy. EZW coding method is applied to compress data in wavelet domain. Experimental results show that in comparison with the method of wavelet SFCVQ (WSFCVQ), the method of improved BiBlock zero tree coding (IBBZTC) and the method of feature spectral vector quantization (FSVQ), the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of this method can enhance over 9 dB, and the total compression performance is improved greatly.
New Approaches for Very Large-Scale Integer Programming
2016-06-24
heuristics for integer programs in order to rapidly improve dual bounds. 2. Choosing good branching variables in branch-and-bound algorithms for MIP. 3...Machine Learning in solving MIPs. 4. Parallel Processing in Solving MIPS. The new algorithms are computational tested and, in many cases, outperform...existing algorithms . This research has been presented at several conferences and has and will appear in archival journals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS integer
Footstep Planning on Uneven Terrain with Mixed-Integer Convex Optimization
2014-08-01
infocenter/cosinfoc/v12r2/topic/com.ibm. common.doc/doc/banner.htm [18] “ GNU linear programming kit.” [Online]. Available: http://www.gnu. org/software...planning footstep placements for a robot walking on uneven terrain with obsta- cles, using a mixed-integer quadratically-constrained quadratic program ...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING
A Class of Integer Order and Fractional Order Hyperchaotic Systems via the Chen System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Fei
2016-06-01
In this article, we investigate the generation of a class of hyperchaotic systems via the Chen chaotic system using both integer order and fractional order differential equation systems. Based on the Chen chaotic system, we designed a system with four nonlinear ordinary differential equations. For different parameter sets, the trajectory of the system may diverge or display a hyperchaotic attractor with double wings. By linearizing the ordinary differential equation system with divergent trajectory and designing proper switching controls, we obtain a chaotic attractor. Similar phenomenon has also been observed in linearizing the hyperchaotic system. The corresponding fractional order systems are also considered. Our investigation indicates that, switching control can be applied to either linearized chaotic or nonchaotic differential equation systems to create chaotic attractor.
A Polynomial Time, Numerically Stable Integer Relation Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferguson, Helaman R. P.; Bailey, Daivd H.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Let x = (x1, x2...,xn be a vector of real numbers. X is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a(sub i) not all zero such that a1x1 + a2x2 + ... a(sub n)Xn = 0. Beginning in 1977 several algorithms (with proofs) have been discovered to recover the a(sub i) given x. The most efficient of these existing integer relation algorithms (in terms of run time and the precision required of the input) has the drawback of being very unstable numerically. It often requires a numeric precision level in the thousands of digits to reliably recover relations in modest-sized test problems. We present here a new algorithm for finding integer relations, which we have named the "PSLQ" algorithm. It is proved in this paper that the PSLQ algorithm terminates with a relation in a number of iterations that is bounded by a polynomial in it. Because this algorithm employs a numerically stable matrix reduction procedure, it is free from the numerical difficulties, that plague other integer relation algorithms. Furthermore, its stability admits an efficient implementation with lower run times oil average than other algorithms currently in Use. Finally, this stability can be used to prove that relation bounds obtained from computer runs using this algorithm are numerically accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myagkov, Victor; Bayukov, Oleg; Mikhlin, Yurii; Zhigalov, Victor; Bykova, Liudmila; Bondarenko, Galina
2014-08-01
The effect of 0, 0.5, and 1 μm-thick Ag interlayers on the chemical interaction between Pd and Fe in epitaxial Pd(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1) and Fe(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Pd(0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1) trilayers has been studied using X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetic structural measurements. No mixing of Pd and Fe occurs via the chemically inert Ag layer at annealing temperatures up to 400 °C. As the annealing temperature is increased above 400 °C, a solid-state synthesis of an ordered L10-FePd phase begins in the Pd(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) and Fe(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Pd(0 0 1) film trilayers regardless of the thickness of the buffer Ag layer. In all samples, annealing above 500 °C leads to the formation of a disordered FexPd1-x(0 0 1) phase; however, in samples lacking the Ag layer, the synthesis of FexPd1-x is preceded by the formation of an ordered L12-FePd3 phase. An analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results shows that Pd is the dominant moving species in the reaction between Pd and Fe. According to the preliminary results, the 2.2 μm-thick Ag film does not prevent the synthesis of the L10-FePd phase and only slightly increases the phase's initiation temperature. Data showing the ultra-fast transport of Pd atoms via thick inert Ag layers are interpreted as direct evidence of the long-range character of the chemical interaction between Pd and Fe. Thus, in the reaction state, Pd and Fe interact chemically even though the distance between them is about 104 times greater than an ordinary chemical bond length.
Kuhlen, R; Mohnhaupt, R; Slama, K; Hausmann, S; Pappert, D; Rossaint, R; Falke, K
1996-12-01
, using a Hans-Rudolph valve for inspiratory occlusion and calculating P0.1 from Paw tracings during the occluded inspiration. For validation we used a mechanical lung model which generated P0.1 values ranging between 1.1-10.3 mbar. For a given adjustment of the lung model two standard measurements (standard P0.1) were made and compared to the Servo P0.1. In a total of 21 measurements the mean Servo P0.1 was 4.9 +/- 2.9 mbar; the mean standard P0.1 was 4.3 +/- 2.5 mbar. The mean difference between Servo P0.1 and standard P0.1 was 0.6 +/- 0.6 mbar (range: -0.3-1.8 mbar). The regression equation for linear regression analysis was: Servo P0.1 = 1.15* standard P0.1-0.05. This correlation was significant (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). From these data we conclude that the described method for continuous P0.1 measurement provides reliable values with the advantage of a maneuver-free, breath-by-breath measurement technique. It thereby opens the possibility for monitoring the neuro-muscular activation of the respiratory system at the bedside, which is shown as an example for a patient during weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Estimating Tree-Structured Covariance Matrices via Mixed-Integer Programming.
Bravo, Héctor Corrada; Wright, Stephen; Eng, Kevin H; Keles, Sündüz; Wahba, Grace
2009-01-01
We present a novel method for estimating tree-structured covariance matrices directly from observed continuous data. Specifically, we estimate a covariance matrix from observations of p continuous random variables encoding a stochastic process over a tree with p leaves. A representation of these classes of matrices as linear combinations of rank-one matrices indicating object partitions is used to formulate estimation as instances of well-studied numerical optimization problems.In particular, our estimates are based on projection, where the covariance estimate is the nearest tree-structured covariance matrix to an observed sample covariance matrix. The problem is posed as a linear or quadratic mixed-integer program (MIP) where a setting of the integer variables in the MIP specifies a set of tree topologies of the structured covariance matrix. We solve these problems to optimality using efficient and robust existing MIP solvers.We present a case study in phylogenetic analysis of gene expression and a simulation study comparing our method to distance-based tree estimating procedures.
FPGA Implementation of Optimal 3D-Integer DCT Structure for Video Compression
Jacob, J. Augustin; Kumar, N. Senthil
2015-01-01
A novel optimal structure for implementing 3D-integer discrete cosine transform (DCT) is presented by analyzing various integer approximation methods. The integer set with reduced mean squared error (MSE) and high coding efficiency are considered for implementation in FPGA. The proposed method proves that the least resources are utilized for the integer set that has shorter bit values. Optimal 3D-integer DCT structure is determined by analyzing the MSE, power dissipation, coding efficiency, and hardware complexity of different integer sets. The experimental results reveal that direct method of computing the 3D-integer DCT using the integer set [10, 9, 6, 2, 3, 1, 1] performs better when compared to other integer sets in terms of resource utilization and power dissipation. PMID:26601120
FPGA Implementation of Optimal 3D-Integer DCT Structure for Video Compression.
Jacob, J Augustin; Kumar, N Senthil
2015-01-01
A novel optimal structure for implementing 3D-integer discrete cosine transform (DCT) is presented by analyzing various integer approximation methods. The integer set with reduced mean squared error (MSE) and high coding efficiency are considered for implementation in FPGA. The proposed method proves that the least resources are utilized for the integer set that has shorter bit values. Optimal 3D-integer DCT structure is determined by analyzing the MSE, power dissipation, coding efficiency, and hardware complexity of different integer sets. The experimental results reveal that direct method of computing the 3D-integer DCT using the integer set [10, 9, 6, 2, 3, 1, 1] performs better when compared to other integer sets in terms of resource utilization and power dissipation.
DNA computation model to solve 0-1 programming problem.
Zhang, Fengyue; Yin, Zhixiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Jin
2004-01-01
0-1 programming problem is an important problem in opsearch with very widespread applications. In this paper, a new DNA computation model utilizing solution-based and surface-based methods is presented to solve the 0-1 programming problem. This model contains the major benefits of both solution-based and surface-based methods; including vast parallelism, extraordinary information density and ease of operation. The result, verified by biological experimentation, revealed the potential of DNA computation in solving complex programming problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Bahmad, L.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic mixed spins with integer σ = 2 and half-integer S = 7 / 2 in a Blume-Capel model, using Monte Carlo simulations. The considered Hamiltonian includes the first nearest-neighbors and the exchange coupling interactions on the two sub-lattices. The effect of these coupling exchange interactions, in the presence of both the external magnetic field and the crystal field, are studied. The magnetizations and the corresponding susceptibilities are presented and discussed. Finally, we have interpreted the behaviors of the magnetic hysteresis of this model.
Kaur, Imanpreet Verma, N. K.
2015-05-15
Multiferroic nanocomposite of (Bi{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}) - (Ni{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 2(0.1)}O{sub 4}) was prepared by sol gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of desired crystallographic phase of the composite. The average particle size found to be 13.97nm. The transmission electron microscopy depicts the presence of the polycrystalline nanoparticles. In order to investigate the magnetic behavior superconducting quantum interference device was used. The sample was analyzed by increasing the magnetic field up to 25kOe and magnetization was found to be 16.8emu/g, which is optimum for the technological applications. The magnetic properties in such composite result as determined both by the ferrite concentration and properties and by the degree of connectivity of the two phases. The appropriate combination of two phases gives rise to higher magnetization.
17 CFR 301.0-1 - Availability of forms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... A to Part 285 FORMS, SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION § 301.0-1 Availability of forms. The forms prescribed for use under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, as amended, (the “Act... may be obtained upon request to, as appropriate, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation...
17 CFR 301.0-1 - Availability of forms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... A to Part 285 FORMS, SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION § 301.0-1 Availability of forms. The forms prescribed for use under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, as amended, (the “Act... may be obtained upon request to, as appropriate, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation...
17 CFR 301.0-1 - Availability of forms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... A to Part 285 FORMS, SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION § 301.0-1 Availability of forms. The forms prescribed for use under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, as amended, (the “Act... may be obtained upon request to, as appropriate, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation...
17 CFR 301.0-1 - Availability of forms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... A to Part 285 FORMS, SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION § 301.0-1 Availability of forms. The forms prescribed for use under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, as amended, (the “Act... may be obtained upon request to, as appropriate, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation...
17 CFR 301.0-1 - Availability of forms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... A to Part 285 FORMS, SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION § 301.0-1 Availability of forms. The forms prescribed for use under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, as amended, (the “Act... may be obtained upon request to, as appropriate, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation...
Leveraging Structure: Logical Necessity in the Context of Integer Arithmetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2016-01-01
Looking for, recognizing, and using underlying mathematical structure is an important aspect of mathematical reasoning. We explore the use of mathematical structure in children's integer strategies by developing and exemplifying the construct of logical necessity. Students in our study used logical necessity to approach and use numbers in a…
Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…
Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing
2011-01-01
In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…
Negative Integer Understanding: Characterizing First Graders' Mental Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bofferding, Laura
2014-01-01
This article presents results of a research study. Sixty-one first graders' responses to interview questions about negative integer values and order and directed magnitudes were examined to characterize the students' mental models. The models reveal that initially, students overrelied on various combinations of whole-number principles as…
Happy and Sad Thoughts: An Exploration of Children's Integer Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitacre, Ian; Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L. C.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary children's conceptions that might serve as foundations for integer reasoning. Working from an abstract algebraic perspective and using an opposite-magnitudes context that is relevant to children, we analyzed the reasoning of 33 children in grades K-5. We focus our report on three prominent…
More Designer Decimals: The Integers and Their Geometric Extensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, O-Yeat; Smoak, James
2006-01-01
The fraction 10000/9801 has an intriguing decimal expansion, namely 1.02030405... In this paper, we investigate the properties of this fraction via an arithmetical approach. The approach also yields a class of fractions whose decimal expansions involve higher-dimensional analogues of the integers, the n-dimensional pyramidal numbers, thereby…
Automorphisms of semigroups of invertible matrices with nonnegative integer elements
Semenov, Pavel P
2012-09-30
Let G{sub n}(Z) be the subsemigroup of GL{sub n}(Z) consisting of the matrices with nonnegative integer coefficients. In the paper, the automorphisms of this semigroup are described for n{>=}2. Bibliography: 5 titles.
A fast DFT algorithm using complex integer transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.
1978-01-01
Winograd's algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform is extended considerably for certain large transform lengths. This is accomplished by performing the cyclic convolution, required by Winograd's method, by a fast transform over certain complex integer fields. This algorithm requires fewer multiplications than either the standard fast Fourier transform or Winograd's more conventional algorithms.
Factoring integers with Young's N-slit interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clauser, John F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1996-06-01
We show that a Young's N-slit interferometer can be used to factor the integer N. The device could factor four- or five-digit numbers in a practical fashion. This work shows how number theory may arise in physical problems, and may provide some insight as to how quantum computers can carry out factoring problems by interferometric means.
Informing Practice: Making Sense of Integers through Storytelling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wessman-Enzinger, Nicole M.; Mooney, Edward S.
2014-01-01
The authors asked fifth-grade and eighth-grade students to pose stories for number sentences involving the addition and subtraction of integers. In this article, the authors look at eight stories from students. Which of these stories works for the given number sentence? What do they reveal about student thinking? When the authors examined these…
Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.
2005-01-01
The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…
An Integer Programming Approach to School District Financial Management.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dembowski, Frederick L.
Because of the nature of school district cash flows, there are opportunities for investing surplus cash and the necessity to borrow cash in deficit periods. The term structure of interest rates makes the manual determination of the optimal financial package impossible. In this research, an integer programming model of this cash management process…
Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, John J.
2012-01-01
Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…
Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duckworth, W. Ethan
2008-01-01
This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…
Dynamically sculpturing plasmonic vortices: from integer to fractional orbital angular momentum
Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Liu, Fang; Cui, Kaiyu; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong
2016-01-01
As a fundamental tool for light-matter interactions, plasmonic vortex (PV) is extremely useful due to the unique near field property. However, it is a pity that, up to now, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by PVs could not be dynamically and continuously tuned in practice as well as the properties of fractional PVs are still not well investigated. By comparing with two previously reported methods, it is suggested that our proposal of utilizing the propagation induced radial phase gradient of incident Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is a promising candidate to sculpture PVs from integer to fractional OAM dynamically. Consequently, the preset OAM of PVs could have four composing parts: the incident spin and orbital angular momentum, the geometric contribution of chiral plasmonic structure, and the radial phase gradient dependent contribution. Moreover, an analytical expression for the fractional PV is derived as a linear superposition of infinite numbers of integer PVs described by Bessel function of the first kind. It is also shown that the actual mean OAM of a fractional PV would deviate from the preset value, which is similar with previous results for spatial fractional optical vortices. PMID:27811986
Dynamically sculpturing plasmonic vortices: from integer to fractional orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Liu, Fang; Cui, Kaiyu; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong
2016-11-01
As a fundamental tool for light-matter interactions, plasmonic vortex (PV) is extremely useful due to the unique near field property. However, it is a pity that, up to now, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by PVs could not be dynamically and continuously tuned in practice as well as the properties of fractional PVs are still not well investigated. By comparing with two previously reported methods, it is suggested that our proposal of utilizing the propagation induced radial phase gradient of incident Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is a promising candidate to sculpture PVs from integer to fractional OAM dynamically. Consequently, the preset OAM of PVs could have four composing parts: the incident spin and orbital angular momentum, the geometric contribution of chiral plasmonic structure, and the radial phase gradient dependent contribution. Moreover, an analytical expression for the fractional PV is derived as a linear superposition of infinite numbers of integer PVs described by Bessel function of the first kind. It is also shown that the actual mean OAM of a fractional PV would deviate from the preset value, which is similar with previous results for spatial fractional optical vortices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.
2014-01-01
We identify and document 3 cognitive obstacles, 3 cognitive affordances, and 1 type of integer understanding that can function as either an obstacle or affordance for learners while they extend their numeric domains from whole numbers to include negative integers. In particular, we highlight 2 key subsets of integer reasoning: understanding or…
Mass spectra of 0+-, 1-+, and 2+- exotic glueballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Liang; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2016-03-01
With appropriate interpolating currents the mass spectra of 0+-, 1-+, and 2+- oddballs are studied in the framework of QCD sum rules (QCDSR). We find there exits one stable 0+- oddball with mass of 4.57 ± 0.13GeV, and one stable 2+- oddball with mass of 6.06 ± 0.13GeV, whereas, no stable 1-+ oddball shows up. The possible production and decay modes of these glueballs with unconventional quantum numbers are analyzed, which are hopefully measurable in either BELLEII, PANDA, Super-B or LHCb experiments.
The geometry of Bi nanolines on Si(0 0 1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, R. H.; MacLeod, J. M.; Srivastava, G. P.; McLean, A. B.
2005-05-01
A study of the Bi nanoline geometry on Si(0 0 1) has been performed using a combination of ab initio theoretical technique and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Our calculations demonstrate decisively that the recently proposed Haiku geometry is a lower energy configuration than any of the previously proposed line geometries. Furthermore, we have made comparisons between STM constant-current topographs of the lines and Tersoff-Haman STM simulations. Although the Haiku and the Miki geometries both reproduce the main features of the constant-current topographs, the simulated STM images of the Miki geometry have a dark stripe between the dimer rows that does not correspond well with experiment.
Extracting vascular networks under physiological constraints via integer programming.
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Klohs, Jan; Székely, Gábor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H
2014-01-01
We introduce an integer programming-based approach to vessel network extraction that enforces global physiological constraints on the vessel structure and learn this prior from a high-resolution reference network. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by formulating and solving an integer programming problem. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating bifurcation angle and connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network, perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (μMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.
Two-dimensional convolute integers for analytical instrumentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. R.
1982-01-01
As new analytical instruments and techniques emerge with increased dimensionality, a corresponding need is seen for data processing logic which can appropriately address the data. Two-dimensional measurements reveal enhanced unknown mixture analysis capability as a result of the greater spectral information content over two one-dimensional methods taken separately. It is noted that two-dimensional convolute integers are merely an extension of the work by Savitzky and Golay (1964). It is shown that these low-pass, high-pass and band-pass digital filters are truly two-dimensional and that they can be applied in a manner identical with their one-dimensional counterpart, that is, a weighted nearest-neighbor, moving average with zero phase shifting, convoluted integer (universal number) weighting coefficients.
Spin transitions in graphene butterflies at an integer filling factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash
2015-03-01
Recent experiments on the role of electron-electron interactions in fractal Dirac systems have revealed a host of interesting effects, in particular, the unique nature of the magnetic field dependence of butterfly gaps in graphene. The novel gap structure recently observed in the integer quantum Hall effect is quite intriguing [G. L. Yu et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 525 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2979], where one observes a suppression of the ferromagnetic state at one value of the commensurable flux but a reentrant ferromagnetic state at another. In our present work we introduce the magnetic translation symmetry in the integer quantum Hall effect regime and consider the interplay between the electron-electron interaction and the periodic potential. In this approach, we explain the underlying physical processes that can lead to such a unique behavior of the butterfly gaps as observed in that system where we invoke the spin-flip transitions in the ground state.
On the integer coding profile of JPEG XT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Thomas
2014-09-01
JPEG XT (ISO/IEC 18477), the latest standardization initiative of the JPEG committee defines an image compression standard backwards compatible to the well-known JPEG standard (ISO/IEC 10918-1). JPEG XT extends JPEG by features like coding of images of higher bit-depth, coding of floating point image formats and lossless compression, all of which are backwards compatible to the legacy JPEG standard. In this work, the author presents profiles of JPEG XT that are especially suited for hardware implementations by requiring only integer logic. All functional blocks of a JPEG XT codec are here implemented by integer or fixed point logic. A performance analysis and comparison with other profiles of JPEG XT concludes the work.
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
A fast complex integer convolution using a hybrid transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; K Truong, T.
1978-01-01
It is shown that the Winograd transform can be combined with a complex integer transform over the Galois field GF(q-squared) to yield a new algorithm for computing the discrete cyclic convolution of complex number points. By this means a fast method for accurately computing the cyclic convolution of a sequence of complex numbers for long convolution lengths can be obtained. This new hybrid algorithm requires fewer multiplications than previous algorithms.
Population transfer HMQC for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei
Wang, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Feng, Ningdong; Deng, Feng E-mail: jean-paul.amoureux@univ-lille1.fr; Li, Yixuan; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul E-mail: jean-paul.amoureux@univ-lille1.fr
2015-03-07
This work presents a detailed analysis of a recently proposed nuclear magnetic resonance method [Wang et al., Chem. Commun. 49(59), 6653-6655 (2013)] for accelerating heteronuclear coherence transfers involving half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei by manipulating their satellite transitions. This method, called Population Transfer Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (PT-HMQC), is investigated in details by combining theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and experimental investigations. We find that compared to instant inversion or instant saturation, continuous saturation is the most practical strategy to accelerate coherence transfers on half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. We further demonstrate that this strategy is efficient to enhance the sensitivity of J-mediated heteronuclear correlation experiments between two half-integer quadrupolar isotopes (e.g., {sup 27}Al-{sup 17}O). In this case, the build-up is strongly affected by relaxation for small T{sub 2}′ and J coupling values, and shortening the mixing time makes a huge signal enhancement. Moreover, this concept of population transfer can also be applied to dipolar-mediated HMQC experiments. Indeed, on the AlPO{sub 4}-14 sample, one still observes experimentally a 2-fold shortening of the optimum mixing time albeit with no significant signal gain in the {sup 31}P-({sup 27}Al) experiments.
PRECISION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AT THE LEVEL OF 0.1%
Yan Renbin
2011-11-15
Accurate relative spectrophotometry is critical for many science applications. Small wavelength-scale residuals in the flux calibration can significantly impact the measurements of weak emission and absorption features in the spectra. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, we demonstrate that the average spectra of carefully selected red-sequence galaxies can be used as a spectroscopic standard to improve the relative spectrophotometry precision to 0.1% on small wavelength scales (from a few to hundreds of Angstroms). We achieve this precision by comparing stacked spectra across tiny redshift intervals. The redshift intervals must be small enough that any systematic stellar population evolution is minimized and is less than the spectrophotometric uncertainty. This purely empirical technique does not require any theoretical knowledge of true galaxy spectra. It can be applied to all large spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys that sample a large number of galaxies in a uniform population.
He, Li; Huang, Guo-He; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Lu, Hong-Wei
2009-01-01
The previous inexact mixed-integer linear programming (IMILP) method can only tackle problems with coefficients of the objective function and constraints being crisp intervals, while the existing inexact mixed-integer semi-infinite programming (IMISIP) method can only deal with single-objective programming problems as it merely allows the number of constraints to be infinite. This study proposes, an inexact mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (IMIBIP) method by incorporating the concept of functional intervals into the programming framework. Different from the existing methods, the IMIBIP can tackle the inexact programming problems that contain both infinite objectives and constraints. The developed method is applied to capacity planning of waste management systems under a variety of uncertainties. Four scenarios are considered for comparing the solutions of IMIBIP with those of IMILP. The results indicate that reasonable solutions can be generated by the IMIBIP method. Compared with IMILP, the system cost from IMIBIP would be relatively high since the fluctuating market factors are considered; however, the IMILP solutions are associated with a raised system reliability level and a reduced constraint violation risk level.
On linear structure and phase rotation invariant properties of block M-PSK modulation codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu
1991-01-01
Two important structural properties of block M(=2')-ary PSK modulation codes, linear structure and phase symmetry, are investigated. An M-ary modulation code is first represented as a code with symbols from the integer group S(MPSK) = (0,1,2,...M-1) under modulo-M addition. Then the linear structure of block MPSK modulation codes over S(M-PSK) with respect to modulo-M vector addition is defined, and conditions are derived under which a block MPSK modulation code is linear. Once the linear structure is developed, the phase symmetry of block M-PSK modulation codes is studied. In particular, a necessary and sufficient condition for a block MPSK modulation code that is linear as a binary code to be invariant under 2 h 180 deg/M phase rotation (for h = 1 to l) is derived. Finally, a list of short 8PSK and 16PSK modulation codes is given, together with their linear structure and the smallest phase rotation for which a code is invariant.
An analytical study on the carrier-phase linear combinations for triple-frequency GNSS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinlong; Yang, Yuanxi; He, Haibo; Guo, Hairong
2017-02-01
The linear combinations of multi-frequency carrier-phase measurements for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are greatly beneficial to improving the performance of ambiguity resolution (AR), cycle slip correction as well as precise positioning. In this contribution, the existing definitions of the carrier-phase linear combination are reviewed and the integer property of the resulting ambiguity of the phase linear combinations is examined. The general analytical method for solving the optimal integer linear combinations for all triple-frequency GNSS is presented. Three refined triple-frequency integer combinations solely determined by the frequency values are introduced, which are the ionosphere-free (IF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (IFS0), the geometry-free (GF) combination that the Sum of its integer coefficients equal to 0 (GFS0) and the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GFIF) combination. Besides, the optimal GF, IF, extra-wide lane and ionosphere-reduced integer combinations for GPS and BDS are solved exhaustively by the presented method. Their potential applications in cycle slip detection, AR as well as precise positioning are discussed. At last, a more straightforward GF and IF AR scheme than the existing method is presented based on the GFIF integer combination.
Quantum field theory in non-integer dimensions
Eyink, G.L.
1987-01-01
In a 1973 paper entitled Quantum Field-Theory Models in Less Than 4 Dimensions, Kenneth G. Wilson studied field-theories for spacetime dimension d between 2 and 4. With unconventional renormalizations, these models were found to have non-Gaussian ultraviolet renormalization group fixed points. Wilson's method was perturbative dimensional regularization: the Feynman-graph integrals were analytically continued to non-integer d. His work left open the question of the nonperturbative existence of the models. Since that landmark paper, Yuval Gefen, Amnon Aharony and Benoit B. Mandelbrot have shown that Ising spin models on fractal lattices have critical properties like those predicted for non-integer dimensions by the analytic continuation, or {epsilon}-expansion method. This work shows that fractal lattices and continua provide also a nonperturbative definition of field-theories in non-integer dimensions. The fractal point-sets employed are the Sierpinski carpets and their higher-dimensional generalizations. This class of point-sets has a tunable dimension which allows the approach to four from below. Furthermore, the carpets have discrete groups of scale or dilation invariances and infinite order of ramification. A class of scalar field models are defined on these sets which should reduce to the standard models when d {nearrow}4. The propagator for these models is given by a proper-time or heat-kernel representation. For this propagator, reflection-positivity is established, a general scaling law is conjectured (and established in a special case), and the perturbative renormalizability shown to be governed by the spectral dimensionality. Scalar models with another choice of propagator, the hierarchical propagator, are studied by rigorous renormalization-group methods.
Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.
Zhukovsky, K V
2016-01-01
We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.
An integer linear programming approach for finding deregulated subgraphs in regulatory networks.
Backes, Christina; Rurainski, Alexander; Klau, Gunnar W; Müller, Oliver; Stöckel, Daniel; Gerasch, Andreas; Küntzer, Jan; Maisel, Daniela; Ludwig, Nicole; Hein, Matthias; Keller, Andreas; Burtscher, Helmut; Kaufmann, Michael; Meese, Eckart; Lenhof, Hans-Peter
2012-03-01
Deregulation of cell signaling pathways plays a crucial role in the development of tumors. The identification of such pathways requires effective analysis tools that facilitate the interpretation of expression differences. Here, we present a novel and highly efficient method for identifying deregulated subnetworks in a regulatory network. Given a score for each node that measures the degree of deregulation of the corresponding gene or protein, the algorithm computes the heaviest connected subnetwork of a specified size reachable from a designated root node. This root node can be interpreted as a molecular key player responsible for the observed deregulation. To demonstrate the potential of our approach, we analyzed three gene expression data sets. In one scenario, we compared expression profiles of non-malignant primary mammary epithelial cells derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and of epithelial cells without BRCA1 mutation. Our results suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in epithelial cells of BRCA1 mutation carriers and that the activation of stress proteins may result in avoidance of apoptosis leading to an increased overall survival of cells with genetic alterations. In summary, our approach opens new avenues for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms and for the detection of molecular key players.
1989-12-01
profiles pay[] hourly wage rate for operators on machine m */ FILE * infp ,*outfpl,*outfp2,*outfp3,*outfp4,*outfp5,*outfp6,*fopen(; main () { /* open I/O...files and assign pointers */ infp =fopen("GMFA.DAT","r"); outfp5=fopen( "XL5.DAT’","w"); /* read in input stream data from "GHFA.DAT" * rddstrm...and closing the files */ /* * fprintf(outfp4,"$ MAXIMIZE IITWSTS\
Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and Z4 fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tipunin, Ilya Yu.
2014-12-01
For general Temperley-Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models LM (p ,p‧) with p ,p‧ coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang-Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member LM (1 , 2) of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity β = 0 and central charge c = - 2. Specialising to LM (1 , 2) with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size N and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler-Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is established directly in the Temperley-Lieb algebra. We classify the eigenvalues of the double row transfer matrices using the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral parameter plane and obtain finitised characters related to spaces of coinvariants of Z4 fermions. In the continuum scaling limit, the Robin boundary conditions are associated with irreducible Virasoro Verma modules with conformal weights Δ r , s -1/2 =1/32 (L2 - 4) where L = 2 s - 1 - 4 r, r ∈ Z, s ∈ N. These conformal weights populate a Kac table with half-integer Kac labels. Fusion of the corresponding modules with the generators of the Kac fusion algebra is examined and general fusion rules are proposed.
The mental representation of numerical fractions: real or integer?
Bonato, Mario; Fabbri, Sara; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
2007-12-01
Numerical fractions are commonly used to express ratios and proportions (i.e., real numbers), but little is known about how they are mentally represented and processed by skilled adults. Four experiments employed comparison tasks to investigate the distance effect and the effect of the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC) for fractions. Results showed that fractions were processed componentially and that the real numerical value of the fraction was not accessed, indicating that processing the fraction's magnitude is not automatic. In contrast, responses were influenced by the numerical magnitude of the components and reflected the simple comparison between numerators, denominators, and reference, depending on the strategy adopted. Strategies were used even by highly skilled participants and were flexibly adapted to the specific experimental context. In line with results on the whole number bias in children, these findings suggest that the understanding of fractions is rooted in the ability to represent discrete numerosities (i.e., integers) rather than real numbers and that the well-known difficulties of children in mastering fractions are circumvented by skilled adults through a flexible use of strategies based on the integer components.
Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles H.
2012-01-01
We developed framework and the mathematical formulation for optimizing communication network using mixed integer programming. The design yields a system that is much smaller, in search space size, when compared to the earlier approach. Our constrained network optimization takes into account the dynamics of link performance within the network along with mission and operation requirements. A unique penalty function is introduced to transform the mixed integer programming into the more manageable problem of searching in a continuous space. The constrained optimization problem was proposed to solve in two stages: first using the heuristic Particle Swarming Optimization algorithm to get a good initial starting point, and then feeding the result into the Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm to achieve the final optimal schedule. We demonstrate the above planning and scheduling methodology with a scenario of 20 spacecraft and 3 ground stations of a Deep Space Network site. Our approach and framework have been simple and flexible so that problems with larger number of constraints and network can be easily adapted and solved.
GNSS integer ambiguity validation based on posterior probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zemin; Bian, Shaofeng
2015-10-01
GNSS integer ambiguity validation is considered to be a challenge task for decades. Several kinds of validation tests are developed and widely used in these years, but theoretical basis is their weakness. Ambiguity validation theoretically is an issue of hypothesis test. In the frame of Bayesian hypothesis testing, posterior probability is the canonical standard that statistical decision should be based on. In this contribution, (i) we derive the posterior probability of the fixed ambiguity based on the Bayesian principle and modify it for practice ambiguity validation. (ii) The optimal property of the posterior probability test is proved based on an extended Neyman-Pearson lemma. Since validation failure rate is the issue users most concerned about, (iii) we derive the failure rate upper bound of the posterior probability test, so the user can use the posterior probability test either in the fixed posterior probability or in the fixed failure rate way. Simulated as well as real observed data are used for experimental validations. The results show that (i) the posterior probability test is the most effective within the R-ratio test, difference test, ellipsoidal integer aperture test and posterior probability test, (ii) the posterior probability test is computational efficient and (iii) the failure rate estimation for posterior probability test is useful.
ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR OF GAUSSIAN INTEGERS
BRADLEY, TAI-DANAE; CHENG, YIN CHOI; LUO, YAN FEI
2016-01-01
For a pair of random Gaussian integers chosen uniformly and independently from the set of Gaussian integers of norm x or less as x goes to infinity, we find asymptotics for the average norm of their greatest common divisor, with explicit error terms. We also present results for higher moments along with computational data which support the results for the second, third, fourth, and fifth moments. The analogous question for integers is studied by Diaconis and Erdös. PMID:27761199
Soft Decoding of Integer Codes and Their Application to Coded Modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostadinov, Hristo; Morita, Hiroyoshi; Iijima, Noboru; Han Vinck, A. J.; Manev, Nikolai
Integer codes are very flexible and can be applied in different modulation schemes. A soft decoding algorithm for integer codes will be introduced. Comparison of symbol error probability (SEP) versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between soft and hard decoding using integer coded modulation shows us that we can obtain at least 2dB coding gain. Also, we shall compare our results with trellis coded modulation (TCM) because of their similar decoding schemes and complexity.
BOLD fractional contribution to resting-state functional connectivity above 0.1 Hz
Chen, Jingyuan; Glover, Gary H.
2014-01-01
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) spontaneous signals from resting-state (RS) brains have typically been characterized by low-pass filtered timeseries at frequencies ≤ 0.1 Hz, and studies of these low-frequency fluctuations have contributed exceptional understanding of the baseline functions of our brain. Very recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that spontaneous activities may persist in higher frequency bands (even up to 0.8 Hz), while presenting less variable network patterns across the scan duration. However, as an indirect measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signal results from an inherently slow hemodynamic process, which in fact might be too slow to accommodate the observed high-frequency functional connectivity (FC). To examine whether the observed high-frequency spontaneous FC originates from BOLD contrast, we collected RS data as a function of echo time (TE). Here we focus on two specific resting state networks – the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), and the major findings are fourfold: (1) we observed BOLD-like linear TE-dependence in the spontaneous activity at frequency bands up to 0.5 Hz (the maximum frequency that can be resolved with TR = 1s), supporting neural relevance of the RSFC at higher frequency range; (2) Conventional models of hemodynamic response functions must be modified to support resting state BOLD contrast, especially at higher frequencies; (3) there are increased fractions of non-BOLD-like contributions to the RSFC above the conventional 0.1 Hz (non-BOLD/BOLD contrast at 0.4~0.5 Hz is ~ 4 times that at <0.1 Hz); and (4) the spatial patterns of RSFC are frequency-dependent. Possible mechanisms underlying the present findings and technical concerns regarding RSFC above 0.1 Hz are discussed. PMID:25497686
An alternative approach to calculate the posterior probability of GNSS integer ambiguity resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Jinling; Gao, Wang
2017-03-01
When precise positioning is carried out via GNSS carrier phases, it is important to make use of the property that every ambiguity should be an integer. With the known float solution, any integer vector, which has the same degree of freedom as the ambiguity vector, is the ambiguity vector in probability. For both integer aperture estimation and integer equivariant estimation, it is of great significance to know the posterior probabilities. However, to calculate the posterior probability, we have to face the thorny problem that the equation involves an infinite number of integer vectors. In this paper, using the float solution of ambiguity and its variance matrix, a new approach to rapidly and accurately calculate the posterior probability is proposed. The proposed approach consists of four steps. First, the ambiguity vector is transformed via decorrelation. Second, the range of the adopted integer of every component is directly obtained via formulas, and a finite number of integer vectors are obtained via combination. Third, using the integer vectors, the principal value of posterior probability and the correction factor are worked out. Finally, the posterior probability of every integer vector and its error upper bound can be obtained. In the paper, the detailed process to calculate the posterior probability and the derivations of the formulas are presented. The theory and numerical examples indicate that the proposed approach has the advantages of small amount of computations, high calculation accuracy and strong adaptability.
An alternative approach to calculate the posterior probability of GNSS integer ambiguity resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Jinling; Gao, Wang
2016-10-01
When precise positioning is carried out via GNSS carrier phases, it is important to make use of the property that every ambiguity should be an integer. With the known float solution, any integer vector, which has the same degree of freedom as the ambiguity vector, is the ambiguity vector in probability. For both integer aperture estimation and integer equivariant estimation, it is of great significance to know the posterior probabilities. However, to calculate the posterior probability, we have to face the thorny problem that the equation involves an infinite number of integer vectors. In this paper, using the float solution of ambiguity and its variance matrix, a new approach to rapidly and accurately calculate the posterior probability is proposed. The proposed approach consists of four steps. First, the ambiguity vector is transformed via decorrelation. Second, the range of the adopted integer of every component is directly obtained via formulas, and a finite number of integer vectors are obtained via combination. Third, using the integer vectors, the principal value of posterior probability and the correction factor are worked out. Finally, the posterior probability of every integer vector and its error upper bound can be obtained. In the paper, the detailed process to calculate the posterior probability and the derivations of the formulas are presented. The theory and numerical examples indicate that the proposed approach has the advantages of small amount of computations, high calculation accuracy and strong adaptability.
Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.
2017-01-01
Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.
Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dagum, Leonardo
1993-01-01
Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.
Finding community structures in complex networks using mixed integer optimisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, G.; Tsoka, S.; Papageorgiou, L. G.
2007-11-01
The detection of community structure has been used to reveal the relationships between individual objects and their groupings in networks. This paper presents a mathematical programming approach to identify the optimal community structures in complex networks based on the maximisation of a network modularity metric for partitioning a network into modules. The overall problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model, which can then be solved to global optimality using standard optimisation software. The solution procedure is further enhanced by developing special symmetry-breaking constraints to eliminate equivalent solutions. It is shown that additional features such as minimum/maximum module size and balancing among modules can easily be incorporated in the model. The applicability of the proposed optimisation-based approach is demonstrated by four examples. Comparative results with other approaches from the literature show that the proposed methodology has superior performance while global optimum is guaranteed.
Analytical estimation of the correlation dimension of integer lattices
Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús
2014-12-01
Recently [L. Lacasa and J. Gómez-Gardeñes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168703 (2013)], a fractal dimension has been proposed to characterize the geometric structure of networks. This measure is an extension to graphs of the so called correlation dimension, originally proposed by Grassberger and Procaccia to describe the geometry of strange attractors in dissipative chaotic systems. The calculation of the correlation dimension of a graph is based on the local information retrieved from a random walker navigating the network. In this contribution, we study such quantity for some limiting synthetic spatial networks and obtain analytical results on agreement with the previously reported numerics. In particular, we show that up to first order, the correlation dimension β of integer lattices ℤ{sup d} coincides with the Haussdorf dimension of their coarsely equivalent Euclidean spaces, β = d.
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Klohs, Jan; Székely, Gábor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H
2015-10-01
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to a probabilistic model. Starting from an overconnected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model and we perform experiments on in-vivo magnetic resonance microangiography (μMRA) images of mouse brains. We finally discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.
Three-dimensional image compression with integer wavelet transforms.
Bilgin, A; Zweig, G; Marcellin, M W
2000-04-10
A three-dimensional (3-D) image-compression algorithm based on integer wavelet transforms and zerotree coding is presented. The embedded coding of zerotrees of wavelet coefficients (EZW) algorithm is extended to three dimensions, and context-based adaptive arithmetic coding is used to improve its performance. The resultant algorithm, 3-D CB-EZW, efficiently encodes 3-D image data by the exploitation of the dependencies in all dimensions, while enabling lossy and lossless decompression from the same bit stream. Compared with the best available two-dimensional lossless compression techniques, the 3-D CB-EZW algorithm produced averages of 22%, 25%, and 20% decreases in compressed file sizes for computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer images, respectively. The progressive performance of the algorithm is also compared with other lossy progressive-coding algorithms.
Three-Dimensional Image Compression With Integer Wavelet Transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgin, Ali; Zweig, George; Marcellin, Michael W.
2000-04-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) image-compression algorithm based on integer wavelet transforms and zerotree coding is presented. The embedded coding of zerotrees of wavelet coefficients (EZW) algorithm is extended to three dimensions, and context-based adaptive arithmetic coding is used to improve its performance. The resultant algorithm, 3-D CB-EZW, efficiently encodes 3-D image data by the exploitation of the dependencies in all dimensions, while enabling lossy and lossless decompression from the same bit stream. Compared with the best available two-dimensional lossless compression techniques, the 3-D CB-EZW algorithm produced averages of 22%, 25%, and 20% decreases in compressed file sizes for computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer images, respectively. The progressive performance of the algorithm is also compared with other lossy progressive-coding algorithms.
Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; ...
2015-04-23
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of ourmore » probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.« less
Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.
2015-04-23
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.
Integer cosine transform chip design for image compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Gustavo A.; Michell, Juan A.; Buron, Angel M.; Solana, Jose M.; Manzano, Miguel A.; Diaz, J.
2003-04-01
The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is the most widely used transform for image compression. The Integer Cosine Transform denoted ICT (10, 9, 6, 2, 3, 1) has been shown to be a promising alternative to the DCT due to its implementation simplicity, similar performance and compatibility with the DCT. This paper describes the design and implementation of a 8×8 2-D ICT processor for image compression, that meets the numerical characteristic of the IEEE std. 1180-1990. This processor uses a low latency data flow that minimizes the internal memory and a parallel pipelined architecture, based on a numerical strength reduction Integer Cosine Transform (10, 9, 6, 2, 3, 1) algorithm, in order to attain high throughput and continuous data flow. A prototype of the 8×8 ICT processor has been implemented using a standard cell design methodology and a 0.35-μm CMOS CSD 3M/2P 3.3V process on a 10 mm2 die. Pipeline circuit techniques have been used to attain the maximum frequency of operation allowed by the technology, attaining a critical path of 1.8ns, which should be increased by a 20% to allow for line delays, placing the estimated operational frequency at 500Mhz. The circuit includes 12446 cells, being flip-flops 6757 of them. Two clock signals have been distributed, an external one (fs) and an internal one (fs/2). The high number of flip-flops has forced the use of a strategy to minimize clock-skew, combining big sized buffers on the periphery and using wide metal lines (clock-trunks) to distribute the signals.
Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming
2013-01-01
Optimal planning and scheduling for a communication network was created where the nodes within the network are communicating at the highest possible rates while meeting the mission requirements and operational constraints. The planning and scheduling problem was formulated in the framework of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to introduce a special penalty function to convert the MIP problem into a continuous optimization problem, and to solve the constrained optimization problem using heuristic optimization. The communication network consists of space and ground assets with the link dynamics between any two assets varying with respect to time, distance, and telecom configurations. One asset could be communicating with another at very high data rates at one time, and at other times, communication is impossible, as the asset could be inaccessible from the network due to planetary occultation. Based on the network's geometric dynamics and link capabilities, the start time, end time, and link configuration of each view period are selected to maximize the communication efficiency within the network. Mathematical formulations for the constrained mixed integer optimization problem were derived, and efficient analytical and numerical techniques were developed to find the optimal solution. By setting up the problem using MIP, the search space for the optimization problem is reduced significantly, thereby speeding up the solution process. The ratio of the dimension of the traditional method over the proposed formulation is approximately an order N (single) to 2*N (arraying), where N is the number of receiving antennas of a node. By introducing a special penalty function, the MIP problem with non-differentiable cost function and nonlinear constraints can be converted into a continuous variable problem, whose solution is possible.
Integral-valued polynomials over sets of algebraic integers of bounded degree.
Peruginelli, Giulio
2014-04-01
Let K be a number field of degree n with ring of integers [Formula: see text]. By means of a criterion of Gilmer for polynomially dense subsets of the ring of integers of a number field, we show that, if [Formula: see text] maps every element of [Formula: see text] of degree n to an algebraic integer, then [Formula: see text] is integral-valued over [Formula: see text], that is, [Formula: see text]. A similar property holds if we consider the set of all algebraic integers of degree n and a polynomial [Formula: see text]: if [Formula: see text] is integral over [Formula: see text] for every algebraic integer α of degree n, then [Formula: see text] is integral over [Formula: see text] for every algebraic integer β of degree smaller than n. This second result is established by proving that the integral closure of the ring of polynomials in [Formula: see text] which are integer-valued over the set of matrices [Formula: see text] is equal to the ring of integral-valued polynomials over the set of algebraic integers of degree equal to n.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Kyung T.; Rudner, Lawrence M.
2014-01-01
This study uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to construct multiple highly equivalent item pools simultaneously, and compares the results from mixed integer programming (MIP). Three different MIP/MIQP models were implemented and evaluated using real CAT item pool data with 23 different content areas and a goal of equal information…
Thermodynamic functions of hydration of hydrocarbons at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plyasunov, Andrey V.; Shock, Everett L.
2000-02-01
An extensive compilation of experimental data yielding the infinite dilution partial molar Gibbs energy of hydration Δ hGO, enthalpy of hydration Δ hHO, heat capacity of hydration Δ hCpO, and volume V2O, at the reference temperature and pressure, 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa, is presented for hydrocarbons (excluding polyaromatic compounds) and monohydric alcohols. These results are used in a least-squares procedure to determine the numerical values of the corresponding properties of the selected functional groups. The simple first order group contribution method, which in general ignores nearest-neighbors and steric hindrance effects, was chosen to represent the compiled data. Following the precedent established by Cabani et al. (1981), the following groups are considered: CH 3, CH 2, CH, C for saturated hydrocarbons; c-CH 2, c-CH, c-C for cyclic saturated hydrocarbons; CH ar, C ar for aromatic hydrocarbons (containing the benzene ring); C=C, C≡C for double and triple bonds in linear hydrocarbons, respectively; c-C=C for the double bond in cyclic hydrocarbons; H for a hydrogen atom attached to the double bond (both in linear and cyclic hydrocarbons) or triple bond; and OH for the hydroxyl functional group. In addition it was found necessary to include the "pseudo"-group I(C-C) to account for the specific interactions of the neighboring hydrocarbon groups attached to the benzene or cyclic ring (in the latter case only for cis-isomers). Results of this study, the numerical values of the group contributions, will allow in most cases reasonably accurate estimations of Δ hGO, Δ hHO, Δ hCpO, and V2O at 298.15 K, 0.1 MPa for many hydrocarbons involved in geochemical and environmental processes.
Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xiujuan; Chen, Jiapei
2017-03-01
Due to the existence of complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems such as Beijing, China, a series of socio-economic and eco-environmental problems may emerge or worsen and result in irredeemable damages in the following decades. Meanwhile, existing studies, especially ones focusing on MSWM in Beijing, could hardly reflect these complexities in system simulations and provide reliable decision support for management practices. Thus, a framework of distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) is developed in this study for MSWM under these complexities. Beijing is selected as a representative case. The Beijing MSWM system is comprehensively analyzed in many aspects such as socio-economic conditions, natural conditions, spatial heterogeneities, treatment facilities, and system complexities, building a solid foundation for system simulation and optimization. Correspondingly, the MSWM system in Beijing is discretized as 235 grids to reflect spatial heterogeneity. A DMIFHP model which is a nonlinear programming problem is constructed to parameterize the Beijing MSWM system. To enable scientific solving of it, a solution algorithm is proposed based on coupling of fuzzy programming and mixed-integer linear programming. Innovations and advantages of the DMIFHP framework are discussed. The optimal MSWM schemes and mechanism revelations will be discussed in another companion paper due to length limitation.
A mixed integer bi-level DEA model for bank branch performance evaluation by Stackelberg approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafiee, Morteza; Lotfi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh; Saleh, Hilda; Ghaderi, Mehdi
2016-11-01
One of the most complicated decision making problems for managers is the evaluation of bank performance, which involves various criteria. There are many studies about bank efficiency evaluation by network DEA in the literature review. These studies do not focus on multi-level network. Wu (Eur J Oper Res 207:856-864, 2010) proposed a bi-level structure for cost efficiency at the first time. In this model, multi-level programming and cost efficiency were used. He used a nonlinear programming to solve the model. In this paper, we have focused on multi-level structure and proposed a bi-level DEA model. We then used a liner programming to solve our model. In other hand, we significantly improved the way to achieve the optimum solution in comparison with the work by Wu (2010) by converting the NP-hard nonlinear programing into a mixed integer linear programming. This study uses a bi-level programming data envelopment analysis model that embodies internal structure with Stackelberg-game relationships to evaluate the performance of banking chain. The perspective of decentralized decisions is taken in this paper to cope with complex interactions in banking chain. The results derived from bi-level programming DEA can provide valuable insights and detailed information for managers to help them evaluate the performance of the banking chain as a whole using Stackelberg-game relationships. Finally, this model was applied in the Iranian bank to evaluate cost efficiency.
A farm-level precision land management framework based on integer programming
Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping; Jubery, Talukder Zaki; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
2017-01-01
Farmland management involves several planning and decision making tasks including seed selection and irrigation management. A farm-level precision farmland management model based on mixed integer linear programming is proposed in this study. Optimal decisions are designed for pre-season planning of crops and irrigation water allocation. The model captures the effect of size and shape of decision scale as well as special irrigation patterns. The authors illustrate the model with a case study on a farm in the state of California in the U.S. and show the model can capture the impact of precision farm management on profitability. The results show that threefold increase of annual net profit for farmers could be achieved by carefully choosing irrigation and seed selection. Although farmers could increase profits by applying precision management to seed or irrigation alone, profit increase is more significant if farmers apply precision management on seed and irrigation simultaneously. The proposed model can also serve as a risk analysis tool for farmers facing seasonal irrigation water limits as well as a quantitative tool to explore the impact of precision agriculture. PMID:28346499
Tracking Simulation of Third-Integer Resonant Extraction for Fermilab's Mu2e Experiment
Park, Chong Shik; Amundson, James; Michelotti, Leo
2015-02-13
The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab requires acceleration and transport of intense proton beams in order to deliver stable, uniform particle spills to the production target. To meet the experimental requirement, particles will be extracted slowly from the Delivery Ring to the external beamline. Using Synergia2, we have performed multi-particle tracking simulations of third-integer resonant extraction in the Delivery Ring, including space charge effects, physical beamline elements, and apertures. A piecewise linear ramp profile of tune quadrupoles was used to maintain a constant averaged spill rate throughout extraction. To study and minimize beam losses, we implemented and introduced a number of features, beamline element apertures, and septum plane alignments. Additionally, the RF Knockout (RFKO) technique, which excites particles transversely, is employed for spill regulation. Combined with a feedback system, it assists in fine-tuning spill uniformity. Simulation studies were carried out to optimize the RFKO feedback scheme, which will be helpful in designing the final spill regulation system.
A farm-level precision land management framework based on integer programming.
Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping; Jubery, Talukder Zaki; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
2017-01-01
Farmland management involves several planning and decision making tasks including seed selection and irrigation management. A farm-level precision farmland management model based on mixed integer linear programming is proposed in this study. Optimal decisions are designed for pre-season planning of crops and irrigation water allocation. The model captures the effect of size and shape of decision scale as well as special irrigation patterns. The authors illustrate the model with a case study on a farm in the state of California in the U.S. and show the model can capture the impact of precision farm management on profitability. The results show that threefold increase of annual net profit for farmers could be achieved by carefully choosing irrigation and seed selection. Although farmers could increase profits by applying precision management to seed or irrigation alone, profit increase is more significant if farmers apply precision management on seed and irrigation simultaneously. The proposed model can also serve as a risk analysis tool for farmers facing seasonal irrigation water limits as well as a quantitative tool to explore the impact of precision agriculture.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. In this report, I will talk about the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under a strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect as a result of the interplay of magnetic field and structure inversion asymmetry. We also reveal that the edge states exist only for the integer Hall conductance while no edge-state solution can be found for the ''half-integer'' Hall conductance. The addition of top and bottom surface Dirac fermions always form well-defined edge states, and gives an integer quantum Hall effect. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-08-15
A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.
The transport mechanism of the integer quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Tan; LiMing, W.; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-11-01
The integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) is analysed using a mechanism of the electron transport in the form of semi-classic wave packages in this paper. Due to the confinement of the edges of a slab the Landau levels of electrons in a strong magnetic field go up at large wave-vectors to form energy bands. The slopes of the energy bands give the group velocities of electron wave packages and thus contribute to the current. Certain magnetic fields separate the electron transport in the slab into two branches with opposite and large wave vectors, which are localized at the two edges of the slab, respectively. In this case back scattering of electrons is prohibited due to the localization of these two branches. Thus the slab exhibits zero longitudinal resistance and plateaus of Hall resistance. When the Fermi level is sweeping over a Landau level at some magnetic fields, however, the electron waves locate around the central axis of the slab and overlap each other thus back scattering of electrons takes place frequently. Then longitudinal resistance appears and the Hall resistance goes up from one plateau to a new one. This transport mechanism is much clearer and more intuitive than the conventional explanations to the IQHE.
Fish Processed Production Planning Using Integer Stochastic Programming Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firmansyah, Mawengkang, Herman
2011-06-01
Fish and its processed products are the most affordable source of animal protein in the diet of most people in Indonesia. The goal in production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the trade-off between economic objectives such as production cost and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model. The results which show the amount of each fish processed product and the number of workforce needed in each horizon planning are presented.
Forward scattering approximation and bosonization in integer quantum Hall systems
Rosenau da Costa, M. Westfahl, H.; Caldeira, A.O.
2008-03-15
In this work, we present a model and a method to study integer quantum Hall (IQH) systems. Making use of the Landau levels structure we divide these two-dimensional systems into a set of interacting one-dimensional gases, one for each guiding center. We show that the so-called strong field approximation, used by Kallin and Halperin and by MacDonald, is equivalent, in first order, to a forward scattering approximation and analyze the IQH systems within this approximation. Using an appropriate variation of the Landau level bosonization method we obtain the dispersion relations for the collective excitations and the single-particle spectral functions. For the bulk states, these results evidence a behavior typical of non-normal strongly correlated systems, including the spin-charge splitting of the single-particle spectral function. We discuss the origin of this behavior in the light of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and the bosonization of two-dimensional electron gases.
Critical integer quantum Hall topology in the integrable Maryland model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeshan, Sriram; Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn
2014-03-01
One-dimensional tight binding models such as Aubry-Andre-Harper (AAH) model (with onsite cosine potential) and the integrable Maryland model (with onsite tangent potential) have been the subjects of extensive theoretical research in localization studies. AAH can be directly mapped onto the two-dimensional Hofstadter model that manifests the integer quantum Hall topology on a lattice. However, no such connection has been made for the Maryland model (MM). In this talk, we present a generalized model that contains AAH and MM as the limiting cases with the MM lying precisely at a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) point. A remarkable feature of this critical point is that the 1D MM retains well-defined energy gaps whereas the equivalent 2D model becomes gapless, signifying the 2D nature of the TQPT. The criticality allows us to associate topological invariants with the Maryland model in a restricted mathematical sense at the special filling factors that are adiabatically connected to the spectral gaps in the 1D Aubry-Andre-Harper model. Our theory presented in this work establishes deep and unexpected mathematical connections between 2D topological models and a family of 1D incommensurate localization models. This work is supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, Microsoft Q and JQI-ARO-MU.
Module detection in complex networks using integer optimisation
2010-01-01
Background The detection of modules or community structure is widely used to reveal the underlying properties of complex networks in biology, as well as physical and social sciences. Since the adoption of modularity as a measure of network topological properties, several methodologies for the discovery of community structure based on modularity maximisation have been developed. However, satisfactory partitions of large graphs with modest computational resources are particularly challenging due to the NP-hard nature of the related optimisation problem. Furthermore, it has been suggested that optimising the modularity metric can reach a resolution limit whereby the algorithm fails to detect smaller communities than a specific size in large networks. Results We present a novel solution approach to identify community structure in large complex networks and address resolution limitations in module detection. The proposed algorithm employs modularity to express network community structure and it is based on mixed integer optimisation models. The solution procedure is extended through an iterative procedure to diminish effects that tend to agglomerate smaller modules (resolution limitations). Conclusions A comprehensive comparative analysis of methodologies for module detection based on modularity maximisation shows that our approach outperforms previously reported methods. Furthermore, in contrast to previous reports, we propose a strategy to handle resolution limitations in modularity maximisation. Overall, we illustrate ways to improve existing methodologies for community structure identification so as to increase its efficiency and applicability. PMID:21073720
Constrained spacecraft reorientation using mixed integer convex programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, Margaret; Glenn Lightsey, E.
2016-10-01
A constrained attitude guidance (CAG) system is developed using convex optimization to autonomously achieve spacecraft pointing objectives while meeting the constraints imposed by on-board hardware. These constraints include bounds on the control input and slew rate, as well as pointing constraints imposed by the sensors. The pointing constraints consist of inclusion and exclusion cones that dictate permissible orientations of the spacecraft in order to keep objects in or out of the field of view of the sensors. The optimization scheme drives a body vector towards a target inertial vector along a trajectory that consists solely of permissible orientations in order to achieve the desired attitude for a given mission mode. The non-convex rotational kinematics are handled by discretization, which also ensures that the quaternion stays unity norm. In order to guarantee an admissible path, the pointing constraints are relaxed. Depending on how strict the pointing constraints are, the degree of relaxation is tuneable. The use of binary variables permits the inclusion of logical expressions in the pointing constraints in the case that a set of sensors has redundancies. The resulting mixed integer convex programming (MICP) formulation generates a steering law that can be easily integrated into an attitude determination and control (ADC) system. A sample simulation of the system is performed for the Bevo-2 satellite, including disturbance torques and actuator dynamics which are not modeled by the controller. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the system to disturbances while meeting the mission requirements with desirable performance characteristics.
Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.
Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L
2016-01-01
In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.
Integer wavelet transform for embedded lossy to lossless image compression.
Reichel, J; Menegaz, G; Nadenau, M J; Kunt, M
2001-01-01
The use of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for embedded lossy image compression is now well established. One of the possible implementations of the DWT is the lifting scheme (LS). Because perfect reconstruction is granted by the structure of the LS, nonlinear transforms can be used, allowing efficient lossless compression as well. The integer wavelet transform (IWT) is one of them. This is an interesting alternative to the DWT because its rate-distortion performance is similar and the differences can be predicted. This topic is investigated in a theoretical framework. A model of the degradations caused by the use of the IWT instead of the DWT for lossy compression is presented. The rounding operations are modeled as additive noise. The noise are then propagated through the LS structure to measure their impact on the reconstructed pixels. This methodology is verified using simulations with random noise as input. It predicts accurately the results obtained using images compressed by the well-known EZW algorithm. Experiment are also performed to measure the difference in terms of bit rate and visual quality. This allows to a better understanding of the impact of the IWT when applied to lossy image compression.
The dip effect under integer quantized Hall conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulebaglan, Sinem Erden; Kalkan, Sirri Batuhan; Sirt, Serkan; Kendirlik, Enver Metin; Siddiki, Afif
2014-03-01
In this work we investigate an unusual transport phenomenon observed in two-dimensional electron gas under integer quantum Hall effect conditions. Our calculations are based on the screening theory, using a semi-analytical model. The transport anomalies are dip and overshoot effects, where the Hall resistance decreases (or increases) unexpectedly at the quantized resistance plateaus intervals. We report on our numerical findings of the dip effect in the Hall resistance, considering GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures in which we investigated the effect under different experimental conditions. We show that, similar to overshoot, the amplitude of the dip effect is strongly influenced by the edge reconstruction due to electrostatics. It is observed that the steep potential variation close to the physical boundaries of the sample results in narrower incompressible strips, hence, the experimental observation of the dip effect is limited by the properties of these current carrying strips. By performing standard Hall resistance measurements on gate defined narrow samples, we demonstrate that the predictions of the screening theory is in well agreement with our experimental findings.
Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Homewood, L. James
2004-01-01
In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…
Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamen, E. W.
1978-01-01
The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.
Finite-Dimensional Half-Integer Weight Modules over Queer Lie Superalgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shun-Jen; Kwon, Jae-Hoon
2016-09-01
We give a new interpretation of representation theory of the finite-dimensional half-integer weight modules over the queer Lie superalgebra {{q}(n)}. It is given in terms of the Brundan's work on finite-dimensional integer weight {{q}(n)}-modules by means of Lusztig's canonical basis. Using this viewpoint we compute the characters of the finite-dimensional half-integer weight irreducible modules. For a large class of irreducible modules whose highest weights are of special types (i.e., totally connected or totally disconnected) we derive closed-form character formulas that are reminiscent of the Kac-Wakimoto character formula for basic Lie superalgebras.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Guodong; Wei, Meng; Yuan, Songdong; Chang, Qing
2016-01-01
4-chlorophenol could be efficiently photoreductively dechlorinated over anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets, which were synthesized and further characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although fluorine could adsorb on {0 0 1} facets to decrease their surface energy, enabling TiO2 to expose high energy {0 0 1} facets, the surface bonded fluorine might depress the photoreductive dechlorination efficiency of 4-chlorophenol, attributed to the electron trapping role of surface ≡Tisbnd F groups. Due to the formation of a surface heterojunction between {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets in a single TiO2 nanocrystal, electrons and holes were spontaneously self-separated and selectively migrate to {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets, respectively. Electron trapping experiments demonstrated that photogenerated electrons are the responsible for the reductive dechlorinaton of 4-chlorophenol to phenol. To avoid the oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol by holes and ensure sufficient electrons to reductively dechlorinate the substrate, moderate scavengers were required in the reaction system and dissolved oxygen, which might deplete electron on TiO2, also should be removed. With the optimal scavengers, the conversion efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) achieved 97.5% and the selectivity for phenol was 92.5%, which were much higher than that of commercial TiO2 P25.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Yanhong; He, Beibei; Wang, Ranran; Ling, Yihan; Zhao, Ling
2017-04-01
During the application of protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs), Co species derived from Co-containing cathodes readily diffuse into electrolyte layer. In this study, the influence of cobalt doping on the sintering and protonic conducting properties of BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (BZCYYb) electrolytes is evaluated. The Co-doped BZCYYb oxides prepared by a sol-gel way exhibit the orthorhombic perovskite structure. A trade-off relation between the sinterability and protonic conductivity of Co doped BZCYYb oxides is identified. Furthermore, BaZr0.1Ce0.68Y0.1Yb0.1Co0.02O3-δ (BZCYYbC2) with a compromise between sinterability and protonic conductivity is further applied as electrolyte of a single cell. The single cell with BZCYYbC2 electrolyte demonstrates a competitive power density of 0.67 W cm-2 at 700 °C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tancredi, Lorenzo
2015-12-01
Integration by parts identities (IBPs) can be used to express large numbers of apparently different d-dimensional Feynman Integrals in terms of a small subset of so-called master integrals (MIs). Using the IBPs one can moreover show that the MIs fulfil linear systems of coupled differential equations in the external invariants. With the increase in number of loops and external legs, one is left in general with an increasing number of MIs and consequently also with an increasing number of coupled differential equations, which can turn out to be very difficult to solve. In this paper we show how studying the IBPs in fixed integer numbers of dimension d = n with n ∈ N one can extract the information useful to determine a new basis of MIs, whose differential equations decouple as d → n and can therefore be more easily solved as Laurent expansion in (d - n).
Time domain simulation of Li-ion batteries using non-integer order equivalent electrical circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riu, D.; Montaru, M.; Bultel, Y.
2013-06-01
For electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid EV (HEV) development and integration of renewables in electrical networks, battery monitoring systems have to be more and more precise to take into account the state-of-charge and the dynamic behavior of the battery. Some non-integer order models of electrochemical batteries have been proposed in literacy with a good accuracy and a low number of parameters in the frequential domain. Nevertheless, time simulation of such models required to approximate this non-integer order system by an equivalent high integer order model. An adapted algorithm is then proposed in this article to simulate the non-integer order model without any approximation, thanks to the construction of a 3-order generalized state-space system. This algorithm is applied and validated on a 2.3 A.h Li-ion battery.
Invertible update-then-predict integer lifting wavelet for lossless image compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Li, Yanjuan; Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Wenpeng
2017-01-01
This paper presents a new wavelet family for lossless image compression by re-factoring the channel representation of the update-then-predict lifting wavelet, introduced by Claypoole, Davis, Sweldens and Baraniuk, into lifting steps. We name the new wavelet family as invertible update-then-predict integer lifting wavelets (IUPILWs for short). To build IUPILWs, we investigate some central issues such as normalization, invertibility, integer structure, and scaling lifting. The channel representation of the previous update-then-predict lifting wavelet with normalization is given and the invertibility is discussed firstly. To guarantee the invertibility, we re-factor the channel representation into lifting steps. Then the integer structure and scaling lifting of the invertible update-then-predict wavelet are given and the IUPILWs are built. Experiments show that comparing with the integer lifting structure of 5/3 wavelet, 9/7 wavelet, and iDTT, IUPILW results in the lower bit-rates for lossless image compression.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, S. L.; Hu, B.; Li, Y. P.; Hu, Z.; Huang, G. H.
2011-03-01
An interval-fuzzy integer nonlinear programming (IFINP) method is developed for the identification of filter allocation and replacement strategies in a fluid power system (FPS) under uncertainty. It can handle uncertainties expressed as interval-fuzzy values that exist in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints as well as in the objective function. The developed method is applied to a case of planning filter allocation and replacement strategies under uncertainty for a FPS with a single circuit. A piecewise linearisation approach is used to convert the nonlinear problem of FPS into a linear one. The generated fuzzy solutions will be used to analyse and interpret the multiple decision alternatives under various system conditions, and thus help decision-makers to make a compromise among the system contamination level, system cost, satisfaction degrees and system-failure risks under different contaminant ingression/generation rates. The results demonstrate that the suction and return filters can effectively reduce the contamination level associated with a low system cost, but the FPS will take lots of failure risk when the contaminant ingression/generation rate is high; and the combination of suction and pressure filters can bring the lowest system cost with more security instead. Furthermore, comparisons for the optimised solutions are made among IFINP, interval-parameter integer nonlinear programming and deterministic linear programming also. Generally, the IFINP method can effectively reduce the total design and operation cost of the filtration system when contaminants ingression/generation rate is high, and it could be extended to the lubricating system.
Particle in a Moebius wire and half-integer orbital angular momentum
Miliordos, Evangelos
2011-06-15
Restricting one particle on the rim of a Moebius strip (Moebius wire), its wave functions are explicitly calculated through the nonrelativistic quantum theory. Demanding the wave function to be single valued, it is proven that in the case of a narrow strip the orbital angular momentum of the particle takes both integer and half-integer values of ({h_bar}/2{pi}). In addition, the energy values of two chiral Moebius wires are proven to be equal.
Exact solution of the two-axis countertwisting hamiltonian for the half-integer J case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Feng; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.
2017-02-01
Bethe ansatz solutions of the two-axis countertwisting Hamiltonian for any (integer and half-integer) J are derived based on the Jordan–Schwinger (differential) boson realization of the SU(2) algebra after desired Euler rotations, where J is the total angular momentum quantum number of the system. It is shown that solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations can be obtained as zeros of the extended Heine–Stieltjes polynomials. Two sets of solutions, with solution number being J + 1 and J respectively when J is an integer and J + 1/2 each when J is a half-integer, are obtained. Properties of the zeros of the related extended Heine–Stieltjes polynomials for half-integer J cases are discussed. It is clearly shown that double degenerate level energies for half-integer J are symmetric with respect to the E = 0 axis. It is also shown that the excitation energies of the ‘yrast’ and other ‘yrare’ bands can all be asymptotically given by quadratic functions of J, especially when J is large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jazaeri, S.; Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Sharifi, M. A.
2012-02-01
GNSS ambiguity resolution is the key issue in the high-precision relative geodetic positioning and navigation applications. It is a problem of integer programming plus integer quality evaluation. Different integer search estimation methods have been proposed for the integer solution of ambiguity resolution. Slow rate of convergence is the main obstacle to the existing methods where tens of ambiguities are involved. Herein, integer search estimation for the GNSS ambiguity resolution based on the lattice theory is proposed. It is mathematically shown that the closest lattice point problem is the same as the integer least-squares (ILS) estimation problem and that the lattice reduction speeds up searching process. We have implemented three integer search strategies: Agrell, Eriksson, Vardy, Zeger (AEVZ), modification of Schnorr-Euchner enumeration (M-SE) and modification of Viterbo-Boutros enumeration (M-VB). The methods have been numerically implemented in several simulated examples under different scenarios and over 100 independent runs. The decorrelation process (or unimodular transformations) has been first used to transform the original ILS problem to a new one in all simulations. We have then applied different search algorithms to the transformed ILS problem. The numerical simulations have shown that AEVZ, M-SE, and M-VB are about 320, 120 and 50 times faster than LAMBDA, respectively, for a search space of dimension 40. This number could change to about 350, 160 and 60 for dimension 45. The AEVZ is shown to be faster than MLAMBDA by a factor of 5. Similar conclusions could be made using the application of the proposed algorithms to the real GPS data.
Optimizing Marine Corps Personnel Assignments Using an Integer Programming Model
2012-12-01
making. The advancement of computers and related technology has played a huge role in the proliferation of linear programming. More often than not...2012 BAH Rates-with Dependents. Defense Travel Mangement Office. (2011, December). 2012 BAH Rates-without Dependents. M ileage C ost 1 Per D iem
A cyanocobalamin dosimeter for monitoring gamma-radiation doses of 0.1-2 kGy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maged, A. F.; Hamza, M. S. A.; Saad, E. A.
1997-08-01
A simple dosimeter is described for measuring gamma-ray doses useful for insect sterilization, seed-sprouting inhibition and food shelf-life extensions. The red aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin (B 12) before irradiation, assumes a stable yellow color when irradiated. It shows a linear response of absorbance decrease with the dose over the range of 0.1-2.0 kGy when the concentration of cyanocobalamin is equal 0.09 mM. The radiation-induced color is analyzed spectrophotometrically at the maximum absorption band (361 nm). The absorption spectra, dose response and post-irradiation stability of the dosimeter are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.
2010-01-01
We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik
2015-11-01
This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu2O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu2O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu+ species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.
Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of Fe2.9Zn0.1O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chander, Subhash; Kumar, Sudhish; Krishnamurthy, Anjali; Srivastava, Bipin K.; Aswal, V. K.
2003-09-01
DC magnetization measurements are reported in the temperature range 20-300 K on a poly-disperse nano-particle sample of the spinel ferrite Fe_{2.9}Zn_{0.1}O_4 with a log-normal size distribution of median diameter 43.6 Å and standard deviation 0.58. Outside a core of ordered spins, moments in surface layer are disordered. Results also show some similarities with conventional spin glasses. Blocking temperature exhibits a near linear variation with two-third power of the applied magnetic field and magnetization M evolves nearly linearly with logarithm of time t. Magnetic anisotropy has been estimated by analysing the M-log t curve. Anisotropy values show a large increase over that of bulk particle samples. Major contribution to this enhancement comes from the disordered surface spins.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyu, H. C.; Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chang, J. J.
1987-01-01
A quadratic-polynomial Fermat residue number system (QFNS) has been used to compute complex integer multiplications. The advantage of such a QFNS is that a complex integer multiplication requires only two integer multiplications. In this article, a new type Fermat number multiplier is developed which eliminates the initialization condition of the previous method. It is shown that the new complex multiplier can be implemented on a single VLSI chip. Such a chip is designed and fabricated in CMOS-Pw technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chang, J. J.; Shyu, H. C.; Reed, I. S.
1986-01-01
A quadratic-polynomial Fermat residue number system (QFNS) has been used to compute complex integer multiplications. The advantage of such a QFNS is that a complex integer multiplication requires only two integer multiplications. In this article, a new type Fermat number multiplier is developed which eliminates the initialization condition of the previous method. It is shown that the new complex multiplier can be implemented on a single VLSI chip. Such a chip is designed and fabricated in CMOS-pw technology.
A Composite Algorithm for Mixed Integer Constrained Nonlinear Optimization.
1980-01-01
nature of the problem, auxiliary techniques including Lagrange multipliers, penalty functions, linearization, and rounding have all been used to aid in...result is a series of problems Pn with solutions Sn. If the sequence of problems is appropriately selected, two useful properties result. First...knowledge of 19 the solution to the (n)th problem aids in the solution of the (n+l)st problem. Second, the sequence of solutions Sn tends to the solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanifi, Amir Reza; Sandhu, Navjot Kaur; Etsell, Thomas H.; Luo, Jing-Li; Sarkar, Partha
2017-02-01
A proton conducting anode supported tubular fuel cell is fabricated in this research using the highly proton conductive BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (BZCYYb) electrolyte. The cell is in a Ni-BZCYYb/BZCYYb/LSCF-BZCYYb configuration consisting of a support, electrolyte and cathode with thicknesses of 680 μm, 25 μm and 90 μm, respectively. The cell delivers maximum power densities of 331, 362 and 416 mW/cm2 at 600, 650 and 700 °C, respectively. AC impedance spectroscopy results show values of 0.94 Ω.cm2, 0.73 Ω.cm2, and 0.60 Ω.cm2 for total resistance at the corresponding temperatures while the major resistance contributor is the ohmic resistance. The Ni-BZCYYb anode microstructure shows detachment of Ni and the BZCYYb in most regions as well as pores inside the Ni grains. Despite the low anode porosity (25%), the cell gives a very low concentration polarization value (0.05 Ω.cm2) indicating that the fuel gas could readily diffuse into the microstructure. This might be attributed to water forming on the cathode side, which masks the necessity of having a high porosity anode. The cell fails when tested under CO:H2 of 1:1 at 700 °C due to significant carbon (graphite) formation indicating that proton conductors based on barium cerates are not appropriate choices for application under hydrocarbon fuels.
Chang, Weng-Long
2012-03-01
Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ≡ C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA.
Property study of integer wavelet transform lossless compression coding based on lifting scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Cheng Jun; Yan, Su; Xiang, Yang
2006-01-01
In this paper the algorithms and its improvement of integer wavelet transform combining SPIHT and arithmetic coding in image lossless compression is mainly studied. The experimental result shows that if the order of low-pass filter vanish matrix is fixed, the improvement of compression effect is not evident when invertible integer wavelet transform is satisfied and focusing of energy property monotonic increase with transform scale. For the same wavelet bases, the order of low-pass filter vanish matrix is more important than the order of high-pass filter vanish matrix in improving the property of image compression. Integer wavelet transform lossless compression coding based on lifting scheme has no relation to the entropy of image. The effect of compression is depended on the the focuing of energy property of image transform.
Guseinov, Israfil; Mamedov, Bahtiyar
2002-09-01
The series expansion formulae are derived for the overlap integrals with arbitrary integer n and noninteger n* Slater-type orbitals (ISTOs and NISTOs) in terms of a product of well-known auxiliary functions A(sigma) and B (k). The series becomes an ordinary closed expression when both principal quantum numbers n* and n'* of orbitals are integer n*= n and n'*= n'. These formulae are especially useful for the calculation of overlap integrals for large quantum numbers. Accuracy of the results is satisfactory for values of integer and noninteger quantum numbers up to n= n'=60, n*= n'*<33 and for arbitrary values of screening constants of orbitals and internuclear distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun
2017-02-01
A short process for the efficient utilization of transition-metal chlorides in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is proposed. A uniformly dispersed tri-component nanocomposite of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 microspheres with a porous structure has been prepared from the solution of transition-metal chlorides via spray pyrolysis. When evaluated as anode for LIBs, the Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 nanocomposite exhibits a reversible capacity of 1180 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles. More strikingly, the nanoparticles-assembled Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 precursor has its unique advantages in synthesizing well-ordered layered LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2, owning to its excellent atomic uniformity, porous structure and Ni3+-rich surface. The as-prepared cathode material shows excellent structural stability. Discharge capacities of 173 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1 C (1 C = 180 mA g-1) between 2.8 and 4.3 V are consistently obtained, corresponding to 95.6% capacity retention. These outstanding electrochemical results are obtained with minimal process optimization, indicating that spray pyrolysis is an efficient, robust synthesis technique for the production of Ni-rich layered cathode from solution of transition-metal chlorides.
Structural And Phonon Modes Of Multiferroic Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Dinesh; Das, Geeta; Kumar, Ashwini
2011-07-01
Multiferroic Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 [BCFCO] nanoparticles of 23 nm were successfully prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single-phase perovskite structure. Rietveld-refinement of crystal structure parameters revealed the existence of rhombohedral R3c symmetry. Raman spectrum identifies the five active optical phonon modes (A1-2, E-2, A1-4, E-8, E-9). The BCFCO nanomaterials sample shows the lower frequency shift in Raman modes as compared to pure BiFeO3 and is attributed to the structural distortion at Fe site.
Guo, P; Huang, G H
2009-01-01
In this study, an inexact fuzzy chance-constrained two-stage mixed-integer linear programming (IFCTIP) approach is proposed for supporting long-term planning of waste-management systems under multiple uncertainties in the City of Regina, Canada. The method improves upon the existing inexact two-stage programming and mixed-integer linear programming techniques by incorporating uncertainties expressed as multiple uncertainties of intervals and dual probability distributions within a general optimization framework. The developed method can provide an effective linkage between the predefined environmental policies and the associated economic implications. Four special characteristics of the proposed method make it unique compared with other optimization techniques that deal with uncertainties. Firstly, it provides a linkage to predefined policies that have to be respected when a modeling effort is undertaken; secondly, it is useful for tackling uncertainties presented as intervals, probabilities, fuzzy sets and their incorporation; thirdly, it facilitates dynamic analysis for decisions of facility-expansion planning and waste-flow allocation within a multi-facility, multi-period, multi-level, and multi-option context; fourthly, the penalties are exercised with recourse against any infeasibility, which permits in-depth analyses of various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences when the promised solid waste-generation rates are violated. In a companion paper, the developed method is applied to a real case for the long-term planning of waste management in the City of Regina, Canada.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C. Y.; Jackson, W. M.
2014-06-01
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã3Π; v) + O(3P0,1,2) and CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO2 to the 4s(101) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm-1. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O+ VMI-PI images of O(3P0,1,2) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) with well-resolved v = 0-2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO2 to form the spin-allowed CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18-26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO2 4s(101) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C Y; Jackson, W M
2014-06-21
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã(3)Π; v) + O((3)P0,1,2) and CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO2 to the 4s(10 (1)) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm(-1). The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O(+) VMI-PI images of O((3)P0,1,2) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) with well-resolved v = 0-2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO2 to form the spin-allowed CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(X̃(1)Σ(+)) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18-26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO2 4s(10 (1)) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
Geng, Lingling; Yu, Yongguang; Zhang, Shuo
2016-09-01
In this paper, the function projective synchronization between integer-order and stochastic fractional-order nonlinear systems is investigated. Firstly, according to the stability theory of fractional-order systems and tracking control, a controller is designed. At the same time, based on the orthogonal polynomial approximation, the method of transforming stochastic error system into an equivalent deterministic system is given. Thus, the stability of the stochastic error system can be analyzed through its equivalent deterministic one. Finally, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the function projective synchronization between integer-order Lorenz system and stochastic fractional-order Chen system is studied.
Bawdane, Kishori Dhaku; Magar, Jyoti S; Tendolkar, Bharati A
2016-01-01
Background and Aims: Ropivacaine is considered as a safe alternative to bupivacaine for labor analgesia. The aim was to compare epidural ropivacaine and bupivacaine in intermittent doses for obstetric analgesia. Material and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 60 women in labor were randomly allocated to receive either bupivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL (BF), or ropivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL (RF). Bromage scale, loss of cold sensation to ether swab in midclavicular line, visual analog scale were used to test for motor block, sensory block and pain, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters, onset of analgesia, dose requirement of drug to produce analgesia, duration of labor, and incidence of side effects were also recorded. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using students unpaired t-test, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests at P < 0.05. Results: Both drugs were similar with respect to hemodynamic stability, onset of analgesia, quality of analgesia, sensory blockade, neonatal outcome, requirement of drugs, duration of labor, and incidence of side effects. Three parturient in bupivacaine (B-F) group had a motor block of Bromage 1 and were delivered using forceps. None of the parturient in ropivacaine (R-F) group had any motor block, and all had spontaneous vaginal delivery, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.081). Conclusions: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine provide equivalent analgesia in low (0.1%) concentration. PMID:27006539
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giono, G.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Kano, R.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.
2016-12-01
The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket experiment designed to measure for the first time the linear polarization of the hydrogen Lyman-{α} line (121.6 nm) and requires a 0.1 % polarization sensitivity, which is unprecedented for a spectropolarimeter in the vacuum UV (VUV) spectral range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Kelvin, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Brough, S.; Brown, M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Andrae, E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Cameron, E.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Dunne, L.; Frenk, C. S.; Graham, Alister W.; Gunawardhana, M.; Hill, D. T.; Jones, D. H.; Kuijken, K.; Madore, B.; Nichol, R. C.; Parkinson, H. R.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Phillipps, S.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Seibert, M.; Sharp, R. G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Taylor, E. N.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.; Wilkins, S.
2012-12-01
We use the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey (GAMA) I data set combined with GALEX, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) imaging to construct the low-redshift (z < 0.1) galaxy luminosity functions in FUV, NUV, ugriz and YJHK bands from within a single well-constrained volume of 3.4 × 105 (Mpc h-1)3. The derived luminosity distributions are normalized to the SDSS data release 7 (DR7) main survey to reduce the estimated cosmic variance to the 5 per cent level. The data are used to construct the cosmic spectral energy distribution (CSED) from 0.1 to 2.1 μm free from any wavelength-dependent cosmic variance for both the elliptical and non-elliptical populations. The two populations exhibit dramatically different CSEDs as expected for a predominantly old and young population, respectively. Using the Driver et al. prescription for the azimuthally averaged photon escape fraction, the non-ellipticals are corrected for the impact of dust attenuation and the combined CSED constructed. The final results show that the Universe is currently generating (1.8 ± 0.3) × 1035 h W Mpc-3 of which (1.2 ± 0.1) × 1035 h W Mpc-3 is directly released into the inter-galactic medium and (0.6 ± 0.1) × 1035 h W Mpc-3 is reprocessed and reradiated by dust in the far-IR. Using the GAMA data and our dust model we predict the mid- and far-IR emission which agrees remarkably well with available data. We therefore provide a robust description of the pre- and post-dust attenuated energy output of the nearby Universe from 0.1 μm to 0.6 mm. The largest uncertainty in this measurement lies in the mid- and far-IR bands stemming from the dust attenuation correction and its currently poorly constrained dependence on environment, stellar mass and morphology.
Ammonia adsorption on Cl/Si(0 0 1): First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lange, B.; Schmidt, W. G.
2008-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments [C.C. Finstad, A.G. Thorsness, A.J. Muscat, Surf. Sci. 600 (2006) 3363], the interaction between ammonia and the Cl-terminated Si(0 0 1) surface is studied using density functional theory (DFT). The reaction NH 3 (gas) + Si(0 0 1):Cl → Si(0 0 1):NH 2 + HCl (gas) is endothermic, even if temperature effects are included in the calculation. We find that the formation of ionic bonds between surface-bonded NH3+ and nearby Cl - rather than the desorption of HCl corresponds to a local energy minimum.
Motz, Benjamin A; Erickson, Molly A; Hetrick, William P
2013-04-01
Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio subdivisions of the beat, e.g. sounds at 430ms in a 1000ms beat) are represented less accurately than sequences with metrical relationships, where events occur at even subdivisions of the beat (integer ratios, e.g. sounds at 500ms in a 1000ms beat). Why do non-integer ratio rhythms present cognitive challenges? An emerging theory is that non-integer ratio sequences are represented incorrectly, "regularized" in the direction of the nearest metrical pattern, and the present study sought evidence of such perceptual regularization toward integer ratio relationships. Participants listened to metrical and non-metrical rhythmic auditory sequences during electroencephalogram recording, and sounds were pseudorandomly omitted from the stimulus sequence. Cortical responses to these omissions (omission elicited potentials; OEPs) were used to estimate the timing of expectations for omitted sounds in integer ratio and non-integer ratio locations. OEP amplitude and onset latency measures indicated that expectations for non-integer ratio sequences are distorted toward the nearest metrical location in the rhythmic period. These top-down effects demonstrate metrical regularization in a purely perceptual context, and provide support for dynamical accounts of rhythm perception.
Physical Applications of a Simple Approximation of Bessel Functions of Integer Order
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barsan, V.; Cojocaru, S.
2007-01-01
Applications of a simple approximation of Bessel functions of integer order, in terms of trigonometric functions, are discussed for several examples from electromagnetism and optics. The method may be applied in the intermediate regime, bridging the "small values regime" and the "asymptotic" one, and covering, in this way, an area of great…
The Effect of Learning Integers Using Cartoons on 7th Grade Students' Attitude to Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sengül, Sare; Dereli, Mehtap
2013-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect on students' attitudes toward mathematics when cartoons are used in teaching integers. The research was designed in the form of a pre-test and post-test with a quasi experimental control group. The research participant group was composed of sixty-one (61) 7th grade students attending an…
Relationships between Prime-Rich Euler Type Equations and a Triangular Array of the Odd Integers,
1985-02-01
8217 Primitive ’ cell arrays are derived from the above array. Each such array consists of a prime value p(of c) which is substituted for every integer in the...relationships between the triangular array, the equations x squared - x + c, c=1,3,5,... and the derived primitive cell arrays are brought out. These show how
"It is Possible to Die Before Being Born". Negative Integers Subtraction: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallardo, Aurora
2003-01-01
A Case Study is presented in this article, where there is a contradiction between pre-algebraic language semantic and syntax used to solve word problems through a negative integers subtraction. Appendix includes answer key. (Contains 1 figure.) [For complete proceedings, see ED500859.
Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming problems using spiral dynamics optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kania, Adhe; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adji
2016-02-01
Many engineering and practical problem can be modeled by mixed integer nonlinear programming. This paper proposes to solve the problem with modified spiral dynamics inspired optimization method of Tamura and Yasuda. Four test cases have been examined, including problem in engineering and sport. This method succeeds in obtaining the optimal result in all test cases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, William H., Jr.
2006-01-01
Computational precision is sometimes given short shrift in a first programming course. Treating this topic requires discussing integer and floating-point number representations and inaccuracies that may result from their use. An example of a moderately simple programming problem from elementary statistics was examined. It forced students to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pospelov, A. I.
2016-08-01
Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.
Research on application for integer wavelet transform for lossless compression of medical image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zude; Li, Quan; Long, Quan
2003-09-01
This paper proposes an approach based on using lifting scheme to construct integer wavelet transform whose purpose is to realize the lossless compression of images. Then researches on application of medical image, software simulation of corresponding algorithm and experiment result are presented in this paper. Experiment shows that this method could improve the compression ration and resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jing; Zhu, Rihong
2009-08-01
A lossy to lossless three-dimensional (3D) compression of hyperspectral images is presented. On the spectral dimension, a low complexity reversible integer Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) is used to fully exploit the spectral redundancy, while two-dimensional spatial combinative lifting algorithm (SCLA)-based integer wavelet transform is applied on the spatial dimension. At the low complexity KLT, the calculation processing of covariance matrix is carried out on a subset of vectors that is pseudorandomly selected from the complete set of spectral vectors. The transform matrix is factorized into triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERM) for reversible integer mapping and the lifting scheme is applied to implement integer KLT. The 3D asymmetric significance tree structure is then constructed from the 3D asymmetric orientation tree in 3D transformed domain. Each coefficient is then encoded by the significance test of the 3D asymmetric significance tree node at each bitplane instead of ordered lists to track the significance status of the tree or block sets and coefficients. This algorithm has low complexity and can be applied to lossy to lossless progressive transmission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Sahubar Ali Bin Mohamed Nadhar; Ahmarofi, Ahmad Afif Bin
2014-12-01
In manufacturing sector, production planning or scheduling is the most important managerial task in order to achieve profit maximization and cost minimization. With limited resources, the management has to satisfy customer demand and at the same time fulfill company's objective, which is to maximize profit or minimize cost. Hence, planning becomes a significant task for production site in order to determine optimal number of units for each product to be produced. In this study, integer programming technique is used to develop an appropriate product-mix planning to obtain the optimal number of audio speaker products that should be produced in order to maximize profit. Branch-and-bound method is applied to obtain exact integer solutions when non-integer solutions occurred. Three major resource constraints are considered in this problem: raw materials constraint, demand constraint and standard production time constraint. It is found that, the developed integer programming model gives significant increase in profit compared to the existing method used by the company. At the end of the study, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of changes in objective function coefficient and available resources on the developed model. This will enable the management to foresee the effects on the results when some changes happen to the profit of its products or available resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkachenko, Georgiy; Chen, Mingzhou; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael
2016-09-01
A photon can carry orbital angular momentum equal to an integer number of the reduced Planck's constant. This principle expresses itself in geometrical quantization of optical vortex beams, which thus can propagate only in the form of fields having a helically wavefront characterized by an integer valued topological charge. However, one can create an optical vortex beam of an effective fractional charge by combining multiple integer vortices. Here, we investigate this apparent violation of the geometrical quantization of orbital angular momentum of light. Our approach relies on observation of the light-induced motion of a microscopic particle, which thus acts as an optomechanical probe for the optical vortex beam. A fractional topological charge corresponds to an abrupt jump in the helical phase front of the beam. This singularity expresses itself as an off-axis disturbance in the intensity profile, and thus complicates the optomechanical probing. We overcome this problem by distributing the disturbance along the vortex ring, so that a microparticle can continuously orbit due to the orbital angular momentum transfer. We demonstrate theoretically that whatever effort is put into smoothing the fractional vortex ring (as long as the net topological charge is fixed), the particle's orbital motion cannot be as uniform as in the case of an integer vortex beam. We support this prediction by experimental proof. The experimental technique benefits from the recently introduced "perfect" vortex beams which allow an optically trapped particle to orbit along a constant trajectory irrespective of any topological charge.
ECG/PPG integer signal processing for a ubiquitous health monitoring system.
Shin, Woosik; Cha, Yong Dae; Yoon, Gilwon
2010-10-01
A compact ubiquitous-health monitor operated by single 8-bit microcontroller was made. An integer signal processing algorithm for this microcontroller was developed and digital filtering of ECG (electrocardiogram) and PPG (photoplethysmogram) was performed. Rounding-off errors due to integer operation was solved by increasing the number of effective integer digits during CPU operation; digital filter coefficients and data expressed in decimal points were multiplied by a certain number and converted into integers. After filter operation, the actual values were retrieved by dividing with the same number and selecting available highest bits. Our results showed comparable accuracies to those computed by a commercial software. Compared with a floating-point calculation by the same microcontroller, the computation speed became faster by 1.45 ∼ 2.0 times depending on various digital filtering cases. Our algorithm was successfully tested for remote health monitoring with multiple users. If our algorithm were not used, our health monitor should have used additional microcontrollers or DSP chip. The proposed algorithm reduced the size and cost of our health monitor substantially.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. C.; Gong, B.; Wang, H. G.
2016-08-01
Optimal development of shale gas fields involves designing a most productive fracturing network for hydraulic stimulation processes and operating wells appropriately throughout the production time. A hydraulic fracturing network design-determining well placement, number of fracturing stages, and fracture lengths-is defined by specifying a set of integer ordered blocks to drill wells and create fractures in a discrete shale gas reservoir model. The well control variables such as bottom hole pressures or production rates for well operations are real valued. Shale gas development problems, therefore, can be mathematically formulated with mixed-integer optimization models. A shale gas reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the production performance for a hydraulic fracturing and well control plan. To find the optimal fracturing design and well operation is challenging because the problem is a mixed integer optimization problem and entails computationally expensive reservoir simulation. A dynamic simplex interpolation-based alternate subspace (DSIAS) search method is applied for mixed integer optimization problems associated with shale gas development projects. The optimization performance is demonstrated with the example case of the development of the Barnett Shale field. The optimization results of DSIAS are compared with those of a pattern search algorithm.
2. QUANTUM HALL EFFECT: Hidden SU(4) symmetry in bilayer quantum well at integer filling factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fal'ko, V. I.; Iordanskii, S. V.; Kashuba, A. B.
2001-10-01
Phase diagram of a bilayer quantum well at integer filling factors is established using the hidden symmetry method. Three phases: ferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic (CAP) and spin-singlet, have been found. We confirm early results of Das Sarma et al. Each phase violates the SU(4) hidden symmetry and is stabilized by the anisotropy interactions.
Garbeva, Paolina; Silby, Mark W; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Levy, Stuart B; Boer, Wietse de
2011-01-01
The ability of soil bacteria to successfully compete with a range of other microbial species is crucial for their growth and survival in the nutrient-limited soil environment. In the present work, we studied the behavior and transcriptional responses of soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf0-1 on nutrient-poor agar to confrontation with strains of three phylogenetically different bacterial genera, that is, Bacillus, Brevundimonas and Pedobacter. Competition for nutrients was apparent as all three bacterial genera had a negative effect on the density of P. fluorescens Pf0-1; this effect was most strong during the interaction with Bacillus. Microarray-based analyses indicated strong differences in the transcriptional responses of Pf0-1 to the different competitors. There was higher similarity in the gene expression response of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 to the Gram-negative bacteria as compared with the Gram-positive strain. The Gram-negative strains did also trigger the production of an unknown broad-spectrum antibiotic in Pf0-1. More detailed analysis indicated that expression of specific Pf0-1 genes involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolite production was strongly affected by the competitors' identity, suggesting that Pf0-1 can distinguish among different competitors and fine-tune its competitive strategies. The results presented here demonstrate that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 shows a species-specific transcriptional and metabolic response to bacterial competitors and provide new leads in the identification of specific cues in bacteria–bacteria interactions and of novel competitive strategies, antimicrobial traits and genes. PMID:21228890
Structural and impedance spectroscopy properties of La0.8Ba0.1Ca0.1Mn1-xRuxO3 perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chebaane, M.; Talbi, N.; Dhahri, A.; Oumezzine, M.; Khirouni, K.
2017-03-01
Polycrystalline samples La0.8Ba0.1Ca0.1Mn1-xRuxO3 (x=0 and 0.075) were prepared by sol-gel-based Pechini method. The X ray diffraction study has shown that all the samples exhibit a single phase with rhombohedral structure (space group R 3 ̅c, no. 167). The complex impedance has been investigated in the temperature range 160-320 K and in the frequency range 40 Hz-1 MHz. The imaginary part of the complex impedance (Z‧‧) frequency dependence revealed one relaxation peak. The Cole-Cole plots of the impedance values exhibited a semi -circular arc that can be described by an R1+(R2//ZCPE) electrical equivalent circuit. The conductance spectra have been investigated by the Jonscher universal power law: G(ω)=GDC+Aωn, where ω is the frequency of the ac field, and n is the exponent. The activation energy obtained both from the conductance and from time relaxation analyses are very similar, and hence the relaxation process may be attributed to the same type of charge carriers.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Room-temperature InGaAs detector arrays for 1.0 - 1.7 microns spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, G. H.; Joshi, A. M.; Mykietyn, E.; Colosi, J.; Woodruff, K. M.
1989-01-01
Linear arrays of 256 element InGaAs detectors with 100 x 30 micron pixels were mounted in multiplexer packages and tested in an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). Typical performance characteristics include dark current (-5V) of 400 picoamps and responsivities of 0.75 A/W (1.3 microns) and 0.14 A/W (0.85 microns). The 256 element exhibited a mean room-temperature dark current of under 400 picoamps when mounted in the OMA and a dynamic range over 11 bits (2000:1). Future applications, including room-temperature detector arrays for 2.5 microns and avalanche photodiode arrays for 1.0-1.7 microns, are discussed.
Gompertz type dechanneling functions for protons in <1 0 0>, <1 1 0> and <1 1 1> Si crystal channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrović, S.; Erić, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Nešković, N.
2007-03-01
In this work the energy dependences of the Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function parameters for protons in <1 0 0>, <1 1 0> and <1 1 1> Si crystal channels is investigated theoretically. The proton energy range considered is between 1 and 10 MeV. The original dechanneling functions are generated using a realistic Monte Carlo computer simulation code. We show that the Gompertz type dechanneling function, having two parameters, lc and k, representing the dechanneling range and rate, respectively, approximate accurately the original dechanneling function. It is also shown that the energy dependences of parameters lc and k can be approximated by a linear function and a sum of two exponential functions, respectively. The results obtained can be used for accurate reproduction of experimental proton channeling spectra recorded in the backscattering geometry.
Thermodynamic properties of nonstoichiometric oxygen in manganite Ca0.9Pr0.1MnO3-δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonidov, I. A.; Konstantinova, E. I.; Patrakeev, M. V.; Kozhevnikov, V. L.
2016-11-01
The chemical potential of oxygen ΔμO relative to its standard state in the gas phase was calculated from the experimental dependences of the oxygen content in various polymorphic modifications of Ca0.9Pr0.1MnO3-δ on the partial pressure and temperature. The partial molar enthalpy Δ {overline H _O} and entropy Δ {overline S _O} of oxygen were obtained from the linear temperature dependences of ΔμO. Based on the ideal solution approximation, Δ {overline H _O} and Δ {overline S _O} were correlated with the enthalpies and entropies of the defect formation reactions, the concentrations of manganese cations, and the oxygen nonstoichiometry. The thermal excitation of Mn4+ cations was shown to substantially affect the thermodynamic functions of oxygen.
Epitaxial film growth of zirconium diboride on Si(0 0 1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roucka, R.; Tolle, J.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Tsong, I. S. T.; Kouvetakis, J.
2005-04-01
The structure of epitaxial ZrB 2 films grown on Si(0 0 1) substrates via the thermal decomposition of the unimolecular precursor Zr(BH 4) 4 was studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). In spite of the large lattice mismatch between the Si(0 0 1) substrate and ZrB 2, epitaxy occurs via a coincidence-misfit mechanism in which the strain between film and substrate is accommodated by edge dislocations along the film-substrate interface. While the growth axis of the ZrB 2 film lies along the [1 1̲ 0 0] direction, i.e. [1 1̲ 0 0]//[0 0 1], the epitaxy produces two orthogonal domains as the result of a 6:5 misfit for [1 1 2̲ 0]//[1 1̲ 0] and a 13:12 misfit for [0 0 0 1̲ ]//[1 1̲ 0] along the same direction on the interface plane. These domains take the form of two-dimensional rectangular islands orthogonal to each other. The island-substrate and island-island interfaces were examined in detail with high-resolution XTEM and compared with theoretical models.
Active anatase (0 0 1)-like surface of hydrothermally synthesized titania nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qiang; Mogilevsky, Gregory; Wagner, George W.; Forstater, Jacob; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue
2009-11-01
Using 31P and 13C NMR with DFT calculations we demonstrate the exposed surface of titania nanotubes (TiNTs) is a stable, unterminated anatase (0 0 1)-like surface and is catalytically active under ambient conditions. We find that methanol dissociatively adsorbs on the surface of TiNTs agreeing with the predicted activity of surface dissociation of organic molecules on the crystalline (0 0 1)-anatase surface. We further examined the catalytic activity of anatase power, TiNT, and nanosheets in catalytic hydrolysis of S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]- O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) via 31P NMR and demonstrate that titanate-like nanosheets are inactive in the reaction owing to their hydroxylated (0 0 1) surface.
Magnetic properties of Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb under high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Hiroi, Masahiko; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Koyama, Keiichi
2016-08-01
Magnetization measurements were carried out for polycrystalline Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb in magnetic fields up to 5 T in the 10-300 K temperature range under high pressures up to 1 GPa in order to investigate the magnetic properties and the thermal transformation arrest (TTA) phenomenon under high pressures. The spin-reorientation temperature increased from 202 K for 0.1 MPa to 244 K for 1 GPa, whereas the transition temperature from the ferrimagnetic (FRI) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) state did not drastically change at ˜116 K. The magnetic relaxation behavior from the FRI to AFM state was observed in 10 < T ≤ 70 K, which was analyzed using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model. Obtained results indicated that the TTA phenomenon of Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb was suppressed by the application of high pressures.
Lin, Fu; Leyffer, Sven; Munson, Todd
2016-04-12
We study a two-stage mixed-integer linear program (MILP) with more than 1 million binary variables in the second stage. We develop a two-level approach by constructing a semi-coarse model that coarsens with respect to variables and a coarse model that coarsens with respect to both variables and constraints. We coarsen binary variables by selecting a small number of prespecified on/off profiles. We aggregate constraints by partitioning them into groups and taking convex combination over each group. With an appropriate choice of coarsened profiles, the semi-coarse model is guaranteed to find a feasible solution of the original problem and hence providesmore » an upper bound on the optimal solution. We show that solving a sequence of coarse models converges to the same upper bound with proven finite steps. This is achieved by adding violated constraints to coarse models until all constraints in the semi-coarse model are satisfied. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in cogeneration for buildings. Here, the coarsened models allow us to obtain good approximate solutions at a fraction of the time required by solving the original problem. Extensive numerical experiments show that the two-level approach scales to large problems that are beyond the capacity of state-of-the-art commercial MILP solvers.« less
Lin, Fu; Leyffer, Sven; Munson, Todd
2016-04-12
We study a two-stage mixed-integer linear program (MILP) with more than 1 million binary variables in the second stage. We develop a two-level approach by constructing a semi-coarse model that coarsens with respect to variables and a coarse model that coarsens with respect to both variables and constraints. We coarsen binary variables by selecting a small number of prespecified on/off profiles. We aggregate constraints by partitioning them into groups and taking convex combination over each group. With an appropriate choice of coarsened profiles, the semi-coarse model is guaranteed to find a feasible solution of the original problem and hence provides an upper bound on the optimal solution. We show that solving a sequence of coarse models converges to the same upper bound with proven finite steps. This is achieved by adding violated constraints to coarse models until all constraints in the semi-coarse model are satisfied. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in cogeneration for buildings. Here, the coarsened models allow us to obtain good approximate solutions at a fraction of the time required by solving the original problem. Extensive numerical experiments show that the two-level approach scales to large problems that are beyond the capacity of state-of-the-art commercial MILP solvers.
Growth of thin Fe(0 0 1) films for terahertz emission experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meserole, C. A.; Fisher, G. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Averitt, R. D.; Funk, D. J.; Taylor, A. J.
2007-06-01
The electrical and magnetic properties of thin iron (Fe) films have sparked significant scientific interest. Our interest, however, is in the fundamental interactions between light and matter. We have discovered a novel application for thin Fe films. These films are sources of terahertz (THz) radiation when stimulated by an incident laser pulse. After intense femtosecond pulse excitation by a Ti:sapphire laser, these films emit picosecond, broadband THz frequencies. The terahertz emission provides a direct measure of the induced ultrafast change in magnetization within the Fe film. The THz generation experiments and the growth of appropriate thin Fe films for these experiments are discussed. Several criteria are used to select the substrate and film growth conditions, including that the substrate must permit the epitaxial growth of a continuous, monocrystalline or single crystal film, yet must also be transparent to the emitted THz radiation. An Fe(0 0 1) film grown on the (0 0 1) surface of a magnesium oxide (MgO) substrate makes an ideal sample. The Fe films are grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are used to characterize the Fe(0 0 1) films. Two substrate surface preparation methods are investigated. Fe(0 0 1) films grown on MgO(0 0 1) substrates that are used as-received and films grown on MgO(0 0 1) substrates that have been UV/ozone-cleaned ex vacuo and annealed in vacuo produce the same results in the THz generation experiments. Either substrate preparation method permits the growth of samples suitable for the THz emission experiments.
0.1-Hz 1-PW Ti:Sapphire Laser Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seong Ku; Yu, Tae Jun; Sung, Jae Hee; Jeong, Tae Moon; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Jongmin
2010-04-01
Ultrashort quantum beam facility (UQBF) project in Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI), GIST aims to develop a 0.1-Hz petawatt Ti:sapphire laser system based on chirped pulse amplification. Currently, the average output energy of 46.3 J has been reached at 0.1-Hz repetition rate. The output energy of 46.3 J corresponds to 1.1 PW, considering the pulse duration of 30 fs and the grating efficiency of 69.3%, which have been measured with a single-shot SPIDER and a preliminary pulse compressor. UQBF construction is on schedule for the first petawatt experiments in 2010.
Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down to 0.1 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonezawa, Shingo; Higuchi, Takumi; Sugimoto, Yusuke; Sow, Chanchal; Maeno, Yoshiteru
2015-09-01
We report a new design of an AC magnetic susceptometer compatible with the Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS) by Quantum Design, as well as with its adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator option. With the elaborate compact design, the susceptometer allows simple and quick sample mounting process. The high performance of the susceptometer down to 0.1 K is demonstrated using several superconducting and magnetic materials. This susceptometer provides a method to quickly investigate qualities of a large number of samples in the wide temperature range between 0.1 and 300 K.
Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down to 0.1 K
Yonezawa, Shingo Higuchi, Takumi; Sugimoto, Yusuke; Sow, Chanchal; Maeno, Yoshiteru
2015-09-15
We report a new design of an AC magnetic susceptometer compatible with the Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS) by Quantum Design, as well as with its adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator option. With the elaborate compact design, the susceptometer allows simple and quick sample mounting process. The high performance of the susceptometer down to 0.1 K is demonstrated using several superconducting and magnetic materials. This susceptometer provides a method to quickly investigate qualities of a large number of samples in the wide temperature range between 0.1 and 300 K.
Scenario Decomposition for 0-1 Stochastic Programs: Improvements and Asynchronous Implementation
Ryan, Kevin; Rajan, Deepak; Ahmed, Shabbir
2016-05-01
We recently proposed scenario decomposition algorithm for stochastic 0-1 programs finds an optimal solution by evaluating and removing individual solutions that are discovered by solving scenario subproblems. In our work, we develop an asynchronous, distributed implementation of the algorithm which has computational advantages over existing synchronous implementations of the algorithm. Improvements to both the synchronous and asynchronous algorithm are proposed. We also test the results on well known stochastic 0-1 programs from the SIPLIB test library and is able to solve one previously unsolved instance from the test set.
Consensus contact prediction by linear programming.
Gao, Xin; Bu, Dongbo; Li, Shuai Cheng; Li, Ming; Xu, Jinbo
2007-01-01
Protein inter-residue contacts are of great use for protein structure determination or prediction. Recent CASP events have shown that a few accurately predicted contacts can help improve both computational efficiency and prediction accuracy of the ab inito folding methods. This paper develops an integer linear programming (ILP) method for consensus-based contact prediction. In contrast to the simple "majority voting" method assuming that all the individual servers are equal and independent, our method evaluates their correlations using the maximum likelihood method and constructs some latent independent servers using the principal component analysis technique. Then, we use an integer linear programming model to assign weights to these latent servers in order to maximize the deviation between the correct contacts and incorrect ones; our consensus prediction server is the weighted combination of these latent servers. In addition to the consensus information, our method also uses server-independent correlated mutation (CM) as one of the prediction features. Experimental results demonstrate that our contact prediction server performs better than the "majority voting" method. The accuracy of our method for the top L/5 contacts on CASP7 targets is 73.41%, which is much higher than previously reported studies. On the 16 free modeling (FM) targets, our method achieves an accuracy of 37.21%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Hengpeng; Lu, Shaoming
2013-07-01
Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets were tailored by hydrothermal treatment of Ti(OC4H9)4-HF-H2O mixed solution. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of structure of the photocatalyst on the photocatalytic selective oxidation of phenol under UV irradiation was studied. The experiment results showed that (1) the percentage of the exposed {0 0 1} facets of the nanocrystal increases with increasing the nominal atomic ratio of fluorine to titanium (RF), (2) catechol and hydroquinone are main intermediates detected during photocatalytic oxidation of phenol, and (3) both photocatalytic oxidation of phenol and selectivity (yield) of catechol are positively correlated with the percentage of exposed {0 0 1} facets of the high-energy TiO2 nanocrystals. The enhanced conversion of phenol and selectivity (yield) of catechol were ascribed to the synergistic effects of the exposed high-energy {0 0 1} facets and surface fluorination. This study may provide new insight into the selective oxidation of organics.
17 CFR 270.0-1 - Definition of terms used in this part.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.0-1 Definition of terms... the Investment Company Act of 1940, unless the context otherwise requires: (1) The term Commission means the Securities and Exchange Commission. (2) The term act means the Investment Company Act of...
Annealing of radiation damage in 0.1- and 2-ohm-centimeter Silicon solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.
1979-01-01
Isochronal and isothermal annealing studies were conducted on 0.1 and 2 ohm centimeter n(+)/p silicon cells after irradiation by 1 MeV electrons at fluences of 10 to the 14th power, 5 times 10 to the 14th power, and 10 to the 15th power per square centimeter. For the 0.1 ohm centimeter cells, reverse annealing was not observed in the isochronal data. However, reverse annealing was observed between approximately 200 and 325 C in the isochronal data of the 2 ohm centimeter cells. Isothermal annealing of 0.1 ohm centimeter cells at 500 C restored pre-irradiation maximum power P sub max within 20 minutes at fluence = 10 to the 14th power, in 180 minutes at fluence = 5 times 10 to the 14th power and to 92 percent of pre-irradiation P sub max in 180 minutes for fluence = 10 to the 15th power. Annealing at 450 C was found inadequate to restore 0.1 ohm centimeter cell performance within reasonable times for all fluence levels. By comparison, at 450 C, the P sub max of 2 ohm centimeter cells was restored within 45 minutes, for the two highest fluence levels, while for the lowest fluence, restoration was completed within 15 minutes. Spectral response data indicate that, for both resistivities, degradation occurs predominantly in the cells p-type base region.
We All Know That "a"[superscript 0] = 1, but Can You Explain Why?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kontorovich, Igor'
2016-01-01
This article is concerned with exploring the mathematical knowledge and reasoning that can be engaged in providing explanations for the convention "a"[superscript 0] = 1. Posts from online open forums are used to illustrate the variety of mathematical ideas that can be utilized in the explanations. The explanations are examined in terms…
Mass spectrometry at and below 0.1 parts per billion
Bradley, M.; Palmer, F.; Pritchard, D.E.
1994-12-31
The single ion Penning trap mass spectrometer at M.I.T. can compare masses to within 0.1 parts per billion. We have created a short table of fundamental atomic masses and made measurements useful for calibrating the X-ray standard, and determining Avogadro`s number, the molar Plank constant, and the fine structure constant.
Variations of O2(0-1) and Oh(6,2) Intensities During Stratospheric Warming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammosov, P. P.; Gavrilyeva, G. A.
The comparison results of variations of nightly averaged intensities and rotational temperatures of OH(6,2) and O2(0-1) bands in the nightglow measured with the in- frared spectrograph at station Maimaga (63N, 129,5E) and changes of the thermal stratosphere state at heights of 2 and 10 mbar have been given. The daily averaged temperature of the stratosphere in the polar cap (65NU90N) given by Climate Pre- diction Center site, NOAA (www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov) is used and data for the period of 1999-2000 are analyzed. It is found that during stratospheric warming against the background of the global increase in the O2(0-1) intensity the oscillations of about 10 days time scale are observed. The intensification in the O2(0-1) intensity precedes somewhat the development of the stratospheric warming. The oscillation amplitude decreases as stratospheric warming disappears. Simultaneous oscillations of the same time scale but of smaller amplitude are also detected in the rotational temperatures of O2(0-1). Apparently, when a planetary wave reaches the height of O2(0-1) lumi- nosity (~95 km), it enhances the downward vertical wind. Then, the arrival of the air enriched by atomic oxygen from the thermosphere into the oxygen-deficient meso- sphere increases also. Since the molecular oxygen emission intensity depends on the square of the atomic oxygen concentration the emission rate increases considerably. In this case, the adiabatic heating of the mesosphere is observed simultaneously. Thus, observed oscillations of the intensity and rotational temperature of O2(0-1) can be explained by the modulation of the vertical wind by the planetary wave. Moreover, the planetary wave parameters are such that the intensification of O2(0-1) emission intensity overtakes somewhat the development of the stratospheric warming. Such an evident correlation with the development of the stratospheric warming is not observed in variations of the emission intensity and the rotational temperature of OH.
Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin
2014-09-01
Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamma, Vincenzo
2016-12-01
We describe a novel analogue algorithm that allows the simultaneous factorization of an exponential number of large integers with a polynomial number of experimental runs. It is the interference-induced periodicity of "factoring" interferograms measured at the output of an analogue computer that allows the selection of the factors of each integer. At the present stage, the algorithm manifests an exponential scaling which may be overcome by an extension of this method to correlated qubits emerging from n-order quantum correlations measurements. We describe the conditions for a generic physical system to compute such an analogue algorithm. A particular example given by an "optical computer" based on optical interference will be addressed in the second paper of this series (Tamma in Quantum Inf Process 11128:1189, 2015).
Non-Porod scattering and non-integer scaling of resistance in rough films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bupathy, Arunkumar; Verma, Rupesh; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay
2017-04-01
In many physical systems, films are rough due to the stochastic behavior of depositing particles. They are characterized by non-Porod power law decays in the structure factor S (k) . Theoretical studies predict anomalous diffusion in such morphologies, with important implications for diffusivity, conductivity, etc. We use the non-Porod decay to accurately determine the fractal properties of two prototypical nanoparticle films: (i) Palladium (Pd) and (ii) Cu2O. Using scaling arguments, we find that the resistance of rough films of lateral size L obeys a non-integer power law R ∼L-ζ , in contrast to integer power laws for compact structures. The exponent ζ is anisotropic. We confirm our predictions by re-analyzing experimental data from Cu2O nano-particle films. Our results are valuable for understanding recent experiments that report anisotropic electrical properties in (rough) thin films.
Joint demosaicking and integer-ratio downsampling algorithm for color filter array image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangyoon; Kang, Moon Gi
2015-03-01
This paper presents a joint demosacking and integer-ratio downsampling algorithm for color filter array (CFA) images. Color demosaicking is a necessary part of image signal processing to obtain full color image for digital image recording system using single sensor. Also, such as mobile devices, the obtained image from sensor has to be downsampled to be display because the resolution of display is smaller than that of image. The conventional method is "Demosaicking first and downsampling later". However, this procedure requires a significant hardware resources and computational cost. In this paper, we proposed a method in which demosaicking and downsampling are working simultaneously. We analyze the Bayer CFA image in frequency domain, and then joint demosaicking and downsampling with integer-ratio scheme based on signal decomposition of luma and chrominance components. Experimental results show that the proposed method produces the high quality performance with much lower com putational cost and less hardware resources.
On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension
Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz
2014-06-01
We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Padé approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langel, Steven E.; Khanafseh, Samer M.; Pervan, Boris
2016-11-01
Differential carrier phase applications that utilize cycle resolution need the probability density function of the baseline estimate to quantify its region of concentration. For the integer bootstrap estimator, the density function has an analytical definition that enables probability calculations given perfect statistical knowledge of measurement and process noise. This paper derives a method to upper bound the tail probability of the integer bootstrapped GNSS baseline when the measurement and process noise correlation functions are unknown, but can be upper and lower bounded. The tail probability is shown to be a non-convex function of a vector of conditional variances, whose feasible region is a convex polytope. We show how to solve the non-convex optimization problem globally by discretizing the polytope into small hyper-rectangular elements, and demonstrate the method for a static baseline estimation problem.
Integer quantum magnon Hall plateau-plateau transition in a spin-ice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Baolong; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Shindou, Ryuichi
2016-12-01
Low-energy magnon bands in a two-dimensional spin-ice model become integer quantum magnon Hall bands under an out-of-plane field. By calculating the localization length and the two-terminal conductance of magnon transport, we show that the magnon bands with disorders undergo a quantum phase transition from an integer quantum magnon Hall regime to a conventional magnon localized regime. Finite size scaling analysis as well as a critical conductance distribution shows that the quantum critical point belongs to the same universality class as that in the quantum Hall transition. We characterize thermal magnon Hall conductivity in a disordered quantum magnon Hall system in terms of robust chiral edge magnon transport.
Ground state energy of a non-integer number of particles with δ attractive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, Éric; Derrida, Bernard
2000-04-01
We show how to define and calculate the ground state energy of a system of quantum particles with δ attractive interactions when the number of particles n is non-integer. The question is relevant to obtain the probability distribution of the free energy of a directed polymer in a random medium. When one expands the ground state energy in powers of the interaction, all the coefficients of the perturbation series are polynomials in n, allowing to define the perturbation theory for non-integer n. We develop a procedure to calculate all the cumulants of the free energy of the directed polymer and we give explicit, although complicated, expressions of the first three cumulants.
IMC-PID-fractional-order-filter controllers design for integer order systems.
Maâmar, Bettayeb; Rachid, Mansouri
2014-09-01
One of the reasons of the great success of standard PID controllers is the presence of simple tuning rules, of the automatic tuning feature and of tables that simplify significantly their design. For the fractional order case, some tuning rules have been proposed in the literature. However, they are not general because they are valid only for some model cases. In this paper, a new approach is investigated. The fractional property is not especially imposed by the controller structure but by the closed loop reference model. The resulting controller is fractional but it has a very interesting structure for its implementation. Indeed, the controller can be decomposed into two transfer functions: an integer transfer function which is generally an integer PID controller and a simple fractional filter.
Therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus Eye Ointment in Allergic Ocular Diseases
Shitole, Satish C; Bhagat, Nupur; Patil, Deepak; Sawant, Pawan; Patil, Kalpita
2016-01-01
Introduction Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs) like Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) are chronic forms of ocular allergy that can cause severe visual complications. Pathogenesis of AODs is uncertain and treatment has been a challenge for ophthalmologists. Tacrolimus, a 23-member cyclic macrolide lactone derived from [streptomyces tsukubaensis] now in ointment form has been successfully used in AODs. Aim To study the therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment in patients with Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs). Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients with severe AOD and moderate cases not responding to conventional treatment. They were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment twice daily for minimum three months in addition to conventional treatment and observed for a period of 6 months. Symptoms and signs after treatment were evaluated. Grades of clinical signs were assessed based on slit lamp clinical photographs; development of possible complications was assessed and analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Mean age of patients was 9.3±4.3 years and mean duration of AODs was 3.1±1.8 years. The scores on both the four point scales for signs and symptoms decreased significantly (p<0.0001) after 1 month of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment treatment. Itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief and conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. 88.88% of patients were successfully weaned off topical steroids in 6 months into Tacrolimus treatment. Even in patients unresponsive to 0.1% topical Cyclosporine, symptoms and signs scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (36.11%). Conclusion Topical 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment was found to be a safe and effective treatment in cases of AODs and also worked as steroid sparing and replacing agent. It was also found effective in patient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamma, Vincenzo
2016-12-01
We report a detailed analysis of the optical realization of the analogue algorithm described in the first paper of this series (Tamma in Quantum Inf Process 11128:1190, 2015) for the simultaneous factorization of an exponential number of integers. Such an analogue procedure, which scales exponentially in the context of first-order interference, opens up the horizon to polynomial scaling by exploiting multi-particle quantum interference.
Pattern-based integer sample motion search strategies in the context of HEVC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Georg; Bross, Benjamin; Grois, Dan; Marpe, Detlev; Schwarz, Heiko; Veltkamp, Remco C.; Wiegand, Thomas
2015-09-01
The H.265/MPEG-H High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard provides a significant increase in coding efficiency compared to its predecessor, the H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) standard, which however comes at the cost of a high computational burden for a compliant encoder. Motion estimation (ME), which is a part of the inter-picture prediction process, typically consumes a high amount of computational resources, while significantly increasing the coding efficiency. In spite of the fact that both H.265/MPEG-H HEVC and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standards allow processing motion information on a fractional sample level, the motion search algorithms based on the integer sample level remain to be an integral part of ME. In this paper, a flexible integer sample ME framework is proposed, thereby allowing to trade off significant reduction of ME computation time versus coding efficiency penalty in terms of bit rate overhead. As a result, through extensive experimentation, an integer sample ME algorithm that provides a good trade-off is derived, incorporating a combination and optimization of known predictive, pattern-based and early termination techniques. The proposed ME framework is implemented on a basis of the HEVC Test Model (HM) reference software, further being compared to the state-of-the-art fast search algorithm, which is a native part of HM. It is observed that for high resolution sequences, the integer sample ME process can be speed-up by factors varying from 3.2 to 7.6, resulting in the bit-rate overhead of 1.5% and 0.6% for Random Access (RA) and Low Delay P (LDP) configurations, respectively. In addition, the similar speed-up is observed for sequences with mainly Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) content while trading off the bit rate overhead of up to 5.2%.
Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R
2003-09-01
Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.
He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W
2009-04-01
A number of inexact programming methods have been developed for municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. However, most of them do not allow the parameters in the objective and constraints of a programming problem to be functional intervals (i.e., the lower and upper bounds of the intervals are functions of impact factors). In this study, a flexible interval mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (FIMIBIP) method is developed in response to the above concern. A case study is also conducted; the solutions are then compared with those obtained from interval mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (IMIBIP) and fuzzy interval mixed-integer programming (FIMIP) methods. It is indicated that the solutions through FIMIBIP can provide decision support for cost-effectively diverting municipal solid waste, and for sizing, timing and siting the facilities' expansion during the entire planning horizon. These schemes are more flexible than those identified through IMIBIP since the tolerance intervals are introduced to measure the level of constraints satisfaction. The FIMIBIP schemes may also be robust since the solutions are "globally-optimal" under all scenarios caused by the fluctuation of gas/energy prices, while the conventional ones are merely "locally-optimal" under a certain scenario.
Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant G8.7-0.1
Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; /more authors..
2012-09-14
We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of p0s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irmeilyana, Puspita, Fitri Maya; Indrawati
2016-02-01
The pricing for wireless networks is developed by considering linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming of wireless pricing model is proposed as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0. The solutions are expected to give some information about the connections between the acceptance factor and the price. Previous model worked on the model that focuses on bandwidth as the QoS attribute. The models attempt to maximize the total price for a connection based on QoS parameter. The QoS attributes used will be the bandwidth and the end to end delay that affect the traffic. The maximum goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider determine the requirement for the increment or decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount of QoS value.
Sensors closeness test based on an improved [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Abdullah, Abu Hassan
2015-12-01
Mahalanobis distance Δ2 values are commonly in the range of 0 to +∞ where higher values represent greater distance between class means or points. The increase in Mahalanobis distance is unbounded as the distance multiply. To certain extend, the unbounded distance values pose difficulties in the evaluation and decision for instance in the sensors closeness test. This paper proposes an approach to [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ2 that enable researcher to easily perform sensors closeness test. The experimental data of four different types of rice based on three different electronic nose sensors namely InSniff, PEN3, and Cyranose320 were analyzed and sensor closeness test seems successfully performed within the [0, 1] bound.
Sensors closeness test based on an improved [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2}
Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md Abdullah, Abu Hassan
2015-12-11
Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} values are commonly in the range of 0 to +∞ where higher values represent greater distance between class means or points. The increase in Mahalanobis distance is unbounded as the distance multiply. To certain extend, the unbounded distance values pose difficulties in the evaluation and decision for instance in the sensors closeness test. This paper proposes an approach to [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} that enable researcher to easily perform sensors closeness test. The experimental data of four different types of rice based on three different electronic nose sensors namely InSniff, PEN3, and Cyranose320 were analyzed and sensor closeness test seems successfully performed within the [0, 1] bound.
High resolution MRI of the normal finger at 0.1 T: anatomic correlations.
Drapé, J L; Constantinesco, A; Arbogast, S; Sick, H; Wolfram-Gabel, R; Brunot, B
1992-01-01
MR images of the fingers are obtained in a 128 x 128 or 256 x 256 matrix format using a prototype of a mini imager dedicated to the hand. The vertical field of 0.1 T is provided by an electro-magnet with an air gap of 15 cm equipped with a single solenoidal coil. No Faraday cage is used. The maximum in plane pixel resolution of 100 mu is obtained for a field of view of 2.5 cm with a slice thickness of 2 mm. The identification of fine structures of the finger is demonstrated by the anatomical and histological correlations. This type of imager which is adapted to very limited field of views demonstrate that high resolution MRI of limb extremities can be achieved at 0.1 T.
Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy
Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D.
1997-04-01
Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.
Engineering changes to the 0.1m cryogenic wind tunnel at Southampton University
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodyer, M. J.
1984-01-01
The more important changes to the 0.1 m cryogenic wind tunnel since its completion in 1977 are outlined. These include detailed improvements in the fan drive to allow higher speeds, and the provision of a test section leg suitable for use with a magnetic suspension and balance system. The instrumentation, data logging, data reduction and tunnel controls were also improved and modernized. A tunnel performance summary is given.
Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator
Douglas, David R.
2015-09-01
A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.
Approximating the 0-1 Multiple Knapsack Problem with Agent Decomposition and Market Negotiation
Smolinski, B.
1999-09-03
The 0-1 multiple knapsack problem appears in many domains from financial portfolio management to cargo ship stowing. Methods for solving it range from approximate algorithms, such as greedy algorithms, to exact algorithms, such as branch and bound. Approximate algorithms have no bounds on how poorly they perform and exact algorithms can suffer from exponential time and space complexities with large data sets. This paper introduces a market model based on agent decomposition and market auctions for approximating the 0-1 multiple knapsack problem, and an algorithm that implements the model (M(x)). M(x) traverses the solution space rather than getting caught in a local maximum, overcoming an inherent problem of many greedy algorithms. The use of agents ensures that infeasible solutions are not considered while traversing the solution space and that traversal of the solution space is not just random, but is also directed. M(x) is compared to a bound and bound algorithm (BB) and a simple greedy algorithm with a random shuffle (G(x)). The results suggest that M(x) is a good algorithm for approximating the 0-1 Multiple Knapsack problem. M(x) almost always found solutions that were close to optimal in a fraction of the time it took BB to run and with much less memory on large test data sets. M(x) usually performed better than G(x) on hard problems with correlated data.
Colours and luminosities of z = 0.1 galaxies in the EAGLE simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, Ian G.
2015-09-01
We calculate the colours and luminosities of redshift z = 0.1 galaxies from the EAGLE simulation suite using the GALAXEV population synthesis models. We take into account obscuration by dust in birth clouds and diffuse interstellar medium using a two-component screen model, following the prescription of Charlot and Fall. We compare models in which the dust optical depth is constant to models where it depends on gas metallicity, gas fraction and orientation. The colours of EAGLE galaxies for the more sophisticated models are in broad agreement with those of observed galaxies. In particular, EAGLE produces a red sequence of passive galaxies and a blue cloud of star-forming galaxies, with approximately the correct fraction of galaxies in each population and with g - r colours within 0.1 mag of those observed. Luminosity functions from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths differ from observations at a level comparable to systematic shifts resulting from a choice between Petrosian and Kron photometric apertures. Despite the generally good agreement there are clear discrepancies with observations. The blue cloud of EAGLE galaxies extends to somewhat higher luminosities than in the data, consistent with the modest underestimate of the passive fraction in massive EAGLE galaxies. There is also a moderate excess of bright blue galaxies compared to observations. The overall level of agreement with the observed colour distribution suggests that EAGLE galaxies at z = 0.1 have ages, metallicities and levels of obscuration that are comparable to those of observed galaxies.
Graphitization of the 6H-SiC( 0 0 0 1 ) surface studied by HREELS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angot, T.; Portail, M.; Forbeaux, I.; Layet, J. M.
2002-04-01
By using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), we have studied the vibrational properties of the various 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) reconstructions, from the Si-rich to the graphitized surface. The 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1)-(3×3) exhibits the Fuchs-Kliewer (FK) optical phonons commonly observed on strongly polar materials. The lowering of the energy width of the elastically reflected electrons with increasing primary energies reveals the coupling of FK with the plasmon that derives from the bulk doping level. No particular modification in the HREELS spectra is observed after preparation of the 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1)-(√3×√3) R30° surface. On the (6√3×6√3) R30° reconstructed surface, the FK phonon modes display both a blue shift and an increased damping factor. In the ultra-violet energy region we observed a loss structure at ≈6 eV whose dispersion relation allows to readily conclude on the presence of a pure graphite layer: it almost perfectly match the dispersion relation measured on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite for the so-called `π-plasmon' arising from the electronic excitation of π- π∗ interband transition.
Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrara, E. C.; Hays, E.; Troja, E.; Moiseev, A. A.
2012-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission ofG8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of pions produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS Jl804-2l6 and that the spectrum in the Ge V band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV-spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.l with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.
Zhang Junan; Ma Jinli; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Folz, Rodney J.; Evans, Elizabeth S.; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Clough, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.
2010-02-01
Purpose: To assess the time and regional dependence of radiation therapy (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion 0.1-12 years post-RT, as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion. Materials/Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 123 evaluable patients receiving RT for tumors in/around the thorax underwent SPECT lung perfusion scans before and serially post-RT (0.1-12 years). Registration of pre- and post-RT SPECT images with the treatment planning computed tomography, and hence the three-dimensional RT dose distribution, allowed changes in regional SPECT-defined perfusion to be related to regional RT dose. Post-RT follow-up scans were evaluated at multiple time points to determine the time course of RT-induced regional perfusion changes. Population dose response curves (DRC) for all patients at different time points, different regions, and subvolumes (e.g., whole lungs, cranial/caudal, ipsilateral/contralateral) were generated by combining data from multiple patients at similar follow-up times. Each DRC was fit to a linear model, and differences statistically analyzed. Results: In the overall groups, dose-dependent reductions in perfusion were seen at each time post-RT. The slope of the DRC increased over time up to 18 months post-RT, and plateaued thereafter. Regional differences in DRCs were only observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, and appeared due to tumor-associated changes in regional perfusion. Conclusions: Thoracic RT causes dose-dependent reductions in regional lung perfusion that progress up to {approx}18 months post-RT and persists thereafter. Tumor shrinkage appears to confound the observed dose-response relations. There appears to be similar dose response for healthy parts of the lungs at different locations.
Tracing the cosmic velocity field at z∼ 0.1 from galaxy luminosities in the SDSS DR7
Feix, Martin; Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il
2014-09-01
Spatial modulations in the distribution of observed luminosities (computed using redshifts) of ∼ 5× 10{sup 5} galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 7, probe the cosmic peculiar velocity field out to z∼ 0.1. Allowing for luminosity evolution, the r-band luminosity function, determined via a spline-based estimator, is well represented by a Schechter form with M{sup *}(z)-5 log{sub 10} h = -20.52 -1.6(z-0.1)± 0.05 and α{sup *} = -1.1± 0.03. Bulk flows and higher velocity moments in two redshift bins, 0.02 < z < 0.07 and 0.07 < z < 0.22, agree with the predictions of the ΛCDM model, as obtained from mock galaxy catalogs designed to match the observations. Assuming a ΛCDM model, we estimate σ{sub 8} ≈ 1.1± 0.4 for the amplitude of the linear matter power spectrum, where the low accuracy is due to the limited number of galaxies. While the low z bin is robust against coherent photometric uncertainties, the bias of results from the second bin is consistent with the ∼1% magnitude tilt reported by the SDSS collaboration. The systematics are expected to have a significantly lower impact in future datasets with larger sky coverage and better photometric calibration.
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds
These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Nianpei
The two dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic field has been a model system in contemporary condensed matter physics which generated many beautiful experiments as well as novel fundamental concepts. These novel concepts are of broad interests and have benefited other fields of research. For example, the observations of conventional odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall states have enriched many-body physics with important concepts such as fractional statistics and composite fermions. The subsequent discovery of the enigmatic even-denominator nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state has led to more interesting concepts such as non-Abelian statistics and pairing of composite fermions which can be intimately connected to the electron pairing in superconductivity. Moreover, the observations of stripe phases and reentrant integer quantum Hall states have stimulated research on exotic electron solids which have more intricate structures than the Wigner Crystal. In contrast to fractional quantum Hall states and stripes phases, the reentrant integer quantum Hall states are very little studied and their ground states are the least understood. There is a lack of basic information such as exact filling factors, temperature dependence and energy scales for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. A critical experimental condition in acquiring this information is a stable ultra-low temperature environment. In the first part of this dissertation, I will discuss our unique setup of 3He immersion cell in a state-of-art dilution refrigerator which achieves the required stability of ultra-low temperature. With this experimental setup, we are able to observe for the first time very sharp magnetotransport features of reentrant integer quantum Hall states across many Landau levels for the first time. I will firstly present our results in the second Landau level. The temperature dependence measurements reveal a surprisingly sharp peak signature that is unique to the reentrant
Topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment for treatment of cutaneous Crohn’s Disease
2013-01-01
Background Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease is a notoriously difficult condition to treat and causes significant morbidity, impacting heavily on quality of life. This is the first study in adults examining the effect of topical tacrolimus on the different cutaneous manifestations of Crohn’s Disease. Methods This open label observational study of 20 patients with heterogeneous forms of cutaneous Crohn’s disease used topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment once daily to affected areas for 12 weeks with a maximal total dose of 90g. Therapy was stopped at 12 weeks to assess whether the condition relapsed. Thereafter relapsing patients optionally continued an open label extension of topical tacrolimus therapy and were observed for a total of 12 months. Results Of seventeen patients completing the twelve-week study, fifteen improved using a specifically designed physicians’ global severity scale. One patient cleared, four showed a pronounced improvement (51-75%) and ten demonstrated a mild (1-25%) or moderate improvement (25-50%) in twelve weeks. Over twelve months eleven patients remained in the study, nine of which improved, one cleared and one showed no change. Perineal disease responded better with two out of twelve clearing, four showing pronounced benefit and four mild to moderate improvement. Long-term application of 0.1% tacrolimus applied to broken skin and mucosa was safe and serum levels of tacrolimus were undetectable in all subjects throughout the study. Conclusion 0.1% tacrolimus ointment was safe and effective in treating cutaneous manifestations of Crohn’s disease, particularly perineal disease and pyoderma gangrenosum, yet it seldom cleared the condition. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System ID: 33000332 PMID:23331739
The general form of 0-1 programming problem based on DNA computing.
ZhiXiang, Yin; Fengyue, Zhang; Jin, Xu
2003-06-01
DNA computing is a novel method of solving a class of intractable computational problems, in which the computing speeds up exponentially with the problem size. Up to now, many accomplishments have been made to improve its performance and increase its reliability. In this paper, we solved the general form of 0-1 programming problem with fluorescence labeling techniques based on surface chemistry by attempting to apply DNA computing to a programming problem. Our method has some significant advantages such as simple encoding, low cost, and short operating time.
Dual nature of the supernova remnant G351. 2 + 0. 1
Becker, R.H.; Helfand, D.J.
1988-03-01
The Galactic SNR G351.2 + 0.1 has been imaged at frequencies of 1.4, 5, and 15 GHz. The images reveal a source composed of two distinct components: a broken elongated shell measuring 4 x 6 arcmin and a central core about 15 arcsec in diameter. The two components are spectrally distinct. The shell has a nonthermal spectrum (alpha = -0.4) typical for Galactic SNRs, while the central core has an inverted spectrum (alpha = +0.27). The central core may be an analog of the Crab Nebula (a synchrotron nebula powered by a pulsar), but if so it is not typical of such objects. 10 references.
Diffusion properties of Cu(0 0 1)- c(2 × 2)-Pd surface alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremeev, S. V.; Rusina, G. G.; Chulkov, E. V.
2007-09-01
Structural and diffusion properties of a Cu(0 0 1)- c(2 × 2)-Pd surface and sub-surface ordered alloys are studied by using interaction potentials obtained from the embedded-atom method. The calculated diffusion energies are in agreement with observed kinetics of the surface alloy formation and confirm stability of the underlayer alloy. Activation energy of planar diffusion of palladium at the initial stage of the alloy formation as well as the activation energy of the overlayer-underlayer diffusion of the Pd atoms are in good agreement with those obtained by the scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction measurements, respectively.
A 4 to 0.1 nm FEL Based on the SLAC Linac
Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA
2012-06-05
The author show that using existing electron gun technology and a high energy linac like the one at SLAC, it is possible to build a Free Electron Laser operating around the 4 nm water window. A modest improvement in the gun performance would further allow to extend the FEL to the 0.1 nm region. Such a system would produce radiation with a brightness many order of magnitude above that of any synchrotron radiation source, existing or under construction, with laser power in the multigawatt region and subpicosecond pulse length.
a Genetic Algorithm Based on Sexual Selection for the Multidimensional 0/1 Knapsack Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varnamkhasti, Mohammad Jalali; Lee, Lai Soon
In this study, a new technique is presented for choosing mate chromosomes during sexual selection in a genetic algorithm. The population is divided into groups of males and females. During the sexual selection, the female chromosome is selected by the tournament selection while the male chromosome is selected based on the hamming distance from the selected female chromosome, fitness value or active genes. Computational experiments are conducted on the proposed technique and the results are compared with some selection mechanisms commonly used for solving multidimensional 0/1 knapsack problems published in the literature.
A Very Hot, High Redshift Cluster of Galaxies: More Trouble for Omega(0) = 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark; Gioia, Isabella; Luppino, Gerry; Hughes, John P.; Stocke, John T.
1998-01-01
We have observed the most distant (= 0.829) cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), with the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. We find an X-ray temperature of 12.3 (sup +3.1) (sub -2.2)keV for this cluster, and the ROSAT map reveals significant substructure. The high temperature of MS1054-0321 is consistent with both its approximate velocity dispersion, based on the redshifts of 12 cluster members we have obtained at the Keck and the Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes, and with its weak lensing signature. The X-ray temperature of this cluster implies a virial mass approx. 7.4 x 10 (sup 14) h (sup -1) M (circle dot), if the mean matter density in the universe equals the critical value (OMEGA (sub 0) = 1), or larger if OMEGA (sub 0) is less than 1. Finding such a hot, massive cluster in the EMSS is extremely improbable if clusters grew from Gaussian perturbations in an OMEGA (sub 0) = 1 universe. Combining the assumptions that OMEGA (sub 0) = 1 and that the initial perturbations were Gaussian with the observed X-ray temperature function at low redshift, we show that this probability of this cluster occurring in the volume sampled by the EMSS is less than a few times 10 (sup -5). Nor is MS1054-0321 the only hot cluster at high redshift; the only two other z greater than 0.5 EMSS clusters already observed with ASCA also have temperatures exceeding 8 keV. Assuming again that the initial perturbations were Gaussian and OMEGA (sub 0) = 1, we find that each one is improbable at the less than 10 (sup -2) level. These observations, along with the fact that these luminosities and temperatures of the high-z clusters all agree with the low-z L (sub X) - T (sub X) relation, argue strongly that OMEGA (sub 0) less than 1. Otherwise, the initial perturbations must be non-Gaussian, if these clusters' temperatures do indeed reflect their gravitational potentials.
Moessbauer spectroscopy of Mg(0.9)Fe(0.1)SiO3 perovskite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeanloz, Raymond; O'Neill, Bridget; Pasternak, Moshe P.; Taylor, R. D.; Bohlen, Steven R.
1992-01-01
Ambient pressure Moessbauer spectra of Mg(0.9)Fe-57(0.1)SiO3 perovskite synthesized at pressure-temperature conditions of about 50 GPa and 1700 K show that the iron is entirely high-spin Fe(2+) and appears to be primarily located in the octahedral site within the crystal structure. We observe broad Moessbauer lines, suggesting a distribution of electric-field gradients caused by disorder associated with the Fe ions. Also, the perovskite exhibits magnetic ordering at temperatures lower than 5 K, implying that there is a magnetic contribution to the absolute ('third-law') entropy of this phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heimerl, George J; Niles, Donald E
1947-01-01
Column and plate compressive strengths of extruded 0-1HTA magnesium alloy were determined both within and beyond the elastic range from tests of flat end H-section columns and from local instability tests of H-, Z-, and channel section columns. These tests are part of an extensive research investigation to provide data on the structural strength of various aircraft materials. The results are presented in the form of curves and charts that are suitable for use in the design and analysis of aircraft structures.
Strong electron correlation on the Fe3O4(0 0 1) surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Henry; Elliott, Simon D.; Foster, Adam; Nieminen, R. M.
2007-03-01
Magnetite Fe3O4 is a fascinating material that still is not well understood and presents challenges for the state-of-the-art computational methods. This transition metal oxide undergoes a first-order metal-insulator transition at TV=120 K. The ferrimagnetic properties of Fe3O4 makes it a promising material for spintronic applications. We use a plane wave density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation adding a Hubbard-U parameter to describe properly the strongly correlated Fe--3d electrons. Based on previous results, we compute the surface structure, magnetic properties and electronic structure of several Fe3O4(0 0 1) surfaces with (√2x√2)R45^o reconstruction. The simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images of these surfaces are compared and discussed in the light of available experimental data. Finally, we analyze the possible existence of charge ordering on the Fe3O4(0 0 1) surface and the effect on the surface electronic structure with changing the value of the Hubbard-U parameter on the superficial Fe sites. H. Pinto, S. Elliott, J.Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 10427 (2006)
Ejecta in the Oxygen-Rich SNR G292.0+1.8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, P. F.; Long, K. S.
2004-08-01
New optical images of the young supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8, obtained from the 0.9-m telescope at CTIO, show a far more extensive network of filaments than previous data suggest. Images in [O III] show filaments distributed throughout much of the 8 arcmin diameter shell seen in X-ray and radio images. Most of the outer filaments have a radial, pencil-like morphology that is very suggestive of Rayleigh-Tayor fingers. Simulations of core-collapse supernovae predict the development of such fingers, but they have never before been so clearly observed in a young SNR. In addition to the extensive [O III] filaments, we have detected three small complexes of filaments that show [S II] emission along with the oxygen lines. None of the filaments, with or without [S II], show any evidence for hydrogen, so all must be composed of pure supernova ejecta. The [S II] filaments provide the first evidence for products of oxygen burning in the ejecta from the event that gave rise to G292.0+1.8. This research has been funded primarily by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0307613.
Field evaporation behavior in [0 0 1] FePt thin films.
Torres, K L; Geiser, B; Moody, M P; Ringer, S P; Thompson, G B
2011-05-01
Though the atom probe has provided unprecedented atomic identification and spatial imaging capability, the basic reconstruction assumption of a smooth hemispherical tip shape creates significant challenges in yielding high fidelity chemical information for atomic species with extreme differences in fields required for field evaporation. In the present study, the evaporation behavior and accompanying artifacts are examined for the super-cell lattice structure of L1(0) FePt, where alternating Fe and Pt planes exist in the [0 0 1] orientation. Elemental Fe and Pt have significant differences in field strengths providing a candidate system to quantify these issues. Though alloys can result in changes in the elemental field strength, the intrinsic nature of elemental planes in [0 0 1] L1(0) provides a system to determine to what extent basic assumptions of elemental field strengths can break down in understanding reconstruction artifacts in this intermetallic alloy. The reconstruction of field evaporation experiments has shown depletion of Fe at the (0 0 2) pole and zone axes. Compositional profiles revealed an increase in Fe and atom count moving outward from the pole. The depletion at the low indexed pole and zone axes was determined to be the result of local magnification and electrostatic effects. The experimental results are compared to an electrostatic simulation model.
PySP : modeling and solving stochastic mixed-integer programs in Python.
Woodruff, David L.; Watson, Jean-Paul
2010-08-01
Although stochastic programming is a powerful tool for modeling decision-making under uncertainty, various impediments have historically prevented its widespread use. One key factor involves the ability of non-specialists to easily express stochastic programming problems as extensions of deterministic models, which are often formulated first. A second key factor relates to the difficulty of solving stochastic programming models, particularly the general mixed-integer, multi-stage case. Intricate, configurable, and parallel decomposition strategies are frequently required to achieve tractable run-times. We simultaneously address both of these factors in our PySP software package, which is part of the COIN-OR Coopr open-source Python project for optimization. To formulate a stochastic program in PySP, the user specifies both the deterministic base model and the scenario tree with associated uncertain parameters in the Pyomo open-source algebraic modeling language. Given these two models, PySP provides two paths for solution of the corresponding stochastic program. The first alternative involves writing the extensive form and invoking a standard deterministic (mixed-integer) solver. For more complex stochastic programs, we provide an implementation of Rockafellar and Wets Progressive Hedging algorithm. Our particular focus is on the use of Progressive Hedging as an effective heuristic for approximating general multi-stage, mixed-integer stochastic programs. By leveraging the combination of a high-level programming language (Python) and the embedding of the base deterministic model in that language (Pyomo), we are able to provide completely generic and highly configurable solver implementations. PySP has been used by a number of research groups, including our own, to rapidly prototype and solve difficult stochastic programming problems.
Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.
Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D
2002-07-01
Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources.
Integer programming-based approach to allocation of reporter genes for cell array analysis.
Hayashida, Morihiro; Sun, Fuyan; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya
2008-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting the most effective set of reporter genes for analysis of biological networks using cell microarrays. We propose two graph theoretic formulations of the reporter gene allocation problem, and show that both problems are hard to approximate. We propose integer programming-based methods for solving practical instances of these problems optimally. We apply them to apoptosis pathway maps, and discuss the biological significance of the result. We also apply them to artificial networks, the result of which shows that optimal solutions can be obtained within several seconds for networks with 10,000 nodes.
Comparison of penalty functions on a penalty approach to mixed-integer optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francisco, Rogério B.; Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we present a comparative study involving several penalty functions that can be used in a penalty approach for globally solving bound mixed-integer nonlinear programming (bMIMLP) problems. The penalty approach relies on a continuous reformulation of the bMINLP problem by adding a particular penalty term to the objective function. A penalty function based on the `erf' function is proposed. The continuous nonlinear optimization problems are sequentially solved by the population-based firefly algorithm. Preliminary numerical experiments are carried out in order to analyze the quality of the produced solutions, when compared with other penalty functions available in the literature.
Obtaining lower bounds from the progressive hedging algorithm for stochastic mixed-integer programs
Gade, Dinakar; Hackebeil, Gabriel; Ryan, Sarah M.; ...
2016-04-02
We present a method for computing lower bounds in the progressive hedging algorithm (PHA) for two-stage and multi-stage stochastic mixed-integer programs. Computing lower bounds in the PHA allows one to assess the quality of the solutions generated by the algorithm contemporaneously. The lower bounds can be computed in any iteration of the algorithm by using dual prices that are calculated during execution of the standard PHA. In conclusion, we report computational results on stochastic unit commitment and stochastic server location problem instances, and explore the relationship between key PHA parameters and the quality of the resulting lower bounds.
Models and Algorithms Involving Very Large Scale Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programs
2011-02-28
give rise to a non - convex and discontinuous recourse function that may be difficult to optimize . As a result of this project, there have been... convex , the master problem in (3.1.6)-(3.1.9) is a non - convex mixed-integer program, and as indicated in [C.1], this approach is not scalable without...the first stage would result in a Benders’ master program which is non - convex , leading to a problem that is not any easier than (3.1.5). Nevertheless
Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.
Snyder, A W; Mitchell, D J
1999-01-01
Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection. PMID:10212449
Pulsed field gradient multiple-quantum MAS NMR spectroscopy of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fyfe, C. A.; Skibsted, J.; Grondey, H.; Meyer zu Altenschildesche, H.
1997-12-01
Pulsed field gradients (PFGs) have been applied to select coherence transfer pathways in multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS NMR spectra of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in rigid solids. 27Al triple-quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra of the aluminophosphate molecular sieves VPI-5 and AlPO 4-18 have been used to demonstrate the selection of the (0)→(3)→(-1) coherence transfer pathway using PFGs and no phase cycling. Compared to MQMAS experiments that employ phase cycling schemes, the main advantage of the PFG-MQMAS technique is its simplicity, which should facilitate the combination of MQMAS with other pulse sequences.
Integration of progressive hedging and dual decomposition in stochastic integer programs
Watson, Jean -Paul; Guo, Ge; Hackebeil, Gabriel; ...
2015-04-07
We present a method for integrating the Progressive Hedging (PH) algorithm and the Dual Decomposition (DD) algorithm of Carøe and Schultz for stochastic mixed-integer programs. Based on the correspondence between lower bounds obtained with PH and DD, a method to transform weights from PH to Lagrange multipliers in DD is found. Fast progress in early iterations of PH speeds up convergence of DD to an exact solution. As a result, we report computational results on server location and unit commitment instances.
Edit distance for marked point processes revisited: An implementation by binary integer programming
Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2015-12-15
We implement the edit distance for marked point processes [Suzuki et al., Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 20, 3699–3708 (2010)] as a binary integer program. Compared with the previous implementation using minimum cost perfect matching, the proposed implementation has two advantages: first, by using the proposed implementation, we can apply a wide variety of software and hardware, even spin glasses and coherent ising machines, to calculate the edit distance for marked point processes; second, the proposed implementation runs faster than the previous implementation when the difference between the numbers of events in two time windows for a marked point process is large.
Edit distance for marked point processes revisited: An implementation by binary integer programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2015-12-01
We implement the edit distance for marked point processes [Suzuki et al., Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 20, 3699-3708 (2010)] as a binary integer program. Compared with the previous implementation using minimum cost perfect matching, the proposed implementation has two advantages: first, by using the proposed implementation, we can apply a wide variety of software and hardware, even spin glasses and coherent ising machines, to calculate the edit distance for marked point processes; second, the proposed implementation runs faster than the previous implementation when the difference between the numbers of events in two time windows for a marked point process is large.
Integer cosine transform compression for Galileo at Jupiter: A preliminary look
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ekroot, L.; Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.
1993-01-01
The Galileo low-gain antenna mission has a severely rate-constrained channel over which we wish to send large amounts of information. Because of this link pressure, compression techniques for image and other data are being selected. The compression technique that will be used for images is the integer cosine transform (ICT). This article investigates the compression performance of Galileo's ICT algorithm as applied to Galileo images taken during the early portion of the mission and to images that simulate those expected from the encounter at Jupiter.
On Random Matrix Averages Involving Half-Integer Powers of GOE Characteristic Polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fyodorov, Y. V.; Nock, A.
2015-05-01
Correlation functions involving products and ratios of half-integer powers of characteristic polynomials of random matrices from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) frequently arise in applications of random matrix theory (RMT) to physics of quantum chaotic systems, and beyond. We provide an explicit evaluation of the large- limits of a few non-trivial objects of that sort within a variant of the supersymmetry formalism, and via a related but different method. As one of the applications we derive the distribution of an off-diagonal entry of the resolvent (or Wigner -matrix) of GOE matrices which, among other things, is of relevance for experiments on chaotic wave scattering in electromagnetic resonators.
Linear Response for Intermittent Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike
2016-11-01
We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)}) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]}, with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}}. For {α in (0,1)}, Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq}, the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)}, and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs revenue function regulations issued under the authority of the Departments of the Treasury and Homeland Security. 0.1 Section 0.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSFERRED OR DELEGATED AUTHORITY § 0.1...
Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Troja, E.
2011-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.l and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.l and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.l. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.l4 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of 1IoS produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.
COSPAR-16-B0.1/ICEUM12A: Lunar Exploration and Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foing, Bernard H.
2016-07-01
Lunar science and exploration are having a renaissance with as many as twelve missions (and 18 vehicles) sent to Moon during the last "International Lunar decade". This session is aimed at discussing new progress in lunar science from recent missions, latest science results, newer insight into our understanding of Moon, modelling and synthesis of different scientific data, future missions, and science questions. It will include invited, contributed, and poster papers. Papers on new lunar mission concepts, instrumentation for the future missions, the upcoming lunar decade of landers and lunar robotic village, and preparations for human lunar exploration towards a "Moon Village" are also welcome in this session. COSPAR-16-B0.1 will also be ICEUM12A, part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994.
Magnetic properties of Co2-xCux(OH)PO4 (x=0, 1 and 2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pedro, I.; Jubera, V.; Rojo, J. M.; Lezama, L.; Sánchez Marcos, J.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Mesa, J. L.; Rojo, T.; Arriortua, M. I.
2004-05-01
The isostructural Co2-xCux(OH)PO4 (x=0, 1 and 2) phases have been prepared from hydrothermal synthesis and characterized from powder X-ray diffraction. The structure consists of a three-dimensional framework in which M(1)O5-trigonal bipyramid dimers and M(2)O6-octahedral chains are simultaneously present. Magnetization measurements of Co2(OH)(PO4) show the existence of two maxima attributed to a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering at 70K and a spin-glass-like state at 12K. When Co2+ is substituted by Cu2+ions, the spin-glass behavior disappears and the magnetic order is decreased.
A Deposited Magnetic Thermometer for Temperatures Below 0.1 Kelvin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, J. G.; Stevenson, T. R.; Canavan, E. R.; DiPirro, M. J.; Franz, D. E.; Shirron, P. J.
2003-01-01
Magnetic thermometers are less sensitive to self-heating due to rf noise than are traditional resistive thermometers. This makes them appealing at temperatures well below 0.1 Kelvin in the operating range of many space-flight detectors. We have built and tested a magnetic thermometer which is deposited directly onto a substrate. This device, which uses the temperature dependence of iron-doped palladium s magnetic susceptibility, includes self-shielding deposited coils surrounding a sputtered palladium layer. It is read out using a SQUID to achieve high resolution. Its small size and very good heat-sinking should eventually make it useful for the temperature control of space flight detector arrays, in particular those already using SQUID readouts. The design and test results for this device are discussed.
A Deposited Magnetic Thermometer for Temperatures below 0.1 Kelvin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, J. G.; Stevenson, T. R.; Canavan, E. R.; Dipirro, M. J.; Franz, D. E.; Shirron, P. J.
2003-01-01
Magnetic thermometers are much less sensitive to self-heating due to rf noise than are traditional resistive thermometers. This makes them appealing at temperatures well below 0.1 Kelvin in the operating range of many space-flight detectors. We have developed and tested a magnetic thermometer which is deposited directly onto a substrate. This device, which uses the temperature dependence of iron-doped palladium's magnetic susceptibility, includes self-shielding deposited coils surrounding a sputtered palladium layer. It is read out using a SQUID to achieve high resolution. Its small size and perfect heat sinking should make it useful for the temperature control of space flight detector arrays, in particular those already using SQUID readouts. The design and test results for this device are discussed.
On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.
2009-04-01
The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.
Simulation of electronic registration of multispectral remote sensing images to 0.1 pixel accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reitsema, H. J.; Mord, A. J.; Fraser, D.; Richard, H. L.; Speaker, E. E.
1984-01-01
Band-to-band coregistration of multispectral remote sensing images can be achieved by electronic signal processing techniques rather than by costly and difficult mechanical alignment. This paper describes the results of a study of the end-to-end performance of electronic registration. The software simulation includes steps which model the performance of the geometric calibration process, the instrument image quality, detector performance and the effects of achieving coregistration through image resampling. The image resampling step emulates the Pipelined Resampling Processor, a real-time image resampler. The study demonstrates that the electronic alignment technique produces multispectral images which are superior to those produced by an imager whose pixel geometry is accurate to 0.1 pixel rms. The implications of this approach for future earth observation programs are discussed.
Deniz, Furkan Nur; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Tan, Nusret; Atherton, Derek P
2016-05-01
This paper introduces an integer order approximation method for numerical implementation of fractional order derivative/integrator operators in control systems. The proposed method is based on fitting the stability boundary locus (SBL) of fractional order derivative/integrator operators and SBL of integer order transfer functions. SBL defines a boundary in the parametric design plane of controller, which separates stable and unstable regions of a feedback control system and SBL analysis is mainly employed to graphically indicate the choice of controller parameters which result in stable operation of the feedback systems. This study reveals that the SBL curves of fractional order operators can be matched with integer order models in a limited frequency range. SBL fitting method provides straightforward solutions to obtain an integer order model approximation of fractional order operators and systems according to matching points from SBL of fractional order systems in desired frequency ranges. Thus, the proposed method can effectively deal with stability preservation problems of approximate models. Illustrative examples are given to show performance of the proposed method and results are compared with the well-known approximation methods developed for fractional order systems. The integer-order approximate modeling of fractional order PID controllers is also illustrated for control applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhen; Martonosi, Margaret
1998-10-01
This paper proposes and evaluates an approach for improving the performance of arithmetic calculations via delayed addition. Our approach employs the idea used in Wallace trees to delay addition until the end of a repeated calculation such as accumulation or dot-product; this effectively removes carry propagation overhead from the calculation's critical path. We present imager and floating- point designs that use this technique. Our pipelined integer multiply-accumulate design is based on a fairly traditional multiplier design, but with delayed addition as well. This design achieves a 37 MHz clock rate on an XC4036XL-2 FPGA. Next, we present a 32-bit floating-point accumulator based on delayed addition. Here delayed addition requires a novel alignment technique that decouples the incoming operands from the accumulated result. A conservative version of this design achieves a 33 MHz clock rate. Finally, we also present a more aggressive 32-bit floating-point accumulator design that achieves a 66 MHz clock rate. These designs demonstrate the utility of delayed addition for accelerating FPGA calculations in both the integer and floating-point domains.
On control of singleton attractors in multiple Boolean networks: integer programming-based method
2014-01-01
Background Boolean network (BN) is a mathematical model for genetic network and control of genetic networks has become an important issue owing to their potential application in the field of drug discovery and treatment of intractable diseases. Early researches have focused primarily on the analysis of attractor control for a randomly generated BN. However, one may also consider how anti-cancer drugs act in both normal and cancer cells. Thus, the development of controls for multiple BNs is an important and interesting challenge. Results In this article, we formulate three novel problems about attractor control for two BNs (i.e., normal cell and cancer cell). The first is about finding a control that can significantly damage cancer cells but has a limited damage to normal cells. The second is about finding a control for normal cells with a guaranteed damaging effect on cancer cells. Finally, we formulate a definition for finding a control for cancer cells with limited damaging effect on normal cells. We propose integer programming-based methods for solving these problems in a unified manner, and we conduct computational experiments to illustrate the efficiency and the effectiveness of our method for our multiple-BN control problems. Conclusions We present three novel control problems for multiple BNs that are realistic control models for gene regulation networks and adopt an integer programming approach to address these problems. Experimental results indicate that our proposed method is useful and effective for moderate size BNs. PMID:24565276
Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn
1998-01-01
In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.
A Simplified Integer Cosine Transform and Its Application in Image Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, M.; Tong, K.
1994-07-01
A simplified version of the integer cosine transform (ICT) is described. For practical reasons, the transform is considered jointly with the quantization of its coefficients. It differs from conventional ICT algorithms in that the combined factors for normalization and quantization are approximated by powers of two. In conventional algorithms, the normalization/quantization stage typically requires as many integer divisions as the number of transform coefficients. By restricting the factors to powers of two, these divisions can be performed by variable shifts in the binary representation of the coefficients, with speed and cost advantages to the hardware implementation of the algorithm. The error introduced by the factor approximations is compensated for in the inverse ICT operation, executed with floating point precision. The simplified ICT algorithm has potential applications in image-compression systems with disparate cost and speed requirements in the encoder and decoder ends. For example, in deep space image telemetry, the image processors on board the spacecraft could take advantage of the simplified, faster encoding operation, which would be adjusted on the ground, with high-precision arithmetic. A dual application is found in compressed video broadcasting. Here, a fast, high-performance processor at the transmitter would pre-compensate for the factor approximations in the inverse ICT operation, to be performed in real time, at a large number of low-cost receivers.
A simplified Integer Cosine Transform and its application in image compression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costa, M.; Tong, K.
1994-01-01
A simplified version of the integer cosine transform (ICT) is described. For practical reasons, the transform is considered jointly with the quantization of its coefficients. It differs from conventional ICT algorithms in that the combined factors for normalization and quantization are approximated by powers of two. In conventional algorithms, the normalization/quantization stage typically requires as many integer divisions as the number of transform coefficients. By restricting the factors to powers of two, these divisions can be performed by variable shifts in the binary representation of the coefficients, with speed and cost advantages to the hardware implementation of the algorithm. The error introduced by the factor approximations is compensated for in the inverse ICT operation, executed with floating point precision. The simplified ICT algorithm has potential applications in image-compression systems with disparate cost and speed requirements in the encoder and decoder ends. For example, in deep space image telemetry, the image processors on board the spacecraft could take advantage of the simplified, faster encoding operation, which would be adjusted on the ground, with high-precision arithmetic. A dual application is found in compressed video broadcasting. Here, a fast, high-performance processor at the transmitter would precompensate for the factor approximations in the inverse ICT operation, to be performed in real time, at a large number of low-cost receivers.
Wu, Gang
2016-08-01
The nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation process of half-integer spins in liquid samples is known to exhibit multi-exponential behaviors. Within the framework of Redfield's relaxation theory, exact analytical expressions for describing such a process exist only for spin-3/2 nuclei. As a result, analyses of nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation data for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei with spin >3/2 must rely on numerical diagonalization of the Redfield relaxation matrix over the entire motional range. In this work we propose an approximate analytical expression that can be used to analyze nuclear quadrupole transverse relaxation data of any half-integer spin in liquids over the entire motional range. The proposed equation yields results that are in excellent agreement with the exact numerical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Yi; Duan, Zhe
2017-01-01
In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.
Master plan nurse duty roster using the 0-1 goal programming technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Jenal, Ruzzakiah
2013-04-01
The scheduling of nurses is particularly challenging because of the nature of the work which is around the clock. In addition, inefficient duty roster can have an effect on the nurses well being as well as their job satisfaction. In nurse scheduling problem (NSP), nurses are generally allocated to periods of work over a specified time horizon. A typical length of the schedule varies from a few weeks to a month. The schedule will be consistently rebuilt after the specified time period and will result in a time-consuming task for the administrative staff involved. Moreover, the task becomes overwhelming when the staff needs to consider the previous duty rosters in order to maintain the quality of schedules. Therefore, this study suggests the development of a master plan for a nurse duty roster for approximately one year. The master plan starts with the development of a blue print for the nurse duty roster using a 0-1 goal programming technique. The appropriate working period for this blue print is formulated based on the number of night shifts and the number of required nurses for night shift per schedule. Subsequently, the blue print is repeated to complete the annual nurse duty roster. These newly developed procedures were then tested on several data sets. The test results found that the master plan has successfully distributed the annual workload evenly among nurses. In addition, the master plan allows nurses to arrange their career and social activities in advance.
Characterization of an adhesive molecule from Bacillus megaterium ADE-0-1.
Kumar, Santosh; Shah, Avinash K
2015-03-06
An adhesive exopolysaccharide (EPS), from a biofilm forming marine strain ADE-0-1, identified as Bacillus megaterium using conventional microbiological test and 16S rDNA analysis, contained 75% carbohydrate, 17% uronic acid and 0.00125% pyruvate on dry weight basis as per colorimetric determinations and found anionic in nature by ion exchange chromatography. Paper chromatographic and HPLC analysis of EPS hydrolysate indicated presence of arabinose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid. Its molecular weight was 0.5×10(6) Da, by gel permeation chromatography. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of EPS revealed presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups particularly. EPS exhibited an adhesive nature and could glue wood, metals and acrylic plastic. Using this EPS adhesive (10% w/v), maximum lap shear strength observed was 6.12 MPa at pH 7 and 50 °C (curing temperature) for wood to wood specimen as compared to 6.54 MPa obtained with fevicol (48 to 50% w/v).
Acquisition and evaluation of thermodynamic data for bieberite-moorhouseite equilibria at 0.1 MPa
Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.
2005-01-01
Published estimates for the equilibrium relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg;C for the reaction: bieberite (CoSO4??7H2O) = moorhouseite (CoSO4??6H2O) + H2O, range from 69.8 to 74.5%. To evaluate these data, the humidity-buffer technique was used to determine equilibrium constants for this reaction between 14 and 43 ??C at 0.1 MPa. Reversals along five humidity-buffer curves yield In K = 18.03-6509.43/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in K. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 9.43 kJ/mol, which agrees well with several previously reported values based on vapor-pressure measurements. It also agrees well with values calculated from the data derived mostly from calorimetric measurements. Previous studies indicated that the temperature of the invariant point for the assemblage bieberite-moorhouseite-aqueous solution-vapor is near 44.7 ??C, and our extrapolated data predict 91.1% RH at this temperature; the predicted position for the invariant point is in excellent agreement with those reported previously.
Acquisition and evaluation of thermodynamic data for morenosite-retgersite equilibria at 0.1 MPa
Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.
2003-01-01
Metal-sulfate salts in mine drainage environments commonly occur as solid solutions containing Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Cd, and other elements. Thermodynamic data for some of the end-member salts containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mg have been collected and evaluated previously, and the present study extends to the system containing Ni. Morenosite (NiSO4-7H2O)-retgersite (NiSO4-6H2O) equilibria were determined along five humidity buffer curves at 0.1 MPa and between 5 and 22??C. Reversals along these humidity-buffer curves yield In K = 17.58-6303.35/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in K. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 8.84 kJ/mol, which agrees very well with the values of 8.90, 8.83, and 8.85 kJ/mol based on the vapor pressure measurements of Schumb (1923), Bonnell and Burridge (1935), and Stout et al. (1966). respectively. This value also agrees reasonably well with the values of 8.65 and 9.56 kJ/mol calculated from the data compiled by Wagman et al. (1982) and DeKock (1982), respectively. The temperature-humidity relationships defined by this study for dehydration equilibria between morenosite and retgersite explain the more common occurrence of retgersite relative to morenosite in nature.
Growth and characterization of InAs quantum dots on Si(0 0 1) substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Z. M.; Hul'ko, O.; Kim, H. J.; Liu, J.; Sugahari, T.; Shi, B.; Xie, Y. H.
2004-11-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots were grown on (0 0 1) orientated Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Growth condition dependence of dot formation was studied. The evolution of size and shape of quantum dots with InAs coverage was examined using plan-view and cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Dot formation started at below 1 monolayer (ML) of InAs coverage, indicating Volmer-Weber growth mode. Dot size and density grew with increasing InAs coverage up to 0.7 ML. Dot density was observed to be strongly dependent on arsenic (As) beam equivalent pressure (BEP). A decrease of As BEP from 9.2×10 -6 to 1.2×10 -7 torr resulted in an increase in dot density from 4.3×10 9 to 1.8×10 11 cm -2 at a constant InAs coverage of 0.7 ML. Further increase in InAs coverage led to a clear broadening of dot size distribution and a slight decrease in dot density, presumably due to coarsening.
Martynov, V.V.; Young, A.T.; Padmore, H.A.
1996-08-01
A beamline for high resolution spectroscopy with elliptically polarized X-rays is described.The working energy range is large, from 20 eV to above 1800 eV. The resolving power is on the order of 10,000 at low energies (20-200 eV) and 6000 at high energies (200-1800 eV). This is achieved using a variable deviation angle plane grating monochromator. A single grating, with one line density and a varying groove depth, is used to cover the entire energy range. The beamline has been designed to operate with either one or two x-ray beams propagating simultaneously through the monochromator and to the experimental station. Switching between polarizations at rates of 0.1 Hz and slower is accomplished in the single beam mode by alternating the output of the elliptically polarized undulator source between left and right polarization. Fast polarization switching, at rates of 100-1000 Hz, is provided in the two beam mode by mechanical chopping between two photon beams, one of which is right circularly polarized, and the other left circularly polarized.
An improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm for 0-1 knapsack problems.
Feng, Yanhong; Jia, Ke; He, Yichao
2014-01-01
Cuckoo search (CS) is a new robust swarm intelligence method that is based on the brood parasitism of some cuckoo species. In this paper, an improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm (ICS) with greedy strategy is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. First of all, for solving binary optimization problem with ICS, based on the idea of individual hybrid encoding, the cuckoo search over a continuous space is transformed into the synchronous evolution search over discrete space. Subsequently, the concept of confidence interval (CI) is introduced; hence, the new position updating is designed and genetic mutation with a small probability is introduced. The former enables the population to move towards the global best solution rapidly in every generation, and the latter can effectively prevent the ICS from trapping into the local optimum. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Experiments with a large number of KP instances show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions.
Cyclical scheduling for welfare assistants using 0-1 goal programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashid, Nur Rasyida Mohd; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Ismail, Norul Fadhilah; Kapi, Azyan Yusra
2015-05-01
Currently, the welfare assistants scheduling are handled manually by the head of the welfare assistants and every record is kept in paper. The head of the welfare assistants has to go through a very tedious process to complete the schedule every months in order to conform to the organizations policy as well as to satisfy the welfare assistants' preferences. However, the scheduling task is very time consuming and the staff preferences are not fully satisfied. This paper presents a 0-1 goal programming approach to build a cyclical scheduling for every 60 days and is adapted to welfare assistant schedule in an orphanage institution. This systematic model is built to improve the current manual method of scheduling. The model is implemented using LINGO software. The result shows that each staff has an equal percentage of 62%, 38% and 32% for total duty, night shift and day off respectively. Thus, the proposed model offered better result by providing a cyclical schedule that is better and give higher satisfaction and fairness to the staff than the current manually developed schedule.
THE ORIGIN OF OB CLUSTERS: FROM 10 pc TO 0.1 pc
Liu Hauyu Baobab; Wang Ke; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou; Quintana-Lacaci, Guillermo; Li Zhiyun; Zhang Zhiyu E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: quintana@iram.es E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu
2012-01-20
We observe the 1.2 mm continuum emission around the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4, using the MAMBO-2 bolometer array of the IRAM 30 m telescope and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Comparison of the Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m images with our 1.2 mm continuum maps reveal an ionization front of an H II region, the photon-dominated layer, and several 5 pc scale filaments that follow the outer edge of the photon-dominated layer. The filaments, which are resolved in the MAMBO-2 observations, show regularly spaced parsec-scale molecular clumps, embedded with a cluster of dense molecular cores as shown in the SMA 0.87 mm observations. Toward the center of the G10.6-0.4 region, the combined SMA+IRAM 30 m continuum image reveals several parsec-scale protrusions. They may continue down to within 0.1 pc of the geometric center of a dense 3 pc scale structure, where a 200 M{sub Sun} OB cluster resides. The observed filaments may facilitate mass accretion onto the central cluster-forming region in the presence of strong radiative and mechanical stellar feedback. Their filamentary geometry may also facilitate fragmentation. We did not detect any significant polarized emission at 0.87 mm in the inner 1 pc region with SMA.
Survey of 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lennartsson, W.; Shelley, E. G.
1986-01-01
An analysis is performed of all plasma sheet data collected in 1978-79 in order to discern statistical trends in the data. Attention is focused on the bulk parameters of 0.1-16 keV/e plasma sheet ions detected by the Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 satellite. The data were collected at 10-23 earth radii, and are averaged for various levels of activity in the AE index. Solar H(+) and He(2+) ions dominate during quiet periods and possess energies similar to those of the solar wind when the quiet period lasts several hours. Increasing AE index values eventually lead to a replacement of the solar ions with terrestrial ions, particularly O(+), which can have an average energy density of 3-4 keV/e at every activity level. The solar ions, however, increase in energy as their density decreases. The O(+) density is highest near the local midnight and becomes the most numerous during highly disturbed conditions. Finally, the O(+) density was observed to increase by a factor of three over the monitoring period, possibly due to enhanced solar EUV radiation.
Survey of 0.1- to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lennartsson, W.; Shelley, E. G.
1986-03-01
An analysis is performed of all plasma sheet data collected in 1978-79 in order to discern statistical trends in the data. Attention is focused on the bulk parameters of 0.1-16 keV/e plasma sheet ions detected by the Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 satellite. The data were collected at 10-23 earth radii, and are averaged for various levels of activity in the AE index. Solar H(+) and He(2+) ions dominate during quiet periods and possess energies similar to those of the solar wind when the quiet period lasts several hours. Increasing AE index values eventually lead to a replacement of the solar ions with terrestrial ions, particularly O(+), which can have an average energy density of 3-4 keV/e at every activity level. The solar ions, however, increase in energy as their density decreases. The O(+) density is highest near the local midnight and becomes the most numerous during highly disturbed conditions. Finally, the O(+) density was observed to increase by a factor of three over the monitoring period, possibly due to enhanced solar EUV radiation.
Ionization in 0.1-1.6 MeV Ar +-Kr and Kr +-Ar collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarcone, M. J.; Lincoln, B. A.; Rapposch, M. H.; Reed, K. J.; Antar, A. A.; Kessel, Q. C.
1989-04-01
The final charge states of ions scattered to large angles (1° -18°) in Ar +-Kr and Kr +-Ar collisions have been measured for collision energies from 0.1 to 1.6 MeV. Both sets of data show stepwise increases in ionization beginning for those collisions having distances of closest approach of 0.7 and 0.4 a.u. For the smallest distances of closest approach reached (0.05 a.u.), the average number of electrons lost from the collision complex totals nearly twenty. Comparison with molecular orbital calculations shows possible electron promotions to exist for the 0.7 and 0.4 a.u. distances; however, comparison of the Ar-Kr and Kr-Ar data sets with the calculations shows that a variety of separated-atom states may participate in the promotions. This is in contrast to existing models for deeper-lying shells in which specific separated-atom-united-atom correlations are thought to exist.
Magnetic Ordering in BaFe_{11.9}In_{0.1}O_{19} Hexaferrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trukhanov, S. V.; Trukhanov, A. V.; Turchenko, V. O.; Kostishin, V. G.; Panina, L. V.; Kazakevich, I. S.; Balagurov, A. M.
2017-01-01
The crystal and magnetic structure by powder neutron diffractometry as well as the magnetic properties by vibration sample magnetometry for the BaFe_{11.9}In_{0.1}O_{19} polycrystalline sample have been performed in a wide temperature range from 10 up to 730 K and in magnetic field up to 14 T. The atomic coordinates and lattice parameters have been Rietveld refined. The Invar effect has been observed in the low-temperature range below 150 K. It was explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of atoms. The increase of the microstress value with decreasing temperature has been defined from Rietveld refinement. It is established that the ferrimagnet-paramagnet phase transition is a standard second-order one. From the macroscopic magnetization measurement, the Curie temperature and ordered magnetic moment per nominal iron ion are obtained. From the microscopic diffraction measurement, the magnetic moments at different atomic position and total magnetic moment per iron ion have been defined at different temperatures. The most likely reasons and the mechanism of magnetic ordering are discussed.
Performance characterization tests of three 0.44-N (0.1 lbf) hydrazine catalytic thrusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moynihan, P. I.; Bjorklund, R. A.
1973-01-01
The 0.44-N (0.1-lbf) class of hydrazine catalytic thruster has been evaluated to assess its capability for spacecraft limit-cycle attitude control with thruster pulse durations on the order of 10 milliseconds. Dynamic-environment and limit-cycle simulation tests were performed on three commercially available thruster/valve assemblies, purchased from three different manufacturers. The results indicate that this class of thruster can sustain a launch environment and, when properly temperature-conditioned, can perform limit-cycle operations over the anticipated life span of a multi-year mission. The minimum operating temperature for very short pulse durations was determined for each thruster. Pulsing life tests were then conducted on each thruster under a thermally controlled condition which maintained the catalyst bed at both a nominal 93 C (200 F) and 205 C (400 F). These were the temperatures believed to be slightly below and very near the minimum recommended operating temperature, respectively. The ensuing life tests ranged from 100,000 to 250,000 pulses at these temperatures, as would be required for spacecraft limit-cycle attitude control applications.
Predicting helical structures of the exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus sake 0- 1.
Robijn, G W; Imberty, A; van den Berg, D J; Ledeboer, A M; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Pérez, S
1996-07-19
The viscous exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus sake 0- 1 is a high molecular mass polymer (Mm 6 x 10(6) Da) consisting of pentasaccharide repeating units with a composition of D-glucose, L-rhamnose, and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in molar ratios of 3:2:1. One of the rhamnose residues in the repeating unit is partially 2-O-acetylated. The O-deacetylated, deglycerophosphorylated EPS has been investigated by molecular mechanics calculations. A complete conformational analysis of each of the constituent disaccharide fragments has been performed using the flexible residue approach with the MM3(92) force field. Furthermore, using the same force field, CICADA analyses were accomplished on hexa- and octasaccharide substructure of the polysaccharide. Based on these analyses, insight was obtained into nine conformational minima for the polysaccharide. The low energy conformations found by CICADA were extrapolated to regular polysaccharide structures using a polysaccharide builder program. The generated helices exhibit either 2-fold or 3- or 4-fold right-handed chiralities, and in each case the helices are highly extended.
Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of 0.1 Micrometer Gallium Arsenide Mesfet's.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Karen Elizabeth
Very high performance 0.1 μm GaAs-based MESFET's have been designed, fabricated, and characterized in order to obtain an improved understanding of the full potential of these devices and the effects of process variations and layer structures on device performance. The FET's were fabricated with both "mushroom" and "gamma" gates using a bi-layer (PMMA/P(MMA-MAA)) electron beam lithography process. Process variations, including gate size, shape, and location, and gate recess depth, were systematically evaluated in GaAs FET's through DC and RF transistor performance, biased and un-biased equivalent circuit parameters, and transistor minimum noise figure. The bias dependence of the devices was studied using the results of cold de-embedding to determine intrinsic and extrinsic equivalent circuit values. These bias variations were related back to DC and RF device performance, in order to better understand how to optimize the biasing of a GaAs MESFET. The performance of the devices fabricated and tested was world class, with maximum f_sp {t}{'}s over 100 GHz, f_sp{max}{'}s over 150 GHz, and little sensitivity to process variations. This demonstrates the continued importance of GaAs and GaAs based MESFET's as high performance microwave devices with large scale commercial potential.
Effects of pretreatment with mydriatics on intraocular penetration of 0.1% pranoprofen.
Ogawa, T; Ohara, K; Shimizu, H
1993-01-01
The mechanism by which an increase in the intraocular concentration of topically applied 0.1% pranoprofen (PPF) is induced by pretreatment with Mydrin P (0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine) was studied in rabbit eyes. In separate experiments, solutions of each of the various ingredients contained in Mydrin P ophthalmic solution were applied 60 minutes prior to instillation of PPF. Ninety minutes after PPF instillation, its concentration in the cornea, aqueous humor and iris-ciliary body were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PPF concentration was not increased by pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride, chlorobutanol or tropicamide, but was increased by pretreatment with phenylephrine (PHE). After the latter, the PPF concentration was 2 to 3 times higher than that obtained without Mydrin P. It is noteworthy that the concentration of PHE in the aqueous humor also was found to be increased about 3 times in the presence of PPF. The lipophilicity of PPF, judged by the octanol/buffer partition coefficient, was increased when mixed with PHE. These findings indicate that the increase in intraocular PPF concentration after pretreatment with Mydrin P was caused by PHE. This may be attributable to the enhancement of corneal permeability to PPF resulting from formation of an ion-pair complex between the anionic PPF and the cationic PHE.
Extreme Gas Fractions in Clumpy, Turbulent Disk Galaxies at z ~ 0.1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bolatto, Alberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Mentuch Cooper, Erin; Wisnioski, Emily; Bassett, Robert; Abraham, Roberto G.; Damjanov, Ivana; Green, Andy; McGregor, Peter
2014-08-01
In this Letter, we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby universe (z ~ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Hα reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20%-30% and depletion times of t dep ~ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky-Way-like αCO). These properties are unlike those expected for low-redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies break the degeneracy between gas fraction and redshift, and we show that the depletion time per specific star formation rate for galaxies is closely tied to gas fraction, independent of redshift. We also show that the gas dynamics of two of our local targets corresponds to those expected from unstable disks, again resembling the dynamics of high-z disks. These results provide evidence that DYNAMO galaxies are local analogs to the clumpy, turbulent disks, which are often found at high redshift.
Observation of the 63 micron (0 1) emission line in the Orion and Omega Nebulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melnick, G.; Gull, G. E.; Harwit, M.
1978-01-01
The 63 micron fine structure transition P4 : 3Pl yields 3P2 for neutral atomic oxygen was obtained during a series of flights at an altitude of approximately 13.7 km. In the Orion Nebula (M42), the observed line strength was 8 x 10 to the minus 15 power watt cm/2 which is estimated to be approximately 0.3 o/o of the energy radiated at all wavelengths. For the Omega Nebulae (M17), the line strength was 2.4 x 10 to the minus 15 power watt cm/2, and the fraction of the total radiated power was slightly higher. These figures refer to a 4' x 6' field of view centered on the peak for infrared emission from each source. The uncertainty in the line strength is approximately 50% and is caused by variable water vapor absorption along the flight path of the airplane. The line position estimate is 63.2 micron (+0.1, -0.2) micron. The prime uncertainty is due to the uncertain position of the (0 I) emitting regions in the field of view.
Surface morphology determined by (0 0 1) single-crystal SrTiO 3 termination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus; Blank, Dave H. A.; Rogalla, Horst
2000-11-01
The terminating layer of a perovskite (0 0 1) ABO 3 crystal, with A as an alkaline earth metal and B as a transition metal, influences the characteristics of the surface. The morphology during thermal treatment of the surface and epitaxial growth are determined by the composition of the surface, i.e., whether it is BO 2, AO, or a mixed-terminated surface. Since the morphology of a thin film is the result of the evolution of the surface during deposition, control from the very first layer is essential for smooth films. In the case of perovskite materials, this means control of the terminating layer. Here, we study the SrTiO 3 surface as a model system and the effects of the composition of the terminating layer, determined by the treatment and/or deposition of SrO and TiO 2, on homo-epitaxial and hetero-epitaxial growth of SrCuO 2 and YBa 2Cu 3O 7. A single-terminated surface turns out to be optimal with respect to a smooth morphology and perfect epitaxy of high- Tc superconducting materials.
Electron multibeam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1 nm address grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans
2013-07-01
IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50 keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1 nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The POC system achieves the predicted 5 nm 1 sigma blur across the 82 μm×82 μm array of 512×512 (262,144) programmable 20 nm beams. 24-nm half pitch (HP) has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11-nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta), and first-generation high-volume manufacturing multibeam mask writer (MBMW) tools in 2016. In these MBMW systems the max beam current through the column is 1 μA. The new architecture has also the potential for 1× mask (master template) writing. Substantial further developments are needed for maskless e-beam direct write (EBDW) applications as a beam current of >2 mA is needed to achieve 100 wafer per hour industrial targets for 300 mm wafer size. Necessary productivity enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude are only possible by shrinking the multibeam optics such that 50 to 100 subcolumns can be placed on the area of a 300 mm wafer and by clustering 10 to 20 multicolumn tools. An overview of current EBDW efforts is provided.
Processing and microstructure of Nb-1 percent Zr-0.1 percent C alloy sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uz, Mehmet; Titran, Robert H.
1992-01-01
A systematic study was carried out to evaluate the effects of processing on the microstructure of Nb-1 wt. pct. Zr-0.1 wt. pct. C alloy sheet. The samples were fabricated by cold rolling different sheet bars that were single-, double- or triple-extruded at 1900 K. Heat treatment consisted on one- or two-step annealing of different samples at temperatures ranging from 1350 to 1850 K. The assessment of the effects of processing on microstructure involved characterization of the precipitates including the type, crystal structure, chemistry and distribution within the material as well as an examination of the grain structure. A combination of various analytical and metallographic techniques were used on both the sheet samples and the residue extracted from them. The results show that the relatively coarse orthorhombic Nb2C carbides in the as-rolled samples transformed to rather fine cubic monocarbides of Nb and Zr with varying Zr/Nb ratios upon subsequent heat treatment. The relative amount of the cubic carbides and the Zr/Nb ratio increased with increasing number of extrusions prior to cold rolling. Furthermore, the size and the aspect ratio of the grains appear to be strong functions of the processing history of the material. These and other results obtained will be presented with the emphasis on a possible relationship between processing and microstructure.
An Improved Hybrid Encoding Cuckoo Search Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems
Feng, Yanhong; Jia, Ke; He, Yichao
2014-01-01
Cuckoo search (CS) is a new robust swarm intelligence method that is based on the brood parasitism of some cuckoo species. In this paper, an improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm (ICS) with greedy strategy is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. First of all, for solving binary optimization problem with ICS, based on the idea of individual hybrid encoding, the cuckoo search over a continuous space is transformed into the synchronous evolution search over discrete space. Subsequently, the concept of confidence interval (CI) is introduced; hence, the new position updating is designed and genetic mutation with a small probability is introduced. The former enables the population to move towards the global best solution rapidly in every generation, and the latter can effectively prevent the ICS from trapping into the local optimum. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Experiments with a large number of KP instances show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions. PMID:24527026
0.1-nanometer resolution positioning stage for sub-10 nm scanning probe lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorbringer-Doroshovets, Nataliya; Balzer, Felix; Fuessl, Roland; Manske, Eberhard; Kaestner, Marcus; Schuh, Andreas; Zoellner, Jens-Peter; Hofer, Manuel; Guliyev, Elshad; Ahmad, Ahmad; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Rangelow, Ivo W.
2013-03-01
High Performance Single Nanometer Lithography (SNL) is an enabling technology for beyond CMOS and future nanoelectronics. To keep on with scaling down nanoelectronic components, novel instrumentation for nanometer precise placement, overlay alignment and measurement are an essential pre-requirement to realize Next Generation Lithography (NGL) systems. In particular, scanning probe based methods for surface modification and lithography are an emerging method for producing sub-10 nm features. In this study, we demonstrate nano-scale lithography using a scanning probe based method in combination with a Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine. The latter one has a measuring range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm, 0.1 nanometer resolution and outstanding nanometer accuracy. The basic concept consists of a special arrangement allowing Abbe error free measurements in all axes over the total scan range. Furthermore, the Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine is able to store the exact location that can be found again with an accuracy of less than 2.5 nanometers. This system is also predestinated for critical dimension, quality and overlay control. The integrated scanning probe lithography is based on electric-field-induced patterning of calixarene. As a result, repeated step response tests are presented in this paper.
Vilas, Cesar; Drake, Pilar; Pascual, Emilio
2006-01-01
Results of field surveys and laboratory measurements of oxygen consumption and body fluid osmolality at different salinities in the mysids Neomysis integer, Mesopodopsis slabberi, and Rhopalophthalmus mediterraneus from the Guadalquivir estuary (southwest Spain) were used to test the hypothesis that osmotic stress (oxygen consumption vs. isosmotic points) was lowest at salinities that field distributions suggest are optimal. The three species showed overlapping spatial distributions within the estuary but clear segregation along the salinity gradient: N. integer, M. slabberi, and R. mediterraneus displayed maximal densities at lower, intermediate, and higher salinities, respectively. Adults of N. integer were extremely efficient hyperregulators (isosmotic point 30 per thousand) over the full salinity range tested (3 per thousand-32 per thousand), and their oxygen consumption rates were independent of salinity; adults of M. slabberi were strong hyper- and hyporegulators at salinities between 7 per thousand and 29 per thousand (isosmotic point, 21 per thousand) and showed higher oxygen consumptions at the lowest salinity (6 per thousand); adults of R. mediterraneus hyperregulated at salinities between 19 per thousand and seawater (isosmotic point, 36 per thousand), with the lowest oxygen consumption at salinity around their isosmotic point (35 per thousand). Thus, the osmoregulation capabilities of M. slabberi and R. mediterraneus seem to determine the salinity ranges in which most of their adults live, but this is not so for adults of N. integer. Moreover, maximal field densities of M. slabberi (males and females) and R. mediterraneus (males) occur at the same salinities as the lowest oxygen consumption. In contrast, field distribution of N. integer was clearly biased toward the lower end of the salinity ranges within which it osmoregulated. We hypothesize that the greater euryhalinity of N. integer makes it possible for this species to avoid competition with R
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C. Y. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu; Jackson, W. M. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu
2014-06-21
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO{sub 2} to the 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm{sup −1}. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O{sup +} VMI-PI images of O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) with well-resolved v = 0–2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to form the spin-allowed CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18–26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO{sub 2} 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
Optimized non-integer order phase mask to extend the depth of field of an imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiang; Miao, Erlong; Sui, Yongxin; Yang, Huaijiang
2016-09-01
Wavefront coding is an effective optical technique used to extend the depth of field for an incoherent imaging system. Through introducing an optimized phase mask to the pupil plane, the modulated optical transfer function is defocus-invariant. In this paper, we proposed a new form phase mask using non-integer order and signum function to extend the depth of field. The performance of the phase mask is evaluated by comparing defocused modulation transfer function invariant and Fisher information with other phase masks. Defocused imaging simulation is also carried out. The results demonstrate the advantages of non-integer order phase mask and its effectiveness on the depth of field extension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onoyama, Takashi; Kubota, Sen; Maekawa, Takuya; Komoda, Norihisa
Adequate response performance is required for the planning of a cooperative logistic network covering multiple enterprises, because this process needs a human expert's evaluation from many aspects. To satisfy this requirement, we propose an accurate model based on mixed integer programming for optimizing cooperative logistics networks where “round transportation” exists together with “depot transportation” including lower limit constraints of loading ratio for round transportation vehicles. Furthermore, to achieve interactive response performance, a dummy load is introduced into the model instead of integer variables. The experimental result shows the proposed method obtains an accurate solution within interactive response time.
Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad
2017-03-15
In this paper first the Multi-term Fractional-Order PID (MFOPID) whose transfer function is equal to [Formula: see text] , where kj and αj are unknown and known real parameters respectively, is introduced. Without any loss of generality, a special form of MFOPID with transfer function kp+ki/s+kd1s+kd2s(μ) where kp, ki, kd1, and kd2 are unknown real and μ is a known positive real parameter, is considered. Similar to PID and TID, MFOPID is also linear in its parameters which makes it possible to study all of them in a same framework. Tuning the parameters of PID, TID, and MFOPID based on loop shaping using Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) is discussed. For this purpose separate LMIs for closed-loop stability (of sufficient type) and adjusting different aspects of the open-loop frequency response are developed. The proposed LMIs for stability are obtained based on the Nyquist stability theorem and can be applied to both integer and fractional-order (not necessarily commensurate) processes which are either stable or have one unstable pole. Numerical simulations show that the performance of the four-variable MFOPID can compete the trivial five-variable FOPID and often excels PID and TID.
Skyrmions and Single Spin Flips in the Odd Integer Quantized Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeller, Andreas
1996-03-01
For an (ideal) two-dimensional electron system in an odd integer quantized Hall state, the energy Δ needed to excite a quasiparticle pair is the sum of the Zeeman energy Sgμ_BB_tot (S is the number of flipped spins) and the many body contribution Δ_ex, where Δ_ex depends only on the perpendicular magnetic field component B_⊥. If the sample is tilted with respect to the field B_tot and B_⊥ is kept constant, the rate of change of Δ with B_tot gives S. We measure the energy gap Δ by thermally-activated magneto-transport experiments in tilted magnetic fields. We find: 1. At ν=1, where the ground state is fully spin polarized with only one spin level occupied, the lowest lying charged excitations have S >> 1. This reflects the excitation of quasiparticle pairs, with spins of up to 7/2 per particle, a value that is in good agreement with recent results of Knight shift experiments [1]. 2. In contrast we observe only single spin flips (S=1) at the higher odd integer filling factors ν=3 and 5. These results lend support to recent suggestions[2] that Skyrmions, which are topological distortions of the spin field that involve large spin values, form the lowest-lying charged excitations in the fully-polarized ν =1 quantum Hall fluid, but are energetically unfavorable with respect to single spin flips at the higher odd-integer filling factors. This work was done in collaboration with J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer and K.W. West. 1: S.E. Barrett, G. Dabbagh, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, and Z. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995). 2: S.L. Sondhi et al. Phys. Rev. B47, 16419 (1993). J. K. Jain and X. G. Wu, Phys. Rev. B49, 5085 (1994). X.-G. Wu and S.L. Sondhi, preprint (1995).
EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 0.1-3 IN COSMOS
Scoville, N.; Benson, A.; Fu, Hai; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bongiorno, A.; Bundy, K.; Calvo, M. A. A.; Capak, P.; Carollo, M.; Faisst, A.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Dunlop, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Guo, Q.; Giavalisco, M.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Kajisawa, M.; and others
2013-05-01
Large-scale structures (LSSs) out to z < 3.0 are measured in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) using extremely accurate photometric redshifts (photoz). The K{sub s} -band-selected sample (from Ultra-Vista) is comprised of 155,954 galaxies. Two techniques-adaptive smoothing and Voronoi tessellation-are used to estimate the environmental densities within 127 redshift slices. Approximately 250 statistically significant overdense structures are identified out to z = 3.0 with shapes varying from elongated filamentary structures to more circularly symmetric concentrations. We also compare the densities derived for COSMOS with those based on semi-analytic predictions for a {Lambda}CDM simulation and find excellent overall agreement between the mean densities as a function of redshift and the range of densities. The galaxy properties (stellar mass, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and star formation rates (SFRs)) are strongly correlated with environmental density and redshift, particularly at z < 1.0-1.2. Classifying the spectral type of each galaxy using the rest-frame b - i color (from the photoz SED fitting), we find a strong correlation of early-type galaxies (E-Sa) with high-density environments, while the degree of environmental segregation varies systematically with redshift out to z {approx} 1.3. In the highest density regions, 80% of the galaxies are early types at z = 0.2 compared to only 20% at z = 1.5. The SFRs and the star formation timescales exhibit clear environmental correlations. At z > 0.8, the SFR density is uniformly distributed over all environmental density percentiles, while at lower redshifts the dominant contribution is shifted to galaxies in lower density environments.
EXTREME GAS FRACTIONS IN CLUMPY, TURBULENT DISK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1
Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bassett, Robert; Bolatto, Alberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Wisnioski, Emily; Abraham, Roberto G.; Damjanov, Ivana; Green, Andy; McGregor, Peter
2014-08-01
In this Letter, we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby universe (z ∼ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Hα reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20%-30% and depletion times of t {sub dep} ∼ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky-Way-like α{sub CO}). These properties are unlike those expected for low-redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies break the degeneracy between gas fraction and redshift, and we show that the depletion time per specific star formation rate for galaxies is closely tied to gas fraction, independent of redshift. We also show that the gas dynamics of two of our local targets corresponds to those expected from unstable disks, again resembling the dynamics of high-z disks. These results provide evidence that DYNAMO galaxies are local analogs to the clumpy, turbulent disks, which are often found at high redshift.
Maintenance Therapy of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis with 0.1% Tacrolimus Ointment
Kim, Hye One; Yang, Yoon Seok; Ko, Hyun Chang; Kim, Gyung Moon; Cho, Sang Hyun; Seo, Young Joon; Son, Sang Wook; Lee, Jong Rok; Lee, Joong Sun; Chang, Sung Eun; Che, Jae We
2015-01-01
Background Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) have been successfully used to treat seborrheic dermatitis (SD) patients. Meanwhile, treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) with low-dose, intermittent TCI has been proved to reduce disease flare-ups. This regimen is known as a maintenance treatment. Objective The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a maintenance treatment with tacrolimus ointment in patients with facial SD. Methods During the initial stabilization period, patients with facial SD or AD applied 0.1% tacrolimus ointment twice daily for up to 4 weeks. Clinical measurements were evaluated on either in the whole face or on separate facial regions. When an investigator global assessment score 1 was achieved, the patient applied tacrolimus twice weekly for 20 weeks. We also compared our results with recent published data of placebo controlled study to allow an estimation of the placebo effect. Results The time to the first relapse during phase II was similar in both groups otherwise significantly longer than the placebo group. The recurrence-free curves of two groups were not significantly different from each other; otherwise the curve of the placebo group was significantly different. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the number of DEs, and treatment days for disease exacerbations (DEs). The adverse event profile was also similar between the 2 groups. During the 20 weeks of treatment, the study population tolerated tacrolimus ointment well. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that maintenance treatment with tacrolimus may be effective in preventing the occurrence of facial SD exacerbations. PMID:26512166
Mechanism of Zn stabilization in hydroxyapatite and hydrated (0 0 1) surfaces of hydroxyapatite.
Matos, M; Terra, J; Ellis, D E
2010-04-14
A basic understanding of Zn incorporation on bulk and hydrated (0 0 1) surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) is attained through electronic structure calculations which use a combined first principles density functional (DFT) and extended Hückel tight binding (EHTB) methodology. A Zn substituted hydroxyapatite relaxed structure is obtained through a periodic cell DFT geometry optimization method. Electronic structure properties are calculated by using both cluster DFT and periodic cell EHTB methods. Bond order calculations show that Zn preference for the Ca2 vacancy, near the OH channel and with greater structural flexibility, is associated with the formation of a four-fold (bulk) and nearly four-fold (surface) coordination, as in ZnO. When occupying the octahedral Ca1 vacancy, Zn remains six-fold in the bulk, but coordination decreases to five-fold in the surface. In the bulk and surface, Zn2 is found to be more covalent than Zn1, due to a decrease in bond lengths at the four-fold site, which approach the 1.99 Å ZnO value. Zn is however considerably less bound in the biomaterial than in the oxide, where calculated bond orders are twice as large as in HA. Surface phosphate groups (PO(4)) and hydroxide ions behave as compact individual units as in the bulk; no evidence is found for the presence of HPO(4). Ca-O bond orders decrease at the surface, with a consequent increase in ionicity. Comparison between DFT and EHTB results show that the latter method gives a good qualitative account of charge and bonding in these systems.
Exact solution of some linear matrix equations using algebraic methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.
1979-01-01
Algebraic methods are used to construct the exact solution P of the linear matrix equation PA + BP = - C, where A, B, and C are matrices with real entries. The emphasis of this equation is on the use of finite algebraic procedures which are easily implemented on a digital computer and which lead to an explicit solution to the problem. The paper is divided into six sections which include the proof of the basic lemma, the Liapunov equation, and the computer implementation for the rational, integer and modular algorithms. Two numerical examples are given and the entire calculation process is depicted.
Recent Developments In Theory Of Balanced Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, Wodek
1994-01-01
Report presents theoretical study of some issues of controllability and observability of system represented by linear, time-invariant mathematical model of the form. x = Ax + Bu, y = Cx + Du, x(0) = xo where x is n-dimensional vector representing state of system; u is p-dimensional vector representing control input to system; y is q-dimensional vector representing output of system; n,p, and q are integers; x(0) is intial (zero-time) state vector; and set of matrices (A,B,C,D) said to constitute state-space representation of system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vatsala, Aghalaya S.; Sowmya, M.
2017-01-01
Study of nonlinear sequential fractional differential equations of Riemann-Lioville type and Caputo type initial value problem are very useful in applications. In order to develop any iterative methods to solve the nonlinear problems, we need to solve the corresponding linear problem. In this work, we develop Laplace transform method to solve the linear sequential Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations as well as linear sequential Caputo fractional differential equations of order nq which is sequential of order q. Also, nq is chosen such that (n-1) < nq < n. All our results yield the integer results as a special case when q tends to 1.
An Efficient Exact Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem.
Li, Jun; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng; Suter, Dieter
2012-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and exact quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm exists. The algorithm relies on properties of Gauss sums and uses the quantum Fourier transform. We give an explicit quantum network for the algorithm. Our algorithm introduces new concepts and methods that have not been used in quantum information processing so far and may be applicable to a wider class of problems.
Linderoth, Jeff T.; Luedtke, James R.
2013-05-30
The mathematical modeling of systems often requires the use of both nonlinear and discrete components. Problems involving both discrete and nonlinear components are known as mixed-integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) and are among the most challenging computational optimization problems. This research project added to the understanding of this area by making a number of fundamental advances. First, the work demonstrated many novel, strong, tractable relaxations designed to deal with non-convexities arising in mathematical formulation. Second, the research implemented the ideas in software that is available to the public. Finally, the work demonstrated the importance of these ideas on practical applications and disseminated the work through scholarly journals, survey publications, and conference presentations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeshan, Sriram; Kechedzhi, K.; Das Sarma, S.
2014-07-01
One-dimensional tight binding models such as the Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model (with an on-site cosine potential) and the integrable Maryland model (with an on-site tangent potential) have been the subject of extensive theoretical research in localization studies. AAH can be directly mapped onto the two-dimensional (2D) Hofstadter model which manifests the integer quantum Hall topology on a lattice. However, such a connection needs to be made for the Maryland model (MM). Here we describe a generalized model that contains AAH and MM as the limiting cases with the MM lying precisely at a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) point. A remarkable feature of this critical point is that the one-dimensional MM retains well defined energy gaps whereas the equivalent 2D model becomes gapless, signifying the 2D nature of the TQPT.
Optimization of a wood dryer kiln using the mixed integer programming technique: A case study
Gustafsson, S.I.
1999-07-01
When wood is to be utilized as a raw material for furniture, buildings, etc., it must be dried from approximately 100% to 6% moisture content. This is achieved at least partly in a drying kiln. Heat for this purpose is provided by electrical means, or by steam from boilers fired with wood chips or oil. By making a close examination of monitored values from an actual drying kiln it has been possible to optimize the use of steam and electricity using the so called mixed integer programming technique. Owing to the operating schedule for the drying kiln it has been necessary to divide the drying process in very short time intervals, i.e., a number of minutes. Since a drying cycle takes about two or three weeks, a considerable mathematical problem is presented and this has to be solved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Kai; Huang, Gordon; Dai, Liming; Fan, Yurui
2016-08-01
This article introduces an inexact fuzzy integer chance constraint programming (IFICCP) approach for identifying noise reduction strategy under uncertainty. The IFICCP method integrates the interval programming and fuzzy chance constraint programming approaches into a framework, which is able to deal with uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzziness. The proposed IFICCP model can be converted into two deterministic submodels corresponding to the optimistic and pessimistic conditions. The modelling approach is applied to a hypothetical control measure selection problem for noise reduction. Results of the case study indicate that useful solutions for noise control practices can be acquired. Three acceptable noise levels for two communities are considered. For each acceptable noise level, several decision alternatives have been obtained and analysed under different fuzzy confidence levels, which reflect the trade-offs between environmental and economic considerations.
An efficient FPGA architecture for integer ƞth root computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rangel-Valdez, Nelson; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Torres-Jimenez, Jose
2015-10-01
In embedded computing, it is common to find applications such as signal processing, image processing, computer graphics or data compression that might benefit from hardware implementation for the computation of integer roots of order ?. However, the scientific literature lacks architectural designs that implement such operations for different values of N, using a low amount of resources. This article presents a parameterisable field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture for an efficient Nth root calculator that uses only adders/subtractors and ? location memory elements. The architecture was tested for different values of ?, using 64-bit number representation. The results show a consumption up to 10% of the logical resources of a Xilinx XC6SLX45-CSG324C device, depending on the value of N. The hardware implementation improved the performance of its corresponding software implementations in one order of magnitude. The architecture performance varies from several thousands to seven millions of root operations per second.
RSM 1.0 user's guide: A resupply scheduler using integer optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, Larry A.; Green, Robert D.; Reed, David M.
1991-01-01
The Resupply Scheduling Model (RSM) is a PC based, fully menu-driven computer program. It uses integer programming techniques to determine an optimum schedule to replace components on or before a fixed replacement period, subject to user defined constraints such as transportation mass and volume limits or available repair crew time. Principal input for RSJ includes properties such as mass and volume and an assembly sequence. Resource constraints are entered for each period corresponding to the component properties. Though written to analyze the electrical power system on the Space Station Freedom, RSM is quite general and can be used to model the resupply of almost any system subject to user defined resource constraints. Presented here is a step by step procedure for preparing the input, performing the analysis, and interpreting the results. Instructions for installing the program and information on the algorithms are given.
Subjective evaluations of integer cosine transform compressed Galileo solid state imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, Richard F.; Gold, Yaron; Grant, Terry; Chuang, Sherry
1994-07-01
This paper describes a study conducted for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, using 15 evaluators from 12 institutions involved in the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of integer cosine transform (ICT) compression using specially formulated quantization (q) tables and compression ratios on acceptability of the 800 x 800 x 8 monochromatic astronomical images as evaluated visually by Galileo SSI mission scientists. Fourteen different images in seven image groups were evaluated. Each evaluator viewed two versions of the same image side by side on a high-resolution monitor; each was compressed using a different q level. First the evaluators selected the image with the highest overall quality to support them in their visual evaluations of image content. Next they rated each image using a scale from one to five indicating its judged degree of usefulness. Up to four preselected types of images with and without noise were presented to each evaluator.
Optimization and implementation of the integer wavelet transform for image coding.
Grangetto, Marco; Magli, Enrico; Martina, Maurizio; Olmo, Gabriella
2002-01-01
This paper deals with the design and implementation of an image transform coding algorithm based on the integer wavelet transform (IWT). First of all, criteria are proposed for the selection of optimal factorizations of the wavelet filter polyphase matrix to be employed within the lifting scheme. The obtained results lead to the IWT implementations with very satisfactory lossless and lossy compression performance. Then, the effects of finite precision representation of the lifting coefficients on the compression performance are analyzed, showing that, in most cases, a very small number of bits can be employed for the mantissa keeping the performance degradation very limited. Stemming from these results, a VLSI architecture is proposed for the IWT implementation, capable of achieving very high frame rates with moderate gate complexity.
Double stop-band structure near half-integer tunes in high-intensity rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moriya, K.; Ota, M.; Fukushima, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ito, K.; Okamoto, H.
2016-11-01
This paper addresses a detailed experimental study of collective instability bands generated near every half-integer tune per lattice period by coherent dipole and quadrupole resonances. Both instabilities appear side by side or overlap each other but are mostly separable because the dipole resonance often creates a narrower stop band accompanied by more severe particle losses. The separation of these low-order resonance bands becomes greater as the beam intensity increases. In principle, the double stop-band structure can be formed even without machine imperfections when the beam's initial phase-space profile is deviated from the ideal stationary distribution. The tabletop ion-trap system called "S-POD" is employed to experimentally demonstrate the parameter dependence of the double stop-band structure. Numerical simulations are also performed for comparison with experimental observations.
Subjective evaluations of integer cosine transform compressed Galileo solid state imagery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, Richard F.; Gold, Yaron; Grant, Terry; Chuang, Sherry
1994-01-01
This paper describes a study conducted for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, using 15 evaluators from 12 institutions involved in the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of integer cosine transform (ICT) compression using specially formulated quantization (q) tables and compression ratios on acceptability of the 800 x 800 x 8 monochromatic astronomical images as evaluated visually by Galileo SSI mission scientists. Fourteen different images in seven image groups were evaluated. Each evaluator viewed two versions of the same image side by side on a high-resolution monitor; each was compressed using a different q level. First the evaluators selected the image with the highest overall quality to support them in their visual evaluations of image content. Next they rated each image using a scale from one to five indicating its judged degree of usefulness. Up to four preselected types of images with and without noise were presented to each evaluator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Tian, Yajie; Nishikawa, Ikuko
We discuss the planning of transportation by trucks over a multi-day period. Each truck collects loads from suppliers and delivers them to assembly plants or a truck terminal. By exploiting the truck terminal as a temporal storage, we aim to increase the load ratio of each truck and to minimize the lead time for transportation. In this paper, we show a mixed integer programming model which represents each product explicitly, and discuss the decomposition of the problem into a problem of delivery and storage, and a problem of vehicle routing. Based on this model, we propose a relax-and-fix type heuristic in which decision variables are fixed one by one by mathematical programming techniques such as branch-and-bound methods.
Energy Gaps and Layer Polarization of Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall States in Bilayer Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yanmeng; Lee, Yongjin; Che, Shi; Pi, Ziqi; Espiritu, Timothy; Stepanov, Petr; Smirnov, Dmitry; Lau, Chun Ning; Zhang, Fan
2016-02-01
Owing to the spin, valley, and orbital symmetries, the lowest Landau level in bilayer graphene exhibits multicomponent quantum Hall ferromagnetism. Using transport spectroscopy, we investigate the energy gaps of integer and fractional quantum Hall (QH) states in bilayer graphene with controlled layer polarization. The state at filling factor ν =1 has two distinct phases: a layer polarized state that has a larger energy gap and is stabilized by high electric field, and a hitherto unobserved interlayer coherent state with a smaller gap that is stabilized by large magnetic field. In contrast, the ν =2 /3 quantum Hall state and a feature at ν =1 /2 are only resolved at finite electric field and large magnetic field. These results underscore the importance of controlling layer polarization in understanding the competing symmetries in the unusual QH system of BLG.
Integer ambiguity resolution of the GPS carrier for spacecraft attitude determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.
A novel technique for resolving integer ambiguity of the GPS carrier for spacecraft attitude determination is presented. The technique solves for both attitude and attitude rate, making use of both translational and rotational spacecraft motion. On the basis of experimental ground testing, the results indicate that this technique will rapidly arrive at reliable solutions. Results are achieved exclusively with GPS; no external aiding for any other sensor is employed. It is shown that the mathematics of attitude determination using GPS can be rephrased in the familiar form of attitude determination using vector observations. As a result, efficient techniques already applied to attitude determination using vector observations can be applied to attitude determination using GPS.
Implementation of Dynamic Extensible Adaptive Locally Exchangeable Measures (IDEALEM) v 0.1
Sim, Alex; Lee, Dongeun; Wu, K. John
2016-03-04
Handling large streaming data is essential for various applications such as network traffic analysis, social networks, energy cost trends, and environment modeling. However, it is in general intractable to store, compute, search, and retrieve large streaming data. This software addresses a fundamental issue, which is to reduce the size of large streaming data and still obtain accurate statistical analysis. As an example, when a high-speed network such as 100 Gbps network is monitored, the collected measurement data rapidly grows so that polynomial time algorithms (e.g., Gaussian processes) become intractable. One possible solution to reduce the storage of vast amounts of measured data is to store a random sample, such as one out of 1000 network packets. However, such static sampling methods (linear sampling) have drawbacks: (1) it is not scalable for high-rate streaming data, and (2) there is no guarantee of reflecting the underlying distribution. In this software, we implemented a dynamic sampling algorithm, based on the recent technology from the relational dynamic bayesian online locally exchangeable measures, that reduces the storage of data records in a large scale, and still provides accurate analysis of large streaming data. The software can be used for both online and offline data records.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, T. Y.; Yao, K.
1981-01-01
The theory and implementation of a multiplication-free linear mean-square error criterion equalizer for data transmission are considered. For many real-time signal processing situations, a large number of multiplications is objectionable. The linear estimation problem on a binary computer is considered where the estimation parameters are constrained to be powers of two and thus all multiplications are replaced by shifts. The optimal solution is obtained from an integer-programming-like problem except that the allowable discrete points are non-integers. The branch-and-bound algorithm is used to obtain the coefficients of the equalization TDL. Specific experimental performance results are given for an equalizer implemented with a 12 bit A/D device and a 8080 microprocessor.
Adiabatic sweep cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR of half-integer quadrupolar spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wi, Sungsool; Kim, Chul; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio
2017-04-01
The use of frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses for enhancing signals in the magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclides was explored. The broadband adiabatic inversion cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (BRAIN-CPMAS) method, involving an adiabatic inversion pulse on the S-channel and a simultaneous rectangular spin-lock pulse on the I-channel (1H), was applied to I(1/2) → S(3/2) systems. Optimal BRAIN-CPMAS matching conditions were found to involve low rf pulse strengths for both the I- and S-spin channels. At these low and easily attainable rf field strengths, level-crossing events among the energy levels | 3 / 2 >, | 1 / 2 >, | - 1 / 2 >, | - 3 / 2 > that are known to complicate the CPMAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are mostly avoided. Zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer modes, akin to those we have observed for I(1/2) → S(1/2) polarization transfers, were evidenced by these analyses even in the presence of the quadrupolar interaction. 1H-23Na and 1H-11B BRAIN-CPMAS conditions were experimentally explored on model compounds by optimizing the width of the adiabatic sweep, as well as the rf pulse powers of the 1H and 23Na/11B channels, for different MAS rates. The experimental data obtained on model compounds containing spin-3/2 nuclides, matched well predictions from numerical simulations and from an average Hamiltonian theory model. Extensions to half-integer spin nuclides with higher spins and potential applications of this BRAIN-CPMAS approach are discussed.
APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHMS FOR BPM LINEARIZATION
Musson, John C.; Seaton, Chad; Spata, Mike F.; Yan, Jianxun
2012-11-01
Stripline BPM sensors contain inherent non-linearities, as a result of field distortions from the pickup elements. Many methods have been devised to facilitate corrections, often employing polynomial fitting. The cost of computation makes real-time correction difficult, particulalry when integer math is utilized. The application of neural-network technology, particularly the multi-layer perceptron algorithm, is proposed as an efficient alternative for electrode linearization. A process of supervised learning is initially used to determine the weighting coefficients, which are subsequently applied to the incoming electrode data. A non-linear layer, known as an activation layer, is responsible for the removal of saturation effects. Implementation of a perceptron in an FPGA-based software-defined radio (SDR) is presented, along with performance comparisons. In addition, efficient calculation of the sigmoidal activation function via the CORDIC algorithm is presented.
Pulsed laser deposition of novel nitride solid solution films Ni xTi 1- xN y on MgO(0 0 1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamoto, Koyo; Inumaru, Kei; Yamanaka, Shoji
2002-10-01
A novel nitride solid solution, Ni xTi 1- xN y (0≤ x≤0.31, 0.59≤ y≤1) was grown on MgO(0 0 1) using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method combined with RF nitrogen radical irradiation. Compressed disks made of mixtures of titanium hydride and nickel metal were used as the PLD targets. Simple Ti-Ni alloyed targets gave no crystalline nitride. High-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping revealed that the deposited films were epitaxially grown on MgO(0 0 1) and that the lattice of the films shrunk to fit the lattice of MgO(0 0 1) in the plane. The lattice constant perpendicular to the plane decreased linearly as the Ni content increased up to x=0.31, demonstrating the incorporation of Ni atoms into the crystal structure. These thin films were metallic conductors. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that the substitution of Ti for Ni brought about the formation of large amounts of nitrogen vacancies.
Cao, Q. Chumbley, L.S.
2011-08-15
Examination of bulk microstructures of lutetium doped erbium silicide (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} (space group: Pnma) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) reveals the existence of thin plates of a hexagonal phase (space group: P6{sub 3}/mcm) where the stoichiometric ratio in moles between the rare earths and Si is 5 to 3, i. e the 5:3 phase. The orientation relationship between the matrix and the plates was determined as [010]{sub m} {approx} -parallel [-1010]{sub p.} This observation adds credence to the assumption that all linear features noted in alloys of the rare-earth intermetallic family R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} are of the stoichiometric ratio 5:3 and possess a common orientation relationship with the parent 5:4 alloys. - Highlights: {yields} The linear features observed in the (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} sample are hexagonal 5:3 plates. {yields} Thickness of 5:3 plates in 5:4 alloys made by tri-arc pulling is greater than made by arc-melting. {yields} The orientation relationship between 5:3 plates and the matrix is [010]{sub m} {approx} ||[-1010]{sub p}.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part...